WorldWideScience

Sample records for european commission strategy

  1. Discussion: European Commission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents the debate which arose following two papers presented to a seminar run by the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, on 11th November 1992, on European Commission (EC) energy policies. The issues raised cover how an internal market for electricity and natural gas will be implemented under a proposed EC directive, bearing in mind the level of opposition from a number of Member States. How this Directive will apply to vertically integrated structures, such as Scottish Electricity Industry, is also considered. (UK)

  2. The position of Electricite de France (EDF) on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de l`Electricite de France (EDF) sur la strategie de lutte contre l`acidification de la commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartaire, J.G. [Electricite de France (EDF), 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    1997-12-31

    Electricite de France (EDF), the French national power utility, presents several observations on the European Union 1997 project for the reduction of air pollution and acidification in Europe. Although EDF is globally approving the European Commission determination for a common strategy, several points are pinned, which are related to the necessity of technical-economical impact analysis of the strategy, the synchronization with the sulfur protocol and the projected United Nation protocol, a stronger consideration of emission sources others than power plants, the consideration of national specificities, situation in Eastern Europe, and limitations in the reliability of models and tools used by the Commission

  3. Nuclear energy and the Green Paper of the European Commission 'An European strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metes, Mircea

    2006-01-01

    At present the energy is for European Union officials an issue of top priority. In the beginning of 2006 the natural gas crisis between Russia and Ukraine remembered menacingly to the Europeans that energy supply of the continent depends decisively on importation from other geographic areas and that these importation raise risks of a great variety. In addition to the power problems, disastrous effects on the economy, human life and eco-systems appeared to have the climate changes produced by fossil fuel burning. Consequently, a common energetic policy of Europe should be targeted at three main objectives: sustainability, competitiveness and security of supply. Six directions of action were identified: 1. EU must finalize the construction of internal European gas and electricity market; 2. EU should ensure that its energy market guaranties the security of supply under a solidary policy of the member states; 3. It is necessary that a large debate to have place about different sources of energy including the problems of costs and impact on climatic change, security and supply competitiveness and sustainability; 4. EU should approach the climatic change issues in agreement with the objectives established at Lisbon conference aiming at placing EU in the forefront of technological and scientific progress; 5. A strategic plan concerning the energy technology; 6. A common foreign policy in the field of energy. It is worthy to stress that the present Green Paper of EU has a manifestly different position concerning the nuclear energy with respect to the prior Green Paper of November 2000. While, in 2000 the EU Commission viewed the nuclear energy as being 'in limbo', in the 2006 version the Commission declared the nuclear energy as the most important source of power in Europe without CO 2 emissions. It is stated that all the energy options should be kept open while the Europe states have the right to establish their own energy mix, which they consider optimal, and in which

  4. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  5. European Commission policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This debate discusses the debate surrounding the proposed European Community (EC) Directive on the completion of the internal energy market for natural gas and electric power. The context in which the liberalisation program is proposed is described for electricity, considering political issues, international ownership patterns and trade between Eastern and Western Europe. The author then argues for Member States to be consistent and fair, bearing in mind existing variations in liberalisation of national energy markets. Finally the components of the directive are examined. The United Kingdom, with its already liberalised electricity industry has much to gain from the Directive, while other countries which oppose it, are seen as protecting the vested interests of their own utilities. (UK)

  6. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  7. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  8. Contribution of the European Commission to a European Strategy for HLW Management through Partitioning and Transmutation: Presentation of MYRRHA and its Role in the European P and T Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahim, H.A.; Van den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Vandeplassche, D.; Kochetkov, A.

    2015-01-01

    To be able to answer the world's increasing demand for energy, nuclear energy must be part of the energy mix. As a consequence of the nuclear electricity generation, high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is produced. The HLW is presently considered to be managed through its burying in geological storage. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) has been pointed out as the strategy to reduce the radiological impact of HLW. Transmutation can be achieved in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, both in critical fast reactors as well as in accelerator driven systems (ADSs). For more than two decades, the European Commission has been co-funding various research and development projects conducted in many European research organisations and industries related to P and T as a complementary strategy for high-level waste management to the geological disposal. In 2005, a European strategy for the implementation of P and T for a large part of the HLW in Europe indicated the need for the demonstration of its feasibility at an 'engineering' level. The R and D activities of this strategy were arranged in four 'building blocks': 1. Demonstration of the capability to process a sizable amount of spent fuel from commercial light water reactors (LWRs) in order to separate plutonium, uranium and minor actinides. 2. Demonstration of the capability to fabricate at a semi-industrial level the dedicated fuel needed as load in a dedicated transmuter. 3. Design and construction of one or more dedicated transmuters. 4. Provision of a specific installation for processing of the dedicated fuel unloaded from the transmuter, which can be of a different type than the one used to process the original spent fuel unloaded from the commercial power plants, together with the fabrication of new dedicated fuel. MYRRHA contributes to the third building block. MYRRHA is an ADS under development at SCK.CEN in collaboration with a large number of European partners. One of

  9. The position of petroleum industry on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de l`industrie petroliere sur la communication de la commission europeenne sur la strategie acidificaiton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton-Lauga, P. [Union Francaise des Industries Petrolieres (UFIP), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The French Petroleum industry presents several objections to the projected European Commission program concerning the reduction of air pollution and acidification: the limitation levels which are set for 2010 are practically impossible to sustain, and will induce a considerable cost for the european countries; the models that were used (Rains) by the Commission are not sufficiently precise and taking 1990 as a reference year does not take into consideration the important pollution emission reduction achieved by France before 1990; the Commission seems to consider mainly sulfur contained in liquid fuels, although coal represents 62 pc of sulfur dioxide emission in Europe. Amendment propositions are presented

  10. More planned economy than market economy in the energy policy strategy for 2020 of the European Commission; Mehr Plan- als Marktwirtschaft in der energiepolitischen Strategie 2020 der Europaeischen Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haucap, Justus; Coenen, Michael

    2011-04-15

    The Europeanization of energy policies is desirable because the three main objectives of energy policy (climate protection, security of supply and competitiveness) have cross-border impacts. Hence, it is good that the European Union has been granted a competence for energy policy in the article 194 of the Lisbon treaty. In addition, it is good that the European Commission has published its long-term strategy to stabilize expectations which is important for infrastructure investment. It is regrettable though that price signals, competition and market principles only play a minor role for the Commission while rather doubtful objectives such as fostering energy efficiency and promoting renewable dominate the agenda. The Commission's strategy is mainly characterized by bureaucratic dirigisme, intense regulation, state planning and public subsidies. The road to a centrally planned energy industry is being walked down fast.

  11. Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, L.

    2012-01-01

    What is the European energy strategy for 2050? How different is it from the 2020 energy strategy? What are the technology options? What are the policy options? The European Commission provided a first answer to these questions in its Energy Roadmap 2050. This article gives an appraisal of that answer based on the recommendations we made during the preparation of the roadmap.

  12. The Commission White Paper on a Strategy for a Future EU Chemicals Policy: the view of European companies of American parentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montfort, Jean-Philippe

    2003-04-01

    After years of good service, EU legislation on chemicals is currently subject to a major review. This process, initiated by the Council of Ministers at Chester in April 1998, will soon lead to new legislative proposals. In the meantime, a review of the Commission's White Paper on "Strategy for a Future Chemicals Policy," published in February 2001, clearly shows that the regulatory landscape in this area will be significantly reshaped and that a new burden will be imposed on industry to demonstrate that the production and use of chemicals indeed conform to high standards of protection of human health and the environment. In the view of industry, on both sides of the Atlantic, while the objectives of the proposed reform can be supported, the measures proposed in the White Paper to implement these objectives are not properly balanced and will lead to substantial societal and economic drawbacks, unless significant adjustments are made. The purpose of this article is to present the pitfalls and difficulties of the reform as they are perceived by the EU Committee of the American Chamber of Commerce in Brussels, an organization that regroups about 150 European companies of American parentage, belonging to a broad range of European business sectors, including producers and users of chemicals. In view of the transatlantic and cross-business character of its membership, the EU Committee offers a different perspective on the debate.

  13. [The EU law on genetically modified organisms: the European Commission changes the strategy in order to allow, restrict, or prohibit its culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vaqué, Luis

    2010-01-01

    On July 13 2010, the European Commission adopted a series of measures which outline a new approach on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) cultivation in the Member States. This proposal, which still retains the basis of the existing science-based GMO authorisation system, will be implemented through: a Communication from the Commission, explaining the new approach on the freedom for Member States to decide on the cultivation of genetically modified crops; the "Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2001/18/EC as regards the possibility for the Member States to restrict or prohibit the cultivation of GMOs in their territory"; and a new "European Commission Recommendation (2010/C 200/01) of 13 July 2010 on guidelines for the development of national co-existence measures to avoid the unintended presence of GMOs in conventional and organic crops".

  14. European commission research activities on iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loggia, E. della

    1996-01-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs

  15. European commission research activities on iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loggia, E della [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    The research on iodine, as on other important fission products which would be released during a severe accident, carried out directly or organized by the European Commission stems from the Euratom Treaty, namely from Chapter III of the treaty which deals with the protection of the health of the population against radiations and from Chapter I which deals with research. In this paper we do not consider the Commission radiological protection programme: we limit ourselves to the presentation of the research carried out on Iodine as part of the most recent source term studies within the framework Programmes as are called the research programme of the European Commission, usually valid for a 4 year periods. The research activities are carried out by the European Commission either directly through the Joint Research Centres (JRC) or indirectly through collaboration with research organizations of Member States. Concerning the iodine research carried out as Direct Action in the Joint Research Centres, are mentioned here the most relevant activities carried out in this field at the JRC of Ispra and Karlsruhe (TUI). As Indirect Action, we present here the results of some studies allocated by the European Commission to experts of research organizations of Member Countries, followed by a short description of the main results achieved by the Reinforced Concerted Action, within the III Framework Programme (1992-1995). At the end of the paper are described the research on iodine being carried out or proposed within the IV Framework Programme (1995-1998). Mention is also done of the Commission participation, relevant in terms of financial and human efforts, to the PHEBUS FP Project. (author) refs.

  16. The position of the French coal industry on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de charbonnages de France sur la strategie de lutte contre l`acidification de la commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejean, M. [CDF Energie, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Charbonnages de France group (French coal industry) presents several objections to the projected European Commission program concerning the reduction of air pollution emission and acidification: reaching so rapidly the projected reduction level means a drastic improvement to the large burning plants, regardless of the low operating duration of the coal plants in France, which are used for electric power production only at peak or semi-base periods or in industries (principally food industry) with low energy duration requirements, and regardless of the important emission reductions already achieved in France. The coal industry proposes to simply apply the present IPPC directive; already, turning to circulating fluidized bed units has allowed important SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission reductions. The evolution of sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions in France between 1990 and 1995 is detailed

  17. European commission report on market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Governments must step up their effort to implement measures relating to market opening within the framework of the directives on gas and electricity. Only greater integration of national markets will produce the improvements required from a competitive point of view on the domestic energy market. These are the main conclusions of the annual report on domestic electricity and gas market operation adopted by the European Commission at the beginning of January 2005. (author)

  18. Decommissioning and radioactive waste management. The European Commission overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, M

    2010-01-01

    In this lecture author deals with the European Commission overview on the decommissioning and radioactive waste management. Financial support of European Commission of decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP, Bohunice V1 NPP and Kozloduy Units 1 and 2 is presented.

  19. Open Letter to the European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej; Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    2016-01-01

    to the information society. A key component of this acquis is the prohibition of general monitoring obligations to the benefit of providers of intermediary services. It is a means to achieve at least two central objectives: the encouragement of innovation as well as the protection of fundamental rights of all...... Internet users, namely the rights protected by Articles 8 and 11 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Yet, the proposed Copyright Directive, in particular, seems to negatively affect both the domain and effect of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive. The signatories of this open letter therefore...... urge the European Commission to take into account the human rights dimension of Article 15 of the E-commerce Directive, as made explicit by the Court of the Justice of the European Union, and to make sure its implications are carefully examined across sectors. Authors: Sophie Stalla-Bourdillon Eleonora...

  20. Commissioning for the European XFEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölle, D.

    2017-06-01

    The European XFEL is a 4th generation light source based on the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FreeElectron-Laser concept. It is currently being commissioned in North- Germany. The core installation is a 17.5 GeV superconducting accelerator driving 3 SASE lines with photon energies from 1 to beyond 20 keV range with a maximum of 27.000 pulses per second. The international facility is organized as a limited liability company with shareholders from the contributing countries. DESY has taken over the leadership of the accelerator construction consortium, and will be in charge of the operation of the accelerator complex. The facility was set up with contributions from the 11 shareholder countries, either being hardware systems and/or staff or cash contributions. The construction is almost complete, and the commissioning phase has started by the end of 2015. This contribution will report the status of the accelerator complex with emphasis on the commissioning of the accelerator and an outlook to the commissioning of the SASE 1 FEL line.

  1. European Commission - 7th Framework Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.; Vasile, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Core safety optimisation through a set of reactivity feedback coefficients allowing to cope with accidental transients. → Reactor optimisation by exploring innovative options for intermediate circuits and steam generators. → Reactor behaviour under accidental conditions including severe accidents to improve the robustness. → Waste management options having both characteristics of efficiency and economics viability. → Promoting European young human resources skills on sodium fast reactors by means of dedicated workshops and doctoral dissertations. - Abstract: Fast Reactors have a unique capability as sustainable energy source; the closed fuel cycle allows significantly improving the usage of natural resources and the minimisation of volume and heat load of high-level waste. Among the fast reactor systems, the sodium-cooled fast reactor has the most comprehensive technological basis, thanks to the experience gained internationally from operating experimental, prototype and commercial size reactors. The paper summarizes the key characteristics of the four years large Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP ESFR - 2009-2012); the CP ESFR follows the 6th FP project named 'Roadmap for a European Innovative SOdium cooled FAst Reactor - EISOFAR' further identifying, organizing and implementing a significant part of the needed R and D effort. The CP ESFR merges the contribution of 25 European partners; it is performed under the aegis of the 7th FP under the Area - Advanced Nuclear Systems with a refund from the European Commission of 5.8 M Euro (11.55 M Euro total budget). It is a key component of the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE TP) and its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The inputs for the project are the key research goals for fourth generation of European sodium cooled fast reactors which can be summarized as follows: an improved safety with in particular the achievement of a robust architecture

  2. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  3. Radiological emergency preparedness arrangements in the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, V.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the different procedures established within the European Commission, which are relevant to radiological emergency planning and response. Although emergency preparedness is a national responsibility within the European Union, the Commission has clearly defined operational tasks in terms of emergency information exchange and community foodstuff regulations. In addition the Commission promotes research programmes and training courses in the field

  4. Nuclear safety research at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants currently generate some 35 % of electricity used in the European Union and applicant countries. Nuclear safety will therefore remain a priority for the EU, particularly in view of enlargement, the need to monitor ageing nuclear installations and the licencing of advanced new reactor systems. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), with its long involvement and recognised competence in nuclear safety related activities, provides direct support to the European Commission services responsible for nuclear safety and civil protection. (author)

  5. The European Commission as Network Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    2007-01-01

    after the year 2000. Developing a conceptual framework about brokerage roles in EU policy, the article uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative data in an empirical analysis of two very different cases where the Commission has been embattled the past years. The article argues that previous...

  6. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  7. Motivation and values of European Commission staff. Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenabeele, W.V.; Ban, C.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of public service motivation has been central to the discussion of motivation in the field of public management but has never been studied in international organizations. This paper reports on a preliminary study of motivational issues within the European Commission, including motivation

  8. Radioactive waste management: outline of the research programme of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresesti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The lines of activity, the main achievements and the perspectives of the research programme of the Commission of the European Communities on radioactive waste management, are presented. In particular an overall view of the activity on chemical separation and nuclear transmutation of actinides is given, as introduction to the various presentations of the JRC staff on specific aspects of this waste management strategy

  9. Interest group satisfaction with the European Commission's consultation agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Henrik Alf Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Interest groups exist largely to raise awareness of particular problems or to avoid regulation by keeping items off the political agenda, it is a major component of their raison d'être. At the earliest stages of the European policy process, the European Commission presents an agenda in the form...... of a "call for consultation" which interest groups attempt to influence. Groups that have had a role in setting the Commission's agenda will likely show most satisfaction with the agenda, used here as a way to examine their agenda-setting power. Based on a novel dataset covering 190 policy issues and 469...... interest groups, unique issue-level data on the expertise held by interest groups, their privileged access and their resources, this paper evaluates whether it is the technical information provided by groups, their insider status or their ability to put pressure on the European institutions that form...

  10. The European Commission 2008 Directive Proposal on Biofuels - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pelsy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the 2008 Directive Proposal of the European Commission on biofuels. The development of biofuels as a renewable energy source has been perceived as a priority by the European Union. Indeed biofuels are approached by the EU as a new 'win-win' solution that could both reduce emission of greenhouses gases in the context of climate change and improve energy security while not affecting the European economic growth. The 2008 Directive Proposal of the Commission requires an objective of ten per cent of biofuels in the EU Transport in 2020. In order to qualify within that target biofuels shall be produced according to certain environmental criteria. This article points out the tremendous negative impacts on food security and the environment both in the developed and in the developing world of such a large-scale consumption of biofuels. It then considers that the environmental criteria required by the Directive Proposal of the Commission are not likely to be the adequate response to tackle the negative consequences of the implementation of that ten per cent target. It, thus, suggests the application of the precautionary principle as sketched out by the European Court of Justice in the case Pfizer - Alpharma to that ten per cent target and a moratorium on biofuels at the EU level.

  11. European Commission action aimed at constructing a European regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristori, D.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of a low-carbon economy provides a new incentive for the development of renewable energies as well as of nuclear energy. The latter calls for a high level of safety and security. The EU has a role in providing a legal framework for this purpose as well as ensuring that these standards are respected internationally. For over 50 years the EURATOM Treaty has offered the legal basis for a wide range of initiatives supporting this policy. The EU has competences under chapter 3, 'Health and Safety', for the establishment of basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation. These have extended beyond the scope of nuclear energy and now include medical exposures as well as natural radiation sources. The latest revision of the BSS-Directive, to be proposed in 2011, was an opportunity for the consolidation of all Community legislation. A ruling of the Court of Justice in 1999 paved the way for the establishment of standards on the safety of nuclear installations. A common vision on this matter was achieved through the creation of a body of European Safety Regulators (ENSREG) and the adoption of a specific Safety Directive in 2009. This new Directive translates internationally agreed safety standards into legally binding EU legislation and strengthens the position of national Regulators. (author)

  12. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  13. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J.

    2001-01-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  14. Linac4 chopper line commissioning strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; Lombardi, A M; Posocco, P A; Sargsyan, E

    2010-01-01

    The report outlines the strategy for beam-based commissioning of the Linac4 3 MeV chopper line as currently scheduled to start in the second half of 2011 in the Test Stand Area. A dedicated temporary diagnostics test bench will complement the measurement devices foreseen for permanent installation in the chopper line. A commissioning procedure is set out as a series of consecutive phases, each one supposed to meet a well- defined milestone in the path to fully characterise the beam-line. Specific set-ups for each stage are defined in terms of beam characteristics, machine settings and diagnostics used. Operational guidelines are given and expected results at the relative points of measurements are shown for simulated scenarios (on the basis of multi-particle tracking studies carried out with the codes PATH and TRACEWin). These are then interpreted in the light of the resolution limits of the available diagnostics instruments to assess the precision reach on individual measurements and the feasibility of techn...

  15. Experts Networks and the European Commission on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni; Willers, Johann Ole

    experts on demographic change. Our findings suggest that on demographic change issues at the EU level, DG EMPL has taken the lead, while DG ECFIN is the secondary actor. Still, internal European Commission dynamics mean that the lead actor on demographic issues has less autonomy in articulating a funded......This paper examines who populates the expert and policy network around demographic change issues in Europe. We examine how competing policy departments in the European Commission Directorates-General (DGs) deal with the issue of Europe’s changing demography, as well as discuss the role of external...... and clear policy position on how to address them. As a consequence, there is little institutional memory and hardly a depository of activity on demographic change. While outside expertise comes primarily from demographers, and other scholars concerned with demographic change, they are primarily an academic...

  16. Off-site emergency preparedness activities within the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarised. Particular attention is given to two topics: Firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described. (orig.)

  17. European commission contribution to improving off-site emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given by the European Commission to off-site emergency preparedness as part of its broader contribution to improving nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. The main initiatives being taken or planned by the Commission in this area are summarized. Particular attention is given to two topics: firstly, the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line Decision Support) system for supporting off-site emergency management in the event of a nuclear accident; and, secondly, the work of an Inter-Service Group on nuclear Off-Site Emergency Preparedness (OSEP) in Eastern Europe that has recently been established within the Commission. The contribution that each is making to improving emergency preparedness, both in Eastern Europe and in Europe more widely, is described

  18. Radiation research within the framework programmes of the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaoglou, A.; Kelly, G.N.; Desmet, G.; Menzel, H.G.; Schibilla, H.; Olast, M.; Gasperini, F.; Chadwick, K.H.; Sinnave, J. [European Commission Directorate General science, Brussels (Belgium). Research and Development, Radiation Protection Research Action

    1997-09-01

    The background to the radiation protection research and training programme of the European Commission is described in the presentation. The objectives and achievements of the third framework programme are summarised together with a description of how the achievements led to the establishment of the priorities for the fourth framework programme. Indications on the preliminary prospects for the fifth framework programme, 1998-2002 are also given. (6 refs.).

  19. Scenarios for the implementation of daytime running lights in the European Union : study in the framework of a European Commission project, Work Package 4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. Mathijssen, M.P.M. Elvik, R. Janssen, W. & Kallberg, V.-P.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the last part of the documentation of a project funded by the European Commission, designed to assess the effects of Daytime Running Lights (DRL) and possible strategies for implementing the use of DRL in the European Union (EU). The general objective of the present report is to

  20. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, Thomas F.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2008-01-01

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them

  1. The European Commission's light bulb decree: Another costly regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel; Lohmann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs-often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consumed will not only lead to lower energy cost for private households and industrial consumers, but at the same time lead to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. This article discusses possible reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs and shows that the investment in energy-efficient light bulbs does not necessarily lead to significant cost reductions. Drawing on some illustrative examples, we demonstrate that the use of cheaper incandescent bulbs instead of energy-saving light bulbs can be economically rational in cases of rather low usage times, in which the higher initial purchasing price might only pay off after very long time spans. Furthermore, due to the coexistence with the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), this regulation attains no additional emission reductions beyond those achieved by the ETS alone. We thus conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs is inappropriate and should be abolished by the Commission. - Research highlights: → This article discusses reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs. → We show that using incandescent bulbs can be rational in cases of rather low usage times. → We conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs should be abolished by the Commission.

  2. Energy 2020. A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Communication defines the energy priorities for the next ten years and sets the actions to be taken in order to tackle the challenges of saving energy, achieving a market with competitive prices and secure supplies, boosting technological leadership, and effectively negotiate with our international partners. On the basis of these priorities and the action presented, the Commission will come forward with concrete legislative initiatives and proposals within the next 18 months. This communication also sets the agenda for the discussion by Heads of States and Governments at the very first EU Summit on Energy on 4 February 2011.

  3. European Commission research on aircraft impacts in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanatidis, G T; Angeletti, G [European Commission (CEC), Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Aircraft engines release in the troposphere and lower stratosphere a number of chemical compounds (NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, hydrocarbons, sulphur, soot, etc.) which could potentially affect the ozone layer and the climate through chemical, dynamical and radiative changes. The global amount of gases and particles emitted by current subsonic and projected supersonic aircraft fleets can be estimated, but significant uncertainties remain about the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere. The European efforts concerning these potential atmospheric impacts of aircraft emissions are conducted by the Environment and Climate Research Programme of the European Commission (EC) as well as by national programmes of the Member States of the European Union (EU). The European research activities in this field, are described, divided for practical reasons in two periods. The first includes activities supported under the 3. Framework Programme for R and D activities which covered the period from 1992 up to 1996, while the second period has started in early 1996 and is supported under the 4. Framework Programme. (R.P.) 6 refs.

  4. European Commission research on aircraft impacts in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanatidis, G.T.; Angeletti, G. [European Commission (CEC), Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft engines release in the troposphere and lower stratosphere a number of chemical compounds (NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, hydrocarbons, sulphur, soot, etc.) which could potentially affect the ozone layer and the climate through chemical, dynamical and radiative changes. The global amount of gases and particles emitted by current subsonic and projected supersonic aircraft fleets can be estimated, but significant uncertainties remain about the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere. The European efforts concerning these potential atmospheric impacts of aircraft emissions are conducted by the Environment and Climate Research Programme of the European Commission (EC) as well as by national programmes of the Member States of the European Union (EU). The European research activities in this field, are described, divided for practical reasons in two periods. The first includes activities supported under the 3. Framework Programme for R and D activities which covered the period from 1992 up to 1996, while the second period has started in early 1996 and is supported under the 4. Framework Programme. (R.P.) 6 refs.

  5. Measuring the Extent of European State Aid Control : An Econometric Analysis of the European Commission Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Ozbugday, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the European Commission (EC) decisions on state aid control using data on 550 state aid cases approved by the EC between 1998 and 2009. More specifically, we measure the determinants of the duration of state aid, total budget of state aid and daily budget of state

  6. Measuring the Extent of European State Aid Control : An Econometric Analysis of the European Commission Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Ozbugday, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the European Commission (EC) decisions on state aid control using data on 550 state aid cases approved by the EC between 1998 and 2009. More specifically, we measure the determinants of the duration of state aid, total budget of state aid and daily budget of state

  7. Compressor Load Stand: Commissioning and Control Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Causey, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project was to commission this load stand, which includes setting up the hardware, setting up a control system, a data acquisition system, and an automatic test sequence system...

  8. The financial incentives of European Commission to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.

    2000-01-01

    The European Commission has an active policy of favoring renewable energies but despite that, only one European program (ALTENER program) is completely dedicated to that topic, in fact various other programs allows the financing of projects concerning renewable energies. This article reviews various current programs that can offer such opportunities. ALTENER-1 was launched in 1993 and ALTENER-2 took over in 1998. ALTENER-2 is funded with 74 millions Euros for 5 years and can finance studies, pilot installations, information and training actions. 2 other programs ETAP and SYNERGY are also concerned by renewable or alternative energies. The fifth PCRD (research and development framing plan) is dedicated to problems of society and then can concern energy. PCRD is made up of 3 major programs (1-the international role of European research, 2-human potential and socio-economic research, 3-innovation and small and medium-scale enterprises) and 4 theme programs (1-energy, environment and durable development, 2-quality of life and management of life resources, 3-friendly information technologies and 4-growth and competitiveness. Each one of these 7 programs can finance actions concerning renewable energies but the first of the theme program is the best opportunity, it is funded with 2 milliards Euros for 5 years. (A.C.)

  9. The European carbon tax: an assessment of the European Commission's proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.; Smith, Stephen.

    1991-12-01

    After a lengthy internal debate within the European Commission, the Environment Commissioner announced the broad structure of the Commission's proposals for a European carbon tax towards the end of September. The proposed tax would be a combination of a tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels, and a tax on all non-renewable forms of energy. Thus, fossil fuels such as gas, coal and oil would bear a tax comprising two components, one related to their carbon content, the other related to their energy content. Non-renewable forms of energy other than fossil fuels (mainly nuclear power) would be subject to the energy-related part of the tax, but would not bear the carbon component. Overall, the two components would be combined in equal proportions, in the sense that half of the tax on a typical barrel of oil would be related to the carbon component and half to the energy component. (author)

  10. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  11. European commission - 7th framework programme. The collaborative project on European sodium fast reactor (CP ESFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the key characteristics of the four years large Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP ESFR - 2009-2012); the CP ESFR follows the 6th FP project named 'Roadmap for a European Innovative SOdium cooled FAst Reactor - EISOFAR' further identifying, organizing and implementing a significant part of the needed R and D effort. The CP ESFR merges the contribution of 25 european partners; it will be realized under the aegis of the 7th FP under the Area - Advanced Nuclear Systems with a refund from the European Commission of 5.8 M euro (11.55 M euro total budget). It will be a key component of the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE TP) and its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA). The inputs for the project are the key research goals for fourth generation of European sodium cooled fast reactors which can be summarized as follow: an improved safety with in particular the achievement of a robust architecture vis a vis of abnormal situations and the robustness of the safety demonstrations; the guarantee of a financial risk comparable to that of the other means of energy production; a flexible and robust management of the nuclear materials and especially the waste reduction through the Minor Actinides burning. (author)

  12. Corporate strategies for European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In January 1992, the Commission of the European Economic Community issued a proposal for accelerating the process of building up a single market for natural gas. After the first step, already taken, to introduce price transparency, the Commission is willing to introduce progressively Third Party Access (T.P.A.) and the freedom of establishment in all segments of the natural gas industry: L.N.G. terminals, storage facilities, transmission lines and public distribution. 1 tab

  13. The security of energy supply. The European Commission's Green Paper stimulates debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The growing dependence of the European Union (EU) on external supplies of energy is the central focus of a ''Green Paper'' issued in late November 2000 by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels. Entitled ''Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'', the Green Paper is intended to stimulate debate on the EU's energy policies and strategies. European member States are ''interdependent'', the Green Paper states, ''both because of climate change issues and the creation of the internal energy market. Any energy policy decision taken by a Member State will inevitably have repercussions on the functioning of the market in other Member States. Energy policy has assumed a new, Community dimension.'' Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: The EU will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; its enlargement will not change this situation. Based on current forecasts, energy dependence will reach 70% by the year 2030. - The EU has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions; it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector. - The EU presently is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. Featured here is the Executive Summary of the Green Paper

  14. European Strategies and Higher Education (CPP RPS 34/2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses EU-level developments in policy thinking in the area of higher education, training, and labour markets based on the analysis of a major large-scale strategy promoted by the European Commission in the 2000s: “Education and Training 2010” (ET 2010, launched in 2001, followed by a new strategy for the next decade, “Education and Training 2020”, ET 2020). The strategy shows major EU-level conceptualizations in the areas of education, training and labour market policies. The m...

  15. Strategy 2020 and the European Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity is an integrated concept, resulted from the combination of two fundamental elements flexibility and security. The strategy was recognized as one of the key objectives for European Labour markets in the context of the European Employment Strategy and Lisbon Strategy. The implementation of flexicurity can only be specific, taking account of national and regional characteristics in spite of the fact that all labour markets in Europe are faced with similar challenges.

  16. Public health ethical perspectives on the values of the European Commission's White Paper "Together for Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Schulte in den Bäumen, Tobias; Sørensen, Kristine; Borrett, Glenn; Brand, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    In 2007 the European Commission issued the White Paper: "Together for Health". Considered the EU Health Strategy for the years 2008-2013, it offers the cornerstones for setting priorities in EU health actions. The public health framework offered in this strategy is explicitly built on shared values--including the overarching values of universality, access to good quality care, equity and solidarity that reacted to certain health care challenges within the EU. This article analyses the Health Strategy via its ethical scope and considers implications for future health policy making. The Health Strategy and related documents are scrutinised to explore how the mentioned values are defined and enfolded. Additionally, scientific databases are searched for critical discussions of the value base of the Health Strategy. The results are discussed and reasoned from a public health ethical perspective. The Health Strategy is barely documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Furthermore, no attention was given to the value base of the Health Strategy. Our analysis shows that the mentioned values are particularly focussed on health care in general rather than on public health in particular. Besides this, the given values of the Health Strategy are redundant. An additional consideration of consequentialist public health ethics values would normatively strengthen a population-based health approach of EU health policy making.

  17. Replacement, Reduction, Refinement - Animal welfare progress in European Pharmacopoeia monographs: activities of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission from 2007 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C; Kolaj-Robin, O; Cirefice, G; Taconet, L; Pel, E; Jouette, S; Buda, M; Milne, C; Charton, E

    2018-01-01

    Since the opening for signature of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes in 1986, the European Pharmacopoeia Commission and its experts have carried out a programme of work committed to Replacing, Reducing and Refining (3Rs) the use of animals for test purposes. While updates on achievements in the field of the 3Rs are regularly provided, this article summarises the activities of the Ph. Eur. Commission in this field within the last decade.

  18. The review of constitutional norms concerning local public administration in the view of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolache, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The proposals of the Commission to review the Constitution of Romania were subject to the analysis of experts from the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission), who expressed their opinion in a report adopted at the 98th plenary session of the European body. The article analyzes the recommendations of the Venice Commission regarding the proposed changes to the constitutional norms governing local public administration, comprising some general aspects concern...

  19. Commission of the European Communities. Review of fast reactor activities - April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1984-01-01

    The frame in which the activities of the Commission of the European Communities in the field of fast breeders are executed was described at earlier meetings. The present review is therefore limited to a brief report on same highlights

  20. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  1. Commission of the European Communities - Review of fast reactor activities, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1979-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities pursued its activities on the lines described earlier. Besides the execution of a research programme in its Joint Research Centre the Commission endeavoured to support the development and demonstration of fast reactors. Most of the latter activities were performed in the frame of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee

  2. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy; Contribution au debat europeen sur la strategie energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J

    2001-07-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  3. Global Warming: Will the European Commission Choose Impotency?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The authors aim to answer this question with a presentation of two main propositions: the objectives of the green book are insufficient and the absence of an ambitious reduction goal by the EU is due, in part, to objective factors, in part to ideology. They then propose some recommendation to the European Union. Citations on energy production, energy market and diagrams for the energy versus carbon intensities (for the European Union countries) are also provided to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  4. Global Warming: Will the European Commission Choose Impotency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The authors aim to answer this question with a presentation of two main propositions: the objectives of the green book are insufficient and the absence of an ambitious reduction goal by the EU is due, in part, to objective factors, in part to ideology. They then propose some recommendation to the European Union. Citations on energy production, energy market and diagrams for the energy versus carbon intensities (for the European Union countries) are also provided to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. European antitrust policy 1957-2004: An analysis of Commission decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carree, M.; Günster, A.; Schinkel, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of European antitrust law enforcement since its foundation in the Treaty of Rome of 1957. We present a complete overview and statistical analysis of all 538 formal Commission decisions adopted up to 2004 under Articles 81, 82 and 86 of the European Community Treaty. We

  6. European antitrust policy 1957-2004: an analysis of Commission decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carree, M.; Günster, A.; Schinkel, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of European antitrust law enforcement since its foundation in the Treaty of Rome of 1957 up to and including 2004. We present a complete overview and statistical analysis of all 538 formal Commission decisions under Articles 81, 82, and 86 of the European Community

  7. The debate on law propositions about energy by the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the third Energy Package put forward by the European Commission on the 19 September 2007, and a presentation of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) presented by the Commission on the 22 November 2007, the author more precisely presents the contents of the European Union Energy and Climate Package of January 2008. Several aspects are addressed: renewable energies, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon capture and storage, and public aids for these different themes. A graph gives a description of the co-decision procedure

  8. European Strategy Preparatory Group - CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics, the European Strategy Preparatory Group (ESPG) welcomes submissions on issues related to the strategy from individual physicists, from groups of scientists representing a community (an experiment, a topic of theoretical research, etc.) as well as from Institutions and Organizations (funding agencies, ministries, etc).   These contributions will be discussed at the meetings of the Preparatory Group and during the Open Symposium to be held on 10-12 September 2012 in Cracow, and will be made available to the Strategy Group for drafting the Update of the Strategy. How to submit a contribution? Send your contribution on the scientific issues below using the form under http://indico.cern.ch/event/espg_input (preferably as an attached PDF file): - Accelerator Physics - Astroparticle Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology - Flavour Physics and Symmetries - Physics at High Energy Frontier - Physics of Neutrinos - Strong Interaction Physics...

  9. Concerns of European Commission for small and medium size enterprises development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Muntean

    2009-12-01

    by means of national programs, will support the SMEs development by offering the possibility of attendance to cross-border transactions with European Single Market. European Commission’s programs were supported by European Council and approved by European Parliament, following that every Member State will establish programs and initiatives on national level. European Commission’s strategy concerning SMEs  development is the increase of their number, labour force absorption and a faster economic and financial crisis traversing.

  10. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  11. Lattice Commissioning Strategy Simulation for the B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Whittum, D.; Yan, Y.; Cai, Y.; Shoaee, H.

    2011-01-01

    To prepare for the PEP-II turn on, we have studied one commissioning strategy with simulated lattice errors. Features such as difference and absolute orbit analysis and correction are discussed. To prepare for the commissioning of the PEP-II injection line and high energy ring (HER), we have developed a system for on-line orbit analysis by merging two existing codes: LEGO and RESOLVE. With the LEGO-RESOLVE system, we can study the problem of finding quadrupole alignment and beam position (BPM) offset errors with simulated data. We have increased the speed and versatility of the orbit analysis process by using a command file written in a script language designed specifically for RESOLVE. In addition, we have interfaced the LEGO-RESOLVE system to the control system of the B-Factory. In this paper, we describe online analysis features of the LEGO-RESOLVE system and present examples of practical applications.

  12. Contrarian Investment Strategies in a European Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.; van der Put, J.; Veld, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we study value strategies for four European countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom).We find an outperformance for all four value variables which are investigated: the earnings-to-price (E/P) ratio, the cash-flow-to-price (CF/P) ratio, the book-to-market

  13. European Commission Initiatives to Promote Social Concern on the Market: a Counterbalance to Fiscal Discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gómez Urquijo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the significance of recent European Commission initiatives in the face of evidence of non-compliance with the social objectives targeted in the EU 2020 Strategy. In the midst of the ongoing debate regarding austerity and growth, we stress the need to further the EU trend toward differentiated growth-friendly fiscal consolidation. Given that “conditionality” is a new keystone of economic governance and cohesion policy, the difficulties that the Member States encounter and the diversity of their social protections give a new meaning to the European coordination policies that are intended to promote social cohesion. By analysing EU proposals and official documents, we will show how the Commission’s initiatives have introduced diverse elements that are intended to address the social consequences of the economic crisis and reveal how new ideas of growth and new ways to deepen the internal market have been promoted. We will also determine whether we can consider these ideas to be a valid response to current social challenges.

  14. CRASH - Community Road Accident System Homepage : feasibility study on a European Road Safety Information System, financially supported by the European Commission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. Poppe, F. Blokpoel, A. & Kars, V.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a feasibility study, financially supported by the European Commission. The study investigated the possibilities for the development and maintenance of a European Road Safety Information System with relevant and internationally comparable information. Recommendations on

  15. Commission of the European Communities review of fast reactor activities, March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balz, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1981-05-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities in the field of fast reactors development essentially in the frame of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) and by execution of a Reactor Programme at its Joint Research Center (JRC). The study was concerned with introducing fast reactors into European Community, elaboration of preliminary safety criteria and guidelines for typical fast reactor accidents; codes and standards; LMFBR safety, fuel, fuel cycle safety.

  16. Commission of the European Communities review of fast reactor activities, March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities continued its activities in the field of fast reactors development essentially in the frame of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) and by execution of a Reactor Programme at its Joint Research Center (JRC). The study was concerned with introducing fast reactors into European Community, elaboration of preliminary safety criteria and guidelines for typical fast reactor accidents; codes and standards; LMFBR safety, fuel, fuel cycle safety

  17. The European Commission Proposal for a Directive on Antitrust Damages: A First Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2013-01-01

    On 11 June 2013 the European Commission adopted a package of instruments to facilitate damages claims by victims of antitrust damages. The main element of the package is a proposal for a directive on antitrust damages. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the content of the proposed

  18. Rehabilitation robotics in robotics for healthcare ; a roadmap study for the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, G.J.; Wilt, M.de; Cremers, G.; Rensma, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    To gain understanding in the current status of Robotics in healthcare the European Commission issued a roadmap study into this domain. This paper reports on the main characteristics and results of this study. The study covered the wide domain of Healthcare and in this paper the domains relevant for

  19. From use cases of the Joint European Torus towards integrated commissioning requirements of the ITER tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A.C. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stephen, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sartori, F.; Cavinato, M. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Farthing, J.W. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Ranz, R.; Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Winter, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Arnoux, G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Blackman, T.; Boboc, A.; Card, P.J.; Dalley, S.; Day, I.E. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); De Tommasi, G. [Consorzio CREATE/Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Drewelow, P.; Elsmore, C.; Ivings, E.; Felton, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-10-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is the largest tokamak currently in operation in the world. One of the greatest challenges of JET is the integrated commissioning of all its major plant systems. This is driven, partially, by the size and complexity of its operational infrastructure and also by the fact that, being an international environment, it has to address the issues of integrating, commissioning and maintaining plant systems developed by third parties. The ITER tokamak, now in construction, is a fusion device twice the size of JET and, being a joint effort between the European Union, China, India, Japan, South Korea, the Russian Federation and the USA, it will share on a wider scale all of the JET challenges regarding integration and integrated commissioning of very large and complex plant systems. With the scope of taking advantage from the history and experience of JET, Fusion for Energy (F4E) has worked together with the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), the host and operator of JET, for the provision of ITER relevant user experiences related to the integrated commissioning of the tokamak. This work presents and discusses the main results and the methods that were used to extract and translate the commissioning experience information into ITER requirements.

  20. The European Commission proposes changes to the directive on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission proposes changes in the ancient European directive on nuclear safety in order to europeanize nuclear safety. The first proposal is to submit all European nuclear facilities to a control every 6 years by a board of foreign experts. Another proposal is to impose that every new power plant should be designed so that the radiological impact of an accident should be limited to the facility itself. The same proposal would impose for every nuclear plant the presence of an emergency center resistant to radiation, earthquakes and floods. The reporting of any incident occurring in a nuclear plant would be made compulsory. The decision to extend the operating life of a nuclear plant would be suspended to the results of a compulsory safety test. (A.C.)

  1. Three Target Sectors for a European Investment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janin, Lionel; Douillard, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    While the president of the European Commission is getting ready to present the 'Juncker package' announced in July 2014, to revive activity in Europe through investment, what are the sectors in which these investments may be concentrated? The overall analysis of investment gaps in the euro zone has confirmed the requirement for a European macro-economic revival effort that involves investment, public or private, undertaken very quickly, even though this diagnosis varies depending on the country. The drivers of a European investment strategy are fiscal, regulatory and financial and are based on the selection of projects for the future. This third 'Note d'analyse' addresses the topic of investment potential in three key sectors: transport, energy and the digital sector, for which the amount of additional investment could reach euro 120 billion per year and thus, over three years, be higher than the forecasts in the Juncker plan. This maximalist amount mainly corresponds to the implementation of an ambitious energy-climate policy. Given current budgetary constraints, carefully selecting the desired investments, for which their social utility must be validated, is imperative: socioeconomic evaluation is the appropriate approach, particularly for taking into account the environmental externalities that now justify significant investments in the ecological transition. (authors)

  2. Charities' response to the European Commission call of interest for their involvement in the European Research Area

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study to investigate what could be the role of the charities concerned with scientific research in the European Research Area (ERA). The analysis particularly concentrates on UK and Italy. The questions on which the exploratory study was developed are: 1. “In what specific areas of the ERA did the European Commission (EC) for the involvement of charities? And could there be other areas in which charities might participate?” 2. “Given the role and situation of charities in UK and Italy, what role, if any, could they be willing to play in the ERA? Is it the same as the one proposed by the Commission or not?” In order to answer these questions, the following discussion will focus at first on a short overview of the charity sector, both at the general level and at the national level in UK and Italy. Then a brief presentation of the European Research Area will be given. The hypotheses of the study will then be presented, followed by a methodological section. Results wi...

  3. EC4IT - A Guide to European Commission Projects for CERN/IT department

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, R

    2012-01-01

    European Commission (EC) projects represent an important source of external funding for a number of activities in which IT department is involved. The EC has a set of procedures and formalities for the preparation, negotiation, execution and completion of projects that are different to those normally used at CERN. This document gives an overview of the administrative, financial, reporting and managerial steps involved in participating in an EC project.

  4. Commission of the European Communities - Activities in the field of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1977-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is performing activities in the field of fast reactor on two lines: a) activities aiming to prepare the commercialization of fast reactors by coordination and collaboration between national programmes. b) the execution of an own programme in the Joint Research Centre at Ispra (Italy) and Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany) in the field of FBR safety and research on Pu-bearing fuel

  5. Gaz de France and Ruhrgas have made commitments towards the European commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission's DG Competition has decided to close its investigation into the alleged refusal by the French and German gas companies Gaz de France and Ruhrgas to grant the Norwegian subsidiary of the US gas producer Marathon access to their gas networks. Both companies have offered commitments to improve third party access to their respective transport networks in order to allow customers in France and Germany to benefit more effectively from the opening of the gas markets to competition. (author)

  6. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: European Commission persists in putting industry's interests first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In late September 2010, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) issued their verdict on European Commission proposals aimed at lifting the ban on pharmaceutical companies communicating directly with the general public about prescription drugs. The MEPs were able to limit the scope of some of the more harmful aspects of these proposals, in particular by proposing that drug regulatory agencies should pre-screen the "information" produced by drug companies before it is made available to the public. In December 2010, faced with ongoing opposition from European Member States, the Commission appeared to back down, announcing that it was drawing up "amended proposals". They were publicly released in February 2012 but still leave the door open to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, particularly "reminder advertising". As of 4 July 2012, the amended proposals had not yet been examined by Member States, thus obstructing the legislative process. Public health and management of the costs of social services for Member States are at stake. The Medicines in Europe Forum (MiEF) and the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB) urge Member States to continue to refuse to examine the Commission's proposals, and have drawn up concrete counterproposals that would enable the general public to obtain relevant health information.

  7. The European Union strategy for the Danube – Preliminaries, mechanisms, positions, priorities and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. DOBRESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Strategy for the Danube is an internal EU strategy where all river-side countries are invited to take part, complying with the three principles applied also in the case of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region.The three pillars proposed by the European Commission and which the Strategy centers round are: connectivity (transport, energy, telecommunication, environmental protection and water management, as well as the socio-economic development (culture, education, tourism, rural development. The European Commission proposed to launch and organize a public debate in all river-side countries, conferences, seminars and round tables. The outcome of these debates will lie in the European Commission working out and bringing up, together with the river states, a paper on the theme of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region, and also a Plan of Action. This will comprise the detailed analysis of the present state and will propose a list of strategic projects. The implementation of the Plan of Action will be monitored by the European Commission and will be periodically up-dated, according to the economic conditions and the social trends in the region. Classification-JEL:N5; N7; Q4; R4Keywords:strategy, connectivity, environmental protection, water management, socio-economic development, sustainable developmentJournal:Romanian Journal of EconomicsPages:169-190Volume:32Issue:1(41Year:2011(XXIMonth: JuneFile-URL: http://www.revecon.ro/articles/2011-1/2011-1-10.pdfFile-Format: Application/pdfHandle: RePEc:ine:journl:v:1:y:2011:i:41:p:169-190

  8. Mapping strategy, structure, ownership and performance in European corporations : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colli, A.; Iversen, M.J.; de Jong, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the

  9. Commission of the European Communities: Review of fast reactor activities performed during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the field of fast reactors the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is conducting coordination and harmonization activities at the Brussels headquarters and performing research in its Joint Research Center. The Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee (FRCC) is performing coordination and harmonization activities taking account of the collaboration agreements within the European Fast Reactor (EFR) context. Since the EFR collaboration does not involve all Member States of the European Community the FRCC should establish a link between the EFR countries and other countries. The FRCC discussed R and D activities suitable for a concerted action in a community frame. The Committee also discussed actinide transmutation aspects in LMFBRs. The discussions were based on the results of a study sponsored by the CEC to assess the characteristics of a large core (3600 MWth) with variable actinide content (3-15%). The FRCC received regularly reports on results from current R and D programmes, especially from those related to EFR. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Information report by the Commission for European Affairs about energy transition in the European Union. Nr 596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    In order to deal with the issue of energy transition, the European Commission has implemented a complete reworking of the European climate and energy framework, by updating certain existing legislative texts and by putting forward several new ones. In this context, this report first gives an overview of the issue of climate change, and outlines that the struggle against it is a necessity and an obligation, and even a moral one after the US withdrawal from the Paris agreement. In the second part, the author discusses the perfectible efficiency of European regulations related to energy and climate issues, and outlines remaining obstacles and weaknesses for the implementation of an efficient policy. In the third part, he defines a set of axes of action aimed at improving European objectives and make them in compliance with the Paris agreement: to define a floor price for carbon, to strengthen solidarity between member States, to introduce a framework which would suit innovation development and would make citizen empowerment possible, to ensure a financing which would match challenges, and to systematically integrate renewable energies into negotiations

  11. From Access to Documents to Consumption of Information: The European Commission Transparency Policy for the TTIP Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coremans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To increase transparency of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP negotiations, the European Commission has reformed existing information sharing systems for trade policy. The Commission has moved from a strategy of providing transparency in the form of access to documents to one of access to information, geared specifically towards enhancing consumption of the available information. In both public and institutional transparency policy, the width of the target audience and the depth of the information have increased, and the manner of provision has shifted from reactive to proactive provision of information. As a result, the TTIP is now being coined as the most transparent trade negotiation ever in the EU’s history and a pilot project for transparency policy in future trade negotiations. The article adopts a supply-centred perspective to explain a transparency policy that goes beyond the legal minimum imposed by formal requirements. It relies on interview data of the changes brought about in inter-institutional relations since 2014, basic quantitative and qualitative analysis of document material, and a five-month participatory observation by the author in the secretariat of the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade.

  12. Ethical evaluation of research proposals by ethics panels advising the European Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2004-06-01

    Ethical principles with regard to animal experimentation are referred to in European Union (EU) legislation and other official documents. Therefore, applications for funding of research under the EU's research programme may undergo an ethical review that is carried out by so-called ethics panels, consisting of experts chosen by the European Commission. The work of these panels differs substantially from that of other ethical committees, as they exist on the institutional, local, regional or national level. Their main purpose is not to decide whether a proposed research can be regarded legal, and therefore should be endorsed or licensed; instead, it is to help the Commission in prioritising its funding. The panels may examine other ethical aspects than those of animal experimentation or animal welfare alone, such as the use of human volunteers. This is reflected by the composition of the panels. Their decisions are normally based on consensus. Even though these decisions may refer to EU legislation, the criteria applied are not restricted to those provided by this legislation. Nevertheless, the various aspects of the Commission's ethical evaluation system (e.g. formal and practical basic conditions, information content of applications, type of decisions taken, lacking of any quality control) offers opportunities for improvement.

  13. Status and functioning of the European Commission's major accident reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the background, functioning and status of the European Commission's Major Accident Reporting System (MARS), dedicated to collect, in a consistent way, data on major industrial accidents involving dangerous substances from the Member States of the European Union, to analyse and statistically process them, and to create subsets of all non-confidential accidents data and analysis results for export to all Member States. This modern information exchange and analysis tool is made up of two connected parts: one for each local unit (i.e., for the Competent Authority of each EU Member State), and one central part for the European Commission. The local, as well as the central parts of this information network, can serve both as data logging systems and, on different levels of complexity, as data analysis tools. The central database allows complex cluster and pattern analysis, identifying and analysing the succession of the disruptive factors leading to an accident. On this basis, 'lessons learned' can be formulated for the industry for the purposes of further accident prevention. Further, results from analysing data of major industrial accidents reported to MARS are presented. It can be shown that some of the main assumptions in the new 'Seveso II Directive' can directly be validated from MARS data. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  14. Comparative decline in funding of European Commission malaria vaccine projects: what next for the European scientists working in this field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoukhuede Egeruan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2000, under the Fifth and subsequent Framework Programmes, the European Commission has funded research to spur the development of a malaria vaccine. This funding has contributed to the promotion of an integrated infrastructure consisting of European basic, applied and clinical scientists in academia and small and medium enterprises, together with partners in Africa. Research has added basic understanding of what is required of a malaria vaccine, allowing selected candidates to be prioritized and some to be moved forward into clinical trials. To end the health burden of malaria, and its economic and social impact on development, the international community has now essentially committed itself to the eventual eradication of malaria. Given the current tentative advances towards elimination or eradication of malaria in many endemic areas, malaria vaccines constitute an additional and almost certainly essential component of any strategic plan to interrupt transmission of malaria. However, funding for malaria vaccines has been substantially reduced in the Seventh Framework Programme compared with earlier Framework Programmes, and without further support the gains made by earlier European investment will be lost.

  15. Why Europe needs a new European Security Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, M.E.; Landman, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Next year, the European Security Strategy: A Secure Europe in a Better World will be ten years old. Both the European Union and the world around it have changed in that time. In this Clingendael Policy Brief Margriet Drent and Lennart Landman argue that the European Union's foreign and security

  16. The European Commission's light bulb decree: Another costly regulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel, E-mail: frondel@rwi-essen.de [Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), Ruhr-Graduate School in Economics (RGS Econ) (Germany); Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Lohmann, Steffen [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI), Hohenzollernstr. 1-3, 45128 Essen (Germany); Tinbergen Institute (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Since September 2009, Regulation 244/2009 of the European Commission enforces the gradual phase-out of incandescent light bulbs. As of September 2012, only energy-efficient lighting sources will be allowed for sale. Among these are halogen light bulbs, light-emitting diodes (LED), or compact fluorescent light bulbs-often referred to as energy-saving light bulbs. The Commission's justification for the phase-out of conventional light bulbs maintains that a reduction in the electricity consumed will not only lead to lower energy cost for private households and industrial consumers, but at the same time lead to a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. This article discusses possible reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs and shows that the investment in energy-efficient light bulbs does not necessarily lead to significant cost reductions. Drawing on some illustrative examples, we demonstrate that the use of cheaper incandescent bulbs instead of energy-saving light bulbs can be economically rational in cases of rather low usage times, in which the higher initial purchasing price might only pay off after very long time spans. Furthermore, due to the coexistence with the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), this regulation attains no additional emission reductions beyond those achieved by the ETS alone. We thus conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs is inappropriate and should be abolished by the Commission. - Research Highlights: > This article discusses reasons for the slow market diffusion of energy-saving light bulbs. > We show that using incandescent bulbs can be rational in cases of rather low usage times. > We conclude that the general ban of incandescent light bulbs should be abolished by the Commission.

  17. Feedback from European Social Partners as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document provides European social partners' responses to the Commission's memorandum on lifelong learning. Part 1, Opinion of the European Center of Enterprises, makes comments and proposals related to the memorandum's six key messages, which are new basic skills for all; more investment in human resources; innovation in teaching and…

  18. CRE answer to the European Commission public consultation on the new electricity market design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe de

    2015-01-01

    On July 15, 2015, the European Commission launched a public consultation on the new Electricity Market Design. All National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), and CRE in particular, contributed to the joint ACER-CEER response to the consultation. CRE supports this joint response, and further develops some topics in this document, building on its particular experience in the implementation of the internal energy market: implementation of the network codes, in particular those regarding the markets, development of demand-side flexibility, development of interconnections, and alignment of fragmented balancing markets

  19. Is Gender Mainstreamed? : A study of the European Commission's use of gender mainstreaming in development policies

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The EU has long expressed a will to be a normative power and to externally promote the values it views as important. Seeing as the EU collectively is the largest donor of foreign aid in the world, development policies are a perfect platform for doing this. One value that has gained ground in recent years is the notion of gender equality. Bearing this in mind, this thesis explores how the EU’s largest institutional donor of foreign aid, the European Commission, has chosen to promote the value ...

  20. Action by the European Commission to promote nuclear safety outside the territory of the Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joulia, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The TACIS programme to improve nuclear safety in Central and Eastern Europe and the former USSR has now entered its final phase. A new programme 'the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC)' has been launched and its aim is to promote nuclear safety in all third-party countries. Support for improvement of the regulatory framework and the effectiveness of the bodies in charge of nuclear safety is a key element. Within the European Commission, the 'Europe, Southern Mediterranean, Middle East and Neighbourhood policy' Directorate, belonging to the AIDCO General Directorate, is tasked with implementation. (author)

  1. European Commission study on energy costs and subsidies in the EU. Report for EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien; Perekhodtsev, Dmitri; Verhaeghe, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has launched a study in order to provide a complete and consistent view on the subsidies and external costs associated with different power generation technologies. Such study is expected to provide input for policy making in years to come. FTI CL Energy has been mandated by EDF to provide a critical review of the methodology developed in the EC study, and to identify potential gaps in coverage and/or contestable assumptions. The study provides a description of best practice to improve the methodology and surveys the literature to provide a range of estimates for critical assumptions on costs and subsidies

  2. The History of Soil Mapping and Classification in Europe: The role of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Early systematic soil mapping in Europe dates back to the early times of soil science in the 19th Century and was developed at National scales mostly for taxation purposes. National soil classification systems emerged out of the various scientific communities active at that time in leading countries like Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, United Kingdom and many others. Different scientific communities were leading in the various countries, in some cases stemming from geological sciences, in others as a branch of agricultural sciences. Soil classification for the purpose of ranking soils for their capacity to be agriculturally productive emerged as the main priority, allowing in some countries for very detailed and accurate soil maps at 1:5,000 scale and larger. Detailed mapping was mainly driven by taxation purposes in the early times but evolved in several countries also as a planning and management tool for farms and local administrations. The need for pan-European soil mapping and classification efforts emerged only after World War II in the early 1950's under the auspices of FAO with the aim to compile a common European soil map as a contribution to the global soil mapping efforts of FAO at that time. These efforts evolved over the next decades, with the support of the European Commission, towards the establishment of a permanent network of National soil survey institutions (the European Soil Bureau Network). With the introduction of digital soil mapping technologies, the new European Soil Information System (EUSIS) was established, incorporating data at multiple scales for the EU member states and bordering countries. In more recent years, the formal establishment of the European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) hosted by the European Commission, together with a formal legal framework for soil mapping and soil classification provided by the INSPIRE directive and the related standardization and harmonization efforts, has led to the operational development of advanced

  3. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO 2 emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10 9 euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  4. Several roads lead to international norms, but few via international socialization. A case study of the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, E.A.E.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can an international organization socialize those who work within it? The European Commission of the European Union is a crucial case because it is an autonomous international organization with a vocation to defend supranational norms. If this body cannot socialize its members, which international

  5. How to opt into the Common European Sales Law? Brief comments on the Commission's proposal for a regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike the actual text for the proposed Common European Sales Law (CESL), which is based on extensive preparatory work by academics, the regime for opting into the instrument, which is set out in the main text of the proposed regulation, is entirely of the European Commission's own making. The

  6. How to opt into the Common European Sales Law? Brief comments on the Commission's proposal for a regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Claeys, I.; Feltkamp, R.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike the actual text for the proposed Common European Sales Law (CESL), which is based on extensive preparatory work by academics, the regime for opting into the instrument, which is set out in the main text of the proposed regulation, is entirely of the European Commission's own making. The

  7. Conference "Internet, Web, What's next?" on 26 June 1998 at CERN : Robert Verrue, Director general of the DGXIII of the European Commission, responsible for telecommunication in Europe, outlines the Commission's vision on the Information Society in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Conference "Internet, Web, What's next?" on 26 June 1998 at CERN : Robert Verrue, Director general of the DGXIII of the European Commission, responsible for telecommunication in Europe, outlines the Commission's vision on the Information Society in Europe

  8. The programme and objectives of the Commission of the European Communities concerning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Cricchio, A.; Girardi, F.

    1984-01-01

    The radioactive waste management programme of the Commission of the European Communities offers a good opportunity for co-operation between Member States. The Commission's principal objectives are: (1) to implement a Community action plan adopted in 1980 for a twelve-year period; (2) to promote research and development; (3) to ensure that radioactive waste management is conducted in conformity with environmental concerns and radiation protection norms. Under the action plan the current situation and prospects for radioactive waste management in the Community were evaluated in 1981-82. Other activities under the plan relate to the promotion of Community co-operation in final disposal and to the institution of a mechanism for Community consultations on criteria for the acceptance of conditioned wastes. The promotion of research and development involves a high degree of co-operation and effort to optimize or select procedures and to establish pilot or demonstration facilities. A budget of US$ 20 million at present supports these activities. With regard to radiation protection, in 1982 the Commission issued a recommendation for an investigation, at Community level, into the impact on all the Member States of operations such as waste treatment, dumping at sea, burial in the ground and storage of radioactive wastes. These objectives suggest that the solutions now under consideration for the management of high-level and long-lived wastes will by the end of this century be introduced alongside those already adopted in practice for low- and medium-level wastes. (author)

  9. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P.; Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C.; Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of exposure to radon on workers and members of the public have been examined for many years. Recent advances have been made in evaluating the risk associated with radon exposure and in implementing remediation programmes in dwellings. However, decisions about whether to implement countermeasures to reduce radon exposures may benefit from an enhanced capability to evaluate and understand the associated health risk. In this context, the European Commission has launched a project to develop a user friendly software package based upon current information on radon epidemiology, radon dosimetry, demography, and countermeasure efficiency. The software has been designed to perform lung cancer risk calculations specific to European populations for various exposure profiles and to evaluate, in terms of risk reduction, the efficiency of various countermeasures in dwellings. This paper presents an overview of the general structure of the software and outlines its most important modelling approaches. The software is able to evaluate the risk of fatal lung cancer associated with individual or collective exposure to radon. The individual risk calculation module determines, for an individual of given age, sex and tobacco consumption, the excess risk for a given exposure (past or future exposure) time-profile, on the basis of demographic data (WHO, 1996 and 1998) specific to the selected population. The collective risk calculation module determines the excess risk for each occupant of a dwelling, for an exposure time-profile derived from data describing the dwelling, its occupancy, and the chosen countermeasures. These calculations may be done using one of two classical approaches: 1) The epidemiological approach in which the risk is obtained directly from the radon exposure data using a risk model (BEIR IV, 1988; BEIR VI, 1999) derived from epidemiological studies of uranium miners; 2) The dosimetric approach in which the risk is derived from the radon exposure data

  10. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P. [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Janssens, A. [European Commission, DG XI (Luxembourg)

    2000-05-01

    The effects of exposure to radon on workers and members of the public have been examined for many years. Recent advances have been made in evaluating the risk associated with radon exposure and in implementing remediation programmes in dwellings. However, decisions about whether to implement countermeasures to reduce radon exposures may benefit from an enhanced capability to evaluate and understand the associated health risk. In this context, the European Commission has launched a project to develop a user friendly software package based upon current information on radon epidemiology, radon dosimetry, demography, and countermeasure efficiency. The software has been designed to perform lung cancer risk calculations specific to European populations for various exposure profiles and to evaluate, in terms of risk reduction, the efficiency of various countermeasures in dwellings. This paper presents an overview of the general structure of the software and outlines its most important modelling approaches. The software is able to evaluate the risk of fatal lung cancer associated with individual or collective exposure to radon. The individual risk calculation module determines, for an individual of given age, sex and tobacco consumption, the excess risk for a given exposure (past or future exposure) time-profile, on the basis of demographic data (WHO, 1996 and 1998) specific to the selected population. The collective risk calculation module determines the excess risk for each occupant of a dwelling, for an exposure time-profile derived from data describing the dwelling, its occupancy, and the chosen countermeasures. These calculations may be done using one of two classical approaches: 1) The epidemiological approach in which the risk is obtained directly from the radon exposure data using a risk model (BEIR IV, 1988; BEIR VI, 1999) derived from epidemiological studies of uranium miners; 2) The dosimetric approach in which the risk is derived from the radon exposure data

  11. The European Commission in the power relations of the European Union after the 2004–07 enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ostrovskaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available pplying a comparative perspective, this article argues that the current crisis of European Union integration cannot be resolved by member states either transferring additional competences to the EU level or strengthening the intergovernmental dimension of integration. The systemic character of the ongoing process is weakening the institutional structure, which affects both the institutions and their power relations. The European Commission (EC, once a highly independent supranational actor on the eve of the integration process in the 1950s, now faces growing competition from intergovernmental elements in the institutional balance. The theoretical approach of historical neo-institutionalism offers new, useful insights into this research area. The articles uses this theory to analyze the EC’s evolution since the time of its creation in the form of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, focusing on the links between the gradual changes in its internal structure and its institutional position. Although the phenomenon of “path dependence” was initially present in the EC’s internal systems, the later development of its competences in the institutional balance provoked member states to limit the commission’s activities in the second half of the 1960s. First attempts were made mainly by appointing weak presidents, but the later reform of the EC’s internal structure, undertaken by Neil Kinnock in the beginning of the 21st centry, directed its further structural development as a more technocratic institution. Consequently, the EC was not able to pursue its aims effectively in preparing for its enlargement to include Central and Eastern Europe. The increased heterogeneity of the member states after the 2004–07 enlargement also weakened the EC’s position in the institutional balance, diminishing its traditional function as the “engine of integration.”

  12. Raising Competitiveness for Tourist Destinations through Information Technologies within the Newest Tourism Action Framework Proposed by the European Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray F. Iunius

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several challenges regarding the European tourism industry were recently identified at EU level which the experts of the European Commission tried to meet, thus formulating several priorities within the newest Tourism Action Framework: Stimulate long-term competitiveness in the European tourism sector, promote the development of sustainable and high-quality tourism, and consolidate the image and promotion of European tourist destinations. Due to the new generational context, information and communications technology ICT and innovation became keywords within the most recent European Tourism Policy. Considering the symbiotic relationship that exists at the European tourism level between sustainable development, innovative ICT solutions, and long-term competitiveness, the decision-makers in European destinations should focus on identifying innovative ways to implement the new Tourism Action Framework adopted by the European Commission, through ICT applications, in order to support long-term competitiveness achievement. Two such authentic proposals are formulated within the present discussion paper: the creation of a decision support system for the management of sustainable European destinations and the development of a trip-planner for quality-sensitive tourists based on an umbrella European certification/labeling system for tourism quality. There is still a fertile field in these areas and, therefore, more innovative ICT tools to support the long-term competitiveness of European tourist destinations can be developed.

  13. Obesity in Europe: The Strategy of the European Union from a Public Health Law Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese.......In 2007 the European Commission published a White Paper on a “Strategy on nutrition, overweight and obesity”, proposing measures to impede the current trend towards a steady gain in weight by Union citizens. In this article, these ideas are discussed critically in the light of the competences...

  14. Contact Allergy to Preservatives—Is the European Commission a Commendable Risk Manager?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Ferløv Schwensen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health point of view, are permitted for use in cosmetic products in the European Union. Notwithstanding the efforts by the European Commission (EC to avoid epidemics of contact allergy, the former epidemic of contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile and the unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone show the procrastination of the European Union risk management process for cosmetic ingredients. Timely risk management is of the utmost importance to avoid rapidly increasing numbers of contact allergy to turn into full-blown epidemics. It is therefore proposed that in order to avoid future epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives, the allowed preservatives in cosmetic products should be entered onto Annex V on a time-limited basis only, and they must be re-evaluated in order to stay on Annex V.

  15. Information report by the Commission for European Affairs on the second Energy-Climate Package - Nr 2294

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This report first recalls the objectives of the first Energy-Climate package and outlines that its implementation revealed some gaps despite some promising results. The author then notices that the current context requires new efforts, and that new objectives have been defined to promote energy transition: propositions of the European Commission are recalled as well as the opinions of the European Parliament and European Council. The author discusses the ambition of this second package as a lever for a transition towards a new growth model. He discusses divergence issues between countries, and the triple challenge (emission reduction, share of renewable energy, energy efficiency), and outlines that energy transition represents a new industrial project for Europe, and that the evolution towards a Union of energy is needed. Works of the French Commission for European Affairs are briefly reported, and the proposal for a European resolution is given

  16. New nuclear legislation proposals from the European Commission funds to cover nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek M.

    2003-01-01

    On 30 January 2003, the European Commission adopted two proposals for new Directives in the area of nuclear safety: - a proposal for a Council Directive defining the basic obligations and the general principles on the safety of nuclear installations; - a proposal for a Council Directive on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. The first of these includes a requirement for the setting up of 'decommissioning funds'. However, this is a 'short-hand' title as the funds must cover all nuclear liabilities that remain after the end of operation of a nuclear installation, not just its closure and dismantling. The liabilities that remain following the closure of a nuclear installation need to be managed safely. They also need to be managed over a period that ranges from decades to centuries. It is vitally important that the financial resources for the safe management of these liabilities can be guaranteed over the full period. In the Commission's view, this can be best achieved by establishing a segregated fund that is built up over the operating life of the facility and by placing clear limitations on how the fund may be used. Ideally the segregated fund should be 'external' to the company and managed in such a way to ensure that it retains its value. The funds should not be spent on anything other than their identified purpose. The fund should be sufficient to cover all liabilities that remain once a facility stops generating revenue. These liabilities would include long-term management of spent nuclear fuel and all radioactive waste (including its disposal), not already paid for during operation, and the full dismantling of the facility. The Directive should cover all nuclear installations, not just nuclear power plants. It would not be logical to require a fund to cover reactor decommissioning, but not for a reprocessing plant. Special provisions will have to be made for those installations, such as some research reactors, that do not generate

  17. Strategies for public health research in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Olivier; McCarthy, Mark; Conceição, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    'Health' is an identifiable theme within the European Union multi-annual research programmes. Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), led by the European Public Health Association, sought to identify public health research strategies in EU member states. Within PHIRE, national public health associations reviewed structures for health research, held stakeholder workshops and produced reports. This information, supplemented by further web searches, including using assisted translation, was analysed for national research strategies and health research strategies. All countries described general research strategies, outlining organizational and capacity objectives. Thematic fields, including health, are mentioned in some strategies. A health research strategy was identified for 15 EU countries and not for 12. Ministries of health led research strategies for nine countries. Public health research was identified in only three strategies. National research strategies did not refer to the European Union's health research programme. Public health research strategies of European countries need to be developed by ministries of health, working with the research community to achieve the European Research Area.

  18. Implementing the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: Scientific challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Alice; Borja, Angel; Solidoro, Cosimo; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; EC, 2008) is an ambitious European policy instrument that aims to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in the 5,720,000 km2 of European seas by 2020, using an Ecosystem Approach. GES is to be assessed using 11 descriptors and up to 56 indicators (European Commission, 2010), and the goal is for clean, healthy and productive seas that are the basis for marine-based development, known as Blue-Growth. The MSFD is one of many policy instruments, such as the Water Framework Directive, the Common Fisheries Policy and the Habitats Directive that, together, should result in "Healthy Oceans and Productive Ecosystems - HOPE". Researchers working together with stakeholders such as the Member States environmental agencies, the European Environmental Agency, and the Regional Sea Conventions, are to provide the scientific knowledge basis for the implementation of the MSFD. This represents both a fascinating challenge and a stimulating opportunity.

  19. Critical outlook and trends for environmental reference materials at the Measurements & Testing Generic Activity (European Commission).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, P; Bennink, D; Bøwadt, S

    2001-05-01

    It is now well recognised that the quality control (QC) of all types of analyses, including environmental analyses depends on the appropriate use of reference materials. One of the ways to check the accuracy of methods is based on the use of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), whereas other types of (not certified) Reference Materials (RMs) are used for routine quality control (establishment of control charts) and interlaboratory testing (e.g. proficiency testing). The perception of these materials, in particular with respect to their production and use, differs widely according to various perspectives (e.g. RM producers, routine laboratories, researchers). This review discusses some critical aspects of RM use and production for the QC of environmental analyses and describes the new approach followed by the Measurements & Testing Generic Activity (European Commission) to tackle new research and production needs.

  20. The European Commission and IEA highlight the importance of diversifying energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Europe will become more and more dependent on foreign sources for its energy supply because of the growing demand for energy. As a consequence Europe must diversify both its supplying countries and its energy sources. In this way the Nabucco gas pipeline project is important because it will link the Caspian sea to Europe by avoiding Russia, the main gas supplier of Europe. Other sources of energy like renewable energies or nuclear energy or carbon sequestration must be developed in Europe. Another point is to give more power to the European Commission to deal directly with energy exporting countries to get more favourable contracts, till now each member state has favored its own bi-lateral talks. (A.C.)

  1. Overall review strategy for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's High-Level Waste Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Overall Review Strategy gives general guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for conducting it's license application and pre-license application reviews. These reviews are in support of the Commission's construction authorization decision for a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Objectives and strategies are defined that focus the staff's reviews on determining compliance with requirements of 10 CFR Part 60. These strategies define how the staff prioritizes its reviews on those key technical uncertainties considered to be most important to repository performance. Strategies also give guidance for developing, in an integrated way, the License Application Review Plan together with supporting performance assessments, analyses, and research

  2. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  3. The Commission of European Communities project 'mirage' (migration of radionuclides in the geosphere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1984-01-01

    The co-ordinated project 'MIRAGE' on Migration of Radionuclides in the Geosphere corresponds to the follow-up, from 1983 onwards, of the present activities of the laboratories of the Member States, up to the end of 1984, and of the Joint Research Centre at Ispra, up to the end of 1983. It is concentrated upon the study of the transfer of radioactivity from conditioned waste through the different barriers up to the interface between the geosphere and the biosphere. The MIRAGE project is performed in the framework of the Commission of European Communities (CEC) indirect action programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste, sub-programme Undergound Disposal, and of the CEC direct action programme on Safety of Nuclear Materials at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment. The total financial commitment in this project is at present 6,384,000 ECU for 1983 and 1984 and the Commission participates financially in each study selected on a cost-sharing basis to a level of about 40% of the total cost. The costs of the studies performed at JRC-Ispra are not included in this amount. The number of organizations, firms and laboratories involved in this project comes to about 40

  4. Commission of the european communities. Joint research centre. Petten Establishment. Annual Report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977 marked the beginning of a new multiannual research programme for the European Commission's Joint research Centre. Regarding the exploitation of HFR (High Flux Reactor), the year was one of steady, on-schedule operation with high utilization, although this fell off slightly in the autumn due to overloading of our capsule project engineering team and manufacturing services. We are pleased to note that the HFR Users' Meeting, held in October, drew about 100 participants from Europe and America and demonstrated a lively interest in the Commission's materials testing reactor. Technical improvements to the plant are being examined as one means of maintaining or even increasing this interest in the 1980's. Following the wishes of the Council of Ministers, new Advisory Committees for Programme Management have been set up for all the Joint Research Centre's activities and those for HFR and High Temperature Materials Programmes have met at Petten. This latter Committee is entirely new to its task, the programme having been served until 1977 by a number of ad hoc meetings of national experts. The work of the Organic Chemistry Laboratory falls under the wings of the Community Reference Bureau Advisory Committee, who have met in Brussels and strongly encouraged the development of the activity

  5. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia; Joldes Cosmin

    2009-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR) state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  6. European Commission and IAEA Celebrate 30 Years Co-operation on Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Today the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) celebrate 30 years of cooperation in the safeguarding of nuclear materials and facilities. This anniversary is marked by an event at the AEA Headquarters in Vienna. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission has provided scientific and echnical support to the work of IAEA since 1981, with over 100 scientists and technicians working on more than 25 projects. The anniversary is also an opportunity for both parties to plan their future joint activities. ''Nuclear safety and security are absolute priorities for the EU and in this context expertise on nuclear safeguards is extremely important for global security,'' says Dominique Ristori, Director General of the Joint Research Centre. ''The JRC is constantly at work on state-of-the-art technologies for nuclear safeguards and training of nuclear inspectors to stay ahead of the evolving challenges, in its long-standing cooperation in support of the Agency's mission.'' ''The JRC has provided us with vital scientific and technical support which has helped us to implement safeguards more effectively,'' said Herman Nackaerts, Deputy Director General for Safeguards at the IAEA. ''This has had a positive impact on the security of all the citizens of the European Union and beyond.'' An important chapter in the collaboration between the two organisations is training: high-quality training programmes are provided by the JRC for the next generation of IAEA and EURATOM Inspectors. Other examples of cooperation include special tools to improve environmental particle analysis, a 3D laser-based verification system of nuclear facilities, new nuclear reference materials, and secure sealing for underwater nuclear spent fuel assemblies. Future cooperation between the JRC and IAEA will be in line with the new priorities of the IAEA to further increase the safeguards' effectiveness and efficiency, through a customized approach

  7. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  8. European Growth: a Crisis Exit Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Ben Abdesslem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the European Union (EU is facing a further aggravation of the recession, accompanied by the consequences of the 2008 global financial crisis, the support for economic activities is proving to be more than necessary. Primary concerns of member states must be based on increased efforts in competitiveness, employment, innovation, and assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME, to boost economic growth on a short-term basis or on a longer-term horizon. In this regard, this article firstly suggests that the temporary support for economic activities is absolutely necessary and the possible arrangements are examined in detail. In addition, more emphasis must be put on innovation, as it plays a crucial role for economic growth. Particular attention is also drawn to SMEs, their potential impact on the productive fabric and their financial constraints. The concluding remarks are focused on the European market size, and the antagonism between competition policy and industrial policy is highlighted.

  9. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  10. Papers produced from the Health Inequalities Audit Process for DG Sante at European Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2014-01-01

    As health and social inequalities appear to be increasing within and between EU countries, the Council of the European Union encourages Member States to create and promote policies, strategies, and initiatives that support a healthy lifestyle throughout the life-course. Promoting and supporting...... countries. If these disaggregated data are readily available, they can provide a useful basis to investigate which interventions can best reduce social inequalities in maternal and young child health by helping us to understand what is needed to improve poor infant feeding practices....

  11. Research on nuclear energy within the European Commission Research Framework Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    2000-01-01

    The strategic goal of the 5 th EURATOM RTD Framework Programme (FP5) is to help exploit the full potential of nuclear energy in a sustainable manner, by making current technologies even safer and more economical and by exploring promising new concepts. The programme covers nuclear fusion, nuclear fission and radiation protection. Part of the programme on nuclear fission and radiation protection is being implemented through ''indirect actions'', i.e. research co-sponsored (up to 50% of total costs) and co-ordinated by DG RESEARCH of the European Commission (EC) but carried out by external public and private organisations as multi-partner projects. The budget available for these indirect actions during FP5 (1998-2002) is 191 MEuro. The programme covers four different areas: safety of existing reactors, including plant life management, severe accident management and development of evolutionary systems; safety of the fuel cycle, including radioactive waste management and disposal, partitioning and transmutation and decommissioning of nuclear installation; safety of future systems, including new or revisited reactor or fuel cycle concepts; radiation protection and radiological sciences, including both basic radiobiology and radiophysics and issues connected to the application of radiation protection. After the first calls for proposals of FP5, which were evaluated in 1999 about 140 research projects have been selected for funding and is now in the process of starting. In parallel the research projects that were supported in the 4th Framework Programme (1994 - 1998) are coming to an end, and being reported, at the same time as the first thoughts on the 6 t h FP are discussed.An important new component for the future research in Europe is the concept of a European Research Area (ERA). The purpose of ERA is to create better overall framework conditions for research in Europe. Some of the concepts being discussed in this context are networking of centres of excellence, a

  12. The Institutional vs. the Academic Definition of the Quality of Work Life. What Is the Focus of the European Commission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, Vicente; Lopez-Tamayo, Jordi; Surinach, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen how the quality of work life has been focused and defined by the European Commission (EC). In our study we compare the EC definition with the academic one and try to see how close they are. We also analyse the possibility of applying the institutional definition to the Spanish case through the development of specific…

  13. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities in the field of codes and standards for FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzaghi, A.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the organization set up by the Commission of European Communities to study problems, compare information within the member nations, and with other industrial nations for the preparation of guides and codes for the components of the LMFBR is given. Work performed and currently in progress is given on structural analysis, materials, and classification of components. (orig.)

  14. Is "Better Regulation" Possible? Formal and Substantive Quality in the Impact Assessments in Education and Culture of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the initial results produced by the European Commission's "better regulation agenda", which aims to stimulate productivity and employment, on the use of evidence and its potential to enhance democratic governance. The article finds that implausible rational models of policy making dictate the ways in which the…

  15. The green paper 'towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.; Tillerson, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Green Paper, 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply' was adopted by the European Commission on the 20. of November, 2000 (COM(2000)769 final). At this occasion, the Commission launched a public debate on this strategic document. On the 21. of June 2001, a Public Hearing on Security of energy supply in Europe, on the basis of the Green Paper, was organised by the Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy of the European Parliament. Bernard Laponche was among the six experts participating to the Hearing and presented the following paper, prepared with Kenya Tillerson. This presentation is organised in three chapters: I - Comments on the Green Paper; II - Energy efficiency potentials; III - Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter I shows that under the heading of the security of supply, the Green paper elaborates and proposes a global energy strategy taking into account environmental and internal market issues and constraints. This leads to recommendations for a common energy policy for Europe based, as first priority, on a demand policy, i.e. energy efficiency on the demand side. If the necessity of such a policy is clearly stated, the Green paper remains weak on the quantitative objectives, due to the lack of contrasted energy forecast scenarios, as well as on the means of a vigorous energy efficiency policy at European Level. The issue of energy efficiency potentials at European Union level is examined in Chapter II, in the light of the poor information which can be extracted from the energy scenarios presented by the European Commission in various publications. A comparison of energy consumption indicators in France and the European Union leads to a rough estimate of a potential for energy demand efficiency by 2020 of the order of 280 Mtoe on final energy consumption, for the European Union. Chapter III underlines the merits of the Green Paper which are a clear-sighted analysis and a well defined main recommendation

  16. Status report on research programmes of the Commission of European Communities related to risk evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.

    1977-01-01

    The programmes of the Commission of European Communities related to risk evaluation of geological disposal of radioactive waste are presented. The Joint Research Centre carries out theoretical modelling activities and a few selected experimental activities which are related to model development and verification. A set of contractual research activities, coordinated by the General Directorate of Research, Scientific Affairs and Education and set up primarily to encourage development of optimised waste management strategies will provide the many additional experimental data which are necessary for a realistic evaluation of long term hazard to man and the environment

  17. The strategy of European energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.; Kramer, M.; Sauquet, P.; Sire, D.; Venet, D.; Lenoir, J.

    2007-01-01

    After a relatively quiet period, the concentration movement in the energy sector is growing up again. What will be the limit of this dynamics? What will be tomorrow's European energy actors? Will it be a mix of big groups, medium-size and small companies with a specialized activity like today, or only big groups with multi-energy supply and production activities which will directly supply the end-users? What is the provisions foreseen by such groups to ensure the security of supplies? What are the synergies in terms of size and/or multi-energy offers? Five participants and a journalist have debated these questions at this round table. (J.S.)

  18. GenHyPEM: A research program on PEM water electrolysis supported by the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Pierre; Dragoe, Diana [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, UMR CNRS no 8182, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Grigoriev, Serguey; Fateev, Vladimir [Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology, Institute of Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Etievant, Claude [Compagnie Europeenne des Technologies de l' Hydrogene (CETH), Innov' Valley Entreprise, Batiment D0, Route de Nozay, 91461 Marcoussis Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    GenHyPEM (Generateur d'Hydrogene par electrolyse de l'eau PEM <>) is an STREP programme (no 019802) supported by the European Commission in the course of the 6th framework research programme. This R and D project which started in October 2005, is a 2.6 MEUR research effort over three years. It gathers partners from Belgium, Germany, Romania, Federation of Russia, Armenia and France. The main goal of the project is to develop low-cost and high pressure (50 bar) PEM water electrolysers for the production of up to several Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h. The purpose of this communication is to present the current status of GenHyPEM. Major results and technological achievements obtained so far in the fields of academic (electrocatalysis, polymer electrolyte) and applied (stack development and performances) research are presented. Non-noble electrocatalysts have been identified to replace platinum for the HER and stable performances have been obtained during operation at high (1 A cm{sup -2}) current density, paving the way to substantial cost reductions. Prototype electrolysers producing from 0.1 to 5 Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h have been successfully developed. (author)

  19. THE DETAILS OF CONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION OF EUROPEAN COMMISSION MACROMODEL QUEST III WITH EXTENDED FISCAL BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lukianenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide detailed derivation of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model QUEST III that was developed under European Commission project. The principal feature of the model is the presence of both monetary and extended fiscal blocks. In particular, Central Bank sets interest rate using monetary policy rule, while fiscal sector is represented by taxes and transfers. It allows analyzing the effect of complex shocks on the key macroeconomic variables. Our results show that parallel application of monetary and fiscal instruments is an effective way to combat stagflation, i.e. drastic decrease in production and acceleration of inflation. Due to the presence of extended fiscal block, the model can fit Ukrainian economic and policy structure quick good. The next steps of the research may be calibration and estimation of QUEST III prototype on the Ukrainian data with potentially some modification and inclusion of banking and other sectors that play critical role in the local conditions. Monetary policy instruments should be extended with the level of Central Bank reserves which have large influence on macro stability. In addition, dollarization is an important peculiarity that should be addressed in the future versions of the model.

  20. Research priorities at the European Commission in relation to maintenance optimization and nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of experience in many countries operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) suggests that, while differences in long term operation (LTO) programs are mainly related to the various national regulatory processes, the main features and basic technical requirements are similar. The implementation of these however needs reshaping in an integrated plant life management (PLIM) framework, bearing in mind the specific safety implications of LTO. R and D is essential to support this process, not only for long term extrapolation of the component integrity and behaviour, but also for a proper maintenance system and for an adequate management structure ensuring effective management strategies at plant level, able to address organisational issues, spare part management, staff ageing, component obsolescence, etc. This is recognised by the European Commission, which supports R and D in targeted areas in the framework of the EURATOM programme, both by “direct actions” i.e. projects managed and executed by its Directorate General Joint Research Centers (JRC) and by indirect actions i.e. funding of selected projects, managed by the Directorate General Research (RTD). This paper outlines the JRC's priorities in the current 7th Framework Programme in relation to R and D tasks for maintenance and ISI to support the highest safety level at member's NPPs and appropriate decision-making tools for the optimisation of these programs. A newly developed UE model for PLIM, also integrating maintenance optimisation issues, is presented for further discussion. (author)

  1. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new...... agenda for research on Europe. The crisis gripping the EU in the 21st century is not just an economic crisis, it is a crisis of belief in the EU. Research on the EU is deeply implicated in this crisis, not least because of the questions it does not ask, but also because of the pereceived weakness...... of demonstrating the methods and evidence used. A new agenda for research on Europe needs to acknowledge these weaknesses of the past and move beyond dichotomies towards greater awareness and openesss of the importance of research strategies, designs and methods....

  2. Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 1 to the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This document, "Annex 1 to the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission" is intended as a companion piece to European Commission report "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Final Report". It contains country fiches which are overviews of available…

  3. THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION – THE EXERCISE OF THE POWERS OF CONTROL AND MONITORING OF THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE LEGISLATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE MOLDOVA NOUA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Deac

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the competencies that the EU Treaties confer to the European Commission is the control and supervision of the application of primary and secondary law and the enforcement of this legislation so it is observed by private persons, Member States and EU institutions2 . Further to an official communiqué in October 2014, the European Commission has announced that it sued Romania at the European Union Court of Justice concerning the failure to observe EU legislation on the treatment of extractive industry waste. Namely, it refers to the Moldova Noua case, in which toxic waste from the zinc and copper mines were discharged into the Bosneag pond. This paper means to present the regulations in the field of extractive industry, the competence of the European Commission regarding the enforcement of EU legislation and the ability to sue a Member State at the EU Court of Justice, when the entity exploiting the zinc and copper deposits is not the Romanian state, but a private law legal person.

  4. A Word from the DG: Preparing the strategy for European particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Particle physics is an increasingly globalized field, with the LHC marking the turning point from regional to world-wide organization. Although still a European-led project, the LHC is the first accelerator that CERN has built with help from non-Member States, and its experiments are the most international collaboration that particle physics has ever known. For Europe to engage in this process of globalization for future projects, and to maintain a leading position in the field, we need a European strategy. The European Commission is considering introducing basic research in possible actions during its R&D framework programme (2007-2013). It is with this in mind that the CERN Council established a strategy group in 2005. The group was asked to define and prioritize technical options in preparing a long-term vision for European particle physics for presentation to Council at a special meeting in Lisbon on 14 July this year. CERN Council's decision to establish the strategy group recognizes the distinctio...

  5. The European Commission: nuclear power has an important role to play; Commission Europeenne: le nucleaire a un role important a jouer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-11-15

    The European Commission (E.C.) thinks that nuclear power has an important role to play: first to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and secondly to reinforce energy self-reliance of the member states. The decision to introduce nuclear power in their energy mix belongs to every state but the E.C. has also highlighted that if adequate investment are quickly made 2 thirds of the electricity produced in the European Union in 2010 could by from low-carbon-emitting sources. Today with 148 reactors operating in 15 member countries nuclear power contributes to 1 third of the electricity produced. Another issue that is looming is the security of electricity supplying. A study has shown that the security level is worsening (particularly in winter) because of the greater part of wind energy in the energy mix as wind energy is not necessarily available when energy demand is peaking. The E.C. has proposed a new directive drawing a common standard frame for nuclear safety requirements concerning design, site selection, maintenance, operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Each member state will have the choice to implement stiffer regulations. The European Union must reduce its dependency on Russian gas by increasing its storing capacities, by easing gas exchanges between member states and by importing more liquefied natural gas. European member states will have to invert 1000*10{sup 9} euros in gas and electrical power infrastructures in the next 25 years. (A.C.)

  6. Safety effects of road design standards : a study commissioned by the European Commission DG VII of the situation in the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyters, H.G.J.C.M. Slop, M. & Wegman, F.C.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study carried out for the European Union. The report uses the safety principle that: (i) proper road design is crucial to prevent human errors in traffic; and (ii) less human errors will result in less accidents. The study contains the following parts: (1)

  7. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  8. Point Climat no. 17 'The role of the forestry sector in reducing European emissions: the European Commission starts with a tally'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On March 12 2012, after two years of consultations and reviews, the European Commission published a decision proposal regarding the inclusion of the land use and forestry sector in European climate policy. The aim of this proposal is to impose accounting rules that are consistent with the decisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to harmonise them between Member States. Meanwhile, the issue of economic incentives aimed at guaranteeing the sector's contribution to climate mitigation is postponed until a later date

  9. Review of activities of the Commission of the European Communities relating to fast reactors in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balz, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is performing fast reactor activities in two areas: (1) co-ordination and harmonization and (2) research. Co-ordination and harmonization activities are essentially carried out in the frame of the Fast Reactor Co-ordinating Committee (FRCC). At present CEC is examining possible support schemes which include a contribution to R-D and/or to a EFR design effort. In line with the current CEC R-D activities a possible research support would be in the field of safety. Round robins on the determination of residual stress in cold worked materials and on the stress relaxation properties of austenitic stainless steels were accomplished. Studies were performed on high cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless and on stress rupture properties of 9-12 Cr steels. The work performed at the Ispra establishment is related to LMFBR safety, while the activities carried out at Karlsruhe concern essentially fast breeder fuels. Safety research at Ispra comprises essentially the investigation and analysis of severe accident phenomena under three main projects: FARO, EAC and PAHR in-pile. The short-term nitride irradiation experiments NILOC 1 and 2 were analysed in detail and compared with the previous short-term carbide irradiations CARLO and CARRO which had been performed under partly identical conditions as NILOC 2. In the context of an industrial project to transmute long-lived actinides in nuclear waste into short-lived fission products in a dedicated fast reactor, a study was launched to determine the thermodynamics and the metallurgical characteristics of alloys of uranium-plutonium-zirconium with various amounts of the minor actinides neptunium, americium, and curium. First experimental data on the specific heat of refractory metals and UO 2 at and above their melting temperatures were obtained with newly developed equipment using laser pulse heating and ultra fast multi-wavelength pyrometry. The results thus obtained will be input data

  10. European Strategy for Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Cervera, Anselmo; Donini, Andrea; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, Dominique; Dufour, Fanny; Edgecock, Rob; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Gschwendtner, Edda; Kudenko, Yury; Long, Ken; Maalampi, Jukka; Mezzetto, Mauro; Pascoli, Silvia; Palladino, Vittorio; Rondio, Ewa; Rubbia, Andre; Rubbia, Carlo; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Thomas, Jenny; Wark, David; Wildner, Elena; Zito, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Massive neutrinos reveal physics beyond the Standard Model, which could have deep consequences for our understanding of the Universe. Their study should therefore receive the highest level of priority in the European Strategy. The discovery and study of leptonic CP violation and precision studies of the transitions between neutrino flavours require high intensity, high precision, long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments. The community of European neutrino physicists involved in oscillation experiments is strong enough to support a major neutrino long baseline project in Europe, and has an ambitious, competitive and coherent vision to propose. Following the 2006 European Strategy for Particle Physics (ESPP) recommendations, two complementary design studies have been carried out: LAGUNA/LBNO, focused on deep underground detector sites, and EUROnu, focused on high intensity neutrino facilities. LAGUNA LBNO recommends, as first step, a conventional neutrino beam CN2PY from a CERN SPS North Area Neutrino Fac...

  11. Energy regulation at EU level. The role of the European Commission and ACER in the context of REMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory act of promulgating REMIT, the Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency, has highlighted the commanding position of both the European Commission and ACER, the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, in the regulation of energy affairs in the European Union. Furthermore it has led to major changes in how surveillance is organized at the national level. The first part of this publication is dedicated to the organization of market surveillance following the promulgation of REMIT. It depicts the tasks of the European Commission and ACER in this context. The Regulation has accorded the authorities a central role in managing the European Union's responsibilities with regard to energy wholesale trade. The act of delegating such far-reaching competence to the authorities deserves careful review however. The article shows how, given ACER's lack of practical experience in market surveillance, as well as its lack of human resources, the task of surveilling the European energy wholesale market confronts the agency with a significant challenge. How successfully the EU energy agency will master this challenge will depend on a number of different factors. Stringent requirements will be needed for the data registration offices in order to ensure optimal data processing. National authorities and supervisory bodies should be made to participate in the data monitoring process. ACER's efficiency in surveilling the market will furthermore depend decisively on its IT infrastructure.

  12. European Market Portfolio Diversification Strategies across the GFC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ is paper features an analysis of the effectiveness of a range of portfolio diversification strategies as applied to a set of daily arithmetically compounded returns on a set of ten market indices representing the major European markets for a nine year period from the

  13. The development strategies of the european electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaud, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study takes stock on the european market of the electric power and of its development perspectives. It details the strategy and the place of the main operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It provides a comparison of the financial performances of 28 companies (growth, margins, profitability, debt and war chest). (A.L.B.)

  14. STRATEGIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamandi Irina Eugenia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes the corporate social responsibility (CSR state and development strategies in the European Union and at the level of the Romanian business environment. The aim of the paper is to present the similarities and differences in the

  15. SECURITY STRATEGIES OF MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FROM THE LISBON TREATY AND THE EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO RIVAS PARDO

    2017-09-01

    in mind, it is possible to study the variability of the Security Strategy in relation to four strategic guidelines: strategic self-perception, the necessity to tune these postulates with the common objectives of the European Union, the statement of threats and finally the actions projected by these strategies to face the changing environment of international security. This variability will seek the fact of the existence or nonexistence of tuning and consistency between the Security Strategies and the community positions in the matter of security and defense. The selected countries are those who have published their documents after the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon and the publication of the European Security Strategy, in other words, after2009: Austria, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Holland, Hungary, Lithuania, UK and the Czech Republic.

  16. The new STRESA tool for preservation of thermalhydraulic experimental data produced in the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Patricia; Pascal, Ghislain; Tanarro, Jorge; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITFs and severe accident data is of high importance to validate thermal hydraulic codes for NPPs. • LOBI, FARO, KROTOS and STORM produced a lot of TH and SA experimental data. • The JRC facilities data was stored in the JRC STRESA database developed by JRC. • The paper presents the new JRC STRESA database developed by JRC in 2014–2015. • The long-term importance of well maintained ITF databases (like STRESA) is demonstrated. - Abstract: The experimental data recorded in Integral Effect Test Facilities (ITFs) are traditionally used in order to validate best estimate (BE) system codes and to investigate the behaviour of nuclear power plants (NPPs) under accident scenarios. In the same way, facilities dedicated to specific thermal-hydraulic (TH) severe accident (SA) phenomena are used for the development and improvement of specific analytical models and codes used in the SA analysis for light water reactors (LWR). The extent to which the existing reactor safety experimental databases are preserved was well known and frequently debated and questioned in the nuclear community. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) has been deeply involved in several projects for experimental data production and experimental data preservation. In this context the STRESA (Storage of Thermal REactor Safety Analysis Data) web-based informatics platform was developed by JRC-Ispra in the year 2000. At present the JRC STRESA database is hosted and maintained by JRC-Petten. The Nuclear Reactor Safety Assessment Unit (NRSA) of the JRC-Petten is engaged in the administration of a new STRESA tool that secures EU storage for SA experimental data and calculations. The development of this new STRESA tool was completed by early 2015 and published on the 25/06/2015 in the URL: (http://stresa.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The target was to keep the main features of the original STRESA structure but using the new informatics technologies that are nowadays

  17. Natural gas supply strategies for European energy market actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, Vincent

    2007-06-01

    The liberalization of the European energy markets leads to the diversification of supplies. Hence, we analyse the natural gas importation problem in a power producer point of view. Upstream and downstream natural gas markets are concentrated. In this oligopoly context, our topic is to focus on strategies which modify natural gas sourcing price. This by studying the surplus sharing on the natural gas chain. A European firm can bundle gas and electricity outputs to increase its market share. Therefore, a bundling strategy of a power producer in competition with a natural gas reseller on the final European energy market increases upstream natural gas price. Bundling also acts as a raising rival cost strategy and reduces the rivals' profit. Profits opportunities incite natural gas producers to enter the final market. Vertical integration between a natural gas producer and a European gas reseller is a way, for producers, to catch end consumer surplus. Vertical integration results in the foreclosure of the power producer on the upstream natural gas market. To be active on the natural gas market, the power producer could supply bundles. But, this strategy reallocates the rent. The integrated firm on natural gas gets the rent of electricity market in expenses of the power producer. Then, a solution for the power producer is to supply gas and electricity as complements. Then, we consider a case where vertical integration is not allowed. Input price discrimination by a monopolist leads to a lower natural gas price for the actor which diversifies its supplying sources. Furthermore, a bundling strategy increases the gap between the price proposed to the firm which also diversify its output and the firm which is fully dependent from the producer to supply natural gas on final market. (author)

  18. European oil refining: strategies for a competitive future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, James.

    1997-07-01

    European Oil Refining investigates how the industry came to be in crisis and what the future holds. As well as an extensive analysis of past and present market shifts, the report predicts likely future developments and their consequences for investors. The report reviews the European oil sector in a global context, calculates the cost to refiners of key environmental legislation, assesses the problems caused by changing product demand and crude supply, examines possible solutions to the problems of low margins and overcapacity, evaluates the key players' main strategies to increase their competitiveness, analyses the western European oil refining industry by country, details the refinery operations of the major countries of central and eastern Europe, profiles 15 of the major oil companies and estimates the increase in investment required as a result of legislative and demand changes. (author)

  19. EU Commission participation in the Troika mission: is there a European Union price to pay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Goucha Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is intended to debate two questions regarding the involvement of the Commission in the Troika's action: firstly, considering the nature of financial assistance programs, it aims to discuss the effect of the Commission's participation in Troika negotiations on the balance of power of the EU institutions; and secondly, the article raises the issue of the Commission's liability for the results achieved by the financial assistance program, taking into account the extent of the conditions imposed, as well as the intensity of scrutiny by the Troika.

  20. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  1. Institutional Aspects of European Commission Guidance in the Area of Antitrust Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Smulders

    2009-01-01

    From an institutional law perspective, the question arises how to qualify the more than thirty existing communications, notices and guidelines which the Commission has issued in the area of antitrust law.

  2. The European strategy for fast reactor core static mechanics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.H.; Di Francesca, R.; Coors, D.; Steenberghe, T. van

    1987-01-01

    The strategy is designed to meet the needs of participating European countries by achieving the following objectives: To provide generic information and data on the static mechanics of all styles of core of interest, validate codes and optimise new designs. To endorse specific features of SPX2 and SNR2 designs. To provide the new facilities which are needed. To present the programme of work required and timescale. (orig./HP)

  3. Implementation of patient safety strategies in European hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suñol, R; Vallejo, P; Groene, O; Escaramis, G; Thompson, A; Kutryba, B; Garel, P

    2009-02-01

    This study is part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project on cross-border care, investigating quality improvement strategies in healthcare systems across the European Union (EU). To explore to what extent a sample of acute care European hospitals have implemented patient safety strategies and mechanisms and whether the implementation is related to the type of hospital. Data were collected on patient safety structures and mechanisms in 389 acute care hospitals in eight EU countries using a web-based questionnaire. Subsequently, an on-site audit was carried out by independent surveyors in 89 of these hospitals to assess patient safety outputs. This paper presents univariate and bivariate statistics on the implementation and explores the associations between implementation of patient safety strategies and hospital type using the chi(2) test and Fisher exact test. Structures and plans for safety (including responsibilities regarding patient safety management) are well developed in most of the hospitals that participated in this study. The study found greater variation regarding the implementation of mechanisms or activities to promote patient safety, such as electronic drug prescription systems, guidelines for prevention of wrong patient, wrong site and wrong surgical procedure, and adverse events reporting systems. In the sample of hospitals that underwent audit, a considerable proportion do not comply with basic patient safety strategies--for example, using bracelets for adult patient identification and correct labelling of medication.

  4. Towards reasonable European shale gas regulation - The European commission's 2014 recommendation and communication on shale gas extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2015-01-01

    Following years of deliberation, the European Union released a Recommendation on unconventional hydrocarbons and a related Communication in 2014. Although these documents are not legally binding on member states, they are nevertheless of great significance as they indicate, for the first time, the

  5. The European Union: When the Commission and Governments put the Future of Electricity Producers at Stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    RWE, EON, EDF, ENGIE and other large utilities are in financial turmoil. This situation, which would have been unlikely twenty years ago, is related to several failures in governance within the EU as well as to global evolutions. This Edito Energie analyses the situation of large European electricity producers in light of the European energy policy

  6. Impact Assessment Road Safety Action Programme : assessment for mid term review : final report. Report on behalf of the European Commission, Directorate-General Energy and Transport.

    OpenAIRE

    ECORYS Transport & SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the Commission published Saving 20000 lives on our roads, a shared responsibility, also known as the third European Road Safety Action Programme (RSAP). The RSAP describes concrete actions and proposals for actions by the Commission aimed at realising the target for improving road safety as set in the White Paper (European Transport Policy for 2010: time to decide, 2001), namely halving the number of road deaths by 2010. Improving road safety in the EU is clearly a joint responsibilit...

  7. Monitoring and analysis of technology transfer and intellectual property regimes and their use results of a study carried out on behalf of the European Commission (DG Research)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Eecke, Patrick; Bolger, P; Truyens, M

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a three-year study commissioned by the European Commission (DG Research) regarding the monitoring, analysis and use of technology transfer and intellectual property regimes in the European Union. This study was organised in the context of the 6th Framework Programme for R&D, and was jointly carried out by law firms Mason Hayes+Curran (Dublin) and DLA Piper (Brussels).

  8. Beam commission of the high intensity proton source developed at INFN-LNS for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miraglia, A.; Leonardi, O.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Mascali, D.; Mazzaglia, M.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Calabrese, G.; Caruso, A.; Chines, F.; Gallo, G.; Longhitano, A.; Manno, G.; Marletta, S.; Maugeri, A.; Passarello, S.; Pastore, G.; Seminara, A.; Spartà, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2017-07-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) started in November 2016. Beam stability at high current intensity is one of the most important parameter for the first steps of the ongoing commissioning. Promising results were obtained since the first source start with a 6 mm diameter extraction hole. The increase of the extraction hole to 8 mm allowed improving PS-ESS performances and obtaining the values required by the ESS accelerator. In this work, extracted beam current characteristics together with Doppler shift and emittance measurements are presented, as well as the description of the next phases before the installation at ESS in Lund.

  9. Impact Assessment Road Safety Action Programme : assessment for mid term review : final report. Report on behalf of the European Commission, Directorate-General Energy and Transport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECORYS Transport & SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the Commission published Saving 20000 lives on our roads, a shared responsibility, also known as the third European Road Safety Action Programme (RSAP). The RSAP describes concrete actions and proposals for actions by the Commission aimed at realising the target for improving road safety as

  10. Information report made on the behalf of the European Affairs Commission on European policy for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizet, J.; Sutour, S.

    2011-05-01

    This report aims at defining some perspectives for the evolution of the European general legal framework for nuclear safety. The authors first outline the difficulty for a European policy to emerge. They explain this statement by the importance of the current policy of national states, of their operators and of their national regulation authorities. They evoke the few elements of this legal framework (EURATOM Treaty, jurisprudence) but outline the strong cooperation between national authorities. Then, they discuss some progresses which have been noticed during the past two years (the 'safety' directive, a proposition for a directive on the management of used fuel and radioactive wastes, and the recent works by WENRA), and discuss the consequences of the accident in Fukushima. Propositions are made, notably concerning the support to the 'waste' directive, the perpetuation of strength tests, the rewriting of the 'safety' directive of June 2009

  11. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  12. The role of the Joint Research Centre from the European Commission in the European Structural Integrity Networks AMES, ENIQ and NESC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estorff, U. von; Torronen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Due to the reduction in many countries of the research budget for nuclear safety several European institutions and organisations and the Institute for Advanced Materials (IAM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) have developed co-operative programmes now organised into 'Networks' for mutual benefit. They include utilities, engineering companies, research and development (R and D) laboratories and regulatory bodies. These Networks are all organised and managed in a similar way, i.e. like the successful Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components (PISC). The IAM plays the role of Operating Agent, Reference Laboratory and Network Manager of these Networks: European Network on Ageing Materials Evaluation and Studies (AMES), European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) and Network for Evaluating Steel Components (NESC), each of them dealing with a specific aspect of fitness for purpose of materials in structural components. This article will describe how the network organisation works, which was the positive experience from the past, why the networks are a tool for integrating fragmented research in Europe and how they fit into the mission of the JRC and therefore follow the EC policy. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear safeguards in the European Union carried out by the European Commission or: the EURATOM treaty. The unknown nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilb, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards in the 28 Member States of the European Union are based on a complex structure of national, supranational and international legal acts: A first approach are the three ''S'' to be met: security, safety, safeguards. The EURATOM safeguards are based on two pillars: the control of nuclear material itself, as well as different types of international agreements: the first refers to ''agreements with a third State'', the second on ''agreement with an international organization''.

  14. Case note: ECJ (case C-28/08 P, European Commission v. The Bavarian Lager Co. Ltd, not yet reported: privacy of EU government data)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bavarian Lager Company challenged the Commission's refusal to grant it full access tot the minutes of a meeting in Brussels with national and European civil servants as well as representatives of the European Beer Brewing Federation, including the names of all those who attended. The Court of

  15. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  16. Evading the Burden of Proof in European Union Soft Law Instruments : The Case of Commission Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andone, C.; Greco, S.

    2018-01-01

    The European Union is making increased efforts to find simpler and more effective ways to function adequately in the eyes of its citizens by using ‘soft law’ instruments such as recommendations. Although they have no legally binding force, recommendations have practical and legal effects occurring

  17. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  18. European Union's strategy on endocrine disrupting chemicals and the current position of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perharič, Lucija; Fatur, Tanja; Drofenik, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    In view of the European Union regulations 1107/2009 and 528/2012, which say that basic substances in plant protection and biocidal products marketed in the European Union (EU) should not have an inherent capacity to cause endocrine disruption, an initiative was started to define scientific criteria for the identification of endocrine disruptors (EDs). The objectives of the EU strategy on EDs are to protect human health and the environment, to assure the functioning of the market, and to provide clear and coherent criteria for the identification of EDs that could have broad application in the EU legislation. Policy issues were to be addressed by the Ad-hoc group of Commission Services, EU Agencies and Member States established in 2010, whereas the scientific issues were to be addressed by the Endocrine Disruptors Expert Advisory Group (ED EAG), established in 2011. The ED EAG adopted the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) definition of endocrine disruptor and agreed that for its identification it is necessary to produce convincing evidence of a biologically plausible causal link between an adverse effect and endocrine disrupting mode of action. In 2014, the European Commission proposed four ED identification criteria options and three regulatory options, which are now being assessed for socio-economic, environmental, and health impact. Slovenia supports the establishing of identification criteria and favours option 4, according to which ED identification should be based on the WHO definition with the addition of potency as an element of hazard characterisation. As for regulatory options, Slovenia favours the risk-based rather than hazard-based regulation.

  19. European approach to nuclear and radiological emergency management and rehabilitation strategies (EURANOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.

    2007-01-01

    The 5-year multi-national project EURANOS, funded by the European Commission and 23 European Member States, started in April 2004. Integrating 17 national emergency management organisations with 33 research institutes, it brings together best practice, knowledge and technology to enhance the preparedness for Europe's response to any radiation emergency and long-term contamination. Key objectives of the project are to collate information on the likely effectiveness and consequences of a wide range of countermeasures, to provide guidance to emergency management organisations and decision makers on the establishment of an appropriate response strategy and to further enhance advanced decision support systems, in particular, RODOS (Real-time On-Line DecisiOn Support), through feedback from their operational use. The research activities focused on emergency actions and countermeasures, the enhancement of decision support systems for operational application and the development of strategies for the sustainable rehabilitation of contaminated territories. The demonstration activities exercise the developed methods and tools in the actual operational environment. (orig.)

  20. The radioactive waste management program of The Commission of the European Communities: Past, present, and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste management program started in the mid-1970s is being carried out by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) Joint Research Centre and by research bodies within the European community under CEC coordination and partial financing. The program deals with the management of the radioactive waste resulting from uranium-plutonium fuel cycle. During its first phase (1973-1979), various treatment and conditioning processes were investigated; high temperature incineration and acid digestion of alpha-bearing waste, immobilization of highly active waste in borosilicate glasses, inter alia, appeared promising. Geological disposal was recognized as a feasible option; transmutation of long-lived products did not appear to be an advantageous alternative to geological disposal, and the studies were discontinued. The second phase (1980-1984) of the program is a followup to the first. The needs of the European nuclear industry and of the national radioactive waste agencies or operators recently created are, however, taken into account. The continuity of the RandD effort is ensured by a ''Community plan of action on waste management,'' (1980-1992). A third phase, 1984-1989, should demonstrate the availability and validity of the waste management techniques and be convincing about their safety

  1. Evaluating expansion strategies for startup European Union dairy farm businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R; Shalloo, L; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2013-06-01

    A stochastic whole-farm simulation model was used to examine alternative strategies for new entrant dairy farmers to grow and develop dairy farm businesses in the context of European Union (EU) milk quota abolition in 2015. Six alternative strategies were compared: remain static, natural growth expansion, waiting until after EU milk quota abolition to expand, a full-scale expansion strategy without milk quotas and not incurring super levy penalties, a full-scale expansion strategy with milk quotas and incurring super levy penalties, and once-a-day milking until EU milk quota abolition, followed by full-scale expansion. Each discrete whole farm investment strategy was evaluated over a 15-yr period (2013-2027) using multiple financial stability and risk indicators, including overall discounted farm business profitability, net worth change, return on investment, and financial risk. The results of this study indicate that, although associated with increased risk, dairy farm expansion will ensure the future profitability of the farm business. Within the context of EU milk quotas until 2015, the most attractive expansion strategy is to increase cow numbers while avoiding super levy fines using once-a-day milking techniques, increasing to the full capacity of the dairy farm once milk quotas are removed. In contrast, the results also indicate that dairy farms that remain static will experience a significant reduction in farm profitability in the coming year due to production cost inflation. Cash flow deficits were observed during the initial year of expansion and, therefore, rapidly expanding dairy farm businesses require a significant cash reserve to alleviate business risk during the initial year of expansion. The results of this analysis also indicate that dairy farm businesses that expand using lower cost capital investments and avoid milk quota super levy fines significantly reduce the financial risks associated with expansion. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  2. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  3. Water reactor fuel research at the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markgraf, J [HFR Unit, Inst. for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The JRC programmes 1995-1998 are in progress within 8 JRC Institutes located within different research centres situated in five member states of the European Union. Except for the area of reactor safety and waste management, there are no JRC research programmes related to water reactor fuel directly. However, the JRC is providing support on basis of contracts and cooperations to bilateral and international R and D programmes through access to its large test facilities like the High Flux Reactor at the JRC Petten and the hot cell facilities of the Transuranium Institute at the JRC Karlsruhe. Access is available to customers from all over the world. 3 tabs.

  4. Dr Viviane Reding, Commissioner for Information Society and Media, European Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    During this visit to CERN, to be briefed on the use of Grids by CERN, Viviane Reding, European Commissioner for Information Society and Media, said "On hearing about EGEE's achievements, I wanted to see for myself some of the practical benefits that this Grid technology is providing. I'm very satisfied to see such a major step forward in collaborative computing between scientists across Europe and even on a global scale. Europe's strategic investments in Grids and in the GEANT network infrastructure are certainly already paying dividends."

  5. Management of tritium contaminated wastes national strategies and practices at some European countries, USA and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1992-01-01

    The European Tritium Handling Experiment Laboratory (ETHEL) is the Commission of European Communities facility designed for handling multigram quantities of tritium for safety inherent R and D purposes. Tritium contamined wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms will be generated in ETHEL during the experiments as well as during the maintenance operations. All such wastes must be adequately managed under the safest operating conditions to minimize the releases of tritium to the environment and the consequent radiological risks to workers and general population. This safety requirement can be met by carefully defining strategies and practices to be applied for the safe management of these wastes. To this end an adequate background information must be collected which is the intent of this report. Through an exhaustive literature survey current strategies and practices applied in Europe, USA and Canada for managing tritiated wastes from specific tritium handling laboratories and plant have been assessed. For some countries, where only tritium bearing wastes simultaneously contaminated with nuclear fission products are generated, the attention has been focused on the strategies and practices currently applied for managing fission wastes. Operational criteria for waste collection, sorting, classification, conditioning and packaging as well as acceptance criteria for their storage or disposal have been identified. Waste storage or disposal options already applied in various countries or still being investigated in terms of safety have also been considered. Even if the radwaste management strategy is submitted to a nearly continuing process of review, some general comments resulting from the assessment of the present waste management scenario are presented. 60 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs

  6. International co-operation in safety matters within the framework of the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Balz, W.; Essler, W.; Tolley, B.; Gabolde, J.

    1981-01-01

    European Community (EC) countries realize that their energy demand cannot be met without a nuclear component, which is almost a necessity owing to its major economic advantages. Two typical areas where the Commission has stimulated intense international co-operation are as follows: The first broad area deals with efforts towards a gradual harmonization of regulatory health and safety practices and requirements for reactors of an industrially developed type, more specifically (light) water-cooled reactors. The second area concerns joint research programmes and co-ordination activities in research on nuclear safety (LWRs and LMFBRs). These two broad areas are closely interconnected. Information is also given on the existing network of bilateral and multilateral arrangements for the exchange of information of interest to the EC. In conclusion, some problems are highlighted where improvements could be made or where it seems crucial that increased international co-operation and especially agreement should come about. (author)

  7. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  8. Regional and international integrated telemedicine network for organ transplant (HC 4028 & IN 4028 European Commission DGXIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, S G; Brugal, G; Godo, F; Bercic, B; Nagy, G; Avar, G; Adelh, D; Lagouarde, P

    2000-01-01

    A substantial portion of future medical practice will depend greatly on improved collaboration between the providers throughout the healthcare sector, and effective sharing of data and expertise by different healthcare professionals. In organ transplant it is a rule, donor organs are matched to recipients via national or multinational organ-sharing organizations. Only through close co-operation between transplant surgeons, immunologists, nephrologists, pathologists, radiologists and other physicians could one increase the efficiency of organ transplantation. Information technology (IT) has become an inevitable and inherent part of transplantation medicine. The RETRANSPLANT project interfaces and integrates IT from the European Union Fourth Framework projects to support the development of regional organ transplant information networks in Central Europe.

  9. Considerations on Directive 98/8 of the European Commission - the biocide directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Sak, Jarosław; Pawlikowski, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, versatile human activity requires the development of technologies in the chemical and biological industries that ultimately enable an increase in human activity, and help create the living conditions in the domain of human civilization. Increasing this activity very frequently requires the implementation of new technologies concerning the active elimination of numerous threats and obstacles which are found in the human and natural environment. The concept of so-called biocidal products has been introduced into the European legislation as long as ten years ago, defining them as various types of 'chemical substances or microorganisms which can deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling eff ect on any harmful organism, by chemical or biological means'. They can be added to other materials (typically liquids) to protect them against biological infestation and growth. Biocidal products - due to their specificity, toxicity and composition - create a serious risk for human and animal life and health, as well as for the natural environment, it is therefore fully justified to have legal regulations concerning such biocides. Because biocidal products are intended to kill living organisms, and as such, many biocidal products pose a significant risk to human health and welfare, and have significant adverse eff ects on the natural environment. Great care is required when handling biocides and appropriate protective clothing and equipment should be used. Currently, Directive 98/8/EC is a comprehensive set of legal regulations concerning biocidal products, their specificity, principles relating to their placing on the market, and guidelines for their control. It is worth emphasizing that Directive 98/8/EC implements the clampdown on poisoning cases with biocides, the duty of which was passed to the so-called Centres of Consultation and Toxicological Information. These centres provide round-the-clock (24-hour) medical consultation and assistance in cases of

  10. Assessment of socio-economic consequences of the Commission's thematic strategy for air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, H.; Skou Andersen, M.; Illerup, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission has presented a thematic strategy on air pollution and has completed an Impact Assessment, which describes the costs and benefits for the member states. The thematic strategy is to result in a revised air quality directive as well as a revised NEC-directive that determines maximum emissions for a number of air pollution components, the so-called emission ceilings. The air pollution components include sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO X ), volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia (NH 3 ) and particulate matters (PM 2,5 ). The thematic strategy draws up targets for reductions of the Danish emissions for these components, which have to be met by 2020. These reductions will contribute to a lowering of PM 2,5 concentrations both in Denmark and in neighbouring countries. The concentration of PM 2,5 in the air includes both primary particles that come from emission of particles from e.g. incineration processes, and so-called secondary particles that are generated from emissions of NO X , SO 2 and NH 3 , and from releases from e.g. vegetation. A very large part of the secondary particles in the air in Denmark stems from emissions of these components in the rest of Europe. A very important condition for a reduction in the concentration of PM 2,5 in the air is thus a reduction of the emissions of these components in all of Europe. (au)

  11. Combining ISO/IEC 17025:2005 and European Commission Decision 2002/657 audit requirements: a practical way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jack F

    2012-08-01

    Laboratories involved in the analyses of veterinary drug residues are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that they produce meaningful and reliable data. Quality assurance and quality control systems are implemented in laboratories to provide evidence of this and these are subject to external assessment to ensure that they are effective. Audits to ISO/IEC 17025:2005, an internationally accepted standard, and subsequent accreditation provide laboratories and their customers with a degree of assurance that the laboratories are operating in control and the data they report can be relied on. However, national or regional authorities may place additional requirements on laboratories to ensure quality data are reported. For example, in the European Union, all official control laboratories involved in veterinary drug residue analyses must also meet the requirements of European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC which sets performance criteria for analytical methods used in this area and these are subject to additional audits by national or regional authorities. All audits place considerable time and resource demands on laboratories and this paper discusses the burden audits place on laboratories and describes a UK initiative to combine these audits to the benefit of both the regulatory authority and the laboratory. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The R and D program on geothermal energy of the commission of the European communities results and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louwrier, K.P.; Garnish, J.D.; Staroste, E.

    1992-01-01

    DGXII of the Commission of the European Communities has supported research and development in the field of the geothermal energy since 1975, and has just begun the fifth, and probably final, four year program. The first program concentrated on the data collection in order to establish the geothermal potential of the Community. This work resulted in the drafting and publication of two Atlases, one dealing with sub-surface temperatures and one with geothermal resources. Three multidisciplinary studies were undertaken on three known geothermal reservoirs with different characteristics, in order to test the validity of various exploration methods. A major element in recent years has been Hot Dry Rock studies, which have evolved during the course of the various program s from laboratory experiments and work in shallow holes towards a European test site where an international team of scientists coordinates research teams from different Member States. Basic scientific support to exploitation of geothermal energy has been given by geochemistry. The present R and D program centers on HDR research and abatement of corrosion and scaling in geothermal systems. Besides the geothermal work the program also supports studies in deep reservoir geology

  13. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  14. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Vine, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms

  15. The fourth radioactive waste management program of the Commission of the European Communities (1990-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.; Simon, R.

    1992-01-01

    The fourth radioactive waste management program 1990-1994 is aimed at perfecting and demonstrating a system of management of radioactive waste, including unprocessed irradiated fuels where these are considered as waste, which will ensure, at the various stages, the best possible protection of man and the environment. In particular, research continues on the characterization and qualification of the various barriers, both engineered and natural (geological) considered in the multiple barrier disposal concept, and the findings are used to evaluate the long-term safety of this waste disposal concept. The program is implemented mainly through shared-cost research contracts with appropriate organizations, undertakings and companies - public or private - established in the European Community Member States. It is composed of two parts; Part A deals with waste management studies and associated research and development actions, whereas in Part B, the construction and operation of underground pilot and/or site validation facilities for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste open to Community joint activities are covered. (author)

  16. Communicating on Sustainable Energy: The See Campaign of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarle, M.

    2010-01-01

    Public and private organisations across Europe are discovering the importance of using communication strategies to change consumers' attitudes and behaviours related to energy use and conservation. There is a clear need to raise awareness on climate change issues, to spark public debate and to inspire energy innovation. The aim of the conference paper is to describe the variety of communication strategies that are currently used in Europe to communicate on energy issues. We will see how different stake holders choose to communicate on energy issues, who their target audiences are and what media they use to get their messages across. The best practises shown will be in the following fields: convincing residents in old apartment buildings to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings; getting citizens to accept new renewable energy infrastructure in their neighbourhoods ( i.e. wind and solar parks); popularising clean transport amongst teenagers; getting energy-intense industries to reduce their energy consumption; teaching energy innovation in schools; attracting the media to the energy debate; using social media when talking about energy ( You tube, Facebook, blogs, etc).(author).

  17. European Commission (Hg.: Flexible working time arrangements and gender equality. A comparative review of 30 European countries. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Muschiol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung und die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter sind zentrale Bestandteile europäischer Direktive. Der Expertenbericht der Europäischen Kommission bietet nun eine Zusammenfassung über die gegenwärtigen Praktiken flexibler Arbeitszeitmodelle in den 27 EU-Ländern und drei EWR-EFTA-Staaten und stellt deren Auswirkungen auf die Gleichberechtigung der Geschlechter dar. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf der internen Flexibilität, was einesteils die flexible Gestaltung der Arbeitsdauer beinhaltet und anderenteils die flexible Organisation der Arbeitszeit. Die Ergebnisse lassen darauf schließen, dass beide Größen wichtige Voraussetzungen für den wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung darstellen. Es zeigt sich allerdings auch, dass eine zunehmende Flexibilisierung der Arbeitszeitgestaltung den Frauen auch zum Nachteil gereichen kann.Flexibilizing the organization of working hours and treating all genders as equals are central constituents of the European directives. The European Commission’s expert report does now offer a summary of the current practices of flexible work time in the 27 EU countries and three EEA-EFTA countries and portrays their effects on equal opportunities for all genders. Special attention is paid to internal flexibility, both with regard to the flexible realization of the work duration and the flexible organization of working hours. The results imply that both components are important prerequisites for economic advancement. However, it can also be seen that an increased flexibilization of the organization of working hours can lead to disadvantages for women.

  18. Multilingualism and transnational communication strategies in Europe: from Hapsburg to the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korshunova, G.; Marácz, L.; Marácz, L.; Rosello, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter discusses multilingualism in the European context and transnational communication strategies in order to accommodate the challenges of multilingualism. In the introduction, concepts defining multilingualism, transnationalism and communication strategies will be discussed and clarified.

  19. The European Commission's environmental stakeholder consultations: Is lobbying success based on what you know, what you own or who you know?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Henrik Alf Jonas

    2015-01-01

    measures of expertise and privileged access than previously available, this paper evaluates whether the European Commission listens to stakeholder because of the expertise they provide, because of their influence at later legislative stages or because of their Brussels insider status. The paper also...

  20. Possible development of nuclear energy in the European Community and consequences of different reactor strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decressin, A.; Haytinck, B.; Orlowski, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities recommended to stimulate the development of the nuclear energy, in order to ensure in the middle or long term, a diversification of the energy supply sources of the Community. According to such a policy, nuclear energy could cover nearly 80% of the Community needs in electrical power in the year 2000 - these being estimated at 50% of total energy needs of the Community - and correspond to 1,3 billion tep for that year alone. In the year 2000, the installed nuclear capacity in the Community (i.e. nearly 1000 GWe) would imply the consumption of roughly 150.000 metric tons of natural uranium and necessitate 90.000 tons of SWU in enrichment services, whatever ''average'' strategy is considered for the period 1980 - 2000. The choices between these various strategies made by public or industrial decision centers, will be the result of a complex assessment of many factors. In any case, the flow of nuclear material between countries will remain very important and a Community nuclear self sufficiency based on breeding is not conceivable before the time at which new energy sources could be brought in effective uses

  1. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  2. The fostering of innovative eLearning strategies in European higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Aczel, James; Cotinat, Olivier; Franco, Adelaide; Hardy, Pascale; Iggulden, Helen; Komáromi, Laszlo; Maillet, Katherine; Medina, Sara; Meiszner, Andreas; Obermueller, Eva; Reichl, Franz; Spinoglio, Mark; Staniland, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Although there are strong attempts being made by various European observatories and European Commission programmes to identify and disseminate innovative eLearning practices (MENON, 2006), the factors that determine educational effectiveness are, as yet, not well understood. In particular, while an extraordinarily wide range of university-level eLearning programmes are rapidly becoming available from large numbers of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across Europe, the sharing of good prac...

  3. CREATING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES – THE EUROPEAN CSR-STRATEGY COMPARED WITH PORTER'S AND KRAMER'S SHARED VALUE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Moczadlo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 the European Commission changed the definition and strategy for corporate social responsibility (CSR with the creation of shared value as one core element of the new concept. In the same year Porter and Kramer published in the Harvard Business Review their approach of creating shared value (CSV as core element of long-term business strategies. The starting point of both approaches is the societal legitimation of enterprises to do business. CSR respective CSV are evaluated to be a mean for reaching this legitimation and to further to gain back trust of the society that was lost during the financial crisis. This paper describes the two concepts and analyzes similarities and differences. From the overall aim and intention the EU concept has a wider focus and much higher requirements for enterprises. The European Commission assesses CSR as a measure for business to contribute to inclusive growth, employment and well-being of the society. Hence, companies have to take into account economic, social and environmental targets further include ethical, human rights and consumer concerns when developing their long-term business strategy. CSV of Porter and Kramer also goes beyond the pure business case of CSR because CSV also is defined as a long-term measure which has to be integrated systematically in the strategic core business of companies. The Commission see shareholder as just one common group of a company's stakeholder and gives no preference to them. For Porter and Kramer the simultaneous creation of profit and societal value are decisive.

  4. How to dismember a potent instrument - the intractability of the emission trade proposal of the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, Juha; Kemppi, Heikki; Perrels, Adriaan [Goverment Inst. of Economic Research, VATT, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-07-01

    The initiative of the European Commission to start up an emission trade system is fraught with difficulties. In order to be viable it should provide value added to justify the extra efforts it requires. A review of the draft-directive unveils many critical issues, that undermine the value added. Many proposed measures and conditions increase the cost of participation, and reduce the emission trade market volume, thereby affecting both level and volatility of the permit price. Furthermore, the proposed organisation of the system is unbalanced as it simultaneously leans on a devolution of policy planning tasks, a centralisation of decision rights and, an asymmetry in information levels and deployable specialist knowledge. As a consequence the directive proposals would complicate but not prevent gaming during the establishment and approval phase of the trade system. The paper discusses the burden sharing between trading and non-trading segments in the member countries, with special reference to Finland the possible responses of companies to increased transaction cost and uncertainty, and the consequences of the permit trade requirements for the earlier devised domestic climate policy and as a consequence for energy efficiency policies. The paper is based on a study conducted for the Ministry for the Environment, involving both an in-depth review of the directive and AGE-E3 model based calculations. The paper focuses on the analytical-qualitative clarification of effects. Some model results are added to underline the practical relevance of the identified risks and obstacles.

  5. How to dismember a potent instrument - the intractability of the emission trade proposal of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkatukia, Juha; Kemppi, Heikki; Perrels, Adriaan

    2003-01-01

    The initiative of the European Commission to start up an emission trade system is fraught with difficulties. In order to be viable it should provide value added to justify the extra efforts it requires. A review of the draft-directive unveils many critical issues, that undermine the value added. Many proposed measures and conditions increase the cost of participation, and reduce the emission trade market volume, thereby affecting both level and volatility of the permit price. Furthermore, the proposed organisation of the system is unbalanced as it simultaneously leans on a devolution of policy planning tasks, a centralisation of decision rights and, an asymmetry in information levels and deployable specialist knowledge. As a consequence the directive proposals would complicate but not prevent gaming during the establishment and approval phase of the trade system. The paper discusses the burden sharing between trading and non-trading segments in the member countries, with special reference to Finland the possible responses of companies to increased transaction cost and uncertainty, and the consequences of the permit trade requirements for the earlier devised domestic climate policy and as a consequence for energy efficiency policies. The paper is based on a study conducted for the Ministry for the Environment, involving both an in-depth review of the directive and AGE-E3 model based calculations. The paper focuses on the analytical-qualitative clarification of effects. Some model results are added to underline the practical relevance of the identified risks and obstacles

  6. Abatement cost of SF6 emissions from medium voltage switchgear. Validation of recent studies for the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-05-15

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is a gas with applications including use as an insulator and switching medium in medium voltage (MV) switchgear. While having certain unique properties, it is also a greenhouse gas, with a 22,800 times greater impact than CO2 and an atmospheric lifetime of over 3,000 years. Although the use of SF6 in MV switchgear can be avoided, according to recent studies for the European Commission, the abatement costs are high. This study validates the calculated cost levels as well as the general feasibility of determining a fixed cost figure for this purpose. This analysis yields a result which differs from the earlier studies, particularly with respect to the cost aspect, but also in other areas. CE Delft concludes that for the majority of applications cost-effective SF6-free options are available, leading to abatement costs for the use of SF6 in MV switchgear that range from - 40 to 0 euro/tCO2 eq., for all types of switchgear, with voltage levels below 25 kV and situated on relatively dry locations.

  7. Initiatives taken by the Commission of the European Communities in the field of training and information in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the work of the Commission of the European Communties in training and information in radiation protection. Nowadays nuclear science and technology have many applications ranging far beyond nuclear power and medical X-rays to include inter alia conventional industry, agriculture and research. This means that the need for radiation protection of workers has become correspondingly more widespread, as has concern for the general public and the environment - not only in the case of a nuclear accident - but also, at a more mundane level, ongoing health protection of the public, for example by monitoring radioactive emissions from nuclear installations in routine operation. While this has led in turn to a major expansion of work in the many facets of radiation protection the review will be restricted to the Radiation Protection Division's activities in training and information. However, it should be remembered that all workers are firstly members of the public and more general aspects are also considered not just those concerning workers in radiation-related occupation. (author)

  8. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  9. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  10. The European carbon market (2005-2007): banking, pricing and risk hedging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, J.

    2008-11-01

    This thesis investigates the market rules of the European carbon market (EU ETS) during 2005-2007. We provide theoretical and empirical analyses of banking and borrowing provisions, price drivers and risk hedging strategies attached to tradable quotas, which were introduced to cover the CO 2 emissions of around 10,600 installations in Europe. In Chapter 1, we outline the economic and environmental effects of banking and borrowing on tradable permits markets. More specifically, we examine the banking and borrowing provisions adopted in the EU ETS, and the effects of banning banking between Phases I and II on CO 2 price changes. We show statistically that the low levels of CO 2 prices recorded until the end of Phase I may be explained by the restriction on the inter-period transfer of allowances, besides the main explanations that were identified by market observers. In Chapter 2, we identify the carbon price drivers since the launch of the EU ETS on January 1, 2005. We emphasize the central role played by the 2005 yearly compliance event imposed by the European Commission in revealing the net short/long position at the installation level in terms of allowances allocated with respect to verified emissions. The main result of this study features that price drivers of CO 2 allowances linked to energy market prices and unanticipated weather events vary around institutional events. Moreover, we show the influence of the variation of industrial production in three sectors covered by the EU ETS on CO 2 price changes by applying a disentangling analysis, that has also been extended at the country-level. In Chapter 3, we focus on the risk hedging strategies linked to holding CO 2 allowances. By using a methodology applied on stock markets, we recover the changes in investors' average risk aversion. This study shows that, during the time period considered, risk aversion has been higher on the carbon market than on the stock market, and that the risk is linked to an increasing

  11. The design of European energy markets by means of decisions of commitment acceptance of the European Commission. Pt. 1; Die Gestaltung der europaeischen Energiemaerkte durch Verpflichtungszusagenentscheidungen der Kommission. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussone, Peter [Bundeskartellamt, Bonn (Germany). ECN-Koordinationsstelle

    2011-03-10

    The compartmentalization of national energy markets is the leitmotif of anti-trust against the greatest European energy utilities. With far-reaching commitments of the utilities the European Commission attempted a rapid end of abusive practices and a market opening. A discouragement of claim for damages under private law from customers has been accepted. There is a lack of a final reasoned statement of the behavior being in violation with competition law with a binding effect also for the courts. The impressive balance of the European Commission shows a partial failure of the regulation in the grid operation. E.ON (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) has sold its high voltage network. RWE AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) sold its transmission system. Eni Gas and Power GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) will sell large portions of its international transmission system. The large vertically integrated utilities may not agree on long-term supply and resale restrictions.

  12. A European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngve, A; Warm, D; Landman, J; Sjöström, M

    2001-12-01

    Effective population-based strategies require people trained and competent in the discipline of Public Health Nutrition. Since 1997, a European Master's Programme in Public Health Nutrition has been undergoing planning and implementation, by establishing initial quality assurance systems with the aid of funding from the European Commission (DG SANCO/F3). Partners from 17 European countries have been involved in the process. A European Network of Public Health Nutrition has been developed and accredited by the European Commission.

  13. The European Judicial Training Network and its Role in the Strategy for the Europeanization of National Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benvenuti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the building of a European Judicial Training Framework (EJT, notably the establishment, organization and functioning of the European Judicial Training Network (EJTN. After describing the EJTN and retracing its distinctive features – co-operation, decentralization, complementarity, targeting –, the article underlines its peculiar function within EJT, which reflects the role of EJT itself in the strategy for Europeanization of national judges. It then concludes by pointing out and situating other strategic areas where important synergies with EJT for the purpose of judicial Europeanization can be strengthened, notably enhancement of transnational judicial networks and introduction of knowledge management tools in national systems. The article is based on the analysis of documents and scientific literature as well as on empirical research and semi-structured interviews conducted by the author in 2013 and 2014.

  14. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Hillis, Z.K.; Roehlig, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5 th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  15. European Regional activation towards Brussels: From the heart to the Ultra-periphery of Europe. Walloon and Canary Islands’ strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tuñón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wallonia and the Canary Islands are both regions with legislative capacities within the European Union (EU. They have traditionally shared serious socio-economic deficits. Therefore, while a new European Regional policy was being designed, they both built regional strategies in order to extract as much as they can from the EU. How far are these Sub-State activations towards Brussels linked to regional gains (outputs from the EU? How different are both mobilisations? How can the higher degree of success of the Canary Islands be explained, taking into account that the Archipelago is far away from the heart of Europe and Wallonia is within it? The research, based on a qualitative analysis method, will be carried out through findings about the regional mechanisms developed to influence the European institutions: the participation (direct and non direct within the Council of Ministers, the Committee of the Regions, the regional interaction with the European Commission, the establishment of representative bodies in Brussels and the participation within interregional associations.

  16. Evaluation of the European Commission's proposal to set aside emission allowances. Effects on the EU carbon price and Dutch ETS companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Vollebergh, H.

    2012-11-15

    A set-aside of CO2 allowances would reduce the current oversupply in the European Emissions Trading System (ETS). This would result in temporary higher CO2 prices. However, a literature study has shown that the impact of the European Commission's proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. However, the proposal sends out a signal to investors that the functioning of the ETS is a priority for politicians, and increases the likelihood of further reforms. Any negative impact of back loading on ETS companies in the Netherlands is likely to be limited.

  17. Cobenefits of climate and air pollution regulations. The context of the European Commission Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Eerens, H.; Van Velze, K. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Colette, A.; Schucht, S.; Pere, J.C.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Mellios, G. [EMISIA, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-03-15

    In 2011, the European Commission published its roadmap towards a competitive low-carbon economy for 2050. For this roadmap the possibilities of a far-reaching reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe were assessed (a decrease of 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels). This report was written at the request of the European Environment Agency and examines the effects of such a reduction on air quality. Analysis of several existing scenarios indicates that climate policy, in general, leads to a decrease in air pollution in Europe.

  18. The Analysis of Public Administration Reforms in Macedonia and the Evaluation of the Performance of Public Administration by the European Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Abdula Azizi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to underline the deficiencies in the funcioning of Public Administration in the Republic of Macedonia. The issue of Public Administration reforms in Macedonia has been dealt with by other scholars, but the European Commission reports have not been analyzed years after receiving the status of candidate country for EU membership. The results will reflect the realistic assessments and objective perceptions of citizens about the functioning of Public Administration,...

  19. The Croatian Strategy of European Integration 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sošić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2000, the European Council established that Croatia fulfi lled the conditions for acquiring the status of potential candidate for membership in the European Union.Thereafter, the integration process aimed at the candidature for, and subsequent full membership in the EU has been the fundamental Croatian “governmental strategy” and foreign policy goal, developing with “diff erent speeds” and diff erent levels of success towards the fi nal expected goal. Research is focused on the identifi cation and description of actions of the major foreign and internal actors in the process (Croatian governments and the European Union, as well as on the assessment of the achieved results of their interaction in the sixyear period under observation. The empirically studied phenomenon is analysed through the theoretical approach of actor-based institutionalism and the game theory model. The result of analysis shows a comparative advantage of the management of Ivo Sanader’s single-party government (2003-2005 in contrast to the coalition government of Ivica Račan (2000-2003 with respect to their achievement and level of success in managing the process of European integration.The European Union’s contribution and quality of support to that process are ambiguous and complex, in keeping with its structure and politics.

  20. Impact of European Media Education Strategies on Russian Media Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Galina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the impact of European media education theories and approaches on Russian media education evolution basing on a comparative analysis of Russian and European media literacy promotion strategies in the historical context. This influence resulted in the appearance and development of socio-cultural models of media…

  1. The ASTRONET Infrastructure Roadmap: A Twenty Year Strategy for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, M.; Monnet, G.

    2008-12-01

    The process followed by ASTRONET to build a long-term strategy for European astronomy is presented. The main conclusions and priorities given in the recently unveiled report on the Infrastructure Roadmap for the next 20 years, following the establishment of a Science Vision last year, are summarised. These reports together hopefully represent a blueprint for a bright future for European astronomy.

  2. The European Medicines Agency's strategies to meet the challenges of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Manuel; Mantua, Valentina; Haberkamp, Marion; Pani, Luca; Isaac, Maria; Butlen-Ducuing, Florence; Vamvakas, Spiros; Broich, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory agencies have a key role in facilitating the development of new drugs for Alzheimer disease, particularly given the challenges associated with early intervention. Here, we highlight the strategies of the European Medicines Agency to help address such challenges.

  3. The European Network of Coloproctology: a strategy towards the European research and healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbini, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Many documents from the International Institutions point out that Health represents an engine of economic and social development. Based on these documents and concepts, the European Parliament decided to create a system of European Reference Networks as a synthesis of clinical and research activities, particularly in the field of rare diseases. This initiative, properly implemented, could be first step towards a new European health system. This article instead, wanting to deepen this perspective, postulates that the ERNs may also be related to widespread diseases, such as those of coloproctological interest, with the aim of setting up a European Network of Coloproctology (ENCP). Here are analyzed: (a) the documents related to ERNs and others related to research and training, the characteristics of the coloproctological diseases, and proposal of the ENCP; (b) a survey that involves 14 out of 25 of the National and Regional Representative of the European Society of Coloproctology. Hundred percent of the people interviewed agree to the ENCP project. The percentage of the approved proposed fields of activity of the ENCP are: Healthcare 71%, Research 100%, Training 86%, Support to legislation 78%, Professional Mobility 64%, Patient Database 71%, and Expenditure control 64%. From the analysis of the documents and the result of the survey, ERNs are appropriate not only in relation to rare diseases but also in those fields with higher diffusion and the creation of a European Network of Coloproctology is then postulated.

  4. Report on the behalf of the economy, sustainable development and land planning commission of the European resolution proposition by Mr Ladislas Poniatowski on the directive proposition by the European Parliament and Council related to energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowski, L.

    2011-01-01

    In its first part, this report outlines the interest of the directive proposition as energy efficiency and energy savings must be a priority for the European energy policy, that important energy saving fields are still to be explored, and that this directive is an ambitious and multi-sector oriented arrangement. The second part deals with the resolution proposition (the version proposed by M. Poniatowski and that of the commission). These propositions present the general objectives, comment the rules concerning public bodies, discuss obligation mechanisms regarding energy savings, discuss the issue of energy counting and billing, and the development of cogeneration and networks. The discussion of the commission is reported

  5. Industrial strategies on the European gas market. Unternehmensstrategien auf dem europaeischen Gasmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J M [Univ. de Paris-Dauphine, Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et de Matieres Premieres, 75 (France)

    1992-09-01

    The European natural gas industry is faced with two main problems. On the one hand it has to satisfy strongly rising demands while on the other hand its traditional structure is being questioned especially by the European commission in Brussels. The main reasons for the rising demand is the stoppage of nuclear energy programs in all European states except France. Almost all European countries have therefore started large programmes for the building of gas power stations. As a consequence, Europe has to develop large new sources of supply in order to satisfy this demand. The deregulation demanded by Brussels is the logical consequence of the legal principles contained in the Roman Treaties: Free movement of goods, persons and capital, the right of establishment and competition. (orig./UA).

  6. The European Central Bank : Independence, accountability and strategy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews research on central banking and monetary policy, with special emphasis on the position of the future European Central Bank. Nowadays, it is often thought that an independent central bank with an explicit mandate to aim for price stability constitutes an important institutional

  7. European research and development strategy for clean power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    We need more rather than less money for research, energy research in particular, research being an important contributor to progress, in order to achieve peak performance, comply with the quest for knowledge about the structure of the world, or to be able to further improve our quality of life at far less expense of materials and energy. This latter concept is in line with European identity. If we succeed in demonstrating to the world that people can live a better life if they manage their affairs sustainably, we Europeans will have won a new trademark: a sustainable Europe which can be left to future generations. For this purpose Europeans, more than before, must perceive Europe as a space of knowledge. Science policy must be geared to Europe, not just to a national territory. Also, Europe should devote more attention to fundamental research. Some outstanding projects are needed, particularly in energy research, with the participation of industry in order to reduce materials consumption and avoid emissions. Education, too, must be given much attention. In the absence of enthusiastic young scientists, engineers, and skilled workers who know their neighboring countries and their technologies and languages from an early age, European energy policy is bound to remain fragmented. (orig.)

  8. First update to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulatory strategy for the high-level waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.; Linehan, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has updated its initial regulatory strategy for the High-Level Waste Repository Licensing Program. The update describes changes to the initial strategy and summarizes progress and future activities. This paper summarizes the first update of the regulatory strategy. In general the overall strategy of identifying and reducing uncertainties is unchanged. Identifying regulatory and institutional uncertainties is essentially complete, and therefore, the current and future emphasis is on reducing those regulatory and institutional uncertainties identified to date. The NRC staff has improved the methods of reducing regulatory uncertainties by (1) enhancing the technical basis preparation process for potential rulemakings and guidance and (2) designing a new guidance document, called a staff position, for clarifying regulatory uncertainties. For guiding the US DOE's reduction of technical uncertainties, the NRC staff will give more emphasis to prelicense application reviews and less emphasis on preparing staff technical positions

  9. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2006-01-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  10. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A

    2006-07-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  11. Information report presented by the Commission of European Affairs about the international negotiations relative to climate change - No. 2391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome; Leroy, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    (UNFCCC) before the new global agreement expected in 2015. This agreement should, in particular, deal with the notions of mitigation, adaptation, financing, the development and transfer of technologies, the strengthening of capacities and with transparency in action and support. One of the crucial issues will concern the financing of the Green Climate Fund. The aim of this fund is to help those countries which are most exposed to global warming by aiding concrete 'green' projects which can contribute, for example, to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to the decrease of deforestation or to protection against the rise in water levels. Despite a sluggish beginning, the funding pledges, in the wake of the Berlin meeting on November 19 - 20, 2014, have reached 9.6 billion dollars out of the 10 billion dollars hoped for before the end of 2014. There is an ever-present temptation to decrease the financing of the fight against climate change on account of the economic crisis. However, the protection of the climate and economic growth can go hand-in-hand, as is shown in the last report of the Global Commission of the Economy and Climate, entitled 'Better Growth, Better Climate'. This report demonstrates that it is possible, as of today, to reduce carbon emissions whilst, at the same time, improving economic performance. The European Union is indeed mobilized and preparing for 2015 when all countries should, in fact, commit to the target of reducing their emissions, according to national capacities. This should be in line with the global aim concerning the maximum increase in global temperature of 2 deg. C in 2100 by comparison with the pre-industrial era. The ability of the European Union to provide an example and lead will, from this point of view, be essential. In order to obtain voluntary commitments from different countries, the negotiations between the European Union and the two main emitting countries (i.e. China and the United States) will be crucial. The fact that

  12. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    high energy performance. It is important to stress the need for MS to introduce a national or regional definition of very low energy buildings in their building regulation and to develop a national strategy towards this level of energy performance to become the standard. This market transformation...... the ambition in the EU Action plan - to develop an EU strategy towards very low energy houses. The current recast of the EPBD is an opportunity, which must not be missed to introduce the requirement to MS to define very low energy buildings and a national strategy towards this level of energy performance....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...

  13. Radioactive waste management and disposal strategies in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the various radioactive waste management strategies, as they are defined, or even envisaged, in the EC Member States committed to nuclear power. The two main components of these strategies are looked at: content and basic supporting choices; and schedule of implementation. Most EC Countries currently have in common a nuclear history of several decades. Early approaches and local practices are progressively replaced by centralised management systems and by strategies making the best use of many years of research and technological development. All these strategies are aiming at a safe management of all waste types up to, and including, their final disposal. The various management steps are well in hand and very similar in the EC Countries. However, the final step ''disposal'', has been implemented only for low-level waste, and remains to be demonstrated for long lived and high level waste (or spent fuel)

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE EDUCATIONAL STRATEGY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena I. Lokshyna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of the evolution of the educational strategy of EU in the process of its development aimed at the economic stability and security in the region. The author distinguishes key stages of the EU strategy development in the educational area and its present-day concept underlying the importance of correspondence to the requirements of economy and society.

  15. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  16. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria...... and tools for future resilient water landscapes....

  17. European Union and EDCTP strategy in the global context: recommendations for preventive HIV/AIDS vaccines research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehner, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Clerici, Mario; Gotch, Frances; Pedneault, Louise; Tartaglia, Jim; Gray, Clive; Mestecky, Jiri; Sattentau, Quentin; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Toure, Coumba; Osmanov, Saladin; Schmidt, Reinold E.; Debre, Patrice; Romaris, Manuel; Hoeveler, Arnd; Di Fabio, Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has strong commitments and recognises the need to continue to ensure that HIV/AIDS research efforts receive global attention. The EC is facing this challenge in a global context and has made substantial investments together with European Developing Countries Clinical

  18. 4 July 2013- European Commission DG CONNECT Director-General R. Madelin, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    4 July 2013- European Commission DG CONNECT Director-General R. Madelin, signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and visiting CMS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson J. Varela.

  19. The security of energy supply. The European seminar. The green book of the Commission. The IEA judgment. The strategic oil stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.; Burucoa, X.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Energies et Matieres Premieres journal comprises five articles about the security of energy supplies in Europe and France. The first article is the opening talk given by Christian Pierret at the European seminar on the security of energy supplies (Paris-Bercy, France, Nov. 24 2000). The article gives a broad presentation of the French energy policy in the worldwide economical, political and environmental context of energy. The second article is the concluding talk given by Jean-Michel Charpin at the seminar. The third article reports on some excerpts of the technical summary that was used to elaborate the green book of the European commission about the security of energy supplies. The fourth article is a summary written in collaboration with the IEA about the French policy of security of energy supplies. The last article gives a presentation of the role and management of strategic oil stocks (historical aspects, rules and legal aspects, management of crises, economical impact of the US destocking of September 2000, proposal of the European Commission's green book). (J.S.)

  20. Diagrammatic representation of economic factors affecting the nuclear fuel cycle strategy within the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This paper, which also appears as an Appendix to the Final Working Group 4 Report, forms part of the overall economic evaluation of reprocessing. The indicative position and illustrative ''phase diagram'' for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is presented. The European Community has to import 80% or more of the uranium needed to fuel its nuclear power capacity. Nuclear fuel reprocessing together with recycle of the recovered uranium and plutonium has the potential to reduce the uranium needs of the Community some 20 to 25% during the near term period 1990-2000 and in the longer term (after 2000) with the gradual introduction of fast breeder reactors to decrease sharply the need to import uranium. This illustrates the high economic value assigned to fuel reprocessing within the European Community

  1. Towards the european strategy for particle physics : The briefing book

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akesson, T.; Aleksan, R.; Allanach, B.; Bertolucci, S.; Blondel, A.; Butterworth, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cervera, A.; de Naurois, M.; Desch, K.; Egede, U.; Heuer, R.; Hoecker, A.; Huber, P.; Jungmann, K.; Linde, F.; Lombardi, A.; Mangano, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Onderwater, G.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Peach, K.; Polosa, A.; Rondio, E.; Webber, B.; Weiglein, G.; Womersley, J.

    This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates

  2. Overview of progress on the European DEMO remote maintenance strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crofts, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.crofts@ccfe.ac.uk [RACE/UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Loving, Antony; Iglesias, Daniel [RACE/UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom); Coleman, Matti [EUROfusion Consortium, PPP& T Department, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Siuko, Mikko [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo (Finland); Mittwollen, Martin [KIT Institut für Fördertechnik und Logistiksysteme, Gotthard-Franz-Straße 8, Geb.50.38, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Queral, Vicente [CIEMAT Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Edif. 66, Avenida Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vale, Alberto [IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Villedieu, Eric [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The remote maintenance strategy is applicable to the range of tokamak and component options currently under consideration in Europe • The remote maintenance development work is concentrating on the application and limits of the immature technologies that pose the greatest risk to the feasibility of the maintenance strategy • Position control during the handling of the in-vessel components is one of the areas of high risk and a system is being developed and will be tested prior to concept design to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of a system capable of real time incorporation of changing kinematic data provided by a structural simulator running in parallel • In-vessel recovery and rescue and the pipe joining technology form two more of the high risk areas where developments are being concentrated - Abstract: The EU-DEMO remote maintenance strategy must be relevant for a range of in-vessel component design options. The remote maintenance project must provide an understanding of the limits of the strategy and technologies so as to inform the developing plant design of the maintenance constraints. A comprehensive set of maintenance requirements has been produced, in conjunction with the plant designers, against which design options can be assessed. The proposed maintenance solutions are based around a strategy that deploys casks above each of the vertical ports to exchange the blanket segments and at each of the divertor ports to exchange the divertor cassettes. The casks deploy remote handling equipment to open and close the vacuum vessel, remove and re-install pipework, and replace the in-vessel components. A technical design risk assessment has shown that the largest risks are common to all of the proposed solutions and that they are associated with two key issues, first; the ability to handle the large blanket and divertor components to the required positional accuracy with limited viewing and position feedback, and second; to

  3. Overview of progress on the European DEMO remote maintenance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofts, Oliver; Loving, Antony; Iglesias, Daniel; Coleman, Matti; Siuko, Mikko; Mittwollen, Martin; Queral, Vicente; Vale, Alberto; Villedieu, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The remote maintenance strategy is applicable to the range of tokamak and component options currently under consideration in Europe • The remote maintenance development work is concentrating on the application and limits of the immature technologies that pose the greatest risk to the feasibility of the maintenance strategy • Position control during the handling of the in-vessel components is one of the areas of high risk and a system is being developed and will be tested prior to concept design to demonstrate the feasibility and capability of a system capable of real time incorporation of changing kinematic data provided by a structural simulator running in parallel • In-vessel recovery and rescue and the pipe joining technology form two more of the high risk areas where developments are being concentrated - Abstract: The EU-DEMO remote maintenance strategy must be relevant for a range of in-vessel component design options. The remote maintenance project must provide an understanding of the limits of the strategy and technologies so as to inform the developing plant design of the maintenance constraints. A comprehensive set of maintenance requirements has been produced, in conjunction with the plant designers, against which design options can be assessed. The proposed maintenance solutions are based around a strategy that deploys casks above each of the vertical ports to exchange the blanket segments and at each of the divertor ports to exchange the divertor cassettes. The casks deploy remote handling equipment to open and close the vacuum vessel, remove and re-install pipework, and replace the in-vessel components. A technical design risk assessment has shown that the largest risks are common to all of the proposed solutions and that they are associated with two key issues, first; the ability to handle the large blanket and divertor components to the required positional accuracy with limited viewing and position feedback, and second; to

  4. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...... preference for tackling unemployment through a host of activation and training measures and seeking to get the unemployed into work as fast as possible. Other ways of problematizing and handling unemployment seem excluded by default....

  5. The European Commission's Decision in MasterCard : Issues Facing the Payment Card Industry for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    John Wotton

    2008-01-01

    The Decision in MasterCard displays a fundamental divergence between the Commission’s and MasterCard’s approaches to the analysis of the competitive effects of open payment card schemes.

  6. European electricity; prospective study for 2050 between dreams and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A number of road-maps for the future of the European electricity have been elaborated according to various hypotheses: support more or less important to wind or solar energies, success or failure of carbon capture and storage technologies, more or less gain in energy efficiency. All the prospective studies show a power demand in Europe nearing 4000 TWh in 2030 and less than 5000 TWh in 2050. Another common point is the progressive electrification which means first the de-carbonising of power production means and then the transfer to electricity of uses like heating and transport. All the scenario give a share of at least 50% for renewable energies in 2030 and between 60% and 80% in 2050. The share of nuclear power in the energy mix ranges between 2.5% and 19% while today's nuclear share is over 25%. An alternative roadmap designed by Eurelectric and based on the minimization of costs gives a more important share to nuclear power. (A.C.)

  7. EUROPEAN ECONOMY VS THE TRAP OF THE EUROPE 2020 STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor IONESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals to the analysis of Europe 2020 Strategy goals’ viability under the new global socio-economic context. These goals are analyzed using comparative analysis, regression and a cluster approach. A distinct part of the analysis is focused on forecasting procedures. The first conclusion of the paper is that the disparities between Member States are too high to allow achieving the Strategy’s goals until 2020. Moreover, these disparities will maintain or will increase in 2020. A t least two clusters can be built using the Member States’ performances. The whole analysis and its conclusions are supported by the latest official statistic data, pertinent tables and diagrams.

  8. Burden sharing in a European framework - carbon reduction strategies for 13 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Schaumann, P.

    1999-01-01

    International negotiations on greenhouse gas reduction targets at Kyoto presented a severe problem to the public: How can the burden of global limitation of greenhouse gases be shared by the countries in a proper way without delaying the indispensable cutting of emissions. The paper presents a critical review of the results of Kyoto, some basic thoughts on equity rules and a model-based analysis on the reduction of CO 2 , the major greenhouse gas, in thirteen EU countries covering 99% of EU CO 2 emissions. Both, reduction targets and economic burden are presented for selected equity rules. The authors used the models and model results elaborated by national teams from 13 European countries. (Author)

  9. Combating Terrorism. The 9/11 Commission Recommendations and the National Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parachini, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The objective was to have people think like the Jihadists. In the second part of the exercise, participants assessed how the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism prepares the country to contend with possible next moves of the Jihadist movement...

  10. 20 April 2011 - President of the European Commission J.M. Barroso visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 5 and CMS experimental cavern.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    CERN-HI-1104125 02 - 18: President Barroso is welcomed in the French territory by the Representative of the French Republic O. Laurens-Bernard, Sous-Préfet de Gex, then, in the welcome line, CERN Director General introduces: Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci Portuguese Delegate to CERN Council G. Barreira Head of International Relations F. Pauss Head of Physics Department P. Bloch Head of Technology Department F. Bordry Head of Beams Department P. Collier Head of Information Technology Department F. Hemmer CMS Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli Project Coordinator of FP7 EuCARD J.-P. Koutchouk and CERN EU Projects Leader S. Stavrev. From left to right on CERN-HI-1104125 91: Head of the EU Delegation to the WTO A. Pangratis;General Director, DG Research and Innovation, European Commission R. J. Smits; CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; Head of International Relations F. Pauss; President of the European Commission J. M. Barroso;CERN Director-Genera...

  11. Information report submitted by the Commission for European Affairs on the reform of the emission allowances market. Nr 4569

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    This parliamentary report first proposes a presentation of the European carbon emission allowances market or emission trading scheme (ETS) by recalling the context of its creation, and by describing its operation (a trading platform to reduce CO_2 emission in Europe), and commenting critics which are generally made about this market. Then, the authors present and comment proposals of reform with notably the creation of a reserve fund of stability, and a structural reform of the market. The authors then explain why and how the ETS reform must go beyond that if the European Union wants to meet commitments defined in the Paris agreement

  12. The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2008-01-01

    policies to varying degrees, but that the impact, generally speaking, has been limited. In the article, the author examines the impact of the strategy as a result of peer pressure and key actors' strategic use of the strategy and shows how these mechanisms work. Factors that can explain why greater impact......In the mid-1990s, EU member states decided to coordinate their national employment policies through a common European Employment Strategy (EES). Building on a systematic comparative study of four member states, the author argues that the strategy has influenced the member states' employment...

  13. Information report made on the behalf of the European Affairs Commission on European policy for nuclear safety; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires europeennes (1) sur la politique europeenne de surete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, J.; Sutour, S.

    2011-05-15

    This report aims at defining some perspectives for the evolution of the European general legal framework for nuclear safety. The authors first outline the difficulty for a European policy to emerge. They explain this statement by the importance of the current policy of national states, of their operators and of their national regulation authorities. They evoke the few elements of this legal framework (EURATOM Treaty, jurisprudence) but outline the strong cooperation between national authorities. Then, they discuss some progresses which have been noticed during the past two years (the 'safety' directive, a proposition for a directive on the management of used fuel and radioactive wastes, and the recent works by WENRA), and discuss the consequences of the accident in Fukushima. Propositions are made, notably concerning the support to the 'waste' directive, the perpetuation of strength tests, the rewriting of the 'safety' directive of June 2009

  14. Commissioning of the CMS muon detector and development of generic search strategies for new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biallass, Philipp Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The detection and reconstruction of cosmic muon rays is important for the commissioning phase and alignment of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS), in particular during the early phases of operation with physics collisions. In this context the Magnet Test/Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) with its comprehensive cosmic data taking periods including the presence of the magnetic field has been like a dress rehearsal of detector hardware and software for the upcoming start-up of the CMS detector. In addition to data taking also the comparison with simulated events is a crucial part of physics analyses. The first part of this thesis introduces a new cosmic muon generator, CMSCGEN, and it presents its validation by comparing its predictions with data from MTCC. As an example, results from a reconstruction study using the barrel muon system are shown, comparing data and Monte Carlo prediction at the level of single chambers up to reconstructed tracks including momentum measurements. Since leptons (electrons, muons) constitute very clean signatures for signals of new physics these commissioning and alignment procedures are also vital to most physics analyses. In the second part of this thesis a model independent search approach for new physics within CMS is presented, utilizing events with leptons and relying only on the knowledge of the Standard Model simulation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Due to the absence of a theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models, including those not yet thought of. Within this feasibility study events are classified according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing energy) into so called event classes. A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the SM Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously

  15. Commissioning of the CMS muon detector and development of generic search strategies for new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biallass, Philipp Alexander

    2009-03-27

    The detection and reconstruction of cosmic muon rays is important for the commissioning phase and alignment of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS), in particular during the early phases of operation with physics collisions. In this context the Magnet Test/Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) with its comprehensive cosmic data taking periods including the presence of the magnetic field has been like a dress rehearsal of detector hardware and software for the upcoming start-up of the CMS detector. In addition to data taking also the comparison with simulated events is a crucial part of physics analyses. The first part of this thesis introduces a new cosmic muon generator, CMSCGEN, and it presents its validation by comparing its predictions with data from MTCC. As an example, results from a reconstruction study using the barrel muon system are shown, comparing data and Monte Carlo prediction at the level of single chambers up to reconstructed tracks including momentum measurements. Since leptons (electrons, muons) constitute very clean signatures for signals of new physics these commissioning and alignment procedures are also vital to most physics analyses. In the second part of this thesis a model independent search approach for new physics within CMS is presented, utilizing events with leptons and relying only on the knowledge of the Standard Model simulation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the detector and the tuning of the event generators. Due to the absence of a theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models, including those not yet thought of. Within this feasibility study events are classified according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing energy) into so called event classes. A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the SM Monte Carlo simulation. The importance of systematic uncertainties is outlined, which are taken into account rigorously

  16. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC f /SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors

  17. Rising costs call for new European refining strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.N.C.

    1993-01-01

    The outlook for the global refining industry is for increased spending and reduced margins, largely because of efforts to improve the environment. A look at these trends through the end of the decade is thus in order. Three major industry thrusts are proposed to see refiners through this uncertain period. Three main thrusts are necessary: fixed costs must be reduced by re-engineering business processes and reexamining noncore business units against total and marginal costs. In this respect the best refiners are well ahead of the good ones. New cooperative ways of meeting regulations must be sought, to avoid wasteful over capacity. Joint ventures and alliances with competitors will be needed. The cooperative principle upstream must be extended and new strategies must be sought to meet product demand changes and reduce feedstock costs. The picture that is presented is tough, largely because of the wish to improve the environment. The question that must be continually reviewed is ''Have governments got the right balance in these regulations between the environment and the downstream industry?''

  18. An exploratory study to improve the predictive capacity of the crop growth monitoring system as applied by the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supit, I.

    2000-01-01

    The European Union (EU), through its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), attempts to regulate the common agricultural market to, among others, secure food supplies and provide consumers with food at reasonable prices. Implementation and control of these CAP regulations is executed by the

  19. Human Populations and the World Conservation Strategy. Commission on Ecology Paper Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J.

    This document serves as a supplement to the World Conservation Strategy (WCS) and outlines some of the critical aspects of the interaction between human populations, natural resources, and social and economic conditions. Particular emphasis is placed on the importance of planning with people, and on packaging conservation programs so they are more…

  20. Invitation strategies and coverage in the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Diama B; Anttila, Ahti; Ponti, Antonio; Senore, Carlo; Sankaranaryanan, Rengaswamy; Ronco, Guglielmo; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Žakelj, Maja P; Elfström, Klara M; Lönnberg, Stefan; Dillner, Joakim; Basu, Partha

    2018-03-21

    The aim of this study was to describe the compliance of the population-based cancer screening programmes in the European Union Member States to the invitation strategies enumerated in the European Guidelines and the impact of such strategies on the invitational coverage. Experts in screening programme monitoring from the respective countries provided data. Coverage by invitation was calculated as the proportion of individuals in the target age range receiving a screening invitation over the total number of annualized eligible population. The invitation strategies of 30 breasts, 25 cervical and 27 colorectal national or regional population-based screening programmes are described. Individual mail invitations are sent by 28 breasts, 20 cervical and 25 colorectal screening programmes. Faecal occult blood test kits are sent by post in 17 of the colorectal cancer screening programmes. The majority of programmes claimed to have a population registry, although some use health insurance data as the database for sending invitations. At least 95% invitation coverage was reached by 16 breast, six cervical and five colorectal screening programmes. Majority of the programmes comply with the invitation strategies enumerated in the European guidelines, although there is still scope for improvements. Coverage by invitation is below the desirable level in many population-based cancer screening programmes in European Union.

  1. Seasonal Sex Ratio Trend in the European Kestrel : An Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Weissing, F.J.; Daan, S.

    We present an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model to analyze selection on seasonal variation in the brood sex ratio, as observed in several species of raptorial birds. The model is specifically tailored to the life history of the European kestrel, and it reflects the maturation time

  2. Finding uncontested markets for European Fruit and Vegetables through applying the Blue Ocean Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Düsseldorf, S.; Batterink, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discover an uncontested market space in the European fruit and vegetables industry (EFVI), and thereby assess the ex-ante applicability of the Blue Ocean Strategy of Kim and Mauborgne. Design/methodology/approach – The search for an untapped market space

  3. Price risk perceptions and management strategies in selected European food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assefa, Tsion T.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural prices in European food markets have become more volatile over the past decade exposing agribusinesses to risk and uncertainty. This study goes beyond the farm stage and explores through interviews the price risk perceptions and management strategies in multiple stages of the food

  4. Information report submitted by the Commission for European Affairs on the new organisation of the electricity market, within the frame of the fourth energy package. Nr 4568

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanne, Nathalie; Schneider, Andre

    2017-01-01

    After charting the gradual implementation of the European energy policy over the past twenty years, and observing the need to adapt the regulatory framework to promote the necessary developments in the sector to combat climate change, the authors of this parliamentary report examine the four texts (three regulations and one directive) of the fourth energy package on the organisation of the electric power market. They notice that the measures proposed by the European Commission aim at making the electricity market more flexible, at strengthening regional cooperation, at allowing the consumer to play a more active role in the market, at promoting the emergence of a European regulator, and at introducing joint methods for the assessment and management of risks. However, the authors consider that several proposals seem to express a highly pronounced desire for centralisation, and therefore lead to a level of prescription which they consider as incompatible with the need to maintain the competencies of the Member States in this field. Therefore, they make recommendations for a close monitoring of the legislative process and to ensure that some proposals are modified or adapted

  5. The new European Energy Union - Toward a consistent EU energy and climate policy? A report for the French Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    In his opening statement in the European Parliament in July 2014, the new European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker highlighted 10 key priorities for his mandate. One of these consists in 'reform(ing) and reorganis(ing) Europe's energy policy into a new European Energy Union'. Does this imply that this Energy Union will mark the beginning of a new approach toward European energy policy, or is it merely a re-framing of the debate? We argue in this paper that the new Energy Union will need a radically new approach to European energy and climate policy. A sound European energy and climate policy should be based on a set of well-defined objectives, and rely on well-articulated instruments to deliver in the most efficient way on these objectives. The current European energy and climate policy framework has major flaws on both fronts. The paper does not aim to provide a comprehensive list of the issues at stake with European energy and climate policy, which would be a daunting task, and builds on previous work conducted for the for the Commissariat General a la Strategie et a la Prospective (CGSP) in 2013.5 Instead, we focus on some key areas with the objective to make a series of concrete proposals for reform. This paper takes a practitioners' perspective, recognizing that a 'first best' economic approach is often not practical, and therefore putting forward policy recommendations which recognize the policy and institutional constraints that characterize European policy making. We start by discussing issues with the European Commission (EC) energy and climate policy objectives, and then suggest some potential reforms to the regulatory framework to deliver on these objectives. We successively cover in session 2 and 3 the policy levers for decarbonization and for security of supply, before discussing the necessary changes to the power market framework. We conclude by discussing how the financing and governance challenges associated

  6. Is flood defense changing in nature? Shifts in the flood defense strategy in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gralepois

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, flood defense has historically formed the core of flood risk management but this strategy is now evolving with the changing approach to risk management. This paper focuses on the neglected analysis of institutional changes within the flood defense strategies formulated and implemented in six European countries (Belgium, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. The evolutions within the defense strategy over the last 30 years have been analyzed with the help of three mainstream institutional theories: a policy dynamics-oriented framework, a structure-oriented institutional theory on path dependency, and a policy actors-oriented analysis called the advocacy coalitions framework. We characterize the stability and evolution of the trends that affect the defense strategy in the six countries through four dimensions of a policy arrangement approach: actors, rules, resources, and discourses. We ask whether the strategy itself is changing radically, i.e., toward a discontinuous situation, and whether the processes of change are more incremental or radical. Our findings indicate that in the European countries studied, the position of defense strategy is continuous, as the classical role of flood defense remains dominant. With changing approaches to risk, integrated risk management, climate change, urban growth, participation in governance, and socioeconomic challenges, the flood defense strategy is increasingly under pressure to change. However, these changes can be defined as part of an adaptation of the defense strategy rather than as a real change in the nature of flood risk management.

  7. Trends of non-destructive analytical methods for identification of biodiesel feedstock in diesel-biodiesel blend according to European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC and detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazivila, Sarmento Júnior

    2018-04-01

    Discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend is challenging due to the great similarity in the spectral profile as well as digital image profile of each type of feedstock employed in biodiesel production. Once the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is subsidized, in which motivates adulteration in biofuel blend by cheaper supplies with high solubility to obtain profits associated with the subsidies involved in biodiesel production. Non-destructive analytical methods based on qualitative and quantitative analysis for detecting marketed diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration are reviewed. Therefore, at the end is discussed the advantage of the qualitative analysis over quantitative analysis, when the systems require immediate decisions such as to know if the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is unadulterated or adulterated in order to aid the analyst in selecting the most appropriate green analytical procedure for detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration proceeding in fast way. This critical review provides a brief review on the non-destructive analytical methods reported in scientific literature based on different first-order multivariate calibration models coupled with spectroscopy data and digital image data to identify the type of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend in order to meets the strategies adopted by European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC as well as to monitoring diesel-biodiesel adulteration. According to that Directive, from 2020 biodiesel produced from first-generation feedstock, that is, oils employed in human food such as sunflower, soybean, rapeseed, palm oil, among other oils should not be subsidized. Therefore, those non-destructive analytical methods here reviewed are helpful for discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend according to European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC as well as for detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  8. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  9. Strategy Scriptions: On sociomaterial devices staging strategy formulation European Management Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2014-01-01

    is making strategic choices, then chose a strategy and then making and action plan. Most project groups worked as expected, one group constituting a rare exception, as staging and the mobilisation of devices lead to unanticipated events, triggering extraordinary management activity. Our study shows......Strategy formulation can be viewed as an entanglement of social and material elements, developing sociomaterial strategy devices. Devices contribute to arranging and staging occasions of strategy formulation. The article investigates which arenas are staged for strategy formulation, which types...... of devices is purposely mobilised by management. and consultants. First, one central device, based on a balanced scorecard, is staging the managers as active strategists in a more traditional strategy workshop, with the employees as distanced spectators. Second, the employees are staged in an open space...

  10. Information report made on the behalf of the European Affairs Commission on the second strategic analysis of the energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourzai, B.

    2009-11-01

    This report first discusses the challenges faced in terms of energy, stresses the need to give up a pure commercial logic and to diversify the energy sources in the European Union. It discusses how to develop energy solidarity in Europe as far as gas and electricity are concerned. It addresses the issue of diversification of energy supply, notably after the gas crisis of January 2009, comments the Russian position, and evokes the great number of projects with still uncertain results. It questions the objectives defined for renewable energies, outlines the still insufficient efforts in the field of energy efficiency, and highlights the crucial role of research (variety of innovation fields, necessary investments)

  11. Removal of radon by aeration testing of various aeration techniques for small water works. For European Commission under Contract No FI4PCT960054 TENAWA project

    CERN Document Server

    Salonen, L; Mehtonen, J; Mjoenes, L; Raff, O; Turunen, H

    2002-01-01

    Capability of various aeration techniques to remove radon from water in small waterworks was studied as a part of project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water), which was carried out during 1997-1999 on a cost-shared basis (contract No. F14PCT960054) with The European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of the Directorate-General XII Radiation Protection Research Unit. In TENAWA project both laboratory and field experiments were performed in order to find reliable methods and equipment for removing natural radionuclides from ground water originating either from private wells or small waterworks. Because such techniques are more often needed in private households than at waterworks, the main emphasis of the research was aimed to solve the water treatment problems related to the private water supplies, especially bedrock wells. Radon was the most important radionuclide to be removed from water at waterworks whereas the removal of other radionuclides ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 4...

  12. Information report made by the Commission for European Affairs on international negotiations on climate change. Nr 3248

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome; Leroy, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In its first part, this report discusses the Lima agreement with questions left to be answered in Paris, and large divergences. It also comments the issue of national contributions and its process which has been adopted in Lima, and highlights the shortcomings of the Lima call. Then, it discusses progresses related to the creation of a Green Fund, and outlines uncertainties for the period 2015-2020. In the second part, it describes and discusses stakes and challenges faced by the Paris conference: the importance of a legally constraining treaty, the necessity of higher level of ambition regarding mitigation, the essential guarantee of control and transparency, the attention paid to the adaptation of the most vulnerable countries, and the need of a sufficient and sustainable financing. The third part addresses the situation and role of the European Union within international negotiations on climate change: position of the EU and of the European Parliament regarding the COP21, publications by Eurostat to assess and measure advances made by the EU. It also addresses the uncertain conciliation with other important interveners like the USA, China, the G7 and the G20

  13. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATIONS IN DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility strategies are a topic of great interest for both researchers and practitioners, and require the development of interdisciplinary approaches: economic, ethical and social. The paper analyses the social responsibility strategies employed by European automotive businesses and highlights their impact on business sustainability. From a theoretical perspective, applying the content analysis method on sustainability or social responsibility reports revealed a variety of social responsibility strategies. The utility of the research is supported by formulating a typology of social responsibility strategies, based on objectives of sustainable development and by establishing arguments concerning the impact of these strategies on automotive businesses’ sustainability in the following areas: social and societal, ecological and environmental, distribution chains and suppliers, corporate image, position in relation to competitors and financial performance.

  14. Tout cela est bien quelque chose: Digital Preservation Today: how European Commission programmes and policy have brought us here: Festschrift for Patricia (Pat Manson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Delve

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patricia (Pat Manson worked with the European Commission's (EC’s research programmes from the early 1990s, initially as project officer (December 1991-March 2003 and then as Head of Unit (April 2003-2011 for Cultural Heritage and Technology Enhanced Learning which was part of the Directorate General Information Society and Media. The unit focused primarily on research in digital libraries, digital preservation, and in the use of ICTs for improving learning, but was also involved in the development of the i2010 digital libraries policies and actions. Prior to joining the Commission, she worked in the UK providing a national advisory and market watch service to libraries on the use of new technologies. She is now Head of the Inclusion, Skills & Youth Unit of the EC’s Directorate General for Communication Networks, Content and Technology (DG CONNECT, where the unit’s goal is to ensure that citizens, especially youth and those at risk of exclusion, are best able to benefit from the Internet and have the necessary skills so to do. This article sets out Pat’s leadership of EC-funded Digital Preservation, and examines her legacy in terms of lasting best practices, contributions to standardisation activities etc.

  15. Information report submitted by the Commission for European Affairs on the directive proposition by the European Parliament and the Council on the deployment on alternative fuels infrastructure- Nr 1126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    As clean fuels are facing three main obstacles (high vehicle cost, low consumer receptivity, and lack of charge ports and refuelling stations), this report discusses the context and the implications of a European directive which aims establishing constraining objectives for infrastructures dedicated to clean fuels as electricity, hydrogen and natural gas. The author presents this directive in relationship with the objective of development of low-carbon or de-carbonated transports through the use of electricity, hydrogen, bio-fuels, liquefied or compressed natural gas (LNG and CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and in relationship with European connector harmonisation. He outlines the interest of the European initiative with respect to the French position: being ahead with the existence of a French plan for the development of the electric vehicle, France must not fall behind on the issue of connector system. Two strategies are proposed in conclusion

  16. Information report published by the Commission of European affairs on international negotiations related to climate change - Nr 1550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This report first outlines the urgency of struggle against global warming. It refers the scientific results recently published by the IPCC which notably worsened the diagnosis on global warming. It discussed the mixed results of the Doha Conference. In a second part, the authors discuss the stakes of the Warsaw climate Conference while outlining the need of a global agreement in 2015. For the Warsaw conference, the main identified issues are: to operate the green fund for climate and the technological mechanism, to finance aids to adaptation and to compensation of losses and damages, a better transparency and a greater ambition for emission reductions. The third part addresses the international struggle against global warming at the ICAO level (International Civil Aviation Organization), to reach a constraining agreement (top down versus bottom up approach), at the European Union level. The last part addresses the struggle against climate scepticism

  17. How polygeneration schemes may develop under an advanced clean fossil fuel strategy under a joint sino-European initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Jens; Zheng, Li; Shisen, Xu

    2009-01-01

    In this article the prospect of emerging co-production and polygeneration schemes based on pre-combustion decarbonisation and options for geological storage of the CO 2 are discussed in a European and Chinese setting. Reference is made to European and Chinese undertakings - especially the COACH project that is being conducted under the auspices of the European Commission. COACH is based on principles lined up by the EU-based DYNAMIS project with reference to options for decarbonising fossil fuels within a more sustainable framework. (author)

  18. Requirements for BNCT at a nuclear research reactor. Results from a BNCT workshop organized by the European Commission in Prague, November 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, Ray; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Wittig, Andrea; Burian, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    As part of the European Commission's Enlargement and Integration Action (E and IA), which is intended to improve exchange and relationship within the extended European Union (EU), a Workshop was organized in Prague in November 2005. The purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss technical and organisational requirements in setting up a BNCT facility at a research reactor. Topics included: treatment of a patient by BNCT; organisational aspects and regulatory affairs; BNCT from the nuclear perspective and BNCT from the clinician's perspective. Presentations were given by BNCT experts in their particular field, whilst eleven different national nuclear research centres from the New Member States and Accession Countries, interested in developing a BNCT programme, presented the status of their preparations. The conclusions of the Workshop were that an early and close collaboration between nuclear and medical groups is the basis for BNCT, that a local effort to build a BNCT facility should be supported by a national research programme including basic and clinical science and that the JRC and its partners are ready to support national initiatives within the EU and candidate countries. (author)

  19. Confirmation of hormones in animal serum by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry according to European Commission Decision 2002/657.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Malone, Edward; McBride, John

    2010-01-01

    A novel and rapid method was developed and validated for the confirmation of endogenous and synthetic hormones in animal serum using LC/MS/MS. Detection of 17 beta-estradiol and beta-testosterone below the respective European Union-recommended levels of 0.1 and 0.5 microg/L was achieved, as was a required performance level of 0.1 microg/L for 17 alpha-estradiol and 0.5 microg/L for 17 alpha-testosterone, medroxyprogesterone-17-acetate, and progesterone. The method was established with dilution of serum followed by ion-exchange SPE, LC separation and MS detection with electrospray ionization, selected reaction monitoring, and positivelnegative switching. Two characteristic transitions were monitored for each analyte. The method was applied to bovine, ovine, porcine, equine, and avian samples and validated according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and accepted for ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accreditation. An extended calibration curve allows naturally occurring levels of endogenous hormones to be quantified. Recoveries ranged from 97.3% for 17 alpha-testosterone to 102.0% for 17 alpha-estradiol. The decision limit CCalpha ranged from 0.02 microg/L for 17 alpha- and beta-estradiol to 0.12 microg/L for progesterone. Detection capability CCbeta ranged from 0.03 microg/L for 17 a-estradiol to 0.20 microg/L for progesterone.

  20. 17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  1. 26th May 2011 -Delegate to CERN Open Council sessions and European Commission Head of Unit for Joint Programming European Research Area, DG Research and Innovation R. Lečbychová visiting the CERN Control Centre with M. Pojer, accompanied by CERN S. Stavrev.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    26th May 2011 -Delegate to CERN Open Council sessions and European Commission Head of Unit for Joint Programming European Research Area, DG Research and Innovation R. Lečbychová visiting the CERN Control Centre with M. Pojer, accompanied by CERN S. Stavrev.

  2. Research and development action of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in the field of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Bresesti, M.

    1983-01-01

    The CEC R and D action, started in 1973, is carried out within the framework of cost-sharing contracts with Community organizations and in the laboratories of the Joint Research Centre, Ispra. About 350 research workers from 30 organizations within the Community are taking part. The R and D activities cover processing, conditioning, characterization, intermediate storage and final disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in reactors and in fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication plants. In the Community, spent fuels are not considered as radioactive waste. About one half of the total effort has been devoted to the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in geological formations (granite, clay, salt) and to related studies. The sub-seabed disposal option is also being investigated with a more limited effort. The R and D activities on waste treatment cover low-level, alpha-bearing and gaseous wastes. An important activity has been developed on the characterization of vitrified HLW. A similar activity for the characterization of other types of conditioned wastes has been started. The R and D activity of the CEC is supported by the existence of a Community Plan of Action (1980-1992) which entrusts to the Commission a wider role in the development of waste management policies. The Plan assures in particular the continuity of the R and D work up to 1992. International co-operation is considered important; international symposia have been co-sponsored with the IAEA; co-operative agreements with non-Community countries are in force (such as with Canada) or in preparation (such as with the USA). (author)

  3. ASPECTS OF POLICIES AND STRATEGIES FOR CYBER SECURITY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilina ARMENCHEVA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Freedom and prosperity of mankind greatly depend on an innovative, safe and reliable Internet that, of course, will keep evolving. Cyber space must be protected from incidents, misuse and abuse. Handling the increasing number of threats to cyber security is a challenge that national security and the trend in the international environment face. This makes taking fast and adequate measures at national, European and international level a must. Changing national security strategies and adopting new cyber security strategies are a part of these measures.

  4. A word from the DG: The European strategy for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN Council took the bold and important decision of unanimously approving a European strategy for particle physics at a dedicated meeting held in Lisbon on 14 July. The consequences for particle physics and for this Laboratory are profound. The full strategy statement is available through the CERN Council web pages at the address http://www.cern.ch/council-strategygroup, but I would like to underline some of the key points here. In endorsing the strategy, the Council has agreed to act as a council for European particle physics, and not only as a council for CERN. The Council has accepted the considerable responsibility of defining and updating Europe's strategy for particle physics, and of representing Europe on the world stage. The general issues of the strategy recognize Europe's strength and depth in the field, at strong national institutes, at universities and laboratories, and at CERN. The scientific issues place the LHC firmly on top of the list, both in terms of its initial exploitation and possi...

  5. Policies Supporting Innovation In The European Union In The Context Of The Lisbon Strategy And The Europe 2020 Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of increasing globalization, global competition and rapid change the EU sees innovation and its commercialization as an effective way to build long-term global competitive advantage. Innovation policy is a link between research and technological development policy and industrial policy and makes it possible to create conditions conducive to bringing ideas to the market. It is also closely linked to other EU policies regarding e.g. employment, competitiveness, environment, industry and energy. This paper presents the evolution, conditions and objectives of the innovation policy of the European, and describes the main assumptions of the Lisbon and Europe 2020 strategies. Additionally it indicates possible ways of assessing the measures undertaken within the above-mentioned policies and of determining the tools necessary to implement the strategies.

  6. Acquired immunity against malaria as a tool for the control of the disease: the strategy proposed by the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations in 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, G

    1998-06-01

    The Third General Report of the Malaria Commission, printed in 1933, suggested for the control of malaria a strategy aimed to promote the acquisition of a "relative immunity" through a non radical treatment of the infected people living in highly endemic areas. The paper discusses the content of the Report and describes the scientific (empirical) premises on which it stood. Moreover, it illustrates the criticism that was directed against the immunological strategy and that eventually led to its abandonment.

  7. Report on the behalf of the Commission for economic affairs on the proposition of European resolution presented by MM. Jean BIZET and Michel DELEBARRE on the behalf of the Commission for European affairs in application of article 73 quarter of the Regulation, on renewable energies and capacity mechanisms. Nr 435

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowski, Ladislas

    2017-01-01

    In the main part of this report, the author first proposes an overview of the energy policy as a shared competence and priority of the Junker Commission: this competence is shared between the European Union and member States, and a Union of energy is a political priority at the service of economic growth and of commitments for the climate. The author also proposes an overview of the main legal measures present in the fourth energy package: energy efficiency and energetic performance of buildings, development of renewable energies, organisation of the electric power market and security of supply, governance of the Union of energy and sector regulation. He discusses the position of the French Senate Commission for economic affairs: a general agreement (notably about energy efficiency, renewable energies, central role awarded to consumers, industrial and social support for energy transition) with some reservations on some proposed action modalities (notably with respect to the principles of subsidiarity, proportionality, sovereignty and responsibility of member states). A transcription of Commission debates, a list of hearings, and a comparative version of the text are provided

  8. Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 2 To the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission. Case Study Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Annex 2 To the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission. Case Study Summaries" is designed as a companion document to the final report "Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Final…

  9. FOREWORD: Workshop on Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas, sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; De Angelis, U.; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    1990-01-01

    cavities and their burn-out resulting in very strong turbulence. Remarkable agreement between the simulations and ionospheric modification experiments have been demonstrated. The articles presented also attempted to correlate the theories of parametric instabilities with experimental observations. The properties of plasma lenses used for focusing of high energy particle beams is also presented as part of the uses of the nonlinear plasmas. Self-organisation of plasmas resulting in coherent nonlinear structures and particle diffusion processes are reported. On the experimental side the nonlinear optics of plasmas as a new area of research has been reviewed. This is becoming an important area for research since it treats the plasma from the outset as a nonlinear medium. Experimental observations of phase conjugation of electromagnetic signals demonstrate once again the importance of the nonlinearities inherent in the interaction of large amplitude waves with plasmas. Finally the importance of turbulence in space plasmas is emphasized in a discussion of the auroral phenomenon, presenting the plasma physicists point of view on this topic. The workshop, attended by scientists from all over the world, stimulated a great deal of lively discussions about the theoretical foundations, experimental observations and interpretations together with computer simulation results on the physics of nonlinear plasma wave phenomena. The workshop was made possible by the kind support of Professors A Salam, L Bertocchi and M Hassan. We are grateful to them for giving us the opportunity to organize the workshop within the activities of the Spring College on Plasma Physics. Thanks are also due to the ICTP and the European Economic Community (EEC) for providing partial financial support. Finally, our most cordial thanks are extended to the invited speakers for coming to Trieste delivering excellent talks and enhancing the activity of the Spring College.

  10. Report realized in the name of the economic, environment and territory commission, on the resolution proposition (n. 1261) of Messrs Bernard Deflesselles and Jerome Lambert, reporters of the commission in charge of the european affairs, on the program energy-climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report aims to evaluate a resolution proposition on five texts presented by the European Commission the 23 January 2008: the enhancement of the quotas emission system, the greenhouse gases effect reduction, the renewable energies development, the juridical aspects of the carbon sequestration and storage and the financial assistance of the governments for the environment. 12 propositions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. The future of soil protection strategy at the level of European Union at the filed of soil monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kubík

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available European Union deals long with problems of the two components of environment the air and the water. So far soil wasnęt in the main scope of the European Union. The European Union deal now with problems of soil, where we can find question of the soil monitoring. This issue was solve in the framework of the Working group on soil monitoring (WG. The recommendations from the WG are base for deciding of the European Commission, which will have interest to formulate new soil directive. The main tasks of the WG were to review of existing soil monitoring systems, to specify basic soil parameters, indicators, to define soil parameters for each soil threats and to harmonize future soil monitoring activity and soil data.

  12. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Materials Interface Interactions Test: Papers presented at the Commission of European Communities workshop on in situ testing of radioactive waste forms and engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The three papers in this report were presented at the second international workshop to feature the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT). This Workshop on In Situ Tests on Radioactive Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers was held in Corsendonk, Belgium, on October 13--16, 1992, and was sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). The Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre D'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN, Belgium), and the US Department of Energy (via Savannah River) also cosponsored this workshop. Workshop participants from Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States gathered to discuss the status, results and overviews of the MIIT program. Nine of the twenty-five total workshop papers were presented on the status and results from the WIPP MIIT program after the five-year in situ conclusion of the program. The total number of published MIIT papers is now up to almost forty. Posttest laboratory analyses are still in progress at multiple participating laboratories. The first MIIT paper in this document, by Wicks and Molecke, provides an overview of the entire test program and focuses on the waste form samples. The second paper, by Molecke and Wicks, concentrates on technical details and repository relevant observations on the in situ conduct, sampling, and termination operations of the MIIT. The third paper, by Sorensen and Molecke, presents and summarizes the available laboratory, posttest corrosion data and results for all of the candidate waste container or overpack metal specimens included in the MIIT program

  14. Overview of Recent Activities on Safety Culture and Human and Organizational Factors Carried Out at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stručić, M.; Manna, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) is since more than ten years active in the field of Safety Culture (SC) and Human and Organizational Factors (HOF). Several activities related to SC and HOF have been and are carried out in the frame of the EU Nuclear Safety Clearinghouse for Operating Experience Feedback (Clearinghouse). The Clearinghouse was established in 2008 to enhance nuclear safety through the lessons learned from NPP events, and to provide help in Operational Experience Feedback (OEF) process primarily to nuclear safety Regulatory Authorities and to their Technical Support Organizations within the EU. Additionally to these activities, during the Fukushima accident, Clearinghouse has been regularly providing reports on the status and progress of the accident to the EU Regulatory Authorities. Moreover, experts, selected from the JRC staffing, were directly engaged in the EU-wide risk and safety assessments of nuclear power plants known as “the Stress Tests”.

  15. The role of the Community Bureau of Reference in harmonizing compliance with the laws of the Commission of the European Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga, X

    1994-01-01

    While Community Directives provide the legal basis for the harmonization of national regulations (e.g. food quality, quality of plastics in contact with foodstuffs, etc.), their implementation sometimes requires measurements and analyses which are beyond the capabilities of many laboratories. The BCR Programme of the Commission of the European Communities has undertaken a series of actions in order to help with the implementation of Directive 90/128/EEC for plastics materials intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. The certification of the overall migration characteristics of a polyamide material in aqueous food simulants by total immersion is well advanced. This material will be available through the BCR Programme in 1993 and will allow the laboratories to check their correct application of the normalized method and will provide a basis for laboratory quality assurance. A project is in progress for the preparation of a reference material for the measurement of overall migration by total immersion in olive oil. The preparation of a bank of monomers in the positive list of the above Directive and a handbook of physical and spectroscopic data for these monomers has been supported. Projects are being prepared for supporting the development of methods for the analysis of more than thirty monomers with restrictions in the positive list of Directive 90/128/EEC.

  16. DOE/CEC [Department of Energy/Commission of the European Communities] workshop on critical evaluation of radiobiological data to biophysical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Radiation Protection Program support the majority of Research in the Field of Radiobiological Modeling. This field of science develops models based on scientifically sound principles to predict biological response (at the cellular, molecular, and animal level) to exposure to low level ionizing radiation. Biophysical models are an important tool for estimating response of ionizing radiation at low doses and dose rates. Generally speaking, the biophysical models can be classified into two groups: (1) mechanistic models and (2) phenomenological models. Mechanistic models are based on some assumptions about the physical, chemical, or biological mechanisms of action in association with radiobiological data whereas the phenomenological models are based solely on available experimental data on radiobiological effects with less emphasis on mechanisms of action. There are a number of these models which are being developed. Since model builders rely on radiobiological data available in the literature either to develop mechanistic or phenomenological models, it is essential that a critical evaluation of existing radiobiological data be made and data that is generally considered good and most appropriate for biophysical modeling be identified. A Workshop jointly sponsored by the DOE and the CEC was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee from June 23--25, 1988, to review the data available from physical and chemical, cellular and molecular and animal studies with ionizing radiation

  17. THINK half-way and beyond. Think Tank advising the European Commission on mid- and long-term energy policy. Mid-term Booklet June 2010 - January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The THINK project provides knowledge support to policy making by the European Commission in the context of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan. The project is organized around a multidisciplinary group of 23 experts from 14 countries covering five dimensions of energy policy: science and technology, market and network economics, regulation, law, and policy implementation. Each semester, the permanent research team based in Florence works on two reports, going through the quality process of the THINK Tank. This includes an Expert Hearing to test the robustness of the work, a discussion meeting with the Scientific Council of the THINK Tank, and a Public Consultation to test the public acceptance of different policy options by involving the broader community. After one and a half years, THINK has produced a collection of six reports addressing a number of key questions about today's EU energy policy. Most of the questions are forward-looking, trying in one way or another to analyse how Europe can achieve its ambitious energy and climate policy targets. In this respect, financial and regulatory questions are predominant in most of the reports. However, as is commonly the case in EU policy, the reports usually also address - at least implicitly - the institutional question of who should act: the EU, Member States, regulators, companies or, in the case of Smart Cities, local authorities. Altogether, the six reports constitute an interesting and up-to-date reader of some of the most pressing issues of EU energy policy.

  18. Work Package 1B.2 under the European Commission, Integrated Wind Turbine Design (UPWIND): Verification of long-term load measurement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2011-02-15

    The present report is the final effort of tasks carried out under UPWIND WP1B2 transmission and conversion, which describes: 1) results and recommendations developed in the course of developing the long-term load measurement technique. 2) the hardware details, type of sensors and location, data storage and. 3) data analysis technique to verify design load assumptions. The work is carried out under Contract no 019945 (SES6) 'UPWIND' within the European Commission The interaction between the mechanical and electrical generator subsystems is described rudimentarily, based primarily on HAWC2 simulations below stall of the mechanical system with simple generator and gearbox systems. The electrical system simulations were not carried out as intended in DOW[2], but indications of the conditions for establishing the interaction have been described by measurements and by argument, that this might have an effect as indicated. The hypothesis stating, that the power signal can be utilized as a basic signal for extended analysis of mechanical as well as electrical power signal with static and dynamic features, has been demonstrated on performance and dynamic bandwidth capability. It is however from present analysis obvious that improved signal conditions could be achieved with other mechanical joint solutions than with the present torque signal as measured with the cardan joint. For the reasons mentioned, the comparison with a signal showing the mechanical properties could be improved, with a likely gain on the accuracy as a result. (Author)

  19. International Chernobyl project - input from the Commission of the European Communities to the evaluation of the relocation policy adopted by the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In October 1989, the Government of the USSR formally requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out: '...an international experts' assessment of the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in those areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The response to this request was a proposal for a multinational team to undertake an assessment of the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UKrSSR), the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The International Chernobyl Project was established for this purpose with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). An International Advisory Committee, comprising scientists from 10 countries and seven international organizations, was established to direct the Project and be responsible for its findings. The results of the Project have been published in two reports - an overview and a technical report -prepared by the International Advisory Committee

  20. Climate Change and Energy Sustainability. Which Innovations in European Strategies and Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effects of climate change on urban areas have pushed more and more policy-makers and urban planners to deal with the management of territorial transformations in a systemic and multi-sector perspective, due to the complexity of the issue. In order to enhance the urban governance of climate change and cope with environmental sustainability, the concept of resilience can be used. In this perspective, the present work has a double purpose: on the one hand to reflect on he need to adopt a new comprehension/interpretive approach to the study of the city, which embraces the concept of resilience, and on the other hand to perform a reading of European strategies and plans oriented to mitigate the effects of climate change and to achieve the goals of energy and environmental sustainability. This paper describes some of the results of the knowledge framework of the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. The paper is divided into three parts: the first is oriented to the definition of the new comprehension/interpretive approach; the second illustrates a series of recent innovations in planning tools of some European States due to the adoption of the concept of resilience; the third, finally, describes and compares the most innovative energy and environmental strategies aimed at contrasting and/or mitigate the effects of climate change, promoted in some European and Italian cities.

  1. Towards the Goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy: Convergence or Divergence of the European Union Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Agata; Zalewska, Elżbieta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the similarities between the EU countries in terms of achieving the Europe 2020 Strategy goals. Due to the latest data availability, the analysis is based on the year 2014. The study uses grouping methods, including the k-means algorithm. The results indicate the existence of a division between the “old” and “new” European Union Member States. However, as is shown, some of the Strategy’s targets have already been achieved and some indicators have been...

  2. FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES IN THE UNITED STATES/EUROPEAN UNION AGRIBUSINESS TRADE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lelis Leal Calegario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes an analysis of American’ multinationals foreign market entry strategies in the European Union agribusiness context. We have used a logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equation method to make hypothesis about the multinationals’ choices. Our results suggest that American food companies operating in EU appear not to choose their mode of entry based merely on host country factors, but mostly on firm related factors, including firm-specific factors and firm financial performance. Despite the creation of a common institutional framework for M&As in the EU, they are still subject to peculiarities due mostly to organizational characteristics of investing firms.

  3. Molecular double-check strategy for the identification and characterization of European Lyssaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Melina; Freuling, Conrad M.; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The “gold standard” for post-mortem rabies diagnosis is the direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). However, in the case of ante-mortem non-neural sample material or decomposed tissues, the FAT reaches its limit, and the use of molecular techniques can be advantageous. In this study, we developed......-systems for Rabies virus, European bat lyssavirus type 1 and 2 as well as Bokeloh bat lyssavirus. All assays were validated successfully with a comprehensive panel of lyssavirus positive samples, as well as negative material from various host species. This double-check strategy allows for both safe and sensitive...

  4. Strategic Actions and Strategy Changes in European Universities: Clues from Institutional Evaluation Reports of the European University Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Baris

    2018-01-01

    This research examined strategic actions in European universities through the institutional evaluation reports of the EUA. EUA reports for 21 universities from seven European countries were included in the data set. Qualitative inquiry was carried out and six sub-sections in the reports were used as established themes. The findings were then…

  5. CSR Strategies in Greater China: Global, East Asian, American, European Style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiduk Guenter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.

  6. Europeanization of National Public Spheres? Cross-National Media Debates about the EU's Socio-Economic Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la; van Dalen, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the Europeanization of media coverage of the European Union's (EU) socio-economic strategy, which is a crucial building block for developing a European Public Sphere. As the EU level increasingly influences public policy in member states, there should correspondingly be a more...... intense and visible media debate with attention for EU-level and cross-national policies and developments. On the basis of a content analysis (2000–2010) in Denmark, France, Poland and the UK, we find that media attention for the EU's growth and jobs strategy is limited, that it does not increase over...... in terms of benchmarking and reporting on criticism and advice to member states. This criticism is more often diffuse than aimed at specific member states. Therefore, we conclude that media coverage of the EU's socio-economic strategy is Europeanized, but that it remains a debate by and for EU...

  7. Mapping European Welfare Models: State of the Art of Strategies for Professional Integration and Reintegration of Persons with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Scaratti

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persons with chronic diseases (PwCDs often experience work-related problems, and innovative actions to improve their participation in the labor market are needed. In the frame of the European (EU Pathways Project, the aim of the study is to compare existing strategies (policies, systems, and services for professional (re-integration of PwCDs and mental health conditions available at both European and national level between different European welfare models: Scandinavian, Continental, Anglo-Saxon, Mediterranean, and “Post-Communist”. Method: The European strategies were identified by an overview of relevant academic and grey literature searched through Medline and internet searches, while national strategies were explored through questionnaires and in-depth interviews with national relevant stakeholders. Results: The mapping of existing strategies revealed that, both at European and national level, PwCDs are often considered as part of the group of “persons with disabilities” and only in this case they can receive employment support. European countries put in place actions to support greater labor market participation, but these differ from country to country. Conclusion: Strategies targeting “persons with disabilities” do not necessarily address all the needs of persons with chronic diseases. Countries should consider the importance of employment for all to achieve smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth.

  8. Mapping European Welfare Models: State of the Art of Strategies for Professional Integration and Reintegration of Persons with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaratti, Chiara; Leonardi, Matilde; Silvaggi, Fabiola; Ávila, Carolina C; Muñoz-Murillo, Amalia; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Roka, Olga; Burger, Helena; Fheodoroff, Klemens; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Sabariego, Carla; Esteban, Eva; Gruber, Sonja; Svestkova, Olga; Halvorsen, Rune; Kadyrbaeva, Asel; Ferraina, Sabrina

    2018-04-17

    Background: Persons with chronic diseases (PwCDs) often experience work-related problems, and innovative actions to improve their participation in the labor market are needed. In the frame of the European (EU) Pathways Project, the aim of the study is to compare existing strategies (policies, systems, and services) for professional (re-)integration of PwCDs and mental health conditions available at both European and national level between different European welfare models: Scandinavian, Continental, Anglo-Saxon, Mediterranean, and “Post-Communist”. Method : The European strategies were identified by an overview of relevant academic and grey literature searched through Medline and internet searches, while national strategies were explored through questionnaires and in-depth interviews with national relevant stakeholders. Results : The mapping of existing strategies revealed that, both at European and national level, PwCDs are often considered as part of the group of “persons with disabilities” and only in this case they can receive employment support. European countries put in place actions to support greater labor market participation, but these differ from country to country. Conclusion : Strategies targeting “persons with disabilities” do not necessarily address all the needs of persons with chronic diseases. Countries should consider the importance of employment for all to achieve smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth.

  9. Making do with less: Must sparse data preclude informed harvest strategies for European waterbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Alhainen, Mikko; Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper; Guillemain, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    The demography of many European waterbirds is not well understood because most countries have conducted little monitoring and assessment, and coordination among countries on waterbird management has little precedent. Yet intergovernmental treaties now mandate the use of sustainable, adaptive harvest strategies, whose development is challenged by a paucity of demographic information. In this study, we explore how a combination of allometric relationships, fragmentary monitoring and research information, and expert judgment can be used to estimate the parameters of a theta-logistic population model, which in turn can be used in a Markov decision process to derive optimal harvesting strategies. We show how to account for considerable parametric uncertainty, as well as for different management objectives. We illustrate our methodology with a poorly understood population of taiga bean geese (Anser fabalis fabalis), which is a popular game bird in Fennoscandia. Our results for taiga bean geese suggest that they may have demographic rates similar to other, well-studied species of geese, and our model-based predictions of population size are consistent with the limited monitoring information available. Importantly, we found that by using a Markov decision process, a simple scalar population model may be sufficient to guide harvest management of this species, even if its demography is age-structured. Finally, we demonstrated how two different management objectives can lead to very different optimal harvesting strategies, and how conflicting objectives may be traded off with each other. This approach will have broad application for European waterbirds by providing preliminary estimates of key demographic parameters, by providing insights into the monitoring and research activities needed to corroborate those estimates, and by producing harvest management strategies that are optimal with respect to the managers’ objectives, options, and available demographic information.

  10. Money supply growth and inflation – the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to find out whether there is a significant relationship between money supply growth and inflation in the Eurozone. For this reason, the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank (ECB has been evaluated. Since the establishment of the ECB in January 1999 to May 2003 the ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consisted of three main elements: a quantitative definition of price stability, a prominent role for money in the assessment of risks to price stability (aggregate M3 as a reference value, and a broadly based assessment of the outlook for price developments. Nevertheless, since May 2003 M3 or any other monetary aggregate has lost its prominent role in the ECB‘s strategy. Therefore the nowadays ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consists of a quantitative definition of the primary objective of price stability and an analytical framework based on two pillars – economic analysis and monetary analysis. These two pillars are used by the ECB‘s Governing Council in the overall assessment of risks to price stability and in monetary policy decisions.The empirical part of this article is based on time series correlation between money supply growth and inflation in selected member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU - Eurozone during the period 1995–2005. The time series are divided into two parts. The first part covers data for selected member countries of the European Union from 1995 till 1998, i.e. before the establishment of the EMU. Whereas the second part includes data for the whole Eurozone since its official start in 1999 to 2005. The time series are adjusted by SARIMA models.

  11. Efficient strategies for the integration of renewable energy into future energy infrastructures in Europe – An analysis based on transnational modeling and case studies for nine European regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, Inga; Fernandes, Camila; Frías, Pablo; Klobasa, Marian

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the current international climate change strategy, the European Commission has agreed on ambitious targets to reduce CO 2 emissions by more than 80% until 2050 as compared to 1990 levels and to increase the share of renewable energy and improve energy efficiency by 20% until 2020. Under this framework, renewable energy generation has increased considerably in the EU and it is expected to keep growing in the future years. This paper presents long-term strategies for transmission infrastructure development to integrate increasing amounts of renewable generation in the time horizon of 2030–2050. These are part of the outcomes of the SUSPLAN project, which focuses on four possible future renewable deployment scenarios in different European regions taking into account the corresponding infrastructure needs, especially electricity and gas grids, both on regional and transnational level. The main objective of the project is the development of guidelines for the integration of renewable energy into future energy infrastructures while taking account of national and regional characteristics. Therefore, the analysis is based on a two-track approach: A transnational modeling exercise (“top-down”) and in-depth case studies for nine representative European regions (“bottom-up”). - Highlights: • We present the main outcomes of the SUSPLAN EU project. • It assesses long-term energy infrastructure needs to integrate RES in Europe. • Regional and transnational analyses are performed for 4 RES scenarios until 2050. • Major barriers to the integration of RES into energy infrastructure are identified. • Efficient strategies to mitigate these barriers are proposed

  12. Dynamic Portfolio Strategies in the European Corporate Bond Market : 30th Australasian Finance and Banking Conference 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieterse-Bloem (Mary); W.F.C. Verschoor (Willem); Z. Qian (Zhaowen); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a dynamic portfolio strategy for European corporate bonds based on a two-factor pricing model. We introduce a strategy in which we forecast both future factors as well as bonds' future exposure to these factor. Using a unique dataset that is representative for

  13. Are In-House and Outsourcing Innovation Strategies Correlated? Evidence from the European Agri-Food Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, Valentina C.; Pascucci, Stefano; Dries, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    We analyse European agri-food firms’ choices about innovation in-house or through outsourcing and provide empirical evidence about the correlation between these strategies. The relationship between the innovation strategy and firm-, industry- and innovation-specific characteristics is analysed

  14. Collaborative and Competitive Strategies in Virtual Teams of e-Entrepreneurs: A pan-European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Matlay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and the advent of the Internet have facilitated the emergence and growth of collaborative strategies amongst small e-Businesses (Matlay & Westhead, 2005. In addition, during the last decade or so, team-led entrepreneurship has been identified as a highly profitable alternative to single founder entrepreneurship. Recent research suggests that growth oriented, small e-Businesses operating in international e-Markets are more likely to be founded and managed by teams of e-Entrepreneurs (Matlay & Westhead, 2007. In increasingly globalised and hyper-competitive markets, "virtual teams" of e-Entrepreneurs search, discover and exploit new entrepreneurial opportunities. This type of entrepreneurial team consists of geographically dispersed entrepreneurs who are led by common entrepreneurial interests and interact electronically in order to promote interdependent strategies and fulfil entrepreneurial goals. In this article, an illustrative longitudinal case study of a pan-European virtual team of 24 e-Entrepreneur members is used to evaluate emergent collaborative and competitive strategies in small e-Businesses that are lead and managed by members. Collaborative and competitive strategies of e-Businesses are identified and related outcomes are analysed. Future research opportunities are suggested and pertinent policy recommendations are offered.

  15. Assessment of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs. Final report of the European Commission 4th framework programme. Project FI4I-CT95-004 (APSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuunanen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Vihavainen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); D' Auria, F. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Kimber, G. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The European Commission 4th Framework Programme project 'Assessment of Passive Safety Injection Systems of Advanced Light Water Reactors (FI4I-CT95-0004)' involved experiments on the PACTEL test facility and computer simulations of selected experiments. The experiments focused on the performance of Passive Safety Injection Systems (PSIS) of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) in Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) conditions. The PSIS consisted of a Core Make-up Tank (CMT) and two pipelines. A pressure balancing line (PBL) connected the CMT to one cold leg. The injection line (IL) connected it to the downcomer. The project involved 15 experiments in three series. The experiments provided valuable information about condensation and heat transfer processes in the CMT, thermal stratification of water in the CMT, and natural circulation flow through the PSIS lines. The experiments showed the examined PSIS works efficiently in SBLOCAs although the flow through the PSIS may stop in very small SBLOCAs, when the hot water fills the CMT. The experiments also demonstrated the importance of flow distributor (sparger) in the CMT to limit rapid condensation. The project included validation of three thermal-hydraulic computer codes (APROS, CATHARE and RELAP5). The analyses showed the codes are capable of simulating the overall behaviour of the transients. The codes predicted accurately the core heatup, which occurred when the primary coolant inventory was reduced so much that the core top became free of water. The detailed analyses of the calculation results showed that some models in the codes still need improvements. Especially, further development of models for thermal stratification, condensation and natural circulation flow with small driving forces would be necessary for accurate simulation of phenomena in the PSIS. (orig.)

  16. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M., E-mail: maurizio.vannoni@xfel.eu; Freijo Martín, I. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ⋅ 10{sup 25} (photons s{sup −1} mm{sup −2} mrad{sup −2})/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  17. Work relating to defect assessment undertaken by activity group 2 of the European Commission's working group on codes and standards. WGCS overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.; Guinovart, J.

    1995-01-01

    For about twenty years, the Working Group on Codes and Standards has been an Advisory Group of the European Commission and three sub-groups AG1, AG2 and AG3, were formed to consider manufacture and inspection, structural mechanics and materials topics respectively. Representation on the Working Group and its sub-groups comes from designers, utilities and atomic energy agencies in those member States with active nuclear power programmes. There has also been a very valuable input from universities and research organisations in the countries concerned. The method of working is to identify topics on which there is a difference of opinion; projects are set up to review the up to date scientific and technological knowledge. The investigations are undertaken collaboratively by specialists from as many countries as can contribute and there is an obligation to reach conclusions which can be put to practical use by engineers. While the Working group and its sub-groups are not directly involved in the production of standards, there is a very important input to the pre-standardization process. The work produced by AG2 covered a wide range of subjects associated with structural integrity, mainly concerning the Fast Breeder Reactors. Since 1991 the Group has progressively set up Light Water Reactor programmes. Currently, most of efforts are devoted to Thermal Reactors with a minor extent to Fast Breeder Reactors. The present paper is mainly concerned with those aspects of the AG2 activities which have a bearing on defect assessment. Although work was initiated as part of the FBR programme, it must be remembered that the greater part of it can be extended to a wide range of high temperature plants. Concerning the LWR programmes, an overview on current selected studies is being provided in this paper. (authors). 23 refs

  18. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  19. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  20. Assessment of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs. Final report of the European Commission 4th framework programme. Project FI4I-CT95-004 (APSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuunanen, J.; D'Auria, F.; Kimber, G.

    1999-01-01

    The European Commission 4th Framework Programme project 'Assessment of Passive Safety Injection Systems of Advanced Light Water Reactors (FI4I-CT95-0004)' involved experiments on the PACTEL test facility and computer simulations of selected experiments. The experiments focused on the performance of Passive Safety Injection Systems (PSIS) of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) in Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) conditions. The PSIS consisted of a Core Make-up Tank (CMT) and two pipelines. A pressure balancing line (PBL) connected the CMT to one cold leg. The injection line (IL) connected it to the downcomer. The project involved 15 experiments in three series. The experiments provided valuable information about condensation and heat transfer processes in the CMT, thermal stratification of water in the CMT, and natural circulation flow through the PSIS lines. The experiments showed the examined PSIS works efficiently in SBLOCAs although the flow through the PSIS may stop in very small SBLOCAs, when the hot water fills the CMT. The experiments also demonstrated the importance of flow distributor (sparger) in the CMT to limit rapid condensation. The project included validation of three thermal-hydraulic computer codes (APROS, CATHARE and RELAP5). The analyses showed the codes are capable of simulating the overall behaviour of the transients. The codes predicted accurately the core heatup, which occurred when the primary coolant inventory was reduced so much that the core top became free of water. The detailed analyses of the calculation results showed that some models in the codes still need improvements. Especially, further development of models for thermal stratification, condensation and natural circulation flow with small driving forces would be necessary for accurate simulation of phenomena in the PSIS. (orig.)

  1. Energy regulation at EU level. The role of the European Commission and ACER in the context of REMIT; Energieregulierung auf Unionsebene. Die Rolle der Europaeischen Kommission und der ACER nach der REMIT-VO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany). Energie- und Infrastrukturrecht

    2015-03-15

    The regulatory act of promulgating REMIT, the Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency, has highlighted the commanding position of both the European Commission and ACER, the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, in the regulation of energy affairs in the European Union. Furthermore it has led to major changes in how surveillance is organized at the national level. The first part of this publication is dedicated to the organization of market surveillance following the promulgation of REMIT. It depicts the tasks of the European Commission and ACER in this context. The Regulation has accorded the authorities a central role in managing the European Union's responsibilities with regard to energy wholesale trade. The act of delegating such far-reaching competence to the authorities deserves careful review however. The article shows how, given ACER's lack of practical experience in market surveillance, as well as its lack of human resources, the task of surveilling the European energy wholesale market confronts the agency with a significant challenge. How successfully the EU energy agency will master this challenge will depend on a number of different factors. Stringent requirements will be needed for the data registration offices in order to ensure optimal data processing. National authorities and supervisory bodies should be made to participate in the data monitoring process. ACER's efficiency in surveilling the market will furthermore depend decisively on its IT infrastructure.

  2. Report made on the behalf of the Commission for Sustainable Development et Land Planning on European resolution proposition on the second Energy-Climate package (nr 2295) - Nr 2309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    After having noticed that, once again, the objective of reduction of world carbon intensity (greenhouse gas emissions per dollar of GDP) will not be reached, this report outlines the importance of this now undisputed environmental, strategic and economic challenge, and that the definition of objectives by the European Union of its energy and climate policy is a critical milestone before the Paris conference on Climate of 2015. It comments the content of the Energy-Climate 2030 package proposed by the European Commission in January 2014. It also recalls the content of the 2020 package which was adopted in 2008. It recalls and comments the content of the resolution proposition of the French National Assembly, the opinions stated by the Assembly, and reports the discussion of the Commission for Sustainable development, and the discussion about the bill articles

  3. Report realized in the name of the economic, environment and territory commission, on the resolution proposition (n. 1261) of Messrs Bernard Deflesselles and Jerome Lambert, reporters of the commission in charge of the european affairs, on the program energy-climate; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur la proposition de resolution (n. 1261) de MM. Bernard Deflesselles et Jerome Lambert, rapporteurs de la commission chargee des affaires europeennes, sur le paquet energie-climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report aims to evaluate a resolution proposition on five texts presented by the European Commission the 23 January 2008: the enhancement of the quotas emission system, the greenhouse gases effect reduction, the renewable energies development, the juridical aspects of the carbon sequestration and storage and the financial assistance of the governments for the environment. 12 propositions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Safe LHC beam commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uythoven, J.; Schmidt, R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the large amount of energy stored in magnets and beams, safety operation of the LHC is essential. The commissioning of the LHC machine protection system will be an integral part of the general LHC commissioning program. A brief overview of the LHC Machine Protection System will be given, identifying the main components: the Beam Interlock System, the Beam Dumping System, the Collimation System, the Beam Loss Monitoring System and the Quench Protection System. An outline is given of the commissioning strategy of these systems during the different commissioning phases of the LHC: without beam, injection and the different phases with stored beam depending on beam intensity and energy. (author)

  5. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  6. Dynamics of the European refining and petrochemical industry. Strategies, structure and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, K.

    1997-01-01

    The changes in the market position of producers engaged in the oil refining and basic petrochemical industry on the Western European market are the central theme of this book. Analysis of this reshuffling process among these actors is conducted on three levels. First, research is carried out at the level of world regions. In order to understand the reorganization of oil refining and basic petrochemical production in Western Europe, it is necessary to explore the recent aggregate dynamics of these activities on a global scale. Second, the differences in strategic behaviour are exanuned at the level of groups of market participants, namely the major oil companies, the chemical companies, the state-owned companies from both consumer and producer countries, and the independents. Finally, the investment/disinvestment decisions in the Western European oil refining and basic petrochemical industry are investigated at the level of the individual firm. Particular emphasis is placed upon explaining why companies active in the sectors under study have followed different strategies, although they have been confronted with similar adverse market conditions in Western Europe during the last decades. 341 refs

  7. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  8. Benchmark of European strategies of development of gas production and valorisation sectors. European inventory and synthetic sheets per country - Intermediate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    After a European inventory and a discussion of the evolution of the number of methanization installations, of the evolution of biogas production, and of the situation and main economic levers in European countries, this report proposes sheets of data and analysis for Germany, Italy, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. For each of these countries, the document proposes an historical overview and some key figures on various aspects (types and number of installations, biogas production and valorisation, resources and processed quantities, technologies, digestates, costs of installation and financing modes, jobs and enterprises in the sector), a comment of the national strategy (actors, strategy regarding renewable energy, climate protection and waste processing, regulatory and financial incentive measures, regulatory context and administrative management), and perspectives (maximum potential, development perspectives)

  9. Removal of radon by aeration: testing of various aeration techniques for small water works. For European Commission under Contract No FI4PCT960054 TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Mehtonen, J.; Turunen, H.; Mjoenes, L.; Hagberg, N.; Raff, O.

    2002-12-01

    Capability of various aeration techniques to remove radon from water in small waterworks was studied as a part of project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water), which was carried out during 1997-1999 on a cost-shared basis (contract No. F14PCT960054) with The European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of the Directorate-General XII Radiation Protection Research Unit. In TENAWA project both laboratory and field experiments were performed in order to find reliable methods and equipment for removing natural radionuclides from ground water originating either from private wells or small waterworks. Because such techniques are more often needed in private households than at waterworks, the main emphasis of the research was aimed to solve the water treatment problems related to the private water supplies, especially bedrock wells. Radon was the most important radionuclide to be removed from water at waterworks whereas the removal of other radionuclides ( 234,238 U, 226,228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po) was oft required from radonrich bedrock waters. The currently available methods and equipment were mainly tested during the field and laboratory experiments but the project was also aimed to find new materials, absorbents and membranes applicable for radionuclide removal from various types of ground waters (e.g. soft, hard, acidic). Because iron, manganese or organic occur in waters with radionuclides, their simultaneous removal was also studied. The project was divided into 13 work packages. In this report the results of the work package 2.2 are described. Elevated levels of radon and other natural radionuclides in European ground waters have been observed mainly in wide areas of the crystalline Scandinavian bedrock, especially in the granite rock areas of Finland and Sweden but also in more limited crystalline rock areas of Central and Southern Europe, Ukraine and Scotland. The radon removal efficiencies of different aeration methods

  10. Legal contamination of food products in case of nuclear accident. The CRIIRAD criticizes the outrageous work performed by Euratom experts, and calls for a massive mobilisation against the project of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanier, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled the content of the project of the European Commission on the definition of maximum permissible levels of radioactive contamination of food products which will be applied in case of nuclear accident, this report first outlines that the associated risk levels are unacceptable (the maximum dose limit would not be respected by far). The authors outline numerous extremely severe anomalies and errors which occurred in the process of elaboration of the project. They try to identify responsibilities for these errors, and wander whether they are due to incompetence, or made on purpose as they always go in the same direction. The CRIIRAD therefore calls for a European mobilisation to sign a petition for a complete review of the applicable regulation. Letters written to or by members of European institutions are provided

  11. Forecasting European cold waves based on subsampling strategies of CMIP5 and Euro-CORDEX ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Llana, Laura; Braconnot, Pascale; Vautard, Robert; Vrac, Mathieu; Jezequel, Aglae

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting future extreme events under the present changing climate represents a difficult task. Currently there are a large number of ensembles of simulations for climate projections that take in account different models and scenarios. However, there is a need for reducing the size of the ensemble to make the interpretation of these simulations more manageable for impact studies or climate risk assessment. This can be achieved by developing subsampling strategies to identify a limited number of simulations that best represent the ensemble. In this study, cold waves are chosen to test different approaches for subsampling available simulations. The definition of cold waves depends on the criteria used, but they are generally defined using a minimum temperature threshold, the duration of the cold spell as well as their geographical extend. These climate indicators are not universal, highlighting the difficulty of directly comparing different studies. As part of the of the CLIPC European project, we use daily surface temperature data obtained from CMIP5 outputs as well as Euro-CORDEX simulations to predict future cold waves events in Europe. From these simulations a clustering method is applied to minimise the number of ensembles required. Furthermore, we analyse the different uncertainties that arise from the different model characteristics and definitions of climate indicators. Finally, we will test if the same subsampling strategy can be used for different climate indicators. This will facilitate the use of the subsampling results for a wide number of impact assessment studies.

  12. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  13. Price war or instrumentalization of price uncertainty: which strategy for a dominant provider on the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, Sadek; Locatelli, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this article is to try to assess which strategy could be implemented by a European dominant provider (or a group of big providers) during the current phase of transition of the European gas market in order to keep (or increase) his market shares and maximise his revenues. The authors aim at exploring possibilities of strategic actions on the long term other than those of defence of volumes through a price war, or the possibility of a strategy similar to that of Saudi Arabia which instrumentalises uncertainty on future prices. This last type of strategy is defined for the case of natural gas. The authors show that it could be implemented on the EU gas market, provided some specific conditions. They show that Gazprom has not enough power to become a price maker, and explore which kind of strategy of uncertainty could be implemented by this actor

  14. Presence and strategies of European petroleum societies in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the situation of European investment in Arab countries for petroleum industry. Fifteen petroleum societies for eight European countries are studied through their investment in exploration-production activities. (N.C.)

  15. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  16. Towards a chain coordination model for quality management strategies to strengthen the competition of European pork producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, D.; Lang, J.; Petersen, B.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new chain coordination model for quality management strategies of European pork supply chains. It is a result of qualitative research into intensive and extensive pork production in seven selected countries consisting of a literature review, country-specific expert interviews

  17. Social-ethical issues concerning the control strategy of animal diseases in the European Union: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, N.E.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Stassen, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 a survey was conducted in the member states of the European Union designed to gain greater insight into the views on control strategies for foot and mouth disease, classical swine fever, and avian influenza with respect to the epidemiological, economic and social-ethical consequences of each

  18. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    of the PS environmental emission. The SCF also provides a well structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further European wide implementation, the SCF has the potential or an optimized ECS in order to obtain good chemical status of European water...

  19. AlpArray - technical strategies for large-scale European co-operation in broadband seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Clinton, J.; Hetenyi, G.; Pequegnat, C.; Wilde-Piorko, M.; Villasenor, A.; Comelli, P.; AlpArray Working Group

    2012-04-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 32 institutes in 12 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area, from the Black Forest in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with high-quality broadband seismometers by combining the ~400 existing permanent stations with an additional 400+ instruments from mobile pools. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage while also deploying densely spaced stations along swaths across key parts of the Alpine chain. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. Significant progress has already been made in outlining the scientific goals and funding strategy. A brief overview of these aspects of the initiative will be presented here. However, we will concentrate on the technical aspects: How efficient large-scale integration of existing infrastructures can be achieved. Existing permanent station coverage within the greater Alpine area has been collated and assessed for data availability, allowing strategies to be developed for network densification to ensure a robust backbone network: An anticipated deployment strategy has been drawn up to optimise array coverage and data quality. The augmented backbone network will be supplemented by more densely spaced temporary arrays targeting more specific scientific questions. For these temporary arrays, a strategy document has been produced to outline standards for station installation, data acquisition, processing, archival and dissemination. All these operations are of course vital. However, data

  20. Preparing Teachers for Diversity: The Role of Initial Teacher Education. Executive Summary of the Final Report to DG Education, Youth, Sport and Culture of the European Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Although the cultural, linguistic and religious diversity found in European societies is not a new phenomenon, its nature is rapidly changing. Europe is becoming increasingly diverse due to intra-European mobility, international migration, including recently an increased influx of refugees and asylum-seekers. These societal changes create both…

  1. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  2. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  3. Assessing Hungary’s Stance on Migration and Asylum in Light of the European and Hungarian Migration Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhász Krisztina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union and its member states are facing one of their biggest challenges in recent years due to the surge in migration. This crisis saw more than a million migrants and refugees cross into Europe in 2015. Solutions and policies have been advanced at both the European and national levels, keeping in mind that migration policy is an area of shared competence under Article 4 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. On 13 May 2015, the EU adopted the European Agenda on Migration, which set out immediate and medium-term actions designed to tackle the crisis more effectively. Earlier, in October 2013, the Hungarian government adopted its own migration strategy. The first part of this study provides some insight into the aims and measures contained in the European and Hungarian migration strategies. In the second part, I focus on the steps taken by the Hungarian government regarding asylum policy and crisis management. I conclude that the actions and communications of the Hungarian government are contrary to both these strategic documents.

  4. Commissioning MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Stone, John; Smith, Patrick; Reiter, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  5. ATF2 Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, A.; /SLAC; Christian, G.; /KLTE-ATOMKI; Parker, B.; /BNL; Schulte, D.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.; /CERN; Wolski, A.; Elsen, E.; /Cockcroft Inst. /DESY; Sanuki, T.; /Tohoku U.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Ross, M.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab; Takahashi, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Bai, S.; Gao, J.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bolzon, B.; Geffroy, N.; Jeremie, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Apsimon, R.; Burrows, P.; /Oxford U., JAI /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Orsay, LAL /Phang Accelerator Lab /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Univ. of Tokyo U.

    2009-10-30

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  6. ATF2 COMMISSIONING

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, A; Parker, B; Schulte, D; Delahaye, J P; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F; Wolski, A; Elsen, E; Sanuki, T; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Ross, M; Wendt, M; Takahashi, T; Bai, S; Gao, J; Bolzon, B; Geffroy, N; Jeremie, A; Apsimon, R; Burrows, P; Constance, B; Perry, C; Resta-Lopez, J; Swinson, C; Araki, S; Aryshev, A; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Masuzawa, M; Naito, T; Okugi, T; Sugahara, R; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Yokoya, K; Iwashita, Y; Sugimoto, T; Heo, A Y; Kim, E S; Kim, H S; Bambade, P; Renier, Y; Rimbault, C; Huang, J Y; Kim, S H; Park, Y J; Hwang, W H; Blair, G; Boogert, S; Karataev, P; Molloy, S; Amann, J; Bellomo, P; Lam, B; McCormick, D; Nelson, J; Paterson, E; Pivi, M; Raubenheimer, T; Spencer, C; Wang, M H; White, G; Wittmer, W; Woodley, M; Yan, Y; Zhou, F; Angal-Kalinin, D; Jones, J; Lyapin, A; Scarfe, A; Kamiya, Y; Komamiya, S; Oroku, M; Suehara, T; Yamanaka, T

    2010-01-01

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  7. Standard for administration of stable iodine pilulae. Standard of the nuclear safety commission, action for accident in TEPCO Fukushima-1 and recent European trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Preventive taking of stable-iodine tablets is effective to avoid thyroid gland disorder due to internal exposure to the radioactive iodine if radioactive iodine is released outside by any nuclear accident. In Japan, the Nuclear Safety Commission proposed the standard of the preventive taking in 2002, and, at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the head of the local task force instructed to take on the recommendation from the Commission. Author described the action principle of stable-iodine tablets, present concept for the preventive taking, recent change of the concept in Europe for the preventive taking, and some precepts which have shown in past Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (J.P.N.)

  8. Strategy for sustainability of the Joint European Research Infrastructure Network for Coastal Observatories - JERICO

    OpenAIRE

    Puillat, Ingrid; Farcy, Patrick; Durand, Dominique; Petihakis, George; Morin, Pascal; Kriegger, Magali; Petersen, Wilhelm; Tintoré, Joaquin; Sorensen, Kai; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Wehde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The JERICO European research infrastructure (RI) is integrating several platform types i.e. fixed buoys, piles, moorings, drifters, Ferryboxes, gliders, HF radars, coastal cable observatories and the associated technologies dedicated to the observation and monitoring of the European coastal seas. The infrastructure is to serve both the implementation of European marine policies and the elucidation of key scientific questions through dedicated observation and monitoring plans. It includes obse...

  9. ROMANIA’S ASSENT TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – NATIONAL STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HURJUI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The historic context in which Romania’s steps regarding the assent into the communitarian structures are joined, can be placed under the sign of profound changes who interfered in the Romanian society after 1989 such as: the building of a democratic society and the instauration of a market economy, and also under the sign of a contradictory defiance among the European Union. Romania is the first central and eastern European country who established official relationships with the European Community. Romania addend to the European Union on the 1-st of january, 2007.

  10. Towards our Common Future: Comparative Assessment of the Sustainable Development Strategies of the European Union, the Mediterranean and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz DEŽELAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses three sustainable de- velopment strategies – the European Union’s Sustainable Development Strategy in its revised version, the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustain- able Development and Slovenia’s Development Strategy – according to the level of sustainability these strategies provide. Deriving from three di- verse sustainable development regimes, select- ed strategies are scrutinised for the presence of the five general principles of effective sustainable development strategies promoted by the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development. Building on George and Kirkpatrick’s (2006 framework for analysis, we concentrate on principles of strategic planning and sustainable development, and a coordinated set of measures to ensure their implementation. The results reveal that the major differences be- tween the assessed strategies are present in the sophistication of the theoretical bases and the integration of three main pillars of sustainable development (i.e. environmental, economic and social. In general, the assessed strategies re- flect a high degree of inclusiveness of a variety of interests. However, there is a common weak- ness among them in terms of implementation, be it in the provision of adequate resources, the guarantee of adequate implementing capacity of the institutions designated for implementation or the precise definition of the institutional frame- work responsible for the implementation of the strategy.

  11. Ecological and Economic Impacts and Invasion Management Strategies for the European Green Crab (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this case study were to estimate the European green crab’s current and historical impacts on ecosystem services on the East Coast of the United States and to estimate the European green crab’s current and potential future impacts from invasion

  12. Housing context and social transformation strategies in neighbourhood regeneration in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Western European city thesis, European cities have a unique institutional mix which helps to explain how social patterns come about. The most important elements of this mix are the interventionist state and the housing system legacy of non-private housing. While these two are vital,

  13. Commission 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    state" to provide the Commission with information on the measures that they have ...... policies and identify the gaps in ensuring the full realisation of socio- economic .... Boulle L, Harris Band Hoexter C Constitutional and Administrative Law.

  14. Joint Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the latest publication of The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety (JQPS). . How We Work Process improvement program breeds quality culture, empowers staff An article in Quality Progress, June ...

  15. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteleyn, L., E-mail: Ludwine.Casteleyn@med.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven (Belgium); Dumez, B. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G. [VITO (Belgium); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Ruhr Universität Bochum (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Exley, K.; Sepai, O. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [Kobenhavns Universitet (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [Federal Public Service Health, Food chain safety and Environment (Belgium); Koppen, G. [VITO (Belgium); Dewolf, M-C. [Hainaut Vigilance Sanitaire (HVS) and Hygiene Publique in Hainaut (HPH) (Belgium); and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  16. A pilot study on the feasibility of European harmonized human biomonitoring: Strategies towards a common approach, challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casteleyn, L.; Dumez, B.; Becker, K.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Den Hond, E.; Schoeters, G.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Exley, K.; Sepai, O.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.; Koppen, G.; Dewolf, M-C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004 the European Commission and Member States initiated activities towards a harmonized approach for Human Biomonitoring surveys throughout Europe. The main objective was to sustain environmental health policy by building a coherent and sustainable framework and by increasing the comparability of data across countries. A pilot study to test common guidelines for setting up surveys was considered a key step in this process. Through a bottom-up approach that included all stakeholders, a joint study protocol was elaborated. From September 2011 till February 2012, 17 European countries collected data from 1844 mother–child pairs in the frame of DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). Mercury in hair and urinary cadmium and cotinine were selected as biomarkers of exposure covered by sufficient analytical experience. Phthalate metabolites and Bisphenol A in urine were added to take into account increasing public and political awareness for emerging types of contaminants and to test less advanced markers/markers covered by less analytical experience. Extensive efforts towards chemo-analytical comparability were included. The pilot study showed that common approaches can be found in a context of considerable differences with respect to experience and expertize, socio-cultural background, economic situation and national priorities. It also evidenced that comparable Human Biomonitoring results can be obtained in such context. A European network was built, exchanging information, expertize and experiences, and providing training on all aspects of a survey. A key challenge was finding the right balance between a rigid structure allowing maximal comparability and a flexible approach increasing feasibility and capacity building. Next steps in European harmonization in Human Biomonitoring surveys include the establishment of a joint process for prioritization of substances to cover and biomarkers to develop

  17. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 2. Western European Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    3a - vDE Or 4EPORT 13b 󈨋M COvERED :W)AE OF REPOR~ r or ay 5~ COu.N. *Technical :ROM 821201 -o 8451" 1984, May 16"a 238" 0y 5-I o. * 6 Su POLEMETARY...34 International Defense Review, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1979). 82. Geneste, Colonel Marc. ’La Bataille Terrestre Nuc1~aire,5 Strategie, (July-September 1976). 83.t, u...Strategi- gues, Nucl~aires Tactiques, Terrestres Maritimes et Aeriennes,’ Le Figaro, April 21, 1983. 182. Everts, Philip P. ’Reviving Unilateralism

  18. Programme of the Commission for 1978. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Mr. Jenkins, President of the Commission, first examines the problem of the economy and the level of its unemployment in the Community, resulting in a lack of growth. He than presents the two-fold aim of the Commission--to instigate emergency action to sustain industries that are no longer fully competitive and to promote economic growth to provide employment and prosperity. He then examins the energy and agriculture sectors. Two obligations cited for the Community are: (1) to defend Community interests in the energy field in relation to Third World Countries, and (2) to make clear the connections between energy policy and the general economic strategy. Negotiations are underway for enlargement of the community with applications being considered for Greece, Portugal, and Spain. A memorandum annexed to the address contains additional material on building an integrated economic unit, the European citizen and his environment, Europe in the world, and enlargement of the community. (MCW)

  19. Jacques Delors - President de la Commission Europeenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian Graţian GAL

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to the President of the European Commission between 1985- 1995, Jacques Delors. He was the single person who exercised the presidency of the European Commission during 10 years and this period was one of the most important for the European construction: the achievement of the Single Market, the development of the Single Currency Unit project, of the new common politics, the enlargement of the European Union from 12 members to 15 members etc. Due the contribution of his presidency to the European construction, Jacques Delors is one of the parents of the European construction and one of the most important political men of the XX century.  

  20. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Extended version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  1. Comparative assessment of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans in 12 EU countries. European Best Practice Report. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report is a key output of the EU project 'BAP Driver', an initiative of energy agencies from 8 European key bioenergy nations and the European Biomass Association (AEBIOM). The BAP Driver project aims at identifying ways for improvement of current national policy frameworks for bioenergy in Europe, and at leveraging the process of developing country-specific Biomass Action Plans (BAP). From a strategic perspective, the general approach of this report focuses on four stages, required for setting up national biomass strategies and action plans: Assessment of national biomass resources; Formulation of national bioenergy strategies and biomass action plans; Implementation of national bioenergy policies; Monitoring of national bioenergy markets and policies. Overall the analysis is split into three chapters corresponding to the following logical steps: Chapter B: Country analysis (12 individual country profiles); Chapter C: Benchmark analysis (comparative assessment of 12 countries); Chapter D: Best practice analysis (transnational conclusions across national boundaries)

  2. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Marco; Capri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as me...

  3. Information report by the Commission of European Affairs making observations on the bill project nr 2188 related to energy transition for a green growth - Nr 2199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroi, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    After a synthesis which addresses and discusses the climate context and challenge, the importance and complexity of the energy issue within this context, the European commitment on these issues (energy efficiency, energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions), and the content and objectives of the French bill project on energy transition, this report outlines the need of an as quick as possible implementation of energy transition to cope with the climate emergency, and that new international constraints are also advocating for a transition towards a new energy model. It shows that the French bill project fully forms part of the European approach, and proposes additional measures

  4. Effect of African- and European-American maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Close to the wind. A European strategy for the (top)sectors in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The formation of a new government in the Netherlands in 2010 caused a change of wind. The government opted for topsectors to boost the competitiveness of the Dutch economy, by designing a comprehensive policy agenda for the top nine sectors, which were identified as Water, Food, Horticulture, High Tech, Life Sciences, Chemistry, Energy, Logistics and the Creative Industry. The two main questions in this request for advice are: (1) What are the visible trends and developments in European research and innovation policy and what impact will they have on the Netherlands?; (2) How can the Netherlands best respond to changing policy context at European level to ensure that European research priorities and Dutch priorities keep matching? The advice of the Council starts with an overview of key developments and trends that are relevant to Dutch and European research and innovation policy. It does so against the background of a number of important challenges such as the economic crisis, globalisation and a paucity of private investment. The new European 'Innovation Union' policy aims to tackle these challenges and to enhance the competitiveness of Europe in relation to emerging economies as those of the BRIC countries. In this context, the EU believes that research and innovation can be used not only as a means of tackling major social challenges but also as a way out of the downward spiral of the economic crisis. New to this European policy is the added emphasis on knowledge utilisation and innovation. This shift may alter the desirable approach of the Netherlands to European policy. The Council then analyses the basic principles for the Dutch position in Europe and sets out the opportunities and threats of various policies under the Innovation Union for the top (and other) sectors. From this analysis, the Council draws conclusions about the relationship between the use of Dutch and European policy to strengthen Dutch and European sectors. Recommendations are (1

  6. Joint and Coordinated Calls for Science and Technology Programs between Ukraine and the European Commission as a Potential Tool for Harmonization of the EU-Ukraine Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gorohovatska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Results of scientific cooperation between European countries, including Ukraine, within the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development are reviewed. Terms of preparation of joint and coordinated EUUkraine calls within the Framework Programme «Horizon 2020» are discussed; terms and conditions of participation in these calls are determined.

  7. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Governance Strengths and Weaknesses to implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in European Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Koss, Rebecca; Piotr, Margonski

    2014-01-01

    addresses the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of the current European marine governance structures and its relationship to implement the MSFD. Results of the SWOT analysis were acquired through a combination of approaches with MSFD experts and stakeholders including: 30 face......-to-face interviews, an online survey with 264 stakeholder respondents and focus groups within each European marine region. The SWOT analysis concurrently identifies common strengths and weakness and key governance issues for implementing the MSFD for European marine regions. This paper forms one assessment within...... the governance component of the Options for Delivering Ecosystem Based Marine Management (ODEMM) project and presents timely issues that can be of benefit to national and European Union policy makers....

  9. Migration strategies of the crisis-stricken youth in an enlarged European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kahanec, Martin; Fabo, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the migration response of the youth from new EU member states to disparate conditions in an enlarged European Union at the onset of the Great Recession. We use the Eurobarometer data and probabilistic econometric models to identify the key drivers of the intention to work in another member state of European Economic Area (EEA) and their expected duration. We find that migration intentions are high among those not married and among males with children, but both categories ar...

  10. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Aulich, H.; Bal, J.L.; Dimmler, B.; Garnier, A.; Jongerden, G.; Luther, J.; Luque, A.; Milner, A.; Nelson, D.; Pataki, I.; Pearsall, N.; Perezagua, E.; Pietruszko, S.; Rehak, J.; Schellekens, E.; Shanker, A.; Silvestrini, G.; Sinke, W.; Willemsen, H.

    2006-05-01

    The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform is one of the European Technology Platforms, a new instrument proposed by the European Commission. European Technology Platforms (ETPs) are a mechanism to bring together all interested stakeholders to develop a long-term vision to address a specific challenge, create a coherent, dynamic strategy to achieve that vision and steer the implementation of an action plan to deliver agreed programmes of activities and optimise the benefits for all parties. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform has recently been established to define, support and accompany the implementation of a coherent and comprehensive strategic plan for photovoltaics. The platform will mobilise all stakeholders sharing a long-term European vision for PV, helping to ensure that Europe maintains and improves its industrial position. The platform will realise a European Strategic Research Agenda for PV for the next decade(s). Guided by a Steering Committee of 20 high level decision-makers representing all relevant European PV Stakeholders, the European PV Technology Platform comprises 4 Working Groups dealing with the subjects policy and instruments; market deployment; science, technology and applications as well as developing countries and is supported by a secretariat

  11. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are facilities, resources, systems and related services that are used by research communities to conduct top-level research. Environmental research is addressing processes at very different time scales, and supporting research infrastructures must be designed as long-term facilities in order to meet the requirements of continuous environmental observation, measurement and analysis. This longevity makes the environmental research infrastructures ideal structures to support the long-term development in environmental sciences. ENVRI project is a collaborative action of the major European (ESFRI) Environmental Research Infrastructures working towards increased co-operation and interoperability between the infrastructures. One of the key products of the ENVRI project is to combine the long-term plans of the individual infrastructures towards a common strategy, describing the vision and planned actions. The envisaged vision for environmental research infrastructures toward 2030 is to support the holistic understanding of our planet and it's behavior. The development of a 'Standard Model of the Planet' is a common ambition, a challenge to define an environmental standard model; a framework of all interactions within the Earth System, from solid earth to near space. Indeed scientists feel challenged to contribute to a 'Standard Model of the Planet' with data, models, algorithms and discoveries. Understanding the Earth System as an interlinked system requires a systems approach. The Environmental Sciences are rapidly moving to become a one system-level science. Mainly since modern science, engineering and society are increasingly facing complex problems that can only be understood in the context of the full overall system. The strategy of the supporting collaborating research infrastructures is based on developing three key factors for the Environmental Sciences: the technological, the cultural and the human capital. The technological

  12. The implementation of the Strategy Europe 2020 objectives in European Union countries: the concept analysis and statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Małgorzata; Grzebyk, Mariola

    2018-01-01

    The European Union (EU), striving to create economic dominance on the global market, has prepared a comprehensive development programme, which initially was the Lisbon Strategy and then the Strategy Europe 2020. The attainment of the strategic goals included in the prospective development programmes shall transform the EU into the most competitive economy in the world based on knowledge. This paper presents a statistical evaluation of progress being made by EU member states in meeting Europe 2020. For the basis of the assessment, the authors proposed a general synthetic measure in dynamic terms, which allows to objectively compare EU member states by 10 major statistical indicators. The results indicate that most of EU countries show average progress in realisation of Europe's development programme which may suggest that the goals may not be achieved in the prescribed time. It is particularly important to monitor the implementation of Europe 2020 to arrive at the right decisions which will guarantee the accomplishment of the EU's development strategy.

  13. The European Lead Fast Reactor Strategy and the Roadmap for the Demonstrator ALFRED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, A.; De Bruyn, D.; Grasso, G.; Mansani, L.; Mattioli, D.; Roelofs, F.

    2013-01-01

    Expected impacts: → To ensure that nuclear energy remains a long-term contributor to a low carbon economy it is necessary to increase its sustainability through demonstrating the technical, industrial and economic viability of Gen IV fast nuclear reactors; → With the construction and operation of MYRRHA and ALFRED, Europe will be in an excellent position to secure the development of a safe, sustainable and competitive fast nuclear technology; → ALFRED Demonstrator Roadmap will: • play a key role by involving European industry and maintaining and developing European leadership in nuclear technologies worldwide; • allow to investigate and address the main technological issues that can be implemented in the LFR prototype (2035); • make possible commercial deployment, by the European industry, of these technologies by 2050 and beyond; • contribute significantly to the development of a sustainable and secure energy supply for Europe from the second half of this century onwards

  14. Game changing - tracing the positions, strategies and interaction modes of the German Länder towards the (ever expanding?) European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how the positions, strategies and modes of interaction of the German Länder have changed over time in response to the process of Europeanization. By applying the method of process tracing within a theoretical framework of rational choice institutionalism, the article...... resulted in a more sceptical attitude of the Länder towards (the perceived ever expanding) European Union....

  15. Deep renovation of the school building stock: the European opportunity and the Italian strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Boarin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the Italian and European legislative and regulatory framework, and the analysis of some relevant survey campaigns of the national school building stock show an alarming situation, as well as some missed opportunities. Despite the fact that operations promoted by the Government haven’t been effective so far, the European Union encourages deep retrofit interventions towards the standard 'Nearly Zero Energy Buildings'. This approach necessarily implies a systemic knowledge of the buildings, which can be achieved with different levels of detail, through preliminary energy audits, audits, and more detailed and multi-criteria Post-Occupancy Evaluations.

  16. Information by the Federal Government: programmes of the Commission of the European Communities for research and development actions in the field of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The Commission proposes to classify the strategic fields according to the two main criteria - the period of time needed to reach notable results and possible quantitative effects - as follows: a) Actions which, in not much more than 10 years, can make a considerable contribution to the energy supply of the EC (and which, above all, can reduce mineral oil imports): energy conservation, fossil fuels, nuclear energy (fission). b) Actions which are suitable to make, on a long-term basis, a decisive contribution to the energy supply of the EC: nuclear energy (fusion). c) Horizontal actions of strategic importance: model simulation. d) Actions which are suitable to make, not later than in 20 years, or earlier, unter certain specific regional conditions, a decisive contribution to the EC's energy supply: Hydrogen as a new energy carrier, solar energy, geothermal energy. (orig./HP) [de

  17. On the way to 2050 - Which ingredients for a de-carbonated future? An analysis of the 'Energy Road map 2050' of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This document presents and discusses the climate objective of the Energy road map, some macro-economic hypotheses (oil price, economic growth), the different trajectories defined in the Energy Road map, the role of electricity in the de-carbonation of the energy system, energy savings (potential and under-exploited), the evolution of the installed electric capacity, the balancing of the electric system, the global costs of the energy system, the EU energy bill in 2050, the evolution of electricity price, and the European carbon trading scheme

  18. Exploiting Soil-Management Strategies for Climate Mitigation in the European Union: Maximizing "Win-Win" Solutions across Policy Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bugge. Henriksen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has identified a number of soil-management strategies that can be implemented to reduce GHG emissions. However, before deciding which of these strategies are most appropriate in any given situation, it is important to investigate how these strategies affect other aspects of sustainable development. For instance, some attempts to sequester carbon in the landscape could alter the soil's capacity to filter water. Alternatively, other strategies could unintentionally increase net energy consumption through greater fertilizer use. Focusing specifically on opportunities to implement soil-management strategies in the European Union (EU, we discuss the synergies and trade-offs of those strategies with respect to water resources management and energy security. The focus of the analysis is two-fold: first, we analyze the net benefit of strategies such as crop management, nutrient management, tillage and residue management, water management, and bioenergy vis-a-vis their implications for water resources and energy security; second, we undertake an assessment of the EU's relevant policy frameworks to assess whether the potential synergies from various soil-management strategies are being encouraged or, conversely, where perverse outcomes or trade-offs are likely. Our findings suggest there is much scope to encourage soil-management strategies in Europe that would mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but these synergies are currently not fully exploited at the EU policy level. We identify a number of options for better policy integration among the Common Agricultural Policy, the Water Framework Directive, and the Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package.

  19. Assessment of socio-economic consequences of the Commission's thematic strategy for air pollution; Vurdering af de samfundsoekonomiske konsekvensr af Kommissionens temastrategi for luftforurening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H.; Skou Andersen, M.; Illerup, J.B.

    2006-06-15

    The Commission has presented a thematic strategy on air pollution and has completed an Impact Assessment, which describes the costs and benefits for the member states. The thematic strategy is to result in a revised air quality directive as well as a revised NEC-directive that determines maximum emissions for a number of air pollution components, the so-called emission ceilings. The air pollution components include sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub X}), volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and particulate matters (PM{sub 2,5}). The thematic strategy draws up targets for reductions of the Danish emissions for these components, which have to be met by 2020. These reductions will contribute to a lowering of PM{sub 2,5} concentrations both in Denmark and in neighbouring countries. The concentration of PM{sub 2,5} in the air includes both primary particles that come from emission of particles from e.g. incineration processes, and so-called secondary particles that are generated from emissions of NO{sub X}, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, and from releases from e.g. vegetation. A very large part of the secondary particles in the air in Denmark stems from emissions of these components in the rest of Europe. A very important condition for a reduction in the concentration of PM{sub 2,5} in the air is thus a reduction of the emissions of these components in all of Europe. (au)

  20. Processes of convergence and divergence in the policy formulation of policing strategies for European metropolises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Edwards, A.M.; Ponsaers, P.

    2017-01-01

    This edited collection forms part of a broader, ongoing, research project, ‘The Policing European Metropolises Project’ (‘PEMP’). The Project has its origins in a network of researchers interested in the significance of sub-national policing for understanding processes of convergence and divergence

  1. Dilemmas of downsizing during the great recession: crisis strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, theNetherlands and Sweden in 2009,

  2. Dilemmas Of Downsizing During the Great Recession : Crisis Strategies of European Employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden

  3. Dilemmas of downsizing during the Great Recession : Crisis strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden in 2009,

  4. Dilemmas of downsizing during the great recession: crisis strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden in 2009,

  5. Multiple Myeloma Treatment Strategies with Novel Agents in 2011: A European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral; Bladé, Joan

    2011-01-01

    , providing us with data to make evidence-based decisions regarding the optimal management of patients. This review is an update to a previous summary of European treatment practices that examines new data that have been published or presented at congresses up to the end of 2010 and assesses their impact...

  6. Beyond the Hype - e-Business Strategy in Leading European Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Kouwenhoven, V.; Hamminga, S.

    In this examination of the current state of business technology, two successful e-businessmen combine interviews of 20 captains of European industry regarding their visions of the future of e-business with their own insights, providing inside information on Internet hype as well as ideas for future

  7. The European Respiratory Society study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) : recruitment methods and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lofdahl, CG; Postma, DS; Laitinen, LA; Ohlsson, SV; Pauwels, RA; Pride, NB

    The European Respiratory Society's study on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (EUROSCOP) is a multicentre study performed initially in 12 countries to assess the effect of 3 years' treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on lung function decline in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary

  8. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 1. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    this School -- especially in the SDP under David Owen’s leadership -- in raising the nuclear threshold in Europe by strengthening conventional...ConrolDEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTORS US European Commnand ATTN: ECJ-3 Grumman-CTEC. Inc ATTM: ECJ-5 ATTN: S. Shrier us National Military

  9. Spring diet and feeding strategy of the European sprat Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758 from the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the spring diet composition and feeding strategy of the European sprat, Sprattus sprattus. Diet composition of European sprat was investigated for the first time in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. Examined of the 115 specimens (6 - 9.1 cm total length of stomach, 12 (10.4% had emty. Diet analysis was described based on gravimetric percentages (W%, frequency of abundance (N%, frequency of occurrence (%F and relative importance index (IRI%. Feeding strategy was analyzed and graphically (Costello represented, considering the frequency of abundance (N% and frequency of occurrence (%F indexes and grouping prey into higher taxonomic categories. Twenty species were identified, belonging to four prey groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca and Chaetognatha. Finally copepods proved to be the most important food item considering the above-cited indexes. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. At least seven copepod species were identified, where Calanus euxinus appeared all round with %IRI≥50. Also results of feeding strategy analyses revealed a trophic specialization toward a single prey.

  10. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  11. Self-reported behaviours and attitudes of young European drivers : an analysis of SARTRE-2 results in the framework of PROMISING. Research carried out in commission of the Bundesanstalt für Strassenwesen BASt, for a project funded by the European Commission under the Transport RTD Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the European project ‘SARTRE’, a representative survey of drivers was conducted in fifteen European countries. SARTRE stands for `Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe'. One of the aims of SARTRE was to monitor car drivers' changes in opinions, attitudes and norms over time. Five years

  12. Examining Generic Competitive Strategy Types in U.S. and European Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Susan P Douglas; Dong Kee Rhee

    1989-01-01

    Identification of generic competitive strategy types has recently attracted considerable attention. Most of this research has, however, focused on competitive strategy of U.S. businesses in their domestic market. The present study extends these findings to markets outside the United States, and more specifically Europe, based on a sample of industrial businesses drawn from the PIMS database. Similar dimensions underlying competitive strategy, and similar generic types are found among business...

  13. Creating a marketing channels strategy for European market entry: a case study for eloSpaces Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Babanina, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is produced as a case study for eloSpaces, Finnish-Chinese startup company based in Espoo, Finland. eloSpaces develops a unique capsule for people to do the focus work and enjoy privacy. The home market for eloSpaces is China and their current aim is to enter also European market in the nearest future. Therefore, the main objective for thesis was to identify the shortest and most efficient market entry strategy for the full product launch in Europe with highest impact on profits. ...

  14. Towards a European strategy for medicines research (2014-2020): The EUFEPS position paper on Horizon 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Rogério; Aksu, Buket; Cuine, Alain; Danhof, Meindert; Takac, Milena Jadrijevic-Mladar; Linden, Hans H; Link, Andreas; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Clive G; Ohrngren, Per; Dencker, Lennart

    2012-12-18

    biomedical research programmes of long term importance for development of medicines; however, fundamental research initiatives on medicines development will not be competitive in such an environment. In order to strengthen the long term outlook, we must foster innovative research within the university sector, EUFEPS proposes that a fund for such research be set up within Horizon 2020, which would be open for individual research groups and which would include Public-Public Partnerships (complementing already existing Public-Private Partnerships). How do we look for implementation? There is an established research agenda for medicines research that is globally focused, and which incorporates a cooperative model between universities and industry, facilitating integration of complex technologies. Regulatory Science will play an important role in this integration. This agenda uses tools arising from systems approaches (including discovery with systems biology and also systems pharmacology) and has the potential for providing better knowledge management, as well as technological innovation (including manufacturing). It also addresses the drive towards personalised medicines and can, with support from both public and private sectors, foster translation of knowledge to new technologies and from that, to new medicinal products and complex integrated systems. This is a part of a strategy capable of solving unmet medical needs, which would increase the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic and debilitating diseases. The instruments to allow the development of a research agenda should strengthen existing partnerships such as the IMI-JU model; allow for the creation of European-network infrastructures that can bring together existing competences with adequate European coordination, thus promoting advanced training and continuous professional development for the pharmaceutical sciences. This will be the cornerstone of a knowledge management strategy, providing education and

  15. West European and East Asian Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy. Volume 4. Portuguese Perspectives on Defense, Deterrence and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-16

    in U.S. military planning , the West has to face growing threats in the peripheral zones, namely in those that are essential to the supply of raw...to a re-definition of U.S. strategic planning . In accordance with the ’Maritime strategy" of deployment from the U.S. territory of important military...Socialist Party, and the editor of the Communist daily, O’Diario, Miguel Urbano Rodriques. Neutralist doctrines are abundantly expressed in Liber 25

  16. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  17. Exploring Unanticipated Consequences of Strategy Amongst Stakeholder Segments: The Case of a European Revenue Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Money, K.G.; Hillenbrand, C.; Henseler, J.; Da Camara, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article applies FIMIX-PLS segmentation methodology to detect and explore unanticipated reactions to organisational strategy among stakeholder segments. For many large organisations today, the tendency to apply a “one-size-fits-all” strategy to members of a stakeholder population, commonly

  18. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector A European Good Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europe-wide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational ...

  19. The ties between the strategy of players on the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecarpentier, A.

    2006-01-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  20. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  1. The scramble for the Arctic? A discourse analysis of Norway and the EU's strategies towards the European Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindheim, Astrid

    2009-11-15

    This report examines the discourses on engagement in the European Arctic. Since 2006, both Norway and the EU have launched strategies directed toward engagement in the North. By means of discourse analysis, the report will investigate how the two actors have portrayed and discussed the European Arctic. Taking a social constructivist approach, it is assumed that regions are what we make them to be, and that discourse analysis can indicate the area of action for the region. Special attention will be paid to climate change, environmental issues and energy, as these issues play a prominent role in the Arctic. The region shows evident signs of climate change - but it also contains perhaps 25% of the world's untapped energy resources. This creates tension between the wish to preserve the environment and the climate, and the business potential of the energy reservoirs. The European Arctic was of high geostrategic importance during the Cold War, and there is now talk of a possible renewal of that role. The report applies the theoretical approach developed by Buzan, Waever and de Wilde (1998) about the widened security concept in examining whether the two actors' discourses are framed within security terms and within a security framework. (Author)

  2. Major Differences in Implementation Strategies of the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2015 in Danish Hospitals - A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Mygind-Klausen, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of guidelines into clinical practice is important to provide quality of care. Implementation of clinical guidelines is known to be poor. This study aimed to investigate awareness, expected time frame and strategy for implementation of the European Resuscitation Council...... 2015 and time frame and strategy for implementation.Results: In total, 41 hospitals replied (response rate: 87%) between October 22nd and December 22nd 2015. Overall, 37% of hospital resuscitation committees were unaware of the content of the guidelines. The majority of hospitals (80%) expected...... completion of guideline implementation within 6 months and 93% of hospitals expected the staff to act according to the ERC Guidelines 2015 within 6 months. In contrast, 78% of hospitals expected it would take between 6 months to 3 years for all staff to have completed a resuscitation course based on ERC...

  3. Suggestions / contributions for the re-shaping of the European energy policy. Comparison between the ECF 'road-map 2050' scenario commissioned by Brussels and an extrapolation of the SLC-Negatep scenario at the European scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, Claude; Bacher, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The 'European Climate' Foundation and 'Sauvons le Climat' have proposed energy scenarios for Europe and for France, respectively, with the objectives of dividing by a factor 4 or 5 the CO 2 emissions. The objectives are similar, and so are the premises that success rests on decisive actions in all the sectors contributing to the emissions. Both scenario families call for a large improvement in energy efficiency, a massive use of renewable heat (biomass, solar etc.), and the substitution of electricity to fossil fuels in both their stationary uses (housing end tertiary sectors) and mobile uses (transport). This last requirement leads to a 50 % to 100 % increase in electricity demand by 2050. The two families diverge, however, on the means to produce this electricity: ECF calls for a massive use of renewable electricity (mainly wind an solar) and a supplement provided for by fossile energy with capture and sequestration of the CO 2 produced (CCS) and nuclear energy; a super grid connecting Southern Europe to Northern Europe has to be built to deal with the load variations, with additional combustion turbines as standby. SLC's Negatep scenarios call for a very large contribution of carbon-free (nuclear and (or) fossile with CCS) energies, and a supplement provided for by renewable electricity, the latter being limited by the existing grid capacities. The present work compares the different scenarios and their relative costs; it shows that the Negatep scenarios carry investments roughly half those of the scenarios with the largest renewable component, together with electricity costs significantly lower. In other words, a European energy policy along the lines advocated by ECF would entail particularly large capital investments and, in constant money, a two-fold increase in the cost of electricity by 2050 in Europe. And France would become a crossroad for European electricity and would have to harbour many high tension lines. The conclusion is that this situation should

  4. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S TRADE NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE ACP:ENTRAPPED BY ITS OWN RHETORICAL STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Drieghe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs between the European Union (EU and the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP countries. It addresses the question why the EU firmly insisted on upholding the negotiating deadline for these new trade agreements, despite the very damaging consequences; these hastily initialed trade deals entailed. Regional integration in the South was hampered; the development of the friendly image of the EU got a serious blow; the EU did not manage to include the WTO plus issues, and the prospect of full EPAs at later stage is not guaranteed. We first qualify the Union’s argument to the expiry of a waiver by the World Trade Organization (WTO, which legitimized the former trade regime, and placed an external and insurmountable pressure on the negotiations. There is no rational explanation for Europe’s harsh attitude on the EPA deadline, since neither legal, nor economic interests would have been harmed, if the deadline had been postponed. The main argument advanced in this article addresses whether the EU had to push through these trade deals, because it had entrapped itself through its own ‘rhetorical action’. In its negotiation discourse, the European Commission (EC had so often emphasized the deadline together with the fact that there were no alternatives to EPAs, that it could not change its mind overnight, when at the end of the 2007 negotiations they were still going nowhere. The Union was forced to keep up with the deadline it had imposed upon itself with the risk of losing all its credibility.

  5. European specialist porphyria laboratories: diagnostic strategies, analytical quality, clinical interpretation, and reporting as assessed by an external quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Aasne K; Villanger, Jørild H; Støle, Egil; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Marsden, Joanne; To-Figueras, Jordi; Badminton, Mike; Elder, George H; Sandberg, Sverre

    2011-11-01

    The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders whose diagnosis depends on identification of specific patterns of porphyrin precursor and porphyrin accumulation in urine, blood, and feces. Diagnostic tests for porphyria are performed by specialized laboratories in many countries. Data regarding the analytical and diagnostic performance of these laboratories are scarce. We distributed 5 sets of multispecimen samples from different porphyria patients accompanied by clinical case histories to 18-21 European specialist porphyria laboratories/centers as part of a European Porphyria Network organized external analytical and postanalytical quality assessment (EQA) program. The laboratories stated which analyses they would normally have performed given the case histories and reported results of all porphyria-related analyses available, interpretative comments, and diagnoses. Reported diagnostic strategies initially showed considerable diversity, but the number of laboratories applying adequate diagnostic strategies increased during the study period. We found an average interlaboratory CV of 50% (range 12%-152%) for analytes in absolute concentrations. Result normalization by forming ratios to the upper reference limits did not reduce this variation. Sixty-five percent of reported results were within biological variation-based analytical quality specifications. Clinical interpretation of the obtained analytical results was accurate, and most laboratories established the correct diagnosis in all distributions. Based on a case-based EQA scheme, variations were apparent in analytical and diagnostic performance between European specialist porphyria laboratories. Our findings reinforce the use of EQA schemes as an essential tool to assess both analytical and diagnostic processes and thereby to improve patient care in rare diseases.

  6. The European Power and Gas Industry: the Market. Market Analysis - 2017-2020 Trends - Corporate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    This study presents: The medium-term and mega trends of the industry market developments and geographical segments; The competitive landscape and the main corporate rankings; The main conclusions of the report, summarised in 10 analytical slides. Content: 1. Market Fundamentals: Overview, The Industry; 2. Market Environment and Prospects: Market Environment, Demand and Supply, Prices, Trade; 3. Corporate Strategies and Competition: Competitive Environment, Structure of Competition, Business Strategies; 4. Case Studies; 5. Statistical Appendix; 6. Sources; 7. Annexes

  7. Court of Justice of the European Communities ruling of September 22, 1988 - Rs 187/87: Radioactive effluents, EURATOM, Court of Justice of the EC - ruling concerning Art. 37 EURATOM Treaty (EAGV), nuclear power plants, member states - duties according to Art. 37 EAGV, radioactive effluents - approval of a plan of discharge according to Art. 37 EAGV, decision of the Commission concerning Art. 37 EAGV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Headnote: Article 37 of the treaty of March 25, 1957, establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) is to be interpreted as follows: General information regarding a plan for the discharge of radioactive material must be submitted to the Commission of the European Communities prior to the approval of such discharges by the authorities in charge in the respective member country. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Strategies of an incumbent constrained to supply entrants: the case of European gas release programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; David, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate the development of competition in gas markets, some European regulators (in United Kingdom or in France) have decided to implement gas release programs. These programs compel the incumbent to sell gas that is no longer sold to its customers to its competitors. A first intuition would suggest that such a measure could give the incumbent an incentive to let its own costs rise in order to raise its rival's ones. With a duo-poly model, we found some cases where incentives to raise costs do exist but, in most of the cases there is no such incentives. (authors)

  9. Pharmacologically directed strategies in academic anticancer drug discovery based on the European NCI compounds initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hans R; Govaerts, Anne-Sophie; Fichtner, Iduna; Burtles, Sally; Westwell, Andrew D; Peters, Godefridus J

    2017-07-11

    The European NCI compounds programme, a joint initiative of the EORTC Research Branch, Cancer Research Campaign and the US National Cancer Institute, was initiated in 1993. The objective was to help the NCI in reducing the backlog of in vivo testing of potential anticancer compounds, synthesised in Europe that emerged from the NCI in vitro 60-cell screen. Over a period of more than twenty years the EORTC-Cancer Research Campaign panel reviewed ∼2000 compounds of which 95 were selected for further evaluation. Selected compounds were stepwise developed with clear go/no go decision points using a pharmacologically directed programme. This approach eliminated quickly compounds with unsuitable pharmacological properties. A few compounds went into Phase I clinical evaluation. The lessons learned and many of the principles outlined in the paper can easily be applied to current and future drug discovery and development programmes. Changes in the review panel, restrictions regarding numbers and types of compounds tested in the NCI in vitro screen and the appearance of targeted agents led to the discontinuation of the European NCI programme in 2017 and its transformation into an academic platform of excellence for anticancer drug discovery and development within the EORTC-PAMM group. This group remains open for advice and collaboration with interested parties in the field of cancer pharmacology.

  10. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for

  11. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for

  12. Legal strategies to protect sexual and reproductive health and rights in the context of the refugee crisis in Europe: a complaint before the European Ombudsperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta Hernández, Elena

    2017-11-01

    In the context of the refugee crisis in Europe, the measures taken by the institutions and bodies of the European Union as they relate to respecting, protecting, and ensuring human rights have proven to be woefully inadequate. The development of a restrictive, defensive, security-based immigration policy has led to failure by European countries and the European Union to fulfil their human rights obligations. Specifically, the Agreement struck between the European Union and Turkey on 18 March 2016, in addition to externalising borders, placed economic and political considerations centre stage, leading to serious violations of the human rights of refugees and migrants, including their sexual and reproductive rights. In an effort to identify the failures and the institutions responsible for promoting the necessary measures to mitigate the negative impacts these policies have had, the international human rights organisation Women's Link Worldwide lodged a complaint with the European Ombudsperson. In its complaint, Women's Link alleges maladministration by the European Commission for its failure to carry out a human rights impact assessment of the 18 March 2016 EU-Turkey Agreement and the reports on its implementation. Such an assessment should include a gender perspective and a children's rights approach, and its omission is not only a failure to comply with international human rights standards, but also directly and negatively affects women's and children's rights.

  13. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply; Livre Vert: vers une strategie europeenne de securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear power's vocation in the energy strategy of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.

    1979-01-01

    One of the founding treaties (the Euratom Treaty) of the European Community, to which the UK acceeded in 1973, foresaw an important role for nuclear energy in helping to develop economic prosperity and in facilitating collaboration with other countries. Nuclear energy already provides some 10% of all Community electricity but neither this contribution, nor that now forecast, is as great as was foreseen a few years ago. The causes of this shortfall are identified: they cover socio-economic, technical and political problems, and are exhibited, in varying degrees, in all nine Member States of the Community. It is suggested that, although some aspects of the matter are the inescapable responsibility of individual Member States, there are many features where a common Community position can be advantageous to all. (author)

  15. Relationships between the implementation of quality management strategies and clinical outcomes in European hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suñol, R.; Arah, O.A.; Wagner, C.; Groene, O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Considerable resources are spent on implementing hospital and departmental quality management strategies. Yet, the evidence on the factors associated with the uptake of hospitals of quality management and the impact of quality management systems on clinical outcomes is limited. We

  16. Energy conversion strategies in the European paper industry : A case study in three countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Worrell, E.

    2012-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry both uses and produces large amounts of energy and rising fuel prices bring along significant challenges to the sector. Several strategies can be applied in order to remain competitive e.g. an increase in energy efficiency, a switch in fuel and/or a novel energy

  17. Implementation Strategies for Gender-Sensitive Public Health Practice: A European Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Dalibert, Lucie; Verdonk, Petra; Stutz, Elisabeth Zemp; Klinge, Ineke

    2017-11-01

    Providing a robust scientific background for the focus on gender-sensitive public health and a systematic approach to its implementation. Within the FP7-EUGenMed project ( http://eugenmed.eu ) a workshop on sex and gender in public health was convened on February 2-3, 2015. The experts participated in moderated discussion rounds to (1) assemble available knowledge and (2) identify structural influences on practice implementation. The findings were summarized and analyzed in iterative rounds to define overarching strategies and principles. The participants discussed the rationale for implementing gender-sensitive public health and identified priorities and key stakeholders to engage in the process. Communication strategies and specific promotion strategies with distinct stakeholders were defined. A comprehensive list of gender-sensitive practices was established using the recently published taxonomy of the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project as a blueprint. A clearly defined implementation strategy should be mandated for all new projects in the field of gender-sensitive public health. Our tool can support researchers and practitioners with the analysis of current and past research as well as with the planning of new projects.

  18. Smart Specialisation in European Regions: Issues of Strategy, Institutions and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega Argiles, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    After reviewing some of the key features of the smart specialisation approach this paper examines issues of strategy and implementation which arise in the light of institutional and macroeconomic context in regional examples from four EU countries. The specific insights provided by this comparative

  19. Make or buy? Human capital accumulation strategies in European club football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; van den Berg, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    When it comes to discussing club football emotions tend to get heated quite easily across the globe. This heterogeneity in likes and dislikes is not only reflected in name or financial possibilities, but also in the clubs approach to building a team. We analyze whether clubs' strategies regarding

  20. Pipelines to Brussels: Natural gas exporters' strategies in a changing European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claes, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    On the political level several different processes will influence the future of the European gas market. The possibilities of large increases in demand due to environmental concerns, and economic development, particularly in Eastern Europe, are beginning to change the buyer's market of the 1980's into a seller's market in the 1990's. Turning to the individual producers, one should not rule out a possible extension of the Dutch export contracts beyond 2010, but the main actors are likely to be the Russian Federation and Norway, as the Algerians are unlikely to stabilize their economy and the political uncertainties. The Russian Federation and Norway seem to be in the best position to capture the demand increase assumed in the next ten to twenty years. However, if the demand forecasts of today turn out to be accurate, there is no reason to worry about future competition between the Russian Federation and Norway. The demand increase would give room for both producers to export large volumes to the European market. Even a conservative estimate of gas demand at about 300 billion m 3 in the year 2010, does give 90 billion m 3 to be filled in by additional deliveries. The ''environmental-scenario'', where a substantial number of coal and oil fired power stations are replaced with gas stations, could easily push demand up to 450 billion m 3 . In this scenario gas would take a larger share of the total energy consumption in Europe. This could make importers more concerned with diversification of their gas imports. On the other hand, the pressure for cleaner fuels could obtain a higher priority than diversification, especially if the political situation stabilizes in the exporting countries: the Russian Federation and Algeria. It could come to a choice between a concentration of gas imports from the Russian Federation and Norway, and the more polluting use of coal and oil. The solution to this choice is not obvious. 26 refs., 11 figs

  1. The Danish National Reform Programme 2005 and the gender aspect of the Danish Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    This assessment of the gender aspect of the Danish Employment Strategy in the National Reform Programme 2005 form along with assessments from the other European-member states the basis for the synthesis report The National Reform programme 2005 and the gender aspect of the European Employment...... Strategy prepared for the Equality Unit in the European Commission by Jill Rubery et al. It is part of the work of the EU expert group on Gender, Social Inclusion and Employment (EGGSIE)....

  2. The role of nuclear energy in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniatopoulos, C.S.; Gmelin, W.; Schenkel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the energy policy of the European Community is to achieve a secure supply of energy at reasonable cost and low environmental impact. This overall objective is embedded in the steps taken by the European Community towards the Single European Market. This subject will be addressed briefly, as well as the developments in Eastern Europe including the European Energy Charter. With regard to nuclear energy in the community, facts and issues related to electricity production, the front end and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and current environmental and safety issues will be presented. A common industrial strategy is required in the community including safety regulations, technical specifications and products for international markets. Concerning safeguards, the Commission is fully committed to the obligations from Chapter VII of the Treaty and to any relevant international agreements concluded by the Community. This is reflected in the close cooperation of the Commission with the IAEA and in the increase of resources, both in staff and budget, which the Commission has allocated to the Safeguards Directorate to cope with the increasing requirements, for example for bulk handling facilities. Based on a request from the European Parliament, the Commission has issued in 1989 a first report on the operation of Euratom Safeguards. The Commission services are currently preparing the second report of this type. Finally, some remarks with regard to the future of nuclear energy and challenges of safeguards in the Community will be made

  3. 27 February 2012 - Director of the Health Directorate at the Research DG European Commission R. Draghia-Akli in the ATLAS visitor centre with ATLAS Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Head of CERN EU Projects Office S. Stavrev; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with E. Todesco; and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2012-01-01

    27 February 2012 - Director of the Health Directorate at the Research DG European Commission R. Draghia-Akli in the ATLAS visitor centre with ATLAS Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Head of CERN EU Projects Office S. Stavrev; in the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with E. Todesco; and signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  4. Social Policy Strategies, Between Flexisecurity and Mobication on the European Union Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu POPESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Flexicurity should reduce the difference between employed people and people belonging to excluded categories. An essential objective is represented by the transition from the concept of flexicurity to the new strategy of mobication. Not least, EU needs to find the tools to implement this new strategy Prior Work: This change of perspective at the national level makes the object of this article. Currently employed people need assistance in order to be prepared and protected during the transition from one workplace to another. Results: Those who belong to currently excluded categories – including those who are unemployed, among which women, young people and immigrants predominate – need readily accessible ways to a workplace and starting grounds in order to allow for the progress towards stable contractual provisions. Value: We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this two concepts – both parts of the social policy made by the EU.

  5. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  6. European strategies benchmark of biogas production and valorization industries and French methanation industry forward-looking statements. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume; Thual, Julien; Theobald, Olivier; Bardinal, Marc; Johansson, Hannele; Piccinini, Sergio; Maggioni, Lorenzo; Al Seadi, Teodorita; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Da Costa Gomez, Claudius; Fricke, Klaus; Collins, David; Dumont, Mathieu; Onno, Jean-Marc; Guerin, Bertrand; Ollivier, Denis; Pessiot, Carine; Charlot, Marie-Laure; Molinie, Lea; Vizy, Pascale; Krembel, David; Lamy, Jean-Michel; Ingremeau, Claire; Lukehurst, Clare

    2015-06-01

    In France, the biogas sector is developing. Currently two incentive programs for this sector have been set up: the Energy Methane Nitrogen Autonomy (EMAA) Plan and the call for projects '1500 biogas plants'. The information gathering about measures applied in the historical countries and in countries whose development is supported nowadays, is necessary for decision making and the development of national support strategy. The first part of this report presents the European state of development of biogas plants (28 countries of the European Union and Switzerland) and lists the actions implemented by each country. It details the situation in five countries: Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. The second part presents 20 detailed measures selected among the 30 measures identified during the benchmark phase. The three scenarios for the French sector until 2030 are composed of a socio-economic context, a package of measures, and a quantified simulation by category and by type of biogas recovery. (authors)

  7. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  8. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address two normative and interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC): First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes of the European Employment Strategy (EES......)? Second, how should mutual learning processes be diffused among the Member States in order to be efficient? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on the literature and participatory observations, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors. At the end of the paper a path for empirical...

  9. THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS’ RIGHTS REGARDING ONLINE MISLEADING AND COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN UNION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE ORZAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a new communication medium between companies and consumers has outlined in time a number of unique benefits for the marketing promotional strategy, but it also outlined several disadvantages often related to the violation of the consumers’ rights. Using online marketing techniques and instruments for promotion has entailed not only the need to adapt the companies’ messages to the Internet characteristics, but also the need to know, comply and enforce a legislative framework regarding both the regulation of the traders’ activity and the defense and guarantee of the consumers’ rights. This paper aims to analyze through an exploratory research, based on the investigation of secondary sources as a data collection method, the main aspects relating to the breach of the legislation in effect by the companies that integrate online media in their advertising campaigns and also to determine the impact of their actions on the consumers. By correlating with the text of the European Union consumer policy strategy, the research focuses on studying some examples of misleading and comparative advertising campaigns conducted both online and offline in our country, that have violated the provisions of the directive 2006/114/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006, transposed into law no. 158/2008 adopted by the Romanian Parliament and published on July 24, 2008. The main results of the article emphasize the need to improve the consumers’ experiences in the online environment by eliminating their distrust and removing any damages that they may suffer due to misinformation and unfair commercial practices. Hence, adapting to the digital age requires more attention from traders on ensuring consumer safety and providing a positive online experience.

  10. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves-Ávila, J.P.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Ramos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  11. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barbieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as measure of benefit and conducted in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands or the UK were included. Results: A total of 94 studies were identified. As a result of our search methodology, the vast majority of studies were conducted in the Netherlands or UK (33 and 30 studies, respectively. The most frequent vaccination types were against Human papillomavirus (HPV with 23 studies, followed by vaccination against pneumococcal infections (19 studies. The analysed vaccinations were generally cost-effective but with high variability. Considering an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 40,000€/QALY, we noticed that the following vaccinations studies are below this threshold, i.e. all varicella and influenza (with one outlier studies, 90% of the studies for HPV and 75% of the studies for pneumococcal vaccinations. Rotavirus vaccination was considered as not cost-effective, with only 30% of studies below the threshold of 40,000€/QALY. There was no clear trend for vaccinations being more cost-effective in some countries. Conclusions: The published literature has shown that vaccination strategies are generally cost-effective in European countries. High heterogeneity in the results among studies and countries was found.

  12. Catastrophe Bonds. From Structure to Strategy – A Cluster Analysis at European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Gabriela CONSTANTIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a core activity and discipline of corporate management and corporate governance, risk management is, especially nowadays, a central part in pursuing the sustainable development desiderates, both from the perspective of the firm and of the society as a whole.Considering the negative impact natural catastrophes have on the companies’ and countries’ competitiveness, the development of sustainable financial products that make a contribution to transferring the risk and allocating the capital in case of disasters stands for a continual preoccupation, especially for the (reinsurance industry, while the study of catastrophe bonds – insurance-linked securities – is of interest in the specialized literature. In this context, the scope of the present research is to expand the empirical studies within this field while examining the link between the structure of the catastrophe bonds and the risk management approach employed while accessing the capital markets through this transactions.The methodology entailed clustering a selection of transactions developed by European cedents based on the size of each issue and correlating the results with an innovative score, developed to encompass several important catastrophe bonds structural components.The findings reflect that the general structural elements of the financial transactions reflect closely the corporate approach regarding the innovative risk intermediation instruments for the examined catastrophe bonds deals. The outcomes also emphasize, as expected, that companies with a stronger presence on this market seem to have a more sophisticated risk management approach.

  13. The strategy of a european health policy of the who member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The policy of Health for All is a challenge by the World Health Organization to its Member States to ensure each citizen an e conomically and socially productive life . The Regional Office for Europe created an expanded version of this policy, known as European Health for All, which urged each Member State to alter its policies to achieve the targets set out therein. This policy calls for more equity and social justice in health, for prevention of disease and promoting health and quality of life and for improving the human environment. One of the most important items is the call for delivering quality of care for everyone, by using a clear system for measuring the outcomes of care. Quality of care must apply equally to all parts of the cycle, from health promotion, prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. For quality development and assurance in the area of imaging and the role of dosimetry, the Health for All set a goal of ensuring optimal outcome from available resources. To reach this goal, it is necessary to set standards for guiding health outcome indicators in order to systematically assess health technologies

  14. [Therapeutic strategies. Evolution and current status of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Carlos; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios

    2013-01-01

    The European Guidelines on Dyslipidaemias (2011) and Cardiovascular Prevention (2012) have incorporated important changes. Firstly, it highlights the identification of a group of "very high risk" patients: patients with atherosclerotic disease in any vascular area, diabetes with associated risk factors, advanced chronic renal failure, or a SCORE estimate >10%. Patients with diabetes and no other risk factors, moderate renal failure, severe hypertension, genetic dyslipidaemias, or a SCORE estimate 5-10%, are considered as "high risk". The HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels are considered as modulators of risks, but not therapeutic objectives per se. The therapeutic objectives are set at LDL cholesterol levels < 70 mg/dl (or at least a reduction of at least 50%) for patients at very high risk, and an LDL < 100 mg/dl for high risk patients. As well as the changes in lifestyle, pharmacological treatment with statins is the focal point of lipid lowering treatments. Other pharmacological options may be considered if the treatment with the maximum tolerable doses of statins do not achieve the therapeutic objectives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  15. Social responsibility of international business as activity strategy of enterprises in Ukraine: European experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Oliinyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the practice of application of business social responsibility strategy at Polish and Ukrainian enterprises. The problem of Ukrainian economic entities is in the necessity of creation of conceptual theoretical basis for social responsibility in the sphere of management and realization of social actions. That is why the current study of reports about the social responsibility of Ukrainian and Polish businesses allowed to substantiate the directions for improvement of social policy of enterprises in Ukraine where the enterprises represent a separate group in the development of national economy.

  16. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and territory, about the resolution proposal (n.1656) of Mr Andre Schneider and Mr Philippe Tourtelier, referees of the commission in charge of European affairs, about the second strategic analysis of the energy policy (E 4140, E 4106, E 4107, E 4108, E 4143 and E 4222); Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur la proposition de resolution (n.1656) de MM. Andre Schneider et Philippe Tourtelier, rapporteurs de la commission chargee des affaires europeennes, sur la deuxieme analyse strategique de la politique energetique (E 4140, E 4106, E 4107, E 4108, E 4143 et E 4222)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    This report aims at examining a resolution proposal explained by the commission in charge of European affairs and concerning the second strategic analysis of the energy policy which finds a consistency through the European action plan for the energy security and solidarity. The resolution proposal takes cognizance of the strategic trends proposed by the European Commission for the energy policy of the European Union at the 2020 and 2050 vistas, and invites the European Union and its member states to implement these trends. It stresses on the necessity to learn the lessons of the gas crisis of January 2009 and to diversify the gas supply sources of the member states. It recalls that a re-balancing of Europe's energy consumption in favour of low-carbon and renewable energies together with an improvement of energy efficiency is an urgent necessity and requires a coordination between the different national R and D programs and a communication effort, in particular in France. It encourages the proposal of implementation of a European nuclear safety framework and approves the priority given by the European Union to the development of power and gas interconnected networks in the respect of populations and territories. (J.S.)

  17. International network non-energy use and CO2 emissions (NEU-CO2). An activity within the European Commission's ENRICH programme, DG RTD, 'Environment and Climate'. Final report of the first phase of the network (January 1999 - June 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.; Gielen, D.; Kilde, N.; Simmons, T.

    2000-07-01

    This report concludes the first phase of the NEU-CO 2 network, covering the period from January 1999 to June 2000. Within this period, two workshops were held, one in Paris in September 1999 and the other in Brussels in April 2000. The results of these workshops represent the basis of this report. The workshop papers have also been compiled in workshop proceedings which are publicly available. Due to the success of the NEU-CO 2 network, the partners decided to apply for the continuation of this activity which was recently accepted by the European Commission. The second phase of the of the NEU-CO 2 network will start in Fall 2000 and will continue for 18 months. This will allow the NEU-CO 2 network to improve the methods applied, to close data gaps, to check the preliminary conclusions given in this report and to provide consolidated results and recommendations by mid 2002. The ultimate goal of the NEU-CO 2 network is to contribute to an improvement of the IPCC guidelines in the area of non-energy use and to provide inventorists with tools and methods to estimate more accurately non-energy CO 2 emissions. (orig.)

  18. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well.

  19. Estimating fuel cycle externalities: Analytical methods and issues. Report number 2 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles: A study by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC) 'on the externalities of fuel cycles.' Part I illustrates the use of the atmospheric dispersion and transformation modeling that this study recommends for airborne pollutants in the coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas fuel cycles. Part II of this volume contains a paper which reviews the scientific literature on ecological impacts associated with power plant discharges. Part III contains papers summarizing the relevant health effects literature. Part IV contains papers on methods of economic evaluation. Part V contains four papers on various issues related to the estimation of externalities and their use in public policy. The final part is Part VI, and it contains a paper which describes a system for summarizing analysts' assessments of the quality of the information that an analysis uses to estimate externalities. This system allows analysts to provide information, not only on their best estimates, but also on a range of estimates, on uncertainty, on the quality of the data, and on other factors that better reflect the full dimension of making estimates under uncertainty. The system has broad applicability beyond fuel cycle externalities, as well

  20. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  1. European strategy/global strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testore, R. [FIAT Auto S.p.A., Turin (Italy)

    1998-08-01

    In order to be `global`, a carmaker has to satisfy three main criteria: a global customer service, a global market presence, a global respect for the environment. Just in a word, the automotive industry needs to develop - and has indeed already launched - a process of global re-engineering of its: product, processes, and market. The product is not simply a `car`, but a global mobility service. This is what an increasingly diversified clientele is demanding in order to meet its particular mobility needs in terms of comfort and safety, in a way that does not damage the environment and at welldefined, competitive costs. The process is not just a matter of the way we design, manufacture and distribute our product. We have to re-design our entire corporate profile, redefine the parameters of our specific strategic mission, identifying the levels of control and our core business in a way that is consistent with our particular history, market positioning and growth targets. The market is no longer hard set, but is globally diversified, ready to expand into important niches and to meet the personalized needs of specific users: from VIPs to the elderly or the disables, and so on. (orig.)

  2. Contextualising Change through a Common Strategy: Lecturers' Perceptions and Key Role in Supporting Academic Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindelan, Paz; Martin, Ana

    2014-01-01

    European universities are currently going through a process of change in order to meet the common goals set for higher education by the European Commission. They are revising their educational models to adjust them to the guidelines of the "Bologna Process" and are devising an institutional strategy for its implementation. In practical…

  3. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Mark D; Carpenter, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  4. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D McCoy

    Full Text Available Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D. to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1 collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2 informal trade and exchange, and (3 formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay, undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head, and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington. We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  5. Online Learning of Commission Avoidant Portfolio Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Uziel, Guy; El-Yaniv, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel online ensemble learning strategy for portfolio selection. The new strategy controls and exploits any set of commission-oblivious portfolio selection algorithms. The strategy handles transaction costs using a novel commission avoidance mechanism. We prove a logarithmic regret bound for our strategy with respect to optimal mixtures of the base algorithms. Numerical examples validate the viability of our method and show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.

  6. INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT OF EUROPEAN STATISTICS AND OF THEIR QUALITY - CURRENT CONCERNS AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The issues referring to official statistics quality and reliability became the main topics of debates as far as statistical governance in Europe is concerned. The Council welcomed the Commission Communication to the European Parliament and to the Council « Towards robust quality management for European Statistics » (COM 211, appreciating that the approach and the objective of the strategy would confer the European Statistical System (ESS the quality management framework for the coordination of consolidated economic policies. The Council pointed out that the European Statistical System management was improved during recent years, that progress was noticed in relation with high quality statistics production and dissemination within the European Union, but has also noticed that, in the context of recent financial crisis, certain weaknesses were identified, particularly related to quality management general framework.„Greece Case” proved that progresses were not enough for guaranteeing the complete independence of national statistical institutes and entailed the need for further consolidating ESS governance. Several undertakings are now in the preparatory stage, in accordance with the Commission Communication; these actions are welcomed, but the question arise: are these sufficient for definitively solving the problem?The paper aims to go ahead in the attempt of identifying a different way, innovative (courageous! on the long run, towards an advanced institutional structure of ESS, by setting up the European System of Statistical Institutes, similar to the European System of Central Banks, that would require a change in the Treaty.

  7. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  8. Present practice and treatment strategies in endourological stone management: results of a survey of the European Society of Uro-technology (ESUT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauer, P. C.; Laguna, M. P.; Alivizatos, G.; Joyce, A.; Muschter, R.; Swartz, R.; Tolley, D.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The European Society of Urological Technology (ESUT) conducted a survey in order to assess and record the current trends between urologists with regard to the application of endourological stone management to identify trends and differences in treatment strategies among urologists.

  9. Is patient-centredness in European hospitals related to existing quality improvement strategies? Analysis of a cross-sectional survey (MARQuIS study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groene, O.; Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Klazinga, N.; Alonso, J.; Thompson, A.; Suñol, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is growing recognition of patients' contributions to setting objectives for their own care, improving health outcomes and evaluating care. Objective: To quantify the extent to which European hospitals have implemented strategies to promote a patient-centred approach, and to assess

  10. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffrennes, M [EC, DG XVII, Nuclear Energy, Brussels (Belgium); Engl, G [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Estorff, U von [EC, JRC/IAM, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC`s (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS`s (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC`s and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS`s and CEEC`s of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC`s and NIS`s and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  11. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.; Engl, G.; Estorff, U. von

    1998-01-01

    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC's (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS's (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC's and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS's and CEEC's of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC's and NIS's and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  12. Assessing reported cases of sexual and gender-based violence, causes and preventive strategies, in European asylum reception facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Charlotte; Keygnaert, Ines; Oliveira Martins, Maria do Rosário; Dias, Sónia

    2018-05-09

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a widespread public health problem and a violation of human rights rooted in gender and power inequities. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants living in European asylum reception facilities (EARF) are especially vulnerable to SGBV. To contribute to closing the gap on systematic and accurate evidence on SGBV, we aim to explore reported cases of SGBV, causes and preventable measures described by residents and professionals from EARF. We developed a cross-sectional study using the Senperforto project database. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents (refugees, asylum-seekers and unaccompanied minors) and professionals (service and health care providers) at EARF, in 7 European countries. We used IBM® SPSS software to analyze our data. Further, statistical tests - Chi-square Test and Fisher's exact test (5% significance level) were conducted. In total 562 respondents: 375 residents (R) and 187 professionals (P) participated in the study. The majority of respondents were male (56.9%), aged 19 to 39 years (67.3%). Respondents described 698 cases of SGBV (R 328, P 370), comprising 1110 acts of multi-types of violence. Respondents from Malta (160) and Belgium (143) reported the highest number of SGBV cases. The main reported causes were frustration and stress (R 23.6%, P 37.6%, p 0.008) and differences related with cultural background (R 19.3%, P 20.3%, p 0.884). Respondents assumed that these acts of violence could be prevented by SGBV prevention interventions (R 31.5%, P 24.7%, p 0.293); improving living conditions (R 21.7%, P 15.3%, p 0.232); and promoting communication (R 16.1%, P 28.2%, p 0.042). The majority of R were not aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or host country. While the majority of P were aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or country. Proposed SGBV prevention strategies in EARF included SGBV sensitization and awareness, improving living

  13. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  14. 75 FR 54225 - Comment Request for the Financial Literacy and Education Commission on the Draft National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Comment Request for the Financial Literacy and Education Commission on the Draft National Strategy, Entitled National Strategy for Financial Literacy 2010 AGENCY: Department... Literacy and Education Commission (Commission) through passage of the Financial Literacy and Education...

  15. Using real options to determine optimal funding strategies for CO2 capture, transport and storage projects in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhause, Jeremy; Herold, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development

  16. An innovative strategy for the molecular diagnosis of Usher syndrome identifies causal biallelic mutations in 93% of European patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Crystel; Riahi, Zied; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Smagghe, Luce; Letexier, Mélanie; Marcaillou, Charles; Lefèvre, Gaëlle M; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Kohl, Susanne; Kurtenbach, Anne; Sliesoraityte, Ieva; Zobor, Ditta; Gherbi, Souad; Testa, Francesco; Simonelli, Francesca; Banfi, Sandro; Fakin, Ana; Glavač, Damjan; Jarc-Vidmar, Martina; Zupan, Andrej; Battelino, Saba; Martorell Sampol, Loreto; Claveria, Maria Antonia; Catala Mora, Jaume; Dad, Shzeena; Møller, Lisbeth B; Rodriguez Jorge, Jesus; Hawlina, Marko; Auricchio, Alberto; Sahel, José-Alain; Marlin, Sandrine; Zrenner, Eberhart; Audo, Isabelle; Petit, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Usher syndrome (USH), the most prevalent cause of hereditary deafness-blindness, is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Three clinical subtypes (USH1-3) are distinguishable based on the severity of the sensorineural hearing impairment, the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction, and the age of onset of the retinitis pigmentosa. A total of 10 causal genes, 6 for USH1, 3 for USH2, and 1 for USH3, and an USH2 modifier gene, have been identified. A robust molecular diagnosis is required not only to improve genetic counseling, but also to advance gene therapy in USH patients. Here, we present an improved diagnostic strategy that is both cost- and time-effective. It relies on the sequential use of three different techniques to analyze selected genomic regions: targeted exome sequencing, comparative genome hybridization, and quantitative exon amplification. We screened a large cohort of 427 patients (139 USH1, 282 USH2, and six of undefined clinical subtype) from various European medical centers for mutations in all USH genes and the modifier gene. We identified a total of 421 different sequence variants predicted to be pathogenic, about half of which had not been previously reported. Remarkably, we detected large genomic rearrangements, most of which were novel and unique, in 9% of the patients. Thus, our strategy led to the identification of biallelic and monoallelic mutations in 92.7% and 5.8% of the USH patients, respectively. With an overall 98.5% mutation characterization rate, the diagnosis efficiency was substantially improved compared with previously reported methods.

  17. Strategy of global European atmosphere protection, Polish contribution within European project of Eureka; Strategia globalnej ochrony atmosfery nad Europa, wklad Polski poprzez udzial w europejskim programie Eureki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasiuk-Bronikowska, W.; Bronikowski, T.; Ujejczyk, M. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Chemii Fizycznej

    1996-12-31

    Related to general topics of the project EUROTRAC (set up within initiative of the European Research Coordination Agency EUREKA), main objectives of the subproject HALIPP bound with chemistry leading to `acid rains` are discussed. Exemplary results of the kinetic-mechanistic study of sulfur pollutants transformations in troposphere are shown as the Polish contribution to this project. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs.

  18. Agonistic interactions between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica and the European wasp (Vespula germanica reveal context-dependent defense strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina Pusceddu

    Full Text Available Predator-prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator-prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica and the European wasp (Vespula germanica by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h. We found that V. germanica attacked the hive entrance infrequently due to the low success rate of this strategy and instead preferred a specialized attack method targeting adult honeybees at ground level, demonstrating opportunistic scavenger behavior. Individual honeybees usually responded effectively to an attack by recruiting an average of two nestmates, causing the wasp to flee, whereas collective balling behavior was only observed on four occasions. V. germanica does not appear to disrupt the foraging activity of the colonies under attack. We found that agonistic events supported by other nestmates were typically the most intense ones, involving physical combat and prolonged attacks at the entrance to the hive. These observations support the hypothesis that A. mellifera ligustica can adapt its behavior to match the severity of the threat and the context of the attack.

  19. Agonistic interactions between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) reveal context-dependent defense strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Michelina; Floris, Ignazio; Buffa, Franco; Salaris, Emanuele; Satta, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships between sympatric species allow the evolution of defense behaviors, such as honeybee colonies defending their nests against predatory wasps. We investigated the predator-prey relationship between the honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) and the European wasp (Vespula germanica) by evaluating the effectiveness of attack and defense behaviors, which have coevolved in these sympatric species, as well as the actual damage and disturbance caused to the colonies under attack. Attack and defense behaviors were recorded in front of the hive to observe attacks at the hive entrance (68 attacks in 279 h) and at ground level on isolated and weakened honeybees close to the hive (465 attacks in 32 h). We found that V. germanica attacked the hive entrance infrequently due to the low success rate of this strategy and instead preferred a specialized attack method targeting adult honeybees at ground level, demonstrating opportunistic scavenger behavior. Individual honeybees usually responded effectively to an attack by recruiting an average of two nestmates, causing the wasp to flee, whereas collective balling behavior was only observed on four occasions. V. germanica does not appear to disrupt the foraging activity of the colonies under attack. We found that agonistic events supported by other nestmates were typically the most intense ones, involving physical combat and prolonged attacks at the entrance to the hive. These observations support the hypothesis that A. mellifera ligustica can adapt its behavior to match the severity of the threat and the context of the attack.

  20. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  1. European Neutrons form Parasitic Research to Global Strategy: Realizing Plans for a Transnational European Spallation Source in the Wake of the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Studies of Big Science have early on focused on instrumentation and scientific co-operation in large organizations, later on to take into account symbolic values and specific research styles while more recently also involving the relevance of commercial interests and economic development as well as the assimilation of research traditions. In accordance with these transformed practices, this presentation will analyze how an organization with the purpose of realizing a Big-Science facility, The European Spallation Source, has successfully managed to present the project as relevant to different national and international policy-makers, to the community of European neutron researchers as well as to different industrial interests. All this has been achieved in a research-policy environment, which has been the subject to drastic transformations, from calls to engage researchers from the former eastern bloc in the early 1990s via competition with American and Asian researchers at the turn of the century 2000 to intensified demands on business applications. During this process, there has also been fierce competition between different potential sites in the U.K., Germany, Spain, Hungary and Sweden, not once, but twice. The project has in addition been plagued by withdrawals of key actors as well as challenging problems in the field of spallation-source construction. Nevertheless, the European Spallation Source has survived from the early 1990s until today, now initiating the construction process at Lund in southern Sweden. In this presentation, the different measures taken and arguments raised by the European Spallation Source project in order to realize the facility will be analysed. Especially the different designs of the European Spallation Source will be analysed as responses to external demands and threats.

  2. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  3. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  4. Conceptual design of radioactive waste repositories in geological formations. Report on a Workshop organized by the Commission of the European Communities in the frame of its R and D programme on radioactive waste management and storage at Brussels, February 13 and 14, 1979. [Clays, granites, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haytink, B [comp.

    1980-01-01

    Under the R and D programme on radioactive waste management and storage (indirect action 1975-1979) of the Commission of the European Communities, the Commission participates in design studies of waste repositories in different geological formations undertaken in various Member States. In order to achieve an exchange of available information and to discuss technical solutions the Commission organised a workshop which was attended by experts of all the organisations involved in these studies under the Community programme. From the presentations, summarized in this report, it appeared that design and feasibility studies of waste repositories in clay, salt and granite formations are in good progress. It may be concluded that such repositories can be realized with techniques available at present, however experimental facilities are needed to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical studies.

  5. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON SETTING UP AND RUNNING A POULTRY MICRO-FARM RESPECTING THE EUROPEAN STRATEGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU; Ioana TEODORESCU

    2013-01-01

    Today European Union provides member countries funds for many types of business and in particular for the development of rural environment. In this sense, this paper draws the main steps of a feasibility study for accessing European funds to develop and run a microfarm respecting sustainable development principles imposed by European Union. The work theme is based on establishment poultry farms in order to achieve and to exploit the production of eggs, of meat consumption and poultry compost ...

  7. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  8. The identification and assessment of occupational health and safety strategies in Europe. Vol. I The national situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.; Dormolen, M. van; Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Winter, R. de; et al.

    1996-01-01

    This book is one result of a study commissioned by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions into national health and safety policies and strategies in thirteen member states of the European Union. The goal of the study was to produce an overview and assessment of

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. CEPF strategy for climate change issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    With its strategy for climate change issues CEPF points out the importance of sustainable forest management and the renewable material wood in the context of future climate change policies. Reflecting the view of 16 Million Family forest owners of 23 countries in Europe, on how to combat climate change, this strategy should assist the EU Commission in identifying important issues for consideration in preparing its report for the spring 2005 European Council

  11. Media Strategy and Place Branding in the Transnational European Öresund Region / Estrategia de medios y place branding en la region transnacional europea de Öresund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Falkheimer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim is firstly to to present a conceptual discussion about the relationship between media strategies and place branding, media effects and relations between sources and journalists. Second, based on a case study of the European transnational Öresund region (Danish-Swedish the aim is to describe and analyze a contemporary agenda-building, media service-oriented place branding strategy. Method: The empirical case consists of a descriptive study of Öresund Media Platform, an EU Interreg project (2012-2014. A content analysis of how the news press in the Öresund Region has reported on Öresund place issues 2002-2012 is presented. Findings: Earlier research questions direct media effects and describes the relationship between organizations and media as a power struggle. The interactive and digital media development in combination with changing relations between sources and journalists has created a new media landscape. Uni-directional media strategies may still be relevant, but strategies adapted to the contemporary organizational processes of media organizations are becoming more relevant. The media-service approach, focusing agenda-building using semi-independent news agencies is an example of a new branding media strategy. Originality/Value: This paper is as an example of a public relations and media studies approach to place branding. The case study describes an innovative city and place branding strategy, founded in the contemporary media development in a transnational European region.

  12. Survey of e-learning implementation and faculty support strategies in a cluster of mid-European medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, David Alexander; Behringer, Florian; Harms, Tina; Plener, Joachim; Sostmann, Kai; Peters, Harm

    2015-09-03

    The use of electronic learning formats (e-learning) in medical education is reported mainly from individual specialty perspectives. In this study, we analyzed the implementation level of e-learning formats and the institutional support structures and strategies at an institutional level in a cluster of mid-European medical schools. A 49-item online questionnaire was send to 48 medical schools in Austria, Germany and Switzerland using SurveyMonkey®. Data were collected between February and September of 2013 and analyzed using quantities, statistical and qualitative means. The response rate was 71 %. All schools had implemented e-learning, but mainly as an optional supplement to the curriculum. E-learning involved a wide range of formats across all disciplines. Online learning platforms were used by 97 % of the schools. Full-time e-learning staff was employed by 50 %, and these had a positive and significant effect on the presence of e-learning in the corresponding medical schools. In addition, 81 % offered training programs and qualifications for their teachers and 76 % awarded performance-oriented benefits, with 17 % giving these for e-learning tasks. Realization of e-learning offers was rewarded by 33 %, with 27 % recognizing this as part of the teaching load. 97 % would use curriculum-compatible e-learning tools produced by other faculties. While all participating medical schools used e-learning concepts, this survey revealed also a reasonable support by institutional infrastructure and the importance of staff for the implementation level of e-learning offerings. However, data showed some potential for increasing tangible incentives to motivate teachers to engage in further use of e-learning. Furthermore, the use of individual tools and the distribution of e-learning presentations in various disciplines were quite inhomogeneous. The willingness of the medical schools to cooperate should be capitalized for the future, especially concerning the provision of e

  13. European Union's Policy on Corporate Social Responsibility and Opportunities for the Maritime Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission encourages EU member states to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) among national industries. Several EU member states have responded by legislation on CSR reporting and CSR action plans and strategies. This paper discusses the profitability of CSR and addresses...

  14. Mr Erkki Liikanen, European Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Visit of Mr Erkki Liikanen, at CMS experiment assembly hall at Point 5, L. to r.: : Mr Mario Campolargo, Head of Unit, Research Infrastructure, DG Information Society; Prof. Dan-Olof Riska, Director, Helsinki Institute of Physics; Prof. Ari-Pekka Hameri, HEC, University of Lausanne, Helsinki Institute of Physics; Mr Wolfgang Boch, Head of Unit, Grids for Complex Problems Solving, DG Information Society; Mr David O. Williams, Relations with the European Commission; Mr Erkki Liikanen, European Commissioner for Enterprise and Information Society; Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing; Prof. Jorma Tuominiemi, Director of the CMS Programme for the Helsinki Institute of Physics; H.E. Mr Carlo Trojan, Ambassador, Head of the permanent delegation of the European Commission to the international organizations in Geneva; Prof. Erkko Autio, Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Strategy & International Business. Photo 02: Prof. Dan-Olof Riska, Director,...

  15. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (Action Plan B3: Area 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.

  16. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is solely to address two interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), using the European Employment Strategy as a case: First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes...... of the European Employment Strategy (EES)? Second, how is mutual learning processes diffused among the Member States? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on this concept of learning, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors....

  17. Clausewitz and the Theory of Military Strategy in Europe - Reflections Upon a Paradigm of Military Strategy Within the European Common Security and Defense Policy (ESDP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    ...), Assuming that national differences can be detected, the study proceeds in assessing whether there is an opportunity to reconcile them, or even to establish a European paradigm of strategic thinking...

  18. ‘The Vienna school and Central European art history’: Jan Bakoš, Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Mitrović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jan Bakoš’s recent book Discourses and strategies: the role of the Vienna School in shaping central European approaches to art history ‡ related discourses presents a comprehensive picture of the Vienna School of art history from its inception in the mid-nineteenth century to the influence it exercised on Central European scholarship in the second half of the twentieth century. Although the book is a collection of essays that have been published or presented in the past it is very coherent in the perspective it provides. A particularly important merit of the book is the presentation of the works of Slavic- and Hungarian-speaking art historians that are often ignored in contemporary English-speaking scholarship.

  19. Are in-house and outsourcing innovation strategies interlinked? Evidence from the European agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Materia, V.C.; Pascucci, S.; Dries, L.K.E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of innovation strategies in the agri-food sector and
    the potential complementarity of these strategies. Innovation strategies are distinguished as
    in-house and outsourcing. The choice between strategies is motivated by transaction

  20. IMPACT OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON COMPETITIVENESS OF CZECH REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Litva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration supports removal of all obstacles (in economy, trade, tax, administration or industrial area and establishment of common rules for market competition. Basic benefit of economic integration is thus occurrence of real or potential competitiveness effects. European integration can influence competitiveness of firm, regions or countries. There are existing agglomeration forces causing space and economic concentration and disperse forces working just opposite way. Both effects are influenced by access to a single market and removal of trade barriers. As a consequence, agglomeration effects are expected to dominate. European Commission established RCI (Regional Competitiveness Index to enable comparison of competitiveness of European regions. Aim of this study is exploration of changes in competitiveness of Czech regions after accession to the European Union as there are no studies analysing regional competitiveness in Czech Republic as a consequence of European integration process via index based approach. Analysis of z statistics of primarily data published by European Commission is used to evaluate theoretical concept of disperse and agglomeration forces. Based on RCI analysis are obvious growing discrepancies with dominant position of Prague and Central Bohemia in comparison with other Czech Regions. Significant differences can be seen in areas of innovations, business sophistication and education. On the opposite, positively can be evaluated lower variability of competitiveness between Czech regions in indicators of infrastructure, institutions and technological readiness. Those indicators could be influenced by European cohesive and regional politics. Decisions on governmental level should follow Europe 2020 strategy and transformation to knowledge based economy.

  1. The Commission's research action programme on the development of nuclear fission energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    For its 'Framework Programme 1984-1987' the Commission has defined the major goals for a European Scientific and Technical Strategy. One of the means to reduce the energy dependence of the Community, which is an important objective, is to favour the development of nuclear fission energy. As electricity production by nuclear reactors has reached industrial maturity, the Community activities are directed mainly to safety aspects, in order to ensure the protection of workers and the general public, against hazards linked to operations in the nuclear fuel cycle. A description of the main features of the five sub-programmes on nuclear fission energy is given below; these programmes are: reactor safety; nuclear fuels and actinides research; management of radioactive waste; safeguarding and management of fissile materials; decommissioning of nuclear installations. The research and development work is carried out either by the Commission's Joint Research Center or by organizations and companies of the Member Countries, with the Commission's financial support. (author)

  2. A communication to the European Council and Parliament concerning a common strategy against acidification; Communication au conseil et au parlement concernant une strategie communautaire de lutte contre l`acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linher, O. [Commission Europeenne, DG III, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    The quantities of the main air pollution emissions which contribute to acidification (sulfur and nitrogen oxides, ammonium) are presented, for the various european countries, and their effects on ecosystems is described, using the critical load principle. The present European Union legislation on acidifying emission reduction is presented, and it is shown that it is insufficient to ensure in a long term future that critical loads will not be exceeded. A more rational and efficient strategy is proposed against environmental acidification: development of national emission upper limits, ratification of the 1994 sulfur protocol, modification of the directive on sulfur content in various liquid fuels, actions concerning fuel burning plant and maritime transport emissions, Central and Oriental Europe, long range transfrontier air pollution and ammonium emissions. Economic instruments (such as taxes, incentives, protocols, etc.) are reviewed together with actions for promoting energy efficiency and conservation. Effects of the proposed strategy on pollution level reduction are discussed

  3. Networking European Universities through e-learning (reviewed text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dlouhá

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of the Inventory is to show concrete examples which have been implemented in the Member States under the concept of ESD in formal and non-formal learning contexts and which are at the forefront as regards innovative approaches. Projects/programmes selected as innovative good practice will be used to inform the preparation of the next Progress Report on the EU Sustainable Development Strategy in Education. See European Commission DG Education and Culture Inventory of innovative practices in education for sustainable development, the case study VCSE - Virtual Campus for a Sustainable Europe (EUROPEAN LEVEL, page 33.

  4. Report made on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the bill project nr 2932 authorizing the ratification of the protocol modifying the protocol on transitory dispositions attached to the Treaty on the European Union, to the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union, and to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes and comments the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty in terms of composition for the European Parliament, and more particularly the debate about the design of an efficient and representative parliament, the election mode and the seat distribution. Then, it describes how the modification protocol has been elaborated, its content (general architecture, eighteen additional seats for twelve member States and their election modalities), and its implementation (agenda and method)

  5. European energy policy: the green book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  6. Design and implementation of strategies for the assurance of quality for sterility testing in the Quality Control Section of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olave Carreno, Evelyn Karina

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Production and Service of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), is an organization dedicated to the production and quality control of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. To be considered pharmaceutical specialties, the department has implemented a quality assurance system to guarantee compliance with the required standards during manufacturing processes, quality control and distribution. Such products are administered, mostly by via parental; that is why it is extremely important that as an injectable solution is sterile non-pyrogenic. Therefore, the Head of Quality Control Section emphasized the importance of validating sterility testing for these products. In the first instance we proceeded to update the related documentation, as this is one of the essential pillars of a good system of quality assurance, then continuing with the verification of compliance with the physical conditions of the place where the infertility tests are performed (classification of areas from a microbiological point of view). During this process, the proper training of personnel involved in performing environmental testing and sterility testing was performed. Finally, we proceeded to validate the sterility test by the method of direct inoculation three radiopharmaceuticals; also implemented sterility testing by membrane filtration method described in the USP. It was possible to validate the methods of direct inoculation and membrane filtration based on the validation protocol guidelines generated and previously approved by the Chief; demonstrating that in both cases the detection of reference strains of inocula is achieved under 100 cfu (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spizizenii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium sporogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus brasiliensis), without interference of two of the products tested and interference of a product by direct inoculation method which was resolved. Based on these results, the documented evidence that

  7. Energy transition and security: which voluntary codes? Energy efficiency: IEA, IEC and ISO dialogue. The European Commission's safety, solidarity and efficiency measures. Securing natural gas supplies and favoring cogeneration. Less energy consuming buildings: rework of the energy efficiency directive. Energy efficiency inside buildings: GDF Suez report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourneur, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This dossier gathers a series of short articles about energy security and efficiency in a context of policy transition. The first paper deals with the use of international standards to promote energy efficiency thanks to efficient public policies and private sector actions. This was the main topic of the mixed workshop organized by the International electrotechnics Commission (IEC) in spring 2009. The second paper presents the new strategic analysis of the European commission in the domain of energy which stresses on the '20-20-20' climate change proposals approved in December 2008. A new European action plan for energy security and solidarity defines 5 domains requiring an extra action to warrant a sustainable energy supply. The commission is also examining the challenges that Europe will have to face between 2020 and 2050. The third article treats of the security of natural gas supplies which represents a quarter of the European Union (EU) energy mix. The supply crises susceptible to occur may have serious economic and social consequences. Therefore, the EU must be prepared to warrant its security of supplies. Cogeneration allows the EU to stay close to its energy goals. Buildings play a key role in the realisation of the EU's energy saving objectives and fight against climate change. The new directive on buildings energy efficiency (2002/91/CE) will allow to exploit this potential of saving and to stimulate sustainable investment and employment as well. Finally, the publication of the second WBCSD (World business council for sustainable development) international report on buildings energy efficiency has led GDF Suez utility to reaffirm its commitment in favour of energy saving and efficiency. (J.S.)

  8. Pan-European strategy for genetic conservation of forest trees and establishment of a core network of dynamic conservation units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.M.G.; Alan, Murat; Bozzano, Michele; Burianek, Vaclav

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of forests, at the level of species and at the level of genetic diversity within species, is an important resource for Europe. Over the past several decades European countries have made considerable efforts to conserve the genetic diversity of tree species. According to the EUFGIS

  9. Role of Sample Processing Strategies at the European Union National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) Concerning the Analysis of Pesticide Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2017-01-01

    to the European Union Reference Laboratory on Cereals and Feedingstuff (EURL) for the determination of the particle size distribution and pesticide residue recovery. The results showed that the NRLs used several different brands and types of mills. Large variations in the particle size distributions and pesticide...

  10. Scaling up strategies of the chronic respiratory disease programme of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G

    2016-01-01

    Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS ...

  11. GREENGRASS. Sources and sinks of greenhouse gases from managed European grasslands and mitigation strategies. Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussana, J.F. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique INRA Clermont-Ferrand, 63122 Saint-Genes-Champanelle (FR)] (and others)

    2005-03-15

    In support of the European post-Kyoto policy, the GREENGRASS project will measure the net global warming potential resulting from the exchange of CO2, N2O and Twitch managed European grasslands and assess the European wide mitigation potential of key field and farm management scenarios. Long-term micrometeorological measurements at sites in a European wide network will be complemented by experimental assessment of the effects of management options bonnet fluxes. The results will be used to refine emission factors used in national inventories and to evaluate farm-level mitigation scenarios with respect to tenet global warming potential associated to grassland management. These evaluations will be conducted at the field and farm level, and by upscaling simulation results to the Europe scale. (Contributions by Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark), INRA Clermont Ferrand (France), INRA Grignon (France), INRA Dijon (France), Institut de l'Elevage Angers (France), LSCE Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Cetre Interprofessionel Technique d'Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique (France), Forest Research Institute (Hungary), Szent Istvan University (Hungary), Eoetvoes Lorand University Elte (Hungary), Trinity College of Dublin (Ireland), Istituto di Biometeorologia (IBIMET) del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Italy), University of Tuscia (Italy), Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN (Netherlands), Wageningen University (Netherlands), Plant Research International (Netherlands), Centre of Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom), Scottish Agricultural College (Scotland), University of Aberdeen (Scotland), Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture (Switzerland))

  12. Policy strategies for an emergent technology: Lessons from the analysis of EV-policy in 8 North- European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Steen (Martijn); R.M. Van Schelven; P. Van Deventer (Peter); M. van Twist (Mark); R. Kotter

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents data from a comparative study of EV-policies in 8 different North-European countries, that maps out all of the policies of these countries (and a range of regions and cities) that target passenger vehicles (PHEV and BEV), chargers (home, private, public; level 1-3),

  13. Successful diversification strategies of electricity companies: An explorative empirical study on the success of different diversification strategies of German electricity companies in the wake of the European market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Ralf; Steinert, Martin; Teufel, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Based on the EC directive 96/92, the liberalization of electricity markets is forcing electricity companies, to rethink their product and market strategy. However, neither the level of the initiated diversification efforts of former monopolies, nor their direction or their success are known or have been analyzed before. Therefore, Mueller [2006. Diversifikationsstrategien von Stromversorgungsunternehmen: Handlungsempfehlungen fuer schweizerische Stromversorgungsunternehmen auf der Basis einer empirischen Analyse des liberalisierten deutschen Strommarktes. IIMT University Press, Fribourg] has quantitatively determined the extent and direction of the diversification efforts in the electricity sector. Additionally, based on an exploratory case study research, successful diversification strategies have been identified and incorporated into 73 observations which form the basis of a set of normative recommendations for diversifying electricity companies. Since the analyses are based on the German electricity market, which fully liberalized earlier than most of its continental European counterparts, the results may especially guide other European electricity companies in their strategic diversification decisions. This paper publishes both the quantitative analysis on the degree and extents of diversification (sample time frame 1995-2000) as well as the qualitative analysis on the success of diversification strategies (sample time frame 1995-2003). Additionally, based on the obtained explorative observations, the diversification strategy of an idealized-electricity company is firstly presented for practitioners as normative recommendation, and secondly for academics, as starting point for future quantitative analysis framework. (author)

  14. The single European market - a Schumpeterian event?

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    1989-01-01

    It is now four years after the White Paper launched the project on the completion of the internal market [Commission, 1985]. 300 steps were packaged and sold in a manner by Delors and Lord Cockfield that "caught on". The basic strategy is simple: abolish or reduce market segmentations that still exist, facilitate free market access, as well as establish the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital (the so-called four freedoms). Will the single European market prove to be an insti...

  15. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Laura N., E-mail: laura.n.haar@mbs.ac.u [University of Manchester, Manchester Business School, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom); Marinescu, Nicolae, E-mail: marinescu@unitbv.r [Transylvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences, 29 Eroilor Bd, Brasov 500 036 (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. {yields} We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. {yields} We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. {yields} The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. {yields} To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  16. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Marinescu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: → We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. → We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. → We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. → The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. → To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  17. European energy policy: A new debate and an opportunity to help shape Europe's energy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, Karen

    2001-01-01

    On 28 November 2000, the European Commission adopted a Green Paper on a strategy for the security of energy supply. A consultation and debate will follow and interested parties have the right to submit comments relating to issues within the document. When the debate is brought to a close, a White Paper will be issued by the European Commission, which will then be sent to the European Parliament and Council. The White Paper will represent an official proposal reflecting all changes to the Green Paper already issued. The European Parliament will then adopt an opinion on the White Paper, which will then be communicated to the European Commission who in turn will adopt a draft directive or legislation. It will again be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for approval. Let us make no mistake. What might appear as a cumbersome process far from the grassroots preoccupations, will in fact affect all European citizens in the end. So in this democratic consultation, it is crucial that policies be established in an informed, educated manner. It is therefore the duty of the industry to communicate in a transparent fashion about its benefits and drawbacks so that in the end, the best decisions will be based on facts and not on fear

  18. AIDA – pushing the boundaries of European particle detector research

    CERN Multimedia

    Naomi Gilraen Wyles

    2011-01-01

    AIDA (Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors at Accelerators), a new project co-funded by the European Union and worth a total of 26 million euros, will be officially launched at CERN next week. The kick-off meeting will take place on 16-18 February, during which Europe-wide detector physicists will come together to begin work on detector infrastructure developments for future particle physics experiments.   Coordinated by CERN, AIDA involves more than 80 institutes and laboratories from 23 countries as beneficiaries or associate partners (the full list can be found here). This four-year project will receive 8 million euros from the European Commission's FP7 Research Infrastructures programme. AIDA will develop facilities covering the four main goals identified by the European Strategy for Particle Physics. These are the LHC upgrade, Linear Colliders, Neutrino facilities and Super-B factories. These facilities will also be available for other researchers in the fields of nuclear and par...

  19. Evaluation of a merger of electricity companies from the angle of EC law. European Commission, decision of 17 March 1998, IV/M. 1107 -EDF/ESTAG; Gemeinschaftsrechtliche Beurteilung eines Zusammenschlusses von Stromversorgungsunternehmen. EG-Kommission, Entscheidung vom 17.3.1998, IV/M. 1107 - EDFI/ESTAG -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-31

    The (appealable) head note of the decision of the European Commission states:``A merger of electricity companies each holding a dominant market position in geographically different markets is not considered to create or strengthen a dominant market position in the European market area, or a major part of the area.`` The full text of the decision in German is reproduced but not commented. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der nicht amtliche Leitsatz der Entscheidung der EG-Kommission lautet: ``Ein Zusammenschluss von Stromversorgungsunternehmen, die auf geographisch voneinander getrennten Maerkten beherrschend sind, fuehrt nicht zu einer Schaffung oder Verstaerkung einer marktbeherrschenden Stellung im europaeischen Wirtschaftsraum oder einem wesentlichen Teil dieses Gebietes.`` Die Entscheidung ist vollstaendig abgedruckt aber nicht kommentiert. (orig./CB)

  20. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.