WorldWideScience

Sample records for european communities

  1. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  2. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    CERN Multimedia

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  3. ACRYLAMIDE, FOOD AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES RECOMMENDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carrabs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.

  4. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  5. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Zampaglione, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Ferrari, M. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Gallina, M. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Mazzone, G. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Nardi, C. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Petrizzi, L. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Rado, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Violante, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Daenner, W. (NET Team, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)); Lorenzetto, P. (NET Team, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)); Gierszewski, P. (CFFTP, Mississauga, ON (Canada)); Gratt

    1993-07-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  6. Issues in space segment regulation in the european community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Paul

    A major restructuring of the satellite communications market in the European Community has been set in motion with the advent of the European Commission's Satellite Green Paper. The first detailed proposals for Community legislation however, address mainly ground segment issues, such as type-approval of satellite equipment and the mutual recognition of licences. Space segment issues remain an important area for further reflection. This paper presents some background to these space segment issues within the context of the Community satellite communications policy.

  7. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  8. A Legal Analysis of Safeguard Measures in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the “Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China” and the “Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in thIn 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the "Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China" and the "Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in the European Community comply with the WTO Agreement on Safeguards. In conclusion, based on the analysis of safeguard measures in the European Community's legal system and their practice in actual cases, it apparent that the European Community is making a serious effort to comply with the standards of the WTO Safeguards Agreement. In certain respects, the European Community has a comparatively higher level of standards than the WTO. Nevertheless, there continue to be challenges to WTO

  9. THE EUROPEAN POSITION OF DUTCH PLANT COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.M. JANSSEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed for which plant communities (alliances the Netherlands has an international responsibility. Data has been brought together on the range and distribution of alliances in Europe, the area of plant communities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries and the occurrence of endemic associations in the Netherlands. The analysis resulted in a list of 34 out of 93 alliances in the Netherlands which are important from an international point of view.

  10. Methopedia - Pedagogical Design Community for European Educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Niemczik, Christian; Brenstein, Elke

    2009-01-01

    .comble-project.eu). Methopedia is a wiki and social community aimed at facilitating knowledge transfer between trainers/educators from different institutions or countries through interactive peer-to-peer support, and sharing of learning practices.   We describe how Methopedia has been developed though engaging practitioners...

  11. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  12. Macrophyte communities of European streams with altered physical habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hare, M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Nijboer, R.C.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Ferreira, T.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of altering hydro-morphology on three macrophyte community types was investigated at 107 European stream sites. Sites were surveyed using standard macrophyte and habitat survey techniques (Mean Trophic Rank Methodology and River Habitat Survey respectively). Principal Components Analysis

  13. European seaweeds under pressure: Consequences for communities and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Arenas, Francisco; Assis, Jorge; Davies, Andrew J.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Fernandes, Francisco; Malta, Erik-jan; Thibaut, Thierry; Van Nguyen, Tu; Vaz-Pinto, Fátima; Vranken, Sofie; Serrão, Ester A.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed assemblages represent the dominant autotrophic biomass in many coastal environments, playing a central structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Europe, seaweed assemblages are highly diverse systems. The combined seaweed flora of different European regions hold around 1550 species (belonging to nearly 500 genera), with new species continuously uncovered, thanks to the emergence of molecular tools. In this manuscript we review the effects of global and local stressors on European seaweeds, their communities, and ecosystem functioning. Following a brief review on the present knowledge on European seaweed diversity and distribution, and the role of seaweed communities in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, we discuss the effects of biotic homogenization (invasive species) and global climate change (shifts in bioclimatic zones and ocean acidification) on the distribution of individual species and their effect on the structure and functioning of seaweed communities. The arrival of new introduced species (that already account for 5-10% of the European seaweeds) and the regional extirpation of native species resulting from oceans' climate change are creating new diversity scenarios with undetermined functional consequences. Anthropogenic local stressors create additional disruption often altering dramatically assemblage's structure. Hence, we discuss ecosystem level effects of such stressors like harvesting, trampling, habitat modification, overgrazing and eutrophication that impact coastal communities at local scales. Last, we conclude by highlighting significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to anticipate the combined effects of global and local stressors on seaweed communities. With physical and biological changes occurring at unexpected pace, marine phycologists should now integrate and join their research efforts to be able to contribute efficiently for the conservation and management of coastal systems.

  14. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries.......Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...

  15. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.; Christensen, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical) proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries.......Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...

  16. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  17. The hesitant European history of Denmark's accession to the European Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines the history of Denmark's accession to the European Community on 1 January 1973. Two large historical trends shaped the Danish road to EC-membership. On the one hand, the fight for survival that the Danish Nation-State had experienced from 1864-1945 produced a particular Danish......-membership from day one without seriously threatening Danish welfare legislation or Nordic co-operation. Confronted with significant internal opposition, the Social Democratic Party leadership proved instrumental in formulating the vision that not only held the party together, but also won the referendum on 2...

  18. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation.

  19. The photovoltaic pilot projects of the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, W.

    The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.

  20. Illegal use of beta-adrenergic agonists: European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; Noordam, M Y; van Dooren-Flipsen, M M; Schilt, R; Roos, A H

    1998-01-01

    The use of veterinary medicinal products within the European Community is governed by a series of directives and regulations that describe the requirements for safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. Veterinary therapeutic use of beta-agonists has only been approved in the case of clenbuterol for bronchodilatation in horses and calves and for tocolysis in cows. No beta-agonists have been permitted in the European Community for growth-promoting purposes in farm animals. Surveillance for the presence of residues of veterinary agents in food-producing animals and meat is regulated by the Directive 86/469/EEC containing specific guidelines for sampling procedures on farms and in slaughterhouses. The level and frequency of sampling is dependent on the category of compounds and animal species. When positive samples have been identified (above certain action levels), sampling intensity is increased. Results of monitoring programs in EU member states during 1992 and 1993 for the occurrence of residues of beta-agonists in food-producing animals vary substantially with respect to the percentages of positive samples, ranging from 0 to 7%. The variability is partly explained by differences in sampling strategies, detection methods, and action levels applied. Identification of the proper matrices for sampling and detection of beta-agonists is important. In the case of clenbuterol, hair and choroid retinal tissue are appropriate tissues because clenbuterol accumulates in these matrices. A clear decrease in the use of clenbuterol in cattle has been observed in The Netherlands, Germany, Northern Ireland, and Spanish Basque Country over the last 3 yr. This is partly due to intensified surveillance activities at farms and slaughterhouses by governmental agencies and production sector organizations. There are data on human intoxication following consumption of liver or meat from cattle treated with beta-agonists. At the concentrations of clenbuterol measured in contaminated

  1. Population trends in the European Community, 1960-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J C

    1988-07-01

    Recent trends in fertility, marriage patterns and family formation in the 12 nations of the European Community are discussed. The total period fertility rate in this group of nations has dropped sharply (42%) since 1960, so that the annual growth was 0.15% in 1986. Immigration and the rate of mortality decline have also slowed. There are some variations in regional or national fertility, and in population growth as a result of age structure. The rate of population growth is slowing in all nations except Greece, Ireland and Portugal. The U.K., Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark have experienced zero growth since 1980. Italy is close to zero growth. France, Netherlands and Spain have higher growth due to age structure. Ireland continues to grow at 1% yearly. In general, large families are disappearing, although different patterns are evident in various states. France shows high progression to the 1st child; many German couples choose to remain childless. People are marrying older, remaining unmarried, divorcing sooner, cohabiting before or after marriage. Non-marital births are common, especially in nordic countries, but still rare in Mediterranean countries. The restricted family norm, of 0, 1, or 2 children is becoming uniform, resulting in fertility well below, 15-40% of replacement.

  2. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  3. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  4. Geographic distance and mountain ranges structure freshwater protist communities on a European scalе

    OpenAIRE

    Boenigk,Jens; Wodniok,Sabina; Bock,Christina; Beisser,Daniela; Hempel,Christopher; Grossmann,Lars; Lange,Anja; Jensen,Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Protists influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs and gene flow. In this study we used eukaryotic ribosomal amplicon diversity from 218 European freshwater lakes sampled in August 2012 to assess the effect of mountain ranges as biogeographic barriers on spatial patterns and microbial community structure in European freshwaters. The diversity of microbial communities as reflected by amplicon clusters suggested that the eukaryotic microbial inve...

  5. Book Review: Thomas Risse, A Community of Europeans? Transnational Identities and Public Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This book represents a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional exploration of Europe as an institutional and social conception. It systematically links understanding of the Europeanization of identities and public spheres with citizenship, nationalism, community and communication, EU (European Union enlargement, institution-building, and European democracy and politicization. As a hallmark of insightful and dynamic scholarship, Risse’s work draws inspiration from a variety of societal levels, including some of the most critical players in European political life today, and highly-praised and well-known political philosophers, and policymakers.

  6. Calculation, community and cues: public opinion on European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Marks, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes and extends the main lines of theorizing on public opinion on European integration. We test theories of economic calculus and communal identity in a multi-level analysis of Eurobarometer data. Both economic calculus and communal identity are influential, but the latter is

  7. Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the European Community and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca Raizer Borges

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article regarding scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and Latin America can be placed in the context of the development aid and cooperation offered by the European Union in the framework of its foreign policy with the Latin American region. The main aim here consists in analyzing those cooperation programmes established by the European Community with thedeveloping countries of Latin America regarding science and technology, with the goal of identifying, both on the European Union as well as on the Latin American side, the mechanisms established for putting this into practice as well as the perspectives for success which these can generate in the framework of regional cooperation.

  8. State Power and the Acquis Communautaire in the European Community of the early 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses in a historical perspective the so-called acquis communautaire, i.e. the body of law, rules, including informal decisions/norms, taken by the European Community/European Union. In the first part of the article the early history of the concept from the establishment of the EC...... that even if national governments continued to play a leading role in European cooperation, the existence of a common body of law, rules and norms was difficult for single governments to set aside in their pursuance after of narrow national interest. This did not mean that laws could not be bent, or broken...

  9. [Demographic and ideational change in the European Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesthaeghe, R; Meekers, D

    1987-01-01

    "It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  10. Indicator species and co-occurrence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouffaud, Marie Lara; Creamer, Rachel E.; Stone, Dote; Plassart, Pierre; Tuinen, van Diederik; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wipf, Daniel; Redecker, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a European transect of 54 soil samples, comprising of grasslands, arable and forest sites, we analyzed community composition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) using pyrosequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region. We found a significant influence of

  11. Commission Memorandum on Vocational Training in the European Community in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    As new European Community (EC) objectives become prominent in the coming years, vocational training policy will assume increasing importance. The socioeconomic context of the 1990s will be characterized by an accelerating pace of change and the growing role of intangible capital. New forms of work organization with new requirements for…

  12. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  13. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  14. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  16. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  17. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  18. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  19. Strange Encounters on the Road to Lifelong Learning: The European Economic Community Meets Permanent Education in 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines policy formation on education in the European Economic Community during the early 1970s surrounding the 1973 report For a "Community Policy on Education", known as the Janne Report. It examines Community policy-making processes that gave rise to the Janne Report. The text of the Janne Report is analysed with regard to…

  20. Environmental policy on the way to Brussels : the issue of acidicification between the Netherlands and the European community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This

  1. The process of adoption of the principle of subsidiarity in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lluís Piñol

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In disregarding the treatment that the European media offers the subject, the author sets out with the statement that the Principle of Subsidiarity is a procedural principle recently inserted in the logic of the attribution of competence and in the process of Community decision-making. Used as it is as a legal-political instrument,reinforcing the principle of democratic legitibility and closely connected to the principle of solidarity, the Principle of Subsidiarity favours the assumption of competence by the European Cornmunity as much as its decentralization.In order to understand the adoption of this principle in the Treaty on European Union, the author proceeds, in the first place, with a relatively abstract analysis about the ambiguous, multi-faceted and various interpretations that this principle has repeatedly received. Secondly, equal reference is made to the political debate concerning the inclusion or exclusion of the PS in the Community treaties, as to the specific meaning of the PS in the different Councils of Europe.The Edinburgh meeting deserves special treatment as the author considers it a model of analysis of Community decision-making in which the classic actors of the EC (its institutions and its member states have participated as well as other actors: organized political forces in the Europe of Twelve and, from 1986, the nationalparliaments of such countries. By way of a change, the author includes an analysis of the performance of those forces that existed before, but that were relatively poorly organized with respect to the theme of Community integration: the so-called regions, at individual level (lander, Catalonia or the Basque Country or organizationally in the CPLRE and the ARE and also looks at those actions taken by certain personalites such as Spinelli, Giscard dlEstaing or the very same Jacques Delors.

  2. The environmental associations and the European Communities. Umweltverbaende und EG; Strategien, politische Kulturen und Organisationsformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, C. (EURES - Inst. fuer Regionale Studien in Europa e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Brendle, U. (KATALYSE Institut fuer Angewandte Umweltforschung e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Weinber, C.; Grove-White, R.; Heijden, A. van der; Woischnik, A.; Roeder, S.; Krohberger, K.; Berkel, L. van; Heimer, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology movements in Europe currently change into strategical associations. This change into institutions is the reaction on three developments in the eighties, i.e. the growth of large associations (over 10 million members throughout the European Communities), the political career of pollution abatement and the resulting changed requriements, and the internationalization of environmental policy which requires coordinate action at different levels. The pace and complexity of this change in the European countries are different. The environmental associations have developed their own national answers to the national basic conditions. The international comparison reveals the national character of their political strategies. Five case studies (environment and internal market, energy taxes, environmental labels, florafauna habitat protection regulations, environmental standardization) show that the different national political styles impede the development of common European activities. An intercultural desire to learn is prerequisite for the environmental associations' successful action at the European level. A desire to learn is also postulated by the political institutions and administrative authorities. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  4. European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry Working Group on Accreditation: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, W

    2001-07-20

    During the past 10 years, many activities have taken place in the field of quality systems and accreditation in medical laboratories. Each country in Europe has a slightly different approach. The Working Group on Accreditation of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) tries to support harmonisation of these efforts. For this purpose, they edited the Essential Criteria for quality systems of medical laboratories and supported the forthcoming International ISO standard "Quality management for the medical laboratory". At this moment, a Model Quality Manual is nearly ready for publication. The next items are setting up criteria for auditing the quality system and criteria for the accreditation process.

  5. A RESEARCH OF E-BOOK MARKET TRENDS: NORTH AMERICA AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Zubac; Andreja Tominac

    2014-01-01

    AbstractPurpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the presence of the electronic book on the book market, its trends and developments as well as point towards the difficulties faced by all professions related to it in the countries of the European Community.Methodology / approach: This paper analyzes the domestic and foreign literature and explores the websites of companies that operate with e-books in order to get an overview of the actual state of business oper...

  6. Synthetic Biology: The Response of the Commission of the (Catholic) Bishops' Conferences of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavey, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Commission of the (Catholic) Bishops' Conferences of the European Community (COMECE) has issued an opinion on the ethics of synthetic biology (synbio). Examining synbio from religious and more general ethical perspectives, it examines synbio's potential pros and cons, as well as whether it is ethical in and of itself. Its conclusions mirror those of the ethical mainstream; namely, that synbio may present humanity with opportunities for both great advancement and great destruction. It suggests a prudent approach, and calls for regulation to be used to encourage positive outcomes while reducing the likelihood of negative ones.

  7. Communities, households and animals. Convergent developments in Central Anatolian and Central European Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Marciniak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to scrutinize striking similarities in cultural developments and social transformations in Neolithic communities in the North European Plain of Central Europe and Central Anatolia in the early phase of their development and in the following post-Eearly Neolithic period. They will be explored through evidence pertaining to architecture and the organization of space, alongside changes in settlement pattern, as well as animal bone assemblages and zoomorphic representations. Social changes, in particular a transition from communal arrangements of local groups in the Early Neolithic to autonomous household organization in the following period, will be debated.

  8. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: A preliminary survey in the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, S.

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e., the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management.

  9. Towards the actual implementation of ecodesign in industry - the `haves` and `needs` viewed by the European ecodesign community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, N.; Boks, C.; Ernzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    for further activities to foster the implementation of ecodesign in industry. In this elaboration, the paper defines a number of research ave-nues that, so far, have not been part of common research approaches in the European Ecodesign Community, and are of great validity for the research community....

  10. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  11. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  12. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  13. Higher Prevalence of Retinopathy in Diabetic Patients of South Asian Ethnicity Compared With White Europeans in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Neil T.; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Reynold, Dilini R.; Bush, Kate; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh; Bellary, Srikanth; Barnett, Anthony H.; Kumar, Sudhesh; O'Hare, J. Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among U.K. residents of South Asian or white European ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 10 general practices; 1,035 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied: 421 of South Asian and 614 of white European ethnicity. Diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening retinopathy, maculopathy, and previous laser photocoagulation therapy wer...

  14. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  15. Differentiation, Leaders and Fairness. Negotiating Climate Commitments in the European Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, Lasse

    1997-12-31

    This report shows that it is possible to negotiate and reach asymmetrical environmental agreements that take into account significant national dissimilarities. It is argued that analytical models and intuitively appealing model-based quantitative indicators of national circumstances can establish premises for negotiations leading to differentiated environmental agreements. While they cannot take the place of political negotiations, they help identify a formula that defines the problem in a resolvable fashion and prevent the bargaining space from expanding uncontrollably. Scholars arguing that symmetrical environmental measures are widely used because they simplify negotiations and prevent countries from pursuing extremist positions, and that salient focal points are significant in negotiation, overlook this argument. In pre-Kyoto European Community climate policy, which this report empirically examines, high transaction costs and EC member states` ability to block economically hurtful agreements were not essential issues. 54 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  16. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  17. Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus

  18. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...

  19. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  20. Development of social responsibility In moldovan enterprises as a strategic objective of integration in the european community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendrea Mariana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BUCIUSCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  2. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  3. Report on a Survey of Sign Language Interpreter Training and Provision within the Member Nations of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Bencie

    1988-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of sign language interpreter training and provision in European Community countries. The questionnaire addressed such areas as: language forms used by deaf people and interpreters; training funding and priorities; interpreter evaluation, registration, availability, and salaries; and societal acceptance of sign language…

  4. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...

  5. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  6. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pachiadaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan, we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641 belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562 were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  7. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  9. Inhalation Incidents and Respiratory Health: Results From the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Olivieri, Mario; Kromhout, Hans; Norbäck, Dan; Radon, Katja; Torén, Kjell; van Sprundel, Marc; Villani, Simona; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation incidents are an important cause of acute respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how these incidents affect chronic respiratory health. Methods We assessed reported inhalation incidents among 3,763 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) participants with and without cough, phlegm, asthma, wheezing or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We then examined whether inhalation incidents during the 9-year ECRHS follow-up period were associated with a new onset of any of these respiratory outcomes among 2,809 participants who were free of all five outcomes at the time of the baseline ECRHS survey. Results Inhalation incidents were reported by 5% of participants, with higher percentages reported among individuals with asthma-related outcomes at the time of the baseline survey. Among participants without symptoms at baseline, our analyses generated non-statistically significant elevated estimates of the risk of cough, phlegm, asthma and wheezing and a non-statistically significant inverse estimate of the risk of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among participants who reported an inhalation incident compared to those without such an event reported. Discussion Our findings provide limited evidence of an association between inhalation incidents and asthma-related symptoms. These data could be affected by differences in the reporting of inhalation incidents according to symptom status at the time of the baseline survey; they should thus be interpreted with caution. PMID:18942122

  10. Next generation capacity building for the GEOSS community - an European approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.

  11. [From the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression to a European network (EAAD)--extending community-based awareness-campaigns on national and European level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Schäfer, Rita

    2007-09-01

    With the aim to improve the care of depressed patients and to reduce suicidality, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression was initiated 2001 in the framework of the German Research Network on Depression and Suicidality (funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research). The Alliance's concept is based on an intervention on four levels: Co-operation with GPs, an information- and awareness-campaign for the broad public, educational training for multipliers such as teachers, priests or geriatric care-givers as well as the support and initiative of self-help-activities. After two years of intervention the number of suicidal acts, the study's main outcome criteria, was significantly reduced by 24 percent compared to the baseline and to a representative control region. Since 2002 the successful four-level-intervention, its concepts and materials have been adapted by other regions within Germany. Nearly 40 community-based local campaigns are forming the German Alliance Against Depression (GAD) and many more regions are interested. On international level the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD) was established 2004. Funded by the European Commission the four-level-programme is implemented in 17 European countries.

  12. The Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities Concerning the Law of the World Trade Organization and the Autonomy of the European Community in the Implementation of Its Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cepillo Galvín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years some authors have questioned the autonomy of the European Community when implementing its commercial policy, due to the amount of trade agreements signed by it and especially because of the commitments acquired in the WTO. There is no doubt that the compulsory fulfilment of these commitments is a conditioning factor with regard to the implementation of the Common Commercial Policy, but that doesn’t make the autonomy of the EU disappear in order to put its model of commercial policy into practice. In this respect, it’s necessary to underline the ample discretionary margin in the management of the commercial policy that the Court of Justice of the European Communities recognizes in favour of the EU institutions within the framework of its case-law related to the denial of the direct effect of the WTO agreements, as we analyze in this paper.

  13. Energy 2000. A reference projection and alternative outlooks for the European Community and the world to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmot, J.-F.; McGlue, D.; Valette, P.; Waeterloos, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book represents the first output from the energy systems analysis and modelling research programme funded by the Commission of the European Communities. It provides detailed and consistent energy projections on a country basis and at the level of the EC as a whole using the same methodological approach and harmonized energy data. Results are presented for each country in terms of primary energy source and energy demand by sector.

  14. A RESEARCH OF E-BOOK MARKET TRENDS: NORTH AMERICA AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Zubac

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the presence of the electronic book on the book market, its trends and developments as well as point towards the difficulties faced by all professions related to it in the countries of the European Community.Methodology / approach: This paper analyzes the domestic and foreign literature and explores the websites of companies that operate with e-books in order to get an overview of the actual state of business operations in the states mentioned in the text.Results: The emergence of the first online bookstores in the United States in the 20th century paved the way for the electronic book to enter the online market. Today, the e-book is an integral part of publishing, book trade and library activities worldwide. Economic indicators testify to a constant growth of revenues from the sale of electronic books on the book market and technology in the U.S. and Europe. This paper provides an explanation of the term electronic book and indicates the interest of many countries for its acquisition and application in order to keep up with the technological demands of the market.Research restrictions: E-book trends and business operations related to them are constantly changing. In terms of librarianship, this is most visible in public libraries as both one of the customers and as later distributors of e-books to users. In their business, new models constantly emerge together with their combinations and approaches to offering these new media.The originality: The issue of business operations in relation to the e-book is interesting to young people, libraries, publishers, authors, booksellers, etc.Contribution: This paper provides an overview of the most recent situation on the e-book market and can serve as the basis of some future researches.

  15. Housing characteristics, reported mold exposure, and asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Jarvis, Deborah; Luczynska, Christina; Sunyer, Jordi; Burney, Peter

    2002-08-01

    The effects of home dampness and mold exposure on adult asthma are not clear. We aimed to investigate the associations between housing characteristics related to dampness, mold exposure, and house dust mite levels and adult asthma in 38 study centers from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Data about the present home, heating and ventilation systems, double glazing, floor covers, recent water damage, and mold exposure were obtained by means of an interviewer-led questionnaire. The associations between these factors and asthma, as defined on the basis of symptoms in the last year, and of bronchial responsiveness, as determined with methacholine challenge, were evaluated. Odds ratios (ORs) were obtained by using random-effects meta-analyses adjusted within study centers for sex, age group, and smoking status. Fitted carpets and rugs in the bedroom were related to fewer asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (OR range, 0.69-0.91). This effect was consistent across centers and more pronounced among house dust mite-sensitized individuals. Reported mold exposure in the last year was associated with asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (OR range, 1.14-1.44). This effect was homogeneous among centers and stronger in subjects sensitized to Cladosporium species. In centers with a higher prevalence of asthma, the prevalence of reported indoor mold exposure was also high. This association was observed for reported mold exposure by asthmatic subjects (Spearman r (s) = 0.46), as well as reported mold exposure by nonasthmatic subjects (r (s) = 0.54). Reported mold exposure was highest in older houses with recent water damage. We conclude that indoor mold growth has an adverse effect on adult asthma.

  16. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  17. Wspolnoty Europejskie wobec problemow jezykowych (Addressing Language Problems in the European Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Raises questions about the a European Union commissioned report titled "Les Europeens et les langues," which was prepared in accordance with the customary routine used for a series of report on European public opinion. Issues discussed include the omission of several languages, the use of Esperanto, the languages reportedly used by…

  18. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, Elise; Braz Fernandes, Francisco Manuel; Bujan, Maya; Feiters, Martin C; Froideval, Annick; Ghijsen, Jacques; Hase, Thomas; Hough, Michael A; Jergel, Matej; Jimenez, Ignacio; Kajander, Tommi; Kikas, Arvo; Kokkinidis, Michael; Kover, Laszlo; Larsen, Helge B; Lawson, David Mark; Lawniczak-Jablonska, Krystyna; Mariani, Carlo; Mikulik, Petr; Monnier, Judith; Morera, Solange; McGuinness, Cormac; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Meedom Nielson, Martin; Pietsch, Ullrich; Tromp, Moniek; Simon, Marc; Stangl, Julian; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchrotron radiation experiments for addressing the Societal Challenges promoted in HORIZON2020. In addition, by TNA all European users directly take part in the development of the research infrastructure of facilities. The mutual interconnection of users and facilities is a strong prerequisite for future development of the research infrastructure of photon science. Taking into account the present programme structure of HORIZON2020, the European Synchrotron User Organization (ESUO) sees considerable dangers for the continuation of this successful collaboration in the future.

  19. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The concept of economic and social cohesion in the treaty establishing the European Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, E.J.Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a diplomatic history of the development of the concept of Economic and Social Cohesion in the EC Treaty. The article was written in order to check on the span of commitment which the Member States undertook when inserting this concept in the EC Treaty by way of the Single European

  1. Laboratories of Community : How Digital Humanities Can Further New European Integration History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Maarten; Coll Ardanuy, Mariona; Sporleder, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It has been said that media is an important but mostly overlooked player in European integration history. Now, the mass digitisation of newspapers and the introduction of new digital techniques promise great potential to remedy this inattention. With the conjecture that people are drivers and

  2. DIVERSITY AND INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY BUSINESS LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Filip GRZEGORCZYK

    2009-01-01

    In the future, European Union is to become a single economic zone. Achieving this goal requires creating good and unified legal grounds for business, which presently are lacking. This paper describes the main problems with conducting business across-borders, evaluates current EC business legislation and formulates some de lege ferenda ideas.

  3. Community support and participation among persons with diabilities. A study in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Frans Leenders; Marju Medar; Zsolt Bugarszki

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands) and four cities (Tallinn,

  4. The Modern University as an Imagined Community: European Dreams and Belarusian Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Tereshkovich, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various aspects of modern Belarusian national identity through an analysis of two connected case studies, the development of the flagship national university, Belarusian State University (BSU) in Minsk and of the European Humanities University (EHU), a private institution founded in Minsk in 1992 with international funding.…

  5. Intentional communities : Methods for reviewing the rise of citizens’ housing initiatives in a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.

    2011-01-01

    Intentional communities, Cooperatives de logement, Genossenschaften or Co-housing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhoods. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community, and to

  6. [Geographical pattern of plant affinity to different communities and its causes (by the example of North-European forests)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, I B

    2003-01-01

    The same vascular plant species occur in communities of different types in different parts of their ranges. This phenomenon can be traced in both the latitudinal and the longitudinal directions. Changes in plant affinity to communities of different types are viewed by the example of the North-European forest studied in 1993-2001. Species occurring near their range limits, prefer habitats with smoothed amplitudes of minimum factors ("the law of preference for non-varying environments"). That's why Oxalis acetosella and other boreal-nemoral species demonstrate affinity to riparian forests of the middle-boreal subzone. Another cases of latitudinal change in ecological behavior may be caused by decrease in competitive ability (in Milium effusum), respective changes in the regeneration niche (in Cystopteris fragilis), or behavior of birds dispersing seeds (in Lonicera xylosteum). The longitudinal variation in plant behavior, as viewed by the example of the European-Siberian riparian-subalpine tall-herb synusia, is connected with the post-glacial plant migration in the European North. There is a lot of evidence for the individualistic character of the process, but it looks coherent in the historical retrospective. The possible role of refugia and long-distance dispersal in the process of formation of the present-day ranges of species is briefly reviewed. Conditions for plant dispersal in the past seemingly differ from those nowadays observed. The principal factor, which governs the dispersal rate, is that of interspecific competition level. Plant dispersal could be rather fast in the course of the corresponding primary succession following the glacier retreat or the marine retrogression (the "impulse" hypothesis). Since the climax pattern is established running waters and disturbed lands serve as "migration channels" for plants.

  7. The future of European mining: What should our mining industry learn from the Skouries and Rosia Montana community gold conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Stefanaki, Anna; Economidou, Romina; Savin, Irina; Hood, Leo; Conway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The popular image of mining portrayed by media and by a majority of public opinion is a dominantly negative one. From worker's rights to environmental damages, disasters such as the Copiapó mine collapse (Chile), the acid mine drainage at Lousal (Portugal) and the Pb contamination of waters around the Tyndrum mines (Scotland) overshadow initiatives like the ICMM. Some companies receive little praise despite creating active community education and investment projects, while others simply build higher barbed wire fences and attempt to weather the protests, budgeting them into mine life assessments. This image problem, combined with the decentralised political segregation of Europe and the increased power of grass-roots protest initiatives (such as Antigold in Greece), has resulted in mining companies joining a long list of industries effected by the 'auto-protest' reaction in face of development, regardless of potential regional and national benefits, there is a pre-existing lack of trust in corporate and government powers to protect community interests. The poor management of existing licences is thus becoming a significant danger to future operations and the wider industry. Here we report on the Rosia Montana dispute (Romania) and the ongoing Skouries conflict (Greece). We then discuss how the European mining industry may need to significantly adapt its exploration and community engagement strategies to avoid future conflicts and, present a recent example of how effective suitably organised community engagement projects can be for local mining initiatives from Southern Portugal.

  8. Regulations governing veterinary medicinal products containing genetically modified organisms in the European community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, G

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes particular aspects of the marketing of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) that contain or consist of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs) or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The regulatory requirements and the procedures applied in the European Union for each phase (pre-marketing, authorisation process, and post-authorisation labelling and monitoring) are explained. In most cases VMPs are subject to both pharmaceutical and GMO regulations. In the early stages of the process, before applications for marketing authorisation are submitted, the assessment of clinical trials and experiments in contained areas is principally the responsibility of national authorities. However, the marketing of all VMPs containing or consisting of GMOs must be authorised at European level, although the national authorities are informed and involved in the assessment process.

  9. [European community guidelines and standards in indoor air quality: what proposals for Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimo, Gaetano; D'Alessandro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Indoor air quality is an issue on which to focus because of the increasing number of exposed population and in view of the strong public feeling on this issue. This paper reports the rules of EU and several European countries about indoor air quality, focusing on the initiatives performed in Italy to respond to WHO recommendations. Several EU countries have introduced in their legislation rules relating to indoor air quality. At the moment, in Italy, a reference rule has not been issued. For this reason, up to date main informations concerning some guidelines or reference values in indoor air, to be used for a first comparison, are those obtained by the scientific literature, or by the guidelines issued by other European countries or, for analogy, by other standard values such as limit or reference values regarding outdoor air. Even the EU, while reaffirming the priority of energy efficiency measures, recommends healthier indoor environments and the development of a specific European strategy on the issue of indoor air quality. The National Study Group on indoor pollution of the Italian National Health Institute (ISS), is working for the development of shared technical and scientific documents, in order to provide greater uniformity of actions at national level, waiting for a legal framework for indoor air quality, in the light of the indication already produced by the WHO.

  10. Climate variability and planktonic communities: The effect of an extreme event (severe drought) in a southern European estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sónia Cotrim; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Martinho, Filipe; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2007-07-01

    As a consequence of climate change, flood and drought events are increasing in frequency throughout the world. Nevertheless, knowledge of the effects on zooplankton estuarine communities is still scarce. The present study aimed to examine zooplankton ecology over two contrasting environmental conditions: regular years and extreme dry years, in a shallow temperate southern European estuary, the Mondego Estuary (Portugal). Monthly samples were carried out during three consecutive years: 2003 characterized as a regular temperate year concerning precipitation and river flow, and an extremely dry period during 2004-2005. The spatial and temporal structure of the biological data was evaluated by a three-mode principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed us to distinguish three distinct ecological areas based on their biological composition and their relationship with hydrologic parameters. The severe drought in 2004-2005 was responsible for spatial shifts in the estuary regarding zooplankton community and interannual variability, with an increase in abundance and diversity during the period of low freshwater flow. This freshwater flow regime influenced the composition of the zooplankton community at the most upstream section of Mondego estuary (zone 3), with a replacement of the freshwater community by one predominantly dominated by estuarine organisms. The occurrence of such estuarine community contributed to the increase in zooplankton abundance which is ascribed to the estuarine species Acartia tonsa. The comparison with previous data obtained for this estuarine ecosystem, demonstrated the occurrence of a different scenario at times of high freshwater flow, being defined the existence of two sub-estuarine systems, the north and south arm, presenting the south one the highest values of abundance.

  11. [The problem of abortion in the countries of the European Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourlen Rollier, A M

    1973-01-01

    The abortion laws in effect and being considered in several European countries are summarized briefly (Scandinavian and Eastern European countries, Switzerland, Austria); others are more comprehensively reviewed, including dates, content and individual sponsors of proposed laws (Denmark, England, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, West Germany, Italy). Denmark and England have liberal abortion laws; Denmark permits abortion on demand up to 12 weeks but to residents only, but England performs about 25% (24,000/year) of its abortions on foreigners. Illegal abortions are estimated at 500,000-1,000,000/year in Germany, 250,000-800,000/year in France, and 30,000-50,000/year in Belgium. All of these countries have repressive abortion laws, usually prescribing 5 years in prison and/or a fine for the woman, and 5 years in prison with suspension of license for the practitioner. Convictions are rare in comparison with illegal abortions not prosecuted. A controversial conviction was that of Dr. Willy Peers, Professor of Gynecology of Brussels, who was imprisoned for performing an abortion on a mentally retarded girl raped by her father. Germany, France, Holland, and Belgium each have proposed liberal legislation during 1971-1973. A condemnation of abortion by Pope Paul has prompted 2 proposed bills in the Italian assembly which stand, however, little chance of being ennacted.

  12. Translational reprocessing of spent fuel elements in the light of European Community law. Grenzueberschreitende atomare Wiederaufarbeitung im Lichte des europaeischen Gemeinschaftsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuing, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Objections are being raised against the current reprocessing of fuel elements from German nuclear power plants in France and Great Britain on the grounds that, measured by German protection requirements, it cannot be regarded as 'inncuous utilization' of radioactive waste material; this brings a momentous intervention of the German authorities against the operators of German nuclear power plants into consideration. Yet would not such a 'national solo attempt' conflict with European Community law . This question is illuminated in its different aspects. First the issue is examined from the point of view of radiation protection law under the Euratom Treaty and of the aim of the EC to establish the single market. Subsequent focal points are an inquiry into compatibility with the freedom of merchandise traffic and commercial services as provided by European Community law. The outcome is that European Community law does not oppose the German authorities intervencing. Rather such self-discipline practised by member states for the benefit of the European environment is admissible so long as the other EC member states do not establish equally stringent standards on their own accord or European Community law itself does not provide protection on a high level. (orig.).

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  14. The Governance of European Intellectual Property Rights: Toward a Differentiated Community Approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    In this article we argue that the regulation of Intellectual Property (IP) protection should go beyond the traditional regulatory models and follow a more flexible regulatory framework. Considering the range of industrial needs and developments, the article develops a differentiated Community IP

  15. Improving Community Support and participation of persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jean Pierre Wilken

    2014-01-01

    This project builds upon a collaboration which has been established since 15 years in the field of social work between teachers and lecturers of Zuyd University, HU University and Elte University. Another network joining this project was CARe Europe, an NGO aimed at improving community care

  16. From traits to life-history strategies: Deconstructing fish community composition across European seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécuchet, Lauréne; Lindegren, Martin; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The life history of a species is determined by trade-offs between growth, survival and reproduction to maximize fitness in a given environment. Following a theoretical model, we investigate whether the composition of marine fish communities can be understood in terms of a set of lifehistory...

  17. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios; Ljunggren, Osten; Lems, Willem F; Langdahl, Bente L; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Walsh, J Bernard; Gibson, Anthony; Tynan, Aodán J; Marin, Fernando

    2008-02-01

    The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study and characteristics of the patients at entry. At entry, 1645 postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of osteoporosis and about to initiate teriparatide treatment were enrolled in eight European countries. Baseline data were collected on demographic characteristics, medical and osteoporosis history, disease status, prior use of medications and HRQoL. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of patients was 71.5 (8.4) years, lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score was -3.3 (1.2), the mean number of previous fractures reported after 40 years of age was 2.9 (2.0), 70% had two or more vertebral deformities and 91.7% were pre-treated with bisphosphonates. HRQoL, evaluated by the health state value (HSV) (median: 0.59, Q1; Q3: 0.08; 0.71) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (median 50.0, Q1; Q3: 35.0; 69.0) status of the European quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D) was poor. Extreme problems were reported by 31% of patients for the pain/discomfort dimension, mobility was limited in 69% and anxiety/depression was reported by 57% of patients. Chronic or intermittent back pain was reported by 91% of patients, which occurred every day or almost every day within the last month in 66% of patients. The post-menopausal women prescribed teriparatide were severely osteoporotic, with a high fracture risk and poor HRQoL, despite previous therapy for osteoporosis. Moderate to severe back pain was very common.

  18. COMMUNITY DESIGN PROTECTION: PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF THE PROCEDURE BEFORE THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA MIHAELA CONEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU has the opportunity to decide on the Community design and interpretation of the rules governing this matter in actions that can follow two different procedural paths. In the first case we refer to the action brought before the Court against a decision of the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM. In this situation we must distinguish between actions that may or may not be led by a proceeding before the Board of Appeal of the Office. In a second case, we are in the presence of the preliminary procedure raised by national courts. Regarding action against the decision of OHIM the approach will be different, taking into account several reasons. First, we have to identify the nature of the action: are we in the presence of an action for annulment in the ordinary sense? The second reason is imposed by the existence of specific differences related to intellectual property rights litigation, compared to other European court procedures. This paper is considering CJEU case law and implications of the new Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice.

  19. Sharing fishers´ ethnoecological knowledge of the European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) in the westernmost fishing community in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Heitor de Oliveira; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda

    2017-09-14

    With the present difficulties in the conservation of sardines in the North Atlantic, it is important to investigate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen about the biology and ecology of these fish. The ethnoecological data of European pilchard provided by local fishermen can be of importance for the management and conservation of this fishery resource. Thus, the present study recorded the ethnoecological knowledge of S. pilchardus in the traditional fishing community of Peniche, Portugal. This study was based on 87 semi-structured interviews conducted randomly from June to September 2016 in Peniche. The interview script contained two main points: Profile of fishermen and LEK on European pilchard. The ethnoecological data of sardines were compared with the scientific literature following an emic-etic approach. Data collected also were also analysed following the union model of the different individual competences and carefully explored to guarantee the objectivity of the study. The profile of the fishermen was investigated and measured. Respondents provided detailed informal data on the taxonomy, habitat, behaviour, migration, development, spawning and fat accumulation season of sardines that showed agreements with the biological data already published on the species. The main uses of sardines by fishermen, as well as beliefs and food taboos have also been mentioned by the local community. The generated ethnoecological data can be used to improve the management of this fishery resource through an adaptive framework among the actors involved, in addition to providing data that can be tested in further ecological studies. Therefore, this local knowledge may have the capacity to contribute to more effective conservation actions for sardines in Portugal.

  20. Evaluating a European knowledge hub on climate change in agriculture: Are we building a better connected community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetnan, Eli Rudinow; Kipling, Richard Philip

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain food security and sustainability of production under climate change, interdisciplinary and international collaboration in research is essential. In the EU, knowledge hubs are important funding instruments for the development of an interconnected European Research Area. Here, network analysis was used to assess whether the pilot knowledge hub MACSUR has affected interdisciplinary collaboration, using co-authorship of peer reviewed articles as a measure of collaboration. The broad community of all authors identified as active in the field of agriculture and climate change was increasingly well connected over the period studied. Between knowledge hub members, changes in network parameters suggest an increase in collaborative interaction beyond that expected due to network growth, and greater than that found in the broader community. Given that interdisciplinary networks often take several years to have an impact on research outputs, these changes within the relatively new MACSUR community provide evidence that the knowledge hub structure has been effective in stimulating collaboration. However, analysis showed that knowledge hub partners were initially well-connected, suggesting that the initiative may have gathered together researchers with particular resources or inclinations towards collaborative working. Long term, consistent funding and ongoing reflection to improve networking structures may be necessary to sustain the early positive signs from MACSUR, to extend its success to a wider community of researchers, or to repeat it in less connected fields of science. Tackling complex challenges such as climate change will require research structures that can effectively support and utilise the diversity of talents beyond the already well-connected core of scientists at major research institutes. But network research shows that this core, well-connected group are vital brokers in achieving wider integration.

  1. Global climate change in large European rivers: long-term effects on macroinvertebrate communities and potential local confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floury, Mathieu; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Ferreol, Martial; Delattre, Cecile; Souchon, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic species living in running waters are widely acknowledged to be vulnerable to climate-induced, thermal and hydrological fluctuations. Climate changes can interact with other environmental changes to determine structural and functional attributes of communities. Although such complex interactions are most likely to occur in a multiple-stressor context as frequently encountered in large rivers, they have received little attention in such ecosystems. In this study, we aimed at specifically addressing the issue of relative long-term effects of global and local changes on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in multistressed large rivers. We assessed effects of hydroclimatic vs. water quality factors on invertebrate community structure and composition over 30 years (1979-2008) in the Middle Loire River, France. As observed in other large European rivers, water warming over the three decades (+0.9 °C between 1979-1988 and 1999-2008) and to a lesser extent discharge reduction (-80 m(3) s(-1) ) were significantly involved in the disappearance or decrease in taxa typical from fast running, cold waters (e.g. Chloroperlidae and Potamanthidae). They explained also a major part of the appearance and increase of taxa typical from slow flowing or standing waters and warmer temperatures, including invasive species (e.g. Corbicula sp. and Atyaephyra desmarestii). However, this shift towards a generalist and pollution tolerant assemblage was partially confounded by local improvement in water quality (i.e. phosphate input reduction by about two thirds and eutrophication limitation by almost one half), explaining a significant part of the settlement of new pollution-sensitive taxa (e.g. the caddisfly Brachycentridae and Philopotamidae families) during the last years of the study period. The regain in such taxa allowed maintaining a certain level of specialization in the invertebrate community despite climate change effects. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. THE WAY TO HARMONY - EUROPEAN COMMUNITY IN THE CONTEXT OF MUSICAL ARTS

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    Martyna Kobylka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the article is to show particular kind of similarly between musical composition and the community, bound together by common values and tradition. Tradition that unites does not limit creative and innovative approach to the past, present and future. On the contrary, values give meaning to the searching process. Musical composition - as consisting of series of complementary elements - in perfect way reflects to the idea of "unity of diversity", - so crucial for building the community. History reveals how universal language music is and how important is the musical wealth of particular nations - as it constitutes specific inspiration for composers, originating from various areas of the world. Music serves also as a perfect communication tool and opens our minds for the beauty, variety and dynamics of constantly evolving and changing reality.

  3. European ST80 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus orbital cellulitis in a neonate

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    Tsironi Evangelia E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital environment, but also, lately, in the community. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST80 orbital cellulitis in a previously healthy neonate. Possible predisposing factors of microbial acquisition and treatment selection are also discussed. Case presentation A 28-day-old Caucasian boy was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of right orbital cellulitis. His symptoms included right eye proptosis, periocular edema and redness. Empirical therapy of intravenous daptomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone was initiated. The culture of pus yielded a methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate and the molecular analysis revealed that it was a Panton-Valentine leukocidine-positive ST80 strain. The combination antimicrobial therapy was continued for 42days and the infection was successfully controlled. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware that young infants, even without any predisposing condition, are susceptible to orbital cellulitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empirical therapy, according to the local epidemiology, should successfully address the infection, preventing ocular and systemic complications.

  4. High diversity of protistan plankton communities in remote high mountain lakes in the European Alps and the Himalayan mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sonntag, Bettina; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the genetic diversity (V4 region of the 18S rRNA) of planktonic microbial eukaryotes in four high mountain lakes including two remote biogeographic regions (the Himalayan mountains and the European Alps) and distinct habitat types (clear and glacier-fed turbid lakes). The recorded high genetic diversity in these lakes was far beyond of what is described from high mountain lake plankton. In total, we detected representatives from 66 families with the main taxon groups being Alveolata (55.0% OTUs 97%, operational taxonomic units), Stramenopiles (34.0% OTUs 97%), Cryptophyta (4.0% OTUs 97%), Chloroplastida (3.6% OTUs 97%) and Fungi (1.7% OTUs 97%). Centrohelida, Choanomonada, Rhizaria, Katablepharidae and Telonema were represented by <1% OTUs 97%. Himalayan lakes harbored a higher plankton diversity compared to the Alpine lakes (Shannon index). Community structures were significantly different between lake types and biogeographic regions (Fisher exact test, P < 0.01). Network analysis revealed that more families of the Chloroplastida (10 vs 5) and the Stramenopiles (14 vs 8) were found in the Himalayan lakes than in the Alpine lakes and none of the fungal families was shared between them. Biogeographic aspects as well as ecological factors such as water turbidity may structure the microbial eukaryote plankton communities in such remote lakes. © FEMS 2015.

  5. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

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    Renčo M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  6. Drivers of innovation in the European Food Industry: Evidences from the Community Innovation Survey

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    Stefano Ciliberti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation is particularly important for innovation in the food industry. as it has traditionally been considered as a “low tech” sector. This paper analyses how different forms of cooperation affect innovation activities in the EU’s food industry. To this purpose, we analysed data at the country level drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS. A random effect linear model is formulated and estimated to analyse the panel data obtained from five CIS waves. The model indicates that cooperation with universities positively affects innovative activity whereas, surprisingly, government financial support has not been an effective instrument to foster innovation.

  7. European national healthy city networks: the impact of an elite epistemic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Zoë; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    National healthy cities networks (NNs) were created 20 years ago to support the development of healthy cities within the WHO Europe Region. Using the concept of epistemic communities, the evolution and impact of NNs is considered, as is their future development. Healthy cities national networks are providing information, training and support to member cities. In many cases, they are also involved in supporting national public health policy development and disseminating out healthy city principles to other local authorities. National networks are a fragile but an extremely valuable resource for sharing public health knowledge.

  8. Policy Evaluation of a New Approach to Wind Energy Implementation in the European Community. SIWERM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, F.

    2004-12-15

    SIWERM stands for Successful Implementation of Wind Energy at Regional and Municipal level. It is a project of the European Union's ALTENER programme. This study aims to evaluate the SIWERM project by inspecting its wind policy. The research assesses if the method is successful in the Netherlands and what a successful wind energy policy is composed of. First of all, the Dutch national situation for wind energy development and corresponding policies will be analysed by extensive literature review. Secondly, an analysis of the procedures used in the SIWERM project will be made which also identifies its success factors. Furthermore, 5 comparisons will be made between successful and unsuccessful wind energy projects in the Netherlands and between those using the SIWERM wind policy and those using other methods. This research will be carried out in form of case studies and in form of interviews with relevant stakeholders such as municipal, provincial and national energy coordinators, consultants, developers, opposition groups, land owners, politicians, environmental agencies and energy companies. The policy will also be compared to a theoretical framework of public participation. Once the success of the approach has been proven an assessment of reasons for its success will be made in the national context of the Netherlands. Finally, factors will be identified which characterise a successful wind policy.

  9. WETLANDS ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC MAPPING AT COMMUNITY-TRIBAL LANDS IN THE RUSSIAN EUROPEAN ARCTIC COAST

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    A. V. Evseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic-ecological map for Nenets community tribal lands at the Russian Arctic coast wetlands was compiled. Wetlands supply a large variety of ecosystem services beneficial to ecological stability and biological resources for indigenous population support. Ecosystem services assessed in this project were mainly regulating: carbon deposition by different ecosystems (climate regulation function due to CO2 consumption, water purification and “warming” effect of bogs. This list was limited by data and assessment methods availability. We used traditional methods for ecological services assessment, based on their existing and possible (virtual market prices. Mapping approaches were based on Target 2 Action 5 Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Proportional value regulating services of peat bogs appeared to be nearly the same as maximal existing lands value. Our assessment results enabled us to present spatial dimensions of ecosystem services of community-tribal lands, whose value appeared to be higher than compensatory sums for “lost profit” in case they are replaced by oil extraction infrastructure. Traditional nature management lands may be regarded as an alternative to further primarily industrial land use type and attribute ecological buffers role to them as well as indigenous population material and spiritual support functions.

  10. Incentives for Developing Resilient Agritourism Entrepreneurship in Rural Communities in Romania in a European Context

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    Mihaela Cristina Drăgoi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a global setting where the requirements for development equally address the economic viability but also social and environmental sustainability, the healthy and efficient growth of rural communities poses substantial challenges. Our paper focuses on specific conditions and constraints that influence the progress of agritourism business initiatives as viable entrepreneurial solutions for self-sustainable rural communities in Romania. To assess the impact of economic, social and tourism-related factors on agritourism entrepreneurship for Romanian counties during 2010–2015 periods, we conducted several Ordinary Least Square regression models. The results emphasize that economic indicators like regional GDP and kilometers of national roads have a positive influence on the number of agritourism business units; also, a positive impact on agritourism entrepreneurship was identified for tourism-related factors like: number of employees and corresponding salaries in tourism, total tourists, share of tourism firms and their turnover in total firms and turnover of the region, as well as preference of tourists for agritourism. The conclusions highlight the direct link between resilient agritourism entrepreneurship and sustainable development of the region and open further research directions.

  11. Infections Caused By Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus European Clone (ST80 In Slovenia Between 2006 And 2013

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    Dermota Urška

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the existing literature, a heterogeneous sequence type (ST or clones of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA circulate in Europe. In Europe, the European clone that belongs to sequence type ST80 is predominant.

  12. Deutschland und die Europaische Gemeinschaft: Ein Landeskundliches Curriculum fur die 90er Jahre (Germany and the European Community: A Curriculum for the 1990's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Information is provided for German teachers on the main aspects of the European Community (EC), and on how to integrate the EC into the classroom. The history of the EC is outlined, and political and economic features are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  13. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

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    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  14. Discourses of crises and the European Union as a community without qualities: A view from the literary history

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    Đerić Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the assumption that meanings and perceptions of social reality are generated by means of public language, or in other words, from the belief that the role of public language is more that of shaping the social reality, rather than description or detection of problems, the authors assume a reserved approach to contemporary discourses on the crises of the European Union. Such approach is explained by the vagueness and deprival of meaning of the term crises, as it is typically used in current political discourses. By pointing out to a loss of the semantic core of the term, caused by its inconsistent usage and longevity of the condition termed 'crisis', they also express doubts concerning its analytical operativeness. In the authors' opinion, this 'profaned' term has become a performative representation of simulation - sort of crisis, which has, either as a justification, necessity or a pretext, created numerous effects in recent years. The assumption that simulation - seen as the absence of the reality rather than its disguise (Jean Baudrillard - represents a leading principle of our age is examined through the concept of continued effect of literature and corroborated by the authors' interpretation of Robert Musil's novel 'Man Without Qualities', as a mythopoetic framework of the analysis and reflections of high art in the contemporary age. In the first part of the text, the authors point out to Musil's poetic anticipation of the direction taken by the European society, that is, the cultural climate and conditions favouring development of man without qualities. In the absence of these qualities and, especially, in preference given to Musil's category 'sense of possibility'over the 'sense of reality', the authors recognise the interpretative basis for the analysis of Community without qualities, as another name for the European Union. From that point of view, which, in addition to loss of specific qualities, also involves deprival of

  15. Novel insights into microbial community dynamics during the fermentation of Central European ice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučková, Mária; Puškárová, Andrea; Ženišová, Katarína; Kraková, Lucia; Piknová, Ľubica; Kuchta, Tomáš; Pangallo, Domenico

    2018-02-02

    Culture-dependent and culture-independent strategies were applied to investigate the microbiota of autumn undamaged and damaged berries, winter berries and ice wine must samples of Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínske zelené) from Small Carpathian wine-producing region. One hundred twenty-six yeasts and 242 bacterial strains isolated from several microbiological media (YPD, PDA, R2A, GYC, MRS and MRS-T) were clustered by ITS-PCR and subsequent Qiaxcel electrophoresis. Representatives of each cluster were identified by sequencing. The extracellular hydrolytic properties and intracellular activities of esterase and β-glucosidase of isolates were assayed. The culture-independent approach permitted the analysis of extracted DNA and RNA coupling DGGE fingerprinting with construction of clone libraries (bacterial and fungal; DGGE-cloning). The combination of the two approaches provided comprehensive data that evidenced the presence of a complex microbiota in each analyzed sample. RNA and DNA analyses facilitated differentiation of living microorganisms from the entire microbiota. Diverse microbial communities colonized the autumn and winter berries. Generally, the combination of results obtained by the methods suggested that the must samples contained mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Metschnikowia spp., Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc spp. The strains exhibited interesting esterase and β-glucosidase properties, which are important for aroma formation in wine. Fermentation strategies utilising these microorganisms, could be attempted in the future in order to modulate the ice wine characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of parasitic communities within European ticks using next-generation sequencing.

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    Sarah Bonnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment of tick-borne and zoonotic disease emergence necessitates sound knowledge of the particular microorganisms circulating within the communities of these major vectors. Assessment of pathogens carried by wild ticks must be performed without a priori, to allow for the detection of new or unexpected agents.We evaluated the potential of Next-Generation Sequencing techniques (NGS to produce an inventory of parasites carried by questing ticks. Sequences corresponding to parasites from two distinct genera were recovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Eastern France: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Four Babesia species were identified, three of which were zoonotic: B. divergens, Babesia sp. EU1 and B. microti; and one which infects cattle, B. major. This is the first time that these last two species have been identified in France. This approach also identified new sequences corresponding to as-yet unknown organisms similar to tropical Theileria species.Our findings demonstrate the capability of NGS to produce an inventory of live tick-borne parasites, which could potentially be transmitted by the ticks, and uncovers unexpected parasites in Western Europe.

  17. Identification of Parasitic Communities within European Ticks Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sarah; Michelet, Lorraine; Moutailler, Sara; Cheval, Justine; Hébert, Charles; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Eloit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk assessment of tick-borne and zoonotic disease emergence necessitates sound knowledge of the particular microorganisms circulating within the communities of these major vectors. Assessment of pathogens carried by wild ticks must be performed without a priori, to allow for the detection of new or unexpected agents. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the potential of Next-Generation Sequencing techniques (NGS) to produce an inventory of parasites carried by questing ticks. Sequences corresponding to parasites from two distinct genera were recovered in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in Eastern France: Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. Four Babesia species were identified, three of which were zoonotic: B. divergens, Babesia sp. EU1 and B. microti; and one which infects cattle, B. major. This is the first time that these last two species have been identified in France. This approach also identified new sequences corresponding to as-yet unknown organisms similar to tropical Theileria species. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate the capability of NGS to produce an inventory of live tick-borne parasites, which could potentially be transmitted by the ticks, and uncovers unexpected parasites in Western Europe. PMID:24675738

  18. The SWENET Online Archive: 10 Years of a European Space Weather Community Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Hannah; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Beltrami, Pablo; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Amata, Ermanno; Clarke, Ellen

    The SWENET archive was initially developed as part of the ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project, starting in 2003. The Pilot Project supported the development of a network of prototype space weather services, many of which are still active and have been developed further in the intervening time. SWENET was established as the common access portal and data repository for these services, providing a series of analysis tools and added functionalities to both service developers and users. SWENET gives users access to a wealth of space weather data and products that cover ground, Ionospheric and spacecraft effects. The archive has stored information since 2003 and currently houses a large amount of data from ~20 different providers. As part of the initial SWENET development a set of preliminary metrics, or index quality statistics, were provided as an additional service via the SWENET web portal. The objective of this project is to review the database and revisit the existing metrics with a view to assessing the performance of a number of the original prototype services. Understanding the strengths and limitations of these forecasts ensures a reliable service to the end user. As an initial case study, we have selected two services which forecast geomagnetic indices and/or data for analysis, namely the BINCASTS and GIFINT (Dst forecast). We have assessed the corresponding data in the SWENET archive using a selection of metrics that are currently in use by the space weather and meteorology community. Appropriate metrics to each service have been used to compare the model performance to actual observations, helping to identify and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each model.

  19. Short-term effects of forest disturbances on soil nematode communities in European mountain spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerevková, A; Renčo, M; Cagáň, L

    2013-09-01

    The nematode communities in spruce forests were compared with the short-term effects of forest damage, caused by windstorm, wildfire and management practices of forest soils. Soil samples were collected in June and October from 2006 to 2008 in four different sites: (1) forest unaffected by the wind (REF); (2) storm-felled forest with salvaged timber (EXT); (3) modified forest affected by timber salvage (wood removal) and forest fire (FIR); and (4) storm-felled forest where timber had been left unsalvaged (NEX). Nematode analysis showed that the dominant species in all four investigated sites were Acrobeloides nanus and Eudorylaimus silvaticus. An increase of A. nanus (35% of the total nematode abundance) in the first year in the FIR site led to the highest total abundance of nematodes compared with other sites, where nematode abundance reached the same level in the third year. In the FIR site bacterial feeders appeared to be the most representative trophic group, although in the second and third year, after disturbance, the abundance of this trophic group gradually decreased. In the NEX site, the number of nematode species, population densities and Maturity Index were similar to that recorded for the FIR site. In EXT and NEX sites, the other dominant species was the plant parasitic nematode Paratylenchus microdorus. Analyses of nematodes extracted from different forest soil samples showed that the highest number of species and diversity index for species (H'spp) were in the REF site. Differences between the nematode fauna in REF and other localities were clearly depicted by cluster analysis. The greatest Structure Index and Enrichment Index values were also in REF. In the EXT site, the number of nematode species, their abundance, H'spp and Maturity Index were not significantly different from those recorded in the reference site.

  20. Patients' perspective on dental aesthetics in a South-Eastern European community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudea, Diana; Lasserre, Jean-François; Alb, Camelia; Culic, Bogdan; Pop Ciutrila, Ioana Sofia; Colosi, Horatiu

    2012-07-01

    To assess the importance attributed to dental aesthetics by subjects from a Romanian community. In addition, the role played by dental color, the group-distributions based on the self-evaluation of dental color and the previous experience regarding whitening treatments are analysed. A multiple-choice questionnaire was administered to 540 patients in dental offices in Cluj-Napoca, Romania; the subjects were also asked to self-evaluate their dental shade, using a set of images as a comparison. Answers to the questionnaires were statistically analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS 13.00 (Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Kendall's tau b). From the participants, 17.96% were motivated by aesthetic reasons to ask for treatment; most of the patients evaluated their smile as "acceptable" (38.51%) or "having some defects" (29.44%) and were self-included in groups of medium and dark shades (33.7% and 33.89%, respectively). Whilst 22.40% of the subjects considered the dental color as being the most evident defect of their dentition, 39.07% indicated a self-perception of "an abnormal dental shade". A strong correlation between darker self-assessed tooth color-groups and the self-perception of an abnormal tooth color was found (Chi square p≪0.001, Kendall's tau-c=0.44, with p≪0.001). Previous whitening treatments were reported by 8.88% of the subjects. Among patients who wanted to improve one of their oral functions, the majority requested changes in aesthetics. Dental shade is one of the aspects recognized as problematic by the participants, but nonetheless the percentage of patients who had previously benefited by whitening treatments was moderate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale valid for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards the mentally ill? A confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roisin; Scott, Philomena Anne; Cocoman, Angela; Chambers, Mary; Guise, Veslemøy; Välimäki, Maritta; Clinton, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the construct validity of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and mental health patients. The harbouring of negative attitudes by nurses towards any patient can have implications for recovery. To gather robust evidence upon which to base information and education aimed at fostering acceptance, support and general positivity towards people with mental health illness, a valid and reliable system of data collection is required. A confirmatory factor analysis of both the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions of the scale were carried out during May - June 2007 using a data set representing the responses of 858 European nurses to the scale. Data were subjected to three different confirmatory factor analyses using Maximum Likelihood estimation in the software package, Analysis of Moment Structures 7. A number of absolute, relative and incremental fit statistics were used to assess the fit of the original Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and two modified versions to the European nursing data. A modification of the scale was found to be most suitable for use in the investigation of European nurses' attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness. Further research is recommended to develop a valid and reliable research tool to specifically measure the attitudes of 'nurses' working across different mental healthcare facilities towards this vulnerable patient group. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Security of Energy Supply in the New Europe: A Role for the European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union’s Neighbourhood Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Pamela M.

    2008-01-01

    External energy relations are essential components of both the European Union’s search for an overall energy strategy, an Energy Policy for Europe (EPE) and the development of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). In this article questions are posed about the role for the use of nuclear technology as the means of meeting some of the objectives of both areas of policy. As both the EPE and the ENP are dependent on the negotiation of international agreements with third parties for their effec...

  3. Students’ Recognition of European Identity: Initiation of Projects on the Range of Problems Dealing with the Danube Region Local Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Kichuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of identity as personal characteristic associated with the self-actualization process and depended on social context of his life activity. The students’ ability to their prosocial activity actualizes under social, dynamic changes, increasing globalization. The need of the students’ recognition of European identity is increasing because of European integration process of Ukraine. In this context the best practices of initiation of projects on the range of problems dealing with the local community development are given. This article is based on the students’ efficient inclusion to social projecting dealing with the Ukrainian Danube region effective development.

  4. Population prevalence of asthma and its determinants based on European Community Respiratory Health Survey in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboub Bassam H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male, and 20.1% were UAE Nationals, with a mean (SD age of 32.9 (14.1 years. Results Prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms from the ECRHS screening questionnaire in all participants were generally ranging 8 - 10%, while participants 20-44 years presented lower prevalence in all symptoms (p Conclusion We conclude that asthma is common in the UAE, and gender differences are not observed in reported asthma symptoms in young adults. This being the first population based study exploring the prevalence of asthma and its determinants in the United Arab Emirates based on the ECRHS.

  5. Activation analysis and characteristics of the European community water cooled ceramic breeder blanket design proposal for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V. [ENEA-ERG-FUS, Frascati (Italy); Cepraga, D.G. [ENEA-INN-FIS, Bologna (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The European Community (EC) Home Team has proposed various alternative blanket designs to the basic concept (essentially integrated first wall, cooled by liquid metal, with structures made by vanadium alloys). One of the EC proposal is the Water Cooled Ceramic Blanket developed on the basis of a common action between NET and ENEA. It is based on a more conservative approach, but involving well proven technologies and qualified materials: SS-316L as structural material, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as first breeder material choice (50% Li{sup 6} enrichment) and low temperature water coolant (160/200{degrees}C). Beryllium has been chosen as multiplying material. The nominal performance are: 1 MW/m{sup 2} as average neutron wall load, corresponding to 1.5 GW fusion power, 1 MW-y/m{sup 2} beneath it has been proved to withstand power excursion till 5 GW. The proposed blanket concept is based on a Breeder Inside Tube (BIT) type technology, with poloidal breeding elements, each one consisting of two concentric tubes. Breeder pebbles are filled into the inner tube, the water coolant flows in the annular channel between the two tubes. Beryllium pebbles fill the space of the blanket box outside the outer tube. A helium purge gas flows through the breeder pebbles bed for tritium recovery. Alternative operating water temperature and pressure are proposed, considering also batch tritium recovery.

  6. Fault2SHA- A European Working group to link faults and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment communities in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Oona; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The key questions we ask are: What is the best strategy to fill in the gap in knowledge and know-how in Europe when considering faults in seismic hazard assessments? Are field geologists providing the relevant information for seismic hazard assessment? Are seismic hazard analysts interpreting field data appropriately? Is the full range of uncertainties associated with the characterization of faults correctly understood and propagated in the computations? How can fault-modellers contribute to a better representation of the long-term behaviour of fault-networks in seismic hazard studies? Providing answers to these questions is fundamental, in order to reduce the consequences of future earthquakes and improve the reliability of seismic hazard assessments. An informal working group was thus created at a meeting in Paris in November 2014, partly financed by the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, with the aim to motivate exchanges between field geologists, fault modellers and seismic hazard practitioners. A variety of approaches were presented at the meeting and a clear gap emerged between some field geologists, that are not necessarily familiar with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methods and needs and practitioners that do not necessarily propagate the "full" uncertainty associated with the characterization of faults. The group thus decided to meet again a year later in Chieti (Italy), to share concepts and ideas through a specific exercise on a test case study. Some solutions emerged but many problems of seismic source characterizations with people working in the field as well as with people tackling models of interacting faults remained. Now, in Wien, we want to open the group and launch a call for the European community at large to contribute to the discussion. The 2016 EGU session Fault2SHA is motivated by such an urgency to increase the number of round tables on this topic and debate on the peculiarities of using faults in seismic hazard

  7. Soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems and soil microbial community respiration (European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, Sofia; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Vasenev, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Soil CO2 emission is mainly provided by soil microorganisms and plant roots respiration. Our study focuses on finding a relationship between soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems and soil microbial community functioning. Soil CO2 emission was monthly measured (LI-820) from May to October 2015 in the 5-th spatially distributed points of forest, meadow (steppe), arable (bare fallow), urban of subtaiga and forest-steppe vegetation subzones (Albeluvisol and Chernozems, Moscow and Kursk regions, respectively). Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic, substrate-induced respiration method), basal respiration (BR), organic carbon content (Corg), pHw and soil C/N ratio were measured in soil samples (0-10 cm, litter excluded, n = 240). Specific respiration of soil microbial biomass (qCO2) was calculated as BR / Cmic. Soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems was ranged 0.2-87.4 and 1.1-87.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. It was reached on average 20.5, 33.5, 3.8, 28.4 and 15.0, 23.8, 3.7, 15.3 g CO2 m-2 d-1 for forest, meadow, arable, urban of subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. The high soil CO2 emission was found in grassland ecosystems, the low - in arable, however it was quite high in urban. Soil organic carbon content of different ecosystems was ranged 1.0-3.3% and 1.4-3.7%, pH was 4.7-7.6 and 6.1-8.2, C/N = 10.8-16.0 and 12.0-18.1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. Soil Cmic of different ecosystems was ranged 60-1294 and 178-2531 μg C g-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. The Cmic of forest, meadow, arable, urban in subtaiga and forest-steppe was reached on average 331, 549, 110, 517 and 1525, 1430, 320, 482 μg C g-1, respectively. Soil BR of different ecosystems was ranged 0.14-2.23 and 0.15-2.80 μg C-CO2 g-1 h-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. Moreover, the BR of forest, meadow, arable, urban in subtaiga and forest-steppe was on average 0.87, 0.92, 0.42, 0.47 and 1.20, 1.42, 0.33, 0.64 μg C

  8. Promoting palliative care in the community: production of the primary palliative care toolkit by the European Association of Palliative Care Taskforce in primary palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Scott A; Firth, Adam; Schneider, Nils; Van den Eynden, Bart; Gomez-Batiste, Xavier; Brogaard, Trine; Villanueva, Tiago; Abela, Jurgen; Eychmuller, Steffen; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Downing, Julia; Sallnow, Libby; van Rijswijk, Erik; Barnard, Alan; Lynch, Marie; Fogen, Frederic; Moine, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    A multidisciplinary European Association of Palliative Care Taskforce was established to scope the extent of and learn what facilitates and hinders the development of palliative care in the community across Europe. To document the barriers and facilitators for palliative care in the community and to produce a resource toolkit that palliative care specialists, primary care health professionals or policymakers, service developers, educationalists and national groups more generally could use to facilitate the development of palliative care in their own country. (1) A survey instrument was sent to general practitioners with knowledge of palliative care services in the community in a diverse sample of European countries. We also conducted an international systematic review of tools used to identify people for palliative care in the community. (2) A draft toolkit was then constructed suggesting how individual countries might best address these issues, and an online survey was then set up for general practitioners and specialists to make comments. Iterations of the toolkit were then presented at international palliative care and primary care conferences. Being unable to identify appropriate patients for palliative care in the community was a major barrier internationally. The systematic review identified tools that might be used to help address this. Various facilitators such as national strategies were identified. A primary palliative care toolkit has been produced and refined, together with associated guidance. Many barriers and facilitators were identified. The primary palliative care toolkit can help community-based palliative care services to be established nationally. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  10. Efficacy testing of cosmetic products. A proposal to the European Community by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environment and Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, J

    2001-08-01

    Regulations for cosmetic products primarily address safety of the products that may be used by large populations of healthy consumers. Requirements for documentation of efficacy claims are only fragmentary. This synopsis aims to review and conclude a set of standards that may be acceptable to the European Community, and the cosmetic industry, as a legal standard for efficacy documentation in Europe in the future. Ethical, formal, experimental, statistical and other aspects of efficacy testing are described, including validation, quality control and assurance. The importance of user relevant clinical end points, a controlled randomized trial design and evidence-based cosmetic product documentation, validation of methods, statistical power estimation and proper data handling, reporting and archiving is emphasized. The main principles of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) good clinical practice (GCP) should be followed by the cosmetics industry in a spirit of good documentation standard and scientific soundness, but full GCP is not considered mandatory in the field of cosmetics. Documentation by validated bio-instrumental methods may be acceptable, but efficacy documentation based on information about raw materials, reference to literature and laboratory experiments are only acceptable in exceptional cases. Principles for efficacy substantiation of cosmetic products in Europe, as described in this synopsis, are officially proposed by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy to the European Community as a basis for an amendment to the Cosmetics Directive or otherwise implemented as a European Community regulation.

  11. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  12. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  13. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Synergies: Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study to Measure the Impact of a Community-Based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty (ICP - PMF) in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, G; Orfila, F; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Roller-Winsberger, R; Illario, M; Musian, D; Alvino, S; O'Caoimh, R; Cano, A; Molloy, W; Iaccarino, G; Marazzi, M C; Inzerilli, M C; Madaro, O; Paul, C; Csonka, P; Vince, A C; Menditto, E; Maggio, M; Scarcella, P; Gilardi, F; Lucaroni, F; Abete, P; Girardi, V; Barra, R; Palombi, L

    2016-11-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of the study "Impact of a Community-based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty in community-dwelling older adults" developed in the framework of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. This proposal has been developed by the Partnership Action groups on frailty, fall prevention and polypharmacy in older. The proposal wants to assess the impact of community-based programs aimed to counteract three main outcomes related to frailty: hospitalization, institutionalization and death. Bringing together researchers from seven European countries, the proposal aims to achieve the critical mass and the geographical extension enough to provide information useful to all older European citizens. An observational study will be carried out to calculate the incidence of the different outcomes in relation to the various interventions that will be assessed; results will be compared with data coming from already established national, regional and local dataset using the observed/expected approach. The sample will be made up by at least 2000 citizens for each outcome. All the citizens will be assessed at the baseline with two multidimensional questionnaires: the RISC questionnaire and the Short Functional Geriatric Evaluation questionnaire. The outcomes will be assessed every six-twelve months.

  14. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Comparing the Community Composition of European and Eastern Chinese Waterbirds and the Influence of Human Factors on the China Waterbird Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Wang, X.; Sun, M.; Oeveren, van H.; Leeuw, de J.; Barzen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the European and eastern Chinese waterbird assemblages and checked whether the effects of human disturbance could be detected in the assemblages’ composition. For the different Chinese provinces, we expected to find a negative effect of economic development on the mean bird species mass

  16. Imagined Religious Communities and the “Culture of Bible-Readers”: Hinduism’s Challenge to European Religious Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Christopher Jason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the challenges posed by modern conceptions of Hinduism - in particular Heinrich von Stietencron’s conception of a “collection of religions” and Romila Thapar’s application of Benedict Anderson’s theory of “imagined communities” to Hinduism-to the European style of religious studies, particularly at the undergraduate level.

  17. The evaluation of patient self-completion concordance forms used in community pharmacy : a comparison of two European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Marlies M E; Zuydgeest, Iris A; Walser, Sabine; Kijlstra, Nico B; Petkova, Valentina; de Gier, Johan J

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of patient self-completion concordance forms in Dutch and Bulgarian pharmacies. Second, to show any differences in pharmacy practice and patient behaviour in two European countries: the Netherlands and Bulgaria. METHODS: A random sample of 500 pharmacies were

  18. Harmonisation of the acute respiratory infection reporting system in the Czech Republic with the European community networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All

  19. Higher prevalence of retinopathy in diabetic patients of South Asian ethnicity compared with white Europeans in the community: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Neil T; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Reynold, Dilini R; Bush, Kate; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh; Bellary, Srikanth; Barnett, Anthony H; Kumar, Sudhesh; O'Hare, J Paul

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among U.K. residents of South Asian or white European ethnicity. This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 10 general practices; 1,035 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied: 421 of South Asian and 614 of white European ethnicity. Diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening retinopathy, maculopathy, and previous laser photocoagulation therapy were assessed after grading of retinal photographs. Data were collected on risk factors including age, duration, and treatment of diabetes, blood pressures, serum total cholesterol, and A1C. Patients of South Asian ethnicity had significantly higher systolic (144 vs. 137 mmHg, P blood pressure, A1C (7.9 vs. 7.5%, P maculopathy for South Asian versus white European patients. Patients of South Asian ethnicity had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy, with significantly elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, A1C, and total cholesterol; lower attained age; and younger age at diagnosis. Earlier onset of disease and higher levels of modifiable risk factors make early detection of diabetes, annual referral for retinal screening, and intensive risk factor control key elements in addressing this health inequality.

  20. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H

    2013-08-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  2. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.

    2013-01-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data......, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach...

  3. Long-term evolution of fish communities in European mountainous rivers: past log driving effects, river management and species introduction (Salzach River, Danube).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidvogl, Gertrud; Pont, Didier; Dolak, Horst; Hohensinner, Severin

    Using historical sources from the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, we investigated the long-term evolution of the fish community in a mountainous river network and the influence of different human uses and management measures. Within the alpine Salzach catchment, historical presence was reconstructed for 26 fish species, abundance classes for 19 species. Due to channelization, flood protection and dam erections, the spatial distribution of fish species was reduced during the 20th century. Many rheophilic and eurytopic fish species historically inhabited river reaches along a wide longitudinal profile and were present in more upstream river reaches than nowadays. The decrease of species diversity in the headwater sections is a consequence of lost lateral connectivity. Strongest effects are reported for sensitive species requiring different habitat types during their life cycles (especially pike, nase, Danube salmon). One of the most important shifts from the historical fish community to the present one reflects the deliberate introduction of fish species for fisheries. Rainbow trout and brook trout, absent from the historical fish assemblage, today represent up to 29 % of the total number of fish occurrences. In contrast, log driving, one of the most common historical pressures in European mountainous rivers, did not show significant negative effects on the past fish ecological situation. This result strongly differs from the impacts of log driving and deforestation demonstrated for recent times, and could be related to the change in log driving practices during the 20th century and to the high societal value of fish before the industrialization period along with other historical pressures affecting fish in rivers without log driving. In general, our results can be valid for a large number of European mountainous rivers. They highlight the usefulness of such detailed historical studies for our understanding of the long-term evolution of fish communities and

  4. Assessing the state of pelagic fish communities within an ecosystem approach and the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shephard, Samuel; Rindorf, Anna; Dickey-Collas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic fish are key elements in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. We develop a suite of ecological indicators that track pelagic fish community state and evaluate state of specific objectives against Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria. Indicator....... The pelagic fish communities of both subregions currently appear to be close to GES, but each remains vulnerable. In the CS subregion, fishing mortality is close to the precautionary reference point, although the unknown dynamics of sandeel, sprat, and sardine in the subregion may reduce the robustness...... of this evaluation. In the North Sea, sandeel stocks have been in poor state until very recently. Pelagic fish community biomass is slightly below the precautionary reference point in both subregions...

  5. Supportive environments for physical activity, community action, and policy in 8 European Union Member States: comparative analysis and specificities of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetten, Alfred; Frahsa, Annika; Engbers, Luuk; Gusi, Narcis; Mota, Jorge; Pacenka, Rimantas; Troelsen, Jens; Vasickova, Jana; Vuillemin, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A multilevel theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action, and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. Most-different and most-similar case selection was applied to data from 8 European Union Member States. Data from semistructured key informant qualitative interviews, focus group interviews with experts and policy-makers, as well as document analysis were linked to corresponding Eurobarometer data. The framework on the interplay of environment, PA behavior, community action and policies appears to be working across most different countries. Comprehensive systems of PA infrastructures are interlinked with relatively high levels of PA prevalence. These countries implement comprehensive national policies on PA promotion and show a positive perception of related local governments' engagement. Less comprehensive systems of infrastructures interplay with lower levels of PA prevalence, less community action and fewer policies. Differences between similar cases are linked to country-specific contexts. Framework application and comparative analysis indicates how to relate theory to empirical research and complex data sets. In-depth analysis of country-specific contexts and longitudinal observation on changes within and between countries might advise on how to integrate the framework into intervention research.

  6. Relative frequencies and sites of presentation of lymphoid neoplasms in a community hospital according to the revised European-American classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J D; Mulvaney, D A; Potter, K L; Fishkin, P A; Geoffroy, F J

    1999-03-01

    Relative frequencies for common subtypes in the revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms (REAL classification) have been reported. We determined the relative frequencies and sites of presentation of REAL subtypes at a 700-bed community hospital in central Illinois. A database was used to identify and prospectively catalogue all newly diagnosed lymphoid neoplasms from July 1, 1995 to March 1, 1998. The approach to diagnosis and subtyping incorporated morphologic features, immunophenotype, and clinical findings according to criteria proposed in the REAL classification. Of 347 lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed, 319 were subtyped in the REAL classification. Of these, 261 were B-cell neoplasms, 21 were T-cell neoplasms, and 37 were Hodgkin disease variants. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma/prolymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large cell, and follicle center neoplasms were the most common B-cell subtypes. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia was the most common T-cell neoplasm. Nodular sclerosis was the most common Hodgkin disease variant. The relative frequencies in a US community hospital setting are similar to those reported in other studies. Differences are attributable to patient selection criteria, study group geographic location and racial composition, and/or referral patterns. Diverse REAL classification subtypes may be expected in US community hospitals.

  7. European „C” quest: community, competitiveness, convergence, cohesion. what should the “eu new comer romanians” aim for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jora Octavian-Dragomir

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The analyses carried out both at the centre (Brussels and at the destination (member states (abuse of the principle that in public expenditure terms “spent money means well-spent money” and consider that absorption capacity equals economic performance (equated quite disputably with disparity reduction. The aggregate Keynesian perspective provides the main argument in favour of this interpretation: EU funds lead to GDP growth (economic growth. This vision overlooks the crucial importance of resource allocation micro-processes, private property and business activity. Therewith, the process of making European funds profitable and, consequently, the EU convergence feasible depends on the extent to which the absorption environment is structurally reformed. The “cohesion paradox,” which can be formulated like “least underdeveloped regions have relatively higher chances to attract European funds, while disparities compared to relatively less developed regions might even intensify”, can be broken only through multi-dimensional reform, immaterial to whether we speak about Romania, or Ireland, or Portugal, or Spain, or Greece.

  8. The 'European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD)': a multifaceted, community-based action programme against depression and suicidality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegerl, U.; Wittmann, M.; Arensman, E.; Van Audenhove, C.; Bouleau, J.H.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Gusmao, R.; Kopp, M.; Lohr, C.; Maxwell, M.; Meise, U.; Mirjanic, M.; Oskarsson, H.; Sola, V.P.; Pull, C.; Pycha, R.; Ricka, R.; Tuulari, J.; Varnik, A.; Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T.

    2008-01-01

    Action programmes fostering partnerships and bringing together regional and national authorities to promote the care of depressed patients are urgently needed. In 2001 the 'Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression' was initiated as a community-based model project within the large-scale 'German Research

  9. Examining the psychometric validity of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R) in a community sample of African American and European American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakawa, Ayanda; Butler, Robert C; Shapiro, Steven K

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), focusing on a sample drawn from a geographic region in the United States that has not been included in previously published research on the MEIM-R. Data were obtained from a community-based sample of 105 African American (AA) and 91 European American (EA) adults located in the state of Alabama. The MEIM-R was best represented by two constructs-exploration and commitment. AA adults reported higher levels of racial/ethnic identity exploration and commitment than EA adults. Differential item functioning was found among 1 of the exploration items. The current study provides additional support for the structural validity of the MEIM-R. Further research on the invariance of responses to the MEIM-R across a variety of sociodemographic factors is still necessary. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The evolution of public policies for the promotion of SMEs in the Andean Community of Nations and the European Union: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Heredia Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the policies designed to promote SMEs implemented in the Andean Community of Nations (ACN and the European Union (EU in the past few decades. Based on an analytical and comparative methodology, it is set out that, with regard to synchronous or sequential adoption hypotheses, public policies that support SMEs respond to an independent adoption model and are determined by their own historical and political context, according to the different arenas in which the economic integration process of both regions is found. The paper also highlights that in the ACN, in contrast to the EU, it is difficult to find abiding lines of action in the design of these public policies.

  11. Declining Innovation Performance of the Hungarian Economy: Special Focus on Organizational Innovation. The Example of the European Community Innovation Survey (CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Makó

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors intend to examine the innovation performance of the Hungarian firms before and following the period of the global financial crisis and economic downturn. Contrary to the mainstream approach non-technological innovation, more precisely workplace innovation is put into the focus of the analysis. The authors argue that this is a neglected dimension of firms’ innovation activities which may become an important source of competitiveness at company level and thus it deserves more attention. The analysis of empirical data of the various waves of the European Community Innovation Survey (CIS on non-technological innovation shows that the innovation performance of the Hungarian firms is declining. The authors complement this statistical analysis with the results of the European Working Conditions Survey demonstrating that there are significant differences in the innovation performance of such country groups as the EU-27, the Nordic and the Post-Socialist countries. Beside the country-specific comparison, the authors evaluate the performance of the Hungarian and Slovakian knowledge-intensive business service sector identified as a driver playing a “benchmark” role in speeding up workplace innovations. Finally, some key lessons are drawn indicating the need for a map on the distribution of different work organization forms in order to better understand the companies’ innovation activity and skill requirements.

  12. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making.......Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...

  13. Investigating the long-term legacy of drought and warming on the soil microbial community across five European shrubland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how the legacy of warming and summer drought affected microbial communities in five different replicated long-term (>10 years) field experiments across Europe (EU-FP7 INCREASE infrastructure). To focus explicitly on legacy effects (i.e., indirect rather than direct effects of the environmental factors), we measured microbial variables under the same moisture and temperature in a brief screening, and following a pre-incubation at stable conditions. Specifically, we investigated the size and composition of the soil microbial community (PLFA) alongside measurements of bacterial (leucine incorporation) and fungal (acetate in ergosterol incorporation) growth rates, previously shown to be highly responsive to changes in environmental factors, and microbial respiration. We found no legacy effects on the microbial community size, composition, growth rates, or basal respiration rates at the effect sizes used in our experimental setup (0.6 °C, about 30% precipitation reduction). Our findings support previous reports from single short-term ecosystem studies thereby providing a clear evidence base to allow long-term, broad-scale generalizations to be made. The implication of our study is that warming and summer drought will not result in legacy effects on the microbial community and their processes within the effect sizes here studied. While legacy effects on microbial processes during perturbation cycles, such as drying-rewetting, and on tolerance to drought and warming remain to be studied, our results suggest that any effects on overall ecosystem processes will be rather limited. Thus, the legacies of warming and drought should not be prioritized factors to consider when modeling contemporary rates of biogeochemical processes in soil. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing synergies: protocol for a prospective observational study to measure the Impact of a community-based program on prevention and mitigation of frailty (ICP – PMF) in community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, G.; Orfila, F.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Roller-Winsberger, R.; Illaria, M.; Musian, D.; Alvino, S.; O'Caoimh, R.; Cano, A.; Molloy, W.; Iaccarino, G.; Marazzi, M.C.; Inzerilli, M.C.; Madaro, O.; Paul, C.; Csonka, P.; Vince, A.C.; Menditto, E.; Maggio, M.; Scarcella, P.; Gilardi, F.; Lucaroni, F.; Abete, P.; Girardi, V.; Barra, R.; Palombi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of the study “Impact of a Community-based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty in community-dwelling older adults‿ developed in the framework of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. This proposal has been developed

  15. Architecture for an advanced biomedical collaboration domain for the European paediatric cancer research community (ABCD-4-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Gossy, Christian; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Today, progress in biomedical research often depends on large, interdisciplinary research projects and tailored information and communication technology (ICT) support. In the context of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project the exchange of data between data source (Source Domain) and data consumer (Consumer Domain) systems in a distributed computing environment needs to be facilitated. This work presents the requirements and the corresponding solution architecture of the Advanced Biomedical Collaboration Domain for Europe (ABCD-4-E). The proposed concept utilises public as well as private cloud systems, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and web-based applications to provide the core capabilities in accordance with privacy and security needs. The utility of crucial parts of the concept was evaluated by prototypic implementation. A discussion of the design indicates that the requirements of ENCCA are fully met. A whole system demonstration is currently being prepared to verify that ABCD-4-E has the potential to evolve into a domain-bridging collaboration platform in the future.

  16. Does deregulation in community pharmacy impact accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs? Evidence from nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habimana, Katharina; Arts, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the impact of deregulation in community pharmacy on accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs. We analysed and compared community pharmacy systems in five rather deregulated countries (England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden) and four rather regulated countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Spain). Data were collected by literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews. Following a deregulation, several new pharmacies and dispensaries of Over-the-Counter (OTC) medicines tended to be established, predominantly in urban areas. Unless prevented by regulation, specific stakeholders, e.g. wholesalers, were seen to gain market dominance which limited envisaged competition. There were indications for an increased workload for pharmacists in some deregulated countries. Economic pressure to increase the pharmacy turnover through the sale of OTC medicines and non-pharmaceuticals was observed in deregulated and regulated countries. Prices of OTC medicines were not found to decrease after a deregulation in pharmacy. Access to pharmacies usually increases after a deregulation but this is likely to favour urban populations with already good accessibility. Policy-makers are recommended to take action to ensure equitable accessibility and sustainable competition in a more deregulated environment. No association between pharmaceutical expenditure and the extent of regulation/deregulation appears to exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation du systeme de traduction automatique SYSTRAN anglais-Francais, version 1978, de la Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Evaluation of the English-French SYSTRAN Machine Translation System, 19 version, of the Commission of European Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Slype, Georges

    1979-01-01

    Describes the French-English version of the SYSTRAN machine translation system, used by the Commission of European Communities, and an evaluation study which examined the quality, cost, and weaknesses of the system. The study concluded that this type of system is useful for "pretranslation" and "rough" translation only. (AM)

  18. Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Arturo

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…

  19. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  20. Expanding professional pharmacy services in European community setting: Is it cost-effective? A systematic review for health policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraudin, Clémence; Bugnon, Olivier; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    To synthesize cost-effectiveness analyses on professional pharmacy services (PPS) performed in Europe in order to contribute to current debates on their funding and reimbursement. Systematic review in PubMed, Embase and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases to identify full economic evaluation studies of PPS in community setting from 2004. Twenty-one studies were included, conducted in the United-Kingdom (n=13), the Netherlands (n=3), Spain (n=2), Belgium (n=1), France (n=1) and Denmark (n=1). PPS to enhance medicine safety (interprofessional meetings to reduce errors, n=2) and access to medicines (minor ailment scheme, n=1) were in favour of their cost-effectiveness in the UK context, but the evidence is not sufficient. Eleven studies assessed PPS to improve treatment outcomes of individual patients-such as pharmaceutical care services, medication review, educational and coaching program, disease support service, medicines management and telephone-based advisory for improving adherence. Findings were contradictory and did not lead to strong conclusion. Screening programs for different diseases showed robust positive results (n=2) as well as smoking cessation services (n=5) and should be considered to be more widely available in accordance with national context. The review provides arguments for the implementation of PPS aiming to improve public health through screening programs and smoking cessation services. However, further full economic evaluations are needed to support or refute the added value of other services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioural effects of a community-oriented setting-based intervention for prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verbestel, V; De Henauw, S; Maes, L; Huybrechts, I; Mårild, S; Eiben, G; Moreno, L A; Barba, G; Kovács, É; Konstabel, K; Tornaritis, M; Gallois, K; Hebestreit, A; Pigeot, I

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavioural effects, as reported by the parents of the participating boys and girls, of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) intervention. The effectiveness of the IDEFICS intervention was evaluated through a cluster-controlled trial in eight European countries (control and intervention communities in each country) including more than 16,000 children. The 2- to 9.9-year-old children in the intervention group were exposed to a culturally adapted intervention that aimed to prevent childhood obesity through the community, schools/kindergartens and family. Parents completed questionnaires to measure water, soft drink and fruit juice intake; fruit and vegetable intake; daily TV viewing and other sedentary behaviours; daily physical activity levels and strengthening of the parent-child relationships at baseline and follow-up (2 years later). Mixed models with an additional random effect for country were used to account for the clustered study design, and results were stratified by sex. The pan-European analysis revealed no significant time by condition interaction effects, neither for boys nor girls, i.e. the analysis revealed no intervention effects on the behaviours of the IDEFICS children as reported by their parents (F = 0.0 to 3.3, all p > 0.05). Also very few significances were found in the country-specific analyses. Positive intervention effects were only found for sport club participation in Swedish boys, for screen time in weekends for Spanish boys and for TV viewing in Belgian girls. Although no expected intervention effects as reported by the parents on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours could be shown for the overall IDEFICS cohort, a few favourable intervention effects were found on specific behaviours in some individual countries. More in-depth analyses of the process evaluation data are needed to obtain more

  2. European aid control policy and environmental protection - an evaluation of the new Community guidelines; Die europaeische Beihilfenaufsicht im Umweltschutz - Darstellung und Kritik des neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewringmann, D.; Thoene, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Fischer, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    On 3 February 2001 the European Commission adopted the new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. These guidelines outline the methods and criteria used by the Commission when controlling environmental state aid according to Art. 87 and 88 of the EC-Treaty. The study analyses the development of the new guidelines and their potential effects on environmental protection and environmental policy in the Member States of the European Union. In essence, the guidelines display three harmful tendencies: - they hamper progressive and innovative environmental policy that improves on 'least common denominator'-Community standards; - they do not respect the limits of the Commissions's authority, and interfere with the Member States' exclusive authority to decide on strategies and instruments of their respective environmental policies, and they especially affect Member States' choices between different energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply; - finally, they do not improve the protection of air competition on the common market. Based on these findings, the report delineates perspectives for an aid control policy that protects fair competition, and that gives incentives for voluntary national and regional environmental protection, allows for the equal treatment of clean techniques, and provides a consistent framework for exemptions from ecological taxes and environmental levies at the same time. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Kommission hat mit Wirkung vom 3. Februar 2001 einen neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmen fuer staatliche Umweltschutzbeihilfen erlassen. Dieser skizziert die Verfahren und Kriterien, welche die Kommission in ihrer Ueberpruefung staatlicher Umweltschutzbeihilfen auf Vereinbarkeit mit dem gemeinsamen Markt nach Art. 87 u. 88 EGV nutzen will. Die vorliegende Untersuchung schildert die Entstehung des Beihilferahmens und analysiert dessen potenzielle Wirkungen auf den Umweltschutz und die

  3. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbestel Vera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of

  4. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The

  5. Respiratory symptoms in adults are related to impaired quality of life, regardless of asthma and COPD: results from the European community respiratory health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakke Per S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms are common in the general population, and their presence is related to Health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective was to describe the association of respiratory symptoms with HRQoL in subjects with and without asthma or COPD and to investigate the role of atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, and lung function in HRQoL. Methods The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II provided data on HRQoL, lung function, respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, and BHR from 6009 subjects. Generic HRQoL was assessed through the physical component summary (PCS score and the mental component summary (MCS score of the SF-36. Factor analyses and linear regressions adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, BMI, comorbidity, and study centre were conducted. Results Having breathlessness at rest in ECRHS II was associated with mean score (95% CI impairment in PCS of -8.05 (-11.18, -4.93. Impairment in MCS score in subjects waking up with chest tightness was -4.02 (-5.51, -2.52. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment associated with respiratory symptoms was similar for subjects with and without asthma/COPD. Adjustments for atopy, BHR, and lung function did not explain the association of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL in subjects without asthma and/or COPD. Conclusion Subjects with respiratory symptoms had poorer HRQoL; including subjects without a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. These findings suggest that respiratory symptoms in the absence of a medical diagnosis of asthma or COPD are by no means trivial, and that clarifying the nature and natural history of respiratory symptoms is a relevant challenge. Several community studies have estimated the prevalence of common respiratory symptoms like cough, dyspnoea, and wheeze in adults 123. Although the prevalence varies to a large degree between studies and geographical areas, respiratory symptoms are quite common. The prevalences of respiratory

  6. Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study community related the mode of transmíssion to the bite of infective mosquitoes and 43.7% of ... mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are mainly believed to bite human beings at night (73,2%), breed in stagnant water (71%) and rest in dark places inside houses during daytime (44.3%). ... Maize and enset (false banana) are the.

  7. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  8. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  9. The evaluation of technical models used for major-accident hazard installations. Report to Commission of the European Communities Directorate General 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britter, R. E.

    1991-08-01

    Models are used in many ways by individuals and organizations within the European Community. Within the context of major technological hazards decisions of considerable importance are based wholly, or partly, on these models. The quality, that is the fitness-for-purpose, of these models will differ and there is obviously an interest in both the relative quality of one model against another and the absolute quality of any particular model. This leads to the evaluation of model quality and to methods by which model quality might be improved. It is noted that models are a principal method for the transfer of technology but also that the nature, role, and limitations of models is frequently misunderstood. There is a widespread demand for guidance on model quality and consequently on the development of evaluation techniques. The CEC is an appropriate body to have a role in the study of the quality and the management of quality of technical models. The evaluation of the quality of technical models entails: (1) an assurance of correct coding of algorithms is required and this is probably straightforward; (2) a statistical model validation is required and this entails comparison with experimental data sets (considerable care is required in performing such a validation, in particular in determination of an appropriate protocol to ensure unambiguous conclusions to be drawn from the validation); and (3) a model assessment including a scientific review and other less objective aspects is also required and should be given equal weight to a statistical model validation. Actions which may lead to an improvement in model quality are presented.

  10. Macroparasite communities in European eels, Anguilla anguilla, from French Mediterranean lagoons, with special reference to the invasive species Anguillicola crassus and Pseudodactylogyrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fazio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available European eel parasites, in particular invasive species, are suspected to play a role in the decline in the populations of their host. The aims of this work were to describe the parasitic fauna of eels in French Mediterranean lagoons and to study the epidemiological trends of the invasive helminth species, the nematode Anguillicola crassus and the monogenean Pseudodactylogyrus spp., in regard to spatio-temporal dynamics, host biological characteristics and parasite community. A total of 418 eels was sampled in eight lagoons between March 2003 and June 2005. Our results revealed a total macroparasite richness of 23 species: 1 Monogenea, 13 Digenea, 2 Cestoda, 3 Nematoda, 2 Acantocephala and 2 Crustacea. We found no variation in A. crassus abundance in Salses-Leucate lagoon in the same month across years. However, the nematode abundance was higher in eels caught in summer than in those caught in winter. Pseudodactylogyrus sp. was not found in Salses-Leucate lagoon, except in July 2004. Comparisons between the lagoons on the same date showed that they could be separated into two groups for both species' abundance: Grau-du-Roi, Mauguio, Palavas and Vaccarès lagoons, where abundance was rather high, against Bages-Sigean, Pierre-Blanche, Salses-Leucate and Thau lagoons, where abundance was rather low or nil. We found significant negative relationships between A. crassus abundance and the length and age of eels. We also found a significant positive relationship between A. crassus and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. abundance. Finally, our results showed significant positive relationships between both A. crassus and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. abundance and the abundance of the digeneans Prosorhynchus aculeatus and Lecithochirium gravidum. We discuss the results in regard to the dynamics of invasions, the characteristics of the parasite life cycles and the ecology of eels.

  11. The prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to cost for the elderly: results from seven European urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankuniene, Aurima; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Avery, Mark; Lindert, Jutta; Mikalauskiene, Rita; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Savickas, Arūnas; Radziunas, Raimondas; Soares, Joaquim J F

    2015-09-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to procurement costs amongst older persons from seven European urban communities. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study ("ABUEL, Elder abuse: A multinational prevalence survey") in 2009. Randomly selected people aged 60-84 years (n = 4,467) from seven urban communities: Stuttgart (Germany), Athens (Greece), Ancona (Italy), Kaunas (Lithuania), Porto (Portugal), Granada (Spain) and Stockholm (Sweden) were interviewed. Response rate - 45.2%. Ethical permission was received in each country. The results indicate that 3.6% (n = 162) of the respondents self-reported refraining from buying prescribed medications due to cost. The highest prevalence of this problem was identified in Lithuania (15.7%, n = 99) and Portugal (4.3%, n = 28). Other countries reported lower percentages of refraining from buying medications (Germany - 2.0%, Italy - 1.6%, Sweden - 1.0%, Greece - 0.6%, Spain - 0.3%). Females refrained more often from buying medications than males (2.6% vs. 4.4%, p increase with economic hardship. These differences between countries can be only partly described by the financing of health-care systems. In spite of the presence of cost reimbursement mechanisms, patients need to make co-payments (or in some cases to pay the full price) for prescribed medications. This indicates that the purchasing power of people in 10.1186/s12913-015-1089-4 the particular country can play a major role and be related with the economic situation in the country. Lithuania, which has reported the highest refrain rates, had the lowest gross domestic product (at the time of conducting this study) of all participating countries in the study. Refraining from buying the prescribed medications due to cost is a problem for women and men in respect to ageing people in Europe. Prevalence varies by country, sex, and economic hardship.

  12. Prospective association of the SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype with adverse health outcomes: evidence from 60+ community-dwelling Europeans living in 11 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macklai Nejma S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the many definitions of frailty, the frailty phenotype defined by Fried et al. is one of few constructs that has been repeatedly validated: first in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS and subsequently in other large cohorts in the North America. In Europe, the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE is a gold mine of individual, economic and health information that can provide insight into better understanding of frailty across diverse population settings. A recent adaptation of the original five CHS-frailty criteria was proposed to make use of SHARE data and measure frailty in the European population. To test the validity of the SHARE operationalized frailty phenotype, this study aims to evaluate its prospective association with adverse health outcomes. Methods Data are from 11,015 community-dwelling men and women aged 60+ participating in wave 1 and 2 of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe, a population-based survey. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the 2-year follow up effect of SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype on the incidence of disability (disability-free at baseline and on worsening disability and morbidity, adjusting for age, sex, income and baseline morbidity and disability. Results At 2-year follow up, frail individuals were at increased risk for: developing mobility (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.02-9.36, IADL (OR 5.52, 95% CI, 3.76-8.10 and BADL (OR 5.13, 95% CI, 3.53-7.44 disability; worsening mobility (OR 2.94, 95% CI, 2.19- 3.93 IADL (OR 4.43, 95% CI, 3.19-6.15 and BADL disability (OR 4.53, 95% CI, 3.14-6.54; and worsening morbidity (OR 1.77, 95% CI, 1.35-2.32. These associations were significant even among the prefrail, but with a lower magnitude of effect. Conclusions The SHARE-operationalized frailty phenotype is significantly associated with all tested health outcomes independent of baseline morbidity and disability in community-dwelling men

  13. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law; EuGH: Europarechtliche Unbedenklichkeit der Kernbrennstoffsteuer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-08-14

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  14. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  15. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  16. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  17. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  18. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  19. Spain: The new entry rules, free movement, and residence of European community citizens and assimilated persons / El nuevo régimen de entrada, libre circulación y residencia de ciudadanos comunitarios y “asimilados”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Ortega Giménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, Spain has approached the percentage of foreign population of the other EU member states. The accession of Spain to the European Communities as a member state with full rights, and while no kind of uniform regulation is achieved, makes it necessary to establish the legal regimen for EU nationals on our soil. Spain, in recent times a host country to EU nationals, has been involved in establishing administrative criteria for the exercise of the rights of entry, exit, and residency in Spain for the citizens of its member states for the realization of activities as an employed or freelance person.

  20. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  1. INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live nowadays a posteriori establishment through institutional treaties and a well-built jurisprudence that set up some of the general treaties. The structure of the European Union as well as the particular nature of the community legal order led to the establishment of some general principles, such as the principle of the institutional balance, the principle of solidarity between member states, the principle of primacy, the principle of the immediate and direct effect of the European law. It is certain that the legal order of the community law has its basis in the legal order of the International public law from which it has continuously delineated. The European communities, as subjects of the International public law are obliged to comply with the general International law, its fundamental principles and its bases, leading to some obligations capable to produce effects in the community legal order. The Court Of Justice of the European Union established as principles applicable in the European law the principles of the International public law, especially when it was called to assert regarding the International relationships of the Community as well as those of the 28 member states, confirming in the matter of the applicability of the treaties, the pacta sunt servanda rule, the principle of the good faith, the legitimate faith or the rebus sic standibus exception, all of them belonging to the custom International law.

  2. Final results of the European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study: a large open-label study in diverse community settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, J.; Procopio, G.; Bajetta, E.; Keilholz, U.; Negrier, S.; Szczylik, C.; Bokemeyer, C.; Bracarda, S.; Richel, D. J.; Staehler, M.; Strauss, U. P.; Mersmann, S.; Burock, K.; Escudier, B.

    2011-01-01

    The European Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib (EU-ARCCS) expanded-access study provided sorafenib to advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in whom previous systemic therapy had failed. The study assessed the safety and use of sorafenib for the treatment of advanced RCC in a large

  3. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  4. A União Européia: uma comunidade em construção The European Union: a community under construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O novo Tratado da União, o Tratado Reformador ou Tratado de Lisboa, aprovado na Cúpula Européia de Chefes de Estado e de Governo em outubro de 2007 durante a presidência de Portugal, abre um período de profunda reflexão sobre as razões que levaram a França e a Holanda a dizer "não" ao Tratado Constitucional apresentado à população em 2005 e sobre o novo rumo a ser tomado. Neste artigo, proponho-me a reconstituir o debate político-institucional que cercou esses dois momentos, debate profundamente influenciado pela incorporação ao espaço territorial da União Européia de 130 milhões de novos habitantes de diferentes procedências e identidades, o que certamente vai produzir um impacto crescente na distribuição de recursos políticos e econômicos e na percepção das diferentes identidades entre seus cidadãos. Tanto o debate normativo quanto o da diversidade cultural serão examinados à luz das principais teorias que cercam os estudos sobre a União Européia.The European Lisbon Treaty, approved by the European Council in October 2007 during the Portuguese presidency, opened a period of profound discussions about the reasons that led France and the Netherlands to reject in referenda the Constitutional Treaty presented to the population in 2005 as well about the new course that should be adopted in designing Union's new institutions. The present text summarizes the political-institutional debate that surrounded these two moments. This debate is affected by the incorporation of 130 million new European citizens from different origins and identities to the European Union territorial space, having a growing impact on political and economic resource distribution and on the perception of differences among the European population. Similarly to the normative debate, the cultural diversity will be examined in light of the main theories in the field of European studies.

  5. Community benefits from wind power: a study of UK practice and comparison with leading European countries. Report to the Renewables Advisory Board and the DTI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The size and nature of local community benefits from wind power projects in the UK is investigated. These are compared with the benefits in Denmark, Germany, Spain and Ireland where wind power has enjoyed significantly higher rates of development and benefits come within the framework of all wind power projects. Ten wind power projects in the UK are examined and the remaining projects are surveyed. Support mechanisms, public acceptance, planning systems, community involvement (jobs, local income, ownership) in the UK and the other four countries are analysed. Typical community benefits from wind power in the different countries are listed, and recommendations are given.

  6. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  7. A european-wide study on the role of streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia among adults: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechlivanoglou, P.; Rozenbaum, M.; Van Der Werf, T.; Lo-Ten-Foe, J.; Postma, M.; Hak, E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia is an important cause of hospitalization and death among adults, but figures on the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae largely vary. We aimed to identify the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae by systematically reviewing all available

  8. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  9. ENSAR, a Nuclear Science Project for European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzó, Ketel; Lewitowicz, Marek; Harakeh, Muhsin N.

    2015-01-01

    During the period from September 2010 to December 2014, the European project European Nuclear Science and Applications Research (ENSAR) coordinated research activities of the Nuclear Physics community performing research in three major subfields: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nuclear

  10. Effects of tree diversity and environmental factors on the soil microbial community in three soil depth in a Central European beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornacon, C.; Jacob, M.; Guckland, A.; Meinen, C.; Gleixner, G.

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the link between aboveground and belowground diversity in forest ecosystems. Therefore, we determined the effect of tree composition on amount and composition of the soil microbial community using phospholipid fatty acid profiles in the Hainich National Park in Thuringia, a deciduous mixed forest on loess over limestone in Central Germany. On the one hand we investigated the composition of the microbial community in dependence of leave litter composition, hypothesizing that distinct leave litter compositions activated signature PLFA's. On the other hand we determined if environmental factor like clay content or nutrient status influence the microbial community in deeper soil horizons. Consequently soil was sampled from depth intervals of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Plots with highest diversity of leave litter had highest total amounts of fatty acids in the upper 5 cm. Mainly PLFA 16:1?5 was activated in autumn, being a common marker for mycorrhizal fungi. In soil depth below 5 cm the environmental factors like clay and soil nutrients like phosphorus and carbon, explained most of the soil microbial variability. On pure beech sites the total phosphorus content of soil influenced soil microbial diversity, but on sites with higher tree diversity no single factor varying the microbial community could be identified. Tree diversity and environmental factors together effect soil microbial community and are closely related to the link between aboveground and belowground diversity.

  11. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  12. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BALZER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  13. ASSESSING THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION HABITATS – RESULTS OF THE COMMUNITY REPORT WITH A CASE STUDY OF THE GERMAN NATIONAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. SIPKOVA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU Habitats Directive requires all member states to report every 6 years on the implementation of the Directive. The report covering the period 2000 – 2006 included for the first time an assessment of the conservation status of the habitats and species listed on annexes I, II, IV & V of the Habitats Directive following an agreed format. Based on national reports submitted from member States the European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity has prepared assessments for each biogeographical region at EU-level. The majority of the habitats of Annex I are not at favourable status although there is much variation both between countries and regions and between habitats. The results will be discussed at European level and at member state level with a case study of the German national report. At the same time a number of methodical problems became apparent both in Germany and at EU-level. Work is already under way to improve the next report for the period 2007 – 2012. The dimension of management needs, threats and pressures and the time scale for improvements of the conservation status are discussed. Habitats linked to agriculture appear to be particularly unfavourable.

  14. Community-Owned wind power development: The challenge of applying the European model in the United States, and how states are addressing that challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2004-03-28

    Local farmers, towns, schools, and individual investors are, however, beginning to invest in wind power. With the help of state policy and clean energy fund support, new federal incentives, and creative local wind developers who have devised ownership structures that maximize the value of both state and federal support, community wind power is beginning to take a foothold in parts of the US, in particular the upper Midwest. The purpose of this report is to describe that foothold, as well as the state support that helped to create it. There are a number of reasons why states are becoming increasingly interested in community wind power. In rural Midwestern states such as Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, community wind is seen as a way to help supplement and stabilize farmer income, and thereby contribute to the preservation of farming communities and the rural landscapes and values they create. In the Northeast, densely populated states such as Massachusetts are turning to community-scale wind development to increase not only the amount of wind power on the grid, but also the public's knowledge, perception, and acceptance of wind power. In still other areas--such as the Pacific Northwest, which is already home to several large wind farms--states are simply responding to strong interest from local constituents who see community wind power as a way to take responsibility for, and mitigate the environmental impact of, electricity generation. But what exactly is ''community wind power''? Definitions vary widely, ranging from behind-the-meter installations to the Danish wind ''cooperatives'' to wind projects owned by municipal utilities. Possible defining criteria include: project size (small vs. large projects); purpose (to offset end-use power consumption vs. to sell power to the grid); ownership (single local vs. multiple local vs. municipal utility vs. commercial owners); and interconnection (behind the meter vs

  15. Supportive environments for physical activity, community action, and policy in 8 European Union Member States: Comparative analysis and specificities of context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruetten, A.; Frahsa, A.; Engbers, L.; Gusi, N.; Mota, J.; Pacenka, R.; Troelsen, J.; Vasickova, J.; Vuillemin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A multilevel theoretical framework of physical activity (PA) promotion that addresses supportive environments, PA behavior, community action, and PA promoting policies is related to research and development in an international comparative study. Methods: Most-different and most-similar

  16. The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Paget, W.J.; Jorgensen, P.; Brown, C.S.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Pereyaslov, D.; Mott, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 to historical

  17. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J. Voorham; R. van Staveren; E. Koppelaar; L.F.J. Martijn; E. Valía-Cotanda; T. Alhambra-Borrás; T. Rentoumis; L. Bilajac; V. Vasiljev Marchesi; T. Rukavina; A. Verma; G. Williams; G. Clough; J. Garcés-Ferrer; F. Mattace Raso; H. Raat; C.B. Franse

    2017-01-01

    Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In

  18. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): Preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franse, C.B. (Carmen B.); A.J. Voorham; Van Staveren, R. (Rob); E. Koppelaar (Elin); Martijn, R. (Rens); Valía-Cotanda, E. (Elisa); Alhambra-Borrás, T. (Tamara); Rentoumis, T. (Tasos); Bilajac, L. (Lovorka); Marchesi, V.V. (Vanja Vasiljev); Rukavina, T. (Tomislav); Verma, A. (Arpana); Williams, G. (Greg); Clough, G. (Gary); Garcés-Ferrer, J. (Jorge); F.M. Raso; H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living

  19. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodd, Rory L; Bourke, David; Skeffington, Micheline Sheehy

    2014-01-01

    Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1) oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2) species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3) species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need significantly

  20. Projected range contractions of European protected oceanic montane plant communities: focus on climate change impacts is essential for their future conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory L Hodd

    Full Text Available Global climate is rapidly changing and while many studies have investigated the potential impacts of this on the distribution of montane plant species and communities, few have focused on those with oceanic montane affinities. In Europe, highly sensitive bryophyte species reach their optimum occurrence, highest diversity and abundance in the north-west hyperoceanic regions, while a number of montane vascular plant species occur here at the edge of their range. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of these species and assesses the implications for EU Habitats Directive-protected oceanic montane plant communities. We applied an ensemble of species distribution modelling techniques, using atlas data of 30 vascular plant and bryophyte species, to calculate range changes under projected future climate change. The future effectiveness of the protected area network to conserve these species was evaluated using gap analysis. We found that the majority of these montane species are projected to lose suitable climate space, primarily at lower altitudes, or that areas of suitable climate will principally shift northwards. In particular, rare oceanic montane bryophytes have poor dispersal capacity and are likely to be especially vulnerable to contractions in their current climate space. Significantly different projected range change responses were found between 1 oceanic montane bryophytes and vascular plants; 2 species belonging to different montane plant communities; 3 species categorised according to different biomes and eastern limit classifications. The inclusion of topographical variables in addition to climate, significantly improved the statistical and spatial performance of models. The current protected area network is projected to become less effective, especially for specialised arctic-montane species, posing a challenge to conserving oceanic montane plant communities. Conservation management plans need

  1. Homo habitus: agency, structure and the transformation of tradition in the constitution of the TRB foraging-farming communities in the North European plain (ca 4500–2000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zvelebil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The current generally accepted view of the dispersal of farming into Europe is that farming groups in the eastern Mediterranean colonised selectively optimal farming areas. The role of contact between indigenous hunter-gatherers and incoming farmers was very important to the operation of this process. This general view of the spread of farming at a broad inter-regional scale gives us our understanding of the origins of the Neolithic but merits closer examination at the local and regional level, as increasingly it is becoming apparent that the causes and motivations may have differed. In this paper, Mesolithic to Neolithic communities with evidence of the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer will be examined at a regional scale, in the central part of the north European plain, focussing on Kujavia. Additionally, the theory of structuration will be applied in order to elucidate the transition process at this level.

  2. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  3. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  4. The Future of Copyright Management: European Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Michele

    This paper presents European perspectives on the future of copyright management. The first section is an overview of intellectual property rights in Europe, including differences between copyright countries and "droit d'auteur" countries. The second section addresses European Community legal policy, including examples related to the…

  5. Outstanding challenges in the seismological study of volcanic processes: Results from recent U.S. and European community-wide discussion workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. C.; Rodgers, M.; Mather, T. A.; Power, J. A.; Pyle, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of volcanically induced seismicity are essential for eruption forecasting and for real-time and near-real-time warnings of hazardous volcanic activity. Studies of volcanic seismicity and of seismic wave propagation also provide critical understanding of subsurface magmatic systems and the physical processes associated with magma genesis, transport, and eruption. However, desipite significant advances in recent years, our ability to successfully forecast volcanic eruptions and fully understand subsurface volcanic processes is limited by our current understanding of the source processes of volcano-seismic events, the effects on seismic wave propagation within volcanic structures, limited data, and even the non-standardized terminology used to describe seismic waveforms. Progress in volcano seismology is further hampered by inconsistent data formats and standards, lack of state-of-the-art hardware and professional technical staff, as well as a lack of widely adopted analysis techniques and software. Addressing these challenges will not only advance scientific understanding of volcanoes, but also will lead to more accurate forecasts and warnings of hazardous volcanic eruptions that would ultimately save lives and property world-wide. Two recent workshops held in Anchorage, Alaska, and Oxford, UK, represent important steps towards developing a relationship among members of the academic community and government agencies, focused around a shared, long-term vision for volcano seismology. Recommendations arising from the two workshops fall into six categories: 1) Ongoing and enhanced community-wide discussions, 2) data and code curation and dissemination, 3) code development, 4) development of resources for more comprehensive data mining, 5) enhanced strategic seismic data collection, and 6) enhanced integration of multiple datasets (including seismicity) to understand all states of volcano activity through space and time. As presented sequentially above, these

  6. Securitizing the Arctic indigenous peoples: A community security perspective with special reference to the Sámi of the European high north

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Kamrul

    2016-09-01

    The theory of securitization-the so-called Copenhagen school-centers the concept of security on various identified threats. Security based on the collective identity by which a society preserves its essential characteristics has been defined as community security, or societal security. The underlying principle of the Copenhagen school is that state-based, sovereignty-oriented security is ineffective unless the other components of security threats are addressed. The concept of human security, developed nearly simultaneously to that of securitization, identifies threat components at the sub-state level which are not traditionally understood as security concerns. Both schools of security thought are similar as they offer nontraditional approaches to understanding the concept of security. In this article, I explore securitization theory and the concept of human security to elaborate community perspectives in the understanding of security. In a case study, I investigate the security concerns of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The transformation of the Arctic by climate change and its impacts has resulted in new challenges and opportunities, so I explore how indigenous peoples in general and the Sámi in particular understand security which promotes their societal security. Although I show that this group of people deserves recognition and the ability to exercise greater authority, I conclude that diverse concepts of security do not by any means undermine the core traditional concept of security. These aspects of security remain subject to scrutiny by states and exist in a vertical structure. The Sámi, therefore, rely on affirmative actions by states to enjoy greater rights to maintain their community security.

  7. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate administration during early life: effects on performance, immunity and microbial community of European sea bass yolk-sac larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andrea; Roth, Olivia; Schryver, Peter De; Bayer, Till; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Künzel, Sven; Bossier, Peter; Miest, Joanna J; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2017-11-08

    The reliable production of marine fish larvae is one of the major bottlenecks in aquaculture due to high mortalities mainly caused by infectious diseases. To evaluate if the compound poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) might be a suitable immunoprophylactic measure in fish larviculture, its capacity to improve immunity and performance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) yolk-sac larvae was explored. PHB was applied from mouth opening onwards to stimulate the developing larval immune system at the earliest possible point in time. Larval survival, growth, microbiota composition, gene expression profiles and disease resistance were assessed. PHB administration improved larval survival and, furthermore, altered the larva-associated microbiota composition. The bacterial challenge test using pathogenic Vibrio anguillarum revealed that the larval disease resistance was not influenced by PHB. The expression profiles of 26 genes involved e.g. in the immune response showed that PHB affected the expression of the antimicrobial peptides ferritin (fer) and dicentracin (dic), however, the response to PHB was inconsistent and weaker than previously demonstrated for sea bass post-larvae. Hence, the present study highlights the need for more research focusing on the immunostimulation of different early developmental stages for gaining a more comprehensive picture and advancing a sustainable production of high quality fry.

  8. Individual and Relationship Factors Associated With the Self-Identified Inability to Experience Orgasm in a Community Sample of Heterosexual Men From Three European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Santana, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The inability to reach orgasm is probably the least common and least understood of all male sexual dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate the incidence of the inability to reach orgasm, and the psychological and interpersonal factors associated with this sexual difficulty. A total of 3,672 heterosexual men from three European countries (1,937 Portuguese, 1,215 Croats, 520 Norwegians) participated in this web survey (M age = 36.6 years, SD = 18-75 years). A total of 354 (9.6%) reported the inability to reach orgasm. Among those men, 89.8% reported moderate to extreme distress regarding this sexual difficulty. A multivariate assessment revealed that men in short-term relationships and taking antidepressants were more likely to report inability to reach orgasm. Men who reported having difficulties getting or maintaining an erection were 4 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. Men who experienced difficulty "'letting go' and surrendering to sexual pleasure during sex" were 2.7 times more likely to have experienced the inability to reach orgasm than were those who did not report this difficulty. This difficulty of "letting go" might reflect the unwillingness to give oneself, an idea presented in previous research.

  9. First HIV prevalence estimates of a representative sample of adult sub-Saharan African migrants in a European city. Results of a community-based, cross-sectional study in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Loos

    Full Text Available While sub-Saharan African migrants are the second largest group affected by HIV in Europe, sound HIV prevalence estimates based on representative samples of these heterogeneous communities are lacking. Such data are needed to inform prevention and public health policy.This community-based, cross-sectional study combined oral fluid HIV testing with an electronic behavioral survey. Adopting a two-stage time location sampling HIV prevalence estimates for a representative sample of adult sub-Saharan African migrants in Antwerp, Belgium were obtained. Sample proportions and estimated adjusted population proportions were calculated for all variables. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis explored factors independently associated with HIV infection.Between December 2013 and October 2014, 744 sub-Saharan African migrants were included (37% women. A substantial proportion was socially, legally and economically vulnerable: 21% were probably of undocumented status, 63% had financial problems in the last year and 9% lacked stable housing. Sexual networks were mostly African and crossed national borders, i.e. sexual encounters during travels within Europa and Africa. Concurrency is common, 34% of those in a stable relationship had a partner on the side in the last year. HIV prevalence was 5.9%(95%CI:3.4%-10.1% among women and 4.2% (95%CI:1.6%-10.6% among men. Although high lifetime HIV testing was reported at community level (73%, 65.2% (CI95%:32.4%-88.0% of sub-Saharan African migrants were possibly undiagnosed. Being 45 years or older, unprotected sex when travelling within Europe in the last year, high intentions to use condoms, being unaware of their last sexual partners' HIV status, recent HIV testing and not having encountered partner violence in the last year were independently associated with HIV infection in multivariable logical regression. In univariable analysis, HIV infection was additionally associated to unemployment

  10. COBA-Cohort: a prospective cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men, attending community-based HIV testing services in five European countries (a study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Nicolas; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Fuertes, Ricardo; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Pichon, François; Cigan, Bojan; Chanos, Sophocles; Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Morel, Stéphane; Slaaen Kaye, Per; Agustí, Cristina; Klavs, Irena; Platteau, Tom; Casabona, Jordi

    2016-07-13

    Community-based voluntary counselling and testing (CBVCT) services for men who have sex with men (MSM) can reach those most-at-risk and provide an environment for gay men that is likely to be non-stigmatising. Longitudinal data on the behaviour of HIV-negative MSM are scarce in Europe. The aim of this protocol, developed during the Euro HIV Early Diagnosis And Treatment (EDAT) project, is to implement a multicentre community-based cohort of HIV-negative MSM attending 15 CBVCT services in 5 European countries. (1) To describe the patterns of CBVCT use, (2) to estimate HIV incidence, and to identify determinants of (3) HIV seroconversion and (4) HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection (STI) test-seeking behaviour. All MSM aged 18 years or over and who had a negative HIV test result are invited to participate in the COmmunity-BAsed Cohort (COBA-Cohort). Study enrolment started in February 2015, and is due to continue for at least 12 months at each study site. Follow-up frequency depends on the testing recommendations in each country (at least 1 test per year). Sociodemographic data are collected at baseline; baseline and follow-up questionnaires both gather data on attitudes and perceptions, discrimination, HIV/STI testing history, sexual behaviour, condom use, and pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Descriptive, exploratory and multivariate analyses will be performed to address the main research objectives of this study, using appropriate statistical tests and models. These analyses will be performed on the whole cohort data and stratified by study site or country. The study was approved by the Public Health authorities of each country where the study is being implemented. Findings from the COBA-Cohort study will be summarised in a report to the European Commission, and in leaflets to be distributed to study participants. Articles and conference abstracts will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  11. News Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Conference: Physics brings the community together Training: CERN trains physics teachers Education: World conference fosters physics collaborations Lecture: Physics education live at ASE Prize: Physics teacher wins first Moore medal Festival: European presidents patronize Science on Stage festival Videoconference: Videoconference brings Durban closer to the classroom

  12. European and Integration Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soviet scientific school of pan-European integration studies began to emerge in the 1960s at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russian Academy of Science. Among the leading scientists who have developed methodological approaches of Soviet integration studies were M.M. Maximova, Y.A. Borko, Y. Shishkov, L.I. Capercaillie. Later, a new center for integration studies became the Institute of Europe, created in 1987. It was led by such renowned scientists as Academicians V.V. Zhurkin and N.P. Shmelev. In the 1980s the subject of the integration process in Europe attracted attention of experts from MGIMO. An important role in the development of school of integration research in the USSR was played by a MGIMO professor, head of the chair of history of international relations and foreign policy of the USSR V.B. Knyazhinskiy. His work contributed to the deliverance of the national scientific community from skepticism about the prospects for European integration. Ideas of V.B. Knyazhinsky are developed today in MGIMO by his followers A.V. Mal'gin and T.V. Ur'eva. In the mid-1990s, having retired from diplomatic service, professor Yu. Matveevskiy started to work at MGIMO. With a considerable practical experience in the field, he produced a series of monographs on the history of European integration. In his works, he analyses the development of integration processes in Western Europe from their inception to the present day, showing the gradual maturation of the necessary spiritual and material prerequisites for the start of integration and traces the various stages of the "integration". In the late 1990s, the growing demand from the domestic business and government for professionals who are capable of interacting with the European Union, has produced the necessary supply in the form of educational programs based on accumulated scientific knowledge. Setting up a discipline "European Integration" was a major step in the development

  13. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  14. European Law: Ending Discrimination against Girls in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Margherita

    1992-01-01

    Examines how the European Convention on Human Rights and its case law could combat sexist education and develop concepts of philosophical convictions, the European Community's duty, and children's rights. Considers feminist strategies for improving girls' education, English and European procedural laws, and difficulties of using English law. (RLC)

  15. Discovery of Western European R1b1a2 Y chromosome variants in 1000 genomes project data: an online community approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Rocca

    Full Text Available The authors have used an online community approach, and tools that were readily available via the Internet, to discover genealogically and therefore phylogenetically relevant Y-chromosome polymorphisms within core haplogroup R1b1a2-L11/S127 (rs9786076. Presented here is the analysis of 135 unrelated L11 derived samples from the 1000 Genomes Project. We were able to discover new variants and build a much more complex phylogenetic relationship for L11 sub-clades. Many of the variants were further validated using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The identification of these new variants will help further the understanding of population history including patrilineal migrations in Western and Central Europe where R1b1a2 is the most frequent haplogroup. The fine-grained phylogenetic tree we present here will also help to refine historical genetic dating studies. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science for analysis of whole genome sequence data.

  16. Bringing a community-based vision to the heart of Europe's research the European Union's new research commissioner hopes that his plans to promote science will win over critics in the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    1999-01-01

    Busquin's top priority is to create an European scientific 'espace' to bring added value to European research efforts. He is also keen to give the commission's research programmes a more human face (1 page).

  17. The European Court of Justice's Strategy for European Community integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacqueson, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    EF-Domstolen - aktivisme - analyse af retspraksis indenfor den fri bevægelighed af personer - økonomisk aktive personer - Unionsborgerskabet - "political science" teorier......EF-Domstolen - aktivisme - analyse af retspraksis indenfor den fri bevægelighed af personer - økonomisk aktive personer - Unionsborgerskabet - "political science" teorier...

  18. The decline of the impetigo epidemic caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone: an 11.5-year population-based incidence study from a community in Western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørtveit, Sverre; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Langeland, Nina; Rortveit, Guri

    2014-12-01

    From around the year 2000, Northern Europe experienced a rise in impetigo caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to fusidic acid. A single clone of S. aureus was found to be the bacterial pathogen involved in the impetigo outbreak in Norway, Sweden, the UK and Ireland, termed 'the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone' (EEFIC). We have followed the incidence of impetigo during the years 2001-2012 based on all patients in general practice in the island community of Austevoll, Western Norway. We previously reported a marked decline of impetigo incidence in Austevoll, from 0.0260 cases per person-year in 2002 to 0.0038 in 2009. This article explores indications of an end to the impetigo epidemic caused by the EEFIC clone. All four general practitioners (GPs) in the community (mean population = 4400) were asked to diagnose impetigo in a uniform way and to take bacterial specimens from all impetigo cases. Phenotypic characteristics of specimen bacteria were determined for the whole period and molecular analyses were performed on isolates in the period 2008-2012. We observed a further decline in incidence of impetigo in Austevoll in the study period. The proportion of fusidic acid-resistant S. aureus isolates decreased during the period 2002-2012, with a mean of 80% in the epidemic years of 2002-2004, 55% in 2005-2009, and 6% in 2010-2012. In total, 44 S. aureus isolates from impetigo were subject to molecular analyses in the period 2008-2012, and 11 were found to be related to the EEFIC. All EEFIC isolates were found in 2008-2009, with no new isolates in 2010-2012. There is an apparent end to the impetigo epidemic related to the EEFIC in this population in Western Norway.

  19. Effectiveness of community facilitator training in improving knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in relation to depression and suicidal behavior: results of the OSPI-Europe intervention in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Evelien; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Iddi, Samuel; Arensman, Ella; Gottlebe, Katrin; Koburger, Nicole; Coffey, Claire; Gusmão, Ricardo; Quintão, Sónia; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    Community facilitators (CFs), such as teachers, nurses and social workers, are well placed as gatekeepers for depression and suicidal behavior, but not properly prepared to provide preventive and supportive services. The current study aimed: (1) to improve CFs' attitudes toward depression, knowledge on suicide, and confidence to detect suicidal behavior in four European countries and (2) to identify specific training needs across regions and CF groups. A standardized training program was provided to 1276 CFs in Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Attitudes toward depression, knowledge about suicide, and confidence in identifying suicidal persons were assessed before training, after training, and at three to six months follow-up. Additionally, several participants' characteristics were registered. At baseline, CFs showed relatively favorable attitudes toward depression, but limited knowledge on suicide, and little confidence to identify suicidal behavior. Basic skills strongly differed across CF groups and countries. For example, in Germany, carers for the elderly, nurses, teachers, and managers were most in need of training, while in Portugal pharmacists and the clergy appeared to be important target groups. Most importantly, the training program improved the competencies of CF groups across countries and these improvements were sustained after three to six months. CFs with low basic skills benefited most of the training. The observed training effects could be influenced by other external factors as our results are based upon a pre-post comparison with no control group. Gatekeeper trainings in community settings are successful in improving knowledge, reshaping attitudes, and boosting the confidence of gatekeepers. The most effective strategy to achieve the preferred objectives is to target those CF groups that are most in need of training and to tailor the content of the training program to the individual needs of the target group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  20. Genetic loci for serum magnesium among African-Americans and gene-environment interaction at MUC1 and TRPM6 in European-Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Adrienne; Köttgen, Anna; Folsom, Aaron R; Maruthur, Nisa M; Tajuddin, Salman M; Nalls, Mike A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Friedrich, Christopher A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Kao, Wen Hong Linda

    2015-05-29

    Low serum magnesium levels have been associated with multiple chronic diseases. The regulation of serum magnesium homeostasis is not well understood. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry (EA) populations identified nine loci for serum magnesium. No such study has been conducted in African-Americans, nor has there been an evaluation of the interaction of magnesium-associated SNPs with environmental factors. The goals of this study were to identify genetic loci associated with serum magnesium in an African-American (AA) population using both genome-wide and candidate region interrogation approaches and to evaluate gene-environment interaction for the magnesium-associated variants in both EA and AA populations. We conducted a GWAS of serum magnesium in 2737 AA participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and interrogated the regions of the nine published candidate loci in these results. Literature search identified the influence of progesterone on MUC1 expression and insulin on TRPM6 expression. The GWAS approach in African-American participants identified a locus near MUC1 as genome-wide significant (rs2974937, beta=-0.013, p=6.1x10(-9)). The candidate region interrogation approach identified two of the nine loci previously discovered in EA populations as containing SNPs that were significantly associated in African-American participants (SHROOM3 and TRPM6). The index variants at these three loci together explained 2.8 % of the variance in serum magnesium concentration in ARIC African-American participants. On the test of gene-environment interaction in ARIC EA participants, the index variant at MUC1 had 2.5 times stronger association in postmenopausal women with progestin use (beta=-0.028, p=7.3x10(-5)) than in those without any hormone use (beta=-0.011, p=7.0x10(-8), p for interaction 0.03). At TRPM6, the index variant had 1.6 times stronger association in those with lower fasting insulin levels (gene

  1. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  2. An overview on European SPS activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhartz, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    The organization of space and energy research in Europe is discussed. The European situation is highlighted with emphasis on the dependency of energy imports and on the energy requirements of Europe. The status of SPS research in the countries that form the European Space Agency was reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the unfavorable geographical and climatic situation of large parts of Europe, terrestrial solar energy conversion is unlikely to make a significant contribution to Europe's future energy supply. Thus, SPS development is of special interest to the European community.

  3. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  4. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  5. Continuity and Change in the Politics of European Scientific Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Hallonsten

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intergovernmental collaboration in the area of big science has been an important resource for European science since the 1950s. Yet, as a policy area, it has traditionally been left outside of the political integration work of the European Community/Union. Despite this formal detachment, the political realities of the collaborations often draw upon and reflect the (geopolitical dynamics of Europe. This article reports on a study of two big projects in the making (the European Spallation Source and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser, and uses two historical cases for comparison (the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It highlights critical issues in establishing and operating collaborations, relates these to the broader context of European political integration, and discusses, on the basis of this, signs of continuity and change in this distinct area of European research policy.

  6. European project ISAWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

  7. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  8. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization, has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization

  9. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  10. The EIROforum Collaboration Agreement with the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration between CERN and the European Union has extended over many years, and the European Commission were granted Observer Status in the CERN Council in 1985 already. In 1994, an Administrative Arrangement was signed between CERN's Director-General, Professor C.H. Llewellyn Smith, and the Commissioner of the European Communities, Professor Antonio Ruberti, "to promote co-operation between the Commission of the European Communities and CERN in research and technological development". (See Annex I). In 2000, the EIROforum was set up composed of the Directors-General of the seven organisations - CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF and ILL - whom now meet regularly twice per year. More information is available at the Web site www.eiroforum.org. On 27 October 2003, the EIROforum members signed a joint "Statement of Intent" with the European Commission, represented by Commissioner Philippe Busquin, confirming their common commitment to developing the European Research Area. The goal is to work together to estab...

  11. Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.

  12. Multilingual higher education in European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; Mamadouh, V.; Marácz, L.

    2013-01-01

    Although English is often conceived as the dominant language of international and transnational communication in higher education, it is not the only medium of communication in the academic community. National, regional and local languages remain important, in some European countries more than in

  13. European initiatives for modeling emissions from transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Hickman, A. John; Samaras, Zissis

    1998-01-01

    In Europe there have been many cooperative studies into transport emission inventories since the late 80s. These cover the scope of CORINAIR program involving experts from seven European Community laboratories addressing only road transport emissions at national level. These also include the late...

  14. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  15. Continuation or Reorientation - What Future for European Integration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOn the 25th of March the European Union celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome by which the European Economic Community was established; the Netherlands being one of the founding members. Until this very day, albeit in revised form, this Treaty still constitutes the

  16. Recent Migrants and Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadan, Robert; Reid, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    European schools should improve their methods for teaching migrant students. The European Union has been making efforts to meet the needs of migrant students for some time. From the 2009 Eurydice report "Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe," which suggests measures to foster inclusion in the larger community and…

  17. The prevalence of known diabetes in eight European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, D.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Casteren, V. van

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has been proposed as a European Community Health Indicator. The prevalence of diabetes known to general practitioners (GPs) in different European countries has been investigated and the usefulness of sentinel practice networks in delivering prevalence data on diabetes has

  18. [AIDS prevention in European prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Harding, T W

    1995-01-01

    Informations on HIV/AIDS in prisons which include 32 prison-systems in 17 European countries have been collected. The principle of equivalence of preventive measures and health care between prisons and the outside community, prison authorities should strive to prevent HIV transmission in prisons. There have been major developments in effective prevention programmes in the community, there has been less progress within the prison-systems. Information on AIDS is provided to prisoners in almost all prison-systems. While condom distribution is practiced in a growing number of systems, no prison systems have adopted syringes/needle distribution or exchange during incarceration. A few system have accepted distribution of a disinfectant (diluted bleach) with instruction on cleaning injection materials. Despite clear recommendations made by international bodies in 1987/88, it must be concluded that discrimination and segregation (restriction from access to workshops, specially work in kitchens) remain widespread in 1992.

  19. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  20. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  1. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  2. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Judicial policy-making is having an increasing impact on political domains traditionally guarded by national sovereignty. This paper examines how the European judiciary has expanded Community competences into the policy domains of welfare and immigration, followed by subsequent Europeanization...... been cautious to apply the principle beyond economic law, it no longer treads as reluctantly, instead generally limiting the inner core of national policy control, i.e. the capacity of the national executive to detail, condition and administer national policies in almost all domains....

  3. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Prandini, A.; Filippi, L.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The SAFE FOODS project undertakes to design a new approach towards the early identification of emerging food safety hazards. This study explored the utility of notifications filed through RASFF, the European Commission¿s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, to identify emerging trends in food

  4. Work of the European Haemovigilance Network (EHN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jean-Claude

    2004-02-01

    Haemovigilance has become a crucial part of the blood safety concept. In the Member States of the European Union, national haemovigilance systems are already in place or are developing. With the coming into force of the European Blood Directive 2002/98/EC, Community haemovigilance has become a priority: cooperation between the national haemovigilance systems will be of vital interest. The process of collaboration has already been initiated some years ago by the European Haemovigilance Network (EHN) with the following objectives: to favour the exchange of valid information between its members, to increase rapid alert/early warning between the members, to encourage joint activities between the members and to undertake educational activities relating to haemovigilance. This has been achieved by the EHN by developing and maintaining a website [http://www.ehn-org.net], by establishing a system for rapid alert and early warning (RAS), by discussing on all kinds of definitions relevant to haemovigilance, initiating standardisation of processes and forms (developing a common "mother matrix"), by starting with the compilation and analysis of European data (generated by the national haemovigilance systems in Europe) and by organising annual European Haemovigilance Seminars, where all these items are discussed. As in the past, the EHN will continue in the future to play a major role in promoting European haemovigilance.

  5. Theorising European Integration: revisiting neo-functionalism and testing its suitability for explaining the development of EC competition policy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGowan, Lee

    2007-01-01

    When Ernst B. Haas presented neofunctionalism (NF) as the first theory of European integration in the late 1950s in his analysis of the European Coal and Steel Community his approach seemed both highly innovative and plausible...

  6. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  7. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  8. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  9. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  10. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  11. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  12. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  13. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  14. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  15. Towards an international health market with the European Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the process through which a European healthcare dimension has been established and which has gradually extended the rights of European patients to cross-border healthcare. The integrative course has been charted by the legal activism of the European Court of Justice, whereas...... by national authorities can be challenged. Through the indeterminacy of European rules, open to continuous contestation and clarification, healthcare institutionalisation has proceeded and the European Union has extended into the core of the welfare state....... evolution of Community law has increasingly challenged the national instrument to retain health supply within own borders. Furthermore, the position of the European patient has been empowered by new individual rights, emanating from a supranational locus of rights against which the discretion exerted...

  16. NO RUMO DA "COMUNITARIZAÇÃO" DA SEGURANÇA E DEFESA DA UNIÃO EUROPEIA MEDIANTE A COOPERAÇÃO ESTRUTURADA PERMANENTE? HEADING FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE "COMMUNITY METHOD" TO SECURITY AND DEFENCE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION BY MEANS OF PERMANENT STRUCTURED COOPERATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABEL LAUREANO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Tratado de Lisboa (na linha do malogrado Tratado Constitucional veio, como término de várias iniciativas entretanto ocorridas, prever o mecanismo da cooperação estruturada permanente. Procura-se, com esse mecanismo, viabilizar o advento duma vanguarda de Estados-Membros, eventualmente apta a formar o embrião dum futuro sistema autóctone de defesa da União Europeia. A cooperação estruturada permanente representa um passo no sentido da "comunitarização" da segurança e defesa da União Europeia, quedando-se contudo indiscutivelmente apartada do arquétipo comunitário. Só o futuro mostrará se a cooperação estruturada permanente poderá vir a dotar a União Europeia com uma política de segurança e defesa assente no "método comunitário".Abstract: The Treaty of Lisbon, in line with the failed Constitutional Treaty and in the sequence of several initiatives which had taken place, came to provide for the mechanism of permanent structured cooperation. The goal of this mechanism is to enable the arising of a vanguard of Member States, eventually ready to form the embryo of a future European Union's exclusive defence system. Although permanent structured cooperation represents a step towards the application of the "community method" to security and defence of the European Union, it doesn't still fit in that pattern. Only future can tell, if permanent structured cooperation is likely to provide the European Union with a security and defence policy based on the "community method".

  17. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CIVIL SOCIETY DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PLATFORM OF EUROPEAN NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUTAY, RIZA ACAR

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation engages in a critical analysis of the involvement of the Brussels- based European NGOs in European governance. It conducts a survey on the European Commission’s relevant initiatives after the 1990s and interrogates the implications of these initiatives on one of the prominent...... European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... in Europe. With respect to this goal, it has encouraged the Social Platform to act like its interlocutor vis-à-vis the NGO community organised both at national and European level. Deriving from the Foucaultian concept of governmentality, I inquiry into the effects of this discourse on the Social Platform...

  18. Activities of the European Commission on safe transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerwen, I. van [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General of Energy, Brussels (Commission of the European Communities (CEC))

    1997-12-31

    The current situation relating to the transport of radioactive material within the European Community is described with emphasis on the effect of the European Single Market. The topics covered include: recent developments in Community legislation with respect to radiation protection basic safety standards, shipment of waste and radioactive substances, and the transport of dangerous goods; the contribution of the European Commission to the continuous revision process of the IAEA transport regulations; the public perception of the transport of radioactive materials. (UK).

  19. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of European unity dates back to antiquity, the time when the Roman Empire alsopursued such a goal. Attempts to unify European countries have appeared constantly in history, but theirsuccessful culmination crystallized only after the Second World War.Basically, the two wars have led to the downfall of Europe and the loss of its centenary political andmilitary position. The experience of these wars has led the states to initiate a defense mechanism of peace,security and international cooperation - resulted in creating an organization of universal jurisdiction -TheLeague of Nations. However, the successor of this organization, The United Nations - was one thatmanaged thorough its collective security system represented by the Security Council, to ensure andmaintain universal / global peace until now (Stelian Scăunaş, 2005.The creation of the European Union is based on four founding treaties: The Treaty establishingThe European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC - adopted in Paris on April 18, 1951, entered into forcein 1952 - treaty concluded for a period of 50 years and that has terminated in 2002, The Treatyestablishing the European Economic Community (EEC, The Treaty establishing the European AtomicEnergy Community (EAEC or EURATOM, both signed in Rome on March 25, 1947 and entered into forcein 1958 as the Treaties of Rome, and The Treaty on the European Union, which was adopted at Maastrichton 7th of February 1992 and entered into force in 1993. To these institution treaties we can add themodifying treaties of the founding treaties, including: The Merger Treaty - adopted in Brussels on 8 April1965, entered into force in 1967; The Single European Act - signed in Luxembourg and Hague in 1986,entered into force in 1987; The Amsterdam Treaty - signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force in 1999,The Treaty of Nice - signed on February 26, 2001, entered into force in 2003, The Lisbon Treaty signed in2007 and entered into force on December 1st

  20. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  1. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  3. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  4. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  5. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  6. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  7. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  8. Is European Union at the Heart of Citizens' Identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUŞAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The departure point of many discussions on European identity is the idea that a political community needs a common set of values and references to ensure its coherence, to guide his actions and to endow these with legitimacy and meaning. The motto “unity in diversity” is generally seen as best describing the aims of the European Union; opinions differ widely as to ho understood. That is why we will try to identify those values which brought the European countries together almost 60 years ago. And we will continue to see, based on the Eurobarometers results, which are the European citizens’ values and what European Union represents for them, in terms of values. For that we will put together the items obtained in the last five years and we will see in the end to which value European Union should pay more attention in the future. Even the surveys show that European Union citizens continue to identify first of all with their own countries and we consider it important to find an answer to the following question: Is European Union a community of shared values?

  9. The European perspective for LSST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangler, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    LSST is a next generation telescope that will produce an unprecedented data flow. The project goal is to deliver data products such as images and catalogs thus enabling scientific analysis for a wide community of users. As a large scale survey, LSST data will be complementary with other facilities in a wide range of scientific domains, including data from ESA or ESO. European countries have invested in LSST since 2007, in the construction of the camera as well as in the computing effort. This latter will be instrumental in designing the next step: how to distribute LSST data to Europe. Astroinformatics challenges for LSST indeed includes not only the analysis of LSST big data, but also the practical efficiency of the data access.

  10. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  11. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  12. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  13. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  14. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  15. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  16. The European Nuclear Education Network Association - ENEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, D. [Institut des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, CEA - Centre de Saclay, Bat. 395, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The temporary network, established through the European 5. Framework Programme project ENEN, was given a more permanent character by the foundation of the European Nuclear Education Network Association, a non-profit-making association according to the French law of 1901, pursuing a pedagogic and scientific aim. Its main objective is the preservation and the further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective is realized through the co-operation between the European universities, involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, the nuclear research centres and the nuclear industry. The membership of the ENEN Association now consists of 35 universities members and 6 research centres. The paper briefly describes the history and structure of the ENEN Association and elaborates on the objectives and activities of its five committees during its first two years of operation. Supported by the 5. and 6. Framework Programme of the European Community, the ENEN Association established the delivery of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering certificate. In particular, education and training courses have been developed and offered to materialize the core curricula and optional fields of study in a European exchange structure. Pilot editions of those courses and try-outs of training programmes have been successfully organised with a satisfying interest, attendance and performance by the students and the support of nuclear industries and international organisations. The involvement of ENEN in the 6. EC Framework project EUROTRANS will further enlarge its field of activities into a realm of nuclear disciplines. The ENEN Association further contributes to the management of nuclear knowledge within the European Union as well as on a world-wide level, through contacts with its sister Network ANENT in Asia, and by its participation to activities of the World Nuclear University. (author)

  17. ENLIGHT: The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Manjit; Cirilli, Manuela; Greco, Virginia; Meijer, Annelie E

    2012-11-01

    The European Network for Light Ion Hadron Therapy (ENLIGHT) was established in 2002 to coordinate European efforts on hadron therapy (radiotherapy performed with protons and light ions instead of high-energy photons). The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European Hadron Therapy Community, with more than 300 participants from 20 different countries. A major success of ENLIGHT has been uniting traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists, and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy work together. ENLIGHT has been a successful initiative in forming a common European platform and bringing together people from diverse disciplines. ENLIGHT demonstrates the advantages of regular and organized exchanges of data, information, and best practices, as well as determining and following strategies for future needs in research and technological development in the hadron therapy field.

  18. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1989-10-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 89-09 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 89-09, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Computer Science, Condensed-Matter Physics, Materials Science, Mathematics, Physics, Psychology, and Solid-State Physics. It is not intended to be part of the scientific literature. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aero space Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardization Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  19. ESN information bulletin. European science notes information bulletin reports on current European/Middle eastern science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorf, C.R.

    1990-06-01

    The European Science Notes Information Bulletin (ESNIB) 90-05 is a compilation of reports on recent developments in European science of specific interest to the U.S. research and development community, and is issued in support of the mission of the Office of Naval Research European Office. Issue Number 90-05, in addition to European area news, notes, and abstracts, contains reports in the fields of Acoustics, Atmospheric Electricity, Computer Science, Electronics, and Physics. The value of the ESNIB to Americans is to call attention to current activity in European science and technology and to identify the institutions and people responsible for these efforts. The ESNIB authors are primarily ONREUR staff members; other reports are prepared by or in cooperation with staff members of the USAF European Office of Aerospace Research and Development or the U.S. Army Research, Development and Standardination Group. Scientists from the U.S. who are traveling in Europe may also be invited to submit reports.

  20. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  1. Fauna Europaea - all European animal species on the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Yde; Verbeek, Melina; Michelsen, Verner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea is Europe's main zoological taxonomic index, making the scientific names and distributions of all living, currently known, multicellular, European land and freshwater animals species integrally available in one authoritative database. Fauna Europaea covers about 260...... and provides a unique taxonomic reference for many user-groups such as scientists, governments, industries, nature conservation communities and educational programs. Fauna Europaea was formally accepted as an INSPIRE standard for Europe, as part of the European Taxonomic Backbone established in PESI. Fauna...

  2. European Policies for the Stimulation of Development of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi (Pop R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s small and medium-sized enterprises are the engine of the European economy and the main drivers for achieving sustainable growth and more and better jobs. At EU level, the European Commission has developed a comprehensive SME policy, which aims to ensure that Community policies and actions are small-business friendly and contribute to making Europe a more attractive place for setting up a company and doing business.

  3. Protecting animals and enabling research in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Pinto da Silva, Sandra; Townend, David

    2016-01-01

    In 1986, European Directive 86/609/EEC, regulating the use of animals in research, was one of the first examples of common legislation to set standards for animal protection across the Member States of the former European Economic Community, now the European Union, with the aim of securing a level...... European playing field. Starting in 2002, a process of revising European animal experimentation legislation was undertaken, with one of its key aims being to ensure high standards of welfare for laboratory animals across Europe. This resulted in Directive 2010/63/EU, which has regulated this activity...... objectives of the directive, particularly with a focus on securing the same high standards of animal protection across member countries. The analysis focuses on three separate issues: (1) minimum standards for laboratory animal housing and care, (2) restrictions on the use of certain animal species, and (3...

  4. The European Nuclear Science network touches base at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ENSAR (European Nuclear Science and Applications Research) is an EU-supported project, which aims at fostering cooperation within the European low-energy nuclear physics community through the active sharing of expertise and best practices. The project also includes a transnational access programme to allow a large community of users to access the participating facilities, which include CERN’s ISOLDE. In the last week of April, CERN hosted the General Assembly and Programme Coordination Committee meetings, about 18 months after the project’s kick-off.   Participants in the ENSAR project. ENSAR involves 30 partner institutes, which include the seven large nuclear physics facilities in Europe. A large part of the European nuclear physics community is represented in ENSAR, in particular scientists who are performing research related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and applications of nuclear science. In 2010, the project was awarded 8 million euros from the Europe...

  5. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  6. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  7. European Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  8. The European seismological waveform framework EIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Luca; Koymans, Mathijs; Quinteros, Javier; Heinloo, Andres; Euchner, Fabian; Strollo, Angelo; Sleeman, Reinoud; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin; Pinar, Ali; Evangelidis, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The ORFEUS1 European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA2) federates (currently) 11 major European seismological data centres into a common organisational and operational framework which offers: (a) transparent and uniform access tools, advanced services and products for seismological waveform data; (b) a platform for establishing common policies for the curation of seismological waveform data and the description of waveform data by standardised quality metrics; (c) proper attribution and citation (e.g. data ownership). After its establishment in 2013, EIDA has been collecting and distributing seamlessly large amounts of seismological data and products to the research community and beyond. A major task of EIDA is the on-going improvement of the services, tools and products portfolio in order to meet the increasingly demanding users' requirements. At present EIDA is entering a new operational phase and will become the reference infrastructure for seismological waveform data in the pan-European infrastructure for solid-Earth science: EPOS (European Plate Observing System)3. The EIDA Next Generation developments, initiated within the H2020 project EPOS-IP, will provide a new infrastructure that will support the seismological and multidisciplinary EPOS community facilitating interoperability in a broader context. EIDA NG comprises a number of new services and products e.g.: Routing Service, Authentication Service, WFCatalog, Mediator, Station Book and more in the near future. In this contribution we present the current status of the EIDA NG developments and provide an overview of the usage of the new services and their impact on the user community. 1 www.orfeus-eu.org/ 2 www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html 3 www.epos-ip.org

  9. Working towards a European Geological Data Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Rob; Hughes, Richard; Pedersen, Mikael; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Lee, Kathryn A.; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, François

    2013-04-01

    The increasing importance of geological information for policy, regulation and business needs at European and international level has been recognized by the European Parliament and the European Commission, who have called for the development of a common European geological knowledge base. The societal relevance of geoscience data/information is clear from many current issues such as shale gas exploration (including environmental impacts), the availability of critical mineral resources in a global economy, management and security with regard to geohazards (seismic, droughts, floods, ground stability), quality of (ground-)water and soil and societal responses to the impacts of climate change. The EGDI-Scope project responds to this, aiming to prepare an implementation plan for a pan-European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI), under the umbrella of the FP7 e- Infrastructures program. It is envisaged that the EGDI will build on geological datasets and models currently held by the European Geological Surveys at national and regional levels, and will also provide a platform for datasets generated by the large number of relevant past, ongoing and future European projects which have geological components. With European policy makers and decision makers from (international) industry as the main target groups (followed by research communities and the general public) stakeholder involvement is imperative to the successful realization and continuity of the EGDI. With these ambitions in mind, the presentation will focus on the following issues, also based on the first results and experiences of the EGDI-Scope project that started mid-2012: • The organization of stakeholder input and commitment connected to relevant 'use cases' within different thematic domains; a number of stakeholder representatives is currently involved, but the project is open to more extensive participation; • A large number of European projects relevant for data delivery to EGDI has been reviewed

  10. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  11. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  12. Ureteroscopy in a community hospital compared to published data of SWL between 1997 and 2003 and the guidelines of the American Urological Association/European Association of Urology and the guidelines of the German Association of Urology

    OpenAIRE

    Benken, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective study was to compare the results of a primary ureteroscopy (URS) in patients with flank pain and ureteral calculi of a community hospital and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). 535 patients between 1997 and 2003 have been evaluated and matched to published results of SWL of these era and the AUA/ EAU (2007) guidelines and the guidelines of the German Association of Urology (2009). The overall stone free rate after 3 month has been slightly better in the SWL...

  13. ENVRIplus - European collaborative development of environmental infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, A.; Brus, M.; Kutsch, W. L.; Laj, P.

    2016-12-01

    European Research Infrastructures (RI) are built using ESFRI process, which dictates the steps towards a common European RIs. Building each RI separately creates unnessary barriers towards service users (e.g. on differing standards) and is not effiicient in e.g. e-science tool or data system development. To answer these inter-RI issues, the European Commission has funded several large scale cluster projectsto bring these RIs together already in planning and development phases to develop common tools, standards and methodologies, as well as learn from the exisiting systems. ENVRIplus is the cluster project for the environmental RIs in Europe, and provides platform for common development and sharing within the RI community. The project is organized around different themes, each having several workpackages with specific tasks. Major themesof the ENVRIplus are: Technical innovation, including tasks such as RI technology transfer, new observation techniques, autonomous operation, etc.; Data for science, with tasks such as RI reference model development, data discovery and citation, data publication, processing, etc.; Access to RIs, with specific tasks on interdicplinary and transnational access to RI services, and common access governance; Societal relevance and understanding, tackling on ethical issues on RI operations and understanding on human-environmental system and citizen science approaches, among others; Knowledge transfer, particularly between the RIs, and with developing RI organizations, organizing training and staff exchange; and Communication and dissemination, working towards a common environmental RI community (ENVRI community platform), and creating an own advisory RI discussion board (BEERi), and disseminating the ENVRIplus products globally. Importantly, all ENVRIplus results are open to any users from any country. Also, collaboration with international RIs and user communities are crucial to the success of the ENVRI initiatives. Overall goal is to do

  14. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  15. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  16. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  17. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  18. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  19. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...

  20. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  1. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  2. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  3. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  4. Experiences of technology-rich innovation in European schools within the Open Discovery Space project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia PEINADO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Open Discovery Space (ODS project was conceived to introduce innovative resource-based teaching and learning practices in European schools, to promote the creation of communities between European school members and to boost the demand for open educational resources among teachers. After 3 years of applying the ODS innovation model, more than 2,000 European schools have carried out diverse experiences of technology-rich innovation to achieve the project aims. This paper describes the experiences and results of ODS in 7 different European countries, along with the international activities that aim at expanding the scope of the project beyond the European limits.

  5. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  6. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  7. Nutritional risk of European elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, C; Oliveira, B; Afonso, C; Lumbers, M; Raats, M; de Almeida, M D V

    2013-11-01

    The elderly constitute a population group with a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases and high risk of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated to nutritional risk in free-living European elderly. The sample included 644 European citizens, free living in the community, aged 65 years or more. The sample was quota controlled for age groups (65-74, ≥75 years), gender (male/female) and living circumstances (living alone/with others). Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with nutritional risk. Several variables regarding socio-demographic characteristics, food choice, health status and the satisfaction with food-related life were included in the analysis. According to the recoded score of the 'Determine your nutritional health' (NSI checklist), 53% of the elderly were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk was more likely to occur in elderly who considered that it was more important to choose foods 'easy to chew'; with lower average number of fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake episodes and lower score for general health. It was also found in non-married participants; those that did not identify changes in their appetite; and those that felt changes in health status. In this sample, the lowest nutritional risk was found for body mass index (BMI) around 18.5 kg/m(2). Country of residence, gender and age were not found to have a significant effect on nutritional risk. Attention should be drawn to the living circumstances, changes in appetite or health, the general heath perception, F&V intake, choice of foods easy to chew and having a low or high BMI.

  8. The Europeanization of the Romanian Society and the Tendential Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Schifirneț

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the tendential modernity as an explanatory factor of the particularities of the Europeanization of the Romanian society. I start from the thesis that the evolution of the Europeanization process in Romania is closely associated with the process of accession to the European Union, finalized after the passing through a sinuous and difficult route. The analysis of the Europeanization of the Romanian society pursues the stages of its formation in the local context. Due to the fact thatRomaniawill still continue to be a society in transition, the most critical and relevant problem regards the dependency of the Romanian society on the strong societies inEurope. Under these circumstances, the question is, whetherRomaniawill represent a periphery ofEurope, or a national community with a European standard of development. Europeanization in its real sense does not mean “westernization”. Through the adherence to the European Union, Romanian society has the chance to put an end to the successive transitions known over its modern history, generators of tendential modernity. The Europeanization constitutes the fundamental purpose of the modernization processes of the Romanian society.

  9. The Europeanness of European cinema: Identity, meaning, globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    According to its editors, the aim of The Europeanness of European cinema is ‘to revisit the issue of the significance of European cinema as a category in the wake of the recent acceleration in transnational filmmaking and globalization as a whole’ (p. 7). Taking the transnational prominence of European cinema as a starting point, the anthology’s introduction presents some brief reflections about what ‘Europeanness’ – the central, overarching concept for the various chapters – has meant histor...

  10. European Science Notes Information Bulletin Reports on Current European/ Middle Eastern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    ceramics for MHD sys- tent 119. Osservatorio Astrofisico Citta Universitaria 124. Commission of the European Communities (CEC) 95125 Catania Joint Research...Instituto de Acustica (CSIC) above) Centro de Fisica Aplicada Studies: catalytic materials and their characteriza- Serrano, 144, Madrid tion, oil recovery...Universidade de Lisboa Karlsplatz 13 nvr Centro de Fisica Nuclear 1040 Vienna 4 Av. Prof. Gamma Pinto, 2 At stria 1699 Lisboa Codcx Dr. W. Langauer (N

  11. Management of plant communities on set-aside land and its effects on earthworm communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gormsen, D.; Hedlund, K.; Korthals, G.W.; Mortimer, S.R.; Pizl, V.; Smilauerova, M.; Sugg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Plant communities of set-aside agricultural land in a European project were managed in order to enhance plant succession towards weed-resistant, mid-successional grassland. Here, we ask if the management of a plant community affects the earthworm community. Field experiments were established in four

  12. European core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrini, G.; Binder, H.; Homberg, V.; Saltuari, L.; Tarkka, I.; Smania, N.; Corradini, C.; Giustini, A.; Katterer, C.; Picari, L.; Diserens, K.; Koenig, E.; Geurts, A.C.; Anghelescu, A.; Opara, J.; Tonin, P.; Kwakkel, G.; Golyk, V.; Onose, G.; Perennou, D.; Picelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, medical education lacks Europe-wide standards on neurorehabilitation. To address this, the European Federation of NeuroRehabilitation Societies (EFNR) here proposes a postgraduate neurorehabilitation training scheme. In particular, the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

  13. THE ALLOCATION OF EUROPEAN FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monica POP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the extent to which economic and social cohesion of the enlarged European Union in order to develop a harmonious, balanced and sustainable community has been achieved with the Funds, the European Investment Bank (EIB and other financial instruments and how Romania attracts or not such funds. We analyzed using the statistical data, the absorption and implementation of funds in Romania. Consequently, we present only the results. Conclusions outlined the reducing of the economic, social and territorial disparities which have arisen particularly in regions with developmental delays and in relation to economic and social reorganization. The most important benefits of funding (in general are the growth, the competitive advantage, the employment and improvement of the environment.

  14. European Strategy Preparatory Group - CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the European Strategy Preparatory Group (ESPG) welcomes submissions on issues related to the strategy from individual physicists, from groups of scientists representing a community (an experiment, a topic of theoretical research, etc.) as well as from Institutions and Organizations (funding agencies, ministries, etc).   These contributions will be discussed at the meetings of the Preparatory Group and during the Open Symposium to be held on 10-12 September 2012 in Cracow, and will be made available to the Strategy Group for drafting the Update of the Strategy. How to submit a contribution? Send your contribution on the scientific issues below using the form under http://indico.cern.ch/event/espg_input (preferably as an attached PDF file): - Accelerator Physics - Astroparticle Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology - Flavour Physics and Symmetries - Physics at High Energy Frontier - Physics of Neutrinos - Strong Interaction Physics...

  15. The Shoah within European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the Epilogue of Postwar, titled: From the House ofthe Dead: An essay on Modern European memory, Tony Judt concludes that: ‘those who would become full Europeans in the dawn of the twenty-first century must first assume a new and far more oppressive heritage. Today the pertinent European reference

  16. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...... availability. Alone the biogas energy potential projected in the scenario representing low substrate availability corresponds to a doubling of the European biogas production in 2015. The results shows that sustainable alternatives to the use of maize are present in all the member states of the EU28...

  17. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  18. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  19. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  20. Stature of early Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ancestors of modern Europeans arrived in Europe at least 40,000 years before present. Pre-glacial maximum Upper Palaeolithic males (before 16,000 BC) were tall and slim (mean height 179 cm, estimated average body weight 67 kg), while the females were comparably small and robust (mean height 158 cm, estimated average body weight 54 kg). Late Upper Palaeolithic males (8000-6600 BC) were of medium stature and robusticity (mean height 166 cm, estimated average body weight 62 kg). Stature further decreased to below 165 cm with estimated average body weight of 64 kg in Neolithic males of the Linear Band Pottery Culture, and to 150 cm with estimated average body weight of 49 kg in Neolithic females. The body stature of European males remained within the range of 165 to 170 cm up to the end of the 19th century.

  1. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  2. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  3. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  4. 007 PP: INCLUSIVE URBAN AND RURAL COMMUNITIES: THE BARTLETT FACULTY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT “COMMITMENT” ON THE CALL FOR COMMITMENTS OF EUROPEAN INNOVATION PARTNERSHIP (EIP) ON ACTIVE AND HEALTHY AGEING (AHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikou, E; Tziraki, C; Lekkos, P; Buhalis, D

    2017-01-01

    An environment incorporating, in its design principles, the knowledge of human physiology and perception and especially the physiology and perception of people across the lifespan, where multi-morbidities such as frailty and Alzheimer's might occur, is beneficial for all other aspects of care and everyday life and acts as their multiplier. This project is an innovative, experimental bottom up, multi-disciplinary, user-inclusive approach that has been created as part of the call of Commitment Actions of D4 action group, of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The aim is to create synergies between regions to identify areas of future research together with practical scalable solutions applicable to living labs/reference sites. It identifies new design paradigms, informed by end-users' opinions on the care and treatment of ageing populations and for sustaining healthy societies free of sources of structural stigma. This includes transfer of knowledge and upscaling for frailty and fall-prevention through design technologies and the integration of healthcare facilities via holistic approaches. Partners cover the whole spectrum of stakeholder involvement: academia, central government, local authorities, regulatory bodies, start-ups, end-users and user-representatives, and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). They are multi and cross-disciplinary, including architecture, planning, IT technologies, transportation, healthcare, psychiatry, art-therapy, business administration, medical tourism and care provision. They collaborate in creating informal networks of partnerships on understanding the potential of innovation buildings, advance the state of the art through experimental and interpretative frameworks, advance the potential for scaling up and investment in successful solutions to collect, share, and disseminate promising practices to contribute to the silver economy.

  5. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  6. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  7. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rig...

  8. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  9. Problems And Prospects Of The European Regional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Dymova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last few decades, the system of international relations continues to change. One of the key components of the emerging international order is the European regional order, which currently goes through deep transformations associated with changes of the international system and structural reconstruction of the European communities. The formation of the European regional system is a complex international political process, which is based on various political, social, economic, cultural, historical and other factors. Since the end of the World war II the European Union constitutes a political and institutional basis of relations both between member states and with the rest of the world. However, today the European Union runs through a systemic crisis embodied by ongoing economic and financial downturn as well as a crisis of socio-political structures and models of governance that now threaten the existence of the Union itself. Institutional problems are aggravated against the background of crises in highly sensitive areas such as economy and security, as well as uncertainties in the external international environment. All these factors undermine the ability of the EU to play a decisive role in building a European regional order. The emphasis is shifting towards particular countries, with the greater potential in shaping the international agenda and giving an effective response to modern challenges and threats. Building a stable architecture of the European security system is one of the essential conditions of the European regional order, however contradicting approaches of the parties acknowledge that political and ideological barriers between the East and the West continue to exist. In the context of increasing security threats transatlantic partnership does not lose the relevance though the tough course of the US and its desire to reinforce its leadership in Europe often meets the extreme disapproval on the part of the Europeans. Russian

  10. Creation of a European network dedicated to technology transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Council recently approved the creation of a technology transfer network, whose aim will be to improve European industry’s access to the technologies developed by the particle physics community in the Member States. The gas detectors for the TOTEM experiment (GEM) offer potential for fruitful collaboration within the framework of the TT network. Many other technologies are going down the same road.The desire to set up a technology transfer network follows on from the European Strategy for Particle Physics, approved by the CERN Council on 14 July 2006 in Lisbon. In this context, special emphasis was laid on European industry’s participation in the implementation of particle physics programmes and, in particular, its access to the new technologies developed by the scientific community. It was recognised that effort needs to be put into improving the efficiency of technology transfer...

  11. The need for European OneHealth/EcoHealth networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Flandroy, Lucette; Thys, Séverine; De Regge, Nick; Mori, Marcella; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Rebolledo, Javiera; Van Gucht, Steven; Deblauwe, Isra; Hiemstra, Wim; Häsler, Barbara; Binot, Aurélie; Savic, Sara; Ruegg, Simon R; De Vries, Sjerp; Garnier, Julie; van den Berg, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Elaborating from the European One Health/Ecohealth (OH/EH) workshop that took place in fall 2016 and aimed to bring together different communities and explore collaborative potential, the creation of European networks focusing on the development of important OH/EH perspectives was a direct output from discussions at the end of some sessions, in particular: - A network on transdisciplinary One Health education. - A network integrating inputs from social sciences in One Health/EcoHealth actions and networks. - A network aiming at translating research findings on the Environment-Microbiome-Health axis into policy making, with a view to make healthy ecosystems a cost-effective disease prevention healthcare strategy. It was also suggested that a European Community of Practice could be initiated in order to support these several concrete networking initiatives, and to help to promote the building of other emerging initiatives.

  12. How Do European Pharmacy Students Rank Competences for Practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Hočevar, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    European students (n = 370), academics (n = 241) and community pharmacists (n = 258) ranked 13 clusters of 68 personal and patient care competences for pharmacy practice. The results show that ranking profiles for all three groups as a rule were similar. This was especially true of the comparison

  13. European Attitude to the Disposal of Wastewater in the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, R.; Neves, M. J. V.

    1998-01-01

    A network of European organisations with interest in the utilisation of long sea outfalls as an integral element in the sewerage of coastal communities has recently been established. The central aim is to provide a focus both for the adoption of best practices and the identification of outstandin...

  14. European initiative on cdio in raw material programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelbro, Catrin; Hulthén, Erik; Clausen, Elisabeth; Tanner, David; Herrera Herbert, Juan; Jonsson, Kristina; Bealieu, Stephan; Kamp, A.; Försth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on

  15. European Managers' Interpretations of Participation: A Semantic Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Explores cultural variations in managers' interpretations of a key communicative process: worker participation. Finds that semantic patterns derived from structural analyses indicate cultural differences in meanings managers from five European Community nations attach to the term "participation." Supports two of G. Hofstede's dimensions…

  16. History, Memory, and Trans-European Identity: Unifying Divisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, A.

    2014-01-01

    This book questions the presupposition voiced by many historians and political scientists that political experiences in Europe continue to be interpreted in terms of national history, and that a European community of remembrance still does not exist. By tracing the evolution of specific memory

  17. The Creation of the European Social Work Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian J.; Sharland, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    As the social work profession matures, the need for robust knowledge becomes more pressing. Greater coordination is required to develop the research community and an infrastructure to support this nationally and internationally. This article discusses the foundation, in 2014, of the European Social Work Research Association and its roots in the…

  18. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water supply rather than general supply, and has been developed by studying the supranational standard, i.e. the European Community Standard. Three classification schemes for water quality are proposed for surface water quality assessment. Water quality determinants of the new index are cadmium, cyanide, mercury, ...

  19. Mitterrand and the Great European Design—From the Cold War to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available François Mitterrand had a leading role in directing the course for the European integration process. While he orchestrated the economic integration of Europe, he remained deeply opposed to further political integration within the Communities. This article researches Mitterrand’s rationale for his clear focus on economic affairs and develops his vision for the institutional setting of the European Union (EU. The focus of the article is allocated to four different perspectives that reflect the four pillars of Mitterrand’s European policy: the common currency, the establishment of a closely integrated and small Western European based EU, the development of the Social Europe and of a free trade area between Europe and Africa. It is argued that although EU institutions have been established based on Mitterrand’s design, today’s reality deviates from the conditions on which his plan was based. For Mitterrand, the ideal EU involved a deep-rooted Western Europe with France at its core and a loose association with Central and Eastern Europe. His perception resembles the current discussions of multi-speed Europe and the determination of France and Germany to proceed to the next stage of the integration process. Importantly, Mitterrand’s print can still be recognised in the EU’s social policy included in the treaties, yet still far from being implemented. Notably, like all of the French Presidents, Mitterrand developed a design for Africa in which an extensive free trade area between Europe and former French colonies were to be established. In this proposal, Germany was to be assigned the part of the economic engine behind the actualisation of the proposal, while France was to carry out the role of a required middle man of the transactions. To further assure France’s political predominance over the Communities, Mitterrand designed a common currency for a small number of homogenous Western-European states.

  20. Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Martens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

  1. An overview of European good practices in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada POPESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement has always been a major source of corruption in Europe, as acknowledged by national and European officials, by NGOs and by representatives of civil society. Too often, public procurement serves the personal interests of corrupt officials rather than the best interest of the community. During the last decade, anti-corruption efforts have increasingly focused on public procurement corruption. Most European countries, including European Union members, have tried to eliminate public procurement corruption by implementing new legal rules to ensure compliance with public procurement standards and by prosecuting offenders. After surveying a variety of good practices for eliminating corruption in public procurement in Europe, this paper concludes that the new rules have produced mixed results, with the most unfavourable outcomes occurring in Central and Eastern European countries where public procurement corruption is more virulent than elsewhere in Europe.

  2. The Virtual Enterprise – Citizen of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Davidescu (Vasile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Enterprise is a rather young and unclear concept in the business world. A virtual enterprise is a temporary network of companies that share their different resources in order to reach a given goal (the creation of a new product, or the entry on a new market and is a powerful tool in the hands of the business community. The question this article raises is whether European Union's businesses are able to take advantage of this opportunity within the European Union. We discuss several obstacles towards the creation of virtual enterprises: regulatory uncertainties, operational management that dismisses the advantage of an excellent infrastructure, the orientation of innovation creators towards theoretical research and the European business culture. The article also looks at research on the virtual enterprise in the European Union, the legal framework and technologies for virtualization.

  3. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    While the information systems (IS) community is increasingly international, it is reasonable to expect that different regions might display different research approaches, interests and publication orientations. This paper contributes to the growing number of historical accounts in the IS field...... by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...

  4. On the Reliability of Retrospective Unemployment Information in European Household Panel Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Wilke, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The retrospectively recalled calendar of activities in the European Community Household Panel is a prime resource for cross-country analysis of unemployment experience. We investigate the reliability of these data and find that 26 % of unemployed respondents misreported retrospectively...

  5. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyes, K.M.; Susser, E.S.; Pilowsky, D.J.; Hamilton, A.; Bitfoi, A.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in

  6. 1994 expected to be year of decision for European Super Collider.

    CERN Document Server

    Sweet, William N

    1994-01-01

    Plans to build Europe's counterpart to the US' Superconducting Super Collider, the Large Hadron Collider, may push through when the CERN Council meets on Apr 15, 1994. The European scientific community is optimistic that the plan will be approved.

  7. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  8. A Telematics Learning Environment on the European Parliament: The ParlEuNet System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiori, Alberto; Best, Clive; Loekkemyhr, Per; van Gulik, Dirk-Willem

    The ParlEuNet (European Parliament Network) under development at the Joint Research Center of the European Communities is a Web-based information system that will provide a multimedia educational platform for 10 secondary schools across Europe. Schools, teachers and pupils will use the system to teach, learn about, and prepare collaborative…

  9. The Richer, the Happier? An Empirical Investigation in Selected European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghieri, Chiara; Desantis, Gustavo; Tanturri, Maria Letizia

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between subjective and objective measures of well-being in selected European countries using the data of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). In the first part of the paper, we develop a random-effect ordered probit model, separately for each country, relating the subjective measure of income…

  10. Socio-economic segregation in European capital cities: East meets West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly

  11. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed.

  12. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  13. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  14. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    of discussions about intersectionality, the article investigates ENAR´s attention and ability to integrate questions of e.g. gender, sexuality or age in their policy input, given the potentially rigid compartmentalisation of discrimination strands within the European Commission´s system of civil society...... consultations. The article therefore overall aims to assess ENAR´s position as potentially hemmed in between 1) the Commission vs. member organisations’ expectations for its focus and modus operandi and 2) attention to intersectional discrimination vs. potential compartmentalisation within the Commission...

  15. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  16. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  17. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  18. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... them an excellent tool for studying and measuring policy change in the EU. In this article, I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data for the main categories of expenditure and how they have changed over the last three decades (1979–2013). Using time-series analysis, I find that the ability...

  19. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional......Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...

  20. Europeanness: A Path To Unity Within The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki Ryszard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The postwar experience has shown that the implanting of European consciousness, or Europeanness, calls for coordinated efforts among the European institutions, national states, and NGOs. Such consciousness, a key pillar of the European integration, is necessary for the EU to effectively function and motivate member states’ − also the EU’s − citizens. And yet European institutions and EU governments show little interest in promoting the formation of this European consciousness. Pro-European social movements are weak, while anti- European ones gain strength. This désintéressement of the EU countries probably results from the conviction that the goal has been reached and that there is no more need for a widespread pro-European education of their societies. However analysis of the problem, and in particular of the interaction between European and national identities, shows that this is not the case. We fear that this lack of proactive measures mobilizing EU citizens to keep on struggling for a common Europe will lead to the erosion of existing achievements of integration within the EU, and undermine European values. It may threaten the future of the EU, which is not an ordinary integration grouping but a great peaceful, civilizational, social and economic project. Our hypothesis − positively verified in this article − is that the promotion of Europeanness in the EU societies is urgently needed to maintain the unity (and even membership of the Union, and to avert trends unfavorable for all of Europe and therefore for the West as a whole.

  1. Winston Churchill And The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.

  2. European grid services for global earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, S.; Sipos, G.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the distributed computing services that the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) offers to the Earth Sciences community and also explain the processes whereby Earth Science users can engage with the infrastructure. One of the main overarching goals for EGI over the coming year is to diversify its user-base. EGI therefore - through the National Grid Initiatives (NGIs) that provide the bulk of resources that make up the infrastructure - offers a number of routes whereby users, either individually or as communities, can make use of its services. At one level there are two approaches to working with EGI: either users can make use of existing resources and contribute to their evolution and configuration; or alternatively they can work with EGI, and hence the NGIs, to incorporate their own resources into the infrastructure to take advantage of EGI's monitoring, networking and managing services. Adopting this approach does not imply a loss of ownership of the resources. Both of these approaches are entirely applicable to the Earth Sciences community. The former because researchers within this field have been involved with EGI (and previously EGEE) as a Heavy User Community and the latter because they have very specific needs, such as incorporating HPC services into their workflows, and these will require multi-skilled interventions to fully provide such services. In addition to the technical support services that EGI has been offering for the last year or so - the applications database, the training marketplace and the Virtual Organisation services - there now exists a dynamic short-term project framework that can be utilised to establish and operate services for Earth Science users. During this talk we will present a summary of various on-going projects that will be of interest to Earth Science users with the intention that suggestions for future projects will emerge from the subsequent discussions: • The Federated Cloud Task

  3. VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN EUROPEAN BEECH FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FISCHER

    1997-01-01

    growing acid-indicators. Soil acidification, although taking place, is therefore often not reflected in changes in the vegetation cover. Up to now, syntaxonomic changes are usually restricted to the levels below the association. Additionally some proportion of (beech forest stands are presently changing since the regeneration following the abandonment of degrading land use practices has not yet been completed. As a consequence of changing climatic conditions (CO2-content, air temperature, precipitation, storms it is expected that European beech forests will change in the future. However, details of the floristic structure of future beech forest communities can not be predicted. Nevertheless, according to present knowledge, beech forests will remain the most important natural forests in Europe during the next century.

  4. VALUES OF THE EUROPEAN FINANCIAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICU DURET

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the perspective of the European financial space which should allow the professional intermediaries – the credit establishments, the insurance companies or investment services, to propose their services to the entire community of customers. Actually, here are considered the traditional banking services, such as those that provide insurance, especially those relating to life insurance.The access to regulated markets, it takes place in the perspective of this financial space, especially after coming into circulation of Euro coin. It should be insight, that the access to these markets, often requires the using of intermediaries. We can not speak about the existence of the financial space, without the freedom of action of these professional intermediaries. Concerning the freedom of these services, we can say that they depend on the movement of capital, and the movement capital is engaged since the directive of May 11, 1966, and subsequently is required after the June 24, 1988 and was confirmed by the Maastricht Treaty. Thus, we can discuss about the liberty of movement of capital, through angle the coordination of national legislation in matters of banks, the insurance and the investment services through a significant number of directives adopted. Nowadays, the European financial space is overtake, the EU borders and the internationalization of operations is require the extensive possible legal framework of application, also all the directives issued in matters of banks and insurance are covered by Annex VIII of the Agreement on the European Financial Space. The agreement also provides the interdictions of restrictions or discrimination concerning the movements of capital. As a consequence, the study is approach both to aspects concerning the European financial space and the interdictictions of restrictions or discrimination concerning the movements of capital.

  5. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  6. Investment and Employment - Drivers of European Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and related specialty practice, the development of the European Economic Community along with the factors determining them (such investments and staff represents a topic that is of great notoriety. This paper shows the role and influence that direct investment in the economy and employment ratio can propagate in the growth of gross domestic product per capita to ensure increased economic sustainability of countries in the European Community. The most important economic effects of FDI on the host economy can be represented by labor productivity growth through knowledge transfer (know-how technology, management skills and marketing term in countries emerging favor progress technological and economic growth. To determine this goal, in the context of economic logic, this research shows the importance of gross domestic product, total and per capita, as a macroeconomic indicator synthetic, and encouraging and using the action of factors that can also provide political steps, organizational and financial, achieving levels attesting social progress and prosperity. The study highlights a Custom Analysis on gross domestic product per capita, direct investment and the proportion of people employed in total for 24 European Union countries in 2014 and also develop an econometric model multifactorial based on system statistics. Research shows utility in making decisions about investment growth in the European Community by attracting a workforce that is in full compliance with state investment policies and by providing a high living standard.

  7. Sustainable mining in the European Union: the legislative aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hámor, Tamás

    2004-02-01

    This paper is a review of the community legislation of the European Union ("acquis communautaire") with regard to the mineral extractive industry. It highlights the existing inconsistencies of the acquis, which require correction. Historically, the mining industry has received privileged treatment within the European Community. The treaties declare the promotion of a policy of using natural resources prudently and rationally to avoid their unconsidered exhaustion. However, mining is excluded from the scope of major environmental directives or reserves a certain freedom for interpretation. This has led to an increasing number of related cases at the European Court of Justice. The regulatory tools of the environmental acquis are rather diverse in controlling the emission sources, the pollution pathways, and the impacted receptor media through administrative measures or assigning environmental quality targets. A combined approach is needed for controlling the environmental impacts of the extractive industries. The amendment of the Seveso II Directive, the elaboration of a reference document on best available techniques and the preparation of a widescope directive on mining waste management might provide a frame for the elimination of the above discrepancies. In addition, a coherent European Community policy based on the balanced consideration of economic, environmental, and social aspects could ensure a sustainable development of the mining industry.

  8. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms o...

  9. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  10. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  11. Electronic signatures and their specificity in national and European regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MATEFI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize the particularities of the electronic signature by reference to the national as well as to the European legislation, trying to point out its utility in the business environment as well as the controversies in this matter. The starting point of this analysis was the Directive 1999/93/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 1999 on a Community framework for electronic signatures, which establishes the legal framework for electronic signatures and the recognition of certification-service providers. Its main aim was to ease its use and help it become legally recognized within all EU countries.

  12. Towards the European strategy for particle physics: The briefing book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, T. [Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Aleksan, R. [CPPM/IN2P3-CNRS and DAPNIA/CEA, Marseille (France); Allanach, B.; Webber, B. [Cambridge University and DAMTP, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bertolucci, S. [INFN and Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Blondel, A. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Butterworth, J. [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Cervera, A. [University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Naurois, M. de [LPNHE-IN2P3-CNRS and University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Desch, K. [Freiburg University, Freiburg (Germany); Egede, U. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Heuer, R. [University of Hamburg and DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hoecker, A.; Lombardi, A.; Mangano, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Huber, P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, G. [KVI, Groningen (Netherlands); Linde, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mezzetto, M. [INFN and University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Palanque-Delabrouille, N. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Peach, K. [University of Oxford and Royal Holloway University of London, John Adams Institute, London (United Kingdom); Polosa, A. [University of Rome, La Sapienza (Italy); Rondio, E. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Weiglein, G. [Durham University, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates material presented and discussed during the Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics, held in Orsay from 30th January to 2nd February 2006, reflecting the various opinions of the European community as recorded in written submissions to the Strategy Group and in the discussions at the Symposium. (orig.)

  13. Capabilities offered by Heavy User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J; Barreiro Megino, F; Campana, S; Girone, M; Santinelli, R

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the capabilities offered by the Heavy User Communities (HUCs) to other communities: This public report illustrates how the functional capabilities being supported by this activity can be re-used by other communities using European Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCIs). Sufficient technical depth is provided for potential adopters of DCI platforms to make an initial assessment of how they could work with the offered technologies.

  14. Risk-based decision making and risk management of European Union regional programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalopoulos Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalized method for management decision making incorporating risk assessment techniques. The risk based decision making methodology is applied to European Union expenditure programs used to implement its regional policy, such as the community support framework, community initiatives, special initiatives and other European policies. An example is presented for the development of an audit (inspection program in the region of West Macedonia, Greece, during the implementation of the 3rd Community Structural Support Framework Operational Program. The generic nature of the method permits its use in the management of similar European regional programs in Greece and other European countries. It is also applicable to many other industries interested in applying risk-based management decisions to physical or process based systems. .

  15. A Historical Review of the Nixon Administration and European Political Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Nguyen Hang Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a historical approach, this paper examines the Nixon administration’s policy and stance towards European Political Cooperation (EPC. In December 1969, at The Hague Summit the leaders of the European Community expressed their determination for deepening European integration. The final communiqué of The Hague Summit stressed that the European Community’s desire to achieve EPC and to parallel the European Community’s economic increasing strength with a role to play in the world affairs. With this in mind, the paper will examine the impacts that Nixon administration’s attempts to rebalance U.S. foreign relations reflected in the opening to China and the détente with the Soviet Union had on European political integration. Then, it will be argued that the Nixon administration’s shifting foreign policy priorities can be seen as one of the driving forces of EPC. The paper puts forth that a European Community, whose weight was increased by first its economic integration and then its political cooperation, was seen by the Nixon administration as a challenge to the United States. It is concluded that after a long time of consistently supporting European integration as a means to secure peace and prosperity in Europe, the United States under the Nixon administration had to re-consider its foreign relations and rebalance its focus on the global chessboard. This rebalancing certainly impacted EPC in particular and the European integration process in general.

  16. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  17. Getting European universities into shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Most European universities lag behind the best universities in the Anglo-Saxon world. A key challenge is to raise resources per student in Europe to US levels. The Lisbon agenda demands fundamental reform of the European university system in order to enhance efficiency, yet avoid grade inflation, to

  18. European Industry, 1700-1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  19. Developments in European Civil Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, P.; Mańko, R.; Cortés, P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is structured as follows. In Section B we explore the legal basis for the creation of European civil procedures and Europeanization of procedural private law in general. In Section C we provide an overview of existing EU instruments on civil procedure, which we propose to divide into

  20. Third European Stroke Science Workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dichgans, Martin; Planas, Anna M.; Biessels, Geert Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165576367; van der Worp, Bart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189855010; Sudlow, Cathie; Norrving, B.; Lees, Kennedy; Mattle, Heinrich P.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Eibsee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, November 19 to 21, 2015: The European Stroke Organization convened >120 stroke experts from 27 countries to discuss latest results and hot topics in clinical, translational, and basic stroke research. Since its inception in 2011, the European Stroke Science

  1. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  2. Adult Education and European Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negt, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Europe is coming together. This is a historic project; for the first time in modern history, will and consciousness are used for bringing political, social and cultural unity to the European continent. In this process lifelong learning and hence adult education are gaining in importance. The European project takes place in an age characterised by…

  3. Ranking the European armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, R.J.M.; Bogers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of collectiveness aimed for in European defence policy raises issues such as burden sharing and relative performance measurement of the European Armed Forces (EAF). This paper compares EAF performance rates on three dimensions: input, throughput and output. In order to express

  4. The Ideology of European Dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dona

    1979-01-01

    Describes the evolution of anthropology as a particular manifestation of western European culture. Examines the political implications of the discipline's roots in European intellectual, social, and emotional thought, and discusses the role of Black anthropologists in creating a new anthropology for the redefinition of African peoples. (Author/GC)

  5. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national judic...

  6. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  7. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  8. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  9. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  10. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  11. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  12. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  13. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  14. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  15. Book Review: The Crisis of the European Union. A Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Jurgen Habermas explored the options available for the European Union in dealing with the global crisis. The author structured his approach on two essays. The first one, entitled “The Crisis of the European Union in Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law - An Essay on the Constitution for Europe”, emphasizes the fact that while the European decision-makers have focused on solving the currency, banking and debt crises, they omitted the political dimension of the crisis. Moreover, the author considers that in the light of a constitutional treaty for Europe, the transnationalization of the European democracy will be possible if both the public opinion and the politicians can overcome three categories of preconceptions: the dependence of the popular sovereignty to the state sovereignty, the mutually exclusive status of the European citizenship and of the national one, the indivisible nature of the sovereignty. The second essay, entitled “The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights” underlines the imperative nature of the human rights and human dignity interconnected concepts. He states that two conditions must be met in order for the concepts to be valid. Habermas considers that there must be a political community that enacts them and that the two concepts are universally accepted. The Appendix includes three recent political interventions through which Habermas reiterates the uncomfortable and controversial topic of European unification. He concludes that the European Project cannot be allowed to fail because of the raise of German nationalism and the lack of visionary European leadership.

  16. Final report of coordination and cooperation with the European Union on embankment failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been an emphasis in the European Union (EU) community on the investigation of extreme flood processes and the uncertainties related to these processes. Over a 3-year period, the EU and the U.S. dam safety community (1) coordinated their efforts and collected information needed to integrate...

  17. Auditing Community Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mészáros Gergely

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European efforts related to Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, in Hungary a special department called LRL-IBEK has been formed which is designated under the Disaster Management. While specific security issues of commercial applications are well understood and regulated by widely applied standards, increasing share of information systems are developed partly or entirely in a different way, by the community. In this paper different issues of the open development style will be discussed regarding the high requirements of Critical Information Infrastructures, and possible countermeasures will be suggested for the identified problems.

  18. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  19. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  20. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cirstea Andreea; Baltariu Carmen-Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    ... No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies...

  1. European Union rules in the matter of dismissal of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Monica MATIAȘ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, the European Union adopted a Directive on firing any individual content to regulate only matters of collective redundancies due to the social implications that occur usually in case of collective dismissals and, simultaneously, their potential conflicts. Directive no. 98/95/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies was adopted by the Council of the European Union since it was necessary to grant greater protection to workers in the event of collective redundancies. The provisions of Directive no. 98/59/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies have been transposed into national law by the Romanian Government Emergency Ordinance no. 55/2006 amending and supplementing the Labour Code so that in this case no question of direct application of Community rules, but can not disregard its interpretation by the European Court of Justice.

  2. 4th European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Jesus; Gómez-Hernández, José

    2004-01-01

    The fourth edition of the European Conference on Geostatistics for Environmental Applications (geoENV IV) took place in Barcelona, November 27-29, 2002. As a proof that there is an increasing interest in environmental issues in the geostatistical community, the conference attracted over 100 participants, mostly Europeans (up to 10 European countries were represented), but also from other countries in the world. Only 46 contributions, selected out of around 100 submitted papers, were invited to be presented orally during the conference. Additionally 30 authors were invited to present their work in poster format during a special session. All oral and poster contributors were invited to submit their work to be considered for publication in this Kluwer series. All papers underwent a reviewing process, which consisted on two reviewers for oral presentations and one reviewer for posters. The book opens with one keynote paper by Philippe Naveau. It is followed by 40 papers that correspond to those presented orally d...

  3. Experiencing European integration: transnational lives and European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.

    2015-01-01

    European integration has generated a wide array of economic, political, and social opportunities beyond the nation state. Scandinavians spending their retirement at the Mediterranean coast; Germans employing a Polish caretaker; international exchange students staying in Prague; Italian baristas

  4. Determination of the food consumption in eleven regions of the european community with a view to studying the radioactive contamination level: Methods used. Results of family enquiries; Determination des regimes alimentaires des populations de onze regions de la communaute europeenne en vue de l'etude des niveaux de contamination radioactive: Methodologie. Resultats des enquetes familiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresta, M.; Lacourly, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    In the present report are given the results obtained from food surveys carried out during the period 1963-1965 and involving 9000 families living in eleven regions spread out over the six European Community countries. A partial analysis of the results obtained covers a reduced sample of 3725 families; it makes it possible to fix the composition of the mean individual, monthly and annual food consumptions for each of the eleven regions. Details of the organisation of the survey, of the data processing methods and of the method of presenting the results are given in the first part of the report. the second part presents, in numerical table form, the consumption of various foodstuffs and the feeding principles for each region covered by the survey. Tables summarizing the data make it possible to compare the mean individual consumptions in the various regions studied. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport sont rassembles les premiers resultats des enquetes alimentaires effectuees pendant la periode 1963-1965, aupres de 9000 familles, dans onze regions reparties dans les six pays de la Communaute Europeenne. L'exploitation partielle des donnees obtenues porte sur un echantillon reduit a 3725 familles et permet d'etablir la composition du regime alimentaire moyen individuel, mensuel et annuel de chacune des onze regions. L'organisation des enquetes, la methode de traitement des donnees et l'expression des resultats sont exposees dans la premiere partie du rapport. La seconde reunit, sous forme de tableaux numeriques, les consommations des differents aliments et principes alimentaires par region d'enquetes. Des tableaux recapitulatifs permettent, en outre, une comparaison des consommations moyennes, individuelles des differentes regions etudiees. (auteur)

  5. Association of High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Versus Apolipoprotein A-I With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk Prospective Population Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bochem, Andrea E; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Mora, Samia; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Ballantyne, Christie M; Ridker, Paul M; Sun, Wensheng; Barter, Philip J; Tall, Alan R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hovingh, G Kees

    2017-08-03

    The contribution of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk stratification over and above high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is unclear. We studied the associations between plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I, either alone or combined, with risk of CHD events and cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy men and women. HDL-C and apoA-I levels were measured among 17 661 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hazard ratios for CHD events and distributions of risk factors were calculated by quartiles of HDL-C and apoA-I. Results were validated using data from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) and WHS (Women's Health Study) cohorts, comprising 15 494 and 27 552 individuals, respectively. In EPIC-Norfolk, both HDL-C and apoA-I quartiles were strongly and inversely associated with CHD risk. Within HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were not associated with lower CHD risk; in fact, CHD risk was higher within some HDL-C quartiles. ApoA-I levels were associated with higher levels of CHD risk factors: higher body mass index, HbA1c, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein, within fixed HDL-C quartiles. In contrast, HDL-C levels were consistently inversely associated with overall CHD risk and CHD risk factors within apoA-I quartiles (Prisk of CHD events, possibly because of the unexpected higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in association with higher apoA-I levels. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000479. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Collection of main international documents on the ethical principles of research and the main regulations on bioethics of the United States and of European Community; Raccolta sui principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca e dei principali documenti legislativi degli Stati Uniti e della Comunita` Europea sulla bioetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuderi, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Immunologia

    1998-12-31

    The collection includes an Italian translation of the main international documents on ethical principles of scientific research (the Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration, the Belmont Report) as well as the regulatory text of the United States (the Code of Federal Regulation Title 45, Part 46, that is the 45 Cfr 46) and the regulations of the European Community (the Good Clinical Practice and the Convention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being regards to the application of biology and medicine: convention on human rights and biomedicine). The informed consent and the human rights of human subjects involved in a clinical trial are discussed. Moreover, in the regulatory texts, legal rights of particular subjects, i.e. pregnant women, minors, fetuses, embrions, prisoners, are discussed; as well as the bioethics of organ transplantations. [Italiano] Contiene una traduzione in lingua italiana dei principali documenti internazionali sui principi etici della ricerca scientifica: il Codice di Norimberga, la dichiarazione di Helsinki e il rapporto Belmont; il testo legislativo degli Stati Uniti Code of Federal Regulation, capitolo 45 parte 46 (detto il 45 CFR 46) e la normativa della Comunita` Europea relativa alle norme di Good Clinical Practice e alla Convenzione per la protezione dei diritti dell`uomo e la dignita` dei soggetti umani relativamente alle applicazioni della biologia e medicina: Convenzione sui diritti dell`uomo e la biomedicina. Vengono trattati il consenso informato e i diritti umani delle persone che sono coinvolte in una sperimentazione clinica. Inoltre, nei testi normativi ci si riferisce anche ai diritti legali di soggetti particolari, ad esempio: donne in stato di gravidanza, minori, feti, embrioni, prigionieri; viene trattata, infine, l`etica dei trapianti d`organo.

  7. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  8. Old European Couples' Retirement Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Ranzani, Marco

    This study investigates old European couples' retirement choices in order to bridge the gap between the European and the American literature. The typical European family approaching retirement is a dual-earner family: the dataset used in this paper reveals that 78 percent of working males...... correlated with education, age, and health status, together with partner's employment status, partner's education and partner's health status. We also perform a sensitivity analysis in order to check whether the results on the correlation of health status are robust to two alternative measures of health...

  9. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  10. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  11. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  12. Public Accountability in the European Union: Is the European Parliament able to hold the European Council accountable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van de Steeg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Council occupies a central role in European politics. Yet it is not officially accountable to any public or parliamentary body for the decisions it makes on behalf of European citizens. National parliaments are only entitled to exert control over their own Heads of Government or State. The European Parliament, as a supranational institution, is the only parliamentary body that regularly discusses European politics with the European Council as a collective, namely via the European Council Presidency. As such, it alone has the possibility to hold the Council accountable for the agreements made at European Summits. However, the European Parliament has limited rights to impose pressure on the European Council Presidency. Nonetheless, despite the lack of a formal accountability arrangement, the European Council Presidency is more forthcoming than could have been expected.

  13. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  14. Virtual Communities in Europe: The European Library Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, Fleur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of The Bridging Worlds Conference which was held in October 2008 in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: One of the main topics the National Library Board of Singapore, the organising party, wished to address was the roles cultural institutions, such as libraries, may play in…

  15. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  16. Differentiated integration and disintegration in the European Union: State-of-the-art and ways for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Trondal, Jarle; Gänzle, Stefan; Leruth, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Presentation on department page: http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/oekonomi_og_samfunnsvitenskap/statsvitenskap_og_ledelsesfag/ forskning_isl/isl_working_papers_series Following the United Kingdom (UK)’s vote to leave the European Union (EU) on 23 June 2016, the process of European integration is now at a critical juncture. Leaving aside Greenland’s departure from the European Community in 1983 – because of its political union with Denmark, Greenland has been recognized as one...

  17. European Integration through Economic Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoiu Gheorghe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thematic topicality of the main issues of European integration through convergence, in the context subsequent to financial-inspired global recession, is relevant through both the ever more extended international impact of the inertiality of a number of integration processes, and the specific developments of convergence in the Eurozone or the European Monetary Union (EMU. The regionally structured system of the European economy, approached aggregatively from the micro-economic to the macro-economic level, like the physical system or molecularly investigated system, from economic transactions, as a major milestone, to the complexity of the transactions tissue or flows, or activities, similar to biological systems, is permanently faced with various specific disturbing factors. The European Union (EU has historically evolved in an alternative manner, sometimes divergently or towards differentiation through separation, and sometimes convergently or coherently towards unity, fusion, integrity, evincing divergence or convergence trends, with the latter eventually becoming prevalent in the contemporary world.

  18. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  19. [French European military haemovigilance guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Clavier, B; Cap, A; Ausset, S

    2010-12-01

    European military transfusion services follow operational guidelines established by their respective national health systems and conform with European Union directives and NATO standards as applicable to member countries. Certain features are common to all of these standards, especially the pre-selection of volunteer, almost exclusively unpaid donors. NATO requirements are very close to European guidelines, with the exception that NATO permits the use of blood products collected in emergency conditions in theater when circumstances allow no better option. Blood product traceability exists for every country but is not always centralized or computerized. Serious adverse event reporting relies on national haemovigilance networks. Military considerations become important mainly in overseas operations, where the overall policy is to implement the relevant national, European or NATO guidelines with adjustments made for unique wartime circumstances and the risk/benefit ratio for the individual patient needing a transfusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. European Integration and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Bakker, Liesbeth

    1990-01-01

    There appears to be considerable enthusiasm about the expected macroeconomic consequences of European integration. If we regard integration, however, in the light of the environment and environmental policy, concern seems more appropriate. Predicted growth in production levels will damage the

  1. Papillomatosis in a European bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literák, I; Tomita, Y; Ogawa, T; Shirasawa, H; Smíd, B; Novotny, L; Adamec, M

    2006-01-01

    Five European bison (Bison bonasus) from three European zoos were shipped to the Bukovské Vrchy Hills (Slovakia) in June 2004 and kept together in an acclimatization enclosure. The European bison were released into the wild in December 2004. At that time, papillomas were found at the medial canthus of the left eye of a 12-yr-old female bison. Cutaneous papillomatosis was confirmed histologically. Negative stain transmission electron microscopic examination revealed papillomavirus in the papillomas, and papillomavirus DNA also was detected using the polymerase chain reaction with FAP59 and FAP64 primers. The amplified 413 bp DNA sequence was identical to that of BAPV2 bovine papillomavirus. This paper is the first report of papillomatosis in European bison.

  2. European strategies for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiandra, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The most recent developments of strategies and policies in the mental health field in Europe are related to the World Health Organization (WHO) Declaration and Action Plan on Mental Health signed by all the Ministers of Health of all Member States in the European Region (2005). The Action Plan proposes ways and means of developing comprehensive mental health policies, listing 12 areas in which challenges are indicated and detailed actions are required. Afterwards the Green Paper on Mental Health has been launched by the European Commission for the definition of an European strategy. The more precise European Pact for Mental Health and Well-being has been presented in 2008. Many other international bodies (OECD, Council of Europe, etc.) have actively worked to stress the mental health issue. All are clearly referring to the Italian model, started 30 years ago.

  3. European Hospitality Without a Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Rosello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How do European governments conceptualize what they call "hospitality" when they draft immigration laws and when they allow the concepts of asylum, of illegal immigrants, to change according to a constantly evolving political context? What consequences…

  4. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  5. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  6. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  7. Inside CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Andri; Heuer, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    For most people locations that hold a particular importance for the development of our society and for the advancement of science and technology remain hidden from view. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is best known for its giant particle accelerator. Here researchers take part in a diverse array of fundamental physical research, in the pursuit of knowledge that will perhaps one dayrevolutionize our understanding of the universe and life on our planet. The Swiss photographer Andri Pol mixed with this multicultural community of researchers and followed their work over an extended period of time. In doing so he created a unique portrait of this fascinating “underworld.” The cutting-edge research is given a human face and the pictures allow us to perceive how in this world of the tiniest particles the biggest connections are searched for. With an essay by Peter Stamm.

  8. Science popularization and European citizenship in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piotr Szubiakowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea to link European citizenship and science education is surely new and uncommon in Poland, but we think, as SEDEC project, that can enrich both the panorama of science popularization outside and inside school system. I checked carefully curricula for every stage of school education looking for the topics concerning the developing of the European citizenship. I found that they are usually connected to the history, geography and some activities developing of the knowledge about generally defined citizenship. The spare topics connected directly to the science are present especially in grammar school curriculum. They may be divided into three groups: exploiting the common heritage, common object of interest and scientific community respectively. In that paper I would like to show how the activities in each of the group may influence the EU citizenship developing process. I am going to emphasize the good choice of science as a context or a medium for EU citizenship education. It may be an important point especially in Central Europe. Additionally I would like to present some auxiliary events that are enable through the external educational resources such as museum and planetarium.

  9. Indonesian Perceptions and Attitudes toward the ASEAN Community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guido Benny; Kamarulnizam Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The major criticism of the ASEAN Community idea is its elitist approaches. It lacks the most crucial components that have brought about the success of other similar regional organizations such as the European Union (EU...

  10. NEW EUROPEAN PIPELINE PROJECT EASTRING

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Lukáš; Varga, Augustín

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the idea of a new European gas pipeline project called Eastring promoted by company Eustream. Eustream is the Slovak gas transmission system operator and has been one of the key players in European gas transmission from Russia to Europe in the last decades. Previous Russian-Ukrainian crisis resulted in reviewing gas flow directions from Russia to Europe in order to enhance the security of gas supplies to Europe. Russia plans to stop gas transmission to Europe via Ukraine...

  11. A European Open Science Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    EIROforum IT working group; CERN IT Department

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines the position of EIROforum on a European Open Science Cloud. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high‐level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that...

  12. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  13. Architecture of European plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, J-P A; Banic, A; Molea, G; Mazzola, R; Poëll, J G

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-256.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training, examination, quality assurance and relations with the European Commission and Parliament all are aspects covered by the organisations to be discussed.

  14. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  15. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  16. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    A key question that so far has received relatively little attention in the germane literature is that of the changes at various airports as a result of the EU liberalization policies. That is, presently, most major European airports still benefit from the so-called home-carrier phenomenon where the country's publicly or semi-publicly owned carrier uses the country's main airport as its gateway hub and, consequently, the home-carrier is also the principal user of this airport (in terms of proportion of total aircraft movements, number of passengers transported, connections, slots ownership, etc.). The country's main airport has substantially benefited from these monopoly conditions of airline captivity, strongly determined by the bilateral system of international air transport regulation. Therefore, European major airports were used to operate in essentially different markets, compared to the increasingly competitive markets of their home based carriers. This partly explains relative stability of transport volumes and financial results of European major airports compared to the relatively volatile financial results of most European national airlines. However, the liberalization of European aviation is likely to change this situation. Market access is open now to all community carriers, i.e. carriers with majority ownership and effective control in the hands of EU citizens. Ticket prices are free, governments can only intervene in case of dumping or excessive pricing. A community airline can choose its seat in any of the 15 member states. Licensing procedures are harmonized between member states. In the last few months community carriers have had unrestricted route access within the EU. Most probably this development will be extended to countries inside and outside Europe. Last year the European Commission got the mandate to start negotiations with 10 other European countries. In the meantime the EC has also started negotiations with the USA on so-called soft rights

  17. The role of landscape planning in European landscape convention implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important recent policy initiative concerning quality and diversity, as well as natural and cultural landscape's values within all Europe is European Landscape Convention. The Convention was adopted by Council of Europe's Community of Ministers on 20th October 2000., in Firenze, Italy. The main goal of the Convention is protection, planning and management of the landscape as important part of the quality of life for people living everywhere: in urban areas and in countryside, in degraded areas as well as in the areas with high quality and those recognized as being of outstanding beauty. Serbia has singed Convention on 21 of September 2007. Diversity and quality, the cultural and natural values linked to European landscapes are part of Europe's common heritage, and it is important to co-operate towards its protection, management and planning According to explored international experiences, landscape plan, with its known methodology, is recognized as the most suitable tool in the most Countries which have already implemented European Landscape Convention. As to situation in Serbia, landscape planning is not treated in adequate or appropriate way within system of spatial planning. On the basis of the recent European experiences regarding The European Landscape Convention, the paper will underline the inevitability of landscape planning integration into the spatial planning system at the national, regional and city level, in Serbia.

  18. The phenomenon of harmonisation in European medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterková, Helena; Císarová, Dagmar; Sovová, Olga; Holcapek, Tomás

    2012-03-01

    As the field of medical law is regarded, since the 1950s two most significant entities recognized by international law have been present in the sphere of Europe: The Council of Europe which members signed to protect fundamental rights and freedoms and the European Union established upon the original European Communities which influence protection of fundamental rights steadily tends to grow especially in the last decades and results in a legally binding Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Despite the impressive amount of reservations and exceptions to the conventions, the European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and particularly the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine are presented as great instruments for influencing national laws. The role of European institutions in coordinating, harmonising or even unifying national laws as far the issue of public health is concerned is much more difficult - on one hand there are the legal binding measures permitted under specific provisions of EU Treaties to define the minimum standard, on the other hand the subsidiary of the Union's action in the area of public health and the doctrine of complementary competence happen to be rather dominant.

  19. Building Evaluation Capacity in Spain: A Case Study of Rural Development and Empowerment in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Yague, Jose L.; Afonso, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The development of European Community administrative authority has greatly influenced the development of an evaluation culture among the southern and central member states of the European Union. The present case study from Spain provides an example of this diffusion through the use of an empowerment evaluation approach to build evaluation capacity…

  20. Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Health Resources for Community Members site provides tools and information to help local leaders and members of the community protect public health by understanding and addressing environmental conditions.

  1. Community psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en introduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning......Kapitlet giver en introduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning...

  2. The European ‘Nomofilachia’ and the Principle of Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BARONE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available *The European Court of Justice greatly contributes to the guarantees that Community law will be uniformly interpreted and applied (“nomofilachia” and the rights which individuals derive from the Community legal order will be effectively protected. This essay analyses some aspects of the European Union “nomofilachia”; the research is developed in two steps which are strictly correlated. In the first part, it will be underlined how the uniform interpretation and the uniform application of EC law go beyond the provisions of art. 234 of the EC Treat; and are supported by new kind of relations among the Court of Justice, national courts and national administrations. In the second part of the research, it will be highlighted the impact of the general principles of the European Community legal system, moulded through the “nomofilachia” function of the Luxembourg Court, as regards the activities of national administrations. The analysis gives a particular attention to the evolutionary dynamics of the proportionality principle. All these aspects work in a contemporary context of deep transformation of the traditional relations among law, courts, administrations and citizens. * This essay is the joint work of both authors with Barone primary responsible for paragraph 1,2,3,4,9 and Ansaldi for paragraph 5,6,7,8.

  3. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...

  4. A European Football Family? German and British Television Broadcasts of the 2010 Football World Cup and the Representation of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lichtenstein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.

  5. ‘What Europeans Saw of Europe’: Medial Construction of European Identity in Information Films and Newsreels in the 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bruch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Austrian, British, French and German newsreels and European information films produced in the period from 1948 to 1958 either by private and semi-private newsreel companies or transnational, supranational and national institutions like the Economic Cooperation Administration, Council of Europe, European Coal and Steel Community. These newsreel items and short films are not only records from the beginning and consolidation of the European integration project but also political instruments in this process. On the one hand, they informed the public about the new institutions, their purposes as well as their decision-making procedures; on the other hand, they were intended to create a European identity by rewriting a collective cultural and historical memory. By means of these films, some of them being part of the public relations campaigns of various European institutions and newsreel companies, a consistent picture of ‘Europe’ was shaped. This audiovisual representation of Europe as a geographical and historical entity, or, respectively, ‘the idea of European integration’, was not only a result of a political discourse but also a cultural continuation of a centuries-old iconographic tradition. This article aims at broadening the academic debate on a European identity by analysing the political communication process of the European Integration in the 1950s.

  6. The European Procedure on Reduced Value Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining and developing the area of freedom, security and justice is a major objective of theEuropean Community, which guarantees the free movement of persons. As a result of litigations regardingthe applications with a reduced value arising among physical or legal persons, it was felt the need for acommunity legislation that would guarantee identical conditions, both for creditors and debtors throughoutthe entire European Union territory. The European procedure regarding the debts recovery of reducedvalue facilitates the access to justice and it is characterized by simplifying and expediting the settling of thetransboundary litigations, reducing costs, the recognition and execution of the court order in a MemberState given in another Member State. This procedure is available to litigants as an alternative to theprocedures provided by the laws of Member States. The Regulation (EC no. 861/2007 establishing aEuropean procedure regarding the applications with reduced value applies in civil and commercial matters inthe transboundary cases, regardless the nature of the court when the application value, without taking intoaccount the interest, expenditures and other costs, does not exceed 2000 Euro at the time of receiving theapplication form by the competent court. This procedure does not apply to revenue, customs oradministrative matters or in regard to state responsibility for acts or omissions in exercising the publicauthority, and other matters specifically referred to in the Regulation. A cause is transboundary in naturewhen one of the parties has its habitual residence in a Member State, other than the one where the courtreceives such application. The proper procedure of application resolution for the recovery of debts withreduced value is governed by the rules of procedural law of the Member State in which the proceedings areconducted, and the execution of court of law is made by state legislation in which it takes place. The

  7. The globalization and Europeanization of mortgage markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Do globalization and Europeanization lead to the deterritorialization of European mortgage markets? Neither economic globalization nor EU policies have resulted in one European mortgage market. The various European mortgage markets are still quite different from one another in many respects. In most

  8. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  9. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  10. Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....

  11. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  12. The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union: Purpose and activities

    OpenAIRE

    Fontenelle, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The Translation Centre for the Bodies of the European Union was established in 1994 to meet the translation needs of the other decentralized Community agencies. It also participates in the Interinstitutional Committee for Translation and Interpretation, which is working to promote collaboration between the services of the various European institutions and agencies and to achieve economies of scale in the translation field. In this paper, we describe the “raison d‟être” of this agency, whic...

  13. Enhanced Cooperation, EMU Reforms and Their Implications for Differentiation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubin Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Initially, before the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty, differences in integration between members of the European Communities (EC; later the European Union were relatively few and usually temporary in nature. The Schengen Agreement, the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Amsterdam, and the possibility of establishing enhanced cooperation meant that the problem was becoming more and more important in the functioning of the EU—both in theory and in practice.

  14. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  15. European Perceptions of Plan Colombia: A Virtual Contribution to a Virtual War and Peace Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Comunitario, Revista de Estudios Internacionales, Politica Exterior, and The European Union Review. Among his 25 books are Cuba y Espana: Relaciones y ... Percepciones (Madrid BCC, 1988); The Reconstruction of Central America: The Role of the European Community (North-South Center, 1991); The Ibero...American Space/El Espacio Iberoamericano (University of Miami/University of Barcelona, 1996); Memorias de mi Juventud en Cuba durante la Guerra Separatista

  16. Multifamily Housing and Resident Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Nessa

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature on sustainable communities and compact cities calls for higher density housing including multifamily dwellings. Some case studies suggest problems with such dwellings. However, rigorous comparative research on this topic has not been conducted to date. This paper draws on a high quality, comparative dataset, the European Social Survey, to analyse a) the quality of multifamily dwellings in European urban areas, b) the characteristics of residents of these dwellings, c) t...

  17. RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE ANGLE OF PRACTICE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    GEORGETA MODIGA

    2012-01-01

    European Court affirms the idea that democracy is not about majority rule opinion, but also implies a respect for minorities, tolerance of isolated events or eccentric approach requiring individual-community relationship from a liberal perspective. Meanwhile, the European Court's view, freedom of expression serves a dual goal: that of the fulfilment of each individual, thus representing an aspect of the general principle of individual autonomy in relation to society, at the same time, freedom...

  18. Response to the European Commission's consultation on the future of European company law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckli, P.; Davies, P.; Ferran, E.; Ferrarini, G.; Garrido, J.; Hopt, K.; Pietrancosta, A.; Pistor, K.; Skog, R.; Soltysinski, S.; Winter, J.; Wymeersch, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the views of the European Company Law Experts (ECLE) on the future of European company law. The paper accompanies the responses of the European Company Law Experts to the European Commission’s Consultation on the future of European Company Law of spring 2012. In the first part of

  19. EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK'S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA AND EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAGIU ALINA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Investment Bank is the European Union's financial institution. It finances investment projects to contribute to the balanced development of the Union. At the same time "bank" and "body" of the European Union, it contributes to the achievement of the European Union objectives by funding projects to promote European integration, balanced development, economic and social cohesion and the development of an economy based on innovation. Today, the EIB exists on the capital markets with the best quote, “Triple A”. This quote allows it to mobilize in highly competitive conditions, the most important financial volume required to support investments. As an institution, EIB continuously adapts its working mode to changes in EU policies. As a bank, it works closely with the banking community, both for loans on the capital markets as well as for financing investments.

  20. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  1. THE SPECIFIC OF THE CONSUMER’S EUROPEAN RIGHT OF BANK CREDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica ȚÎRLEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to Directive 93/13 / EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts, "legislation of Member States on unfair terms in contracts concluded with consumers show significant divergences” (Official Journal of the European Union 31993L0013 - L 095/29. Therefore, the solution to eliminate these differences of balance in bank lending contracts requires promptly a consumer protection against unfair terms by adopting uniform rules of European law concerning unfair clauses. With this protection is desired that this would be subject to all contracts concluded between sellers or suppliers and consumers, to be harmonized at Community level or adopted directly at Community level, to be provided both in the laws, regulations and administrative nature acts, because to the Member States of the European community falls the responsibility to ensure that in contracts concluded with consumers there are not provided unfair clauses.

  2. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    . The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems.......This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts...

  3. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  4. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  5. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form......; II" cover the core rules of contract: formation, authority of agents, validity, interpretation, contents, performance, non-performance and remedies. The articles previously published in Part I (1995) are included in a revised and re-ordered form. Throughout Europe there is great interest...

  6. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for literary historical narratives are raised. Finally the editors state the journal’s commitment to a scholarly forum which is non-profit and open-access. The bibliography refers to key critical reading which shapes the journal’s approach to medieval European literatures.

  7. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    this period it became increasingly clear that the study of the EU in world politics needed to engage with both critical social theory and normative international theory. This chapter represents a return to critical social theory - a holistic research programme that works within a cosmopolitical understanding......What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...... of normative theory; that seeks to work ‘within categories of existing thought' regarding EU external actions, radicalise them and show ‘in varying degrees both their problems and their unrecognised possibilities' (Calhoun 1995: 23)....

  8. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    . On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding......Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  9. European courts and old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Graham P

    2013-09-01

    There are two major European Courts, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). The ECJ deals with legal matters, mainly involving the interpretation of EU law and ensuring that the law is applied evenly across all 27 EU member states. The ECHR aims to make certain that civil and political rights of citizens in the 46 member states of the Council of Europe are observed. Most cases involving older citizens are about social policy (such as pension arrangements, equality, age discrimination and mandatory retirement). There have been few cases dealing with patients' rights, long-term care or housing. Referrals of selected cases involving old people should be considered if their rights are not being protected. In this Commentary, there is an account of how these Courts have evolved, together with guidance on whom to refer, to which Court, and when and how referrals should be made.

  10. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  11. 1. European Hydrogen Energy Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This conference is the first of a series of EHA (European Hydrogen Association) conferences that will take place every two years in Europe with the collaboration of the national European Hydrogen Associations. EHEC 2003 takes place within the context of the debates on long term energy strategies organized by the international authorities and the governments of many countries. Under the patronage of the European Commission and the French government, the conference will aim at providing a comprehensive picture of the research work and demonstrations on hydrogen and fuel cells that the currently being carried out all over the globe. EHEC 2003 will provide an opportunity to define the role that hydrogen will have in tomorrow's energy landscape and, in particular, the benefits with regard to: 1)sustainable development of energy 2)control of climate change 3)development of renewable energy 4)increase demand for ground transport. (O.M.)

  12. Community representatives: representing the "community"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, R; Murcott, A

    1998-04-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the apparent disjunction between the assumptions of the self-evidence of the meaning of community in major international declarations and strategies which promote community participation and the observation that meanings of "community" are a subject of extensive debate in literatures of social analysis and to some extent health. Given that the word's meaning is not agreed, those working to promote "community participation" in health are forced to adjudicate on competing meanings in order to operationalise the notion. This raises questions about how this is done and what are the implications of particular choices for what may be achieved by the participating "community". This paper presents the findings of an empirical study which examined the manner in which ideas of "community" are operationalised by people engaged in encouraging community participation in health promotion in the context of the selection of members for health for all steering groups in healthy cities projects in the United Kingdom. It argues that the demands of the role of the "community representative" are such that particular interpretations of "community" achieve ascendance. The paper explores the consequences of the interpretation of "community" as part of the "voluntary sector" and argues that this may compromise one of the stated desired outcomes of community participation i.e. extending democracy in health decision-making.

  13. Presidential elections in the United States: implications for international and European security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion it should be noted that the full implementation of D. Trump’s plans for international and European security will depend on how the declared initiatives will correspond to his real actions. Perhaps this would require more than a year, but now the world and the European community must be ready for serious structural and geopolitical changes. The presence of a number of acute problems makes the role of the United States in the process of ensuring international and European security hardly predictable.

  14. Directives and regulations of the European Union on the protection of the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper analyzes the directives and regulations of the European Union pertaining to the protection of environment (water, air and soil. Since emissions frequently exceed local communities and regions, thus gain cross border, and sometimes even global effects, the directives and regulations of the European Union aim to provide bases for the harmonization of national laws in the European Union, as far as the registry of holders of dangerous things or providers of dangerous services, and the measures necessary to settle the consequences of pollution and means of preventing larger-scale environmental damages are concerned.

  15. The open method of co-ordination and the European welfare state

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Chalmers; Martin Lodge

    2003-01-01

    Open Method Co-ordination (OMC) has been treated in the literature as the Lazarus of European integration. Developed at the Lisbon Summit, it has led to the reincarnation of the European Union, both in terms of what it does and how it does it. No longer is the European Union to be centred around the Classic Community Method (CCM) of supranational management of regulation. Instead, it is to be a decentred participatory process, in which national governments are no longer controlled and command...

  16. The Policies of the Tourısm in European Union and Cultural Tourism in Turkiye

    OpenAIRE

    EMEKLİ, Gözde

    2015-01-01

    The countries of the European Union have the feautures which play a powerful role in the historical development of world tourism and which lead the world tourism. In the adaptation process from the European Economic Community to the European Union, it is thought that tourism has a role which provides and accelarates the social cultural unity. Especially by forming a united tourism policy, getting inter-culturally closer and a multi-cultural social gathering by means of tourism is aimed.In thi...

  17. Asian Americans respond less favorably to excitement (vs. calm)-focused physicians compared to European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Young, Henry R; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene; Tsai, Jeanne L

    2018-01-01

    Despite being considered a "model minority," Asian Americans report worse health care encounters than do European Americans. This may be due to affective mismatches between Asian American patients and their European American physicians. We predicted that because Asian Americans value excitement (vs. calm) less than European Americans, they will respond less favorably to excitement-focused (vs. calm) physicians. In Study 1, 198 European American, Chinese American, and Hong Kong Chinese community adults read a medical scenario and indicated their preference for an excitement-focused versus calm-focused physician. In Study 2, 81 European American and Asian American community college students listened to recommendations made by an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician in a video, and later attempted to recall the recommendations. In Study 3, 101 European American and Asian American middle-aged and older adults had multiple online encounters with an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician and then evaluated their physicians' trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge. As predicted, Hong Kong Chinese preferred excitement-focused physicians less than European Americans, with Chinese Americans falling in the middle (Study 1). Similarly, Asian Americans remembered health information delivered by an excitement-focused physician less well than did European Americans (Study 2). Finally, Asian Americans evaluated an excitement-focused physician less positively than did European Americans (Study 3). These findings suggest that while physicians who promote and emphasize excitement states may be effective with European Americans, they may be less so with Asian Americans and other ethnic minorities who value different affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Leading European Research Organisations Join Forces in EIROFORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Since the early 1950s, a number of powerful research infrastructures and laboratories which are used by an extensive network of scientists have been developed and deployed within Europe by European Intergovernmental Research Organisations (EIRO). Together, they represent European spearheads in some of the most crucial basic and applied research fields. Seven of these organisations have set up a co-ordination and collaboration group ( EIROFORUM ) with their top executives (Directors General or equivalent) as members. They include CERN (particle physics), EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion). A primary goal of EIROFORUM is to play an active and constructive role in promoting the quality and impact of European Research. In particular, the group will be a basis for effective, high-level inter-organisational interaction and co-ordination. It will mobilise its substantial combined expertise in basic research and in the management of large international projects for the benefit of European research and development. This will be possible by exploiting the existing intimate links between the member organisations and their respective European research communities. According to the EIROFORUM Charter , the main aims of the collaboration are to: 1. Encourage and facilitate discussions among its members on issues of common interest, which are relevant to research and development. 2. Maximise the scientific return and optimise the use of resources by sharing relevant developments and results, whenever feasible. 3. Co-ordinate the education and outreach activities of the organisations, including technology transfer and public understanding. 4. Take an active part, in collaboration with other European scientific organisations, in taking a forward-look at promising and/or developing research directions and priorities, in particular in relation to new large

  19. Wind Farms Community Engagement Good Practice Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2014-01-01

    This report sets out the findings of a review of community engagement for wind farm developments. We focus in particular on the engagement carried out by developers with communities. The aims of the study were to evaluate current good practice for engaging people in decision making about on......- and offshore wind farms in different European countries; to evaluate the effect that different practices have on public opinion and acceptance; and to make relevant recommendations for Scottish policy and planning....

  20. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  1. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  2. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Materlik, G.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray synchrotron radiation became a powerful tool for studies of condensed matter, and in view of that a proposal for the construction of a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) was elaborated in some detail by the European Synchrotron Radiation Project. The heart...... by a great flexibility and a small emittance (7×10−9 rad m) leading to a very high brilliance (1019 photons/(s mm2 mrad2) in a relative bandwidth of 0.1% in case of a 1 Å undulator). The overview, as seen from the users point of view, gives a brief account of the storage ring, emitted radiation...

  3. European Union a New Babylon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  4. Passionate patriotism or European enslavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Mihajlo P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study A passionate patriotism or European enslavement, from the eminent professor Petar Anđelković, represents another attempt by this author to analyze the Serbian society in the context of its development. This book is a logical continuation of his essay published in 2013, Serbian Society-without past, what is our present?, and represents a symbiosis of texts that the author has already published and in which he addresses the very relevant questions of Serbia's relations with the new world order and with the inevitable role of the European Union, as an existential challenge to the very existence of the Serbian society.

  5. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...

  6. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more...... than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous...

  7. Differentiated integration and disintegration in the European Union: State-of-the-art and ways for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Trondal, Jarle; Gänzle, Stefan; Leruth, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Following the United Kingdom (UK)’s vote to leave the European Union (EU) on 23 June 2016, the process of European integration is now at a critical juncture. Leaving aside Greenland’s departure from the European Community in 1983 – because of its political union with Denmark, Greenland has been recognized as one of the Overseas Countries and Territories of the EU –, the United Kingdom is the first member state in the history of European integration to engage in a process of disintegration whi...

  8. The Criminal Protection of the Financial Interests of the European Union in the Romanian Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Şerban Morăreanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of criminal protection of the financial interests of the European Communities appeared asa result of allotting their own funds by means of the first project of amending the Treaty of August 6th 1976which modified the Treaties regarding the establishment of the European Communities. Nowadays, one of themajor problems that the European Union is facing is the frauds committed to the detriment of the Unionbudget. The offences bilking the Union budget are extremely dangerous, not only by the amount of thedamage caused, but also by the high degree of organizing such offences. Romania has made significantefforts to align its legislation in this matter to the community legislation, such efforts resulting in theintroduction of a new section in Law no. 78/2000 regarding prevention, discovery and sanction of corruptionoffences – section named “Offences affecting the financial interests of the European Communities”. Thiswork will analyze those offences provided in Law no. 78/2000, committed against the financial interests ofthe European Communities, such analyze including also the relevant judicial training in the matter.

  9. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...... clique thresholds for each of the nonoverlapping node sets in the bipartite network...

  10. My community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nina Turner

    2016-01-01

      Prison nurses must cover a huge range of disciplines including patient relationships, community health, communicable disease, long-term conditions, practice nursing, acute care and substance misuse...

  11. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  12. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  13. Working in a developing communication space. Facebook and Twitter as journalistic tools for European information pure-player websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Tixier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the creation of the European Union, European information has been a very important issue of communication. Numerous Europe-specialized information websites were born in the first decade of the 21st century, thus creating a European informational landscape on the Internet. In a context of journalistic technological and economical evolutions, journalists have to adapt rapidly their ways of working. A new function in terms of management of socio-numeric networks has appeared: community management. This research aims at analyzing the uses of Facebook and Twitter in the community management of online European information websites. We will be specifically observing how information makers integrate these technologies, which originally were not part of the journalistic work patterns, and how they use these new means of communication to circulate European ideas through self-promotion practices.

  14. A Major Step in the Harmonization of Procedural Law in Europe: The European Small Claims Procedure : Accomplishments, New Features and Some Fundamental Questions of European Harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEuropean civil procedural law has been in a constant state of flux since the coming into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999. The introduction of Article 65 EC Treaty was followed by numerous Community instruments in the field of civil procedure, mostly regulations that have direct

  15. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  16. Scientific education and European citizenship. Suggestions and results from the European project SEDEC (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ceriani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Two concepts seemingly distant from each other, scientific education and European citizenship, have been the basis for "SEDEC - Science Education for the Development of European Citizenship", a European project funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Socrates/Comenius programme, aiming at producing training material addressed to European teachers. Started in autumn 2005, the project will end in 2008 with an in-service training course for European teachers and educators.

  17. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  18. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; van Terwisga, S.; Verburg, T.; Burghouwt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are

  19. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  20. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and