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Sample records for european cohort study

  1. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  2. A Case—Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Olsson; Hans Kromhout; Michela Agostini; Johnni Hansen; Christina Funch Lassen; Christoffer Johansen; Kristina Kjaerheim; Sverre Langård; Isabelle Stücker; Wolfgang Ahrens; Thomas Behrens; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Dick Heederik; Lützen Portengen; Judith Shaham; Gilles Ferro; Frank de Vocht; Igor Burstyn; Paolo Boffetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: We conducted a nested case—control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding...

  3. How are European birth-cohort studies engaging and consulting with young cohort members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J; Allnock, Debra; Jessiman, Tricia

    2013-04-11

    Birth cohort studies, where parents consent for their child to be enrolled in a longitudinal study prior to or soon after birth, are a powerful study design in epidemiology and developmental research. Participation often continues into adulthood. Where participants are enrolled as infants, provision should be made for consent, consultation and involvement in study design as they age. This study aims to audit and describe the extent and types of consultation and engagement currently used in birth cohorts in Europe. Seventy study groups (representing 84 cohorts) were contacted to ask about their practice in engaging and involving study members. Information was gathered from study websites and publications, 15 cohorts provided additional information via email and 17 cohorts were interviewed over the phone. The cohorts identified confirm the growth of this study design, with more than half beginning since 1990, and 4 since 2011. Most studies maintain a website open to the general public, although many are written for the scientific community only. Five studies have web pages specifically for young cohort members and one study provides a dedicated page for fathers. Cohorts send newsletters, cards, and summaries of findings to participants to stay in touch. Six cohorts use Facebook for this purpose. Five cohorts provide feedback opportunities for participants after completing a round of data collection. We know of just 8 cohorts who have a mechanism for consulting with parents and 3 a mechanism for consulting with young people themselves, although these were 'one off' consultations for some groups. Barriers to further consultation with cohort members were: concerns about impact on quality of research, ethical constraints, resource limitations, lack of importance, and previous adverse experiences. Although the children in some of the cohorts are still young (born in the last 10 years) many are old enough to include some element of consultation. Barriers to greater

  4. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olsson; Kromhout, H; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S; Stucker, I; Ahrens, W; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. METHODS: Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Ge...

  5. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsson, A.; Kromhout, H.; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Ferro, G.; de Vocht, F.; Burstyn, I.; Boffetta, P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the

  6. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Martinez, David; Barros, Henrique; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; van Eijsden, Manon; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Halldórsson, Thorhallur I; Hanke, Wojciech; Haugen, Margaretha; Heppe, Denise H M; Heude, Barbara; Inskip, Hazel M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Merletti, Franco; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjúrður F; Pele, Fabienne; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Robinson, Siân M; Stigum, Hein; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vrijheid, Martine; Chatzi, Leda

    2014-03-01

    Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel of European birth cohort studies. The study sample of 151,880 mother-child pairs was derived from 19 population-based European birth cohort studies. Individual data from cohorts were pooled and harmonized. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined by using a random- and fixed-effects meta-analysis. Women who ate fish >1 time/wk during pregnancy had lower risk of preterm birth than did women who rarely ate fish (≤ 1 time/wk); the adjusted RR of fish intake >1 but fish during pregnancy gave birth to neonates with a higher birth weight by 8.9 g (95% CI: 3.3, 14.6 g) for >1 but fish intake during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of preterm birth and a small but significant increase in birth weight.

  7. Mortality Prediction after the First Year of Kidney Transplantation: An Observational Study on Two European Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Lorent

    Full Text Available After the first year post transplantation, prognostic mortality scores in kidney transplant recipients can be useful for personalizing medical management. We developed a new prognostic score based on 5 parameters and computable at 1-year post transplantation. The outcome was the time between the first anniversary of the transplantation and the patient's death with a functioning graft. Afterwards, we appraised the prognostic capacities of this score by estimating time-dependent Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves from two prospective and multicentric European cohorts: the DIVAT (Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2000 and 2012 in 6 French centers; and the STCS (Swiss Transplant Cohort Study cohort composed of patients transplanted between 2008 and 2012 in 6 Swiss centers. We also compared the results with those of two existing scoring systems: one from Spain (Hernandez et al. and one from the United States (the Recipient Risk Score, RRS, Baskin-Bey et al.. From the DIVAT validation cohort and for a prognostic time at 10 years, the new prognostic score (AUC = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.69, 0.85] seemed to present significantly higher prognostic capacities than the scoring system proposed by Hernandez et al. (p = 0.04 and tended to perform better than the initial RRS (p = 0.10. By using the Swiss cohort, the RRS and the the new prognostic score had comparable prognostic capacities at 4 years (AUC = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively, p = 0.31. In addition to the current available scores related to the risk to return in dialysis, we recommend to further study the use of the score we propose or the RRS for a more efficient personalized follow-up of kidney transplant recipients.

  8. Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries: A Multinational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Redondo Cornejo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez Pérez, María José; Altzibar, Jone M; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Butterworth, Adam; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Siersema, Peter; Leenders, Max; Beulens, Joline W J; Uiterwaal, Cuno U; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Landberg, Rikard; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Brennan, Paul; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Sinha, Rashmi; Wareham, Nick; Riboli, Elio

    2017-08-15

    The relationship between coffee consumption and mortality in diverse European populations with variable coffee preparation methods is unclear. To examine whether coffee consumption is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study. 10 European countries. 521 330 persons enrolled in EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The association of coffee consumption with serum biomarkers of liver function, inflammation, and metabolic health was evaluated in the EPIC Biomarkers subcohort (n = 14 800). During a mean follow-up of 16.4 years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Compared with nonconsumers, participants in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had statistically significantly lower all-cause mortality (men: HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95]; P for trend coffee drinking with circulatory disease mortality (HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.68 to 0.90]; P for trend coffee consumption was associated with lower serum alkaline phosphatase; alanine aminotransferase; aspartate aminotransferase; γ-glutamyltransferase; and, in women, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein(a), and glycated hemoglobin levels. Reverse causality may have biased the findings; however, results did not differ after exclusion of participants who died within 8 years of baseline. Coffee-drinking habits were assessed only once. Coffee drinking was associated with reduced risk for death from various causes. This relationship did not vary by country. European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers and International Agency for Research on Cancer.

  9. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Ann; Kromhout, Hans; Agostini, Michela; Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch; Johansen, Christoffer; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Langård, Sverre; Stücker, Isabelle; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Heederik, Dick; Portengen, Lützen; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Israel who had died of lung cancer between 1980 and the end of follow-up (2002-2005). Controls were individually matched in a 3:1 ratio to cases on year of birth and country. We derived exposure estimates for bitumen fume and condensate, organic vapor, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as for asbestos, crystalline silica, diesel motor exhaust, and coal tar. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for ever-exposure, duration, average exposure, and cumulative exposure after adjusting for tobacco smoking and exposure to coal tar. A total of 433 cases and 1,253 controls were included in the analysis. The OR was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-1.49] for inhalation exposure to bitumen fume and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.88-1.56) for dermal exposure to bitumen condensate. No significant trend was observed between lung cancer risk and duration, average exposure, or cumulative exposure to bitumen fume or condensate. We found no consistent evidence of an association between indicators of either inhalation or dermal exposure to bitumen and lung cancer risk. A sizable proportion of the excess mortality from lung cancer relative to the general population observed in the earlier cohort phase is likely attributable to high tobacco consumption and possibly to coal tar exposure, whereas other occupational agents do not appear to play an important role.

  10. A Case–Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Ann; Kromhout, Hans; Agostini, Michela; Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch; Johansen, Christoffer; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Langård, Sverre; Stücker, Isabelle; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Heederik, Dick; Portengen, Lützen; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a nested case–control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. Objective We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. Methods Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Israel who had died of lung cancer between 1980 and the end of follow-up (2002–2005). Controls were individually matched in a 3:1 ratio to cases on year of birth and country. We derived exposure estimates for bitumen fume and condensate, organic vapor, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as for asbestos, crystalline silica, diesel motor exhaust, and coal tar. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for ever-exposure, duration, average exposure, and cumulative exposure after adjusting for tobacco smoking and exposure to coal tar. Results A total of 433 cases and 1,253 controls were included in the analysis. The OR was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–1.49] for inhalation exposure to bitumen fume and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.88–1.56) for dermal exposure to bitumen condensate. No significant trend was observed between lung cancer risk and duration, average exposure, or cumulative exposure to bitumen fume or condensate. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence of an association between indicators of either inhalation or dermal exposure to bitumen and lung cancer risk. A sizable proportion of the excess mortality from lung cancer relative to the general population observed in the earlier cohort phase is likely attributable to high tobacco consumption and possibly to coal tar exposure, whereas other occupational agents do not appear to play an important role. PMID:20529766

  11. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  12. Head injuries in children's football-results from two prospective cohort studies in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, O; Rössler, R; Junge, A; Aus der Fünten, K; Chomiak, J; Verhagen, E; Beaudouin, F; Dvorak, J; Feddermann-Demont, N

    2017-12-01

    Head injuries are considered harmful in children. We analyzed head and neck injuries in organized football in 7- to 12-year-old children. Data for this analysis were obtained from a prospective cohort study over two consecutive football seasons in two European countries, and a randomized intervention trial over one season in four European countries. Football exposure and injuries were documented through an online database. Detailed information regarding injury characteristics and medical follow-up was retrieved from coaches, children and parents by phone. Thirty-nine head injuries and one neck injury (5% of all 791 injuries) were documented during 9933 player-seasons (total football exposure 688 045 hours). The incidence was 0.25 [95%CI 0.15, 0.35] head/neck injuries per 1000 match hours (N=23 match injuries) and 0.03 [95%CI 0.02, 0.03] per 1000 training hours. Eleven concussions (27.5%), nine head contusions (22.5%), eight lacerations or abrasions (20%), two nose fractures (2.5%), and two dental injuries (2.5%) occurred. The remaining eight injuries were nose bleeding or other minor injuries. Thirty injuries (75%) resulted from contact with another player, and ten injuries were due to collision with an object, falling or a hit by the ball. Whereas 70% of all head injuries (N=28) were due to frontal impacts, 73% of concussions (N=8) resulted from an impact to the occiput. The incidence and severity of head injuries in children's football are low. Coaches and parents, however, should be sensitized regarding the potential of concussions, particularly after an impact to the occiput. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Does pregnancy change the disease course? A study in a European cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, L; Vind, Ida; Politi, P

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects patients in their fertile age. The aim of this study was to describe pregnancy outcome in a European cohort of IBD patients. As data are limited regarding the effect of pregnancy on disease course, our second objective...... was to investigate whether pregnancy influences disease course and phenotype in IBD patients. METHODS: In a European cohort of IBD patients, a 10-yr follow-up was performed by scrutinizing patient files and approaching the patients with a questionnaire. The cohort comprised 1,125 patients, of whom 543 were women....... Data from 173 female ulcerative colitis (UC) and 93 Crohn's disease (CD) patients form the basis for the present study. RESULTS: In all, 580 pregnancies, 403 occurring before and 177 after IBD was diagnosed, were reported. The rate of spontaneous abortion increased after IBD was diagnosed (6.5% vs. 13...

  14. Does pregnancy change the disease course? A study in a European cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, L; Vind, Ida; Politi, P

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects patients in their fertile age. The aim of this study was to describe pregnancy outcome in a European cohort of IBD patients. As data are limited regarding the effect of pregnancy on disease course, our second objective was to inv......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects patients in their fertile age. The aim of this study was to describe pregnancy outcome in a European cohort of IBD patients. As data are limited regarding the effect of pregnancy on disease course, our second objective...... was to investigate whether pregnancy influences disease course and phenotype in IBD patients. METHODS: In a European cohort of IBD patients, a 10-yr follow-up was performed by scrutinizing patient files and approaching the patients with a questionnaire. The cohort comprised 1,125 patients, of whom 543 were women....... Data from 173 female ulcerative colitis (UC) and 93 Crohn's disease (CD) patients form the basis for the present study. RESULTS: In all, 580 pregnancies, 403 occurring before and 177 after IBD was diagnosed, were reported. The rate of spontaneous abortion increased after IBD was diagnosed (6.5% vs. 13...

  15. Long-term trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in cohorts in aging men in the European cohorts of the Seven countries study

    OpenAIRE

    Lanti, M; Nedeljkovic, S; Nissinen, A; Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    ACKGROUND AND AIMS: Time trends in major cardiovascular risk factors are described in cohorts of middle-aged men followed for 35 years in 9 European cohorts of Finland, The Netherlands, Italy, Serbia and Greece. METHODS: Men aged 40 to 59 years at entry in the early 1960s were repeatedly re-examined 3 to 5 times over the last 35 years. Systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, body weight and body mass index were considered for analysis, including study of aging (35 years of follow-up) and ...

  16. Fear of childbirth and risk of cesarean delivery: a cohort study in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, Elsa Lena; Lukasse, Mirjam; Parys, An-Sophie Van; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Schei, Berit

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined the mode of birth among women with fear of childbirth, and the results are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess the association between fear of childbirth and cesarean delivery in North European women. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 6,422 pregnant women from Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden. Fear of childbirth was measured by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire during pregnancy and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. Among 3,189 primiparous women, those reporting severe fear of childbirth were more likely to give birth by elective cesarean, (OR, 1.66 [95% CI 1.05-2.61]). Among 3,233 multiparous women, severe fear of childbirth increased the risk of elective cesarean (OR 1.87 [95% CI 1.30-2.69]). Reporting lack of positive anticipation, one of six dimensions of fear of childbirth, was most strongly associated with elective cesarean (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.52-2.68]). A dose-effect pattern was observed between level of fear and risk of emergency cesarean in both primiparous and multiparous women. Indications for cesarean were more likely to be reported as "nonmedical" among those with severe fear of childbirth; 16.7 versus 4.6 percent in primiparous women, and 31.7 versus 17.5 percent in multiparous women. Having severe fear of childbirth increases the risk of elective cesarean, especially among multiparous women. Lack of positive anticipation of the upcoming childbirth seems to be an important dimension of fear associated with cesarean delivery. Counseling for women who do not look forward to vaginal birth should be further evaluated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM study cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. METHODS: We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. RESULTS: Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  18. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Williams, John D; Covic, Adrian C; Fan, Stanley; Claes, Kathleen; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Verger, Christian; Steiger, Jurg; Schoder, Volker; Wabel, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Himmele, Rainer

    2011-02-24

    Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57). The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  19. Fluid Status in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM) Study Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Williams, John D.; Covic, Adrian C.; Fan, Stanley; Claes, Kathleen; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Verger, Christian; Steiger, Jurg; Schoder, Volker; Wabel, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Himmele, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Background Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. Methods We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. Results Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R2 of the model = 0.57). Conclusions The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia. PMID:21390320

  20. Air pollution and atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of four European cohort studies in the ESCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Laura; Wolf, Kathrin; Hennig, Frauke; Penell, Johanna; Basagaña, Xavier; Foraster, Maria; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Cyrys, Josef; Fuks, Kateryna B; Adam, Martin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Cirach, Marta; Elosua, Roberto; Dratva, Julia; Hampel, Regina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Marrugat, Jaume; de Faire, Ulf; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rivera, Marcela; Seissler, Jochen; Schindler, Christian; Thiery, Joachim; Hoffmann, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Künzli, Nino

    2015-06-01

    In four European cohorts, we investigated the cross-sectional association between long-term exposure to air pollution and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT), a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Individually assigned levels of nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), absorbance of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), PM10, PMcoarse, and two indicators of residential proximity to highly trafficked roads were obtained under a standard exposure protocol (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects-ESCAPE study) in the Stockholm area (Sweden), the Ausburg and Ruhr area (Germany), and the Girona area (Spain). We used linear regression and meta-analyses to examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and CIMT. The meta-analysis with 9,183 individuals resulted in an estimated increase in CIMT (geometric mean) of 0.72% (95% CI: -0.65%, 2.10%) per 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and 0.42% (95% CI: -0.46%, 1.30%) per 10-5/m increase in PM2.5abs. Living in proximity to high traffic was also positively but not significantly associated with CIMT. Meta-analytic estimates for other pollutants were inconsistent. Results were similar across different adjustment sets and sensitivity analyses. In an extended meta-analysis for PM2.5 with three other previously published studies, a 0.78% (95% CI: -0.18%, 1.75%) increase in CIMT was estimated for a 5-μg/m3 contrast in PM2.5. Using a standardized exposure and analytical protocol in four European cohorts, we found that cross-sectional associations between CIMT and the eight ESCAPE markers of long-term residential air pollution exposure did not reach statistical significance. The additional meta-analysis of CIMT and PM2.5 across all published studies also was positive but not significant.

  1. Long-term trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in cohorts in aging men in the European cohorts of the Seven countries study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanti, M.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    ACKGROUND AND AIMS: Time trends in major cardiovascular risk factors are described in cohorts of middle-aged men followed for 35 years in 9 European cohorts of Finland, The Netherlands, Italy, Serbia and Greece. METHODS: Men aged 40 to 59 years at entry in the early 1960s were repeatedly re-examined

  2. Pioglitazone and risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from a European multidatabase cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongman, Helen; Korhonen, Pasi; Williams, Rachael; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Hoti, Fabian; Christopher, Solomon; Majak, Maila; Kool-Houweling, Leanne; Linder, Marie; Dolin, Paul; Heintjes, Edith M

    2017-01-01

    Estimate and compare the risk of mortality in patients whose antidiabetic therapy is modified to include pioglitazone compared with an alternative antidiabetic medication at the same stage of disease progression. Retrospective cohort study. Pooled analysis of clinical data collected from primary and/or secondary care settings in four European countries: Finland, The Netherlands, Sweden and the UK . 56 337 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus first prescribed pioglitazone between 2000 and 2011, and 56 337 patients never prescribed pioglitazone matched by treatment stage, history of diabetes, diabetes complications and cardiovascular disease, and year of cohort entry using exact and propensity score matching. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 2.90 (SD 2.21) and 2.83 (SD 2.37) years in the pioglitazone-exposed and non-pioglitazone-exposed groups, respectively. All-cause mortality ascertained from clinical or registry data. Mortality was a planned secondary outcome in a study primarily studying the association of pioglitazone use with bladder cancer risk. The crude overall mortality rate per 10 000 patient years was 206 (95% CI 199 to 213) in the pioglitazone-exposed group and 448 (95% CI 438 to 458) in the non-pioglitazone-exposed group. The crude HR comparing pioglitazone to alternative antidiabetic exposure was 0.46 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.48). This reduced in magnitude to 0.67 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.70) following further adjustment for matching variables, propensity scores, age, gender and time-dependent variables representing use of alternative antidiabetic drugs. In this large observational cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone exposure was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the risk of all-cause mortality across four European countries. Results should be interpreted with caution due to the potential for residual confounding. European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance.

  3. Cancer Risks in Patients Treated With Growth Hormone in Childhood: The SAGhE European Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Anthony J; Cooke, Rosie; Beckers, Dominique; Borgström, Birgit; Butler, Gary; Carel, Jean-Claude; Cianfarani, Stefano; Clayton, Peter; Coste, Joël; Deodati, Annalisa; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Gausche, Ruth; Giacomozzi, Claudio; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Khan, Aysha J; Kiess, Wieland; Kuehni, Claudia E; Mullis, Primus-E; Pfaffle, Roland; Sävendahl, Lars; Sommer, Grit; Thomas, Muriel; Tidblad, Anders; Tollerfield, Sally; Van Eycken, Liesbet; Zandwijken, Gladys R J

    2017-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is prescribed for an increasing range of indications, but there has been concern that it might raise cancer risk. Published data are limited. To examine cancer risks in relation to GH treatment. Cohort study. Population-based. Cohort of 23,984 patients treated with recombinant human GH (r-hGH) in eight European countries since this treatment was first used in 1984. Cancer expectations from country-specific national population statistics. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality risks in the cohort were raised for several cancer sites, largely consequent on second primary malignancies in patients given r-hGH after cancer treatment. There was no clear raised risk in patients with growth failure without other major disease. Only for bone and bladder cancers was incidence significantly raised in GH-treated patients without previous cancer. Cancer risk was unrelated to duration or cumulative dose of r-hGH treatment, but for patients treated after previous cancer, cancer mortality risk increased significantly with increasing daily r-hGH dose (P trend patients overall and 0.002 for patients without previous cancer). Our results do not generally support a carcinogenic effect of r-hGH, but the unexplained trend in cancer mortality risk in relation to GH dose in patients with previous cancer, and the indication of possible effects on bone cancer, bladder cancer, and HL risks, need further investigation.

  4. Exposure assessment for a multicentric cohort study of cancer risk among European asphalt workers

    OpenAIRE

    Burstyn, I.

    2001-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the health effects of fumes and vapors generated during paving and waterproofing with bitumen. Such emissions may be carcinogenic. To address this question, a historical multicentric cohort of asphalt workers was assembled by in eight countries. Assessment of historical exposures to known and suspected carcinogens (bitumen, organic vapour, coal tar, respirable silica, diesel exhaust, and asbestos) in the cohort became the main objective of this disse...

  5. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Becker, Thomas; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Foraster, Maria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Swart, Wim J R; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.

  6. Exposure assessment for a multicentric cohort study of cancer risk among European asphalt workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burstyn, I.

    2001-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the health effects of fumes and vapors generated during paving and waterproofing with bitumen. Such emissions may be carcinogenic. To address this question, a historical multicentric cohort of asphalt workers was assembled by in eight

  7. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population: multicentre, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Dik, Vincent K; Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-04-15

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% [HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.16-0.50, p-trend coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (p-trend = 0.009), but not decaffeinated (p-trend = 0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multicentre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Systemic antibiotic prescribing to paediatric outpatients in 5 European countries: A population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Holstiege (Jakob); J.C. Schink (Julian); M. Molokhia (Mariam); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); F. Innocenti (Francesco); A. Oteri (Alessandro); I. Bezemer (Irene); E. Poluzzi (Elisabetta); A. Puccini (A.); S.P. Ulrichsen (Sinna P.); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); G. Trifirò (Gianluca); C. Garbe (Claus)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To describe the utilisation of antibiotics in children and adolescents across 5 European countries based on the same drug utilisation measures and age groups. Special attention was given to age-group-specific distributions of antibiotic subgroups, since comparison in this

  9. The natural history of multiple system atrophy: a prospective European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Gregor K; Geser, Felix; Krismer, Florian; Seppi, Klaus; Duerr, Susanne; Boesch, Sylvia; Köllensperger, Martin; Goebel, Georg; Pfeiffer, Karl P; Barone, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Quinn, Niall P; Koukouni, Vasiliki; Fowler, Clare J; Schrag, Anette; Mathias, Christopher J; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Nilsson, Christer F; Widner, Håkan; Oertel, Wolfgang; Eggert, Karla Maria; Albanese, Alberto; del Sorbo, Francesca; Tolosa, Eduardo; Cardozo, Adriana; Deuschl, Günther; Hellriegel, Helge; Klockgether, Thomas; Dodel, Richard; Sampaio, Cristina; Coelho, Miguel; Djaldetti, Ruth; Melamed, Eldad; Gasser, Thomas; Kamm, Christoph; Meco, Giuseppe; Colosimo, Carlo; Rascol, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G; Tison, François; Poewe, Werner

    2013-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal and still poorly understood degenerative movement disorder that is characterised by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia, and parkinsonism in various combinations. Here we present the final analysis of a prospective multicentre study by the European MSA Study Group to investigate the natural history of MSA. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of MSA were recruited and followed up clinically for 2 years. Vital status was ascertained 2 years after study completion. Disease progression was assessed using the unified MSA rating scale (UMSARS), a disease-specific questionnaire that enables the semiquantitative rating of autonomic and motor impairment in patients with MSA. Additional rating methods were applied to grade global disease severity, autonomic symptoms, and quality of life. Survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier analysis and predictors were identified in a Cox regression model. Group differences were analysed by parametric tests and non-parametric tests as appropriate. Sample size estimates were calculated using a paired two-group t test. 141 patients with moderately severe disease fulfilled the consensus criteria for MSA. Mean age at symptom onset was 56·2 (SD 8·4) years. Median survival from symptom onset as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 9·8 years (95% CI 8·1-11·4). The parkinsonian variant of MSA (hazard ratio [HR] 2·08, 95% CI 1·09-3·97; p=0·026) and incomplete bladder emptying (HR 2·10, 1·02-4·30; p=0·044) predicted shorter survival. 24-month progression rates of UMSARS activities of daily living, motor examination, and total scores were 49% (9·4 [SD 5·9]), 74% (12·9 [8·5]), and 57% (21·9 [11·9]), respectively, relative to baseline scores. Autonomic symptom scores progressed throughout the follow-up. Shorter symptom duration at baseline (OR 0·68, 0·5-0·9; p=0·006) and absent levodopa response (OR 3·4, 1·1-10·2; p=0·03) predicted rapid UMSARS progression. Sample size

  10. ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and team-sport performance: a study involving three European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Nir; Banting, Lauren K; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Dyatlov, Dmitry A; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Pushkarev, Vladimir P; Kulikov, Leonid M; Pushkarev, Evgeny D; Femia, Pedro; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To determine the association between the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism and elite team-sport athletic status in three cohorts of European team-sport athletes. We compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphisms between team-sport athletes (n=205), endurance athletes (n=305), sprint/power athletes (n=378), and non-athletic controls (n=568) from Poland, Russia and Spain; all participants were unrelated European men. Genomic DNA was extracted from either buccal epithelium or peripheral blood using a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using several methods, and the results were replicated following recent recommendations for genotype-phenotype association studies. Genotype distributions of all control and athletic groups met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (all p>0.05). Team-sport athletes were less likely to have the 577RR genotype compared to the 577XX genotype than sprint/power athletes [odds ratio: 0.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.39, p=0.045]. However, the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was not associated with team-sports athletic status, compared to endurance athletes and non-athletic controls. Furthermore, no association was observed for any of the genotypes with respect to the level of competition (elite vs. national level). The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism was not associated with team-sport athletic status, compared to endurance athletes and non-athletic controls, and the observation that the 577RR genotype is overrepresented in power/sprint athletes compared with team-sport athletes needs to be confirmed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic kidney disease in European patients with obstructive sleep apnea: the ESADA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Oreste; Battaglia, Salvatore; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Basoglu, Ozen K; Kvamme, John A; Ryan, Silke; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Verbraecken, Johan; Grote, Ludger; Hedner, Jan; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-12-01

    The cross-sectional relationship of obstructive sleep apnea with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease and the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equations were used for the assessment of estimated glomerular filtration rate. The analysed sample included 7700 subjects, 71% male, aged 51.9 ± 12.5 years. Severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥30) was found in 34% of subjects. The lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation was 81 ± 10.2%. Chronic kidney disease prevalence in the whole sample was 8.7% or 6.1%, according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equations, respectively. Subjects with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate were older, more obese, more often female, had worse obstructive sleep apnea and more co-morbidities (P chronic heart failure; female gender; systemic hypertension; older age; higher body mass index; and worse lowest nocturnal oxygen saturation. It was concluded that in obstructive sleep apnea, chronic kidney disease is largely predicted by co-morbidities and anthropometric characteristics. In addition, severe nocturnal hypoxaemia, even for only a small part of the night, may play an important role as a risk factor for kidney dysfunction. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Andrew R; Luben, Robert; Olsen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake...... was supplied and the subjects were followed up for the development of ulcerative colitis. Each incident case was matched with four controls and dietary variables were divided into quartiles. Results: A total of 139 subjects with incident ulcerative colitis were identified. No dietary associations were detected...

  13. A history of abuse and operative delivery--results from a European multi-country cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Schei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS, or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49, and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24. Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3. Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years, nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05-2.19. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS.

  14. Diabetes mellitus prevalence and control in sleep-disordered breathing: the European Sleep Apnea Cohort (ESADA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian D; Grote, Ludger; Ryan, Silke; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Bonsignore, Maria R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Saaresranta, Tarja; Verbraecken, Johan; Lévy, Patrick; Hedner, Jan; McNicholas, Walter T

    2014-10-01

    OSA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. A driver of this is metabolic dysfunction and in particular type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Prior studies identifying a link between OSA and T2DM have excluded subjects with undiagnosed T2DM, and there is a lack of population-level data on the interaction between OSA and glycemic control among patients with diabetes. We assessed the relationship between OSA severity and T2DM prevalence and control in a large multinational population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 6,616 participants in the European Sleep Apnea Cohort (ESADA) study, using multivariate regression analysis to assess T2DM prevalence according to OSA severity, as measured by the oxyhemoglobin desaturation index. Patients with diabetes were identified by previous history and medication prescription, and by screening for undiagnosed diabetes with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement. The relationship of OSA severity with glycemic control was assessed in diabetic subjects. T2DM prevalence increased with OSA severity, from 6.6% in subjects without OSA to 28.9% in those with severe OSA. Despite adjustment for obesity and other confounding factors, in comparison with subjects free of OSA, patients with mild, moderate, or severe disease had an OR (95% CI) of 1.33 (1.04-1.72), 1.73 (1.33-2.25), and 1.87 (1.45-2.42) (P prevalent T2DM. Diabetic subjects with more severe OSA had worse glycemic control, with adjusted mean HbA1c levels 0.72% higher in patients with severe OSA than in those without sleep-disordered breathing (analysis of covariance, P diabetic control in patients with T2DM.

  15. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  16. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence : Findings from two European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

  17. Work-related factors and violence among nursing staff in the European NEXT study: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Donatella; Estryn-Behar, Madeleine; Conway, Paul Maurice; van Der Heijden, Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria; Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of workplace violence is rather frequent within the nursing profession, with well-known consequences on the psychological health of victims. This study is aimed at assessing the relationships between relevant individual, organizational, and psychosocial factors, and the frequency of several types of workplace violence; the direct as well as the interactive impact of violence and psychosocial factors on organizational commitment and perceived health. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional and longitudinal survey designs were employed for the two study objectives, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five healthcare institutions from eight European countries participated in the Nurses' Early Exit Study. The 34,107 participants were nursing staff holding different qualifications. The response rate was 55.1% in the cross-sectional part and 40.5% in the follow-up phase. At baseline, the respondents were mostly female (89.3%), in the age group 30-44 years (52.9%), registered or specialized nurses (67.0%), working mainly in medico-surgical wards (36.3%), and employed full-time (72.8%). In the cross-sectional analysis, the relationship between the predictor variables and frequency of violence was assessed by means of a hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the longitudinal analysis, main direct and interactive effects of violence and psychosocial factors on perceived health and organizational commitment were assessed by means of hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms. Higher levels of adverse work-related factors were significantly associated with higher frequency of the distinguished types of violence. Significant interactions were found between psychosocial factors and violence only in predicting organizational commitment, even if effect sizes were very low. No interactions were observed for perceived health. The prevalence of the distinguished types of violence varied across the participating countries according to the

  18. Reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use in relation to risk of glioma and meningioma in a large European cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaud, D.S.; Gallo, V.; Schlehofer, B.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Kaaks, R.; Lukanova, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bamia, C.; Kyrozis, A.; Sacerdote, C.; Agnoli, C.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Lund, E.; Bakken, K.; Gram, I.T.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Sanchez, M.J.; Rodriguez, L.; Duell, E.J.; Hallmans, G.; Melin, B.S.; Manjer, J.; Borgquist, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Allen, N.E.; Tsilidis, K.K.; Romieu, I.; Rinaldi, S.; Vineis, P.; Riboli, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiologies of glioma and meningioma tumors are largely unknown. Although reproductive hormones are thought to influence the risk of these tumors, epidemiologic data are not supportive of this hypothesis; however, few cohort studies have published on this topic. We examined the

  19. Coffee, tea and decaffeinated coffee in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a European population : Multicentre, prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Jenab, Mazda; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Fedirko, Veronika; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Kuhn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Benetou, Vasiliki; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (as)|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Dik, Vincent K.; Bhoo Pathy, Nirmala; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, J. Ramon; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Bjoern; Wallstroem, Peter; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition

  20. European non-invasive trisomy evaluation (EU-NITE) study: a multicenter prospective cohort study for non-invasive fetal trisomy 21 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Jacobsson, B; van Scheltema, P A; de Boer, M A; Hoffer, M J V; Hollemon, D; Westgren, M; Song, K; Oepkes, D

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of a directed non-invasive prenatal testing method of cell-free DNA analysis for fetal trisomy 21 (T21) by shipping the whole blood samples from Europe to a laboratory in the USA. A European multicenter prospective, consecutive cohort study was performed enrolling pregnant women from Sweden and the Netherlands. Blood samples were drawn just prior to a planned of invasive diagnostic procedure in a population at increased risk for fetal T21 and then shipped to the USA without any blood processing. Chromosome-selective sequencing was carried out on chromosome 21 with reporting high risk or low risk of T21. Karyotyping or rapid aneuploidy detection was used as the clinical reference standard. Of the 520 eligible study subjects, a T21 test result was obtained in 504/520 (96.9%). Risk assessment was accurate in 503/504 subjects (99.8%). There was one false negative result for T21 (sensitivity 17/18, 94.4%, and specificity 100%). This is the first prospective European multicenter study showing that non-invasive prenatal testing using directed sequencing of cell-free DNA applied to blood samples shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, is highly accurate for assessing risk of fetal T21. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute - to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage" sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study. At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture. Therefore, scientific and educational-methodical work at MGIMO-University has always relied on a wealth of empirical data and has been focused on the analysis of real-world phenomena and processes, acute problems of foreign countries. Scientific research at MGIMO-University traditionally intertwined with

  2. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M.P.; Fernández, M.F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A.M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C.E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A.-M.N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M.S.; Pierik, F.H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A.C.; Slama, R.; Sram, R.J.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a

  3. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity, and child neuropsychological development: two Southern European birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Chatzi, Leda; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Amiano, Pilar; Guxens, Mònica; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koutra, Katerina; Lertxundi, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Riaño, Isolina; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sunyer, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Vrijheid, Martine

    2013-04-01

    Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity may be associated with impaired infant neuropsychological development; however, there are few studies and it is unclear if reported associations are due to intrauterine mechanisms. We assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with cognitive and psychomotor development scores (mean 100 ± 15) of children aged 11-22 months in two birth cohorts: Environment and Childhood (INMA, Spain; n = 1967) and Mother-Child (RHEA, Greece: n = 412). Paternal body mass index (BMI) was used as a negative control exposure. The percentage of overweight and obese mothers was 18% and 8%, respectively, in INMA and 20% and 11% in RHEA, respectively. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with reduced infant cognitive development scores in both INMA (score reduction: -2.72; 95% CI: -5.35, -0.10) and RHEA (score reduction: -3.71; 95% CI: -8.45, 1.02), after adjusting for socioeconomic variables and paternal BMI. There was evidence in both cohorts of a dose-response relationship with continuous maternal BMI. Paternal overweight/obesity was not associated with infant cognitive development. Associations with psychomotor scores were not consistent between cohorts, and were stronger for paternal than maternal BMI in RHEA. This study in two birth cohorts with moderately high obesity prevalence suggests that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with reduced child cognitive development at early ages. This association appears more likely to be due to maternal than shared family and social mechanisms, but further research is needed to disentangle a direct intrauterine effect from other maternal confounding factors.

  5. Pioglitazone use and risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study using datasets from four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi; Heintjes, Edith M; Williams, Rachael; Hoti, Fabian; Christopher, Solomon; Majak, Maila; Kool-Houweling, Leanne; Strongman, Helen; Linder, Marie; Dolin, Paul; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2016-08-16

     To evaluate the association between pioglitazone use and bladder cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.  Retrospective cohort study using propensity score matched cohorts.  Healthcare databases from Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Data comprised country specific datasets of linked records on prescriptions, hospitals, general practitioners, cancer, and deaths.  Patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated pioglitazone (n=56 337) matched with patients with type 2 diabetes in the same country exposed to diabetes drug treatments other than pioglitazone (n=317 109). Two matched cohorts were created, using a 1:1 fixed ratio (nearest match cohort) and a 1:10 variable ratio (multiple match cohort). Patients were matched on treatment history and propensity scores accounting for several variables associated with pioglitazone initiation.  Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Cox's proportional hazards model with adjustments for relevant confounders. To assess the robustness of the findings, several sensitivity and stratified analyses were performed.  In the cohort exposed to pioglitazone treatment, 130 bladder cancers occurred over a mean follow-up time of 2.9 years. In the nearest match and multiple match cohorts not exposed to pioglitazone treatment, 153 and 970 bladder cancers were recorded, with a mean follow‑up time of 2.8 and 2.9 years, respectively. With regards to bladder cancer risk, the adjusted hazard ratio for patients ever exposed versus never exposed to pioglitazone was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 1.30) and 1.00 (0.83 to 1.21) in the nearest and multiple match cohorts, respectively. Increasing duration of pioglitazone use and increasing cumulative dose were not associated with risk of bladder cancer (>48 months of pioglitazone use, adjusted hazard ratio 0.86 (0.44 to 1.66); >40 000 mg cumulative dose, 0.65 (0.33 to 1.26) in the nearest match cohort).  This study shows no evidence

  6. Natural disease course of Crohn's disease during the first 5 years after diagnosis in a European population-based inception cohort: an Epi-IBD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Johan; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Kievit, Hendrika Adriana Linda; Andersen, Karina Winther; Andersen, Vibeke; Salupere, Riina; Pedersen, Natalia; Kjeldsen, Jens; D'Incà, Renata; Valpiani, Daniela; Schwartz, Doron; Odes, Selwyn; Olsen, Jóngerð; Nielsen, Kári Rubek; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Toca, Alina; Turcan, Svetlana; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Fumery, Mathurin; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Zammit, Stefania Chetcuti; Ellul, Pierre; Eriksson, Carl; Halfvarson, Jonas; Magro, Fernando Jose; Duricova, Dana; Bortlik, Martin; Fernandez, Alberto; Hernández, Vicent; Myers, Sally; Sebastian, Shaji; Oksanen, Pia; Collin, Pekka; Goldis, Adrian; Misra, Ravi; Arebi, Naila; Kaimakliotis, Ioannis P; Nikuina, Inna; Belousova, Elena; Brinar, Marko; Cukovic-Cavka, Silvija; Langholz, Ebbe; Munkholm, Pia

    2018-01-23

    The Epi-IBD cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 29 European centres covering a background population of almost 10 million people. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Patients were followed up prospectively from the time of diagnosis, including collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, surgery, cancers and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis. In total, 488 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 107 (22%) patients received surgery, while 176 (36%) patients were hospitalised because of CD. A total of 49 (14%) patients diagnosed with non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease progressed to either stricturing and/or penetrating disease. These rates did not differ between patients from Western and Eastern Europe. However, significant geographic differences were noted regarding treatment: more patients in Western Europe received biological therapy (33%) and immunomodulators (66%) than did those in Eastern Europe (14% and 54%, respectively, P<0.01), while more Eastern European patients received 5-aminosalicylates (90% vs 56%, P<0.05). Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery (HR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6) and hospitalisation (HR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5). Despite patients being treated early and frequently with immunomodulators and biological therapy in Western Europe, 5-year outcomes including surgery and phenotype progression in this cohort were comparable across Western and Eastern Europe. Differences in treatment strategies between Western and Eastern European centres did not affect the disease course. Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery and hospitalisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  7. Driving habits and risk factors for traffic accidents among sleep apnea patients--a European multi-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Lombardi, Carolina; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Penzel, Thomas; Riha, Renata L; Rodenstein, Daniel; Grote, Ludger

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased motor vehicle accident risk, and improved detection of patients at risk is of importance. The present study addresses potential risk factors in the European Sleep Apnea Database and includes patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea [n = 8476, age 51.5 (12.5) years, body mass index 31.0 (6.6) kg m(-2) , 82.4% driver's licence holders]. Driving distance (km year(-1) ), driver's licence type, sleep apnea severity, sleepiness and comorbidities were assessed. Previously validated risk factors for accident history: Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥16; habitual sleep time ≤5 h; use of hypnotics; and driving ≥15 000 km year(-1) were analysed across European regions. At least one risk factor was identified in male and female drivers, 68.75 and 51.3%, respectively. The occurrence of the risk factors was similar across Europe, with only a lower rate in the eastern region (P = 0.001). The mean number of risk factors increased across classes of sleep apnea severity. Frequent driving was prevalent [14.0 (interquartile range 8.0-20.0) × 10(3)  km year(-1) ] and 32.7% of drivers had severe obstructive sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 50.3 (38.8-66.0) n h(-1) ]. Obesity, shorter sleep time and younger age were associated with increased traffic exposure (P ≤ 0.03). In conclusion, the risk factors associated with accident history were common among European patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea, but varied between geographical regions. There was a weak covariation between occurrence of risk factors and clinically determined apnea severity but frequent driving, a strong risk factor for accidents, was over-represented. Systematic evaluation of accident-related risk factors is important to detect sleep apnea patients at risk for motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Work-related factors and violence among nursing staff in the European NEXT Study: A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerino, Donatella; Estryn-Béhar, Madeleine; Conway, Paul Maurice; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of workplace violence is rather frequent within the nursing profession, with well-known consequences on the psychological health of victims. - Objectives: This study is aimed at assessing the relationships between relevant individual, organizational, and psychosocial

  9. COBA-Cohort: a prospective cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men, attending community-based HIV testing services in five European countries (a study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Nicolas; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Fuertes, Ricardo; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Pichon, François; Cigan, Bojan; Chanos, Sophocles; Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Morel, Stéphane; Slaaen Kaye, Per; Agustí, Cristina; Klavs, Irena; Platteau, Tom; Casabona, Jordi

    2016-07-13

    Community-based voluntary counselling and testing (CBVCT) services for men who have sex with men (MSM) can reach those most-at-risk and provide an environment for gay men that is likely to be non-stigmatising. Longitudinal data on the behaviour of HIV-negative MSM are scarce in Europe. The aim of this protocol, developed during the Euro HIV Early Diagnosis And Treatment (EDAT) project, is to implement a multicentre community-based cohort of HIV-negative MSM attending 15 CBVCT services in 5 European countries. (1) To describe the patterns of CBVCT use, (2) to estimate HIV incidence, and to identify determinants of (3) HIV seroconversion and (4) HIV and/or sexually transmitted infection (STI) test-seeking behaviour. All MSM aged 18 years or over and who had a negative HIV test result are invited to participate in the COmmunity-BAsed Cohort (COBA-Cohort). Study enrolment started in February 2015, and is due to continue for at least 12 months at each study site. Follow-up frequency depends on the testing recommendations in each country (at least 1 test per year). Sociodemographic data are collected at baseline; baseline and follow-up questionnaires both gather data on attitudes and perceptions, discrimination, HIV/STI testing history, sexual behaviour, condom use, and pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis. Descriptive, exploratory and multivariate analyses will be performed to address the main research objectives of this study, using appropriate statistical tests and models. These analyses will be performed on the whole cohort data and stratified by study site or country. The study was approved by the Public Health authorities of each country where the study is being implemented. Findings from the COBA-Cohort study will be summarised in a report to the European Commission, and in leaflets to be distributed to study participants. Articles and conference abstracts will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  10. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors.

  11. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lassale

    Full Text Available Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre was 0.75 (0.72-0.79 to 0.88 (0.84-0.92 for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83 to 0.84 (0.76-0.92 for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83 to 0.91 (0.85-0.97 for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Transitions Between Informal and Formal Care in Alzheimer Disease Using Multistate Models in the European ICTUS Cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coley, N.; Gallini, A.; Gares, V.; Gardette, V.; Andrieu, S.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe longitudinal patterns of care in community-dwelling European patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and determine patient-, caregiver-, and country-related predictors of transitions across different care levels. METHODS: Two-year follow-up data from ICTUS cohort (1375

  13. The EuroPrevall birth cohort study on food allergy: baseline characteristics of 12,000 newborns and their families from nine European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, D.; Keil, T.; Grabenhenrich, L.; Dubakiene, R.; Drasutiene, G.; Fiocchi, A.; Dahdah, L.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Schoemaker, A. A.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K.; Kowalski, M. L.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Sigurdardottir, S.; Clausen, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Mitsias, D.; Rosenfeld, L.; Reche, M.; Pascual, C.; Reich, A.; Hourihane, J.; Wahn, U.; Mills, E. N. C.; Mackie, A.; Beyer, K.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear why some children develop food allergy. The EuroPrevall birth cohort was established to examine regional differences in the prevalence and risk factors of food allergy in European children using gold-standard diagnostic criteria. The aim of this report was to describe pre-, post-natal

  14. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women in Ukraine, 2000-12 (European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Thorne, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specific questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs

  15. Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Johan; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Katsanos, Konstantinnos H; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K; Lazar, Daniela; Goldis, Adrian; O'Morain, Colm; Fernandez, Alberto; Pereira, Santos; Myers, Sally; Sebastian, Shaji; Pedersen, Natalia; Olse, Jóngerð; Rubek Nielsen, Kári; Schwartz, Doron; Odes, Selwyn; Almer, Sven; Halfvarson, Jonas; Turk, Niksa; Cukovic-Cavka, Silvja; Nikulina, Inna; Belousova, Elena; Duricova, Dana; Bortlik, Martin; Shonová, Olga; Salupere, Riina; Barros, Louisa; Magro, Fernando; Jonaitis, Laimas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Turcan, Svetlana; Kaimakliotis, Ioannis; Ladefoged, Karin; Kudsk, Karen; Andersen, Vibeke; Vind, Ida; Thorsgaard, Niels; Oksanen, Pia; Collin, Pekka; Dal Piaz, Giulia; Santini, Alessia; Niewiadomski, Ola; Bell, Sally; Moum, Bjørn; Arebi, Naila; Kjeldsen, Jens; Carlsen, Katrine; Langholz, Ebbe; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Munkholm, Pia; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik

    2017-10-01

    Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis, in a European prospective population-based inception cohort. Newly diagnosed IBD patients were included and followed prospectively for 1 year in 29 European and one Australian centre. Clinical data including demographics, medical therapy, surgery and blood samples were collected. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. A total of 1871 patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 686, 88%; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 1,021, 87%; IBD unclassified [IBDU] 164. 81%) were included in the study. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in CD than in UC patients and, overall, 49% of CD and 39% of UC patients experienced at least one instance of anaemia during the first 12 months after diagnosis. UC patients with more extensive disease and those from Eastern European countries, and CD patients with penetrating disease or colonic disease location, had higher risks of anaemia. CD and UC patients in need of none or only mild anti-inflammatory treatment had a lower risk of anaemia. In a significant proportion of patients, anaemia was not assessed until several months after diagnosis, and in almost half of all cases of anaemia a thorough work-up was not performed. Overall, 42% of patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first year following diagnosis. Most patients were assessed for anaemia regularly; however, a full anaemia work-up was frequently neglected in this community setting.

  16. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  17. Respiratory function and other biological risk factors for completed suicide: 40 years of follow-up of European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Zitman, F.G.; Menotti, A.; Nissinen, A.; Jacobs, D.R.; Adachi, H.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Prospective cohort studies on biological risk factors of completed suicide are scarce. We aimed to test which biological risk factors independently identify subjects at increased risk of suicidal death. Methods - In the prospective cohort of the Seven Countries Study, 5,321 middle-aged

  18. Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransson Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items. Results We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90 and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88. In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80; good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68 and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76. The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  19. Dietary Polyphenols in the Aetiology of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis-A Multicenter European Prospective Cohort Study (EPIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yunxia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Chan, Simon

    2017-01-01

    .02). No significant associations between subtypes of polyphenols and UC were found. Effect modification by smoking in CD was documented with borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The data supports a potential role of flavones and resveratrol in the risk of developing CD; future aetiological studies should...

  20. Reproductive hormone levels in men exposed to persistent organohalogen pollutants: a study of inuit and three European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Aleksander; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Toft, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent organohalogen pollutant (POP) exposure may have a negative impact on reproductive function. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of POP exposure on the male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 184 Swedish fishermen and spou...

  1. Lifestyle, dietary factors and antibody levels to oral bacteria in cancer-free participants of a European cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S.; Izard, Jacques; Rubin, Zachary; Johansson, Ingegerd; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katzke, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Foerster, Jana; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Ziara, Giana; Vineis, Paolo; Grioni, Sara; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra HM; Siersema, Peter D.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José-María; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Jeppsson, Bengt; Johansson, Anders; Lif, Pernilla; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim J.; Freisling, Heinz; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Stepien, Magdalena; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that oral microbiota play a pivotal role in chronic diseases, in addition to the well-established role in periodontal disease. Moreover, recent studies suggest that oral bacteria may also be involved in carcinogenesis; periodontal disease has been linked several cancers. In this study, we examined whether lifestyle factors have an impact on antibody levels to oral bacteria. Methods Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions were obtained at the time of blood sample collection. For the current analysis, we measured antibody levels to 25 oral bacteria in 395 cancer-free individuals using an immunoblot array. Combined total immunglobin G (IgG) levels were obtained by summing concentrations for all oral bacteria measured. Results IgG antibody levels were substantially lower among current and former smokers (1697 and 1677 ng/mL, respectively) than never smokers (1960 ng/mL; p-trend = 0.01), but did not vary by other factors, including BMI, diabetes, physical activity, or by dietary factors, after adjusting for age, sex, education, country and smoking status. The highest levels of total IgG were found among individuals with low education (2419 ng/mL). Conclusions Our findings on smoking are consistent with previous studies and support the notion that smokers have a compromised humoral immune response. Moreover, other major factors known to be associated with inflammatory markers, including obesity, were not associated with antibody levels to a large number of oral bacteria. PMID:23901020

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Comparison of rates of safety issues and reporting of trial outcomes for medical devices approved in the European Union and United States: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Thomas J; Sokolov, Elisaveta; Franklin, Jessica M; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-06-28

     To evaluate safety alerts and recalls, publication of key trial outcomes, and subsequent US approval of high profile medical devices introduced in the European Union.  Cohort study.  Novel cardiovascular, orthopedic, and neurologic devices approved in the EU through Conformité Européenne marking between 2005 and 2010.  Public and commercial databases searched up to January 2016 for press releases and announcements of approvals; public Food and Drug Administration and European regulatory authority databases for US approvals and safety alerts and recalls; and Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for peer reviewed publications.  We categorized the novelty of the devices in the study sample as a "major innovation" or an "other change," and extracted descriptive data about the devices and information on any safety alerts and withdrawals. Linear regression models examined factors associated with differential EU and US approvals. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with safety alerts and recalls and the publication of trial outcomes for devices categorized as major innovations. Models controlled for time, therapeutic category, regulatory pathway, size of sponsoring company, and indicator variables for devices approved first in the EU and devices approved only in the EU.  67% (206/309) of devices identified were approved in both the US and the EU, of which 63% (129/206) were approved first in the EU. The unadjusted rate of safety alerts and recalls for devices approved first in the EU was 27% (62/232) compared with 14% (11/77) for devices approved first in the US. The adjusted hazard ratio for safety alerts and recalls was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) for devices approved first in the EU. The results of pivotal trials were published for 49% (37/75) of devices categorized as major innovations, with an overall publication rate of 37% five years after approval.  Devices approved first in the EU are

  4. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  5. Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Brain Tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Pedersen, Marie; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Stafoggia, Massimo; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T; Sommar, Johan N; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Schwarze, Per; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Poulsen, Aslak H; Tjønneland, Anne; Vaclavik Bräuner, Elvira; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Vermeulen, Roel; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Keuken, Menno; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-08-31

    Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent. In 12 cohorts from six European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5, ≤ 10, and 2.5-10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Of 282,194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts had also data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106,786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically non-significant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (Hazard Ratio and 95% Confidence Interval: 1.67; 0.89-3.14 per 10 -5/m 3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38-2.71 per 10 -5/m 3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors. We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.

  6. Hospital mortality of adults admitted to Intensive Care Units in hospitals with and without Intermediate Care Units: a multicentre European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Maurizia; Volta, Carlo; Tassinati, Tania; Moreno, Rui; Valentin, Andreas; Guidet, Bertrand; Iapichino, Gaetano; Martin, Claude; Perneger, Thomas; Combescure, Christophe; Poncet, Antoine; Rhodes, Andrew

    2014-10-09

    The aim of the study was to assess whether adults admitted to hospitals with both Intensive Care Units (ICU) and Intermediate Care Units (IMCU) have lower in-hospital mortality than those admitted to ICUs without an IMCU. An observational multinational cohort study performed on patients admitted to participating ICUs during a four-week period. IMCU was defined as any physically and administratively independent unit open 24 hours a day, seven days a week providing a level of care lower than an ICU but higher than a ward. Characteristics of hospitals, ICUs and patients admitted to study ICUs were recorded. The main outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality until hospital discharge (censored at 90 days). One hundred and sixty-seven ICUs from 17 European countries enrolled 5,834 patients. Overall, 1,113 (19.1%) patients died in the ICU and 1,397 died in hospital, with a total of 1,397 (23.9%) deaths. The illness severity was higher for patients in ICUs with an IMCU (median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II: 37) than for patients in ICUs without an IMCU (median SAPS II: 29, P ICU and hospital characteristics, the odds ratio of mortality was 0.63 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.88, P = 0.007) in favour of the presence of IMCU. The protective effect of the IMCU was absent in patients who were admitted for basic observation, for example, after surgery (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.03, P = 0.630) but was strong in patients admitted to an ICU for other reasons (odds ratio 0.54, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.80, P = 0.002). The presence of an IMCU in the hospital is associated with significantly reduced adjusted hospital mortality for adults admitted to the ICU. This effect is relevant for the patients requiring full intensive treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01422070. Registered 19 August 2011.

  7. Coffee and tea intake and risk of brain tumors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaud, D.S.; Gallo, V.; Schlehofer, B.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Teucher, B.; Lukanova, A.; Boeing, H.; Schutze, M.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Kyrozis, A.; Sacerdote, C.; Krogh, V.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Mattiello, A.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C.L.; Ardanaz, E.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Dorronsoro, M.; Sanchez, M.J.; Arguelles, M.; Jakszyn, P.; Nilsson, L.M.; Melin, B.S.; Manjer, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Allen, N.E.; Key, T.J.; Romieu, I.; Vineis, P.; Riboli, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recent US cohort study, total coffee and tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of glioma, and experimental studies showed that caffeine can slow the invasive growth of glioblastoma. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the relation between coffee and tea intake and

  8. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Peeters, Petra H M; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bulgiba, Awang M; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Schütze, Madlen; Boeing, Heiner; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Redondo, María-Luisa; Buckland, Genevieve; Pérez, Maria José Sánchez; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Wirfält, Elisabet; Wallström, Peter; Johansson, Ingegerd; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; van Gils, Carla H

    2015-01-31

    Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated. During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR=0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; Ptrend=0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P=0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P=0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR=0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (Ptrend=0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer. Higher

  9. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  10. European and Integration Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soviet scientific school of pan-European integration studies began to emerge in the 1960s at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russian Academy of Science. Among the leading scientists who have developed methodological approaches of Soviet integration studies were M.M. Maximova, Y.A. Borko, Y. Shishkov, L.I. Capercaillie. Later, a new center for integration studies became the Institute of Europe, created in 1987. It was led by such renowned scientists as Academicians V.V. Zhurkin and N.P. Shmelev. In the 1980s the subject of the integration process in Europe attracted attention of experts from MGIMO. An important role in the development of school of integration research in the USSR was played by a MGIMO professor, head of the chair of history of international relations and foreign policy of the USSR V.B. Knyazhinskiy. His work contributed to the deliverance of the national scientific community from skepticism about the prospects for European integration. Ideas of V.B. Knyazhinsky are developed today in MGIMO by his followers A.V. Mal'gin and T.V. Ur'eva. In the mid-1990s, having retired from diplomatic service, professor Yu. Matveevskiy started to work at MGIMO. With a considerable practical experience in the field, he produced a series of monographs on the history of European integration. In his works, he analyses the development of integration processes in Western Europe from their inception to the present day, showing the gradual maturation of the necessary spiritual and material prerequisites for the start of integration and traces the various stages of the "integration". In the late 1990s, the growing demand from the domestic business and government for professionals who are capable of interacting with the European Union, has produced the necessary supply in the form of educational programs based on accumulated scientific knowledge. Setting up a discipline "European Integration" was a major step in the development

  11. Nutrient-wide association study of 57 foods/nutrients and epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Patel, Chirag J; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; His, Mathilde; Dartois, Laureen; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Skeie, Guri; Jareid, Mie; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Sánchez, María-José; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dias, Joana A; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk. We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association between dietary factors and invasive EOC risk while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing by using the false discovery rate and evaluated the findings in an independent cohort. We assessed dietary intake amounts of 28 foods/food groups and 29 nutrients estimated by using dietary questionnaires in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study (n = 1095 cases). We selected 4 foods/nutrients that were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk when comparing the extreme quartiles of intake in the EPIC study (false discovery rate = 0.43) and evaluated these factors in the NLCS (Netherlands Cohort Study; n = 383 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. None of the 4 dietary factors that were associated with EOC risk in the EPIC study (cholesterol, polyunsaturated and saturated fat, and bananas) were statistically significantly associated with EOC risk in the NLCS; however, in meta-analysis of the EPIC study and the NLCS, we observed a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat (quartile 4 compared with quartile 1; overall HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41). In the meta-analysis of both studies, there was a higher risk of EOC with a high than with a low intake of saturated fat. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A replication study confirms the association of TNFSF4 (OX40L) polymorphisms with systemic sclerosis in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Broen, J.C.; Simeon, C.P.; Beretta, L.; Vonk, M.C.; Ortego-Centeno, N.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Camps, M.T.; Navarrete, N.; Gonzalez-Escribano, M.F.; Vicente-Rabaneda, E.; Rodriguez, L.; Tolosa, C.; Roman-Ivorra, J.A.; Gomez-Gracia, I.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Castellvi, I.; Gallego, M.; Fernandez-Nebro, A.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Egurbide, M.V.; Fonollosa, V.; Pena, P.G. de la; Pros, A.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Hesselstrand, R.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Coenen, M.J.H.; Koeleman, B.P.; Houssiau, F.; Smith, V.; Keyser, F. de; Westhovens, R.; Langhe, E. De; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Chee, M.M.; Madhok, R.; Shiels, P.; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Claes, K.; Padykov, L.; Nordin, A.; Palm, O.; Lie, B.A.; Airo, P.; Scorza, R.; Laar, J.M. van; Hunzelmann, N.; Kreuter, A.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.; Rueda, B.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm the influence of TNFSF4 polymorphisms on systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility and phenotypic features. METHODS: A total of 8 European populations of Caucasian ancestry were included, comprising 3014 patients with SSc and 3125 healthy controls. Four

  13. Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Katsanos, Konstantinnos H.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis in a European prospective population-based inception coho...

  14. Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Mortality: An Analysis of 22 European Cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Stafoggia, Massimo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Xun, Wei W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Houthuijs, Danny; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Salomaa, Veikko; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Oftedal, Bente; Aamodt, Geir; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pyko, Andrei; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tjønneland, Anne; Becker, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Bots, Michiel; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Cyrys, Josef; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dratva, Julia; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Stempfelet, Morgane; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Marcon, Alessandro; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but it remains unclear as to whether specific pollutants are related to specific cardiovascular causes of death. Within the multicenter European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we investigated the

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Transitions Between Informal and Formal Care in Alzheimer Disease Using Multistate Models in the European ICTUS Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Nicola; Gallini, Adeline; Garès, Valérie; Gardette, Virginie; Andrieu, Sandrine

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to describe longitudinal patterns of care in community-dwelling European patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and determine patient-, caregiver-, and country-related predictors of transitions across different care levels. Two-year follow-up data from ICTUS cohort (1375 patients with AD, 12 countries) were analyzed using multistate Markov models to describe transitions across states of care and identify their predictors. Of the patients, 61.3% stayed in the same state during follow-up, and only 9.5% experienced ≥2 changes between states. Six-month transition probabilities were 11% for informal to formal care and 13% for formal to informal care (in the community). Older age, male gender, poorer cognitive and behavioral scores, and country of residence were associated with transitioning from informal to formal care, but only country of residence was associated with the reverse transition. Changes between different types of care were rare during follow-up, and country factors in particular influenced these transitions. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [European birth cohorts: Early life exposure to microorganisms and health impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, S; Reboux, G

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many birth cohorts have been initiated in Europe, to assess the early life microbiological exposure of children in the indoor environment and better understanding the different effects (adverse/protectors) on health. The results of 12 European cohorts, with different methodologies for exposure and allergic risk assessment are summarized in this review. Four meta-analyzes of cohort are presented too. Microbiological researches in indoor environment seem to turn to a metrology of microbiological exposure, but few studies provide real quantitative data. Thus, the establishment of dose-effect relationship is not possible and can only be done by having a global view of the situation, provided by an identical metrological approach in the different studies, in a large-scale, in the context of large birth cohorts with children followed with strict criteria to establish the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Distribution of central corneal thickness and its association with ocular parameters in a large central European cohort: the Gutenberg health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M Hoffmann

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of central corneal thickness (CCT in a large German cohort and to analyse its relationship with intraocular pressure and further ocular factors. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective, cohort study. METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS cohort included 4,698 eligible enrollees of 5,000 subjects (age range 35-74 years who participated in the survey from 2007 to 2008. All participants underwent an ophthalmological examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, central corneal thickness measurement, fundus examination, and were given a questionnaire regarding glaucoma history. Furthermore, all subjects underwent fundus photography and visual field testing using frequency doubling perimetry. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 557.3 ± 34.3 µm (male and 551.6±35.2 µm in female subjects (Mean CCT from right and left eyes. Younger male participants (35-44 years presented slightly thicker CCT than those older. We noted a significant CCT difference of 4 µm between right and left eyes, but a high correlation between eyes (Wilcoxon test for related samples: p<0.0001. Univariable linear regression stratified by gender showed that IOP was correlated with CCT (p<0.0001. A 10 µm increase in CCT led to an increase in IOP between 0.35-0.38 mm Hg, depending on the eye and gender. Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed correlations between gender, spherical equivalent (right eyes, and CCT (p<.0001 and p=0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We observed positive correlations between CCT and IOP and gender. CCT was not correlated with age, contact lens wear, positive family history for glaucoma, lens status, or iris colour.

  18. A comparison of maternal attitudes to breastfeeding in public and the association with breastfeeding duration in four European countries: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jane A; Kwok, Yin Ying; Synnott, Kate; Bogue, Joe; Amarri, Sergio; Norin, Elizabeth; Gil, Angel; Edwards, Christine A

    2015-03-01

    There is wide variation in the duration of breastfeeding across Europe which may in part be due to the between-country differences in mothers' and societal attitudes towards breastfeeding in public. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the maternal attitudes to, and practice of, breastfeeding in public in four European centers and investigate the association with duration of breastfeeding. Participants (n = 389) were mothers recruited from maternity wards of hospitals in Glasgow (Scotland), Stockholm (Sweden), Granada (Spain), and Reggio-Emilia (Italy). Among those who had breastfed, Scottish (adjOR 0.25 [95% CI 0.12-0.50]) and Italian mothers (adjOR 0.30 [95% CI 0.14-0.63]) were significantly less likely than Swedish mothers to have ever breastfed in public. Mothers who had a negative attitude toward breastfeeding in public were less likely to have ever breastfed in public (adjOR 0.05 [95% CI 0.02-0.17]), and those who had never breastfed in public were in turn more likely to discontinue breastfeeding earlier. Perceived social norms may exert a stronger influence on breastfeeding outcomes than a woman's breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge. Differences between European countries in the duration of breastfeeding may be explained in part by differences in societal attitudes to breastfeeding in public. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recruited from around the United Kingdom. Participants 47 033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15 459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was estimated from a 130 item validated food frequency questionnaire. Cases of diverticular disease were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of diverticular disease by diet group and fifths of intake of dietary fibre were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were 812 cases of diverticular disease (806 admissions to hospital and six deaths). After adjustment for confounding variables, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86) of diverticular disease compared with meat eaters. The cumulative probability of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease between the ages of 50 and 70 for meat eaters was 4.4% compared with 3.0% for vegetarians. There was also an inverse association with dietary fibre intake; participants in the highest fifth (≥25.5 g/day for women and ≥26.1 g/day for men) had a 41% lower risk (0.59, 0.46 to 0.78; Pvegetarian diet and a higher intake of fibre were significantly associated with a lower risk of diverticular disease. Conclusions Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease. PMID:21771850

  20. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  1. Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air...... pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.......5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort...

  2. Abdominal symptoms in general practice: frequency, cancer suspicions raised, and actions taken by GPs in six European countries. Cohort study with prospective registration of cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtedahl, K.; Vedsted, P.; Borgquist, L.; Donker, G.A.; Buntinx, F.; Weller, D.; Braaten, T.; Hjertholm, P.; Mansson, J.; Strandberg, E.L.; Campbell, C.; Ellegaard, L.; Parajuli, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abdominal symptoms are diagnostically challenging to general practitioners (GPs): although common, they may indicate cancer. In a prospective cohort of patients, we examined abdominal symptom frequency, initial diagnostic suspicion, and actions of GPs in response to abdominal

  3. A prospective study on a cohort of horses and ponies selected for participation in the European Eventing Championship: reasons for withdrawal and predictive value of fitness tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eventing is generally recognized as a challenging equestrian discipline and wastage figures for this discipline are relatively high. There is a need for information that provides insight into the causes of wastage and withdrawal from competition, for animal welfare and economic reasons. The aim of the present investigation was to conduct a prospective study following the entire national selection of event horses (n = 20) and ponies (n = 9) in the Netherlands that prepared for the European Championship in 2010 (ponies) and 2011 (horses), noting causes of withdrawal and monitoring fitness using standardized exercise tests (SETs), with heart rate (HR; beats/min), speed (V; m/s) and plasma lactate concentrations (LA; mmol/L) as measured parameters. Results In SET-I, performed at the beginning of the season, horses (n = 17) had a mean VLA4 (V at LA 4 mmol/L) of 10.3 ± 0.4 m/s with a mean V200 (V at 200 beats/min) of 11.4 ± 0.8 m/s and ponies (n = 9) a mean VLA4 of 7.8 ± 0.9 m/s and V200 of 9.6 ± 0.7 m/s. Before SET-II, performed six weeks before the European Championship, 16/20 horses and 6/9 ponies were withdrawn. The most common reason for withdrawal was locomotor injury (9/16 horses, 4/6 ponies; P horses, 2/6 ponies) and being sold (3/16 horses). Animals were divided on the basis of VLA4 and recovery-HR during SET-I into good and average performers. Average performers were significantly more likely to be injured (50.0%) than good performers (0%, P = 0.05). In a subpopulation of ten horses, in which all condition training sessions were evaluated for HR and speed, HRpeak was significantly lower in horses that stayed sound (186 ± 9 beats/min) compared with horses withdrawn from training and competition because of injury (201 ± 5 beats/min; P = 0.016). Conclusions Of the national selection, 45% of all animals were unavailable for the European Championship because of locomotor injuries. Field tests

  4. A dietary pattern protective against type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)--Potsdam Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, C; Hoffmann, K; Spranger, J; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Möhlig, M; Pfeiffer, A F H; Boeing, H

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a dietary pattern associated with diabetes-related biomarkers and to investigate whether this pattern is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. A nested case-control study of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and 382 control subjects matched for sex and age was conducted. All subjects were participants in the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Dietary pattern score was derived using intake data on 48 food groups as exposure variables and the biomarkers HbA1c, HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein and adiponectin as response variables in reduced rank regression. The association of the score with diabetes risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression analysis. A high score for the identified dietary pattern was characterised by a high intake of fresh fruit and a low intake of high-caloric soft drinks, beer, red meat, poultry, processed meat, legumes and bread (excluding wholegrain bread). Subjects with high scores had high plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol and adiponectin and low plasma concentrations of HbA1c and C-reactive protein. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratios for type 2 diabetes across increasing quintiles of the dietary pattern score were 1.0, 0.59, 0.51, 0.26 and 0.27, respectively (p = 0.0006 for trend). A high score for the identified dietary pattern is associated with a more favourable biomarker profile and a substantially reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Prospective study of physical activity and risk of primary adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and stomach in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Tormo, María-José; Steindorf, Karen; Buckland, Genevieve; Carneiro, Fátima; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Overvad, Kim; Stegger, Jakob; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Boeing, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between types of physical activity (occupational, recreational and household, vigorous and overall) and risk of primary oesophageal (OAC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). METHODS: From nine European countries, 420,449 participants were recruited between 1991 and 2000 and followed-up for a mean of 8.8 years to register incident GAC and OAC. Information on physical activity (PA), diet, lifestyle and health-related variables was obtained at baseline. Helicob...

  6. Costs and Resource Utilization for Diagnosis and Treatment During the Initial Year in a European Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inception Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, J.; Vardi, Hillel; Pedersen, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    ( €72) (P = 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based unselected cohort, costs during the first year of disease were mainly incurred by investigative procedures and surgeries. However, biologicals accounted for >15% of costs. Long-term follow-up of the cohort is needed to assess the cost......BACKGROUND: No direct comparison of health care cost in patients with inflammatory bowel disease across the European continent exists. The aim of this study was to assess the costs of investigations and treatment for diagnostics and during the first year after diagnosis in Europe. METHODS: The Epi......Com cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected inflammatory bowel disease patients from 31 Western and Eastern European centers. Patients were followed every third month from diagnosis, and clinical data regarding treatment and investigations were collected. Costs were calculated...

  7. Mode of Delivery and Asthma at School Age in 9 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusconi, Franca; Zugna, Daniela; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted ...

  8. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  9. Do inattention and hyperactivity symptoms equal scholastic impairment? evidence from three European cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen Tine

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD affects many children, adolescents, and adults and is associated with a number of impairments. Poor academic performance is related to ADHD in clinical samples. However, it is unclear to what extent core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment are related in non-referred school-aged children. Methods Data come from three population-based cohorts from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, which are part of the Nordic Network on ADHD. The combined sample size was 13,087 children who were studied at ages 7–8 or 10–12 years. Teachers rated children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills. Results There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related to a two to tenfold increase in scholastic impairment. Prevalence of hyperactivity symptoms was similar across the three cohorts, but inattention was lowest among children from the Finnish cohort, after stratification on living conditions. Conclusion These results extend previous reports of scholastic impairment among children with clinically diagnosed ADHD to non-referred population samples from three European countries. Surveillance policies should be implemented in school systems to catch children in need of behavioral or scholastic support early.

  10. Cohort Studies: Prospective versus Retrospective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Anne M.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.; Dekker, Friedo W.

    2009-01-01

    Cohort studies form a suitable study design to assess associations between multiple exposures on the one hand and multiple outcomes on the other hand. They are especially appropriate to study rare exposures or exposures for which randomization is not possible for practical or ethical reasons.

  11. Abdominal symptoms in general practice: Frequency, cancer suspicions raised, and actions taken by GPs in six European countries. Cohort study with prospective registration of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtedahl, Knut; Vedsted, Peter; Borgquist, Lars; Donker, Gé A; Buntinx, Frank; Weller, David; Braaten, Tonje; Hjertholm, Peter; Månsson, Jörgen; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Campbell, Christine; Ellegaard, Lisbeth; Parajuli, Ranjan

    2017-06-01

    Abdominal symptoms are diagnostically challenging to general practitioners (GPs): although common, they may indicate cancer. In a prospective cohort of patients, we examined abdominal symptom frequency, initial diagnostic suspicion, and actions of GPs in response to abdominal symptoms. Over a 10-day period, 493 GPs in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Scotland, recorded consecutive consultations: sex, date of birth and any specified abdominal symptoms. For patients with abdominal symptoms, additional data on non-specific symptoms, GPs' diagnostic suspicion, and features of the consultation were noted. Data on all cancer diagnoses among all included patients were requested from the GPs eight months later. Consultations with 61802 patients were recorded. Abdominal symptoms were recorded in 6264 (10.1%) patients. A subsequent malignancy was reported in 511 patients (0.8%): 441 (86.3%) had a new cancer, 70 (13.7%) a recurrent cancer. Abdominal symptoms were noted in 129 (25.2%) of cancer patients (P GPs noted a suspicion of cancer for 85 (65.9%) versus 1895 (30.9%) when there was no subsequent cancer (P GPs' diagnostic thinking and referral practices.

  12. Postponement and Recuperation in Cohort Fertility:Austria, Germany and Switzerland in a European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Across developed countries, cohorts of women born after World War II have seen a shift of childbearing towards later ages and a concomitant decline in fertility level. We study this shift using the notions of fertility postponement (fertility decline at younger ages and subsequent recuperation (a compensatory fertility increase at higher reproductive ages. We apply order-specific data and extend and elaborate on two broad approaches to this process: 1 a basic benchmark model extensively used by Tomas Frejka and his colleagues and 2 a relational model proposed by Ron Lesthaeghe (2001. Our work focuses especially on three predominantly German-speaking countries, Austria, Germany and Switzerland, and compares them with selected European countries and the United States. We illustrate the usefulness of these two approaches for constructing projection scenarios of completed cohort fertility among women of reproductive age. Using three key indicators of the postponement transition – initial fertility level, absolute fertility decline at younger ages, and the relative degree of fertility “recuperation” at older ages – we demonstrate that each of these components is salient for explaining contemporary cross-country differences in cohort fertility. Recuperation is especially important, but is also clearly patterned by birth order: whereas all the countries analysed have experienced a vigorous recovery of delayed first births, pronounced differentials are observed with regard to the recuperation of second and particularly of third and later births. In line with the differentials observed, projected values of completed fertility in five European countries vary widely for the cohorts born in the early 1980s, ranging from 1.3 in the lowest scenario for Spain to over 1.8 in the highest scenario for the Czech Republic.

  13. Interactions of dietary whole-grain intake with fasting glucose- and insulin-related genetic loci in individuals of European descent: a meta-analysis of 14 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; McKeown, Nicola M; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Hivert, Marie-France; Ngwa, Julius; van Rooij, Frank J A; Sonestedt, Emily; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ye, Zheng; Tanaka, Tosh; Garcia, Melissa; Anderson, Jennifer S; Follis, Jack L; Djousse, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Zillikens, M Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Amanda J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forouhi, Nita G; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Tamara; Hofman, Albert; Houston, Denise K; Hu, Frank B; Johansson, Ingegerd; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth J; Nalls, Michael; Orho-Melander, Marju; Renstrom, Frida; Rice, Kenneth; Riserus, Ulf; Rolandsson, Olov; Rotter, Jerome I; Saylor, Georgia; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Sjogren, Per; Smith, Albert; Steingrímsdóttir, Laufey; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Prokopenko, Inga; Pankow, James S; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Florez, Jose C; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Dupuis, Josée; Dedoussis, George V; Ordovas, Jose M; Ingelsson, Erik; Cupples, L Adrienne; Siscovick, David S; Franks, Paul W; Meigs, James B

    2010-12-01

    Whole-grain foods are touted for multiple health benefits, including enhancing insulin sensitivity and reducing type 2 diabetes risk. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in individuals free of diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that whole-grain food intake and genetic variation interact to influence concentrations of fasting glucose and insulin. Via meta-analysis of data from 14 cohorts comprising ∼ 48,000 participants of European descent, we studied interactions of whole-grain intake with loci previously associated in GWAS with fasting glucose (16 loci) and/or insulin (2 loci) concentrations. For tests of interaction, we considered a P value fasting glucose and insulin concentrations independent of demographics, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and BMI (β [95% CI] per 1-serving-greater whole-grain intake: -0.009 mmol/l glucose [-0.013 to -0.005], P fasting insulin (P = 0.006), where greater whole-grain intake was associated with a smaller reduction in fasting insulin concentrations in those with the insulin-raising allele. Our results support the favorable association of whole-grain intake with fasting glucose and insulin and suggest a potential interaction between variation in GCKR and whole-grain intake in influencing fasting insulin concentrations.

  14. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and atopic disease in two European cohorts. (ECRHS-Basel and SAPALDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann-Liebrich U

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopy and allergic phenotypes are biologically characterized by an imbalanced T helper cell response skewed towards a type 2 (TH2 immune response associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes might modulate regulation of the TH1/TH2 balance. We thus aimed at reproducing our previous findings from a European study population on the association of various cytokine polymorphisms with self-reported hay fever as well as increased total and specific IgE levels in two comparable study populations. Methods Two prospective Caucasian cohorts were used. In the Basel center of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, n = 418 ten distinct cytokine polymorphisms of putative functional relevance were genotyped. In the Swiss cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA, n = 6003 two cytokine polymorphisms were genotyped. The associations of these polymorphisms with atopy were estimated by covariance and logistic regression analysis. Results We confirmed IL4, IL10, IL6 and IL18 as candidate genes for atopic health outcomes. In the large, well-characterized SAPALDIA cohort the IL6(-174G>C and IL18(-137G>C polymorphisms were associated with circulating total IgE concentrations in subjects with hay fever. The IL18(-137G>C polymorphism was also associated with the prevalence of hay fever. Conclusion Comprehensive characterization of genetic variation in extended cytokine candidate gene regions is now needed. Large study networks must follow to investigate the association of risk patterns defined by genetic predisposing and environmental risk factors with specific atopic phenotypes.

  15. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and atopic disease in two European cohorts. (ECRHS-Basel and SAPALDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboden, M; Nieters, A; Bircher, AJ; Brutsche, M; Becker, N; Wjst, M; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Berger, W; Probst-Hensch, NM

    2006-01-01

    Background Atopy and allergic phenotypes are biologically characterized by an imbalanced T helper cell response skewed towards a type 2 (TH2) immune response associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes might modulate regulation of the TH1/TH2 balance. We thus aimed at reproducing our previous findings from a European study population on the association of various cytokine polymorphisms with self-reported hay fever as well as increased total and specific IgE levels in two comparable study populations. Methods Two prospective Caucasian cohorts were used. In the Basel center of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS, n = 418) ten distinct cytokine polymorphisms of putative functional relevance were genotyped. In the Swiss cohort Study on Air Pollution And Lung Disease In Adults (SAPALDIA, n = 6003) two cytokine polymorphisms were genotyped. The associations of these polymorphisms with atopy were estimated by covariance and logistic regression analysis. Results We confirmed IL4, IL10, IL6 and IL18 as candidate genes for atopic health outcomes. In the large, well-characterized SAPALDIA cohort the IL6(-174G>C) and IL18(-137G>C) polymorphisms were associated with circulating total IgE concentrations in subjects with hay fever. The IL18(-137G>C) polymorphism was also associated with the prevalence of hay fever. Conclusion Comprehensive characterization of genetic variation in extended cytokine candidate gene regions is now needed. Large study networks must follow to investigate the association of risk patterns defined by genetic predisposing and environmental risk factors with specific atopic phenotypes. PMID:16759385

  16. a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RP Lystad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and describe the pattern and severity of training injuries in taekwondo, and to compare pattern and severity of training injuries with competition injuries. One hundred and fifty-two active Australian amateur taekwondo athletes, aged 12 years or over, completed an online survey comprising questions on training exposure and injury history over the preceding 12 months. The main outcome measures were: overall injury incidence rate per athlete-year; training injury incidence rate per athlete-year, per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and per 1000 athlete-hours of training; injury severity; and injury proportions by anatomical region and by type of injury. Injury incidence rates were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using standard methods, while injury proportions were compared using Fisher’s exact test. The vast majority (81.5% of taekwondo injuries in an average athlete-year occurred during training. The training injury incidence rate was estimated to be 1.6 (95% CI: 1.4, 1.9 per athlete-year, 11.8 (95% CI: 10.4, 13.4 per 1000 athlete-training-sessions, and 7.0 (95% CI: 6.1, 7.9 per 1000 athlete-hours of training. Among athletes with five or fewer injuries, the severity and injury pattern of training injuries were, by and large, the same as for competition injuries. Approximately sixty percent (60.3% of training injuries required treatment by a health professional. Considering the burden of training injuries exceeds that of competition injuries, taekwondo governing bodies and stakeholders are encouraged to devote more efforts towards the identification of risk factors for, and prevention of, training injuries in the sport of taekwondo.

  17. Switching from NPH insulin to once-daily insulin detemir in basal-bolus-treated patients with diabetes mellitus: data from the European cohort of the PREDICTIVE study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, S

    2008-12-01

    The PREDICTIVE study is a multinational observational study designed to follow up patients with diabetes who started insulin detemir (IDet) in routine care. Recruitment started in June 2004 and is ongoing in some countries.

  18. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Hannerz, Harald; Nyberg, Solja T

    2013-01-01

    scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field. METHODS: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job...... using random effects meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted "job strain") are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom...

  19. Cohort profile update: the Danish HIV Cohort Study (DHCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-12-01

    The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order to extract an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort from the general population, as well as cohorts of family members of the HIV-infected patients and of the comparison cohort. The combined cohort is linked with CRS, the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish National Hospital Registry, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates of a range of outcomes have been compared between HIV-infected patients and the comparison cohort, as well as between families of these two cohorts in order to disaggregate the effects of HIV infection and familial/environmental factors. Data can be shared with foreign institutions following approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency. Potential collaborators can contact the study director, Niels Obel (e-mail: niels.obel@regionh.dk). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Association of autoimmune Addison's disease with alleles of STAT4 and GATA3 in European cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Gene variants known to contribute to Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD susceptibility include those at the MHC, MICA, CIITA, CTLA4, PTPN22, CYP27B1, NLRP-1 and CD274 loci. The majority of the genetic component to disease susceptibility has yet to be accounted for.To investigate the role of 19 candidate genes in AAD susceptibility in six European case-control cohorts.A sequential association study design was employed with genotyping using Sequenom iPlex technology. In phase one, 85 SNPs in 19 genes were genotyped in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts (691 AAD, 715 controls. In phase two, 21 SNPs in 11 genes were genotyped in German, Swedish, Italian and Polish cohorts (1264 AAD, 1221 controls. In phase three, to explore association of GATA3 polymorphisms with AAD and to determine if this association extended to other autoimmune conditions, 15 SNPs in GATA3 were studied in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts, 1195 type 1 diabetes patients from Norway, 650 rheumatoid arthritis patients from New Zealand and in 283 UK Graves' disease patients. Meta-analysis was used to compare genotype frequencies between the participating centres, allowing for heterogeneity.We report significant association with alleles of two STAT4 markers in AAD cohorts (rs4274624: P = 0.00016; rs10931481: P = 0.0007. In addition, nominal association of AAD with alleles at GATA3 was found in 3 patient cohorts and supported by meta-analysis. Association of AAD with CYP27B1 alleles was also confirmed, which replicates previous published data. Finally, nominal association was found at SNPs in both the NF-κB1 and IL23A genes in the UK and Italian cohorts respectively.Variants in the STAT4 gene, previously associated with other autoimmune conditions, confer susceptibility to AAD. Additionally, we report association of GATA3 variants with AAD: this adds to the recent report of association of GATA3 variants with rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Psychological distress and physical disability in patients sustaining severe injuries in road traffic crashes: Results from a one-year cohort study from three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakaki, Maria; Ferraro, Ottavia Eleonora; Orsi, Chiara; Otte, Dietmar; Tzamalouka, Georgia; von-der-Geest, Marco; Lajunen, Timo; Özkan, Türker; Morandi, Anna; Sarris, Markos; Pierrakos, George; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to follow-up a group of road crash survivors for one year and assesses the impact of injury on their psychological and physical condition. All crash survivors that were admitted to the intensive or sub-intensive care units of selected hospitals in Greece, Germany and Italy over one year period (2013-2014), were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed at three different time-points as follows: (a) at one month (baseline data), (b) at six months, and (c) at twelve months. The study used widely recommended classifications for injury severity (AIS, MAIS) and standardized health outcome measures such as the Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS 2.0) to measure disability, "Impact of Event Scale" (IES-R) to measure Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D Scale) to measure depression. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study in all the partner countries and 93 completed all follow up questionnaires. The risk of physical disability was 4.57 times higher [CI 1.98-2.27] at the first follow up and 3.43 times higher [CI 1.43-9.42] at the second follow up as compared with the time before the injury. There was a 79% and an 88% lower risk of depression at the first and the second follow up respectively, as compared with the baseline time. There was also a 72% lower risk of Post-Traumatic Stress at the second follow up as compared with the baseline time. A number of factors relevant to the individuals, the road crash and the injury, were shown to distinguish those at higher risk of long-lasting disability and psychological distress including age, marital status, type of road user, severity and type of the injury, past emotional reaction to distress. The study highlights the importance of a comprehensive and holistic understanding of the impact of injury on an individual and further underlines the importance of screening and treating psychological comorbidities in injury

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events : Results from 11 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette; Andersen, Zorana J.; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; de Faire, Ulf; de Hoogh, Kees; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Gigante, Bruna; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Meisinger, Christa; Migliore, Enrica; Overvad, Kim; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pekkanen, Juha; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Goran; Pundt, Noreen; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Swart, Wim J. R.; Turunen, Anu W.; Vineis, Paolo; Weimar, Christian; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Forastiere, Francesco

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts were collected,

  3. Natural disease course of Crohn's disease during the first 5 years after diagnosis in a European population-based inception cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Kupcinskas, Limas

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Epi-IBD cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 29 European centres covering a background population of almost 10 million people. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course ...

  4. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  5. Investigating clinical predictors of arteriovenous fistula functional patency in a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masengu, Agnes; Maxwell, Alexander P; Hanko, Jennifer B

    2016-02-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure to mature (FTM) rates contribute to excessive dependence on central venous catheters for haemodialysis. Choosing the most appropriate vascular access site for an individual patient is guided largely by their age, co-morbidities and clinical examination. We investigated the clinical predictors of AVF FTM in a European cohort of patients and applied an existing clinical risk prediction model for AVF FTM to this population. A prospective cohort study was designed that included all patients undergoing AVF creation between January 2009 and December 2014 in a single centre (Belfast City Hospital) who had a functional AVF outcome observed by March 2015. A total of 525 patients had a functional AVF outcome recorded and were included in the FTM analysis. In this cohort, 309 (59%) patients achieved functional AVF patency and 216 (41%) patients had FTM. Female gender [P functional patency and ultimately survival in dialysis patients. Clinical predictors of AVF FTM may not be sufficient on their own to improve vascular access functional patency rates.

  6. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0062 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bettina F. Drake, MPH, PhD CONTRACTING...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE October 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate Cancer Biospecimen...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  7. Availability of evidence of benefits on overall survival and quality of life of cancer drugs approved by European Medicines Agency: retrospective cohort study of drug approvals 2009-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Courtney; Naci, Huseyin; Gurpinar, Evrim; Poplavska, Elita; Pinto, Ashlyn; Aggarwal, Ajay

    2017-10-04

    Objective  To determine the availability of data on overall survival and quality of life benefits of cancer drugs approved in Europe. Design  Retrospective cohort study. Setting  Publicly accessible regulatory and scientific reports on cancer approvals by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) from 2009 to 2013. Main outcome measures  Pivotal and postmarketing trials of cancer drugs according to their design features (randomisation, crossover, blinding), comparators, and endpoints. Availability and magnitude of benefit on overall survival or quality of life determined at time of approval and after market entry. Validated European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) used to assess the clinical value of the reported gains in published studies of cancer drugs. Results  From 2009 to 2013, the EMA approved the use of 48 cancer drugs for 68 indications. Of these, eight indications (12%) were approved on the basis of a single arm study. At the time of market approval, there was significant prolongation of survival in 24 of the 68 (35%). The magnitude of the benefit on overall survival ranged from 1.0 to 5.8 months (median 2.7 months). At the time of market approval, there was an improvement in quality of life in seven of 68 indications (10%). Out of 44 indications for which there was no evidence of a survival gain at the time of market authorisation, in the subsequent postmarketing period there was evidence for extension of life in three (7%) and reported benefit on quality of life in five (11%). Of the 68 cancer indications with EMA approval, and with a median of 5.4 years' follow-up (minimum 3.3 years, maximum 8.1 years), only 35 (51%) had shown a significant improvement in survival or quality of life, while 33 (49%) remained uncertain. Of 23 indications associated with a survival benefit that could be scored with the ESMO-MCBS tool, the benefit was judged to be clinically meaningful in less than half (11/23, 48%). Conclusions

  8. The association of air pollution and depressed mood in 70,928 individuals from four European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlema, W L; Wolf, K; Emeny, R; Ladwig, K H; Peters, A; Kongsgård, H; Hveem, K; Kvaløy, K; Yli-Tuomi, T; Partonen, T; Lanki, T; Eeftens, M; de Hoogh, K; Brunekreef, B; Stolk, R P; Rosmalen, J G M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution may be associated with impaired mental health, including depression. However, evidence originates mainly from animal studies and epidemiological studies in specific subgroups. We investigated the association between air pollution and depressed mood in four European general population cohorts. Data were obtained from LifeLines (the Netherlands), KORA (Germany), HUNT (Norway), and FINRISK (Finland). Residential exposure to particles (PM2.5, PM2.5absorbance, PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated using land use regression (LUR) models developed for the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and using European wide LUR models. Depressed mood was assessed with interviews and questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the cohort specific associations between air pollution and depressed mood. A total of 70,928 participants were included in our analyses. Depressed mood ranged from 1.6% (KORA) to 11.3% (FINRISK). Cohort specific associations of the air pollutants and depressed mood showed heterogeneous results. For example, positive associations were found for NO2 in LifeLines (odds ratio [OR]=1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.53 per 10 μg/m(3) increase in NO2), whereas negative associations were found in HUNT (OR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.94 per 10 μg/m(3) increase in NO2). Our analyses of four European general population cohorts found no consistent evidence for an association between ambient air pollution and depressed mood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies.

  10. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.; Casagrande, C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Lotze, G.; Kroke, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Bellegotti, M.; Ocké, M.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Agudo, A.; Larranaga, N.; Mattisson, I.; Andren, C.; Johansson, I.; Davey, G.; Welch, A.A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Saracci, R.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer.

  11. IL28B, HLA-C, and KIR variants additively predict response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a European Cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaprakash Suppiah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, drug response genes have not proved as useful in clinical practice as was anticipated at the start of the genomic era. An exception is in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV genotype 1 infection with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PegIFN/R. Viral clearance is achieved in 40%-50% of patients. Interleukin 28B (IL28B genotype predicts treatment-induced and spontaneous clearance. To improve the predictive value of this genotype, we studied the combined effect of variants of IL28B with human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C, and its ligands the killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR, which have previously been implicated in HCV viral control.We genotyped chronic hepatitis C (CHC genotype 1 patients with PegIFN/R treatment-induced clearance (n = 417 and treatment failure (n = 493, and 234 individuals with spontaneous clearance, for HLA-C C1 versus C2, presence of inhibitory and activating KIR genes, and two IL28B SNPs, rs8099917 and rs12979860. All individuals were Europeans or of European descent. IL28B SNP rs8099917 "G" was associated with absence of treatment-induced clearance (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, p = 1.27×10(-8, 1.67-2.88 and absence of spontaneous clearance (OR 3.83, p = 1.71×10(-14, 2.67-5.48 of HCV, as was rs12979860, with slightly lower ORs. The HLA-C C2C2 genotype was also over-represented in patients who failed treatment (OR 1.52, p = 0.024, 1.05-2.20, but was not associated with spontaneous clearance. Prediction of treatment failure improved from 66% with IL28B to 80% using both genes in this cohort (OR 3.78, p = 8.83×10(-6, 2.03-7.04. There was evidence that KIR2DL3 and KIR2DS2 carriage also altered HCV treatment response in combination with HLA-C and IL28B.Genotyping for IL28B, HLA-C, and KIR genes improves prediction of HCV treatment response. These findings support a role for natural killer (NK cell activation in PegIFN/R treatment-induced clearance, partially mediated by IL28B.

  12. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J.; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts...... – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort...

  13. Cohort analysis of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in European men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B.; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.M.; Menotti, A.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in a cohort of European males. Around 1970, dietary intake of Finnish, Italian and Dutch middle-aged men was assessed using a cross-check dietary history. Complete baseline information was

  14. The early European lithium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, M

    1999-12-01

    Cade's discovery of lithium's antimanic effect soon became known in Europe and was confirmed by a Danish controlled trial. The same investigators discovered a prophylactic action of lithium against both manic and depressive recurrences, which was confirmed by a Swiss-Czech-Danish cooperative trial. The evidence of these studies was met with skepticism based on methodological speculations, but a Danish randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of discontinuation design established the prophylactic action of lithium, as did a number of European controlled trials of start design and discontinuation design. The review ends with personal memories of John Cade.

  15. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth:A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomáš; Legler, Juliette; Pele, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. Objectives We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). Methods We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with ...

  16. Flavonoid and lignan intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María José; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Wark, Petra A; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Travis, Ruth C.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Krogh, Vittorio; Martorana, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    ? 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICCDespite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exoc...

  17. European Project on Osteoarthritis (EPOSA: methodological challenges in harmonization of existing data from five European population-based cohorts on aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaap Laura A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Project on OSteoArthritis (EPOSA, here presented for the first time, is a collaborative study involving five European cohort studies on aging. This project focuses on the personal and societal burden and its determinants of osteoarthritis (OA. The aim of the current report is to describe the purpose of the project, the post harmonization of the cross-national data and methodological challenges related to the harmonization process Methods The study includes data from cohort studies in five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom on older community-dwelling persons aged ≥ 59 years. The study design and main characteristics of the five cohort studies are described. Post harmonization algorithms are developed by finding a "common denominator" to merge the datasets and weights are calculated to adjust for differences in age and sex distribution across the datasets. Results A harmonized database was developed, consisting of merged data from all participating countries. In total, 10107 persons are included in the harmonized dataset with a mean age of 72.8 years (SD 6.1. The female/male ratio is 53.3/46.7%. Some variables were difficult to harmonize due to differences in wording and categories, differences in classifications and absence of data in some countries. The post harmonization algorithms are described in detail in harmonization guidelines attached to this paper. Conclusions There was little evidence of agreement on the use of several core data collection instruments, in particular on the measurement of OA. The heterogeneity of OA definitions hampers comparing prevalence rates of OA, but other research questions can be investigated using high quality harmonized data. By publishing the harmonization guidelines, insight is given into (the interpretation of all post harmonized data of the EPOSA study.

  18. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer: a pooled analysis of European breast cancer cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien; Garmo, Hans; Murray, Liam J; Brown, Chris; Vissers, Pauline A J; O'Rorke, Michael; Visvanathan, Kala; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; De Schutter, Harlinde; Lambe, Mats; Powe, Des G; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Gavin, Anna; Friis, Søren; Sharp, Linda; Bennett, Kathleen

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality were available for five and eight cohorts, respectively. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality by propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use. HRs were pooled across cohorts using meta-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality respectively. Overall, there was no association between propranolol use after diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality (fully adjusted HR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.77, 1.16 and HR = 1.09, 95% CI, 0.93, 1.28, respectively). There was little evidence of a dose-response relationship. There was also no association between propranolol use before breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality (fully adjusted HR = 1.03, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.22 and HR = 1.02, 95% CI, 0.94, 1.10, respectively). Similar null associations were observed for non-selective beta-blockers. In this large pooled analysis of breast cancer patients, use of propranolol or non-selective beta-blockers was not associated with improved survival.

  19. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... population differed slightly from the overall cohort but the differences were small for most characteristics and centres. The overall results suggest that, after adjustment for age, dietary intakes estimated from calibration samples can reasonably be interpreted as representative of the main cohorts in most...

  20. Global, Yet Incomplete Overview of Cohort Studies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Lerche, Stefanie; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by heterogeneity and multifactorial longitudinal changes. To identify PD subtypes and factors influencing the disease course, multiple cohort studies have been designed globally. Knowledge about existing cohorts is pivotal to foster collaboration, which may help to advance the understanding of PD. To raise the awareness about PD cohorts and potential global collaboration opportunities. Observational cohort studies in clinical PD were identified by a European working group (JPND BioLoC-PD) and through literature search. Using a structured survey investigators of 44 cohorts provided basic information on cohorts and assessments performed. For the 44 cohorts (32% on early/de-novo PD), 14.666 participants (cohorts' median: 138; range: 23-3.090), a median 1.5-year follow-up interval (0.5-4 years) and a median (planned) observational period of 5 years (1-20 years) were indicated. All studies have assessed motor functions often using rating scales (UPDRS-III; 93% of studies) and less frequently quantitative gait/balance (25%) or fine motor assessments (27%). Cognitive (100%), neuropsychiatric (91%), daily living (78%), sleep (70%), sensory (63%), and gastrointestinal/autonomic (55%) assessments were common and often comparable. Neuroimaging data (82%) and biomaterial (69%) have been collected in many studies. Surprisingly, possible disease modifiers, such as sport/physical activity (11%), have rarely been assessed. Existing data of PD cohorts provide vast collaboration opportunities. We propose to establish a comprehensive, up-to-date, open-access internet platform with easy-to-use search tools of PD cohort descriptions and potentially available data. Bringing researchers together to enable collaborative joint, meta- and replication analyses is timely and necessary to advance PD research ultimately required for an understanding of PD that can be translated into more effective therapies.

  1. Cohort profile: the ages 2003 cohort study in Aichi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The longevity of Japanese is thought to be associated with psychosocial factors such as sense of coherence, social support, and social capital. However, the actual factors responsible and the extent of their contribution to individual health status are not known. The Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) 2003 Cohort Study is a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling, activities of daily living-independent people aged 65 or older living in 6 municipalities in Chita peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Information on psychosocial factors and other individual- and community-level factors was collected in the second half of 2003 using a baseline questionnaire. Vital status and physical and cognitive decline have been followed using data derived from long-term care insurance certification. Geographical information on the study participants was also obtained. A total of 13 310 (6508 men; 6802 women) study participants were registered in the study. For an interim report, we followed the cohort for 48 months, yielding 24 753 person-years of observation among men and 26 456 person-years among women. The AGES 2003 Cohort Study provides useful evidence for research in social epidemiology, gerontology, and health services.

  2. Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Taylor, A.E.; Ware, J.J.; McMahon, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Munafò, M.R.; Vink, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To estimate associations between smoking initiation, smoking persistence and smoking heaviness and caffeine consumption, in two population-based samples from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Design Observational study employing data on self-reported smoking behaviour and caffeine

  3. Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.L.; Taylor, A.E.; Ware, J.J.; McMahon, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Munafò, M.; Vink, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To estimate associations between smoking initiation, smoking persistence and smoking heaviness and caffeine consumption in two population-based samples from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Design: Observational study employing data on self-reported smoking behaviour and caffeine

  4. Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treur, Jorien L; Taylor, Amy E; Ware, Jennifer J; McMahon, George; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Baselmans, Bart M L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Munafò, Marcus R; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    To estimate associations between smoking initiation, smoking persistence and smoking heaviness and caffeine consumption in two population-based samples from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Observational study employing data on self-reported smoking behaviour and caffeine consumption. Adults from the general population in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Participants from the Netherlands Twin Register [NTR: n = 21 939, mean age 40.8, standard deviation (SD) = 16.9, 62.6% female] and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: n = 9086, mean age 33.2, SD = 4.7, 100% female). Smoking initiation (ever versus never smoking), smoking persistence (current versus former smoking), smoking heaviness (number of cigarettes smoked) and caffeine consumption in mg per day through coffee, tea, cola and energy drinks. After correction for age, gender (NTR), education and social class (ALSPAC), smoking initiation was associated with consuming on average 52.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 45.6-60.0; NTR] and 59.5 (95% CI = 51.8-67.2; ALSPAC) mg more caffeine per day. Smoking persistence was also associated with consuming more caffeine [+57.9 (95% CI = 45.2-70.5) and +83.2 (95% CI = 70.2-96.3) mg, respectively]. Each additional cigarette smoked per day was associated with 3.7 (95% CI = 1.9-5.5; NTR) and 8.4 (95% CI = 6.9-10.0; ALSPAC) mg higher daily caffeine consumption in current smokers. Smoking was associated positively with coffee consumption and less strongly with cola and energy drinks. For tea, associations were positive in ALSPAC and negative in NTR. There appears to be a positive association between smoking and caffeine consumption in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.

    2002-01-01

    . RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...... in southern compared with northern centres, while soft drinks consumption was higher in the north. Italian centres had high pasta and rice consumption, but breakfast cereal, potato, and sweet buns, cakes and pies were higher in northern centres. In Sweden, lower bread consumption was balanced with a higher...... consumption of crispbread, and with sweet buns, cakes and pies. Overall, men consumed higher amounts of vegetables and legumes, bread, soft drinks, potatoes, pasta and rice, breakfast cereal and sugar and jam than women, but fruit consumption appeared more frequent in women. CONCLUSION: The study supports...

  7. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  8. Tea and coffee consumption in relation to DNA methylation in four European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Weronica E; Tobi, Elmar W; Ahsan, Muhammad; Lampa, Erik; Ponzi, Erica; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Lumey, L H; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Botsivali, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Karlsson, Torgny; Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Palli, Domenico; Ingelsson, Erik; Hedman, Åsa K; Nilsson, Lena M; Vineis, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Flanagan, James M; Johansson, Åsa

    2017-08-15

    Lifestyle factors, such as food choices and exposure to chemicals, can alter DNA methylation and lead to changes in gene activity. Two such exposures with pharmacologically active components are coffee and tea consumption. Both coffee and tea have been suggested to play an important role in modulating disease-risk in humans by suppressing tumour progression, decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogen metabolism. These mechanisms may be mediated by changes in DNA methylation. To investigate if DNA methylation in blood is associated with coffee and tea consumption, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study for coffee and tea consumption in four European cohorts (N = 3,096). DNA methylation was measured from whole blood at 421,695 CpG sites distributed throughout the genome and analysed in men and women both separately and together in each cohort. Meta-analyses of the results and additional regional-level analyses were performed. After adjusting for multiple testing, the meta-analysis revealed that two individual CpG-sites, mapping to DNAJC16 and TTC17, were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. No individual sites were associated with men or with the sex-combined analysis for tea or coffee. The regional analysis revealed that 28 regions were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. These regions contained genes known to interact with estradiol metabolism and cancer. No significant regions were found in the sex-combined and male-only analysis for either tea or coffee consumption. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality : an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei W.; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S.; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ostenson, Claes-Goeran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Goeran; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Overvad, Kim; Ellermann, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Kraemer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Hampel, Regina; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kuenzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Phuleria, Harish; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Declercq, Christophe; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several

  10. Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Leenders, Max; Agudo, Antonio; Bergmann, Manuela M; Valanou, Elisavet; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Key, Timothy J; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Sonestedt, Emily; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Wennberg, Maria; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Agnoli, Claudia; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Tumino, Rosario; Altzibar, Jone M; Vineis, Paolo; Masala, Giovanna; Ferrari, Pietro; Muller, David C; Johansson, Mattias; Luisa Redondo, M; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Brustad, Magritt; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean fish, and fatty fish in a large prospective cohort including ten European countries. More than 500,000 men and women completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1999 and were followed up for mortality until the end of 2010. 32,587 persons were reported dead since enrolment. Hazard ratios and their 99% confidence interval were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Fish consumption was examined using quintiles based on reported consumption, using moderate fish consumption (third quintile) as reference, and as continuous variables, using increments of 10 g/day. All analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. No association was seen for fish consumption and overall or cause-specific mortality for both the categorical and the continuous analyses, but there seemed to be a U-shaped trend (p cancer mortality (p = 0.046).

  11. European Values Study 1981-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values providing insight into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about

  12. Composite Selection Signals for Complex Traits Exemplified Through Bovine Stature Using Multibreed Cohorts of European and African Bos taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A. S.; Khatkar, Mehar S.; Thomson, Peter C.; Raadsma, Herman W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolution and molecular architecture of complex traits is important in domestic animals. Due to phenotypic selection, genomic regions develop unique patterns of genetic diversity called signatures of selection, which are challenging to detect, especially for complex polygenic traits. In this study, we applied the composite selection signals (CSS) method to investigate evidence of positive selection in a complex polygenic trait by examining stature in phenotypically diverse cattle comprising 47 European and 8 African Bos taurus breeds, utilizing a panel of 38,033 SNPs genotyped on 1106 animals. CSS were computed for phenotypic contrasts between multibreed cohorts of cattle by classifying the breeds according to their documented wither height to detect the candidate regions under selection. Using the CSS method, clusters of signatures of selection were detected at 26 regions (9 in European and 17 in African cohorts) on 13 bovine autosomes. Using comparative mapping information on human height, 30 candidate genes mapped at 12 selection regions (on 8 autosomes) could be linked to bovine stature diversity. Of these 12 candidate gene regions, three contained known genes (i.e., NCAPG-LCORL, FBP2-PTCH1, and PLAG1-CHCHD7) related to bovine stature, and nine were not previously described in cattle (five in European and four in African cohorts). Overall, this study demonstrates the utility of CSS coupled with strategies of combining multibreed datasets in the identification and discovery of genomic regions underlying complex traits. Characterization of multiple signatures of selection and their underlying candidate genes will elucidate the polygenic nature of stature across cattle breeds. PMID:25931611

  13. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Duell, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively investigated dietary flavonoid intake and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,312 adult subjects from 10 European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires...... flavonoid intake was inversely associated with esophageal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) (log2) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 0.98) but not in multivariable models (HR (log2) = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.10). After covariate adjustment, no statistically significant association was found between any...... flavonoid subclass and esophageal cancer, EAC, or ESCC. However, among current smokers, flavonols were statistically significantly associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk (HR (log2) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94), whereas total flavonoids, flavanols, and flavan-3-ol monomers tended to be inversely...

  14. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Occurrence, course and prognosis during the first year of disease in a European population-based inception cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    European countries. The reasons for these changes remain unknown but could include an increasing awareness of the diseases, better access to diagnostic procedures, methodological bias in previous studies from Eastern Europe, or real differences in environmental factors, lifestyle and genetic susceptibility...... nurses were not used in Eastern European IBD centres. Expenses for the cohort during the initial year of disease exceeded four million Euros with most money spent on diagnostics and surgery. Biological therapy accounted for one fourth costs in Western European CD patients. Long-term follow-up of the Epi...

  15. Premature ovarian failure and fertility in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A E; Heutte, Natacha; Meijnders, Paul; Abeilard-Lemoisson, Edwige; Spina, Michele; Moser, Elizabeth C; Allgeier, Anouk; Meulemans, Bart; Simons, Arnold H M; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Noordijk, Evert M; Fermé, Christophe; Thomas, José; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Fruchart, Christophe; Brice, Pauline; Gaillard, Isabelle; Bologna, Serge; Ong, Francisca; Eghbali, Houchingue; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Morschhauser, Franck; Sebban, Catherine; Roesink, Judith M; Bouteloup, Marie; Van Hoof, Achiel; Raemaekers, John M M; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2012-01-20

    In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and age at treatment. The Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 1,700 women treated in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Étude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte trials between 1964 and 2004. Women treated between ages 15 and 40 years and currently not using hormonal contraceptives (n = 460) were selected to assess occurrence of POF. Cumulative POF risk was estimated using the life-table method. Predictive factors were assessed by Cox regression analysis. Median follow-up was 16 years (range, 5 to 45 years). Cumulative risk of POF after alkylating chemotherapy was 60% (95% CI, 41% to 79%) and only 3% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) after nonalkylating chemotherapy (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine; epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and prednisone). Dose relationship between alkylating chemotherapy and POF occurrence was linear. POF risk increased by 23% per year of age at treatment. In women treated without alkylating chemotherapy at age younger than 32 years and age 32 years or older, cumulative POF risks were 3% (95% CI, 1% to 16%) and 9% (95% CI, 4% to 18%), respectively. If menstruation returned after treatment, cumulative POF risk was independent of age at treatment. Among women who ultimately developed POF, 22% had one or more children after treatment, compared with 41% of women without POF. Nonalkylating chemotherapy carries little to no excess risk of POF. Dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and age at treatment are both linear. Timely family planning is important for women at risk of POF.

  16. Nutrient-wide association study of 57 foods/nutrients and epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study and the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Patel, Chirag J; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; His, Mathilde; Dartois, Laureen; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Skeie, Guri; Jareid, Mie; Quirós, J Ramón; Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Sánchez, María-José; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta, José M; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dias, Joana A; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the role of dietary factors in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development have been limited, and no specific dietary factors have been consistently associated with EOC risk. OBJECTIVE: We used a nutrient-wide association study approach to systematically test the association

  17. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabi, Hayfaa; Fayed, Amel; Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  18. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  19. Mother's education and the risk of preterm and small for gestational age birth: a DRIVERS meta-analysis of 12 European cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Kukla, Lubomír; Švancara, Jan; Riitta-Järvelin, Marjo; Taanila, Anja; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Lioret, Sandrine; Bakoula, Chryssa; Veltsista, Alexandra; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Eggesbø, Merete; White, Richard A; Barros, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Rebagliato, Marisa; Larrañaga, Isabel; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Olsen Faresjö, Åshild; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Antipkin, Youriy; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Background A healthy start to life is a major priority in efforts to reduce health inequalities across Europe, with important implications for the health of future generations. There is limited combined evidence on inequalities in health among newborns across a range of European countries. Methods Prospective cohort data of 75 296 newborns from 12 European countries were used. Maternal education, preterm and small for gestational age births were determined at baseline along with covariate data. Regression models were estimated within each cohort and meta-analyses were conducted to compare and measure heterogeneity between cohorts. Results Mother's education was linked to an appreciable risk of preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births across 12 European countries. The excess risk of preterm births associated with low maternal education was 1.48 (1.29 to 1.69) and 1.84 (0.99 to 2.69) in relative and absolute terms (Relative/Slope Index of Inequality, RII/SII) for all cohorts combined. Similar effects were found for SGA births, but absolute inequalities were greater, with an SII score of 3.64 (1.74 to 5.54). Inequalities at birth were strong in the Netherlands, the UK, Sweden and Spain and marginal in other countries studied. Conclusions This study highlights the value of comparative cohort analysis to better understand the relationship between maternal education and markers of fetal growth in different settings across Europe. PMID:25911693

  20. Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Genevieve; Travier, Noemie; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Sánchez, María-José; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Huerta, José María; Navarro, Carmen; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A

    2012-12-14

    Olive oil is well known for its cardioprotective properties; however, epidemiological data showing that olive oil consumption reduces incident CHD events are still limited. Therefore, we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40 142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004. Baseline dietary and lifestyle information was collected using interview-administered questionnaires. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10·4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0·78; 95 % CI 0·59, 1·03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0·048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P culinary use of olive oil within the Mediterranean diet to reduce the CHD burden.

  1. Body mass index trajectories from 2 to 18 years - exploring differences between European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, L; Howe, L D; Sørensen, T I A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight in most high-income countries. Within northern Europe, prevalence tends to be higher in the UK compared with the Scandinavian countries. We aimed to study differences in body mass index (BMI......) trajectories between large cohorts of children from UK and Scandinavian populations. METHODS: We compared BMI trajectories in participants from the English Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children born in 1991-1993 (ALSPAC) (N = 6517), the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 3321......) and 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4764), and the Danish Aarhus Birth Cohort born in 1990-1992 (ABC) (N = 1920). We used multilevel models to estimate BMI trajectories from 2 to 18 years. We explored whether cohort differences were explained by maternal BMI, height, education or smoking during pregnancy and whether...

  2. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida E. H. Madsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain” are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied.

  3. Study protocol for examining job strain as a risk factor for severe unipolar depression in an individual participant meta-analysis of 14 European cohorts [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1yz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IPD-Work Consortium

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that gainfully employed individuals with high work demands and low control at work (denoted “job strain” are at increased risk of common mental disorders, including depression. Most existing studies have, however, measured depression using self-rated symptom scales that do not necessarily correspond to clinically diagnosed depression. In addition, a meta-analysis from 2008 indicated publication bias in the field.   Methods: This study protocol describes the planned design and analyses of an individual participant data meta-analysis, to examine whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression based on hospital treatment registers.  The study will be based on data from approximately 120,000 individuals who participated in 14 studies on work environment and health in 4 European countries. The self-reported working conditions data will be merged with national registers on psychiatric hospital treatment, primarily hospital admissions. Study-specific risk estimates for the association between job strain and depression will be calculated using Cox regressions. The study-specific risk estimates will be pooled using random effects meta-analysis.   Discussion: The planned analyses will help clarify whether job strain is associated with an increased risk of clinically diagnosed unipolar depression. As the analysis is based on pre-planned study protocols and an individual participant data meta-analysis, the pooled risk estimates will not be influenced by selective reporting and publication bias. However, the results of the planned study may only pertain to severe cases of unipolar depression, because of the outcome measure applied.

  4. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  5. Crossroads in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades the educational practices within EU studies have been challenged by the lack of comprehensive texts on research strategy, design and method useful for study programmes. Since the ‘comparative turn’ of the 1990s, where we saw a shift towards applying theories, analytical ...

  6. Predicting sickness impact profile at six months after stroke: further results from the European multi-center CERISE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stummer, C.A.; Verheyden, G.; Putman, K.; Jenni, W.; Schupp, W.; Wit, L. De

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop prognostic models and equations for predicting participation at six months after stroke. METHODS: This European prospective cohort study recruited 532 consecutive patients from four rehabilitation centers. Participation was assessed at six months after stroke with the Sickness

  7. Is There an Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Bladder Cancer Incidence? Analysis of 15 European Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Sommar, Johan; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Eeftens, Marloes; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Stayner, Leslie T; Kogevinas, Manolis; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sokhi, Ranjeet; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2016-11-26

    Ambient air pollution contains low concentrations of carcinogens implicated in the etiology of urinary bladder cancer (BC). Little is known about whether exposure to air pollution influences BC in the general population. To evaluate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and BC incidence. We obtained data from 15 population-based cohorts enrolled between 1985 and 2005 in eight European countries (N=303431; mean follow-up 14.1 yr). We estimated exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameter <10μm (PM10), <2.5μm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10μm (PM2.5-10), PM2.5absorbance (soot), elemental constituents of PM, organic carbon, and traffic density at baseline home addresses using standardized land-use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects project. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) for BC incidence. During follow-up, 943 incident BC cases were diagnosed. In the meta-analysis, none of the exposures were associated with BC risk. The summary HRs associated with a 10-μg/m(3) increase in NO2 and 5-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.08) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.18), respectively. Limitations include the lack of information about lifetime exposure. There was no evidence of an association between exposure to outdoor air pollution levels at place of residence and risk of BC. We assessed the link between outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer using the largest study population to date and extensive assessment of exposure and comprehensive data on personal risk factors such as smoking. We found no association between the levels of outdoor air pollution at place of residence and bladder cancer risk. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Cultivating cohort studies for observational translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, David F

    2013-04-01

    "Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.

  9. Observed and Expected Mortality in Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Cole, Stephen R; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in a cohort with the expected number of deaths, obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the cohort by mortality rates for a reference population (ideally, a reference that represents the mortality rate in the cohort in the absence of exposure). However, if exposure is hazardous (or salutary), this calculation will not consistently estimate the number of deaths expected in the absence of exposure because exposure will have affected the distribution of person-time observed in the study cohort. While problems with interpretation of this standard calculation of expected counts were discussed more than 2 decades ago, these discussions had little impact on epidemiologic practice. The logic of counterfactuals may help clarify this topic as we revisit these issues. In this paper, we describe a simple way to consistently estimate the expected number of deaths in such settings, and we illustrate the approach using data from a cohort study of mortality among underground miners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs......) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight....

  12. Statistical challenges in observational cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, M.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    For over a century observational cohort studies have been used to study determinants of health and disease. Within a sample from the population, we can determine the relation between health outcomes (e.g. death) and a broad range of factors as genetic markers, environmental exposures, and lifestyle

  13. Sedation and Analgesia Practices in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (EUROPAIN): Results from a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carbajal, R.; Eriksson, M; Courtois, E; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Andersen, RD; Sarafidis, K; Polkki, T; Matos, C.; P. LAGO; Papadouri, T; Montalto, SA; Ilmoja, ML; Simons, S.; Tameliene, R; Van Overmeire, B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonates who are in pain or are stressed during care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often given sedation or analgesia. We investigated the current use of sedation or analgesia in neonatal ICUs (NICUs) in European countries. METHODS: EUROPAIN (EUROpean Pain Audit In Neonates) was a prospective cohort study of the management of sedation and analgesia in patients in NICUs. All neonates admitted to NICUs during 1 month were included in this study. Data on demographics, ...

  14. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  16. Cohort Profile: LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A; Bakker, Stephan J. L; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R; Stolk, Ronald P

    2015-01-01

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic...

  17. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cust, Anne E.; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Noethlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quiros, J. Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Goeran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bingham, Shelia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004),

  18. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka; Eggesbø, Merete

    2015-07-01

    Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p'-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted β = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (β = -0.10; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.01). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p'-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels.

  19. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamia, C.; Lagiou, P.; Buckland, G.; Grioni, S.; Agnoli, C.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score

  20. Genome-wide association study of kidney function decline in individuals of European descent

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Mathias; Tin, Adrienne; Garnaas, Maija; McMahon, Gearoid M.; Chu, Audrey Y; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Pattaro, Cristian; Teumer, Alexander; Chasman, Daniel I; Chalmers, John; Hamet, Pavel; Tremblay, Johanne; Woodward, Marc; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16 cohorts with serial kidney function measurements within the CKDGen Consortium, followed by independent replication among additional participants from 13 cohorts. In stage 1 GWAS meta-analysis, single-nu...

  1. Association of a diabetes risk score with risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, specific types of cancer, and mortality: a prospective study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christin; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Nöthlings, Ute; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schulze, Matthias B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a recently developed, non-invasive risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes on the incidence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and specific types of cancer. A total of 23,455 participants from the population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study aged 35-65 years and free of diabetes and major chronic diseases at baseline (1994-1998) were followed through 2006 for incident myocardial infarction, stroke, types of cancer, and death. Risk score points were assigned to each participant based on age, waist circumference, height, physical activity, history of hypertension, smoking, alcohol consumption, and intake of red meat, whole-grain bread, and coffee. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox regression models. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, participants with a high risk score (5-year probability to develop diabetes > or = 10%) had significantly higher risks of myocardial infarction (HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.0) and stroke (1.9, 1.0-3.6), but not of colon, breast or prostate cancer incidence, than those with a low score (5-year probability < 1%). In addition, participants with a high risk score had considerably higher risks of cardiovascular (HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.3-9.4), cancer (1.7, 1.1-2.7), and total mortality (2.4, 1.8-3.4), the latter being equivalent to a difference in life expectancy of 13 years. These data indicate that a risk score predictive for type 2 diabetes is also related to elevated risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, and premature death in apparently healthy individuals and emphasize the need for early intervention in high-risk individuals.

  2. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, Martin; Schikowski, Tamara; Carsin, Anne Elie; Cai, Yutong; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Sanchez, Margaux; Vierkötter, Andrea; Marcon, Alessandro; Keidel, Dirk; Sugiri, Dorothee; Al Kanani, Zaina; Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Rochat, Thierry; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Eeftens, Marloes; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Villani, Simona; Phuleria, Harish Chandra; Birk, Matthias; Cyrys, Josef; Cirach, Marta; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Forsberg, Bertil; de Hoogh, Kees; Declerq, Christophe; Bono, Roberto; Piccioni, Pavilio; Quass, Ulrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah; Pin, Isabelle; Beelen, Rob; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Schindler, Christian; Sunyer, Jordi; Krämer, Ursula; Kauffmann, Francine; Hansell, Anna L; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts

  3. The relationship of age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol and smoking habits with the risk of typical and atypical coronary heart disease death in the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, A.; Lanti, M.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Nissinen, A.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore whether "typical" coronary heart disease (CHD) such as fatal myocardial infarction and sudden death relate to major cardiovascular risk factors in the same way as the "atypical" CHD, such as fatal heart failure and chronic arrhythmias. Design and setting: Ten cohorts (6633

  4. Premature Ovarian Failure and Fertility in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma : A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; Heutte, Natacha; Meijnders, Paul; Abeilard-Lemoisson, Edwige; Spina, Michele; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Allgeier, Anouk; Meulemans, Bart; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Ferme, Christophe; Thomas, Jose; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Fruchart, Christophe; Brice, Pauline; Gaillard, Isabelle; Bologna, Serge; Ong, Francisca; Eghbali, Houchingue; Doorduijn, Jeanette K.; Morschhauser, Franck; Sebban, Catherine; Roesink, Judith M.; Bouteloup, Marie; Van Hoof, Achiel; Raemaekers, John M. M.; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and

  5. Premature ovarian failure and fertility in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, E.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Bologna, S.; Ong, F.; Eghbali, H.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Morschhauser, F.; Sebban, C.; Roesink, J.M.; Bouteloup, M.; Hoof, A. van; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy

  6. Premature ovarian failure and fertility in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma: A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'ÉTude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); E.C. Moser (E.); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); S. Bologna (Serge); F. Ong (Francisca); H. Eghbali (Houchingue); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); F. Morschhauser (Frank); C. Sebban (Catherine); J.M. Roesink (Judith); M. Bouteloup (Marie); A.L. van Hoof (Achiel); J. Raemaekers (John); M. Henry-Amar (Michel); J.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating

  7. Health-related quality of life among Swedish children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: parent-child discrepancies, gender differences and comparison with a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Veronica; Eriksson, Catharina

    2017-04-12

    This study investigates gender differences in self-reports and between parent and child reports in Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL), measured with disease-specific and generic instruments for chronic disease. Comparison of HRQOL results in this Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) sample to a European cohort of children with JIA and one of children with other health conditions are also made. Fifty-three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), aged 8-18 years, and their parents completed the condition-specific DISABKIDS for JIA, and the DISABKIDS generic instrument for chronic conditions (DCGM-37) in a cross-sectional study. European reference data were used for comparison of child and parental reports. Child self-reports in DCGM-37 and DISABKIDS for JIA showed no gender differences. Parental and child reports of the child's HRQOL differed only in DCGM-37; this was among girls who scored their independence (p = 0.03), physical limitation (p = 0.01), social exclusion (p = 0.03), emotions (p children with JIA reported more physical limitation compared to samples of European children with JIA (p = 0.01), European children with chronic conditions (p children reported more problem with understanding compared to the European JIA sample (p = 0.03). Swedish parents perceived their children's independence significantly lower than did the European parents of JIA children (p children with chronic conditions (p = 0.03). The Swedish parents also perceived their children to have significantly lower social inclusion (p children with chronic conditions. Parent-child differences in assessment of quality of life depend on the HRQOL instrument used, especially among girls. In comparison to European cohorts, our sample of children with JIA experienced more physical limitations and less understanding.

  8. Prediagnostic selenium status and hepatobiliary cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David J; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Hybsier, Sandra; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Affret, Aurélie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Peppa, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Hendrik Bastiaan; Peeters, Petra H; Engeset, Dagrun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lasheras, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Schomburg, Lutz; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-08-01

    Selenium status is suboptimal in many Europeans and may be a risk factor for the development of various cancers, including those of the liver and biliary tract. We wished to examine whether selenium status in advance of cancer onset is associated with hepatobiliary cancers in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. We assessed prediagnostic selenium status by measuring serum concentrations of selenium and selenoprotein P (SePP; the major circulating selenium transfer protein) and examined the association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 121), gallbladder and biliary tract cancers (GBTCs; n = 100), and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBC; n = 40) risk in a nested case-control design within the EPIC study. Selenium was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and SePP was determined by a colorimetric sandwich ELISA. Multivariable ORs and 95% CIs were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. HCC and GBTC cases, but not IHBC cases, showed significantly lower circulating selenium and SePP concentrations than their matched controls. Higher circulating selenium was associated with a significantly lower HCC risk (OR per 20-μg/L increase: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.72) but not with the risk of GBTC or IHBC. Similarly, higher SePP concentrations were associated with lowered HCC risk only in both the categorical and continuous analyses (HCC: P-trend ≤ 0.0001; OR per 1.5-mg/L increase: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.63). These findings from a large prospective cohort provide evidence that suboptimal selenium status in Europeans may be associated with an appreciably increased risk of HCC development. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Barupal, Dinesh K; Rothwell, Joseph A; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Kritikou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Merino, Susana; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Bodén, Stina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-04-15

    Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development. © 2016 UIC.

  10. Alcohol dependence and reproductive timing in African and European ancestry women: findings in a midwestern twin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Duncan, Alexis E; Sartor, Carolyn E; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-03-01

    We examined associations between reproductive onset and history of alcohol dependence (AD) in 475 African ancestry (AA) and 2,865 European or other ancestry (EA) female twins. Participants were drawn from a U.S. midwestern birth cohort study of like-sex female twin pairs born between 1975 and 1985, ages 21-32 as of last completed assessment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were estimated predicting age at first childbirth from history of AD, separately by race/ethnicity, without and with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, history of other substance involvement, psychopathology, and family and childhood risks. Among EA twins, AD predicted early childbearing through age 17 and delayed childbearing from age 25 onward; in adjusted models, AD was associated with overall delayed childbearing. Among AA twins, reproductive timing and AD were not significantly related in either unadjusted or adjusted models. Findings for twins of European ancestry are consistent with well-documented links between early alcohol mis/use and teenage parenting as well as delays in childbearing associated with drinking-related reproductive and relationship difficulties. Extension of analyses to other racial/ethnic groups of sufficient sample size remains important.

  11. Flavonoid and lignan intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María-José; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Wark, Petra A; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Travis, Ruth C; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Krogh, Vittorio; Martorana, Caterina; Masala, Giovanna; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, José-Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Angell Åsli, Lene; Skeie, Guri; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Peeters, Petra H; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Overvad, Kim; Clemens, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Vidalis, Pavlos; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutroun-Rualt, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cross, Amanda J; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  12. Amyloid PET in European and North American cohorts; and exploring age as a limit to clinical use of amyloid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiotis, Konstantinos [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Carter, Stephen F. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Farid, Karim [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); APHP, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Savitcheva, Irina [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Collaboration: for the Diagnostic Molecular Imaging (DiMI) network and the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-09-15

    Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)

  13. Mediterranean diet and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María-José; Buckland, Genevieve; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Amiano, Pilar; Wark, Petra A; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, José Ramón; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Peeters, Petra H; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Boeing, Heiner; Iqbal, Khalid; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sonestedt, Emily; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina En; Travis, Ruth C; Skeie, Guri; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Overvad, Kim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Cross, Amanda J; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2017-03-14

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over half a million participants from 10 European countries were followed up for over 11 years, after which 865 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted score without the alcohol component (arMED) to discount alcohol-related harmful effects. Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by age, sex and centre, and adjusted for energy intake, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake and diabetes status at recruitment, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with pancreatic cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR high vs low adherence=0.99; 95% CI: 0.77-1.26, and HR per increments of two units in adherence to arMED=1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). There was no convincing evidence for heterogeneity by smoking status, body mass index, diabetes or European region. There was also no evidence of significant associations in analyses involving microscopically confirmed cases, plausible reporters of energy intake or other definitions of the MD pattern. A high adherence to the MD is not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC study.

  14. Genetic ancestry, self-reported race and ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara E Sucheston

    Full Text Available Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP.Individual ancestry (IA was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP, a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states.Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03 and EA (p = 0.001. This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78 but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA.Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA research participants: self-reported ethnicity

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre ESCAPE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Rob; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Fischer, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Vineis, Paolo; Xun, Wei W; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Modig, Lars; Havulinna, Aki S; Lanki, Timo; Turunen, Anu; Oftedal, Bente; Nystad, Wenche; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Göran; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Overvad, Kim; Ellermann, Thomas; Eeftens, Marloes; Peeters, Petra H; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Hampel, Regina; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Ineichen, Alex; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Adam, Martin; Phuleria, Harish; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Declercq, Christophe; Grioni, Sara; Krogh, Vittorio; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Tamayo, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    Few studies on long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality have been reported from Europe. Within the multicentre European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), we aimed to investigate the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to several air pollutants. We used data from 22 European cohort studies, which created a total study population of 367,251 participants. All cohorts were general population samples, although some were restricted to one sex only. With a strictly standardised protocol, we assessed residential exposure to air pollutants as annual average concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with diameters of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), less than 10 μm (PM10), and between 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, and annual average concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx), with land use regression models. We also investigated two traffic intensity variables-traffic intensity on the nearest road (vehicles per day) and total traffic load on all major roads within a 100 m buffer. We did cohort-specific statistical analyses using confounder models with increasing adjustment for confounder variables, and Cox proportional hazards models with a common protocol. We obtained pooled effect estimates through a random-effects meta-analysis. The total study population consisted of 367,251 participants who contributed 5,118,039 person-years at risk (average follow-up 13.9 years), of whom 29,076 died from a natural cause during follow-up. A significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) for PM2.5 of 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.13) per 5 μg/m(3) was recorded. No heterogeneity was noted between individual cohort effect estimates (I(2) p value=0.95). HRs for PM2.5 remained significantly raised even when we included only participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the European annual mean limit value of 25 μg/m(3) (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.12) or below 20 μg/m(3) (1.07, 1.01-1.13). Long-term exposure to fine

  16. Video-game epilepsy: a European study.

    OpenAIRE

    KASTELEIJN‐NOLST TRENITÉ, D.G.; Da Silva, A. M.; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; SEGERS, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Epilepsia. 1999;40 Suppl 4:70-4. Video-game epilepsy: a European study. Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, da Silva AM, Ricci S, Binnie CD, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA, Segers JP. Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Heemstede, The Netherlands. Abstract With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are al...

  17. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as ‘probably carcinogenic’ to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results, and could not further examine histological subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) sub-cohort of women (n=325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method, and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10μg/day) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histological EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/day. No associations, and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/day:1.02, 95%CI:0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1:0.97, 95%CI:0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. PMID:25300475

  18. The prevalence of genetic and serologic markers in an unselected European population-based cohort of IBD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida; Vermeire, Severine

    2007-01-01

    by genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of polymorphisms in CARD15 and TLR4 and occurrence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) in a European population-based IBD cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the incident cohort were genotyped...... for three mutations in CARD15 and the Asp299gly mutation in TLR4. Levels of ASCA and pANCA were assessed. Disease location and behaviour at time of diagnosis was obtained from patient files. RESULTS: Overall CARD15 mutation rate was 23.9% for CD and 9.6% for UC patients (P ....5% of CD patients with no north-south difference, and was associated with complicated disease. pANCA was most common in North European UC patients and not associated with disease phenotype. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of mutations in CARD15 varied across Europe, and was not correlated to the incidence of CD...

  19. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in relation to risk of small intestinal cancer in a European Prospective Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunxia; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Freisling, Heinz; Travis, Ruth C; Ferrari, Pietro; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsson, Åsa; Johansson, Ingegerd; Renström, Frida; Panico, Salvatore; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H; Siersema, Peter D; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Klinaki, Eleni; Tsironis, Christos; Agudo, Antonio; Navarro, Carmen; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Racine, Antoine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio

    2016-07-01

    The etiology of small intestinal cancer (SIC) is largely unknown, and there are very few epidemiological studies published to date. No studies have investigated abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC. We investigated overall obesity and abdominal adiposity in relation to SIC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large prospective cohort of approximately half a million men and women from ten European countries. Overall obesity and abdominal obesity were assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, BMI, and smoking status. During an average of 13.9 years of follow-up, 131 incident cases of SIC (including 41 adenocarcinomas, 44 malignant carcinoid tumors, 15 sarcomas and 10 lymphomas, and 21 unknown histology) were identified. WC was positively associated with SIC in a crude model that also included BMI (HR per 5-cm increase = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.39), but this association attenuated in the multivariable model (HR 1.18, 95 % CI 0.98, 1.42). However, the association between WC and SIC was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to adenocarcinoma of the small intestine (multivariable HR adjusted for BMI = 1.56, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.17). There were no other significant associations. WC, rather than BMI, may be positively associated with adenocarcinomas but not carcinoid tumors of the small intestine. Abdominal obesity is a potential risk factor for adenocarcinoma in the small intestine.

  20. Establishment of a Korea HPV cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chul; Lee, Sae-Young; Koo, Yu Jin; Kim, Tae-Jin; Hur, Soo Young; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Rhee, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo Shil; Choi, Ho Sun; Cho, Chi Heum; Kim, Ki Tae

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a five-year multicentre prospective cohort study in women who are both human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of cervix. This study aimed to analyze the risk of developing a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) from either ASCUS or LSIL in HPV-positive women, so called 'progression' rate, to investigate differences in the progression rates according to HPV type-specific infection, and to evaluate the various factors associated with the persistence or clearance of HPV infection in the Korean population. At present, the study protocol composed of cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing, and questionnaire have been conducted actively since the first participant was enrolled in 2010. This study is the first nationwide Korea HPV cohort study. Our data will provide valuable information about not only the ambiguous cytology results of ASCUS and LSIL but also the effect of the specific HPV type and other various factors on the progression to HSIL. Finally, the results of our study will be helpful and applicable to determine the primary cervical cancer prevention strategies. PMID:23346315

  1. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. A comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on particulate matter exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, E.; Gallus, S. [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Milan (Italy); Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); McLaughlin, J.K. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); La Vecchia, C. [Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, University of Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    There are a limited number of papers on the long term effect of air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Europe, particularly with reference to small particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). Most information comes from US cohort studies, including the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, the Harvard Six Cities Study, the Adventists' Health Study of Smog, and the Veterans' Cohort Mortality Study. Ambient levels of several relevant pollutants are more variable within Europe than in the USA, and are in several areas comparably high. Selected European cohort studies, including the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition study found some association between indicators of air pollution such as PM10 or NO2 and lung cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent and inadequate to address the health effects of exposure to PM2.5. In addition to the effect on mortality, there are open issues on the potential impact of air pollution on childhood asthma, allergy and airway disease. In consideration of the difficulties in estimating the prevalence of the conditions in various populations, these issues require additional focus. In order to provide an indication on possible further analyses of existing European datasets, and on future new studies, a critical review of existing literature (with a focus on European data) was performed. The project resulted in a detailed report (see Appendix 1) and in a paper published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention.

  3. Dietary intake of acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, M; Kaaks, R; Slimani, N; Lujan-Barroso, L; Freisling, H; Ferrari, P; Dossus, L; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Baglietto, L; Fortner, R T; Boeing, H; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Menéndez, V; Molina-Montes, E; Larrañaga, N; Chirlaque, M-D; Ardanaz, E; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Travis, R C; Lu, Y; Merritt, M A; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Galasso, R; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Wirfält, E; Ericson, U; Idahl, A; Ohlson, N; Skeie, G; Gram, I T; Weiderpass, E; Onland-Moret, N C; Riboli, E; Duell, E J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk: for overall EC, for type-I EC, and in never smokers and never users of oral contraceptives (OCs). Smoking is a source of acrylamide, and OC use is a protective factor for EC risk. Methods: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Acrylamide intake was estimated from the EU acrylamide monitoring database, which was matched with EPIC questionnaire-based food consumption data. Acrylamide intake was energy adjusted using the residual method. Results: No associations were observed between acrylamide intake and overall EC (n=1382) or type-I EC risk (n=627). We observed increasing relative risks for type-I EC with increasing acrylamide intake among women who both never smoked and were non-users of OCs (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08–3.62; likelihood ratio test (LRT) P-value: 0.01, n=203). Conclusions: Dietary intake of acrylamide was not associated with overall or type-I EC risk; however, positive associations with type I were observed in women who were both non-users of OCs and never smokers. PMID:24937665

  4. [Lessons from the Hokkaido COPD cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masaharu; Makita, Hironi

    2016-05-01

    Hokkaido COPD cohort study is a carefully-designed, well-conducted, prospective observational 10 year-long study, which ended early in 2015. We have obtained a number of clinically-relevant novel findings, some of which are as follows. Severity of emphysema was highly varied even in those individuals whose airflow limitation is comparable. The annual change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over 5 years was also widely varied with normal distribution among the subjects under appropriate treatment. Some patients maintained their pulmonary function for a long time, and others showed a rapid decline. Emphysema severity, but not pulmonary function, was independently associated with such an inter-subject variation in the annual decline in FEV1. When we explored any biomarkers for predicting the FEV1 decline, a lower leptin/adiponectin ratio alone emerged as an explanatory parameter for the rapid decline, and this was also confirmed in an independent Danish cohort study of different ethnicity. Monitoring of quality of life (QOL), using SGRQ scores, also provided interesting observations. The annual change in total score reflected that of FEV1 decline during the follow-up period. However, activity component in QOL deteriorated in almost all the subjects, while symptom component rather improved in many of the patients under appropriate treatment.

  5. Cohort Profile : LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander Kr; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce Hr; Stolk, Ronald P

    2014-01-01

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants

  6. Cohort Profile : LifeLines, a three-generation cohort study and biobank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Smidt, Nynke; Swertz, Morris A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dotinga, Aafje; Vonk, Judith M.; van Dijk, Freerk; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    The LifeLines Cohort Study is a large population-based cohort study and biobank that was established as a resource for research on complex interactions between environmental, phenotypic and genomic factors in the development of chronic diseases and healthy ageing. Between 2006 and 2013, inhabitants

  7. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS) is a nationally representative public health survey based on linkage of information in the repeated Danish Health Interview surveys, 1986-2005, to the national Danish registers on health and welfare. It facilitates studies of self......-reported health behaviour and utilisation of healthcare services by subgroups and analysis of non-response bias. RESEARCH TOPICS: DANCOS data are utilised in a variety of analyses presented here by a few examples that emphasise the impact of modifiable risk factors on public health, description of non......-response bias, and the epidemiology of chronic pain and of osteoarthritis. Examples of DANCOS-based results are shown for each of the four topics. Smoking results in 24% of all deaths and, compared to other risk factors for public health, smoking accounts for the highest number of years of life lost. For non...

  8. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina

    2014-01-01

    of the harmonized MeDALL-Core Questionnaire (MeDALL-CQ) used prospectively in 11 European birth cohorts. METHODS: The harmonization of questions was accomplished in 4 steps: (i) collection of variables from 14 birth cohorts, (ii) consensus on questionnaire items, (iii) translation and back...... plan, conduct and support future common asthma and allergy research initiatives in Europe....

  9. Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Ripatti, Samuli; Lindqvist, Ida; Boomsma, Dorret; Heid, Iris M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Wilson, James F; Spector, Tim; Martin, Nicholas G; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Johansson, Asa; Marroni, Fabio; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Jonasson, Inger; Pattaro, Cristian; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nick; Pichler, Irene; Hicks, Andrew A; Falchi, Mario; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John; Magnusson, Patrik; Saharinen, Juha; Perola, Markus; Silander, Kaisa; Isaacs, Aaron; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Oostra, Ben A; Elliott, Paul; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sabatti, Chiara; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H-Erich; Smit, Johannes H; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peltonen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-11); LDL, P = 2.6 x 10(-10)), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 x 10(-10)), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 x 10(-16)), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 x 10(-9)), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-10); LDL, P = 4.4 x 10(-13)) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 x 10(-11)). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors.

  10. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette; Andersen, Zorana J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; de Faire, Ulf; de Hoogh, Kees; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Fratiglioni, Laura; Galassi, Claudia; Gigante, Bruna; Havulinna, Aki S; Hennig, Frauke; Hilding, Agneta; Hoek, Gerard; Hoffmann, Barbara; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Lanki, Timo; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K; Meisinger, Christa; Migliore, Enrica; Overvad, Kim; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nancy L; Pekkanen, Juha; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Goran; Pundt, Noreen; Pyko, Andrei; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ranzi, Andrea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Swart, Wim J R; Turunen, Anu W; Vineis, Paolo; Weimar, Christian; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Wolf, Kathrin; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated effects of air pollution on the incidence of cerebrovascular events. We assessed the association between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of stroke in European cohorts. Data from 11 cohorts were collected, and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual air pollution exposures were predicted from land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). The exposures were: PM2.5 [particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter], coarse PM (PM between 2.5 and 10 μm), PM10 (PM ≤ 10 μm), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Random-effects meta-analysis was used for pooled effect estimation. A total of 99,446 study participants were included, 3,086 of whom developed stroke. A 5-μg/m3 increase in annual PM2.5 exposure was associated with 19% increased risk of incident stroke [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.62]. Similar findings were obtained for PM10. The results were robust to adjustment for an extensive list of cardiovascular risk factors and noise coexposure. The association with PM2.5 was apparent among those ≥ 60 years of age (HR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.87), among never-smokers (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.88), and among participants with PM2.5 exposure < 25 μg/m3 (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.77). We found suggestive evidence of an association between fine particles and incidence of cerebrovascular events in Europe, even at lower concentrations than set by the current air quality limit value.

  11. Comparison of linkage disequilibrium patterns between the HapMap CEPH samples and a family-based cohort of Northern European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M; Wang, X; Littrell, J; Eckert, J; Cole, R; Kissebah, A H; Olivier, M

    2006-10-01

    The International HapMap Consortium has determined the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns of four major human populations. The aim of our investigation was to compare the LD patterns of the HapMap CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) samples with a family-based cohort of similar ancestry to determine its usefulness as a reference population for disease association studies. We examined four genomic regions on chromosomes 7q, 12p, and 14q totaling 14.3 Mb, initially identified in our linkage study of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Near identical patterns of LD were detected in both populations. Furthermore, tagSNPs selected based on the HapMap CEPH cohort data capture over 98% of the variants at an r2 > 0.8 in the disease cohort. This confirms the usefulness of the CEPH cohort of the HapMap as a reference sample for further investigations into the genomic variation of populations of Northern European descent.

  12. Outlook for the development of European forest resources; a study prepared for the European Forest Sector Outlook Study (EFSOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Brusselen, van J.; Pussinen, A.; Pesonen, E.; Schuck, A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Sasse, V.

    2006-01-01

    This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level

  13. Body mass index trajectories from 2 to 18 years - exploring differences between European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, L; Howe, L D; Sørensen, T I A

    2017-01-01

    ) and 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4764), and the Danish Aarhus Birth Cohort born in 1990-1992 (ABC) (N = 1920). We used multilevel models to estimate BMI trajectories from 2 to 18 years. We explored whether cohort differences were explained by maternal BMI, height, education or smoking during pregnancy and whether...

  14. Psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with psoriasis - a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todberg, T; Egeberg, A; Jensen, P

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is present in 2-3% of the adult European population(1) and 0.7-1.2% in children(1,2) . Adults with psoriasis have increased risk of depression(3) , and US data reported an increased risk of psychiatric diseases in pediatrics with psoriasis(4) , however European data are lacking. Primary...... outcomes were to examine the risk of psychiatric disorders including use of psychopharmacotherapy in children with psoriasis compared to healthy controls in a population-based cohort study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Psoriasis is present in 2-3% of the adult European population(1) and 0.7-1.2% in children(1,2) . Adults with psoriasis have increased risk of depression(3) , and US data reported an increased risk of psychiatric diseases in pediatrics with psoriasis(4) , however European data are lacking. Primary...

  15. Teaching European Studies: A Blended Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Christova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.

  16. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Pedersen, Marie; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Marit Aasvang, Gunn; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Vermeulen, Roel; Sokhi, Rajneet; Keuken, Menno; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-10-13

    Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts – Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m(3)}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m(3)], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m(3)], and NO(2) [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m(3)], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m(3), p=0.04]. We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742.

  18. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riboli, E.; Hunt, K.J.; Slimani, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978......-wide for prospective investigations on the aetiology of cancers (and other diseases) that can integrate questionnaire data on lifestyle and diet, biomarkers of diet and of endogenous metabolism (e.g. hormones and growth factors) and genetic polymorphisms. First results of case-control studies nested within the cohort...... are expected early in 2003. The present paper provides a description of the EPIC study, with the aim of simplifying reference to it in future papers reporting substantive or methodological studies carried out in the EPIC cohort....

  19. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analysis of genetic heterogeneity among recruitment cohorts of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Nicolas; Boudry, Pierre; Bonhomme, François; Camara, Mark D; Lapègue, Sylvie

    2009-12-01

    Marine species with high fecundity and high early mortality may also have high variance in reproductive success among individuals due to stochastic factors, making successful reproduction a "sweepstakes." In some cases, the impact is sufficient to reduce the effective number of breeders in wild populations. We tested two predictions of the sweepstakes reproductive success hypothesis in a French Atlantic population of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, by evaluating (1) whether individuals belonging to temporally discrete recruitment cohorts within a single reproductive season displayed reduced genetic variation relative to the entire adult population, and (2) whether these temporal cohorts of recruits were genetically differentiated from each other. We assayed genetic variation at four nuclear microsatellites and a 12S mitochondrial fragment in four recruitment cohorts. Nuclear markers provided no evidence for differentiation between recruitment cohorts and adults or between temporal cohorts. However, mitochondrial data indicate that the first temporal cohort showed significant differentiation with the last (Fst = 0.052, P < 0.05) and with the adult sample (Fst = 0.058, P < 0.05). These differences are most likely due to the smaller effective size of the mitochondrial genome-and hence its increased sensitivity to drift compared to the nuclear genome. This slight mitochondrial signal indicates a certain limitation in the number of contributing female parents in this species. The "sweepstakes" phenomenon was therefore limited in our case. Hypothetically, this phenomenon may occur or not, with a high variance as a result of the interaction between the oyster reproductive biology and different environmental conditions.

  20. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: Overall the proportion of this very preterm cohort who survived to discharge from neonatal care was 89.5%, varying from 93.2% to 74.8% across the regions. Less than 2% of infants

  1. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  2. Rare, Potentially Pathogenic Variants in ZNF469 Are Not Enriched in Keratoconus in a Large Australian Cohort of European Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sionne E M; Zhou, Tiger; Blackburn, Nicholas B; Mills, Richard A; Ellis, Jonathan; Leo, Paul; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Ridge, Bronwyn; Charlesworth, Jac C; Brown, Matthew A; Lindsay, Richard; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P

    2017-12-01

    The Zinc Finger Protein 469 (ZNF469) gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for keratoconus due to the association of an upstream polymorphism (rs9938149) with the disease in two independent studies, and the role of the gene in the autosomal recessive disease Brittle Cornea Syndrome. Coding variants in ZNF469 have been assessed for association with keratoconus in several small studies, with conflicting results. We assessed rare, potentially pathogenic variants in ZNF469 for enrichment in keratoconus patients in a cohort larger than all previous studies combined. ZNF469 was sequenced in 385 Australian keratoconus patients of European descent, 346 population controls, and 230 ethnically matched screened controls by either whole exome sequencing or targeted gene sequencing. The frequency of rare and very rare potentially pathogenic variants was compared between cases and controls using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests and further explored using a gene based test (Sequence Kernel Association Test [SKAT]), weighting on the rarity of variants. A total of 49 rare, including 33 very rare, potentially pathogenic variants were identified across all groups. No enrichment of rare or very rare potentially pathogenic variants in ZNF469 was observed in our cases compared to the control groups following analysis using χ2 or Fisher's exact tests. This finding was further supported by the SKAT results, which found no significant difference in the frequency of variants predicted to be damaging between cases and either control group (P = 0.06). Rare variants in ZNF469 do not contribute to keratoconus susceptibility and do not account for the association at rs9938149.

  3. Serum Endotoxins and Flagellin and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, So Yeon; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T.; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Affret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kritikou, Maria; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Werner, Mårten; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Freisling, Heinz; Stavropoulou, Faidra; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J.; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio; Bruce, W. Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. These processes may be contributed to by leakage of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, across the gut barrier. The objective of this study, nested within a prospective cohort, was to examine associations between circulating LPS and flagellin serum antibody levels and CRC risk. Methods 1,065 incident CRC cases (colon n=667; rectal n=398) were matched (1:1) to control subjects. Serum flagellin- and LPS-specific IgA and IgG levels were quantitated by ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for multiple relevant confouding factors. Results Overall, elevated anti-LPS and anti-flagellin biomarker levels were not associated with CRC risk. After testing potential interactions by various factors relevant for CRC risk and anti-LPS and anti-flagellin, sex was identified as a statistically significant interaction factor (pinteraction < 0.05 for all the biomarkers). Analyses stratified by sex showed a statistically significant positive CRC risk association for men (fully-adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartile for total anti-LPS+flagellin = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51; ptrend = 0.049) while a borderline statistically significant inverse association was observed for women (fully-adjusted OR= 0.70; 95%CI, 0.47-1.02; ptrend = 0.18). Conclusion In this prospective study on European populations, we found bacterial exposure levels to be positively associated to CRC risk among men while in women, a possible inverse association may exist. Impact Further studies are warranted to better clarify these preliminary observations. PMID:26823475

  4. Serum Endotoxins and Flagellin and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, So Yeon; Tran, Hao Quang; Gewirtz, Andrew T; McKeown-Eyssen, Gail; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bastide, Nadia; Affret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kritikou, Maria; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Castaño, José María Huerta; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Werner, Mårten; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Freisling, Heinz; Stavropoulou, Faidra; Ferrari, Pietro; Gunter, Marc J; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Bruce, W Robert; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-02-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in colorectal cancer development. These processes may contribute to leakage of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, across the gut barrier. The objective of this study, nested within a prospective cohort, was to examine associations between circulating LPS and flagellin serum antibody levels and colorectal cancer risk. A total of 1,065 incident colorectal cancer cases (colon, n = 667; rectal, n = 398) were matched (1:1) to control subjects. Serum flagellin- and LPS-specific IgA and IgG levels were quantitated by ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for multiple relevant confouding factors. Overall, elevated anti-LPS and anti-flagellin biomarker levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. After testing potential interactions by various factors relevant for colorectal cancer risk and anti-LPS and anti-flagellin, sex was identified as a statistically significant interaction factor (Pinteraction < 0.05 for all the biomarkers). Analyses stratified by sex showed a statistically significant positive colorectal cancer risk association for men (fully-adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartile for total anti-LPS + flagellin, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51; Ptrend, 0.049), whereas a borderline statistically significant inverse association was observed for women (fully-adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47-1.02; Ptrend, 0.18). In this prospective study on European populations, we found bacterial exposure levels to be positively associated to colorectal cancer risk among men, whereas in women, a possible inverse association may exist. Further studies are warranted to better clarify these preliminary observations. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Do inattention and hyperactivity symptoms equal scholastic impairment? Evidence from three European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Alina; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    children on inattention and hyperactivity symptoms and reported children's scholastic performance on basic skills. RESULTS: There was a significant association in all cohorts between core ADHD symptoms and scholastic impairment in reading, writing, and mathematics. Particularly, inattention was related...

  6. Safety and efficacy of the long-term adjuvant treatment of primary intermediate- to high-risk malignant melanoma (UICC/AJCC stage II and III) with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract. Results from a multicenter, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Bock, Paul R; Hanisch, Jürgen; Karasmann, Marita; Schneider, Berthold

    2005-01-01

    Mistletoe therapy is the most frequently used complementary treatment in cancer patients in Germany and Switzerland. However, its safety and efficacy were controversially discussed, also in case of malignant melanoma (MM). The present study should evaluate the therapeutic safety and efficacy of a long-term therapy with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract Iscador (FME) during post-surgical aftercare of primary intermediate to high-risk MM (UICC/AJCC stage II-III) patients and compare it with an untreated parallel control group from the same cohort. The study was designed as a multicenter, comparative, retrolective, epidemiological cohort study with parallel groups, carried out according to the guidelines of Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP). All patients suffered from surgically treated and histopathologically confirmed primary MM in UICC/AJCC stage II-III without distant metastases. In the study group, FME was administered subcutaneously 2-3 times weekly for at least three months, while the untreated control group was merely observed ("watchful waiting"). In both groups some patients also received radio-, chemo-, and/or immunotherapy. The patients were followed until the last visit or until death. Unselected, chronologically ordered, and standardized anonymous data from medical records that satisfied the predefined eligibility criteria were included for the "per protocol" analysis. Safety was assessed by the number of patients with FME-associated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and by the search for tumor enhancement. The primary endpoint of efficacy was the adjusted tumor-related survival. Secondary end-points were the overall-, the disease-free- and the brain metastasis-free survival. The survival results were analyzed after adjustment for baseline imbalances, treatment regimens and other potential confounders by the Cox proportional hazard regression method. 686 eligible patients (329 FME vs. 357 controls) from 35 centers were

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor haplotype and metabolic syndrome: the Lifelines cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Koper, Jan W; van den Akker, Erica L T; Franco, Oscar H; Stolk, Ronald P; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2016-12-01

    An excess of glucocorticoids (Cushing's syndrome) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene influence sensitivity to glucocorticoids and have been associated with aspects of MetS. However, results are inconsistent, perhaps due to the heterogeneity of the studied populations and limited samples. Furthermore, the possible association between functional GR SNPs and prevalence of MetS remains unexplored. Cross-sectional population-based cohort study. MetS presence and carriage of functional GR SNPs (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK, GR-9beta) were determined in 12 552 adult participants from Lifelines, a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. GR SNPs were used to construct GR haplotypes. Five haplotypes accounted for 99.9% of all GR haplotypes found. No main effects of functional GR haplotypes on MetS were found, but the association of GR haplotype 4 (containing N363S) with MetS was influenced by interaction with age, sex and education status (P haplotype 4 increased MetS presence in younger men (at or below the median age of 47; odds ratio 1.77, P = 0.005) and in people of low education status (odds ratio 1.48, P = 0.039). A glucocorticoid receptor haplotype that confers increased sensitivity to glucocorticoids appears to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, but only among younger men and less educated individuals, suggesting gene-environment interactions. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Meta-analysis of determinants for pet ownership in 12 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies: a GA2LEN initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, E; Roll, S; Chen, C-M; Herbarth, O; Wichmann, H-E; von Berg, A; Krämer, U; Mommers, M; Thijs, C; Wijga, A; Brunekreef, B; Fantini, M P; Bravi, F; Forastiere, F; Porta, D; Sunyer, J; Torrent, M; Høst, A; Halken, S; Lødrup Carlsen, K C; Carlsen, K-H; Wickman, M; Kull, I; Wahn, U; Willich, S N; Lau, S; Keil, T; Heinrich, J

    2008-11-01

    Studies on pet ownership as a risk or protective factor for asthma and allergy show inconsistent results. This may be on account of insufficient adjustment of confounding factors. The objective of this study was to describe determinants of cat and dog ownership in European families with and without allergies. Within the EU-funded network of excellence GA(2)LEN, we performed meta-analyses with data from 12 ongoing European birth cohort studies on asthma and allergy. Each of the birth cohort studies enrolled between 485 and 4089 children. Pet ownership, allergic status (asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema) of parents and siblings, parental education, access to ground floor, and number of people living at home were assessed by questionnaires. Among the 25 056 families from seven European countries cats (14.9%) were more common than dogs (12.0%). Allergic family history significantly reduced the odds to own a cat (adjusted combined random-effect OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.99), or dog (0.90; 0.86-0.94). A higher parental educational level had even more pronounced effects on cat (0.84; 0.71-0.98), and dog ownership (0.61; 0.54-0.70). Elder siblings reduced the odds to own cats, but not dogs. Convenient ground access significantly increased the odds, whereas crowding at home was not associated with cat or dog ownership. The chances to own a cat or dog were significantly reduced in allergic families, in parents with a higher educational level, and in homes without convenient ground access. In addition to parental allergies, social and housing factors should be considered as potential confounders in studies on pet exposure and allergic diseases.

  9. Ethnic differences in blood pressure from early pregnancy to postpartum: a Norwegian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waage, Christin W; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Jenum, Anne Karen; Michelsen, Trond M; Birkeland, Kåre I; Sletner, Line

    2016-06-01

    To examine blood pressure (BP) differences and changes between and within ethnic Western European, South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, African, and East European living in Norway, from early pregnancy to postpartum and to explore associations between BP and explanatory variables. This was a population-based cohort study of 811 healthy pregnant women, 59% had ethnic minority origin. Participants were from Western Europe, Eastern Europe, South Asia, East Asia, Middle East, and Africa. We performed ANOVA, generalized estimating equations linear regression and multiple linear regression analysis. At 15 weeks' gestation, mean SBP were 4.9-7.0 mmHg lower and mean DBP 2.1-3.4 mmHg lower for the non-Europeans compared with Western Europeans. SBP increased in all non-European groups from 15 weeks' gestation to 14 weeks' postpartum (P age, family history of cardiovascular disease, prepregnancy BMI, and prepregnancy physical activity. Age, prepregnancy BMI, prepregnancy physical activity, postpartum weight retention, and breastfeeding were independently associated with postpartum BP (P Pregnancy may have a more adverse effect on BP trajectories from early pregnancy to postpartum among non-European women compared with Western Europeans, despite their more favorable BP in early pregnancy.

  10. Resource use and costs of exenatide bid or insulin in clinical practice: the European CHOICE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskinen, Urpo; Matthaei, Stephan; Reaney, Matthew; Mathieu, Chantal; Ostenson, Claes-Göran; Krarup, Thure; Theodorakis, Michael; Kiljański, Jacek; Salaun-Martin, Carole; Sapin, Hélène; Guerci, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy) assessed patterns of exenatide bid and initial insulin therapy usage in clinical practice in six European countries and evaluated outcomes during the study. CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective, noninterventional observational study. Clinical and resource use data were collected at initiation of first injectable therapy (exenatide bid or insulin) and at regular intervals for 24 months. Costs were evaluated from the national health care system perspective at 2009 prices. A total of 2515 patients were recruited. At the 24-month analysis, significant treatment change had occurred during the study in 42.2% of 1114 eligible patients in the exenatide bid cohort and 36.0% of 1274 eligible patients in the insulin cohort. Improvements in glycemic control were observed over the course of the study in both cohorts (P bid cohort (P bid cohort and €3265.5 in the insulin cohort (€1791.9 versus €2465.5 due to costs other than those of injectable therapy). When baseline direct cost and patients' and disease characteristics were controlled for, mean direct costs differed by country (P bid, compared with insulin, therapy was compensated for by lower mean costs of other health service utilization. Costs associated with exenatide bid or insulin initiation varied across countries, highlighting the need to avoid generalization of resource use and cost implications of a particular therapy when estimated in specific country settings.

  11. Comparison of application of the ACC/AHA guidelines, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and European Society of Cardiology guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, Maryam; Leening, Maarten J G; Nanchen, David; Greenland, Philip; Graham, Ian M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Ikram, M Arfan; Stricker, Bruno H; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H

    2014-04-09

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines introduced a prediction model and lowered the threshold for treatment with statins to a 7.5% 10-year hard atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Implications of the new guideline's threshold and model have not been addressed in non-US populations or compared with previous guidelines. To determine population-wide implications of the ACC/AHA, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III), and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines using a cohort of Dutch individuals aged 55 years or older. We included 4854 Rotterdam Study participants recruited in 1997-2001. We calculated 10-year risks for "hard" ASCVD events (including fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease [CHD] and stroke) (ACC/AHA), hard CHD events (fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, CHD mortality) (ATP-III), and atherosclerotic CVD mortality (ESC). Events were assessed until January 1, 2012. Per guideline, we calculated proportions of individuals for whom statins would be recommended and determined calibration and discrimination of risk models. The mean age was 65.5 (SD, 5.2) years. Statins would be recommended for 96.4% (95% CI, 95.4%-97.1%; n = 1825) of men and 65.8% (95% CI, 63.8%-67.7%; n = 1523) of women by the ACC/AHA, 52.0% (95% CI, 49.8%-54.3%; n = 985) of men and 35.5% (95% CI, 33.5%-37.5%; n = 821) of women by the ATP-III, and 66.1% (95% CI, 64.0%-68.3%; n = 1253) of men and 39.1% (95% CI, 37.1%-41.2%; n = 906) of women by ESC guidelines. With the ACC/AHA model, average predicted risk vs observed cumulative incidence of hard ASCVD events was 21.5% (95% CI, 20.9%-22.1%) vs 12.7% (95% CI, 11.1%-14.5%) for men (192 events) and 11.6% (95% CI, 11.2%-12.0%) vs 7.9% (95% CI, 6.7%-9.2%) for women (151 events). Similar overestimation occurred with the ATP-III model (98 events in men and 62 events in women) and ESC model (50 events in men and 37 events in women). The C

  12. Odontogenic sinus tracts: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Tsesis, Igor; Slutzky, Hagay; Heling, Ilana

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence,location, and distribution of sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic consultation. This cohort study included 1,119 subjects referred for endodontic consultation, 108 of whom presented with sinus tracts. Following clinical and radiographic examination, the diameter of the rarifying osteitis lesion on the radiograph was measured and the path and origin of the sinus tracts determined. Signs and symptoms, tooth site,buccal/lingual location, and diameter were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Sinus tracts originated mainly from maxillary teeth (63.1%); only 38.9% originated from mandibular teeth. Chronic periapical abscess was the most prevalent diagnosed origin (71.0%). Broken restorations were highly associated with the presence of sinus tracts (53.0%). The most frequent site of orifices was buccal(82.4%), followed by lingual or palatal (12.0%). Orifices on the lingual aspect of the gingiva were observed in mandibularmolars. There was an 86.8% correlation between the occurrence of an apically located sinus tract and apical rarifying osteitis(P<.01). Sinus tract in the lingual or palatal aspect of the gingiva is relatively common. Practitioners should look for signs of sinus tract during routine examination

  13. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood Graves' ophthalmopathy: results of a European questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krassas, G. E.; Segni, M.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and its management in children and adolescents up to 18 years old with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Study design: This was a questionnaire study (QS) among members of the European Thyroid Association and the European Society for

  15. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2012 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.; Mattsson, Jens G.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2015-01-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

  17. Video-game epilepsy: a European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; da Silva, A M; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Segers, J P

    1999-01-01

    With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are also sensitive to a 50-Hz television, nonphotosensitive patients with a history of video-game seizures were described as well. The question arises whether this is a mere coincidence, provoked by fatigue and stress, is related to the reaction to the television screen itself, or depends on the movement and color of the pictures of this specific game. A European study was performed in four countries and five sites. All patients were selected because of a history of television, video- or computer-game seizures, with a history of sun-light-, discotheque-, or black and white pattern-evoked seizures, or were already known to be sensitive to intermittent photic stimulation. A total of 387 patients were investigated; 220 (75%) were female and 214 (55%) of those were Super Mario World and a standard relatively nonprovocative TV program, both on a 50- and 100-Hz television. Regardless of the distance, Super Mario World proved to be more provocative than the standard program (Wilcoxon, p computer-game seizure, were significantly more sensitive to pattern and to the 50-Hz television (chi square, p Super Mario, compared with the standard program (Wilcoxon, p = 0.001) and more sensitive with playing versus viewing (p = 0.016). Of the patients who were referred because of seizures in front of the television, or evoked by a video- or computer game, 14% proved not to be photosensitive. Although no difference in age or use of medication was found, twice as many men were found in this nonphotosensitive group.

  18. How to study the history of European law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the emerging academic field of European law was deeply involved in legitimating the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice in the 1960s. In the second part of the article, the starting point is to place mainstream legal and political science studies of European law in a historical perspective in order...... of the development of European law. To historians, mainstream legal and political science scholarship rather seems to be part of the research object....... constituted by the Commission’s legal service, transnationally organised pro-European jurists and the European Parliament. When the Court of Justice in the two key judgments, Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa V. ENEL (1964), took the decisive steps to transform European law into a semi-federal legal order...

  19. European contribution to the study of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egea, Javier; Fabregat, Isabel; Frapart, Yves M

    2017-01-01

    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better u...

  20. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.

    2002-01-01

    study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... fish represented 49% and 45% of the intake of total fish in women and men, respectively, with the greatest consumption in centres in Spain and Greece and the least in the German and Dutch centres. Consumption of fatty fish reflected that of total fish. However, the greatest intake of very fatty fish...

  1. Clinical and inflammatory characteristics of the European U-BIOPRED adult severe asthma cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Dominick E; Sousa, Ana R; Fowler, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    U-BIOPRED is a European Union consortium of 20 academic institutions, 11 pharmaceutical companies and six patient organisations with the objective of improving the understanding of asthma disease mechanisms using a systems biology approach.This cross-sectional assessment of adults with severe ast...

  2. Prostate-specific antigen patterns in US and European populations : Comparison of six diverse cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Tilling, Kate; Athene Lane, J.; Martin, Richard M.; Albertsen, Peter C.; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Ballentine Carter, H.; Bosch, J. L H Ruud; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Jeffrey Metter, E.; Neal, David E.; Parker, Christopher C.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there are differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis or changes in PSA levels between US and European populations of men with and without prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects and Methods: We analysed repeated measures of PSA from six clinically and

  3. Thiazolidinediones and Parkinson Disease: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Bullying and parasomnias: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya

    2014-10-01

    Environmental factors such as serious trauma or abuse and related stress can lead to nightmares or night terrors. Being bullied can be very distressing for children, and victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences. Unknown is whether being bullied by peers may increase the risk for experiencing parasomnias such as nightmares, night terrors, or sleepwalking. A total of 6796 children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort were interviewed at elementary school age (8 and 10 years) about bullying experiences with a previously validated bullying interview and at secondary school age (12.9 years) about parasomnias such as nightmares, night terrors and sleepwalking by trained postgraduate psychologists. Even after adjusting for pre-existing factors related to bullying and parasomnias, being bullied predicted having nightmares (8 years odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.44; 10 years OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.35-1.94) or night terrors (8 years OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.75; 10 years OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.18-1.98) at age 12 to 13 years. Especially being a chronic victim was associated with both nightmares (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.46-2.27) and night terrors (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.48-2.74). Being a bully/victim also increased the risk for any parasomnia at ages 8 or 10 years (8 years OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88; 10 years OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.30-2.36). In contrast, bullies had no increased risk for any parasomnias. Being bullied increases the risk for having parasomnias. Hence, parents, teachers, school counselors, and clinicians may consider asking about bullying experiences if a child is having parasomnias. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Occurrence, course and prognosis during the first year of disease in a European population-based inception cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic immune mediated diseases of unknown aetiology. Traditionally, the highest occurrence of both UC and CD is found in North America and Europe, including Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, while the diseases remain rare in Eastern Europe. Until recently, few population-based cohort data were available on the epidemiology of IBD in Eastern Europe. However, recent studies from Hungary and Croatia have reported steep increases in IBD incidence that means they are now comparable with Western European countries. The reasons for these changes remain unknown but could include an increasing awareness of the diseases, better access to diagnostic procedures, methodological bias in previous studies from Eastern Europe, or real differences in environmental factors, lifestyle and genetic susceptibility. The aim of this thesis was to create a prospective European population-based inception cohort of incident IBD patients in order to investigate whether an East-West gradient in the incidence of IBD exists in Europe. Furthermore, we investigated possible differences throughout Europe during the first year subsequent to diagnosis in terms of clinical presentation, disease outcome, treatment choices, frequency of environmental risk factors, as well as patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC). Finally, we assessed resource utilization during the initial year of disease in both geographic regions. A total number of 31 centres from 14 Western and 8 Eastern European countries covering a total background population of approximately 10.1 million participated in this study. During the inclusion period from 1 January to 31 December 2010 a total number of 1,515 patients aged 15 years or older were included in the cohort. Annual incidence rates were twice as high in Western Europe (CD: 6.3/100,000; UC: 9.8/100,000) compared to Eastern Europe (CD

  6. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  7. Diarrhoea in a large prospective cohort of European travellers to resource-limited destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitzurra Raffaela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence rates of travellers' diarrhoea (TD need to be updated and risk factors are insufficiently known. Methods Between July 2006 and January 2008 adult customers of our Centre for Travel Health travelling to a resource-limited country for the duration of 1 to 8 weeks were invited to participate in a prospective cohort study. They received one questionnaire pre-travel and a second one immediately post-travel. First two-week incidence rates were calculated for TD episodes and a risk assessment was made including demographic and travel-related variables, medical history and behavioural factors. Results Among the 3100 persons recruited, 2800 could be investigated, resulting in a participation rate of 89.2%. The first two-weeks incidence for classic TD was 26.2% (95%CI 24.5-27.8. The highest rates were found for Central Africa (29.6%, 95% CI 12.4-46.8, the Indian subcontinent (26.3%, 95%CI 2.3-30.2 and West Africa (21.5%, 95%CI 14.9-28.1. Median TD duration was 2 days (range 1-90. The majority treated TD with loperamide (57.6%, while a small proportion used probiotics (23.0% and antibiotics (6.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis on any TD to determine risk factors showed that a resolved diarrhoeal episode experienced in the 4 months pre-travel (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.59-2.54, antidepressive comedication (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.17-3.80, allergic asthma (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.10-2.54, and reporting TD-independent fever (OR 6.56, 95%CI 3.06-14.04 were the most prominent risk factors of TD. Conclusions TD remains a frequent travel disease, but there is a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Patients with a history of allergic asthma, pre-travel diarrhoea, or of TD-independent fever were more likely to develop TD while abroad.

  8. Diarrhoea in a large prospective cohort of European travellers to resource-limited destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzurra, Raffaela; Steffen, Robert; Tschopp, Alois; Mutsch, Margot

    2010-08-04

    Incidence rates of travellers' diarrhoea (TD) need to be updated and risk factors are insufficiently known. Between July 2006 and January 2008 adult customers of our Centre for Travel Health travelling to a resource-limited country for the duration of 1 to 8 weeks were invited to participate in a prospective cohort study. They received one questionnaire pre-travel and a second one immediately post-travel. First two-week incidence rates were calculated for TD episodes and a risk assessment was made including demographic and travel-related variables, medical history and behavioural factors. Among the 3100 persons recruited, 2800 could be investigated, resulting in a participation rate of 89.2%. The first two-weeks incidence for classic TD was 26.2% (95%CI 24.5-27.8). The highest rates were found for Central Africa (29.6%, 95% CI 12.4-46.8), the Indian subcontinent (26.3%, 95%CI 2.3-30.2) and West Africa (21.5%, 95%CI 14.9-28.1). Median TD duration was 2 days (range 1-90). The majority treated TD with loperamide (57.6%), while a small proportion used probiotics (23.0%) and antibiotics (6.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis on any TD to determine risk factors showed that a resolved diarrhoeal episode experienced in the 4 months pre-travel (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.59-2.54), antidepressive comedication (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.17-3.80), allergic asthma (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.10-2.54), and reporting TD-independent fever (OR 6.56, 95%CI 3.06-14.04) were the most prominent risk factors of TD. TD remains a frequent travel disease, but there is a decreasing trend in the incidence rate. Patients with a history of allergic asthma, pre-travel diarrhoea, or of TD-independent fever were more likely to develop TD while abroad.

  9. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  10. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv,; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive e...

  11. Dietary intake of acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obón-Santacana, M; Slimani, N; Lujan-Barroso, L; Travier, N; Hallmans, G; Freisling, H; Ferrari, P; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Racine, A; Clavel, F; Saieva, C; Pala, V; Tumino, R; Mattiello, A; Vineis, P; Argüelles, M; Ardanaz, E; Amiano, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J; Molina Montes, E; Key, T; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Peeters, P H; Trichopoulou, A; Bamia, C; Trichopoulos, D; Boeing, H; Kaaks, R; Katzke, V; Ye, W; Sund, M; Ericson, U; Wirfält, E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Skeie, G; Åsli, L A; Weiderpass, E; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Duell, E J

    2013-10-01

    In 1994, acrylamide (AA) was classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, AA was discovered at relatively high concentrations in some starchy, plant-based foods cooked at high temperatures. A prospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the dietary intake of AA and ductal adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreatic cancer (PC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort using Cox regression modeling. EPIC includes >500,000 men and women aged 35-75 at enrollment from 10 European countries. AA intake was estimated for each participant by combining questionnaire-based food consumption data with a harmonized AA database derived from the EU monitoring database of AA levels in foods, and evaluated in quintiles and continuously. After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 865 first incident adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas were observed and included in the present analysis. At baseline, the mean dietary AA intake in EPIC was 26.22 µg/day. No overall association was found between continuous or quintiles of dietary AA intake and PC risk in EPIC (HR:0.95, 95%CI:0.89-1.01 per 10 µg/day). There was no effect measure modification by smoking status, sex, diabetes, alcohol intake or geographic region. However, there was an inverse association (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.88 per 10 µg/day) between AA intake and PC risk in obese persons as defined using the body mass index (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), but not when body fatness was defined using waist and hip circumference or their ratio. Dietary intake of AA was not associated with an increased risk of PC in the EPIC cohort.

  12. Plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate and future risk of myocardial infarction in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierkes, Jutta; Weikert, Cornelia; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Boeing, Heiner

    2007-07-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that low concentrations of plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) are associated with cardiovascular events; however, few prospective studies of this issue have been conducted. We therefore investigated whether PLP concentrations are independently associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam Study. After exclusion of prevalent MI or stroke, incident cases of MI were identified among 26 761 participants (aged 35-65 y at baseline). The current analysis is based on a nested case-cohort study consisting of a control group of 810 subjects without MI or stroke at baseline and a case group of 148 subjects who had an MI during a mean follow-up period of 6.0 +/- 1.5 y. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between plasma PLP and risk of MI. In the age- and sex-adjusted analysis, subjects in the highest quintile of PLP had a significantly reduced risk of MI (hazard ratio: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.83). Adjustment for either low-grade inflammation or smoking diminished this association. When both low-grade inflammation and smoking were adjusted for, the association was abolished. In addition, adjustment for established risk factors also abolished the association between PLP and risk of MI. These findings from a prospective German cohort study suggest that PLP is not independently associated with risk of MI.

  13. The Hokkaido Birth Cohort Study on Environment and Children's Health: cohort profile-updated 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Ait Bamai, Yu; Yamazaki, Keiko; Miura, Ryu; Tamura, Naomi; Ito, Kumiko; Goudarzi, Houman

    2017-05-18

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking. The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the Hokkaido Study, to summarize the recent results, and to suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the basic characteristics of the cohort populations, discusses the population remaining in the cohorts and those who were lost to follow-up at birth, and introduces the newly added follow-up studies and case-cohort study design. In the Sapporo cohort of 514 enrolled pregnant women, various specimens, including maternal and cord blood, maternal hair, and breast milk, were collected for the assessment of exposures to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, bisphenol A, and methylmercury. As follow-ups, face-to-face neurobehavioral developmental tests were conducted at several different ages. In the Hokkaido cohort of 20,926 enrolled pregnant women, the prevalence of complicated pregnancies and birth outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age were examined. The levels of exposure to environmental chemicals were relatively low in these study populations compared to those reported previously. We also studied environmental chemical exposure in association with health outcomes

  14. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  15. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. Study Design and Setting: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  16. Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Peeters, P H M; Mulligan, A A; Navarro, C; Slimani, N; Mattisson, I; Lundin, E; McTaggart, A; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Haftenberger, M; Lagiou, P; Kalapothaki, V; Evangelista, A; Frasca, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der Schouw, Y T; Engeset, D; Skeie, G; Tormo, M J; Ardanaz, E; Charrondière, U R; Riboli, E

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5-12%) of all cohorts in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL. In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day-1 for men; 1.9 g day-1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups. Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.

  17. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland.

  18. What can cohort studies in the dog tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Carys A; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C; Handel, Ian G; Summers, Kim M; Clements, Dylan N

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of cohort studies in canine medicine to date and highlights the benefits of wider use of such studies in the future. Uniquely amongst observational studies, cohort studies offer the investigator an opportunity to assess the temporal relationship between hypothesised risk factors and diseases. In human medicine cohort studies were initially used to investigate specific exposures but there has been a movement in recent years to more broadly assess the impact of complex lifestyles on morbidity and mortality. Such studies do not focus on narrow prior hypotheses but rather generate new theories about the impact of environmental and genetic risk factors on disease. Unfortunately cohort studies are expensive both in terms of initial investment and on-going costs. There is inevitably a delay between set up and the reporting of meaningful results. Expense and time constraints are likely why this study design has been used sparingly in the field of canine health studies. Despite their rather limited numbers, canine cohort studies have made a valuable contribution to the understanding of dog health, in areas such as the dynamics of infectious disease. Individual exposures such as neutering and dietary restriction have also been directly investigated. More recently, following the trend in human health, large cohort studies have been set up to assess the wider impact of dog lifestyle on their health. Such studies have the potential to develop and test hypotheses and stimulate new theories regarding the maintenance of life-long health in canine populations.

  19. Estimation of Error Components in Cohort Studies: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of Dutch Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…

  20. The Cases of the European Values Study and the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article is a comparative analysis of the European Values Study (EVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS) using five analytical dimensions: agents, ideas, methods, institutions and context. From the outset, both surveys were closely connected to national and European social science...... institutions, had ties to the EU, and used survey techniques to address urgent contemporary political and social problems. Despite their similarities, the surveys represent two rather different constellations of social science knowledge production. The EVS emerged from a coalition of Catholic-oriented agents...... from a diverse set of social institutions driven by political and ethical concerns about social change in the 1960s and 1970s. The EVS used its links to various social institutions to set up and run the survey, and its ethical and political concerns and connections to Catholic Church organisations...

  1. Fraser syndrome : epidemiological study in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of

  2. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodrup Carlsen, K.C.; Roll, S.; Carlsen, K.H.; Mowinckel, P.; Wijga, A.H.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Torrent, M.; Roberts, G.; Arshad, S.H.; Kull, I.; Kramer, U.; von Berg, A.; Eller, E.; Host, A.; Kuehni, C.; Spycher, B.; Sunyer, J.; Chen, C.M.; Reich, A.; Asarnoj, A.; Puig, C.; Herbarth, O.; Mahachie John, J.M.; Van Steen, K.; Willich, S.N.; Wahn, U.; Lau, S.; Smit, H.A.; et al, X; Keil, T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE

  3. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J.; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. Objectives: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence....... Methods: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985–2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 µm (PM10), less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5–10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot...... in PM2.5. Conclusions: The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures....

  4. Elemental Constituents of Particulate Matter and Newborn's Size in Eight European Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Gehring, Ulrike; Beelen, Rob

    2016-01-01

    cohorts comprising 34,923 singleton births in 1994-2008. Annual average concentrations of elemental constituents of PM smaller than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression models. Adjusted associations between each birth...... measurement and concentrations of eight elements (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc) were calculated using random-effects regression on pooled data. RESULTS: A 200 ng/m(3) increase in sulfur in PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of LBW (adjusted odds ratio, 1.36, 95......% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.58). Increased nickel and zinc in PM2.5 concentrations were also associated with an increased risk of LBW. Head circumference was reduced at higher exposure to all elements except potassium. All associations with sulfur were most robust to adjustment for PM2.5 mass concentration...

  5. Association of AADAC Deletion and Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in a Large European Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Riff Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic influence where copy number variations are suggested to play a role in disease pathogenesis. In a previous small-scale copy number variation study of a GTS cohort (n = 111), recurrent exo...

  6. Does Low Participation in Cohort Studies Induce Bias?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2006-01-01

    Background: Participation rates in large cohort studies have dropped during the last two decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. Methods: The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from...... the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. Based on independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for three exposure-risk associations: a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, b) smoking during pregnancy...... intervals gave very similar results and a small simulation study showed that the coverage probabilities were close to the 95% nominal level Conclusion: For the three chosen associations the odds ratios were not biased by non-participation. The results are reassuring for studies based on the Danish cohort...

  7. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-06

    To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them.

  8. Cohort profile: LIFEWORK, a prospective cohort study on occupational and environmental risk factors and health in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedijk, M.; Lenters, V.; Slottje, P.; Pijpe, A.; Peeters, P.H.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Verheij, R.A.; Pieterson, I.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Rookus, M.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose LIFEWORK is a large federated prospective cohort established in the Netherlands to quantify the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. This cohort is also the Dutch contribution to the international Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS). In this paper, we

  9. Electrocardiograms of Children and Adolescents Practicing Non-competitive Sports: Normal Limits and Abnormal Findings in a Large European Cohort Evaluated by Telecardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Biasco, Luigi; Squarcia, Sandro; Cristoforetti, Yvonne; Bennicelli, Riccardo; Del Vecchio, Cecilia; Viacava, Cecilia; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to derive normal electrocardiographic values and to report the abnormal findings in a large contemporary European cohort of physically active children and young adolescents. In a 3-month period, data derived from subjects aged between 3 and 14 years and referred to the Telecardiology Centre (Genoa, Italy) for electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation as pre-participation screening for non-competitive sports were analyzed. A total of 2060 ECGs were recorded. Of those, 1962 did not show any morphological abnormality and were used to derive normality ranges for heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT interval, and voltage of R wave as measured in V1 according to age and sex. Findings and clinical implications of the 98 ECGs with abnormal findings were also reported. Abnormal ECG findings were not as uncommon as expected in this population, being manifest in about 5 % of subjects. However, major ECG anomalies (diffuse negative T-waves, pre-excitation) were present in just ten subjects (0.5 %). Lower mean heart rate values (from 90-100 bpm at 3 years of age to 80-85 bpm at 14 years of age) and lower rates of the prevalence of negative T-waves in the V3 lead (from 55-60 % at 3 years of age to 8-10 % at 14 years of age) were observed with increasing age. This is the first work reporting derived normal limits and abnormal ECG findings in a large contemporary European cohort of children and adolescents aged 3-14 years practicing non-competitive sports. Clear pathological alterations are extremely uncommon, deserving, when encountered, additional examinations. Even in a physically active population, the common features of an adult athlete's ECG are absent.

  10. European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müllerleile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Contemporary European Research User Username Password Remember me Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security teaching European studies The UACES Blog The Commission after the 2014 EP... Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Open Journal Systems Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2014 > Müllerleile European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox Andreas Müllerleile Abstract This article examines public engagement strategies for academics working in the field of European Studies. Should academics engage with the public? What are the most effective outreach strategies? And what are the implications for universities and departments? The article argues that engaging with the public should be considered an integral part for academics working on topics that relate to the European Union or European politics. The article has a theoretical and a practical dimension. The first part of the paper deals with the nature of public engagement, explaining why it is an important issue and how it differs from the mainstream understanding of public engagement. The practical part of the paper presents the idea of building an online presence through which academics can engage with the public debate both during periods of low issue salience and high issue salience. The final section includes a toolbox

  11. Familial aggregation of hypospadias: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Tine H; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Myrup, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common birth defects. However, its etiology remains largely unknown. The authors investigated the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to familial aggregation of hypospadias. Using Danish health registers, they identified 5,380 boys diagnosed...... with hypospadias in a cohort of 1,201,790 boys born in 1973-2005. Using binomial log-linear regression, they estimated recurrence risk ratios of hypospadias for male twin pairs and first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of a hypospadias case, which were 50.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.2, 75.5), 11.......6 (95% CI: 9.75, 13.7), 3.27 (95% CI: 2.47, 4.34), and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.88), respectively. Recurrence risk ratios did not differ for family members of a hypospadias case related to the same degree. In addition, the authors found no difference in the recurrence risk ratio for maternal compared...

  12. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m2. Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  13. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  14. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Studies in Korea: Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Won; Im, Jong Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Joo Sung; Han, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is defined as a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the intestine. Intestinal inflammation in IBD has been proposed to be attributable to the interplay between microbial, genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD are rapidly increasing apparently in other parts of the world, with dramatic increases especially in East Asia. Generally, cohort studies are useful for estimating the incidence, prevalence, natural course, prognosis, and risk factors of diseases. In particular, cohort studies performed in Western countries have well described the prevalence, risk factors, and natural course of IBD and investigated its genetic pathophysiology. However, the outcomes of IBD cohort studies performed in Korea are not as persuasive as those of Western studies because of the relatively low prevalence of IBD and short follow-up periods of the cohorts in Korea. Despite this critical limitation, members of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases have demonstrated outstanding results. Some unique features of IBD patients in Korea are well demonstrated, such as thiopurine-induced leukopenia or risks of opportunistic tuberculosis infection in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors. In this review, the present authors summarized the key points of the results of the cohort studies performed in Korea and explored future perspectives.

  15. Updating lung cancer mortality among a cohort of man-made mineral fibre production workers in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, L; Fletcher, A C; Cherrie, J; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Charney, N; Claude, J; Dodgson, J; Esteve, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R

    1986-02-01

    A historical cohort of 21,967 workers ever employed in 13 European factories manufacturing various types of man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) was observed until 1982. Overall there were 2719 deaths (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 111) of which 189 were from lung cancer (SMR = 125). For the glasswool and rockwool/slagwool production subcohorts the lung cancer SMRs rose with time since first exposure, exceeding 170 for the period of 30 or more years. Adjustment for regional variations in mortality substantially reduced the excess in the glasswool group, but not in the rockwool/slagwool. In neither subgroup was there any relationship of lung cancer mortality with length of employment. During the early years of rockwool/slagwool production there was the potential for much higher fibrous dust exposure than at present, because of the absence of dust suppressing oil and/or the use of a batch production process. In addition slag was widely used as a raw material. Amongst workers employed during the early phase, there were 10 lung cancer deaths giving SMRs of 270 and 244 for the periods 20-29 and 30 or more years since first exposure. This group accounts for most of the absolute excess of lung cancer for the rockwool/slagwool plants.

  16. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cust, Anne E; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Nöthlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quirós, J Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfält, Elisabet; Berglund, Göran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Göran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H M; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-10-15

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates p(heterogeneity) = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy.

  17. Pathology findings and validation of gastric and esophageal cancer cases in a European cohort (EPIC/EUR-GAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Fátima; Moutinho, Cátia; Pera, Guillem

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardia, non-cardia and intestinal and diffuse subtypes of gastric cancer may have different trends and etiological factors. However, the available information is not always collected in population cancer registries, and heterogeneous criteria have been applied for the histopathological...... classification of tumors. We describe the pathological features of incident gastric and esophageal cancers identified within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an investigation on gastric and esophageal cancer (EUR-GAST) in the EPIC project......, a validation study of diagnoses reported by EPIC centers was conducted by a European panel of pathologists. Original pathology reports, stained slides of tumors and the respective paraffin blocks were requested from the centers. RESULTS: The whole series encompassed 467 cancer cases (gastric and esophageal...

  18. Work disability after whiplash : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related

  19. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new ...

  20. Using full-cohort data in nested case-control and case-cohort studies by multiple imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2013-10-15

    In many large prospective cohorts, expensive exposure measurements cannot be obtained for all individuals. Exposure-disease association studies are therefore often based on nested case-control or case-cohort studies in which complete information is obtained only for sampled individuals. However, in the full cohort, there may be a large amount of information on cheaply available covariates and possibly a surrogate of the main exposure(s), which typically goes unused. We view the nested case-control or case-cohort study plus the remainder of the cohort as a full-cohort study with missing data. Hence, we propose using multiple imputation (MI) to utilise information in the full cohort when data from the sub-studies are analysed. We use the fully observed data to fit the imputation models. We consider using approximate imputation models and also using rejection sampling to draw imputed values from the true distribution of the missing values given the observed data. Simulation studies show that using MI to utilise full-cohort information in the analysis of nested case-control and case-cohort studies can result in important gains in efficiency, particularly when a surrogate of the main exposure is available in the full cohort. In simulations, this method outperforms counter-matching in nested case-control studies and a weighted analysis for case-cohort studies, both of which use some full-cohort information. Approximate imputation models perform well except when there are interactions or non-linear terms in the outcome model, where imputation using rejection sampling works well. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Quality standards for epidemiologic cohort studies : An evaluated catalogue of requirements for the conduct and preparation of cohort studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Krabbe, Christine E M; Schössow, Janka; Berger, Klaus; Enzenbach, Cornelia; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Schöne, Gina; Houben, Robin; Meisinger, Christa; Bamberg, Fabian; Hendel, Thomas; Selder, Sonja; Nonnemacher, Michael; Moebus, Susanne; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Cohort studies are a longitudinal observational study type. They are firmly established within epidemiology to assess the course of diseases and risk factors. Yet, standards to describe and evaluate quality characteristics of cohort studies need further development. Within the TMF ("Technologie- und Methodenplattform für die vernetzte medizinische Forschung e. V.") project "Quality management standards in cohort studies", a catalogue of requirements was compiled and evaluated, focusing on the preparation and conduct of epidemiologic cohort studies. The catalogue of requirements was established based on a consensus process between representatives of seven German epidemiologic cohort studies. For this purpose, a set of expert meetings (telephone, face-to-face, web-based) was conducted and the importance of each element of the catalogue was assessed as well as its implementation. A catalogue of requirements with 138 requirements was consented. It is structured into ten sections: 1. Study documentation; 2. Selection of instruments; 3. Study implementation, 4. Organizational structure; 5. Qualification and certification; 6. Participant recruitment; 7. Preparation, conduct and follow-up processing of examinations; 8. Study logistics and maintenance, 9. Data capture and data management; 10. Reporting and monitoring. In total, 41 elements were categorized as being essential, 91 as important, and 6 as less important. The catalogue of requirements provides a guideline to improve the preparation and operation of cohort studies. The evaluation of the importance and degree of implementation of requirements depended on the study design. With adaptations, the catalogue might be transferable to other study types.

  2. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide...... innovative guidelines to the advancement of more inclusive and empirically sensitive research methods in EU studies....

  3. Are Teachers Ready for CLIL? Evidence from a European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a European study on the main training needs which pre- and in-service teachers, teacher trainers, and coordinators consider they have in order to adapt to a bilingual education model. The macro-study has designed, validated and administered four sets of questionnaires to 706 informants across the whole of…

  4. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  5. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide inno...

  6. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... identified among participants in the Danish cohort study "Diet, Cancer and Health" in which 57,053 50-64 years old persons were included 1993-7. Medical records were retrieved and reviewed by an experienced physician using a detailed standardized form, and information on the diagnostic work-up and presence...

  7. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an...

  8. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  9. Predictive value of prostate specific antigen in a European HIV-positive cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Borges, Álvaro H; Ravn, Lene

    2016-01-01

    control study of 21 men with PCa and 40 matched-controls within EuroSIDA was conducted. Prospectively stored plasma samples before PCa (or matched date in controls) were measured for the following markers: total PSA (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Conditional......% CI 1.7, 12.9; PTestosterone and SHBG level were not associated with PCa. tPSA level >4 ng/ml had 99% specificity and 38% sensitivity. The optimal PSA cutoff was 1.5 ng/ml overall (specificity...

  10. Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Ripatti, Samuli; Lindqvist, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) .......8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors....

  11. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    for a wide range of analysis in a historical prospective design of determinants of morbidity and mortality, of health care utilization and of the social effects of ill health. DANCOS also allows studies of methodological issues, including analyzing the characteristics of non-respondents. Udgivelsesdato: 2003...

  12. Nutritional status of haemodialysis patients: comparison of Australian cohorts of Aboriginal and European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn; Carroll, Robert; Gallagher, Meghan; Meade, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether nutritional status differs between Australian Aboriginal and non Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects at satellite dialysis centres. Seventy-six (25 Aboriginal, 51 non-Aboriginal) prevalent haemodialysis patients were enrolled in a 3-month cross-sectional study. Each month anthropometric and biochemical measurements were collected. Nutritional status (diet history, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength) was assessed by a dietitian. PG-SGA detected mild to moderate malnutrition in 35% of Aboriginal patients and 25% of non-Aboriginal patients. The overall physical rating on the PG-SGA was significantly higher in Aboriginal patients, indicating the presence of a greater deficit in muscle mass in this population. Inter-dialytic weight gain was significantly greater in Aboriginal subjects (median [range] 3.0 [2.1-5.7] vs 2.5 [-0.3-5.0] kg, P1.6 and median normalized protein catabolic rate 1.5). Difficulties were encountered in obtaining dietary information from Aboriginal subjects using the diet history method. Subjects had acceptable parameters of dialysis adequacy; however, 35% had evidence of malnutrition. Further research should focus on establishing a knowledge base for the nutritional management for Aboriginal dialysis subjects, and the development of a validated individual dietary assessment method for use in this population group. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  13. Sustaining international partnerships: the European Master of Science Programme in Occupational Therapy, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilott, Irene; Kottorp, Anders; la Cour, Karen; van Nes, Fenna; Jonsson, Hans; Sadlo, Gaynor

    2013-06-01

    International partnerships are a mechanism for supporting the academic development of occupational therapy and promoting cultural competence. This case study describes the factors that have helped to sustain a post-qualifying programme implemented by five higher education institutions in Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK since 1999. Data collection methods were documentary analysis and the reflections of a purposive sample of six key informants. Cohort and outcome data, from 193 students from 31 countries who enrolled between 1999 and 2011, are reported. Each cohort comprises students from an average of eight countries to optimize inter-cultural dialogue. Four factors support sustainability. These are 1) supportive professional European networks; 2) timeliness and alignment with European higher education policy; 3) partnership structures and processes that emphasize joint decision making and accountability; and 4) the stimulus and satisfaction associated with internationalization. The main limitations are considering the OT-EuroMaster as an intrinsic case study and using opportunistic data collection that undermines the rigor and transferability of the findings. Future opportunities include doctoral networks, transnational research and sharing our curricula design with other Regions to spread the collaborative, capacity building endeavours more widely. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Separate and combined associations of obesity and metabolic health with coronary heart disease: a pan-European case-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Moons, Karel G M; Sweeting, Michael; Boer, Jolanda; Johnson, Laura; Huerta, José María; Agnoli, Claudia; Freisling, Heinz; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wennberg, Patrik; van der A, Daphne L; Arriola, Larraitz; Benetou, Vassiliki; Boeing, Heiner; Bonnet, Fabrice; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra M; Engström, Gunnar; Eriksen, Anne K; Ferrari, Pietro; Grioni, Sara; Johansson, Matthias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katsoulis, Michail; Katzke, Verena; Key, Timothy J; Matullo, Giuseppe; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Norberg, Margareta; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Saieva, Calogero; Skeie, Guri; Steffen, Annika; Stepien, Magdalena; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique; Langenberg, Claudia; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J; Danesh, John; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-02-01

    The hypothesis of 'metabolically healthy obesity' implies that, in the absence of metabolic dysfunction, individuals with excess adiposity are not at greater cardiovascular risk. We tested this hypothesis in a large pan-European prospective study. We conducted a case-cohort analysis in the 520 000-person European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study ('EPIC-CVD'). During a median follow-up of 12.2 years, we recorded 7637 incident coronary heart disease (CHD) cases. Using cut-offs recommended by guidelines, we defined obesity and overweight using body mass index (BMI), and metabolic dysfunction ('unhealthy') as ≥ 3 of elevated blood pressure, hypertriglyceridaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hyperglycaemia, and elevated waist circumference. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) within each country using Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazard regressions, accounting for age, sex, centre, education, smoking, diet, and physical activity. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight people (reference), HRs were 2.15 (95% CI: 1.79; 2.57) for unhealthy normal weight, 2.33 (1.97; 2.76) for unhealthy overweight, and 2.54 (2.21; 2.92) for unhealthy obese people. Compared with the reference group, HRs were 1.26 (1.14; 1.40) and 1.28 (1.03; 1.58) for metabolically healthy overweight and obese people, respectively. These results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. Irrespective of BMI, metabolically unhealthy individuals had higher CHD risk than their healthy counterparts. Conversely, irrespective of metabolic health, overweight and obese people had higher CHD risk than lean people. These findings challenge the concept of 'metabolically healthy obesity', encouraging population-wide strategies to tackle obesity.

  15. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    . Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high‐dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin...... for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...... was high and the adherence equally high with 685 children (98%) attending the 1 year clinic visit and 667 children (95%) attending the 2 year clinic visit. The COPSAC2010 birth cohort study provides longitudinal clinical follow‐up with highly specific end‐points, exposure assessments, and biobanking...

  16. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes : Results of a European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the

  17. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  18. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Southern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Southern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Spain, France,…

  19. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    to 20 years in a longitudinal register-based cohort study. Demographic, socioeconomic and health-related information were obtained through Danish administrative registers. RESULTS: Cancer survivors had a small but significantly increased risk for unemployment following cancer. Stratified analyses showed......AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...

  20. Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations : a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ferrari, Pietro; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias; Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Morois, Sophie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Misirli, Gesthimani; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Ros, Martine M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H.; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Rodriguez, Laudina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Hallmans, Goeran; Palmqvist, Richard; Roddam, Andrew; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Autier, Philippe; Hainaut, Pierre; Riboli, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration, dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations. Design Nested case-control study. Setting The study was conducted within the EPIC study, a cohort of

  1. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  2. Etiology of atopy in infancy: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora

  3. A Phenomenological Study of an Indonesian Cohort Group's Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiraharjo, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study was set to investigate how a cohort of ten Indonesian teachers experienced transformations in their teaching professionalism upon receiving an assignment of instructional leadership training to other school leaders. These ten teachers, who came from three different Indonesian Jesuit high schools and one archdiocese-based educational…

  4. Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearse, Rupert M.; Moreno, Rui P.; Bauer, Peter; Pelosi, Paolo; Metnitz, Philipp; Spies, Claudia; Vallet, Benoit; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Hoeft, Andreas; Rhodes, Andrew; Moreno, Rui; Pearse, Rupert; Damster, Sandrine; Golder, Kim; Hewson, Russell; Januszewska, Marta; Leva, Brigitte; Ramos, Vasco; Hoste, Eric; Huyghens, Luc; Jacobs, Rita; van Mossevelde, Veerle; Opdenacker, Godelieve; Poelaert, Jan; Spapen, Herbert; Leleu, Kris; Rijckaert, Dirk; de Decker, Koen; Foubert, Luc; de Neve, Nikolaas; Biston, Patrick; Piagnerelli, Michael; Collin, Vincent; Blauwen, Nadia den; Clauwaert, Charlotte; de Crop, Luc; Verbeke, An; Roeselare, Heilige Hartziekenhuis; Derumeaux, Pieter; Gardin, Christophe; Kindt, Sebastiaan; Louage, Sofie; Verhamme, Bruno; Druwé, Patrick; Lahaye, Ingrid; Rosseel, Francis; Rutsaert, Robert; Vanlinthout, Luc; de Kock, Marc; Forget, Patrice; Georges, Pascal; Grosu, Irina; Kahn, David; Lois, Fernande; Momeni, Mona; Pospiech, Audrey; Yemnga, Bernadette; Jadoul, Jean-Luc; Malbrain, Manu; Bosinceanu, Dana; Collard, Edith; Jorens, Philippe; Reyntiens, Dirk; Smitz, Carine; Vercauteren, Marcel; Fagnoul, David; van Obbergh, Luc; Goranović, Tatjana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Toplice, Krapinske; Oremuš, Krešimir; Bešlić, Gabrijela; Duzel, Viktor; Hauptman, Ada; Peremin, Sanja; Šribar, Andrej; Župčić, Miroslav; Brod, Slavonski; Mirković, Ivan; Bauer, Zlata Šarić; Belavić, Matija; Blažanin, Božidar; Katušin, Mirjana Lončarić; Krijan, Antonija Brozović; Mišković, Petar; Šimić-Korać, Nataša; Topić, Jasna; Žilić, Antonio; Žuni, Josip; Acan, Ivana; Adanić, Mirta; Ivanov, Nikola; Šarić, Jadranka Pavičić; Tomulić, Katarina; Visković, Nataša; Bošnjak, Silvana; Drenjančevic, Ivana Haršanji; Kristek, Gordana; Kvolik, Slavica; Markić, Stela; Rakipovic, Andreja Stojanovic; Tot, Ozana Katarina; Venzera- Azenic, Darija; Fabris, Lada Kalagac; Bačak-Kocman, Iva; Balenović, Igor; Bandić, Daniela; Deutsch, Patricia Adrianne Judith; Divjak, Loredana; Filipović, Ina Grčić; Gužvinec, Zvonka; Krznarić, Zrinka; Lončarić, Yvonne; Magaš, Jelena Vadlja; Mitrović, Marek; Okić, Marija; Pavlek, Mario; Ramov, Elza; Rezek, Karolina; Sekulić, Ante; Tomasevic, Boris; Mirić, Mirjana; Tomašević, Anita; Mahečić, Tina Tomić; Vrbanović, Vilena; Bobinac, Mirna; Božić, Alfred; Debelic, Danijela; Frkovic, Vedran; Batinica, Inga Mladić; Baranović, Senka; Gavranović, Željka; Kikec, Mirna; Maldini, Branka; Marić, Stela; Agnić, Ivan; Delić, Nikola; Dropulić, Nataša; Gašpić, Toni Kljaković; Ilić, Darko; Ivančev, Božena; Karanović, Nenad; Kuščević, Dorjan; Marović, Zlatko; Milić, Matija; Nevešćanin, Ana; Petković, Tatjana; Smoje, Mario; Brozović, Gordana; Jelisavac, Milana; Matolić, Martina; Oberhofer, Dagmar; Pavičić, Ana Marija; Šakić, Kata; Bozovic, Margarita Delija; Krecek, Zvjezdana Kotorac; Krobot, Renata; Andabaka, Tatjana; Bratanić, Mislav; Dzepina, Orjana; Kraljev, Martina; Šeric, Julija; Šimurina, Tatjana; Grujić, Rosa; Nacevski-Bulaja, Biljana; Barižon, Mirna; Danira, Vrančić; Dražen, Bulaja; Dušanka, Kimer; Halužan, Marijana Bašić; Joško, Žaja; Katica, Roca; Labor, Magda; Marinković, Tea Grgurević; Mihovilčević, Danči; Marija, Bego; Srečko, Marinković; Vranković, Srđan; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Neophytou, Kyriakos; Cerny, Vladimir; Cvachovec, Karel; Belikova, Barbora; Drab, Michal; Hudacek, Kamil; Krikava, Ivo; Stourac, Petr; Zadrazilova, Katarina; Bicek, Vladimír; Brabcová, Milena; Klozová, Radka; Vajter, Jaromír; Vymazal, Tomáš; Toft, Palle; Blichfeldt, Louise; Hansen, Bo Dilling; Moller, Kirsten; Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; Frederiksen, Joachim; Andersen, Johnny Dohn; Kühne, Jan Peter; Leivdal, Siv; Stendell, Line; Simonsen, Martin; Zoltowski, Marcin Konrad; Ali, Zahida Salman; Freundlich, Morten; Pilypaite, Jurgita; Clausen, Nicola Groes; Thorup, Line; Hansen, Frank; Bestle, Morten; Hansen, Christian Steen; Afshari, Arash; Bille, Anders Bastholm; Lefort, Michele; Secher, Erik L.; Liboriussen, Lisbeth; Herodes, Veiko; Härma, Eve; Marvet, Kadri; Pool, Kristiina; Kallas, Pille; Mägi, Triinu-Kreete; Sütt, Jaan; Vijar, Kerli; Visk, Evelin; Vinnal, Mare; Ellermaa, Jaanus; Liibusk, Liia; Tikkerberi, Artur; Falk, Ilme; Mällo, Esta; Talving, Jaak; Pettilä, Ville; Hovilehto, Seppo; Kirsi, Anne; Mustola, Seppo; Tiainen, Pekka; Toivonen, Juhani; Dabnell, Sandra; Kaminski, Tadeusz; Sysimetsa, Anu; Kaukonen, Maija; Silvasti, Päivi; Vainio, Kaisa; Lund, Vesa; Sjövall, Sari; Saarinen, Kari; Viitanen, Matti; Ahonen, Tommi; Alaspää, Ari; Zittling, Ritva; Saarinen, Aarne; Moisander, Annette; Wagner, Bodo; Laru-Sompa, Raili; Elomaa, Esa; Lavonen, Leena; Nevantaus, Juha; Geier, Klaus; Kavasmaa, Tomi; Koorits, Ursula; Kubjas, Mare; Lauritsalo, Seppo; Ottelin, Lauri; Palve, Markki; Pynnönen, Jari; Rääbis, Inga; Saarelainen, Minna; Heikkilä, Tapani; Kontula, Timo; Lehtimäki, Markku; Liimatainen, Jari; Moilanen-Oikarinen, Mari; Pakarinen, Marika; Palanne, Riku; Seppänen, Hanna; Pulkkinen, Anni; Vääräniemi, Heikki; Paananen, Sami; Koskenkari, Juha; Sälkiö, Sinikka; Vakkala, Merja; Koskue, Talvikki; Loisa, Pekka; Laitio, Ruut; Hautamäki, Raku; Koivisto, Simo-Pekka; Futier, Emmanuel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Leon, Alain; Bonnet, Francis; Marret, Emmanuel; Spielvogel, Catherine; Papageorgiou, Chryssa; Szymkiewicz, Olga; Tounou-Akue, Felix; Aubrun, Frederic; Bonnet, Aurélie; Gazon, Mathieu; Guiraud, Michel; Laurent, Virginie; Béclère, Antoine; Tachon, Guillaume; Demars, Nadège; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Mercier, Frederic; Landais, Alain; Mentec, Herve; Bazin, Marie; Gonnu, Sophie; Petit, Antoine; Albaladejo, Pierre; Almeras, Luc; Bataillard, Amélie; Rossi-Blancher, Marine; Lefrant, Jean Yves; Barthel, Florian; Hallel, Dan; Sbai, Hicham; Khalifeh, Pamela; Lidzborski, Lionel; Jully, Marion; Platon, Ecaterina; Pottecher, Julien; Baumgarten, Romain; Schultz, Christel; ElMiloudi, Fayçal; Lefebvre, Julie; Waton, Karen; Sprunck, Adrien; Steib, Annick; Thibaud, Adrien; Thuet, Vincent; Kieffer, Vianney; Dubois-Vallaud, Delphine; Jacob, Laurent; Becanne, Xavier; Cherfaoui, Salim; Gauzit, Remy; Godier, Anne; Lakhdari, Mourad; Samma, Charles; Bigeon, Jean-Yves; Burtin, Philippe; Halchini, Constantin; Lacroix, Magali; Pinna, Frederic; Barbes, Aurélie; Just, Bernard; Mateu, Philippe; Benayoun, Laurent; Berger, Philippe; Granier, Nathalie; Perrigault, Pierre Francois; Libert, Nicolas; de Rudnicki, Stephan; Merat, Stéphane; Bourdet, Benoit; Ferré, Fabrice; Minville, Vincent; Piriou, Vincent; Rague, Philippe; Wallet, Florent; Lebuffe, Gilles; Desbordes, Jacques; Robin, Emmanuel; Ichai, Carole; Orban, Jean-Christophe; Marx, Gernot; Sander, Michael; Gottschalk, André; Piontek, André; Unterberg, Matthias; Hilpert, Justus; Kees, Martin; Triltsch, Andreas; Wiegand-Löhnert, Carola; Glöckner, Christiane; Hohn, Andreas; Rose, Elmar; Schröder, Stefan; Wiese, Oliver; Awlakpui, Eli; Scheidemann, Mona; Wittmann, Maria; Ramminger, Axel; Dresden, Carus; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Heller, Axel; Marx, Christine; Neidel, Julia; Goldmann, Anton; von Heymann, Christian; Laetsch, Beatrix; Maahs, Esther; Scholz, Lars; Frenzel, Dirk; Massarat, Kyros; Lenhart, Franz-Peter; Reichle, Florian; Rudlof, Kristina; Borchers, Friedrich; Buettner, Christoph; Schmutzler, Martin; Burgard, Gerald; Lucht, Alexander; Wagner, Jan; Pilge, Stefanie; Schneider, Gerhard; Untergehrer, Gisela; Bis, Beata; Krassler, Jens; Dittmann, Jan; Haberkorn, Jörg; Eberitsch, Jürgen; Eberitsch, Karola; Nippraschk, Thomas; Wepler, Ulrich; Engelen, Wolf-Christian; Nau, Carla; Scholler, Axel; Schüttler, Jürgen; Wintzheimer, Simone; Bloos, Frank; Braune, Anke; Fergen, Daniela; Ludewig, Katrin; Paxian, Markus; Reinhart, Konrad; Graf, Nikolaus; Schwarzkopf, Konrad; Berger, Katharina; Habicher, Marit; Kasperiunaite, Ruta; Savelsberg, Sabine; Krep, Henning; Reindl, Michael; Weber, Matthias; Bauer, Wolfgang; Bingold, Florian; Christ, Saskia; Friederich, Patrick; Kaviani, Reza; Auer, Patrick; Bonnländer, Georg; Drescher, Jürgen; Braun, Roland; Eichenauer, Tim; Kerner, John; Bierbaum, Kathrin; Brünner, Horst; Grond, Stefan; Perez-Platz, Ursula; Andresen, Bent; Linstedt, Ulf; Stegmann, Nils; Erkens, Uwe; Kopcke, Jens; Meyer, Andreas; Brestrich, Hartmut; Ernst, Sandra; Merkel, Stella; Krieger, Lena; Luers, Frank; Weyland, Andreas; Noeldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Menckie, Thomas; Wasmund, Christina; Bredtmann, Ralph-Dieter; Erler, Ines; Raufhake, Carsten; Haumann, Christine; Möllemann, Angela; Oehmichen, Uwe; Sergejewa, Olga; Lehning, Brigitte; Czeslick, Elke; Geyer, Michaela; Malcharek, Michael; Sablotzki, Armin; Stier, Marina; Feld, Florian; Rossaint, Rolf; Simon, Verena; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Koulenti, Despoina; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Nanas, Serafim; Papastylianou, Androula; Psevdi, Aikaterini; Stathopoulos, Anastasios; Voulas, Asklepieion; Kanna, Efthymia; Koutsikou, Anastasia; Moustaka, Alexandra; Chovas, Achilleas; Komnos, Apostolos; Zafiridis, Tilemachos; Franses, Josef; Lavrentieva, Athena; Koraki, Eleni; Katsenos, Chrysostomos; Kasianidou, Maria Flora; Nasopoulou, Pantelia; Spyropoulou, Eleni; Gousia, Chrysoula; Katsanoulas, Constantine; Lathyris, Dimitrios; Kyriazopoulos, George; Sfyras, Dimitrios; Tsirogianni, Athanasia; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Lignos, Mihail; Matsota, Paraskevi; Christopoulos, Christos; Mouratidou, Alexandra; Vrettou, Efstratia; Boufidis, Spyros; Moka, Eleni; Arnaoutoglou, Eleni; Koulouras, Vasileios; Nakos, George; Papathanakos, Georgios; Anthopoulos, Georgios; Choutas, Georgios; Karapanos, Dimitrios; Tzani, Vaso; Gkiokas, Georgios; Nastos, Konstantinos; Nikolakopoulos, Fotios; Dragoumanis, Christos; Nikitidis, Nikos; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Theodorou, Vassiliki; Zacharouli, Danai; Kandi, Stella; Tasopoulos, Konstantinos; Arvaniti, Kostoula; Matamis, Dimitrios; Mplougoura, Eva; Petropoulou, Polixeni; Soumpasis, Ioannis; Amaniti, Ekaterini; Giannakou-Peftoulidou, Maria; Gkeka, Eleni; Soultati, Ioanna; Kokinou, Maria; Papatheodorou, Lambrini; Stafylaraki, Maria; Giasnetsova, Tatiana; Gritsi-Gerogianni, Nikoleta; Kydona, Christina; Kiskira, Olga; Koulentis, Ioannis; Apsokardos, Alexandros; Dimitropoulos, Konstantinos; Soldatou, Ourania; Nathanail, Christodoulos; Papazotos, Alexios; Tsakas, Pirros; Clouva-Molyvdas, Phyllis-Maria; Kolotoura, Athina; Sartzi, Monika; Papanikolaou, Spiros; Polakis, Pavlos; Karatzas, Stylianos; Kyparissi, Aikaterini; Papavasilopoulou, Theonymfi; Koukoubani, Triantafillia; Mastora, Evangelia; Spyropoulou-Pagdatoglou, Kyriaki; Nyktari, Vasileia; Malliotakis, Polychronis; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Bekos, Vasileios; Maragkou, Elisavet; Spring, Anna; Evagelatos, Stavros; Ioakeimidou, Aikaterini; Noulas, Nikos; Molnár, Zsolt; Csüllög, Emese; Elekes, Enikő; Molnár, Tamás; Katona, Zsuzsana; Kremer, Ildiko; Miko, Angela; Csomos, Akos; Galambos, Zsuzsanna; Szucs, Akos; Nyikos, Gyorgy; Szekeres, Gabor; Szabo, Ervin; Kranitz, Katalin; Simon, Melinda; Szigeti, Janos; Gaál, Emánuel; Havas, Attila; Ille, Alexandru; Bráz, Krisztina; Nagy, Geza; Sigurdsson, Gisli; Sigurbjörnsson, Fridrik T.; Sigurdsson, Gisli H.; Kárason, Sigurbergur; Sigurdardottir, Elin Edda; Blöndal, Ásbjörn; Gunnarsson, Björn; Westbrook, Andrew; Broderick, Alan; Hafeez, Parvaiz; Hanumanthaiah, Deepak; Brohan, Janette; O'Chroinin, Donal; Bailey, Kevin; Ramamoorthy, Karthik; Doyle, Yvonne; Freir, Noelle; O'Rourke, James; Jonson, Philip; Saeed, Sabir; Hayes, Ivan; Loughrey, John; Frohlich, Stephen; McCauley, Nuala; Ryan, Donal; Fitzpatrick, Gerry; Kevin, Leo; Thomas, Jubil; Warde, Barry; Woolhead, Alan; Duggan, Michelle; Egan, Cara; Crowley, Seamus; Lebese, Soloman; Bergin, Anne; Page, Rory; Collins, Daniel; McKenny, Michael; Della Rocca, Giorgio; Grasso, Salvatore; Bresciani, Anna; Carmino, Livio; Ghelfi, Silvia; Lorenzelli, Laura; Novelli, Maria Teresa; Pescarmona, Chiara; Roasio, Agostino; Gatta, Alessandro; Nastasi, Mauro; Sanseverino, Manlio; Tinti, Carla; Bianchin, Andrea; Tormena, Maria; Franco, Antonio; Marini, Federica; Di Mauro, Piero; Rapido, Francesca; Tommasino, Concezione; Bellotti, Ferdinando; Boninsegna, Daniele; Castellani, Gianluca; Sances, Daniele; Spano, Gianluca; Tredici, Stefano; Vezzoli, Dario; Fucecchio, Igneo; Bacci, Alessandro; Coppini, Roberta; Dell'unto, Sandro; Mori, Emanuele; Stanzani, Maria Rosa; Tosi, Monica; Collareta, Michele; Forfori, Francesco; Franchi, Matteo; Mancino, Giuseppe; Battistella, Massimo; Baricocchi, Elisa; Bona, Francesco; Debernardi, Felicino; Giacoletto, Gianmarco; Iacobellis, Antonio; Massucco, Paolo; Moselli, Nora; Muratore, Andrea; Palomba, Graziella; Sardo, Elena; de Simone, Michele; Suita, Luisa; Zocca, Edoardo; Bucci, Barbara; Della Corte, Francesco; Piciucco, Tiziana; Viarengo, Valeria; Bettelli, Gabriella; Cantarini, Eugenia; Giampieri, Marina; Tanfani, Alessandra; Recchia, Eugenio; Milano, S. Raffaele; Bignami, Elena; Bruno, Giovanna; Costagliola, Roberto; Gandolfi, Azzurra; Greco, Massimiliano; Lembo, Rosalba; Monti, Giacomo; Nicelli, Elisa; Pasculli, Nicola; Turi, Stefano; Baroselli, Antonio; Brazzoni, Marcella; Buttazzoni, Mattia; Buttera, Stefania; Centonze, Carlo; Serena, Giovanni; Spagnesi, Lorenzo; Toretti, Ilaria; Vilardi, Anna; Zearo, Ester; Arpino, Ines; Baraldi, Sara; Guarnerio, Chiara; Molene, Vincenzo; Monea, Maria Concetta; Vaccarisi, Enrico; Vicari, Luigi; Albante, Alida; Aversano, Marco; Loiacono, Cinzia; Marandola, Maurizio; Fusari, Maurizio; Petrucci, Nicola; Galla, Amerigo; Mascia, Antonio; Primieri, Paolo; Di Noto, Anna; Gratarola, Angelo; Molin, Alessandro; Spagnolo, Luigi; Spena, Claudio; Calligaro, Plinio; Marchiotto, Simonetta; Merlini, Alberto; Pedrazzoli, Eleonora; Perina, Giulia; Visentin, Renea; Fumagalli, Roberto; Garbagnati, Andrea; Manetti, Bruna; Snaier, Chiara; Somaini, Marta; Farnia, Antonio; Nani, Roberto; Pierantonio, Novello; de Michele, Michele; Gazzanelli, Sergio; Pugliese, Francesco; Ruberto, Franco; Anna, Universitaria S.; Bergamini, Elena; Tassinati, Tania; Capuzzo, Maurizia; Cirillo, Vera; Tufano, Rosalba; Oggioni, Roberto; Parrini, Vieri; Brunori, Emanuela; Capone, Micaela; Carbone, Luigi; Corradetti, Francesco; Elisei, Daniele; Fiorentino, Stefano; Francesconi, Maurizio; Gattari, Diego; Gorgoglione, Maria; Lacobone, Emanuele; Minnucci, Francesco; Montironi, Claudio; Riccioni, Gianrenato; Tappata, Giuseppe; Zompanti, Valeria; Verdenelli, Paola; Cerutti, Elisabetta; Ranieri, Vito Marco; Golubovska, Iveta; Grigorjevs, Sergejs; Rikmane, Maija; Rozkalne, Daina; Stepanovs, Jevgenijs; Suba, Olegs; Kazune, Sigita; Miscuk, Aleksej; Nemme, Janis; Oss, Peteris; Sipylaite, Jurate; Macas, Andrius; Ragaisis, Vytautas; Kontrimaviciute, Egle; Tomkute, Gabija; Boerma, Christiaan; Kramer, Irene Fleur; Poeze, Martijn; Ziekenhuis, Antonius; Maria, John; Pelzer, Gerardus; Winsser, Lex; Nijsten, Maarten; Schoorl, Michiel; Spanjersberg, Rob; Buhre, Wolfgang; Dieleman, Stefan; van Klei, Wilton; Bouw, Martijn; Pickkers, Peter; van der A, Marieke; Schreiner, Frodo; Zandvliet, Ria; van den Berg, Roy; de Wit, Esther; Keijzer, Christaan; Hollmann, Markus; Preckel, Benedikt; van Acker, Gijs; Dennesen, Paul; Veld, Bas; Kuijpers-Visser, Agnes; Inan, T.; Koopman-van Gemert, A.; Ponssen, Huibert; Brouwer, Tammo; Koopmans, Matty; van Bommel, Jasper; van Duijn, Ditty; van der Hoven, Ben; Ormskerk, Patricia; Beck, Oliver; Schiere, Sjouke; Reidinga, Auke; Venema, Allart; Hoogendoorn, Marga; Olthof, Kees; Flaatten, Hans; Jammer, Ib; Dokka, Vegard; Monsen, Svein Arne; Ytrebo, Lars Marius; Noursadeghi, Mostafa; Shahzad, Ahmed; Boksasp, Ola Dagfinn; Roiss, Christoph; Strietzel, Hans Frank; Gina, Anne; Berntsen, Schie; Haugland, Helge; Vingsnes, Svein Ove; Axelsson, Patric; Olsen, Thomas; Katre, Sanjay; Aakeroey, Kristin; Mikstacki, Adam; Tamowicz, Barbara; Bożiłow, Dominika; Goch, Robert; Grabowski, Piotr; Kupisiak, Jacek; Małłek, Małgorzata; Szyca, Robert; Kostyrka, Włodzimierz; Choma, Robert; Jankowski, Grzegorz; Kościelniak, Władysław; Pietraszek, Paweł; Szarowar, Bartosz; Matos, Ricardo; França, Carlos; Lacerda, António Pais; Ormonde, Lucindo; Rosa, Rosário; Pereira, Inês; Vitor, Paula; Bento, Henrique Completo; Lopes, Maria Raquel; Carvalho, Marques; Faria, Manuela; de Sousa, Ana Cláudia; de Freitas, Pereira; Almeida, Eduardo; Mealha, Rui; Vicente, Rachel; Monte, Raquel; Rua, Fernando; Barros, Nelson; Esteves, Francisco; Gouveia Pinheiro, Célia Maria; Real, Vila; Oliveira, Vítor Miguel; Oliveira, Maria Fátima; Martins, Isabel; Saraiva, José Pedro; Assunção, José Pedro; Bártolo, Anabela; Carvalho, Anabela; Correia, Carlos; Martins, Salomé; Milheiro, Ruth; Diaz, Alejandro; Gonçalves, Maria Imelda; Ribeiro, Rosa; Estilita, Joana; Glória, Carlos; de Almeida, José; Barros, Filipa; Ramos, Armindo; Camara, Margarida; Maul, Edward Richard; Nobrega, Julio; Langner, Anuscka; Maia, Dionísio; Afonso, Ofélia; Faria, Filomena; Serra, Sofia; Botelho, Maria Manuela; Ferreira, Pedro; Mourão, Luís; Oliveira, Ana Vintém; Resende, Margarida; Aleman, Miguel; Fonseca, Jorge; Isidoro, Marta; de Meneses, Helena; Pêgas, António; Pereira, José; Pereira, Luis; Ramos, Bárbara; Matos, Francisco; Castro, Maria de Lurdes Gonçalves; Martins, Ana; Ramos, Cristina; de Sousa, Manuel; Bento, Luís; Botas, Conceição; Lopes, Vitor; Mendes, Rosa; Grigoras, Ioana; Blaj, Mihaela; Damian, Mihaela; Lupusoru, Andreea; Ristescu, Irina; Codreanu, Monica; Diaconescu, Ciresica; Nistor, Alina; Stelian, Dorin Stanescu; Streanga, Livia; Berneanu, Maria; Bordeianu, Cristina; Florenta, Calarasu; Iacob, Alina; Lupu, Mary Nicoleta; Mocanu, Iulian; Moraru, Coca; Meran, Carleta; Nicolae, Bacalbasa; Sandu, Madalina; Turcanu, Roxana; Epure, Florina; Grigore, Monica; Hotaranu, Cristina; Popescu, Nicoleta; Baban, Oleg; Baciu, Manuela; Ciobanu, Aurica; Denciu, Catalin Ioan; Gurau, Vitalie; Maftei, Ion; Moldovan, Ion; Ungureanu, Liviu; Bogdan, Prodan; Corneci, Dan; Dinu, Melania; Madalina, Dutu; Rely, Manolescu; Silvius, Negoita; Tomescu, Dana; Gabriela, Droc; Dinescu, Stelian Adrian; Calin, Mitre; Ionescu, Daniela; Margarit, Simona; Vasian, Horatiu; Albu, Corina; Balasa, Carmen; Cadrigati, Alina; Dragulescu, Dorian; Gavra, Loredana; Hentia, Ciprian; Macarie, Claudiu; Manescu, Mihaela; Nediglea, Ioan; Ocica, Dana; Ovidiu, Bedreag; Papurica, Marius; Plavat, Cosmin; Popa, Claudia; Ramneantu, Mihaela; Sandesc, Dorel; Sandici, Zoran; Sarandan, Mihaela; Belciu, Ioana; Tincu, Eugen; Ursu, Irina; Aignatoaie, Mariana; Huzuneanu, Mariana; Cocu, Simona; Hagau, Natalia; Ciubotaru, Roxana; Copotoiu, Sanda-Maria; Copotoiu, Ruxandra; Ioana, Ghitescu; Kovacs, Judit; Leonard, Azamfirei; Szederjesi, Ianos; Genoveva, Vanvu; Mosnegutu, Simona; Surbatovic, Maja; Djordjevic, Dragan; Djordjevic, Biljana; Grujic, Krasimirka; Jovanovic, Dusko; Krstic-Lecic, Ivana; Obradovic, Jovana; Zeba, Snjezana; Jevdjic, Jasna; Miletic, Milos; Zunic, Filip; Bulasevic, Aleksandra; Brko, Radoslava; Gazibegovic, Narcisa; Kendrisic, Mirjana; Vojinovic, Radisa; Firment, Jozef; Zahorec, Roman; Capková, Judita; Grochova, Monika; Trenkler, Stefan; Griger, Martin; Bakosova, Erika; Kvasnica, Martin; Saniova, Beata; Sulaj, Miroslav; Zacharovska, Andrea; Simkova, Alexandra; Číková, Andrea; Gebhardtova, Andrea; Hanuljaková, Slávka; Koutun, Juraj; Martonová, Andrea; Žilinčárová, Veronika; Galkova, Katarína; Krbila, Stefan; Sobona, Viliam; Ocenasova, Marieta; Novak-Jankovic, Vesna; Stecher, Adela; Stivan, Feri; Grynyuk, Andriy; Damjanovska, Marija; Kostadinov, Ivan; Knezevic, Mile; Malivojevic, Marko; Borovsak, Zvonko; Kamenik, Mirt; Mekiš, Dušan; Osojnik, Irena; Kosec, Lučka; Kapš, Silva Ostojič; Aleksic, Dragoslav; Gerjevič, Božena; Kalan, Katja; Ursic, Tomaz; Aldecoa, Cesar; González, Juan Montejo; Artigas, Anna; Garcia, Andres; Lisi, Alberto; Perez, Isabel; Perez, Gisela; Poch, Nuria; Vaquer, Sergi; Balciscueta, Goiatz; Barrasa, Helena; Cabanes, Sara; Maynar, Javier; Poveda, Yolanda; Rodero, Amaia Quintano; Vallejo, Ana; Duque, Patricia; Garcia-Bunger, Beatriz; Elvira, Maria Adoracion; Lajara, Ana María; Palencia, María; Ramos, Rafael; Fernandez, Ana Saez; León, Juan Tirapu; López, Jaione Iza; Murillo, Francisco Yoldi; Ramirez, Eva Turumbay; Rico, Patricia Unzué; Patricia, Marta; Vizcaíno, Martín; Bernat Álvarez, Maria José; Real, Kenneth Planas; Serra, Arantxa Mas; Aracil, Norma; Bodega, Begoña Menendez; García, Raquel Fernández; García, Marivi Álvarez; Gordon, Borja de la Quintana; Jodrá, Alicia Gutiérrez; López, Angela De Santos; Ros, Juan José Llavador; Soto, Rocío Ayala; Sepúlveda, Isabel; Díez, Esperanza Pascual; Fernández, Luisa Fernández; Gulina, Carlos Soria; Arviza, Laura Pérez; Fernandez, Lorena Mouriz; Gómez, Antía Río; Martínez, Concepción Alonso; Rodríguez, Ana Belén Rodríguez; Soto, Carmen Lopez; Garcia, Clara; Lorenzo, Mario; Pinilla, Elena; Rico, Jesus; Ruperez, Irene; Alonso, Eduardo; Leira, Fernando; Maseda, David Pestaña Emilio; Royo, Concepcion; Villagran, Jose; Candi, Giralt Murillo; Esteva, Garcia Eduardo; Folgado, Raquel Mansilla; Fornaguera, Nadal Joan; Montse, Pijoan Calonge; Prat, Anna Sape; Sintes, Dolores; Arteta, Donaldo Arteta; Delgado, Horacio García; López-Cuervo, Juan Fajardo; López, Mikel Celaya; Ramírez, Alejandro; Saldaña, Francisco José; Aliste, Pilar; Anchuelo, Ana Hermira; Campos, Ascensión García; Catalán, Mercedes; Gómez, Mónica García; Gonzalaez, Olga Gonzalez; López, Eloísa López; Navacerrada, Isabel Real; de Quevedo, Sara Arlanzón; Serrano, Matilde Gonzalez; Silvestre, Francisco Perez-Cerdá; Torrente, Francisco Martinez; Arocas, Blanca; Martinez, Ernesto Pastor; Soro, Marina; Maroto, Fernando; Algarra, Ruth Robledo; Aleixandre, Inés Silla; Argente, Gemma Rodriguez; Lleó, Ana Broseta; Rubio, Antonio Vela; Sánchez, José Luis Vicente; Valcárcel, Irene Enríquez; Balust, Clara; Balust, Jaume; Borrat, Xavier; Carretero, Maria Jose; Gracia, Isabel; Matute, Purificacion; Mercadal, Jordi; Pujol, Roger; Tena, Beatriz; Ubre, Marta; Albalad, Dolores Dorda; Alcaide, Concepción Muñoz; Caballero, Jesus; Cervantes, Angels Camps; Clanchet, Miriam de Nadal; Estruch, Nuria Montferrer; Ferrer, Mercè Ballvé; Fornells, Albert Lacasta; Galera, Eduard Terrer; Martinez, Irene Garcia; Muñoz, Susana Manrique; Pelavski, Andres; Perez, Pilar Tormos; Posada, Miguel Angel Gonzalez; de Prat, Ivette Chocron; Rello, Jordi; Serrano, Llum García; Sieiro, José Manuel Naya; Silva, Lorena; Sole, Maria Jose Colomina; Suñé, Alfons Biarnes; Villach, Isabel Rochera; Herreras, José Ignacio Gómez; Poves, Rodrigo; Rafael, Beatriz Martinez; Almeida, Icier Martinez; Collates, Angel Fernandez; Bartolomé, Maria Jose; Cimadevilla, Bonifacio; González, Antonio Manuel González; Llevot, Jose Manuel Rabanal; Mira, Juan Carlos Diaz de Terán; Molina, Begoña González; Pardo, Sara; Sánchez, Carlos López; Williams, Monica; Zaldibar, Estibaliz; Corsini, Lourdes Muñoz; Fraile, José Ramón Rodríguez; de la Lastra, Maria; Sacramento, Monir Kabiri; Saña, Francisco Javier López; Ålvarez, Josep Trenado; Bulnes, Maria Luisa Cantón; Carrasco, Violeta Gándara; Crespo, María del Rocío Míguez; Cubillos, Diana Narváez; Laza, Enrique Laza; Pérez, María del Pino Heredia; Seisdedos, Ángel Arenzana; Torres, Bartolomé Fernández; Ampuero, Marian Santos; Llano, Marta Chicot; Mata, Esperanza; Munoz, Manuel; Orts, Mar; Planas, Antonio; Ramasco, Fernando; Roman, Carlos; Durán, Marina Varela; Fernandez, Sabela del Río; Otero, Yolanda Sanduende; Pineiro, Susana Lopez; Pardal, Cristina Barreiro; Alcantud, Jesús Fernández; Antolinos, Mercedes Ayuso; Barrios, Francisco; Casanova, Ana Collantes; Castro, Manuel Ruiz; Crespo, Beatriz Infantes; Felipe, Uzuri Lancha; Fuster, Marta Liceras; García, Máximo Sanz; Garrote, Begoña Herrero; Gonzalez, Ricardo Moreno; Granero, Maria José Montes; de la Guía, Carlos Lloreda; López, Raquel Chaves; López, Santiago de Frutos; Martinez, Jose Javier Marco; Mostaza, Angel Garcia; Moreno, Antonio Jiménez; Osado, Irene Riquelme; Pastor, Ana Bardina; Peña, Rosa; Pérez, Mónica Rustarazo; Piña, María Aliaño; Romero, Carlos Aranda; Rodríguez, Elena Rodríguez; Sáez, Vicente Pedroviejo; Safatle, Fernando; Salvan, Javier Hernández; Sampedro, Mar Galán; de la Torre, Patricia Alfaro; Toro, Jonatan Pérez; Unzúe, Crsitina Lasa; Vargas, Maria José; Bernal, David Garcia; Echevarria, Mercedes; Iglesias, Alejandro Ubeda; Loza, Ana; Morillo, Araceli Rodriguez; Serrano, Pedro Diaz; Sevilla, Fernando Caba Barrientos; Cacho, Elena; Calderón, Ricardo; Dufur, Mercedes; Marginet, Carolina; Monedero, Pablo; Yepes, Maria José; Alvarez, Luzdivina Rellán; Carballal, Francisca Fernández; Castiñeiras, Alberto Pensado; García, Paula Dieguez; López, Lorena Ramos; Maceiras, Pablo Rama; Puente, María Socorro Martínez; Rilo, Maria Teresa Rey; Alonso, Ana Esther Trujillo; Fernández, Sonia Rodríguez; García, Rafael Omaña; García, Aníbal Pérez; Puentes, Rafael Bello; Aguado, Domingo Nunez; Carballo, Carlos Lopez; Fernandez, Ricardo Fernandez; Presedo, Amadeo Toledo; de Rabago, Ricardo Bermejo Diaz; Velasco, Ana Rodriguez; Capel, Yolanda Jiménez; Cortés, Ana Fernández; García, Esther Martínez; Gimeno, Laura Martinez; Klamburg, Jordi; Omedas, Rosa Castillo; Núñez, Miriam González; Maristany, Clara Llubià; Ruiz, Enrique Moret; Artigas, Xavier; Castrillón, Sebastian; Espinosa, Nieves; Gomez-Caro, Ana María; Illa, Susana; India, Inmaculada; Martín-Huerta, Beatriz; Moral, Victoria; Moreno, Marisa; Fernández, Cristina Iglesias; García, Violeta Fernández; Hernández, Pedro Picatto; Checa, Angel Alberto Honrubia; Diaz, David Salvatierra; Noguera, Manuel Linero; Varela, Ignacio Pujol; Gallego, Miguel González; García, Oscar Martínez; Irujo, José Javier Ariño; Perrino, Carlos González; Picazo, Julio Rey; Timoneda, Francisco López; Arroyo, María Manzanero; Blanco, Isabel Albalá; Borja, Marcos Martínez; Burcio, Sara Martín; Castro, Nilda Martinez; Cerdeiriña, Aránzazu Puente; Concostrina, Marta de la Torre; Cristina, Medrano Viñas; Díaz, Trinidad Dorado; Esteruelas, Juan Avellanosa; Ingelmo, Ildefonso Ingelmo; Insuga, Paco Duran; Llamas, Elisabeth Claros; Lopez, Jose Juan Martín; Martín, María Beltran; Martín, Elena Elías; Mesa, Eva Ureta; Monterde, Manuela Loren; Montoiro, Paloma Alonso; Móstoles, Maria Luisa Gonzalez; Olarte, Eva Velasco; Pérez, Adolfo Martínez; Perez, Fernando Domínguez; Romero, Ana Serrano; Rous, Diego Parise; Ruiz, Nuria Mané; Ruiz, Jose Angel Palomo; Saiz, Alvaro Ruigomez; Terol, Alvaro de la Vega; Toha, Angel Candela; Utrera, Fernando Alvarez; Alberdi, Fermín; Elósegui, Itxaso; García, Javier; Garde, Pilar Marco; Mintegui, Escudero Itziar; Sáez, Iker García; Salas, Estibaliz; Zabarte, Mercedes; Diaz-Boladeras, Rosa-Maria; Mora-Guevara, Emilio; Zamora, Julia Ferreras; Bonet, Alfons; Salo, Lidia; Salinas, Unai; Zaballos, Juan; Alvarez, Ana Abella; Garrido, Carlos Jimenez; Roa, Juan Ramón Hita; Vidal, Federico Gordo; Garcia-Egea, Jorge; Elson, Monica Zamora; Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Asensio, Miguel Angel Mendiola; Simeón, Rosa Gastaldo; Alameda, Luis Enrique Muñoz; Angulo, Guillermo Oeding; Aranzubia, Monserrat; Arcas, Jose Juan; Arevalo, Julian; Belvert, Belén Quesada; Calvo, César Pérez; Cremades, Marta; Crespo, Pascual; Cuarental, Ana; del Olmo, Mercedes; Fernández, Pablo Turrión; Vega, José Luis Franqueza García Isabel Garcia; Herrera, Elena II; Llorente, Miguel Angel Alcala; Rabes, Cecilia Martin; de Maeyer, Ana Gamo; Marquez, Manuel Pérez; Mendoza, Diego López; Muñoz, José María Milicua; Martínez, Natividad Arias; Oviedo, Arnoldo Santos; Garrigues, Pau Benavent; Íñigo, José Alonso; Ferrandiz, Sergi Tormo; Sanchez-Morcillo, Silvia; Sánchez, Matilde Lafuente; Parra, Asunción Marqués; Vidal, Sonia Gomar; Allué, Raquel Montoiro; Etayo, Begoña Zalba; Rodriguez, Raquel Bustamante; Villen, Luis Martin; Jimenez, Cristina Molla; de Zayas, Ricardo Salas; Moreno, Cristina Dolera; Pacheco, Fernando SanJose; Pascual, Jose Luis Anton; Gude, Fernando Tejera; Riestra, Eva Manteiga; Delgado, Francisco Cota; Prados, Maria Victoria de la Torre; Barrios, Javier; Cervera-Montes, Manuel; García-Sanz, Mercedes; García, Vicente; Sanmiguel, Guillermo; Álvaro, Julian López; Barrachima, Beatriz Bornay; Bermejo, Francisco Jose Romero; Pilar, Alberto Garcia Fernandez; Garcia, Martinez; Ramírez, Carolina Navarro; Ramos, Jorge Gómez; Samaniego, Luis Angel; Belenguer-Muncharaz, Alberto; Ferrándiz-Selles, Amparo; Mateu-Campos, Maria-Lidon; Domínguez, David; Espinosa, Elena; León, Teresa; Betancor, Nazario Ojeda; Cortes, Javier Garcia; Díaz, Juan José Díaz; Canalechevarria, Ana Manzano; Novales, Beatriz Fores; Peña, Jose Manuel Garcia; Delgado, Tomas Rodriguez; Roquerio, Beatriz Santamaria; Sainz, Juan Jose Gomez; Soto, Teresa Tebar; Chew, Michelle; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne; Dahm, Peter; Hergès, Helena Odenstedt; Lundborg, Christoffer; Söndergaard, Sören; Rylander, Christian; Sari, Ferenc; Tibblin, Anna Oscarsson; Adolfsson, Anne; Klarin, Bengt; Schrey, Susann; Merisson, Edyta; Rydén, Jörgen; Divander, Mona Britt; Hedin, Annika; Hedlund, Daniel; Lindkvist, Mikael Axelsson; Jawad, Monir; Layous, Lona; Wernerman, Jan; Björne, Håkan; Brattström, Olof; Olheden, Staffan; Oldner, Anders; Sellden, Eva; Walder, Bernhard; Wickboldt, Nadine; Rossi, Ariane; Steiner, Luzius; Djurdjevic, Mirjana; Lussmann, Roger; Geisen, Martin; Hofer, Christoph; Turina, Matthias; Grocott, Mike; Goldhill, David; Everett, Lynn; Harris, Katy; Wright, Maggie; Adams, David; Alderson, Lorraine; Baker, Julie; Christie, Iain; Ferguson, Colin; Hill, Matthew; Holmes, Kate; Hutton, Andrew; Minto, Gary; Moor, Paul; Porter, Andrew; Struthers, Richard; Akotia, Niven; Belhaj, Alaa; Chang, Serene; Collantes, Enrique; Eigener, Katrin; Husband, Michael; Khan, Ahsun; Kong, Ming-Li; McAlees, Eleanor Jane; MacDonald, Neil; Niebrzegowska, Edyta; Parnell, Wendy; Smith, Amanda; Chhatwal, Ally; Jhingan, Smriti; Muswell, Richard; Poon, Yoyo; Singh, Nidhita; Stephens, Robert; Vasan, Robin; Waife, Nicola; Weda, Tahmina; Clarke, Adrian; Szakmany, Tamas; Fletcher, Simon; Rosbergen, Melissa; Blunt, Mark; Prince, Liz; Wong, Kate; Kumar, Ram; Stilwell, Sarah; Couper, Keith; Crooks, Neil; Gao-Smith, Fang; Melody, Teresa; Snaith, Catherine; Patel, Jaimin; Parekh, Dhruv; Yeung, Joyce; Loughnan, Bernadette; Moosajee, Vas; Rope, Tamsin; Edger, Lliam; Dawson, Julie; Hadfield, Daniel; Hopkins, Phil; McDonald, Lisa; Willars, Chris; Campbell, Gillian; Craig, Jayne; Smith, Andrew; Ladipo, Karleen; Lockwood, Geoff; Moreno, Juan; Ballington, Ruth; Hamandishe, Sibongilele; Rogerson, David; Cowman, Sarah; Hayden, Paul; Pinto, Nuno; Sandhar, Taj; Arawwawala, Dilshan; Brotherston, Lauren; Mitchell-Inwang, Christine; Walsh, Helena; Alagarsamy, Famila; Goon, Serena; Karcheva, Sylvia; Krepska, Amy; McKinney, Brian; Patil, Vishal; Batchelor, Nicholas; Day, Christopher; Finch, Louise; Gibson, Charlie; Grayling, Matthew; Hubble, Sheena; Key, William; Knight, Thomas; Loosley, Alexander; Margetts, Paul; Stewart, Hannah; Bewley, Jeremy; Hurley, Katrina; Murphy, Ruth; Philpott, Catherine; Pollock, Kathryn; Sweet, Katie; Thomas, Matthew; Tucker, Katy; Windsor, David; Conway, Daniel; Gold, Steve; Quraishi, Tanviha; Cupitt, Jason; Baddeley, Sally; Brown, John David; Foo, Irwin; Mantle, Damien; Carvalho, Peter; Huddart, Sam; Kirk-Bayley, Justin; Smith, Rebecca; Milligan, Lisa; Poulose, Sonia; Sarkar, Som; Nolan, Jerry; Pedley, Emma; Padkin, Andrew; Pesian, Siamak; Rajamanickam, Satish; Ramkumar, Konnur; Thomas, Jerry; Crayford, Alison; Turner, Angus; Bottrill, Fiona; Webb, Stephen; Jhanji, Shaman; MacCallum, Niall; Wessels, Kate; Wigmore, Tim; Meikle, Alistair; Wilson, Stephen; White, Stuart; Bonnett, Andrew; Rushton, Andrew; Williams, Colin; Zuzan, Oliver; Hall, Andrew; Montgomery, Jane; Piggot, Ailie; Read, Richard; Stocker, Mary; Tamm, Tiina; Agarwal, Banwari; Ward, Stephen; Brown, Lucy; Joy, Manju; Venkatesh, Suresh; Hughes, Thomas; Zsisku, Lajos; Roy, Alistair; Hooper, Victoria; Mouland, Johanna; Nightingale, Jeremy; Rose, Steve; Chiam, Patrick; Chohan, Harnita; Dickson, Chris; Gibb, Sarah; Higham, Charley; Harvey, Caroline; Janarthanan, Chandra; Jones, Laura; Kapoor, Avinash; Moll, Mark; Roberts, Louise; Saunders, David; Arnold, Glenn; Gibbs, Claire; Jhurgursing, Mhairi; Pierro, Dena; Pritchard, Frances; Doyle, Patrick; Templeton, Maie; Wilson, Robert; Zantua, Kim; Collyer, Thomas; Featherstone, James; Worton, Rachael; Bruce, Jane; McGuigan, Kate; Price, Grant; Moreton, Sarah; Pulletz, Mark; Anderson, Helen; Baxter, Ian; Beckingsale, Alex; Callaghan, Mark; Datta, Ansu; Dawson, Jo; Gollogly, Jackit; Izod, Chris; Lobaz, Steve; MacFie, Caroline; Patel, Manju; Payne, Heather; Singh, Raj; Timms, Gemma; McLeod, Shaun; O'Brian, Peter; Horner, Elspeth; Joshi, Vivekananda; Stuart-Smith, Karen; Seale, Tania; Bolger, Clare; Collins, Hannah; Ekins, Emma; Hawkins, Lesley; Jonas, Max; Linford, Karen; Wadams, Beverley; Beach, Madeleine; Vizcaychipi, Marcela; Jewsbury, William; Davies, Simon; Balaji, Packianathaswamy; Kangaraj, Muthuraj; Pissay, Nagesh; Smith, Neil; Gopalakrishnan, Senthilkumar; MacKinnon, John; Strandvik, Gustav; Francis, Ruth; Jennings, Adrian; Keating, Matthew; Kumar, Sajith; Leese, Sarah; Magee, Cliona; Pilsbury, Jane; Ralph, James; Riddington, David; Sachdeva, Rajneesh; Snelson, Catherine; Vasanth, Suresh; Wilde, Judith; Lavender, Beth; Lyons, Rachel; Watters, Malcolm; Adams, Tim; Dyer, Simon; Tindall, Lucy; Claxton, Andrew; Netke, Meenu; Akouds, Esam; Bates, Debrah; Gallagher, Heather; Hatton, Jonathan; Holroyd, William; Mitra, Atideb; Nurse, Trudy; Reed, Deborah; Desikan, Somi; Barber, Russell; Childs, Sophie; O'Carroll-Kuehn, Britta; Wyldbore, Mark; Al-Abdaly, Ayad; Amatya, Suman; Bhaskaran, Sherly; Chandan, Garud; Chaudhry, Suman; Chikungwa, Moses; Earnshaw, Greg; Grewal, Moni; Haque, Shamimul; Hawkins, John; Javaid, Ahmed; Jackson, Clare; Kamel, Miriam; Marla, Ruchira; Mculloch, Dori-Ann; Parker, Tom; Salib, Yussof; Saravanmuthu, Ramesh; Secker, Chris; Sockalingam, Siva; Taylor, Anne; Austine, Pauline; Kanade, Vrushali; Paal, Dora; Mok, May Un Sam; Burtenshaw, Andrew; Davis, Laura; Ellahee, Parvez; Freeman, David; Pierson, Richard; Wollaston, Julie; Karmarkar, Amara; Ball, Clare; Calton, Emily; Maxwell, Louise; Walker, Rachel; Bland, Martin; Bullock, Lynne; Harrison-Briggs, Donna; Hodge, Paul; Krige, Anton; Dempsey, Ged; Hammell, Claire; Loveridge, Robert; Parker, Robert; Snell, Jane; Wright, Carl; Baker, Andy; Barr, Katharine; Belcher, Alex; Bonnington, Sam; Bougeard, Anne-Marie; Fitzgerald, Emma; Ford, Rachael; Gillard, Chantal; Griffiths, Liz; Greenberg, Lizzie; Huber, Jonathan; Mathieu, Steve; Richardson, Neil; Tompsett, Laura; White, Nigel; Patel, Santosh; Corner, Victoria; Thomas, Richard; Trodd, Dawn; Wilson, Jennifer; Copley, Ed; Flutter, Laura; Hulme, Jonathan; Susarla, Jay; Thwaites, Alison; Jayasundera, Suraj; McAfee, Sean; Chantler, Jonathan; McKechnie, Stuart; Neely, Julia; Mouton, Ronelle; Scarth, Edward; Soar, Jasmeet; Buss, Joanne; Currie, Vicki; Sange, Mansoor; Kuttler, Anja; Power, Fiona; Alexander, David; Dunne, Kevin; Shinner, Guy; Black, Euan; Haldane, Grant; Kerr, Jennie; Saran, Taj; Ward, Geraldine; Jefferies, Fiona; Alexander, Peter; Royle, Alison; Nahla, Farid; Bowles, Tim; Gregory, Maggie; Ahern, Rebecca; Cartlidge, David; Craker, Lloyd; Thompson, Christopher; Bidd, Heena; Giles, Julian; Manser, Amanda; Parry, Gareth; Chan, Peter; Das, Dinesh; Fahmy, Nisreen; Higgins, David; Khader, Ahmed; Stone, Alex; Leonardi, Silvia; Rose, Oliver; Bright, Elizabeth; Ercole, Ari; Rafi, Muhammed Amir; Ramasamy, Radhika; Sheshgiri, Bengeri; Merrill, Colin; Page, Valerie; Walker, Elaine; Harris, Stephen; Hughes, Sarah; Morrison, Alan; Razouk, Khaled; Ayman, Mustafa; al-Subaie, Nawaf; Arif, Fuhazia; Cashman, Jeremy; Cecconi, Maurizio; Edsell, Mark; Fossati, Nicoletta; Hammond, Sarah Jane; Hamilton, Mark; Lonsdale, Dagan; Moran, Carl; Siegmueller, Claas; Velzeboer, Freya; Wong, Patrick; Jakeman, Alicia; Mowatt, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international

  5. The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident study investigating psychological distress: design, methods and cohort profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nishi, Daisuke; Nakajima, Satomi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Homma, Masato; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2009-04-01

    The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries. Between May 2004 and January 2008, patients with accidental injury consecutively admitted were recruited to the TCOM Study. Psychiatric morbidity as a primary endpoint was measured using a structured clinical interview at 1, 6, 18 and 36 months after involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). The baseline investigation consisted of self-administered questionnaires concerning acute psychological responses and personality. Medical information was obtained from patients' medical charts. Various socio-demographic data, health-related habits and psychosocial factors were assessed by interview. To examine potential biomarkers of psychological distress, blood samples were collected. Out of 344 patients who were asked to participate in this study, 300 (87%) patients with MVA-related injury were enrolled. Corresponding rates for the questionnaires on psychological responses and blood sampling were 98-99 and 79%, respectively. The cohort sample was composed of 78% men; the median age was 34 years; and 45% of the participants were motorcycle drivers. The TCOM Study should prove useful for researchers examining the association between bio-psychosocial variables and psychological distress and may contribute to the formation of a framework for providing care for patients with MVA-related injury.

  6. Determinants of Attrition to Follow-Up in a Multicentre Cohort Study in Children-Results from the IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hense, Sabrina; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Michels, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Cohort participant retention is a crucial element and may depend on several factors. Based on data from a multicentre cohort of European children, the effect of baseline participation on attrition and the association with and the impact of single determinants in relation to the extent of attritio...

  7. Fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy and the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood: a pooled analysis of 18 European and US birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Nikos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Oken, Emily; Ballester, Ferran; Barros, Henrique; Basterrechea, Mikel; Cordier, Sylvaine; de Groot, Renate; den Dekker, Herman T; Duijts, Liesbeth; Eggesbø, Merete; Pia Fantini, Maria; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Gielen, Marij; Gori, Davide; Govarts, Eva; Inskip, Hazel M; Iszatt, Nina; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Mehegan, John; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Pelé, Fabienne; Pizzi, Costanza; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Robinson, Sian M; Schoeters, Greet; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Vrijheid, Martine; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Kogevinas, Manolis; Zeegers, Maurice P; Chatzi, Leda

    2017-10-01

    It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.

  8. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Griffin, Simon; Jones, Andy P

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk study. Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute), daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA). Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling. After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (pweather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  9. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wu

    Full Text Available A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk study.Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute, daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA. Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling.After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01 and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions.Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  10. Does Pet Ownership in Infancy Lead to Asthma or Allergy at School Age? Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 11 European Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; Torrent, Maties; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S. Hasan; Kull, Inger; Krämer, Ursula; von Berg, Andrea; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne; Kuehni, Claudia; Spycher, Ben; Sunyer, Jordi; Chen, Chih-Mei; Reich, Andreas; Asarnoj, Anna; Puig, Carmen; Herbarth, Olf; Mahachie John, Jestinah M.; Van Steen, Kristel; Willich, Stefan N.; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Keil, Thomas; Wickman, Magnus; Hallner, Eva; Alm, Johan; Almqvist, Catarina; Wennergren, Göran; Alm, Bernt; Heinrich, Joachim; Smit, Henriette A.; Thijs, Carel; Mommers, Monique; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fantini, Maria Pia; Bravi, Francesca; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Custovic, Adnan; Dubakiene, Ruta; Mahachie, Jestinah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6–10 years. Design Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. Exposure definition Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. Outcome definition Current asthma (primary outcome), allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6–10 years of age. Data synthesis Three-step approach: (i) Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii) calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii) pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. Results We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with “no pets” (10 studies, 11489 participants) was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28) (I2 = 9%; p = 0.36). The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with “no pets” (9 studies, 11433 participants) was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03) (I2 = 0%, p = 0.89). Owning both cat(s) and dog(s) compared to “no pets” resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84) (I2 = 33%, p = 0.18). Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. Conclusions Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6–10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  11. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Roll, Stephanie; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Mowinckel, Petter; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert; Torrent, Maties; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S Hasan; Kull, Inger; Krämer, Ursula; von Berg, Andrea; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne; Kuehni, Claudia; Spycher, Ben; Sunyer, Jordi; Chen, Chih-Mei; Reich, Andreas; Asarnoj, Anna; Puig, Carmen; Herbarth, Olf; Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Van Steen, Kristel; Willich, Stefan N; Wahn, Ulrich; Lau, Susanne; Keil, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome), allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. Three-step approach: (i) Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii) calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii) pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants) was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28) (I(2) = 9%; p = 0.36). The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants) was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03) (I(2) = 0%, p = 0.89). Owning both cat(s) and dog(s) compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84) (I(2) = 33%, p = 0.18). Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic rhinitis in children should not be given.

  12. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Lødrup Carlsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three-step approach: (i Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28 (I(2 = 9%; p = 0.36. The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03 (I(2 = 0%, p = 0.89. Owning both cat(s and dog(s compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84 (I(2 = 33%, p = 0.18. Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  13. IL28B and IL10R-1087 polymorphisms are protective for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection and predictors of response to interferon-based therapy in an East-Central European cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Pár, Alajos; Pár, Gabriella; Tornai, István; Szalay, Ferenc; Várszegi, Dalma; Fráter, Edit; Papp, Mária; Lengyel, Gabriella; Fehér, János; Varga, Márta; Gervain, Judit; Schuller, János; Nemes, Zsuzsanna; Péterfi, Zoltán; Tusnádi, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in IL28B and IL10R are associated with sustained virological response (SVR) in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegilated interferon plus ribavirin (P/R). The present study extends our earlier investigations on a large East-Central European cohort. The allele frequencies of IL28B and IL10R in genotype 1 HCV infection were compared with that of healthy controls for the purpose of examining the relationsh...

  14. Cohort Profile: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC)

    OpenAIRE

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6–29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986–87 and 1987–88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children repr...

  15. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  17. Group level validation of protein intakes estimated by 24-hour diet recall and dietary questionnaires against 24-hour urinary nitrogen in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.; Runswick, S.; Ferrari, P.; Day, N.E.; Welch, A.A.; Key, T.J.; Miller, A.B.; Boeing, H.; Sieri, S.; Veglia, F.; Palli, D.; Panico, S.; Tumino, R.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2003-01-01

    A calibration approach was developed to correct for systematic between-cohort dietary measurement errors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a large multicenter cohort study. To validate the 24-h diet recalls (24-HDRs) as reference measurements for

  18. Recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum across generations: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vikanes, ?se; Skj?rven, Rolv; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Gunnes, Nina; Vangen, Siri; Magnus, Per

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) according to whether the daughters and sons under study were born after pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Registry data from Norway. Participants Linked generational data from the medical birth registry of Norway (1967-2006): 544?087 units of mother and childbearing daughter and 399?777 units of mother and child producing son. Main outcome measure Hyperemesis in daughters...

  19. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Cancer Incidence: The Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboya, Toru; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Although experimental studies have shown that gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has a role in tumor progression, epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between GGT and cancer incidence is limited. The present study investigated the association between GGT and cancer incidence and assessed the role of alcohol consumption in this association. Methods We examined a cohort of 15 031 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years who attended a health checkup in 1995 and were free of cancer at th...

  20. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... Birth to Ten' is a birth cohort study currently being conducted in the Johannesburg-Soweto area. This paper describes the various pilot studies that were undertaken to investigate the feasibility of a cohort study in an urban area. These studies were designed to determine the monthly birth rate, the timing,.

  1. 'Birth to Ten' - pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth to Ten' is a birth cohort study currently being conducted in the Johannesburg-Soweto area. This paper describes the various pilot studies that were undertaken to investigate the feasibility of a cohort study in an urban area. These studies were designed to determine the monthly birth rate, the timing, frequency and ...

  2. Do people with risky behaviours participate in biomedical cohort studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis was undertaken on data from randomly selected participants of a bio-medical cohort study to assess representativeness. The research hypotheses was that there was no difference in participation and non-participations in terms of health-related indicators (smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, physical activity, blood pressure and cholesterol readings and overall health status and selected socio-demographics (age, sex, area of residence, education level, marital status and work status. Methods Randomly selected adults were recruited into a bio-medical representative cohort study based in the north western suburbs of the capital of South Australia – Adealide. Comparison data was obtained from cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected adults in the same age range and in the same region. The cohort participants were 4060 randomly selected adults (18+ years. Results There were no major differences between study participants and the comparison population in terms of current smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, overall health status and proportions with current high blood pressure and cholesterol readings. Significantly more people who reported a medium to very high alcohol risk participated in the study. There were some demographic differences with study participants more likely to be in the middle level of household income and education level. Conclusion People with risky behaviours participated in this health study in the same proportions as people without these risk factors.

  3. Pediatric palliative care patients: a prospective multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Kang, Tammy I; Hexem, Kari R; Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Osenga, Kaci; Siden, Harold; Friebert, Sarah E; Hays, Ross M; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2011-06-01

    To describe demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients who received hospital-based pediatric palliative care (PPC) consultations. Prospective observational cohort study of all patients served by 6 hospital-based PPC teams in the United States and Canada from January to March 2008. There were 515 new (35.7%) or established (64.3%) patients who received care from the 6 programs during the 3-month enrollment interval. Of these, 54.0% were male, and 69.5% were identified as white and 8.1% as Hispanic. Patient age ranged from less than one month (4.7%) to 19 years or older (15.5%). Of the patients, 60.4% lived with both parents, and 72.6% had siblings. The predominant primary clinical conditions were genetic/congenital (40.8%), neuromuscular (39.2%), cancer (19.8%), respiratory (12.8%), and gastrointestinal (10.7%). Most patients had chronic use of some form of medical technology, with gastrostomy tubes (48.5%) being the most common. At the time of consultation, 47.2% of the patients had cognitive impairment; 30.9% of the cohort experienced pain. Patients were receiving many medications (mean: 9.1). During the 12-month follow-up, 30.3% of the cohort died; the median time from consult to death was 107 days. Patients who died within 30 days of cohort entry were more likely to be infants and have cancer or cardiovascular conditions. PPC teams currently serve a diverse cohort of children and young adults with life-threatening conditions. In contrast to the reported experience of adult-oriented palliative care teams, most PPC patients are alive for more than a year after initiating PPC.

  4. Fish Intake in Pregnancy and Child Growth: A Pooled Analysis of 15 European and US Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Nikos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Oken, Emily; Barros, Henrique; Basterrechea, Mikel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Eggesbø, Merete; Forastiere, Francesco; Gaillard, Romy; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Hanke, Wojciech; Heude, Barbara; Iszatt, Nina; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Kelleher, Cecily; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Pizzi, Costanza; Polańska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Schoeters, Greet; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijheid, Martine; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Maternal fish intake in pregnancy has been shown to influence fetal growth. The extent to which fish intake affects childhood growth and obesity remains unclear. To examine whether fish intake in pregnancy is associated with offspring growth and the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Multicenter, population-based birth cohort study of singleton deliveries from 1996 to 2011 in Belgium, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Massachusetts. A total of 26,184 pregnant women and their children were followed up at 2-year intervals until the age of 6 years. Consumption of fish during pregnancy. We estimated offspring body mass index percentile trajectories from 3 months after birth to 6 years of age. We defined rapid infant growth as a weight gain z score greater than 0.67 from birth to 2 years and childhood overweight/obesity at 4 and 6 years as body mass index in the 85th percentile or higher for age and sex. We calculated cohort-specific effect estimates and combined them by random-effects meta-analysis. This multicenter, population-based birth cohort study included the 26,184 pregnant women and their children. The median fish intake during pregnancy ranged from 0.5 times/week in Belgium to 4.45 times/week in Spain. Women who ate fish more than 3 times/week during pregnancy gave birth to offspring with higher body mass index values from infancy through middle childhood compared with women with lower fish intake (3 times/week or less). High fish intake during pregnancy (>3 times/week) was associated with increased risk of rapid infant growth, with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.22 (95% CI, 1.05-1.42) and increased risk of offspring overweight/obesity at 4 years (aOR, 1.14 [95% CI, 0.99-1.32]) and 6 years (aOR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.01-1.47]) compared with an intake of once per week or less. Interaction analysis showed that the effect of high fish intake during pregnancy on rapid infant growth was greater among girls (a

  5. Hyperemesis gravidarum and pregnancy outcomes in the Norwegian mother and child cohort – a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) characterized by excessive nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, is reported to be associated with increased risks for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and perinatal death. Conflicting results in previous studies underline the necessity to study HG’s potential effect on pregnancy outcomes using large cohorts with valid data on exposure and outcome measures, as well as potential confounders. This study aims to investigate associations between HG and adverse pregnancy outcomes using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods All singleton pregnancies in MoBa from 1998 to 2008 were included. Multivariable regression was used to estimate relative risks, approximated by odds ratios, for PTB, LBW, SGA and perinatal death. Linear regression was applied to assess differences in birthweight and gestational age for children born to women with and without HG. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Results Altogether, 814 out of 71,468 women (or 1.1%) had HG. In MoBa HG was not associated with PTB, LBW or SGA. Babies born to women with HG were born on average 1 day earlier than those born to women without HG; (−0.97 day (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.80 - -0.15). There was no difference in birthweight when maternal weight gain was adjusted for; (23.42 grams (95% CI: -56.71 - 9.86). Babies born by women with HG had lower risk for having Apgar score pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies complicated with HG had a slightly shorter gestational length. There was no difference in birth weight according to maternal HG-status. HG was associated with an almost 40% reduced risk for having Apgar score < 7 after 1 minute, but not after 5 minutes. The clinical importance of these statistically significant findings is, however, rather limited. PMID:24004605

  6. EPIC-Heart: The cardiovascular component of a prospective study of nutritional, lifestyle and biological factors in 520,000 middle-aged participants from 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danesh, J.; Saracci, R.; Berglund, G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Overvad, K.; Panico, S.; Thompson, S.; Fournier, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Canonico, M.; Kaaks, R.; Linseisen, J.; Boeing, H.; Pischon, T.; Weikert, C.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, S.P.; Jensen, M.K.; Quiros, J.R.; Gonzalez-Svatetz, C.A.; Sanchez-Perez, M.J.; Larranaga, N.; Navarro Sanchez, C.; Moreno Iribas, C.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Key, T.; Roddam, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Benetou, V.; Trichopoulous, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Mattiello, A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Grobbee, D.E.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Melander, O.; Hallmans, G.; Wennberg, P.; Lund, E.; Kumle, M.; Skeie, G.; Ferrari, P.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.

    2007-01-01

    EPIC-Heart is the cardiovascular component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between nutrition and major chronic disease outcomes. Its objective is to advance understanding about the

  7. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in European men and women: influence of beverage type and body size. The EPIC-InterAct study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The InterAct Consortium, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes, and determine whether this is modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and beverage type. Design: Multicentre prospective case–cohort study. Setting: Eight countries from the European Prospective Investigation

  8. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in older Europeans: The European Eye Study (EUREYE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Augood (Cristina); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); U. Chakravarthy (Usha); J.H. Seland (Johan ); G. Soubrane; L. Tomazzoli (Laura); F. Topouzis (Fotis); G.C. Bentham (Graham ); M. Rahu; J. Vioque (Jesus); I.S. Young (Ian ); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To estimate the prevalence of age-related maculopathy in an older population from 7 European countries. Methods: Randomly sampled people 65 years and older were invited to an eye examination in centers across 7 European countries (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France,

  9. Consumption of predefined 'Nordic' dietary items in ten European countries - an investigation in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Boll, Katja

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a b...

  10. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 in an Indian cohort: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Zaidi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive organ-specific autoimmunity. There is scant information on APS1 in ethnic groups other than European Caucasians. We studied clinical aspects and autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene mutations in a cohort of Indian APS1 patients. Design: Twenty-three patients (19 families from six referral centres in India, diagnosed between 1996 and 2016, were followed for [median (range] 4 (0.2–19 years. Methods: Clinical features, mortality, organ-specific autoantibodies and AIRE gene mutations were studied. Results: Patients varied widely in their age of presentation [3.5 (0.1–17 years] and number of clinical manifestations [5 (2–11]. Despite genetic heterogeneity, the frequencies of the major APS1 components (mucocutaneous candidiasis: 96%; hypoparathyroidism: 91%; primary adrenal insufficiency: 55% were similar to reports in European series. In contrast, primary hypothyroidism (23% occurred more frequently and at an early age, while kerato-conjunctivitis, urticarial rash and autoimmune hepatitis were uncommon (9% each. Six (26% patients died at a young age [5.8 (3–23 years] due to septicaemia, hepatic failure and adrenal/hypocalcaemic crisis from non-compliance/unexplained cause. Interferon-α and/or interleukin-22 antibodies were elevated in all 19 patients tested, including an asymptomatic infant. Eleven AIRE mutations were detected, the most common being p.C322fsX372 (haplotype frequency 37%. Four mutations were novel, while six others were previously described in European Caucasians. Conclusions: Indian APS1 patients exhibited considerable genetic heterogeneity and had highly variable clinical features. While the frequency of major manifestations was similar to that of European Caucasians, other features showed significant differences. A high mortality at a young age was observed.

  11. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo; Alberto Ruano-Ravina; Sara Cerdeira-Caramés; Mónica Raíces-Aldrey; Juan M. Barros-Dios

    .... The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study...

  12. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...... strength in youth (0.17 N/kg) was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; -0.60 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.97 to -0.22), triglyceride (-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (-1.22 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.29) and a composite cardiovascular risk factor score (-0.61 SD, 95% CI...

  13. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of

  14. Spatiotemporal study of elderly suicide in Korea by age cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial diffusion of elderly suicide by age cohort, in Korea. The research investigated the elderly suicide rates of the 232 municipal units in South Korea between 2001 and 2011. The Gi* score, which is a spatially weighted indicator of area attributes, was used to identify hot spots and the spatiotemporal pattern of elderly suicide in the nation during the last 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix and spatial dynamic panel data model were employed to identify and estimate the diffusion effect. The suicide rate among elderly individuals 75 years and older was substantially higher than the rate for those between 65 and 74 years of age; however, the spatial patterns of the suicide clusters were similar between the two groups. From 2001 to 2011, the spatial distribution of elderly suicide hot spots differed each year. For both age cohorts, elderly suicide hot spots developed around the north area of South Korea in 2001 and moved to the mid-east area and the mid-western coastal area over 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix indicates that the change in the suicide rate of one area was affected by the suicide rates of neighbouring areas from the previous year, which suggests that suicide increase in one area inflates a neighbouring area's suicide rate over time. Using a spatial dynamic panel data model, elderly suicide diffusion effects were found to be statistically significant for both age cohorts even after economic and demographic indicators and a time variable are included. For individuals 75 years and older, the diffusion effect appeared to be larger. This study demonstrates that elderly suicide can spread spatially over time in both age cohorts. Thus, it is necessary to design a place-based and age-differentiated intervention policy that precisely considers the spatial diffusion of elderly suicide. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijk, Ellen A; May, Anne M; Beulens, Joline W J; Fransen, Heidi P; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hoekstra, Jeljer; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the association between adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet created by the Dutch Health Council in 2006 and overall and smoking-related cancer incidence. Prospective cohort study. Adherence to the guidelines, which includes one recommendation on physical activity and nine on diet, was measured using an adapted version of the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD) index. The score ranged from 0 to 90 with a higher score indicating greater adherence to the guidelines. We estimated the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals for the association between the DHD index (in tertiles and per 20-point increment) at baseline and cancer incidence at follow-up. We studied 35 608 men and women aged 20-70 years recruited into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study during 1993-1997. After an average follow-up of 12·7 years, 3027 cancer cases were documented. We found no significant association between the DHD index (tertile 3 v. tertile 1) and overall (HR = 0·97; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·07) and smoking-related cancer incidence (HR = 0·89; 95 % CI 0·76, 1·06) after adjustment for relevant confounders. Excluding the components physical activity or alcohol from the score did not change the results. None of the individual components of the DHD index was significantly associated with cancer incidence. In the present study, participants with a high adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet were not at lower risk of overall or smoking-related cancer. This does not exclude that other components not included in the DHD index may be associated with overall cancer risk.

  16. Periodontal disease and stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafon, A; Pereira, B; Dufour, T; Rigouby, V; Giroud, M; Béjot, Y; Tubert-Jeannin, S

    2014-09-01

    This review aimed to determine the association between periodontal disease and stroke incidence by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cohort studies that evaluated the incidence of stroke (fatal or non-fatal, ischaemic or haemorrhagic) and baseline periodontal status and calculated relative risk values were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed using an evaluation grid. The analyses were conducted separately for three outcomes: periodontitis, gingivitis and loss of teeth. Adjusted values of relative risk or of hazard ratio were used to assess risk values in each study. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted when data could be pooled. From the 743 references retrieved, only nine cohort studies were suitable for inclusion in this review. Quality scores of the studies varied greatly. Three prospective studies, which used reliable indicators of periodontal disease, obtained the highest scores. Conversely, three studies that used a subjective evaluation of stroke incidence or diagnosed stroke without imaging obtained the lowest score. The results of the meta-analyses varied depending on the outcome considered and the type of stroke. The risk of stroke was significantly increased by the presence of periodontitis [relative risk 1.63 (1.25, 2.00)]. Tooth loss was also a risk factor for stroke [relative risk 1.39 (1.13, 1.65)]. The risk of stroke did not vary significantly with the presence of gingivitis. This review shows that periodontitis and tooth loss are associated with the occurrence of stroke. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  17. Age-related macular degeneration in ethnically diverse Australia: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robman, Liubov D; Islam, Fakir M A; Chong, Elaine W T; Adams, Madeleine K M; Simpson, Julie A; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Giles, Graham G; Baird, Paul N; Guymer, Robyn H

    2015-04-01

    To determine and compare the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in older Australians of Anglo-Celtic and Southern European origin. A total of 21,132 participants of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, aged 47-86 years, were assessed for AMD in 2003-2007 with non-mydriatic fundus photography. Of these, 14% were born in Southern Europe (Greece, Italy or Malta), with the remaining 86% of Anglo-Celtic origin, born in Australia, the United Kingdom or New Zealand. Overall, 2694 participants (12.7%) had early stages of AMD, defined as either one or more drusen ≥ 125 μm (with or without pigmentary abnormalities) or one or more drusen 63-124 μm with pigmentary abnormalities in a 6000-μm diameter grading grid, in the absence of late AMD in either eye. A total of 122 participants (0.6%) had late AMD, defined as either geographic atrophy or neovascular AMD. In logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education and physical activity, Southern Europeans compared to Anglo-Celts had a higher prevalence of the early stages of AMD (odds ratio, OR, 1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.34), and lower prevalence of late AMD (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.78). Australians of Southern European origin have a higher prevalence of the early stages of AMD and lower prevalence of late AMD compared to those of Anglo-Celtic origin. Although AMD prevalence in the older age group(s) of Southern Europeans could be underestimated due to disparity in participation rates, it is likely that both lifestyle and genetic factors play their parts in differential AMD prevalence in these ethnic groups.

  18. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  19. Study Design and Cohort Description of DEFIB-WOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Riahi, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Disease: Clinical and Psychological outcomes in WOMEN) study to examine gender differences on (1) patient-reported outcomes (PROs), (2) procedure- and device-related complications, and (3) ventricular tachyarrhythmia and mortality. This presents the study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort....... METHODS: DEFIB-WOMEN is a national, multicenter, prospective, observational study. First-time implanted patients are asked to complete PROs at several time points. Information on baseline and follow-up characteristics are captured from patients' medical records, purpose-designed questions, and the Danish...

  20. Pre-diagnostic copper and zinc biomarkers and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Jenab, Mazda; Freisling, Heinz; Becker, Niels-Peter; Czuban, Magdalena; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Savoye, Isabelle; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Iqbal, Khalid; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Merino, Susana; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boden, Stina; van Guelpen, Behany; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Cross, Amanda J; Schomburg, Lutz; Hughes, David J

    2017-07-01

    Adequate intake of copper and zinc, two essential micronutrients, are important for antioxidant functions. Their imbalance may have implications for development of diseases like colorectal cancer (CRC), where oxidative stress is thought to be etiologically involved. As evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies is lacking, we conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to investigate the association between circulating levels of copper and zinc, and their calculated ratio, with risk of CRC development. Copper and zinc levels were measured by reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in 966 cases and 966 matched controls. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and are presented for the fifth versus first quintile. Higher circulating concentration of copper was associated with a raised CRC risk (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.13; P-trend = 0.02) whereas an inverse association with cancer risk was observed for higher zinc levels (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.97; P-trend = 0.07). Consequently, the ratio of copper/zinc was positively associated with CRC (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.40; P-trend = 0.0005). In subgroup analyses by follow-up time, the associations remained statistically significant only in those diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection. In conclusion, these data suggest that copper or copper levels in relation to zinc (copper to zinc ratio) become imbalanced in the process of CRC development. Mechanistic studies into the underlying mechanisms of regulation and action are required to further examine a possible role for higher copper and copper/zinc ratio levels in CRC development and progression. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 32nd European Study Group with Industry, Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ESGI (European Study Group with Industry) is Europe's leading workshop for interaction between mathematicians and industry. These workshops have taken place in Great Britain for a number of years, going back to 1968 when Prof. Alan Tayler initiated the so-called Oxford Study Group with Industry...... expertise.Danfoss wanted a an analysis and optimization of a scroll compressor.DANISCO wanted a model for the heat and moisture transport in sugar silos.Danish Maritime Institute wanted to optimize a dynamical position system in order to keep a wessel stationary on the surface of the ocean.Grundfos wanted...

  2. ACVR1B rs2854464 Is Associated with Sprint/Power Athletic Status in a Large Cohort of Europeans but Not Brazilians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Voisin

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle strength and mass, major contributors to sprint/power athletic performance, are influenced by genetics. However, to date, only a handful of genetic variants have been associated with sprint/power performance. The ACVR1B A allele (rs rs2854464 has previously been associated with increased muscle-strength in non-athletic cohort. However, no follow-up and/or replications studies have since been conducted. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the genotype distribution of ACVR1B rs2854464 between endurance athletes (E, sprint/power (S/P athletes, mixed athletes (M, and non-athletic control participants in 1672 athletes (endurance athletes, n = 482; sprint/power athletes, n = 578; mixed athletes, n = 498 and 1089 controls (C of both European Caucasians (Italian, Polish and Russians and Brazilians. We have also compared the genotype distribution according to the athlete's level of competition (elite vs. sub-elite. DNA extraction and genotyping were performed using various methods. Fisher's exact test (adjusted for multiple comparisons was used to test whether the genotype distribution of rs2854464 (AA, AG and GG differs between groups. The A allele was overrepresented in S/P athletes compared with C in the Caucasian sample (adjusted p = 0.048, whereas there were no differences in genotype distribution between E athletes and C, in neither the Brazilian nor the Caucasian samples (adjusted p > 0.05. When comparing all Caucasian athletes regardless of their sporting discipline to C, we found that the A allele was overrepresented in athletes compared to C (adjusted p = 0.024. This association was even more pronounced when only elite-level athletes were considered (adjusted p = 0.00017. In conclusion, in a relatively large cohort of athletes from Europe and South America we have shown that the ACVR1B rs2854464 A allele is associated with sprint/power performance in Caucasians but not in Brazilian athletes. This reinforces

  3. Associations between Specific Redox Biomarkers and Age in a Large European Cohort: The MARK-AGE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Weber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and antioxidants play a role in age-related diseases and in the aging process. We here present data on protein carbonyls, 3-nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde, and cellular and plasma antioxidants (glutathione, cysteine, ascorbic acid, uric acid, α-tocopherol, and lycopene and their relation with age in the European multicenter study MARK-AGE. To avoid confounding, only data from countries which recruited subjects from all three study groups (five of eight centers and only participants aged ≥55 years were selected resulting in data from 1559 participants. These included subjects from (1 the general population, (2 members from long-living families, and (3 their spouses. In addition, 683 middle-aged reference participants (35–54 years served as a control. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, gender, and country, there were differences in protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine, α-tocopherol, cysteine, and glutathione between the 3 study groups. Protein carbonyls and 3-nitrotyrosine as well as cysteine, uric acid, and lycopene were identified as independent biomarkers with the highest correlation with age. Interestingly, from all antioxidants measured, only lycopene was lower in all aged groups and from the oxidative stress biomarkers, only 3-nitrotyrosine was increased in the descendants from long-living families compared to the middle-aged control group. We conclude that both lifestyle and genetics may be important contributors to redox biomarkers in an aging population.

  4. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecki, Jennifer; Alexander, Melannie; Schwartz, Erica G; Wang, Li; Weems, Laura; Barrett, John; Christenbury, Kate; Johndrow, David; Funk, Renée H; Engel, Lawrence S

    2017-09-12

    Long-term studies of oil spill responders are urgently needed as oil spills continue to occur. To this end, we established the prospective Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study. DWH oil spill responders (n=8696) and non-responders (n=44 823) who were members of the US Coast Guard (20 April-17 December 2010) were included. This cohort uses both prospective, objective health data from military medical encounters and cross-sectional survey data. Here, we describe the cohort, present adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) estimating cross-sectional associations between crude oil exposure (none, low/medium, high) and acute physical symptoms, and present adjusted relative risks (RRs) based on longitudinal medical encounter data (2010-2012) for responders/non-responders and responders exposed/not exposed to crude oil. Responders and non-responders in this large cohort (n=53 519) have similar characteristics. Crude oil exposure was reported by >50% of responders. We found statistically significant associations for crude oil exposure with coughing (PRhigh=1.78), shortness of breath (PRhigh=2.30), wheezing (PRhigh=2.32), headaches (PRhigh=1.46), light-headedness/dizziness (PRhigh=1.96), skin rash/itching (PRhigh=1.87), diarrhoea (PRhigh=1.76), stomach pain (PRhigh=1.67), nausea/vomiting (PRhigh=1.48) and painful/burning urination (PRhigh=2.89) during deployment. Longitudinal analyses revealed that responders had elevated RRs for dermal conditions (RR=1.09), as did oil-exposed responders for chronic respiratory conditions (RR=1.32), asthma (RR=1.83) and dermal conditions (RR=1.21). We found positive associations between crude oil exposure and various acute physical symptoms among responders, as well as longer term health effects. This cohort is well positioned to evaluate both short-term and long-term effects of oil spill exposures using both self-reported and clinical health data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  5. Hyperemesis gravidarum and pregnancy outcomes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort - a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Åse V; Støer, Nathalie C; Magnus, Per; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2013-09-03

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) characterized by excessive nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, is reported to be associated with increased risks for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and perinatal death. Conflicting results in previous studies underline the necessity to study HG's potential effect on pregnancy outcomes using large cohorts with valid data on exposure and outcome measures, as well as potential confounders. This study aims to investigate associations between HG and adverse pregnancy outcomes using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). All singleton pregnancies in MoBa from 1998 to 2008 were included. Multivariable regression was used to estimate relative risks, approximated by odds ratios, for PTB, LBW, SGA and perinatal death. Linear regression was applied to assess differences in birthweight and gestational age for children born to women with and without HG. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Altogether, 814 out of 71,468 women (or 1.1%) had HG. In MoBa HG was not associated with PTB, LBW or SGA. Babies born to women with HG were born on average 1 day earlier than those born to women without HG; (-0.97 day (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.80 - -0.15). There was no difference in birthweight when maternal weight gain was adjusted for; (23.42 grams (95% CI: -56.71 - 9.86). Babies born by women with HG had lower risk for having Apgar score < 7 after 1 minute (crude odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43 - 0.95)). No differences between the groups for Apgar score < 7 after 5 minutes were observed. Time-point for hospitalisation slightly increased differences in gestational age according to maternal HG status. HG was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies complicated with HG had a slightly shorter gestational length. There was no difference in birth weight according to maternal HG-status. HG was associated with an almost 40% reduced risk for having Apgar score

  6. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N.; Engert, James C.; Low, Nancy C; Rachel F Tyndale

    2014-01-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999–2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999–2005), for a t...

  7. Vitamin d deficiency in a multiethnic healthy control cohort and altered immune response in vitamin D deficient European-American healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L Ritterhouse

    Full Text Available In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals.Healthy individuals (n = 774 comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470, African-Americans (AA, n = 125, and Native Americans (NA, n = 179 were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (24.8 ng/mL vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed.Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30 demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05. Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04, decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04 and CD8+ T (p = 0.04 cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels.A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation.

  8. Sex-based differences in adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, S P; Brouwer, M C; Bijlsma, M W; van der Ende, A; van de Beek, D

    2017-02-01

    To investigate sex-based differences in clinical features, causative pathogens, outcome and treatment of adult community-acquired meningitis. From January 2006 to July 2014, we prospectively investigated sex-based differences in clinical features, causative pathogens, outcome and treatment of adult community-acquired meningitis in a nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. Sex was analysed along with known predictors of unfavourable outcome using logistic regression. We evaluated 1412 episodes of meningitis, 707 (50%) in men. Men more often presented with a history of remote head injury (41/667 (6%) versus 14/658 (2%) women, p 0.0002) or alcoholism (61/652 (9%) versus 21/660 (3%) women, p meningitis. Male sex is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. It is possible that sex-based differences in immune reaction could determine a distinct response to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex, BMI and age differences in metabolic syndrome: the Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter, Sandra N; van Waateringe, Robert P; van Beek, André P; van der Klauw, Melanie M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components within sex-, body mass index (BMI)- and age combined clusters. In addition, we used the age-adjusted blood pressure thresholds to demonstrate the effect on the prevalence of MetS and elevated blood pressure. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional data from 74,531 Western European participants, aged 18–79 years, were used from the Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study. MetS was defined according to the revised NCEP-ATPIII. Age-adjusted blood pressure thresholds were defined as recommended by the eight reports of the Joint National Committee (≥140/90 mmHg for those aged ATPIII, results in an overestimation of MetS prevalence. PMID:28420718

  10. Changes in nutritional status in childhood cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem A; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Boot, Annemieke M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Tissing, Wim J E

    2015-02-01

    Under- and overnutrition are linked to adverse outcomes during and after childhood cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the timing of weight loss and weight gain and their contributory factors is essential for improving outcomes. We aimed to determine in which period of treatment changes in nutritional status occurred and which factors contributed to these changes. A prospective cohort study of 133 newly diagnosed cancer patients with hematological, solid, and brain malignancies was performed. Anthropometric data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Despite initial weight loss at the beginning of treatment in patients with hematological and solid malignancies, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass (FM) increased within 3 months with 0.13 SDS (P nutritional status might be accomplished by increasing physical activity from the early phase of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Burnout in European family doctors: the EGPRN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Jean Karl; Yaman, Hakan; Esteva, Magdalena; Dobbs, Frank; Asenova, Radost Spiridonova; Katic, Milica; Ozvacic, Zlata; Desgranges, Jean Pierre; Moreau, Alain; Lionis, Christos; Kotányi, Péter; Carelli, Francesco; Nowak, Pawel R; de Aguiar Sá Azeredo, Zaida; Marklund, Eva; Churchill, Dick; Ungan, Mehmet

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout, and of associated factors, amongst family doctors (FDs) in European countries. Methodology. A cross-sectional survey of FDs was conducted using a custom-designed and validated questionnaire which incorporated the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as well as questions about demographic factors, working experience, health, lifestyle and job satisfaction. MBI-HSS scores were analysed in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). Almost 3500 questionnaires were distributed in 12 European countries, and 1393 were returned to give a response rate of 41%. In terms of burnout, 43% of respondents scored high for EE burnout, 35% for DP and 32% for PA, with 12% scoring high burnout in all three dimensions. Just over one-third of doctors did not score high for burnout in any dimension. High burnout was found to be strongly associated with several of the variables under study, especially those relative to respondents' country of residence and European region, job satisfaction, intention to change job, sick leave utilization, the (ab)use of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication, younger age and male sex. Burnout seems to be a common problem in FDs across Europe and is associated with personal and workload indicators, and especially job satisfaction, intention to change job and the (ab)use of alcohol, tobacco and medication. The study questionnaire appears to be a valid tool to measure burnout in FDs. Recommendations for employment conditions of FDs and future research are made, and suggestions for improving the instrument are listed.

  12. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Habitual sleep and kidney function in chronic kidney disease: the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristen L; Lash, James; Ricardo, Ana C; Herdegen, James; Thornton, J D; Rahman, Mahboob; Turek, Nicolas; Cohan, Janet; Appel, Lawrence J; Bazzano, Lydia A; Tamura, Manjula K; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Weir, Matthew R; Van Cauter, Eve

    2017-06-23

    Physiological evidence suggests that sleep modulates kidney function. Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association between kidney function and objectively-estimated habitual sleep duration, quality and timing in a cohort of patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. This study involved two US clinical centers of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, including 432 participants in a CRIC ancillary sleep study. Habitual sleep duration, quality and timing were measured using wrist actigraphy for 5-7 days. Validated sleep questionnaires assessed subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and risk of sleep apnea. Kidney function was assessed with the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, and the urinary protein to creatinine ratio. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with shorter sleep duration (-1.1 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per hour less sleep, P = 0.03), greater sleep fragmentation (-2.6 mL min-1  1.73 m-2 per 10% higher fragmentation, P kidney disease should consider inquiring about sleep and possibly sending for clinical sleep assessment. Longitudinal and interventional trials are needed to understand causal direction. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. European education on natural disasters - a textbook study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.

    2013-05-01

    Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.

  15. The role of neuromedin U in adiposity regulation. Haplotype analysis in European children from the IDEFICS Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfagna, Francesco; Grippi, Claudio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bailey, Mark E S; Börnhorst, Claudia; De Henauw, Stefan; Foraita, Ronja; Koni, Anna C; Krogh, Vittorio; Mårild, Staffan; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Russo, Paola; Siani, Alfonso; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Iacoviello, Licia

    2017-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide with important roles in several metabolic processes, recently suggested as potential therapeutic target for obesity. We analysed the associations between NMU gene variants and haplotypes and body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of European children. From a large European multi-center study on childhood obesity, 4,528 children (2.0-9.9 years, mean age 6.0±1.8 SD; boys 52.2%) were randomly selected, stratifying by age, sex and country, and genotyped for tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6827359, T:C; rs12500837, T:C; rs9999653,C:T) of NMU gene, then haplotypes were inferred. Regression models were applied to estimate the associations between SNPs or haplotypes and BMI as well as other anthropometric measures. BMI was associated with all NMU SNPs (phaplotypes inferred, the haplotype carrying the minor alleles (CCT, frequency = 22.3%) was the only associated with lower BMI values (beta = -0.16, 95%CI:-0.28,-0.04, p = 0.006; z-score, beta = -0.08, 95%CI:-0.14,-0.01, p = 0.019) and decreased risk of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.81, 95%CI:0.68,0.97, p = 0.020) when compared to the most prevalent haplotype (codominant model). Similar significant associations were also observed using the same variables collected after two years' time (BMI, beta = -0.25, 95%CI:-0.41,-0.08, p = 0.004; z-score, beta = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.18,-0.03, p = 0.009; overweight/obesity OR = 0.81, 95%CI:0.66,0.99, p = 0.036). The association was age-dependent in girls (interaction between CCT haplotypes and age, p = 0.008), more evident between 7 and 9 years of age. The CCT haplotype was consistently associated with lower levels of fat mass, skinfold thickness, hip and arm circumferences both at T0 and at T1, after adjustment for multiple testing (FDR-adjusted phaplotype and anthropometric indices, mainly linked to fat mass, which appears to be age- and sex-specific in children. Genetic variations within or in linkage with this haplotype should

  16. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  17. China suboptimal health cohort study: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youxin; Ge, Siqi; Yan, Yuxiang; Wang, Anxin; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Qiu, Jing; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2016-10-13

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a physical state between health and disease, characterized by the perception of health complaints, general weakness, chronic fatigue and low energy levels. SHS is proposed by the ancient concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the perspective of preservative, predictive and personalized (precision) medicine. We previously created the suboptimal health status questionnaire 25 (SHSQ-25), a novel instrument to measure SHS, validated in various populations. SHSQ-25 thus affords a window of opportunity for early detection and intervention, contributing to the reduction of chronic disease burdens. To investigate the causative effect of SHS in non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD), we initiated the China suboptimal health cohort study (COACS), a longitudinal study starting from 2013. Phase I of the study involved a cross-sectional survey aimed at identifying the risk/protective factors associated with SHS; and Phase II: a longitudinal yearly follow-up study investigating how SHS contributes to the incidence and pattern of NCD. (1) Cross-sectional survey: in total, 4313 participants (53.8 % women) aged from 18 to 65 years were included in the cohort. The prevalence of SHS was 9.0 % using SHS score of 35 as threshold. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of SHS (10.6 % in the female vs. 7.2 % in the male, P differed significantly between subjects of SHS (SHS score ≥35) and those of ideal health (SHS score difference in prevalence of SHS might partly explain the gender difference of incidence of certain chronic diseases. The COACS will enable a thorough characterization of SHS and establish a cohort that will be used for longitudinal analyses of the interaction between the genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that contribute to the onset and etiology of targeted chronic diseases. The study together with the designed prospective cohort provides a chance to characterize and evaluate the effect of SHS

  18. Parental education and frequency of food consumption in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Mouratidou, Theodora; Bammann, Karin; Hebestreit, Antje; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Sieri, Sabina; Reisch, Lucia; Eiben, Gabriele; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovacs, Eva; Huybrechts, Inge; Moreno, Luis A

    2013-03-01

    To assess the relationship between parental education level and the consumption frequency of obesity-related foods in European children. The analysis was based on data from the cross-sectional baseline survey of a prospective cohort study. The effects of parental education on food consumption were explored using analysis of covariance and logistic regression. Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Participants (n 14,426) of the IDEFICS baseline cohort study aged 2 to 9 years. Parental education level affected the intake of obesity-related foods in children. Children in the low and medium parental education level groups had lower odds of more frequently eating low-sugar and low-fat foods (vegetables, fruits, pasta/noodles/rice and wholemeal bread) and higher odds of more frequently eating high-sugar and high-fat foods (fried potatoes, fruits with sugar and nuts, snacks/desserts and sugared beverages; P education level was associated with intakes of sugar-rich and fatty foods among children, while high parental education level was associated with intakes of low-sugar and low-fat foods. These findings should be taken into account in public health interventions, with more targeted policies aiming at an improvement of children's diet.

  19. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dratva, Julia; Zemp, Elisabeth; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Accordini, Simone; Burdet, Luc; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; de Marco, Roberto; Norbäck, Dan; Pons, Marco; Real, Francisco Gómez; Sunyer, Jordi; Villani, Simona; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  20. Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing: Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dratva

    Full Text Available Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied.Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705 and ECRHS (n = 7157. The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1 decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression.Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95%CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80], of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49] of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]. Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78;5.18], and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16;2.09]. High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age.Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.

  1. Breast density and outcome of mammography screening: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50......-69 years. We collected information for the years 1991-2001 on screening outcome, incident BCs (screen-, interval-, and later detected), and BC deaths. Breast density was dichotomised into fatty (F) and mixed/dense (M/D) breasts. Screening sensitivity was measured as the odds ratio of interval versus screen...

  2. Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing: cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived age correlates with survival and important age related phenotypes. DESIGN: Follow-up study, with survival of twins determined up to January 2008, by which time 675 (37%) had died. SETTING: Population based twin cohort in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 20 nurses, 10...... increased with increasing discordance in perceived age within the twin pair-that is, the bigger the difference in perceived age within the pair, the more likely that the older looking twin died first. Twin analyses suggested that common genetic factors influence both perceived age and survival. Perceived...

  3. Serum YKL-40 and gestational diabetes - an observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gybel-Brask, Dorte; Johansen, Julia S; Christiansen, Ib J

    2016-01-01

    To examine serum YKL-40 in women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In the present large observational cohort study of 1179 pregnant women, we determined serum YKL-40 four times during pregnancy (at gestational age 12, 20, 25, and 32 weeks). Pregnancy outcome was obtained from medical...... and the oral glucose tolerance test results. In conclusion, YKL-40 significantly increased in pregnant women with GDM compared with women without GDM, probably reflecting the low-grade inflammation of GDM. However, we did not find an association between serum concentrations of YKL-40 in early pregnancy...

  4. Incidence of cancer among UK Gulf war veterans: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Gj; Biggs, Am; Maconochie, N; Hotopf, M; Doyle, P; Lunt, M

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment. Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end of the Gulf war) to 31 July 2002. Participants 51721 Gulf war veterans and 50 755 service personnel matched for age, sex, rank, servi...

  5. Operationalizing Frailty in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska-Newton, Anna M; Palta, Priya; Burgard, Sheila; Griswold, Michael E; Lund, Jennifer L; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Windham, B Gwen

    2017-03-01

    Factors that may contribute to the development of frailty in late life have not been widely investigated. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort presents an opportunity to examine relationships of midlife risk factors with frailty in late life. However, we first present findings on the validation of an established frailty phenotype in this predominantly biracial population of older adults. Among 6,080 participants, we defined frailty based upon the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) criteria incorporating measures of weight loss, exhaustion, slow walking speed, low physical activity, and low grip strength. Criterion and predictive validity of the frailty phenotype were estimated from associations between frailty status and participants' physical and mental health status, physiologic markers, and incident clinical outcomes. A total of 393 (6.5%) participants were classified as frail and 50.4% pre-frail, similar to CHS (6.9% frail, 46.6% pre-frail). In age-adjusted analyses, frailty was concurrently associated with depressive symptoms, low self-rated health, low medication adherence, and clinical biomarker levels (ie, cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and hemoglobin). During 1-year follow-up, frailty was associated with falls, low physical ability, fatigue, and mortality. These findings support the validity of the CHS frailty phenotype in the ARIC Study cohort. Future studies in ARIC may elucidate early-life exposures that contribute to late-life frailty.

  6. Possibilities and considerations when merging dietary data from the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts: the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Torjusen, Hanne; Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the research possibilities when merging data on maternal diet from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), through comparison of (i) the methodology used for dietary assessment and (ii) the estimated intake of selected food groups in the two cohorts. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the two dietary databases. Two national prospective pregnancy cohorts. Denmark, Norway. Comparison of food intake using food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). The FFQs had overlapping time windows and a majority of the questions in the two FFQs were comparable. Calculation principles shared similar features, including the software used and use of global questions to calibrate intakes of different food groups. A total of 63 food groups were defined that could be compared across the two cohorts; these were further aggregated down to 31 broader groups. A comparison of food intakes (grams/d) showed 39, 74 and 141% lower daily intakes of fish, potatoes and rice, respectively, in DNBC vs. MoBa and 39, 54 and 65% higher daily intakes of milk, butter and potatoes in DNBC vs. MoBa. For most other food groups, differences in consumption data were below 20%. The two FFQs are to a large extent compatible and substantial differences in dietary habits were observed between the two cohorts. This may strengthen studies using pooled analysis to examine diet-disease relations. This is a conclusion of great importance given the colossal and costly task involved to establish each of these two cohorts. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; White, Ian; Kostis, J B; Wilson, A C; Folsom, A R; Wu, K; Chambless, L; Benderly, M; Goldbourt, U; Willeit, J; Kiechl, S; Yarnell, J W G; Sweetnam, P M; Elwood, P C; Cushman, M; Psaty, B M; Tracy, R P; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Haverkate, F; de Maat, M P M; Thompson, S G; Fowkes, F G R; Lee, A J; Smith, F B; Salomaa, V; Harald, K; Rasi, V; Vahtera, E; Jousilahti, P; D'Agostino, R; Kannel, W B; Wilson, P W F; Tofler, G; Levy, D; Marchioli, R; Valagussa, F; Rosengren, A; Wilhelmsen, L; Lappas, G; Eriksson, H; Cremer, P; Nagel, D; Curb, J D; Rodriguez, B; Yano, K; Salonen, J T; Nyyssönen, K; Tuomainen, T-P; Hedblad, B; Engström, G; Berglund, G; Loewel, H; Koenig, W; Hense, H W; Meade, T W; Cooper, J A; De Stavola, B; Knottenbelt, C; Miller, G J; Cooper, J A; Bauer, K A; Rosenberg, R D; Sato, S; Kitamura, A; Naito, Y; Iso, H; Salomaa, V; Harald, K; Rasi, V; Vahtera, E; Jousilahti, P; Palosuo, T; Ducimetiere, P; Amouyel, P; Arveiler, D; Evans, A E; Ferrieres, J; Juhan-Vague, I; Bingham, A; Schulte, H; Assmann, G; Cantin, B; Lamarche, B; Despres, J-P; Dagenais, G R; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Lowe, G D O; Woodward, M; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Davey Smith, G; Palmieri, V; Yeh, J L; Meade, T W; Rudnicka, A; Brennan, P; Knottenbelt, C; Cooper, J A; Ridker, P; Rodeghiero, F; Tosetto, A; Shepherd, J; Lowe, G D O; Ford, I; Robertson, M; Brunner, E; Shipley, M; Feskens, E J M; Di Angelantonio, E; Kaptoge, S; Lewington, S; Lowe, G D O; Sarwar, N; Thompson, S G; Walker, M; Watson, S; White, I R; Wood, A M; Danesh, J

    2009-04-15

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an exposure and disease either are restricted to cohorts with full confounder information, or use all cohorts but do not fully adjust for confounding. We propose using a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis model to use information from all available cohorts while still adjusting for all the potential confounders. Our method uses both the fully adjusted and the partially adjusted estimated effects in the cohorts with full confounder information, together with an estimate of their within-cohort correlation. The method is applied to estimate the association between fibrinogen level and coronary heart disease incidence using data from 154,012 participants in 31 cohorts

  8. Selective testing for calreticulin gene mutations in patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Johanne; Plessier, Aurélie; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Turon, Fanny; Cassinat, Bruno; Andreoli, Annalisa; De Raucourt, Emmanuelle; Goria, Odile; Zekrini, Kamal; Bureau, Christophe; Lorre, Florence; Cervantes, Francisco; Colomer, Dolors; Durand, François; Garcia-Pagan, Juan-Carlos; Casadevall, Nicole; Valla, Dominique-Charles; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Marzac, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are the leading cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) V617F mutations are found in 80 to 90% of patients with SVT and MPN. Mutations of the calreticulin (CALR) gene have also been reported. However, as their prevalence ranges from 0 to 2%, the utility of routine testing is questionable. This study aimed to identify a group of patients with SVT at high risk of harboring CALR mutations and thus requiring this genetic testing. CALR, JAK2 V617F and thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL) mutations were analysed in a test cohort that included 312 patients with SVT. Criteria to identify patients at high risk of CALR mutations in this test cohort was used and evaluated in a validation cohort that included 209 patients with SVT. In the test cohort, 59 patients had JAK2 V617F , five had CALR and none had MPL mutations. Patients with CALR mutations had higher spleen height and platelet count than patients without these mutations. All patients with CALR mutations had a spleen height ⩾16cm and platelet count >200×10 9 /L. These criteria had a positive predictive value of 56% (5/9) and a negative predictive value of 100% (0/233) for the identification of CALR mutations. In the validation cohort, these criteria had a positive predictive value of 33% (2/6) and a negative predictive value of 99% (1/96). CALR mutations should be tested in patients with SVT, a spleen height ⩾16cm, platelet count >200×10 9 /L, and no JAK2 V617F . This strategy avoids 96% of unnecessary CALR mutations testing. Lay summary: Mutations of the CALR gene are detected in 0 to 2% of patients with SVT, thus the utility of systematic CALR mutation testing to diagnose MPN is questionable. This study demonstrates that CALR mutations testing can be restricted to patients with SVT, a spleen height ⩾16cm, a platelet count >200×10 9 /L, and no JAK2 V617F . This strategy avoids 96% of unnecessary CALR mutations testing. Copyright © 2017 European

  9. Study design of DIACORE (DIAbetes COhoRtE – a cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörhöfer Lena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD, end stage renal disease (ESRD and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE. Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies.

  10. A birth cohort study in the Middle East: the Qatari birth cohort study (QBiC phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Sadoun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latest scientific reports raise concerns about the rapidly increasing burden of chronic diseases in the state of Qatar. Pregnant Qatari women often confront complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes, hypertension, abortion and stillbirth. The investigation of early life environmental, genetic, nutritional and social factors that may affect lifelong health is of great importance. Birth cohort studies offer a great opportunity to address early life hazards and their possible long lasting effects on health. Methods/design The Qatari Birth Cohort study is the first mother-child cohort study in the Middle East Area that aims to assess the synergetic role of environmental exposure and genetic factors in the development of chronic disease and monitor woman and child health and/or obstetric characteristics with high prevalence. The present manuscript describes the recruitment phase of the study (duration: 2 years; expected number: 3000 families, where the pregnant Qatari women and their husbands are being contacted before the 15th week of gestation at the Primary Health Care Centers. The consented participants are interviewed to obtain information on several factors (sociodemographic characteristics, dietary habits, occupational/environmental exposure and maternal characteristics are assessed based on anthropometric measurements, spirometry, and blood pressure. Pregnant women are invited to provide biological samples (blood and urine in each trimester of their pregnancy, as well as cord blood at delivery. Fathers are also asked to provide biological samples. Discussion The present study provides invaluable insights into a wide range of early life factors affecting human health. With a geographical focus on the Middle East, it will be a resource for information to the wider scientific community and will allow the formulation of effective policies with a primary focus on public health interventions for maternal

  11. Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Norat, Teresa; Murphy, Neil; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Perquier, Florence; Dartois, Laureen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Ros, Martine M; Brustad, Magritt; Åsli, Lene Angell; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J Ramón; González, Carlos A; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz Aicua, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Key, Timothy; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that high fiber intake is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the association of dietary fiber with specific causes of death other than cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,717 men and women. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, and, in women, ever use of menopausal hormone therapy. During a mean follow-up of 12.7 y, a total of 23,582 deaths were recorded. Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non-smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d. Higher fiber intake is associated with lower mortality, particularly from circulatory, digestive, and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory diseases. Our results support current recommendations of high dietary fiber intake for health maintenance.

  12. Light Alcohol Drinking and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Jung; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Ji-Ho

    2017-05-22

    To determine whether light alcohol drinking increases the risk of cancer by using a meta-analysis of cohort studies because the newly revised 2015 European Code against Cancer 4th edition on alcohol and cancer was based on critical flaws in the interpretation and citation of the previous meta-analyses. PubMed and EMBASE were searched in April, 2016. Two authors independently reviewed and selected cohort studies on the association between very light (≤0.5 drink/day), light (≤1 drink/day), or moderate drinking (1-2 drinks/day) and the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. A pooled relative risk with its 95% confidence interval was calculated by a random-effects meta-analysis. Main outcome measures were cancer incidence and mortality. A total of 60 cohort studies from 135 articles were included in the final analysis. Very light drinking or light drinking was not associated with the incidence of most cancers except for female breast cancer in women and male colorectal cancer. Conversely, light drinking was associated with a decreased incidence of both female and male lung cancer significantly and both female and male thyroid cancer marginally significantly. Moderate drinking significantly increased the incidence of male colorectal cancer and female breast cancer, whereas it decreased the incidence of both female and male hematologic malignancy. We found that very light or light alcohol drinking was not associated with the risk of most of the common cancers except for the mild increase in the incidence of breast cancer in women and colorectal cancer in men.

  13. Mineral metabolism in European children living with a renal transplant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Busutti, Marco; van Stralen, Karlijn J

    2015-01-01

    Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry to study the prevalence and potential determinants of mineral abnormalities, as well as the predictive value of a disturbed mineral level on graft survival in a large cohort of European pediatric renal transplant...

  14. SECONDARY GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES IN CHILDHOOD CANCER SURVIVORS: A COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tara O.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Whitton, John; Leisenring, Wendy; Neglia, Joseph; Meadows, Anna; Crotty, Catherine; Rubin, David T.; Diller, Lisa; Inskip, Peter; Smith, Susan A.; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S.; Hammond, Sue; Armstrong, Greg T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Nathan, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer survivors develop gastrointestinal malignancies more frequently and at a younger age than the general population, but risk factors for their development have not been well characterized. Objective To determine the risk and associated risk factors for gastrointestinal subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) in childhood cancer survivors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-center study of childhood cancer survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. Patients 14,358 survivors of a malignancy diagnosed at cancer survivors than the general population (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5-6.1). Colorectal cancer SIR was 4.2 (95% CI: 2.8-6.3). The highest gastrointestinal SMN risk was associated with abdominal radiation (SIR=11.2, 95% CI: 7.6-16.4). However, survivors not exposed to radiation had a significantly increased risk (SIR=2.4, 95% CI-1.4-3.9). In addition to abdominal radiation, high dose procarbazine (RR=3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.4) and platinum drugs (RR 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3-25.5) independently increased the gastrointestinal SMN risk. Limitations This cohort has not yet attained an age at which gastrointestinal malignancy risk is greatest. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors, particularly those exposed to abdominal radiation, are at increased risk for gastrointestinal SMN. These findings suggest that surveillance of at-risk childhood cancer survivors should commence at a younger age than recommended for the general population. PMID:22665813

  15. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  16. Clinical course of multiple sclerosis: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehrinia, Ali; Beiki, Omid; Hillert, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been studied in several cohorts; however, results have varied significantly. To describe the clinical course of MS in a nationwide cohort of patients. Data from the Swedish MS register (SMSreg) were used to estimate the median time to the sustained Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0, onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and death using Kaplan-Meier method. A possible effect of first-line treatments on age at EDSS 6.0 and SPMS was estimated. In all, 12,703 patients were included. Median ages at EDSS scores 3.0, 4.0 and 6.0 were 55.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 54.8-55.8), 60.7 (95% CI: 60.1-61.2) and 64.3 (95% CI: 63.6-64.7), respectively. Median age at SPMS was 57.4 (95% CI: 56.9-57.9). The median age at the time of death was 80.5 (95% CI: 79.9-81.1). Males and progressive-onset patients showed higher risks of disability worsening. On average, treated patients gained 1.6 years (95% CI: 0.2-3) to EDSS 6.0 as a result of treatment. Ages at disability milestones in this population-based cohort were higher than previously described in clinic- and regional-based samples. Nevertheless, MS patients die at younger age and live at an average almost 20 years with moderate and 30 years with severe disability.

  17. Has actuarial aging “slowed” over the past 250 years? A comparison of small-scale subsistence populations and European cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Fenelon, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    G.C. Williams’ 1957 hypothesis famously argues that higher age-independent, or “extrinsic”, mortality should select for faster rates of senescence. Long-lived species should therefore show relatively few deaths from extrinsic causes such as predation and starvation. Theoretical explorations and empirical tests of Williams’ hypothesis have flourished in the past decade but it has not yet been tested empirically among humans. We test Williams’ hypothesis using mortality data from subsistence populations and from historical cohorts from Sweden and England/Wales, and examine whether rates of actuarial aging declined over the past two centuries. We employ three aging measures: mortality rate doubling time (MRDT), Ricklef’s ω, and the slope of mortality hazard from ages sixty to seventy, m’60–70, and model mortality using both Weibull and Gompertz-Makeham hazard models. We find that (1) actuarial aging in subsistence societies is similar to that of early Europe, (2) actuarial senescence has slowed in later European cohorts, (3) reductions in extrinsic mortality associate with slower actuarial aging in longitudinal samples, and (4) men senesce more rapidly than women, especially in later cohorts. To interpret these results, we attempt to bridge population-based evolutionary analysis with individual-level proximate mechanisms. PMID:19220451

  18. Psychosocial and socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular mortality in Eastern Europe: A multicentre prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi Tillmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European countries have some of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality, much of which cannot be adequately accounted for by conventional CVD risk factors. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors may affect risk of CVD, but relatively few studies on this issue have been undertaken in Eastern Europe. We investigated whether various psychosocial factors are associated with CVD mortality independently from each other and whether they can help explain differences in CVD mortality between Eastern European populations.Participants were from the Health, Alcohol and Psychological factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE cohort study in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic, including a total of 20,867 men and women aged 43-74 years and free of CVD at baseline examination during 2002-2005. Participants were followed-up for CVD mortality after linkage to national mortality registries for a median of 7.2 years.During the follow-up, 556 participants died from CVD. After mutual adjustment, six psychosocial and socioeconomic factors were associated with increased risk of CVD death: unemployment, low material amenities, depression, being single, infrequent contacts with friends or relatives. The hazard ratios [HRs] for these six factors ranged between 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.14-1.40] and 1.81 [95% confidence interval 1.24-2.64], fully adjusted for each other, and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Population-attributable fractions ranged from 8% [4%-13%] to 22% [11%-31%] for each factor, when measured on average across the three cohorts. However, the prevalence of psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors and their HRs were similar between the three countries. Altogether, these factors could not explain why participants from Russia had higher CVD mortality when compared to participants from Poland/Czech Republic. Limitations of this study include measurement error that could lead to residual confounding; and the

  19. Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study

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    Lyons Ronan A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. Methods Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White/European (n = 15,062, Asian (n = 1,845 or African (n = 654 background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to examine factors associated with obesity at age 5. All participants were interviewed in their own homes. The main exposures examined included; Birth weight, sedentary lifestyle, family health behaviours, ethnicity, education and income. Results Children with a sedentary lifestyle, large at birth, with high risk family health behaviours (overweight mothers, smoking near the child, missing breakfast and from a family with low income or low educational attainment, were more likely to be obese regardless of ethnicity. Feeding solid food before 3 months was associated with obesity in higher income White/European families. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnic background is an important independent risk factor for childhood obesity [Odds ratio of obesity; was 1.7 (95%CI: 1.2-2.3 for Asian and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.9-3.9 for African children, compared to White/European]. The final adjusted model suggests that increasing income does not have a great impact on lowering obesity levels, but that higher academic qualifications are associated with lower obesity levels [Odds of obesity: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.52-0.77 if primary carer leaves school after age 16 compared at age 16]. Conclusions Education of the primary carer is an important modifiable factor which can be targeted to address rising obesity levels in children. Interventions should be family centred supporting and showing people how they can implement lifestyle changes in their family.

  20. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2012 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  2. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Late Cardiac Events after Childhood Cancer: Methodological Aspects of the Pan-European Study PanCareSurFup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A M Feijen

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk of long-term adverse effects of cancer and its treatment, including cardiac events. The pan-European PanCareSurFup study determined the incidence and risk factors for cardiac events among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of the cardiac cohort and nested case-control study within PanCareSurFup.Eight data providers in Europe participating in PanCareSurFup identified and validated symptomatic cardiac events in their cohorts of childhood cancer survivors. Data on symptomatic heart failure, ischemia, pericarditis, valvular disease and arrhythmia were collected and graded according to the Criteria for Adverse Events. Detailed treatment data, data on potential confounders, lifestyle related risk factors and general health problems were collected.The PanCareSurFup cardiac cohort consisted of 59,915 5-year childhood cancer survivors with malignancies diagnosed between 1940 and 2009 and classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer 3. Different strategies were used to identify cardiac events such as record linkage to population/ hospital or regional based databases, and patient- and general practitioner-based questionnaires.The cardiac study of the European collaborative research project PanCareSurFup will provide the largest cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors with systematically ascertained and validated data on symptomatic cardiac events. The result of this study can provide information to minimize the burden of cardiac events in childhood cancer survivors by tailoring the follow-up of childhood cancer survivors at high risk of cardiac adverse events, transferring this knowledge into evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and providing a platform for future research studies in childhood cancer patients. .

  4. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolically healthy obesity in Europe: a collaborative analysis of ten large cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Not all obese subjects have an adverse metabolic profile predisposing them to developing type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The BioSHaRE-EU Healthy Obese Project aims to gain insights into the consequences of (healthy) obesity using data on risk factors and phenotypes across several large-scale cohort studies. Aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) in ten participating studies. Methods Ten different cohorts in seven countries were combined, using data transformed into a harmonized format. All participants were of European origin, with age 18–80 years. They had participated in a clinical examination for anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples had been drawn for analysis of lipids and glucose. Presence of MetS was assessed in those with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) based on the 2001 NCEP ATP III criteria, as well as an adapted set of less strict criteria. MHO was defined as obesity, having none of the MetS components, and no previous diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Results Data for 163,517 individuals were available; 17% were obese (11,465 men and 16,612 women). The prevalence of obesity varied from 11.6% in the Italian CHRIS cohort to 26.3% in the German KORA cohort. The age-standardized percentage of obese subjects with MetS ranged in women from 24% in CHRIS to 65% in the Finnish Health2000 cohort, and in men from 43% in CHRIS to 78% in the Finnish DILGOM cohort, with elevated blood pressure the most frequently occurring factor contributing to the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The age-standardized prevalence of MHO varied in women from 7% in Health2000 to 28% in NCDS, and in men from 2% in DILGOM to 19% in CHRIS. MHO was more prevalent in women than in men, and decreased with age in both sexes. Conclusions Through a rigorous harmonization process, the BioSHaRE-EU consortium was able to compare key characteristics

  5. Physical activity and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsen, N.F.; Tjonneland, A.; Thomsen, B.L.; Christensen, J.; Loft, S.; Friedenreich, C.; Key, T.J.; Allen, N.E.; Lahmann, P.H.; Mejlvig, L.; Overvad, K.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Zylis, D.; Tumino, R.; Pala, V.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Suarez, L.R.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Huerta, J.M.; Gurrea, A.B.; Manjer, J.; Wirfalt, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.; Boffetta, P.; Egevad, L.; Rinaldi, S.; Riboli, E.

    2009-01-01

    The evidence concerning the possible association between physical activity and the risk of prostate cancer is inconsistent and additional data are needed. We examined the association between risk of prostate cancer and physical activity at work and in leisure time in the European Prospective

  6. Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival : the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Scalbert, Augustin; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Ward, Heather; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; His, Mathilde; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Overvad, Kim; Lasheras, Cristina; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, Maria José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; van Gils, Carla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17443068X; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Sund, Malin; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective

  7. The association between diet and obesity in specific European cohorts: DiOgenes and EPIC-PANACEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Huaidong, D.U.

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from two projects embedded within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) on the association between dietary factors and obesity risk, in particular change in weight and waist circumference. A total of 12 publications from DiOGenes and

  8. Mediterranean diet and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María José; Buckland, Genevieve; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Amiano, Pilar; Wark, Petra A.; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Quirós, José Ramón; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Peeters, Petra H.; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Boeing, Heiner; Iqbal, Khalid; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sonestedt, Emily; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina EN; Travis, Ruth C.; Skeie, Guri; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Freisling, Heinz; Huybrechts, Inge; Overvad, Kim; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay Tee; Cross, Amanda J.; Ward, Heather A.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Background:The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European

  9. Prediagnostic selenium status and hepatobiliary cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, David J.; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Hybsier, Sandra; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Affret, Aurélie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Peppa, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno de Mesquita, Hendrik Bastiaan; Peeters, Petra H.; Engeset, Dagrun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lasheras, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Schomburg, Lutz; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-01

    Selenium status is suboptimal in many Europeans and may be a risk factor for the development of various cancers, including those of the liver and biliary tract. Objective: We wished to examine whether selenium status in advance of cancer onset is associated with hepatobiliary cancers in the EPIC

  10. Meat, eggs, dairy products, and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pala, Valeria; Krogh, Vittorio; Berrino, Franco; Sieri, Sabina; Grioni, Sara; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Romieu, Isabelle; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Ardanaz, Eva; Navarro, Carmen; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Gonzalez Svatetz, Carlos Alberto; Rodriguez, Laudina; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Peeters, Petra H. M.; van Gils, Carla H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Key, Timothy J.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Rinaldi, Sabina; Norat, Teresa; Michaud, Dominique S.; Riboli, Elio

    2009-01-01

    Background: A Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk. Objective: We investigated the relation of meat, egg, and dairy product consumption with breast cancer risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design: Between 1992 and 2003,

  11. Progression of Alzheimer disease in Europe: data from the European ICTUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellas, B; Hausner, L; Frölich, L; Cantet, C; Gardette, V; Reynish, E; Gillette, S; Agüera-Morales, E; Auriacombe, S; Boada, M; Bullock, R; Byrne, J; Camus, V; Cherubini, A; Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, M; Frisoni, G B; Hasselbalch, S; Jones, R W; Martinez-Lage, P; Rikkert, M O; Tsolaki, M; Ousset, P-J; Pasquier, F; Ribera-Casado, J M; Rigaud, A S; Robert, P; Rodriguez, G; Salmon, E; Salva, A; Scheltens, P; Schneider, A; Sinclair, A; Spiru, L; Touchon, J; Zekry, D; Winblad, B; Andrieu, S

    2012-10-01

    The clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) was studied in European subjects under treatment with AChE inhibitors (AChE-I) in relation to geographical location over a 2-years period. One thousand three hundred and six subjects from 11 European countries were clustered into 3 regions (North, South, West) and investigated with biannual follow-up over 2 years. Primary outcomes were cognitive, functional and behavioral measures. Caregiver burden, hospital admission and admission to nursing home were also recorded. Participant cognitive function declined non-linearly over time (MMSE: -1.5 pts/first year, -2.5 pts/second year; ADAScog: + 3.5 pts/first year, + 4.8 pts/second year), while the progression of behavioral disturbances (NPI scale) was linear. Neither scale showed regional differences, and progression of the disease was similar across Europe despite different health care systems. Functional decline (ADL, IADL) tended to progress more rapidly in Southern Europe (p=0.09), while progression of caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview) was most rapid in Northern Europe (5.6 pts/y, p=0.04). Incidences of hospital admission (10.44, 95%CI: 8.13-12.75, p < 0.001) and admission to nursing home (2.97, 95%CI: 1.83-4.11, p < 0.001) were lowest in Southern Europe. In general cognitive and functional decline was slower than in former cohorts. European geographical location reflecting differences in culture and in health care system does not impact on the progression of AD but does influence the management of AD subjects and caregiver burden.

  12. Dietary Fat Intake and Fecundability in 2 Preconception Cohort Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren A; Wesselink, Amelia K; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    American preconception cohort studies. Women who were attempting to become pregnant completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Pregnancy status was updated bimonthly for 12 months or until pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using......The association between dietary fat and fertility is not well studied. We evaluated intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids (TFA), ω-3 fatty acids, and ω-6 fatty acids in relation to fecundability in Danish and North......-response relationship (among persons who did not use fish oil supplements: for the fourth quartile vs. the first, FR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.73); no association was found in Danish women, among whom low intake was rare. In the present study, high TFA intake and low ω-3 fatty acid intake were associated with reduced...

  13. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: Cohort description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thanh T; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Roberts, Amy E; Chung, Wendy K; Kline, Jennie K; Deanfield, John E; Giardini, Alessandro; Aleman, Adolfo; Gelb, Bruce D; Mac Neal, Meghan; Porter, George A; Kim, Richard; Brueckner, Martina; Lifton, Richard P; Edman, Sharon; Woyciechowski, Stacy; Mitchell, Laura E; Agopian, A J

    2018-01-01

    The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium (PCGC) designed the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to provide phenotype and genotype data for a large congenital heart defects (CHDs) cohort. This article describes the PCGC cohort, overall and by major types of CHDs (e.g., conotruncal defects) and subtypes of conotrucal heart defects (e.g., tetralogy of Fallot) and left ventricular outflow tract obstructions (e.g., hypoplastic left heart syndrome). Cases with CHDs were recruited through ten sites, 2010-2014. Information on cases (N = 9,727) and their parents was collected through interviews and medical record abstraction. Four case characteristics, eleven parental characteristics, and thirteen parent-reported neurodevelopment outcomes were summarized using counts and frequencies and compared across CHD types and subtypes. Eleven percent of cases had a genetic diagnosis. Among cases without a genetic diagnosis, the majority had conotruncal heart defects (40%) or left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (21%). Across CHD types, there were significant differences (ptypes and subtypes, provides a reference work for investigators who are interested in collaborating with or using publically available resources from the PCGC.

  14. Relevance of cohort studies for the study of transplant infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christoph; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; van Delden, Christian; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Khanna, Nina; Koller, Michael; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Nadal, David; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2012-12-01

    The debate on the merits of observational studies as compared with randomized trials is ongoing. We will briefly touch on this subject, and demonstrate the role of cohort studies for the description of infectious disease patterns after transplantation. The potential benefits of cohort studies for the clinical management of patients outside of the expected gain in epidemiological knowledge are reviewed. The newly established Swiss Transplantation Cohort Study and in particular the part focusing on infectious diseases will serve as an illustration. A neglected area of research is the indirect value of large, multicenter cohort studies. These benefits can range from a deepened collaboration to the development of common definitions and guidelines. Unfortunately, very few data exist on the role of such indirect effects on improving quality of patient management. This review postulates an important role for cohort studies, which should not be viewed as inferior but complementary to established research tools, in particular randomized trials. Randomized trials remain the least bias-prone method to establish knowledge regarding the significance of diagnostic or therapeutic measures. Cohort studies have the power to reflect a real-world situation and to pinpoint areas of knowledge as well as of uncertainty. Prerequisite is a prospective design requiring a set of inclusive data coupled with the meticulous insistence on data retrieval and quality.

  15. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil : the Porto Alegre study

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Alex Nogueira; GAIO,Eduardo José; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rios, Fernando Silva; Costa,Ricardo dos Santos Araujo; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Albandar, Jasim M.; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals....

  16. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Nogueira Haas; Eduardo José Gaio; Marcius Comparsi Wagner; Fernando Silva Rios; Ricardo dos Santos Araujo Costa; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Rui Vicente Oppermann; Jasim Albandar; Cristiano Susin

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals....

  17. Incidence and Prevalence of Childhood Epilepsy: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaberg, Kari Modalsli; Gunnes, Nina; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Lund Søraas, Camilla; Berntsen, Aleksander; Magnus, Per; Lossius, Morten I; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Chin, Richard; Surén, Pål

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy affects 0.5% to 1% of children and is the most frequent chronic neurologic condition in childhood. Incidence rates appear to be declining in high-income countries. The validity of epilepsy diagnoses from different data sources varies, and contemporary population-based incidence studies are needed. The study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Potential epilepsy cases were identified through registry linkages and parental questionnaires. Cases were validated through medical record reviews and telephone interviews of parents. The study population included 112 744 children aged 3 to 13 years (mean 7.4 years) at end of registry follow-up (December 31, 2012). Of these, 896 had registry recordings and/or questionnaire reports of epilepsy. After validation, 587 (66%) met the criteria for an epilepsy diagnosis. The incidence rate of epilepsy was 144 per 100 000 person-years in the first year of life and 58 per 100 000 for ages 1 to 10 years. The cumulative incidence of epilepsy was 0.66% at age 10 years, with 0.62% having active epilepsy. The 309 children (34%) with erroneous reports of epilepsy from the registry and/or the questionnaires had mostly been evaluated for nonepileptic paroxysmal events, or they had undergone electroencephalography examinations because of other developmental or neurocognitive difficulties. Approximately 1 out of 150 children is diagnosed with epilepsy during the first 10 years of life, with the highest incidence rate observed during infancy. Validation of epilepsy diagnoses in administrative data and cohort studies is crucial because reported diagnoses may not meet diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Systematically missing confounders in individual participant data meta-analysis of observational cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, D.; White, I.; Kostis, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    One difficulty in performing meta-analyses of observational cohort studies is that the availability of confounders may vary between cohorts, so that some cohorts provide fully adjusted analyses while others only provide partially adjusted analyses. Commonly, analyses of the association between an...

  19. Health and function of participants in the Long Life Family Study: A comparison with other cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Anne B; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar...

  20. A study of cohort life cycles: Cohorts of native born Massachusetts women, 1830-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenberg, P R

    1969-11-01

    Abstract This paper expands the conceptual apparatus offamily life cycle analysis and illustrates its usefulness by applying it to a population. There is a normatively sanctioned life cycle that a female born into American society is expected to follow as she moves from birth to death: she is expected to survive through childhood, marry, bear and rear children, and survive jointly with her husband until her children leave the home. Paul Glick, in several articles, has calculated mean ages at which these various events are experienced. The life cycle analysis proposed here, however, focuses on the distribution of women according to type of life cycle experienced. Starting with a cohort of 100,000 females, six alternative life cycle possibilities are differentiated and the number who follow each of the types is calculated. The six types are: (1) abbreviated, the female dies before she is exposed to the risk of marriage; (2) spinster, the woman is exposed to the risk of marriage but does not marry; (3) barren, the woman marries but remains childless; (4) dying mother, the woman has children but dies before the last one leaves home; (5) widowed mother, the woman has children and survives until they leave home, but her husband dies before that event; and (6) typical, the woman marries, has children, and survives jointly with her husband until the last one leaves home. Applying this approach to several cohorts of native-born Massachusetts women born at different times some striking changes appear. For example, the number of women from a birth cohort of 100,000 who follow the typical life cycle increases from 21,000 for the cohort born in 1830 to 57,000 for the cohort born in 1920. The demographic, social and economic implications of a change of this magnitude are of considerable consequence.

  1. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability.In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model.Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight.Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  2. Steroid withdrawal after renal transplantation: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; Kammer, Michael; Kainz, Alexander; Baer, Heather J; Heinze, Georg; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2017-01-12

    Immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation frequently contain corticosteroids, but many centers withdraw steroids as a consequence of unwanted side effects of steroids. The optimal timing to withdraw steroids after transplantation, however, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal time point following kidney transplantation that is associated with reduced mortality without jeopardizing the allograft to allow safe discontinuation of steroids. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and computed a concatenated landmark-stratified Cox supermodel to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality and graft loss using dynamic propensity score matching to adjust for confounding by indication. A total of 6070 first kidney transplant recipients in the Austrian Dialysis and Transplant Registry who were transplanted between 1990 and 2012 were evaluated and classified according to steroid treatment status throughout follow-up after kidney transplantation; 2142 patients were withdrawn from steroids during the study period. Overall, 1131 patients lost their graft and 821 patients in the study cohort died. Steroid withdrawal within 18 months after transplantation was associated with an increased rate of graft loss compared to steroid maintenance during that time (6 months after transplantation: HR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6; 18 months after transplantation: HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6; 24 months after transplantation: HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.5), while mortality was not different between groups. Our findings suggest that steroid withdrawal after anti-IL-2 induction in the first 18 months after transplantation is associated with an increased risk of allograft loss.

  3. Need for a European approach to the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on cancer. ELF-EMF European Feasibility Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A European feasibility study on environmental exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and cancer was conducted. The study was motivated by public health concern about possible adverse health effects associated with ELF-EMF exposure. A review of completed research in Europe was conducted. Information on the methods and accessibility of new epidemiologic studies were requested and reviewed. Eight studies on environmental ELF-EMF exposure have been completed in Europe while 15 large studies are in progress. Although there is no known mechanism by which electric or magnetic fields of this frequency could play a role in the development of cancer or other adverse health effects, the results of the studies conducted so far provide some support for the hypothesis that they are associated with the incidence of childhood leukemia. The best use of available data will be made through a pooled re-analysis of data, particularly those on childhood tumors. It is recommended to apply multiple methods for exposure assessment in view of the heterogeneity in the methods used in different studies. New multicenter case-referent studies should not be initiated until the results of the large on-going studies have been reported. Prospective cohort studies will have to be very large to identify moderate excess risks resulting from environmental exposure to ELF-EMF, and their feasibility should be discussed after the results of the on-going case-referent studies have been reported. A European collaborative approach will lead to greater statistical power and will assess the exposure-effect association under differing exposure patterns and distributions of potential confounding factors.

  4. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study.......To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  5. Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS in EMR-linked pediatric cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram eNamjou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report the first pediatric specific Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS using electronic medical records (EMRs. Given the early success of PheWAS in adult populations, we investigated the feasibility of this approach in pediatric cohorts.Method: Data on 5049 samples of European ancestry were obtained from the Electronic Medical Records (EMRs of two large academic centers in five different genotyped cohorts. After standard quality controls, removing missing data and outliers based on principal components (PC analyses, 4268 samples were used for the PheWAS study. We scanned for associations between 2476 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP with available genotyping data from previously published GWAS studies and 539 EMR-derived phenotypes. The false discovery rate was calculated and, for any new PheWAS findings, a permutation approach was implemented.Results: This PheWAS replicated a variety of common variants (MAF>10% with prior GWAS associations in our pediatric cohorts including Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JIA, Asthma, Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD and Type 1 Diabetes with a false discovery rate < 0.05 and power of study above 80%. In addition, several new PheWAS findings included a cluster of association near the NDFIP1 gene for mental retardation (best SNP rs10057309, p=4.33x10-7, OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.38-2.09, association at vicinity of (PLCL1, PRIP-1 gene for developmental delays and speech disorder (best SNP rs1595825, p=1.13x10-8, OR=0.65(0.57-0.76, a cluster of SNP associations in the IL5-IL13 region, previously implicated in Asthma, Allergy, and Eosinophilia, with Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE (best SNP rs12653750, p=3.03x10-9, OR=1.73 95%CI=(1.44-2.07 and association of variants in GCKR and JAZF1, responsible for metabolic disease and diabetes in adults with allergic rhinitis in our pediatric cohorts (best SNP rs780093, p=2.18x10-5, OR=1.39, 95%CI=(1.19-1.61.Conclusion: By using the PheWAS approach and

  6. perinatal depression in a cohort study of Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Kheirabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childbearing years in the women’s life are associated with the highest risk of depression. Despite the results of some studies that suggested, depression during pregnancy has been associated with poor prenatal care, substance abuse, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and introduced antenatal depression and anxiety as predictors of postnatal depression, researches during past 25 years have focused mostly on postpartum depression so depression during pregnancy is relatively neglected. Materials and methods: We studied depression during third trimester of pregnancy and after delivery, using prospectively gathered data from a cohort of 1898 women. We compared depressive symptom score and the proportion of mothers above a threshold, to indicate probable depressive disorder at each stage. Results: Point prevalence of depressed pregnant women (clinical depression based on BDI score greater than 20 in last trimester of pregnancy, was 22.8% and postnatal rate of depression based on EPD score greater than 12 between 6 to 8 weeks after delivery, was 26.3%. Incidence of PPD in 6 to 8 weeks after delivery in those who were not clinically depressed during pregnancy was, 20.1%. Discussion: We found that history of depression, unplanned pregnancy; being housewife and having 3 or more children were variables with significant relation to ante partum depression. Two main risk factors for post partum depression in this cohort study, were previous history of depression and depression during current pregnancy that highlight the importance of these two variables assessment during pregnancy in order to facilitate timely identification of women at risk.

  7. Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is one of a number of large-scale scientific infrastructure projects supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Part of this project involves the development of a target area for the exploration of inertial fusion ...

  8. Long-term Exposure to Particulate Matter Constituents and the Incidence of Coronary Events in 11 European Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Kathrin; Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    with incident coronary events. METHODS: Eleven cohorts from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy participated in this analysis. 5,157 incident coronary events were identified within 100,166 persons followed on average for 11.5 years. Long-term residential concentrations of PM PM 2.5 μm...... (PM2.5), and a priori selected constituents (copper, iron, nickel, potassium, silicon, sulfur, vanadium, and zinc) were estimated with land-use regression models. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for a common set of confounders to estimate cohort-specific component effects...... with and without including PM mass, and random effects meta-analyses to pool cohort-specific results. RESULTS: A 100 ng/m³ increase in PM10 K and a 50 ng/m³ increase in PM2.5 K were associated with a 6% (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.06 [1.01, 1.12]) and 18% (1.18 [1.06, 1.32]) increase in coronary...

  9. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study and its potential impact on the adoption of atherosclerosis imaging in European primary prevention guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabadi, Amir A; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Kälsch, Hagen; Bauer, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund

    2011-10-01

    Non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging of the heart enables noninvasive quantification of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a surrogate marker of the atherosclerotic burden in the coronary artery tree. Multiple studies have underlined the ability of CAC score for individual risk stratification and, accordingly, the American Heart Association recommended cardiac CT for risk assessment in individuals with an intermediate risk of cardiovascular events as measured by Framingham Risk Score. However, limitations in transcribing risk stratification algorithms based on American cohort studies into European populations have been acknowledged in the past. Moreover, data on implications for reclassification into higher- or lower-risk groups based on CAC scores were lacking. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) study is a population-based cohort study that investigated the ability of CAC scoring in risk prediction for major cardiovascular events above and beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. According to Heinz Nixdorf Recall findings, CAC can be used for reclassification, especially in those in the intermediate-risk group, to advise on lifestyle changes for the reclassified low-risk category, or to implement intensive treatments for the reclassified high-risk individuals. This article discusses the present findings of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study with respect to the current literature, risk stratification algorithms, and current European guidelines for risk prediction.

  10. Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J; Armstrong, Julie; Dorosty, Ahmad R; Emmett, Pauline M; Ness, A; Rogers, I; Steer, Colin; Sherriff, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related risk factors for obesity. Main outcome measures Obesity at age 7 years, defined as a body mass index 3 95th centile relative to reference data for the UK population in 1990. Results Eight of 25 putative risk factors were associated with a risk of obesity in the final models: parental obesity (both parents: adjusted odds ratio, 10.44, 95% confidence interval 5.11 to 21.32), very early (by 43 months) body mass index or adiposity rebound (15.00, 5.32 to 42.30), more than eight hours spent watching television per week at age 3 years (1.55, 1.13 to 2.12), catch-up growth (2.60, 1.09 to 6.16), standard deviation score for weight at age 8 months (3.13, 1.43 to 6.85) and 18 months (2.65, 1.25 to 5.59); weight gain in first year (1.06, 1.02 to 1.10 per 100 g increase); birth weight, per 100 g (1.05, 1.03 to 1.07); and short (< 10.5 hours) sleep duration at age 3 years (1.45, 1.10 to 1.89). Conclusion Eight factors in early life are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood. PMID:15908441

  11. Prevalence of Hypertensive Phenotypes After Preeclampsia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditisheim, Agnès; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Ponte, Belen; Vial, Yvan; Irion, Olivier; Burnier, Michel; Boulvain, Michel; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with increased cardiovascular and renal risk. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to characterize the early postpartum blood pressure (BP) profile after preeclampsia. We enrolled 115 women with preeclampsia and 41 women with a normal pregnancy in a prospective cohort study. At 6 to 12 week postpartum, we assessed the prevalence of different hypertensive phenotypes using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as well as the risk of salt sensitivity and the variability of BP derived from ABPM parameters. Among patients with preeclampsia, 57.4% were still hypertensive at the office. Daytime ABP was significantly higher in the preeclampsia group (118.9±15.0/83.2±10.4 mm Hg) than in controls (104.8±7.9/71.6±5.3 mm Hg; P preeclampsia women remained hypertensive on ABPM in the postpartum, of whom 24.3% were still under antihypertensive treatment; 17.9% displayed a white-coat hypertension and 11.6% had masked hypertension. In controls, 2.8% had white-coat hypertension; none had masked hypertension or needed hypertensive treatment. The prevalence of nondippers was similar 59.8% in the preeclampsia group versus 51.4% in controls. High-risk class of salt sensitivity of BP was increased in preeclampsia women (48.6%) compared with controls (17.1%); P preeclampsia. This finding may help identify women who should be included in a postpartum cardiovascular risk management program. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01095939. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  13. Participation, characteristics and retention rates of HIV-positive immigrants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierfelder, C; Weber, R; Elzi, L; Furrer, H; Cavassini, M; Calmy, A; Bernasconi, E; Gutmann, C; Ledergerber, B

    2012-02-01

    Data from observational cohorts may be influenced by population structure and loss to follow-up (LTFU). Quality of care may be associated with participation in cohort networks. We aimed to study the participation, characteristics and retention rates of immigrants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). We compared enrolment over time (1996-1999, 2000-2003 and 2004-2008) and LTFU between individuals from different geographical regions. In 2008, we performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the proportion of individuals not participating in the SHCS but who were in care at SHCS institutions. Predictors for LTFU were analysed using Cox proportional hazard models, and those for nonparticipation using logistic regression. A total of 7840 individuals entered the SHCS during the observation period. The proportion of immigrants increased over time, especially the proportion of women from sub-Saharan Africa, which increased from 21 to 48% during the observation period. Overall LTFU was 3.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.58-3.95]/100, with the highest hazard ratio in men from sub-Saharan Africa (2.82/100 patient-years; 95% CI 2.30-3.46/100), compared with men from northwestern countries. Other predictors for LTFU were age education, injecting drug use, and higher baseline CD4 cell counts. Participants taking antiretroviral therapy had reduced LTFU. The survey showed that 84% of HIV-infected patients in care at SHCS institutions were enrolled in the cohort. Nonparticipation was more likely among men from non-European regions (odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI 2.29-3.24), women from sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio 3.01; 95% CI 2.40-3.77) and women from Latin America/Caribbean (odds ratio 2.10; 95% CI 1.30-3.39). Numbers of HIV-infected immigrants are increasing but they are underrepresented in the SHCS, and immigrants are more likely to be lost to follow-up. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  14. Mortality in migrants living with HIV in western Europe (1997-2013): a collaborative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Many migrants face adverse socioeconomic conditions and barriers to health services that can impair timely HIV diagnosis and access to life-saving treatments. We aimed to assess the differences in overall mortality by geographical origin in HIV-positive men and women using data from COHERE, a large European collaboration of HIV cohorts from 1997 to 2013. In this observational cohort study, we included HIV-positive, antiretroviral-naive people accessing care in western Europe from COHERE. Individuals were eligible if enrolled in a cohort that collected information on geographical origin or ethnic origin from Jan 1, 1997, to March 19, 2013, aged 18-75 years, they had available information about sex, they were not infected perinatally or after the receipt of clotting factor concentrates, and were naive to combination antiretroviral therapy at cohort entry. Migrants' origins were grouped into seven regions: western Europe and similar countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA); eastern Europe; North Africa and the Middle East; sub-Saharan Africa; Latin America; the Caribbean; and Asia and the rest of Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand). Crude and adjusted mortality rate ratios were calculated by use of Poisson regression stratified by sex, comparing each group with the native population. Multiple imputation with chained equations was used to account for missing values. Between Oct 25, 1979, and March 19, 2013, we recruited 279 659 individuals to the COHERE collaboration in EuroCoord. Of these 123 344 men and 45 877 women met the inclusion criteria. Our data suggested effect modification by transmission route (pinteraction=0·12 for men; pinteraction=0·002 for women). No significant difference in mortality was identified by geographical origin in men who have sex with men. In heterosexual populations, most migrant men had mortality lower than or equal to that of native men, whereas no group of migrant women had mortality lower than that in

  15. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998...

  16. The European post-marketing observational sertindole study: an investigation of the safety of antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hale, Anthony

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the European Post-marketing Observational Serdolect((R)) (EPOS) Study was to compare the safety of treatment with Serdolect (sertindole) with that of usual treatment in patients with schizophrenia, in normal European clinical practice. The EPOS was a multicentre, multinational, referenced, cohort study. Patients were enrolled at 226 centres in ten European countries. The study was prematurely terminated in 1998 as a result of the temporary market suspension of sertindole. Termination of the study reduced the number of patients recruited from the planned 12,000 to 2,321. While the power of the study was weakened, it did provide useful mortality information, which may be useful for future long-term studies. Crude mortality in the sertindole and non-sertindole groups was 1.45 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.53-3.16) and 1.50 (CI 0.72-2.76) deaths/100 patient-years exposed, respectively. There were no more cardiac deaths in the sertindole group than in the non-sertindole group. QT interval prolongation did not translate into an increased risk of death. Sertindole was well tolerated and caused few extrapyramidal symptoms. Although CIs remained large, this post-marketing study does not provide any evidence against the use of sertindole under normal conditions. Sertindole was well tolerated and posed no significant safety problems.

  17. Whole genome sequence study of cannabis dependence in two independent cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizer, Ian R; Bizon, Chris; Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2017-01-23

    Recent advances in genome wide sequencing techniques and analytical methods allow for more comprehensive examinations of the genome than microarray-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The present report provides the first application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify low frequency variants involved in cannabis dependence across two independent cohorts. The present study used low-coverage whole genome sequence data to conduct set-based association and enrichment analyses of low frequency variation in protein-coding regions as well as regulatory regions in relation to cannabis dependence. Two cohorts were studied: a population-based Native American tribal community consisting of 697 participants nested within large multi-generational pedigrees and a family-based sample of 1832 predominantly European ancestry participants largely nested within nuclear families. Participants in both samples were assessed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) lifetime cannabis dependence, with 168 and 241 participants receiving a positive diagnosis in each sample, respectively. Sequence kernel association tests identified one protein-coding region, C1orf110 and one regulatory region in the MEF2B gene that achieved significance in a meta-analysis of both samples. A regulatory region within the PCCB gene, a gene previously associated with schizophrenia, exhibited a suggestive association. Finally, a significant enrichment of regions within or near genes with multiple splice variants or involved in cell adhesion or potassium channel activity were associated with cannabis dependence. This initial study demonstrates the potential utility of low pass whole genome sequencing for identifying genetic variants involved in the etiology of cannabis use disorders. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pin-Hui; Fu, Han; Lai, Ting-Chun; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent. We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl) had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl) did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281). In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  19. Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, C A; Bronsvoort, B M de C; Handel, I G; Summers, K M; Clements, D N

    2015-12-01

    Studies of animals that visit primary and secondary veterinary centres dominate companion animal epidemiology. Dogslife is a research initiative that collects data directly from owners about the health and lifestyle of Kennel Club (KC) registered Labrador Retrievers (LR) in the UK. The ultimate aim is to seek associations between canine lifestyle and health. A selection of data from Dogslife regarding the height, weight and lifestyle of 4307 LR up to four years of age is reported here. The majority of the dogs were household pets, living with at least one other pet, in families or households with more than one adult. The dogs typically ate diets of dried food and daily meal frequency decreased as the dogs aged. Working dogs spent more time exercising than pets, and dogs in Wales and Scotland were exercised more than their counterparts in England. Dogs in households with children spent less time exercising than dogs in other types of households. There was considerable variation in height and weight measurements indicative of a highly heterogeneous population. The average male height at the shoulders was 2-3cm taller than the UK breed standard. Dog weights continued to increase between one and four years of age. Those with chocolate coloured coats were heavier than their yellow and black counterparts. Greater dog weight was also associated with dogs whose owners reported restricting their dog's exercise due to where they lived. These findings highlight the utility of wide public engagement in the collation of phenotypic measures, providing a unique insight into the physical development and lifestyle of a cohort of LRs. In combination with concurrently collected data on the health of the cohort, phenotypic data from the Dogslife Project will contribute to understanding the relationship between dog lifestyle and health. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cohort profile: the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/).

  1. Cohort Profile: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6–29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986–87 and 1987–88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/). PMID:23159828

  2. Determinants in the uptake of the Human Papillomavirus vaccine: a systematic review based on European studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eFernández de Casadevante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Since 2006, two Human Papillomavirus vaccines (HPVV have been licensed to protect women against the virus that causes cervical cancer. However, worldwide coverage remains unequal. Studies from the USA found strong evidence for differences in HPVV uptake by ethnicity and healthcare coverage. As the profile of ethnic groups and the healthcare system in the USA differ from countries in Europe where HPVV is free in most of the countries, we conducted a systematic review in order to analyze the determinants of HPVV uptake in Europe.Methods We performed a systematic Pubmed, Scopus and Science Direct search to find articles published from HPVV availability in European countries until April 2014. No age restriction was applied. We included all studies assessing factors associated with HPVV uptake. Uptake refers to either initiation and/or completion of the three dose vaccination program. Results Out of the 23 eligible studies, 14 were retrospective reviews of data, six were cross-sectional surveys and three were prospective cohort studies. Higher HPVV uptake was associated with ethnic majority populations, higher socio-economic status, regular cervical screening participation by the mother and having received previous childhood vaccinations.Conclusions Since the vaccine is offered for free in most of the European countries, the findings suggest that ethno-cultural and educational factors play an important role when it comes to HPVV uptake. Girls who were undervaccinated had also a lower uptake of standard childhood vaccines and mothers who were less likely to attend cervical cancer screening. This may indicate, that only few parents have specific concerns with HPVV, and that preventive health care should seek ways to target these vulnerable groups.

  3. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT: study protocol [NCT00214903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore

  4. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  5. A comparison of Cox and logistic regression for use in genome-wide association studies of cohort and case-cohort design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, James R; Jones, Edmund; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S; Sweeting, Michael J; Wood, Angela M; Howson, Joanna M M

    2017-01-01

    Logistic regression is often used instead of Cox regression to analyse genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease outcomes with cohort and case-cohort designs, as it is less computationally expensive. Although Cox and logistic regression models have been compared previously in cohort studies, this work does not completely cover the GWAS setting nor extend to the case-cohort study design. Here, we evaluated Cox and logistic regression applied to cohort and case-cohort genetic association studies using simulated data and genetic data from the EPIC-CVD study. In the cohort setting, there was a modest improvement in power to detect SNP–disease associations using Cox regression compared with logistic regression, which increased as the disease incidence increased. In contrast, logistic regression had more power than (Prentice weighted) Cox regression in the case-cohort setting. Logistic regression yielded inflated effect estimates (assuming the hazard ratio is the underlying measure of association) for both study designs, especially for SNPs with greater effect on disease. Given logistic regression is substantially more computationally efficient than Cox regression in both settings, we propose a two-step approach to GWAS in cohort and case-cohort studies. First to analyse all SNPs with logistic regression to identify associated variants below a pre-defined P-value threshold, and second to fit Cox regression (appropriately weighted in case-cohort studies) to those identified SNPs to ensure accurate estimation of association with disease. PMID:28594416

  6. The scientific studies on smart grid in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Serhat Orkun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a power system consisting of many transmission and distribution systems subjected to an automation which are efficient, reliable and coordinated with each other. As a nature friendly technology, Smart grid come into prominence due to the increasing energy consumption and limited renewable energy sources around the world. In the near future, the use of renewable energy sources is not expected to grow rapidly; but the transmission and distribution systems will be enhanced by Smart grid technologies. Considering these significant benefits, the studies have been increased on Smart grid technologies to meet the energy requirement in each country. Herewith, the aim of this study is to analyse the scientific studies in developed European countries such as Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, France and Spain to find out the increment rate of the importance devoted to the Smart grid technologies in academicals manner. The scientific researches on Smart grid are achieved from the Web of Science database and the statistical analysis have been made by utilizing proper SQL queries in combination with Excel Power Pivot for these countries. The correlation between the scientific studies on smart grid and the virtual smart grid applications are also outlined for each selected country.

  7. Case study: Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course, EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore

    2007-01-01

    Learning for democratic citizenship has been the object of several projects supported by the European Commission, under the Socrates / Grundtvig 1.1. Action. Nonetheless only very few had the specific aim of exploring the relations between learning for democratic citizenship and non-formal adult...... education. Among these projects, the Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course was considered worth of a closer examination due to several reasons. Firstly, the course constitutes a follow-up of a Socrates research project which was co-financed by the European Commission within the same action...

  8. Assessing the order of magnitude of outcomes in single-arm cohorts through systematic comparison with corresponding cohorts: An example from the AMOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kienle Gunver S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a therapy has been evaluated in the first clinical study, the outcome is often compared descriptively to outcomes in corresponding cohorts receiving other treatments. Such comparisons are often limited to selected studies, and often mix different outcomes and follow-up periods. Here we give an example of a systematic comparison to all cohorts with identical outcomes and follow-up periods. Methods The therapy to be compared (anthroposophic medicine, a complementary therapy system had been evaluated in one single-arm cohort study: the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS. The five largest AMOS diagnosis groups (A-cohorts: asthma, depression, low back pain, migraine, neck pain were compared to all retrievable corresponding cohorts (C-cohorts receiving other therapies with identical outcomes (SF-36 scales or summary measures and identical follow-up periods (3, 6 or 12 months. Between-group differences (pre-post difference in an A-cohort minus pre-post difference in the respective C-cohort were divided with the standard deviation (SD of the baseline score of the A-cohort. Results A-cohorts (5 cohorts with 392 patients were similar to C-cohorts (84 cohorts with 16,167 patients regarding age, disease duration, baseline affection and follow-up rates. A-cohorts had ≥ 0.50 SD larger improvements than C-cohorts in 13.5% (70/517 of comparisons; improvements of the same order of magnitude (small or minimal differences: -0.49 to 0.49 SD were found in 80.1% of comparisons; and C-cohorts had ≥ 0.50 SD larger improvements than A-cohorts in 6.4% of comparisons. Analyses stratified by diagnosis had similar results. Sensitivity analyses, restricting the comparisons to C-cohorts with similar study design (observational studies, setting (primary care or interventions (drugs, physical therapies, mixed, or restricting comparisons to SF-36 scales with small baseline differences between A- and C-cohorts (-0.49 to 0.49 SD also had

  9. Determinants of Attrition to Follow-Up in a Multicentre Cohort Study in Children-Results from the IDEFICS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hense

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cohort participant retention is a crucial element and may depend on several factors. Based on data from a multicentre cohort of European children, the effect of baseline participation on attrition and the association with and the impact of single determinants in relation to the extent of attrition were investigated. Data was available for 16,225 children from the IDEFICS baseline survey (2007/2008. Attrition was defined as nonparticipation in the first follow-up examination (2009/2010. Determinants of attrition were analysed by logistic regression. The statistical significance level was set at α=0.01 to account for the large sample size. The strongest associations were seen for baseline item non-response, especially when information on migration background (odds ratio (OR = 1.55; 99% confidence interval (CI: 1.04, 2.31, single parenthood (OR = 1.37; 99% CI: 1.12, 1.67, or well-being (OR = 1.46; 99% CI: 1.19, 1.79 was lacking. Drop-out proportion rose with the number of missing items. Overweight, low education, single parenthood and low well-being scores were independent determinants of attrition. Baseline participation, and the individual determinant effects seemed unrelated to the variation of the extent of attrition between study centres. A high level of item nonresponse as well as overweight and disadvantageous sociodemographic conditions were identified as main attrition determinants, suggesting the consideration of these aspects in conduct and analysis of cohort studies in childhood obesity research.

  10. An Ethiopian birth cohort study: the study design | Asefa | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    93. We report here on the design and on the methods used in the study and describe the principal health outcomes. Infants were visited bimonthly until their first birthday. Background data on the physical, cultural and economic environment of ...

  11. International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease cohort studies (iNET-CKD): a global network of chronic kidney disease cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, Thomas; Fujii, Naohiko; Orlandi, Paula; Nessel, Lisa; Furth, Susan L; Hoy, Wendy E; Matsuo, Seiichi; Mayer, Gert; Methven, Shona; Schaefer, Franz; Schaeffner, Elke S; Solá, Laura; Stengel, Bénédicte; Wanner, Christoph; Zhang, Luxia; Levin, Adeera; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Feldman, Harold I

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health burden, yet it is still underrepresented within public health agendas in many countries. Studies focusing on the natural history of CKD are challenging to design and conduct, because of the long time-course of disease progression, a wide variation in etiologies, and a large amount of clinical variability among individuals with CKD. With the difference in health-related behaviors, healthcare delivery, genetics, and environmental exposures, this variability is greater across countries than within one locale and may not be captured effectively in a single study. Studies were invited to join the network. Prerequisites for membership included: 1) observational designs with a priori hypotheses and defined study objectives, patient-level information, prospective data acquisition and collection of bio-samples, all focused on predialysis CKD patients; 2) target sample sizes of 1,000 patients for adult cohorts and 300 for pediatric cohorts; and 3) minimum follow-up of three years. Participating studies were surveyed regarding design, data, and biosample resources. Twelve prospective cohort studies and two registries covering 21 countries were included. Participants age ranges from >2 to >70 years at inclusion, CKD severity ranges from stage 2 to stage 5. Patient data and biosamples (not available in the registry studies) are measured yearly or biennially. Many studies included multiple ethnicities; cohort size ranges from 400 to more than 13,000 participants. Studies' areas of emphasis all include but are not limited to renal outcomes, such as progression to ESRD and death. iNET-CKD (International Network of CKD cohort studies) was established, to promote collaborative research, foster exchange of expertise, and create opportunities for research training. Participating studies have many commonalities that will facilitate comparative research; however, we also observed substantial differences. The diversity we observed across

  12. Prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in contemporary Western European patients with acute coronary syndromes receiving drug-eluting stents: Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis from the BASKET-PROVE cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Bastian; Coslovsky, Michael; Jabbari, Reza; Galatius, Søren; Pfisterer, Matthias; Kaiser, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Clinical and cost-effectiveness of prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was only evaluated using TRITON-TIMI 38 event rates. A comparative analysis of both drugs in contemporary European ACS patients is lacking. To address this issue, cardiac and bleeding events of 2 "sister" multicenter stent trials, BASKET-PROVE (BP) I with clopidogrel and BPII with prasugrel (for 12months each) were used in a hybrid analysis. Medication costs were 2015 sales prices, event costs modelled for Denmark (DNK), Germany (GER) and Switzerland (SUI) and quality adjusted life years (QALY) by EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. In BPI and II, 1012 and 985 ACS-patients received drug eluting stents, respectively, followed-up for 2years. Compared to clopidogrel, prasugrel-treated patients had no more major cardiac events (5.2% vs. 6.4%, p=0.422) nor cardiac deaths (1.6% vs. 1.0%, p=0.255), but more major bleedings (4.0% vs. 1.7%, pclopidogrel with ratios of -45,907 (DNK), -39,909 (GER) and -33,435 (SUI) EURO/QALY gained, making clopidogrel an economically dominant strategy, even after accounting for the non-randomized comparison. Findings of this contemporary European ACS-cohort showed markedly lower cardiac event rates than TRITON-TIMI 38 and no significant difference in 2-year QALYs between prasugrel and clopidogrel-treated patients. At current drug prices, clopidogrel use resulted in an economically dominant treatment strategy in Western European patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcomes of pregnancy complicated with hyperthyroidism: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luewan, Suchaya; Chakkabut, Patom; Tongsong, Theera

    2011-02-01

    To determine maternal and fetal outcomes of women complicated with hyperthyroidism compared with those in normal pregnant women. This cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnant women complicated by hyperthyroidism without other medical complications between January 1994 and December 2008, at tertiary center. The normal controls were identified to match the cases with the ratio of 2:1. The baseline characteristics as well as maternal and fetal outcomes were analyzed and compared for pregnancy outcomes. Of the 203 pregnant women diagnosed for hyperthyroidism, 180 cases met the inclusion criteria, and 360 controls were matched. The activity of the disease was controlled to be euthyroid state in most cases. Maternal complications were comparable between both groups except that the study group had potentially higher incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. The mean gestational age (± SD), and mean birth weight were significantly lower in the study group. The incidence of fetal growth restriction, fetus with low birth weight and preterm births were significantly higher in the study group with a relative risk of 1.3, 1.4, and 1.3, respectively. Pregnant women with hyperthyroidism were significantly associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction, preterm birth and low birth weight and had a tendency to have a higher rate of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  14. Measuring socioemotional functioning in a national birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Carol; West, Jerry

    2007-11-01

    An accumulating body of research suggests that the capacities children acquire that prepare them for learning in formal educational settings are multilevel and complex with multiple contributing factors that begin in infancy. A new U.S. longitudinal study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), is designed to enable researchers to examine how an array of children's capacities and skills function individually and jointly to promote or hinder the acquisition of school readiness. The ECLS-B follows a nationally representative sample of 10,688 children born in the U.S. in 2001. Baseline data on the children and their families were collected at 9 months of age with follow-up at ages 2, 4, and kindergarten entry. Information on study children's socioemotional development is derived from several sources: videotaped mother-child interactions, parent interviews, and field staff observations. Because attachment is such an important indicator of children's socioemotional development during the toddler period, the study devoted considerable resources to designing an attachment measure. The Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) was designed to meet the need for a simple yet valid measure that did not require extensive training for field staff to administer easily. The TAS-45 generates the classical attachment categories and security and dependency scores. Copyright © 2007 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luurila Harri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15% patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32% had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35% had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.

  16. Methylene blue for postcardiopulmonary bypass vasoplegic syndrome: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazzeffi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methylene blue (MB has been used to treat refractory hypotension in a variety of settings. Aims: We sought to determine whether MB improved blood pressure in postcardiopulmonary bypass (CPB vasoplegic syndrome (VS in a complex cardiac surgery population. Furthermore, to determine variables that predicted response to MB. Setting and Design: This was conducted in a tertiary care medical center; this study was a retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Adult cardiac surgery patients who received MB for post-CPB VS over a 2-year period were studied. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and vasopressor doses were compared before and after MB, and logistic regression was used to model which variables predicted response. Results: Eighty-eight patients received MB for post-CPB VS during the study period. MB administration was associated with an 8 mmHg increase in MAP (P = 0.004, and peak response occurred at 2 h. Variables that were associated with a positive drug response were deep hypothermic circulatory arrest during surgery and higher MAP at the time of drug administration (P = 0.006 and 0.02. A positive response had no correlation with in-hospital mortality (P = 0.09. Conclusions: MB modestly increases MAP in cardiac surgery patients with VS. Higher MAP at the time of drug administration and surgery with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest predict a greater drug response.

  17. Health workers cohort study: methods and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine different health outcomes that are associated with specific lifestyle and genetic factors. Materials and methods. From March 2004 to April 2006, a sample of employees from three different health and academic institutions, as well as their family members, were enrolled in the study after providing informed consent. At baseline and follow-up (2010-2013, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, a physical examination, and provided blood samples. Results. A total of 10 729 participants aged 6 to 94 years were recruited at baseline. Of these, 70% were females, and 50% were from the Mexican Social Security Institute. Nearly 42% of the adults in the sample were overweight, while 20% were obese. Conclusion. Our study can offer new insights into disease mechanisms and prevention through the analysis of risk factor information in a large sample of Mexicans.

  18. Health workers cohort study: methods and study design

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez; Flores, Yvonne N; Katia Gallegos-Carrillo; Paula Ramírez-Palacios; Berenice Rivera-Paredez; Paloma Muñoz-Aguirre; Rafael Velázquez-Cruz; Leticia Torres-Ibarra; Joacim Meneses-León; Pablo Méndez-Hernández; Rubí Hernández-López; Eduardo Salazar-Martínez; Talavera, Juan O.; Juan Tamayo; Susana Castañón

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine different health outcomes that are associated with specific lifestyle and genetic factors. Materials and methods. From March 2004 to April 2006, a sample of employees from three different health and academic institutions, as well as their family members, were enrolled in the study after providing informed consent. At baseline and follow-up (2010-2013), participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, a physical examination, and provided blood samples. Results. A...

  19. Academic partnership in NLS resource design: a European case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Pye

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the library work package of the European Union’s Telematics for Teacher Training project, which links the Libraries and Education and Training sectors. Its two major deliverables, a user needs analysis report addressing networked learner support in European partner institutions and development of an online course for librarians, are discussed in terms of professional development opportunities for partnership between academic and information staff.

  20. Cohort description: The Danish study of Functional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantoft TM

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Jeanette Frost Ebstrup,1 Allan Linneberg,1–3 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Anja Lykke Madsen,1 Jesper Mehlsen,4 Louise Brinth,4 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Tina Wisbech Carstensen,6,7 Andreas Schroder,6,7 Per Klausen Fink,6,7 Erik Lykke Mortensen,8 Torben Hansen,9 Oluf Pedersen,9 Torben Jørgensen1,10,11 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, 4Coordinating Research Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Research Unit, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 6The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 8Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, 9Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, 10Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 11Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Abstract: The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors

  1. Meal patterns across ten European countries - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Slimani, N; Park, M K; Freisling, H; Boeing, H; Buckland, G; Schwingshackl, L; Weiderpass, E; Rostgaard-Hansen, A L; Tjønneland, A; Affret, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Fagherazzi, G; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Naska, A; Orfanos, P; Trichopoulou, A; Pala, V; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Santucci de Magistris, M; Tumino, R; Engeset, D; Enget, T; Skeie, G; Barricarte, A; Bonet, C B; Chirlaque, M D; Amiano, P; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M J; Dias, J A; Drake, I; Wennberg, M; Boer, Jma; Ocké, M C; Verschuren, Wmm; Lassale, C; Perez-Cornago, A; Riboli, E; Ward, H; Forslund, H Bertéus

    2016-10-01

    To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study. Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion. Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries. Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35-74 years (n 36 020). Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38-43 % for women and 41-45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16-27 % for women and 20-26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south-north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13-20 % (women) and 10-17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24-34 % (women) and 23-35 % (men) in central/northern Europe. We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.

  2. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  3. Adult height of preterm infants: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E C; Wright, N P; Gibson, A T; Carney, S; Wright, A; Wales, J K

    2017-06-01

    Many infants born prematurely experience growth failure following delivery, with subsequent catch-up growth. Traditionally catch-up was thought to be complete in the first few years of life. Most studies have focused on groups of infants defined by birth weight, for example <1500 g, resulting in disproportionate numbers of small for gestational age infants. This study aimed to determine whether appropriate weight for gestation (AGA) preterm born children reach their expected adult height when compared with term controls. This UK based prospective longitudinal cohort study recruited 204 preterm children born at a tertiary neonatal unit during 1994 and 50 matched controls. Growth parameters have been assessed annually until the completion of growth. There was no significant difference in the final height SD score (SDS) of children born at term (n=30) and those born prematurely and AGA (n=70) (0.45 term vs 0.22 preterm). Catch-up growth however, continued throughout the whole of childhood. When the difference between final height SDS and mid-parental height SDS were compared, there were again no significant differences (0.13 term vs 0.03 preterm). Those born prematurely with an AGA achieve a comparable adult height to children born at term, however, catch-up growth continues for much longer than traditionally thought. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis F Buck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesive Capsulitis (AC affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. Methods This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four physical therapy, sports medicine clinics in Texas and California. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with Stage II Adhesive Capsulitis were grouped by intervention. The intervention categories were as follows: Group I (Control; Group II (Physical Therapy exclusively with standardized protocols; Group III; (Shoulder Dynasplint system exclusively; Group IV (Combined treatment with Shoulder Dynasplint and standardized Physical Therapy. The duration of this study was 90 days for all groups, and the main outcome measures were change in active, external rotation. Results Significant difference was found for all treatment groups (p Conclusion The difference for the combined treatment group was attributed to patients' receiving the best PT combined with structured "home therapy" that contributed an additional 90 hours of end-range stretching. This adjunct should be included in the standard of care for adhesive Capsulitis. Trial Registration Trial Number: NCT00873158

  6. Breastfeeding rates and duration in Germany: a Bavarian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhuber, Martina; Rebhan, Barbara; Schwegler, Ursula; Koletzko, Berthold; Fromme, Hermann

    2008-05-01

    Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding for all healthy infants. The aim of our study was to assess the current state of breastfeeding prevalence, duration and behaviour in Bavaria, Germany as a basis for targeting breastfeeding promotion measures. The Bavarian Breastfeeding Study is a prospective cohort study of 3822 mothers who delivered in April 2005 in Bavaria, Germany. Breastfeeding duration and determinants such as socioeconomic status, attitudes towards breastfeeding, birth mode and breastfeeding problems were assessed by questionnaires 2-6 d after birth and 2, 4, 6, and 9 months after birth. The initial breastfeeding rate was 90 %. After 4 months 61 % still breastfed (any breastfeeding). In the multivariate analyses the main influencing factor reducing breastfeeding initiation was the partner's negative attitude towards breastfeeding (OR 21.79; 95 % CI 13.46, 35.27). No initial breastfeeding was also associated with lower education, maternal grandmother's negative attitude and pre-term birth. Protective factors were primary breastfeeding experience and information on breastfeeding before birth. Breastfeeding duration breastfeeding problems (OR 7.56; 95 % CI 6.21, 9.19), smoking, lower education, partner's negative attitude and Caesarean section. Since the attitude of family members is an important influencing factor on breastfeeding rates, breastfeeding promotion should also target the partners of pregnant women and the families of newborn infants. Public health interventions such as more effective support for the management of breastfeeding problems, especially in lower social status families, should be implemented and their effectiveness should be critically evaluated.

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model, standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome 1--the Swiss cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Florian; Bachmann, Lucas M; Weber, Ulrich; Kessels, Alfons G H; Perez, Roberto S G M; Marinus, Johan; Kissling, Rudolf

    2008-06-23

    Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c) to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model), standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months). Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery.

  9. Cohort profile: the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study-adult component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; Rana, Masud; Pickett, William; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Amin, Khalid; Rennie, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Kirychuk, Shelley; Janzen, Bonnie; Koehncke, Niels; Dosman, James

    2017-12-11

    Less is known about the respiratory health of general farming and non-framing populations. A longitudinal Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) was conducted to explore the association between individual and contextual factors with respiratory health outcomes in these populations. Hence, the objectives are to: (i) describe the updated methodology of longitudinal SRHS-an extension of baseline survey methodology published earlier; (ii) compare baseline characteristics and the prevalences of respiratory health outcomes between drops-outs and completers; and (iii) summarize key findings based on baseline survey data. The SRHS was a prospective cohort study conducted in two phases: baseline survey in 2010 and a follow-up in 2014. Each survey consisted of two components, self-administered questionnaire and clinical assessments. At baseline, 8261 participants (≥ 18 years) (4624 households) and at follow-up, 4867 participants (2797 households) completed the questionnaires. Clinical assessments on lung functions and/or allergies were conducted among a sub-group of participants from both the surveys. To date, we published 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts and 40 abstracts in conference proceedings. Findings from the study will improve the knowledge of respiratory disease etiology and assist in the development and targeting of prevention programs for rural populations in Saskatchewan, Canada.

  10. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  11. Glycemic Control and the Risk of Tuberculosis: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hui Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB and is increasingly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of TB is high. Glycemic control has the potential to modify the risk of TB. However, there are few studies on the association between glycemic control and TB risk, and the results are inconsistent.We assembled a cohort using 123,546 individuals who participated in a community-based health screening service in northern Taiwan from 5 March 2005 to 27 July 2008. Glycemic control was measured using fasting plasma glucose (FPG at the time of screening. The cohort was followed up to 31 December 2012 for the occurrence of TB by cross-matching the screening database to the national health insurance database. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing information. During a median follow-up of 4.6 y, 327 cases of TB occurred. In the multivariable Cox regression model, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control (FPG > 130 mg/dl had a significantly higher hazard of TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-2.99, p < 0.001 compared to those without diabetes. The hazard of TB in diabetic patients with good glycemic control (FPG ≤ 130 mg/dl did not differ significantly from that in nondiabetic individuals (aHR 0.69, 95% CI 0.35-1.36, p = 0.281. In the linear dose-response analysis, the hazard of TB increased with FPG (aHR 1.06 per 10-mg/dl increase in FPG, 95% CI 1.03-1.08, p < 0.001. Assuming the observed association between glycemic control and TB was causal, an estimated 7.5% (95% CI 4.1%-11.5% of incident TB in the study population could be attributed to poor glycemic control. Limitations of the study include one-time measurement of fasting glucose at baseline and voluntary participation in the health screening service.Good glycemic control could potentially modify the risk of TB among diabetic patients and may contribute to the control of TB in settings where diabetes and TB are prevalent.

  12. A cohort mortality study of leather tanners in Tuscany, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, Tonina E; Bartoli, Dusca; Calzoni, Paola; Comba, Pietro; De Santis, Marco; Dini, Flavia; Farina, Giuseppe A; Valiani, Mauro; Pirastu, Roberta

    2006-06-01

    Work in leather tanning may involve exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risk for a number of cancers have been reported, although there are considerable inconsistencies between studies. The present study investigates the mortality of leather tanners in Tuscany, Italy. Tanneries were selected from the 1996 Valdarno Inferiore Tanneries Census and were in operation since December 31, 1970. Employees were followed until December 31, 1998 through company records, and the National and Regional Death Index. Demographic and work history data were abstracted from company payrolls. Regional mortality rates were used to calculate Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR). Analyses were completed for the overall cohort (men and women) and for men who ever worked as of finisher, chrome tanners, and vegetable tanner (only men). The cohort consisted of 4,874 workers (4,150 males and 724 females) employed in 92 tanneries active in 1996 and operating on December 31, 1970. Ascertainment of vital status and cause of death were completed for all individuals by the end of follow-up, December 31, 1998. Males showed increases for cancer of the endocrine glands (SMR 5.67, 4 observed (obs), 90% Confidence Intervals (CI) 195-1,308), blood diseases (SMR 3.29, 4 obs, 90% CI 112-753), mental disorders (SMR 1.95, 6 obs, 90% CI 85-385), violence and accidents (SMR 1.30, 54 obs, 90% CI 102-163). Mortality from myeloid leukemia was increased in males (SMR 2.08, 5 obs, 90% CI 82-437) and in females (SMR 5.99, 2 obs, 90% CI 106-1,887). One death from nasal cancer was observed versus 0.2 expected. Mortality from lung cancer was increased among finishers (SMR 1.45, 19 obs, 90% CI 95-212), an increase was observed also for bladder cancer (SMR 1.25, 2 obs, 90% CI 22-393) and pancreatic cancer (SMR 1.20, 2 obs, 90% CI 21-379). The study confirms previous observations among tanners of increased mortality from lung, bladder, and pancreatic

  13. Dementia risk after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Solène; Labreuche, Julien; Bombois, Stéphanie; Rossi, Costanza; Boulouis, Gregoire; Hénon, Hilde; Duhamel, Alain; Leys, Didier; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2016-07-01

    Dementia occurs in at least 10% of patients within 1 year after stroke. However, the risk of dementia after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage that accounts for about 15% of all strokes has not been investigated in prospective studies. We aimed to determine the incidence of dementia and risk factors after an intracerebral haemorrhage. We did a prospective observational cohort study in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage from the Prognosis of Intracerebral Haemorrhage (PITCH) cohort who were admitted to Lille University Hospital, Lille, France. We included patients aged 18 years and older with parenchymal haemorrhage on the first CT scan. Exclusion criteria were pure intraventricular haemorrhage; intracerebral haemorrhage resulting from intracranial vascular malformation, intracranial venous thrombosis, head trauma, or tumour; haemorrhagic transformation within an infarct; and referral from other hospitals. Median follow-up was 6 years. We studied risk factors (clinical and neuroradiological [MRI] biomarkers) of new-onset dementia as per a prespecified subgroup analysis, according to intracerebral haemorrhage location. Dementia diagnosis was based on the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria for all-cause dementia. We did multivariable analyses using competing risk analyses, with death during follow-up as a competing event. From the 560 patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage enrolled in the PITCH cohort between Nov 3, 2004 and March 29, 2009, we included 218 patients (median age 67·5 years) without pre-existing dementia who were alive at 6 months follow-up. 63 patients developed new-onset dementia leading to an incidence rate of 14·2% (95% CI 10·0-19·3) at 1 year after intracerebral haemorrhage, and incidence reached 28·3% (22·4-34·5) at 4 years. The incidence of new-onset dementia was more than two times higher in patients with lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (incidence at 1 year 23·4%, 14·6-33·3

  14. Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Ian R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks, 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk.

  15. Smoking and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Everatt, Ruta; Virviciute, Dalia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Reklaitiene, Regina; Milinaviciene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    .... We investigated the association between different lifestyle, biological and anthropometric factors and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective population-based cohort study from Kaunas, Lithuania...