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Sample records for european cities assessed

  1. Health impact assessment of cycling network expansions in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Salmon, Maëlle; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Brand, Christian; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dons, Evi; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Gerike, Regine; Götschi, Thomas; Iacorossi, Francesco; Int Panis, Luc; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Raser, Elisabeth; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2018-01-09

    We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA) of cycling network expansions in seven European cities. We modeled the association between cycling network length and cycling mode share and estimated health impacts of the expansion of cycling networks. First, we performed a non-linear least square regression to assess the relationship between cycling network length and cycling mode share for 167 European cities. Second, we conducted a quantitative HIA for the seven cities of different scenarios (S) assessing how an expansion of the cycling network [i.e. 10% (S1); 50% (S2); 100% (S3), and all-streets (S4)] would lead to an increase in cycling mode share and estimated mortality impacts thereof. We quantified mortality impacts for changes in physical activity, air pollution and traffic incidents. Third, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis. The cycling network length was associated with a cycling mode share of up to 24.7% in European cities. The all-streets scenario (S4) produced greatest benefits through increases in cycling for London with 1,210 premature deaths (95% CI: 447-1,972) avoidable annually, followed by Rome (433; 95% CI: 170-695), Barcelona (248; 95% CI: 86-410), Vienna (146; 95% CI: 40-252), Zurich (58; 95% CI: 16-100) and Antwerp (7; 95% CI: 3-11). The largest cost-benefit ratios were found for the 10% increase in cycling networks (S1). If all 167 European cities achieved a cycling mode share of 24.7% over 10,000 premature deaths could be avoided annually. In European cities, expansions of cycling networks were associated with increases in cycling and estimated to provide health and economic benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Health impact assessment in a network of European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, Erica

    2013-10-01

    The methodology of health impact assessment (HIA) was introduced as one of four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN). Four objectives for HIA were set at the beginning of the phase. We report on the results of the evaluation of introducing and implementing this methodology in cities from countries across Europe with widely differing economies and sociopolitical contexts. Two main sources of data were used: a general questionnaire designed for the Phase IV evaluation and the annual reporting template for 2007-2008. Sources of bias included the proportion of non-responders and the requirement to communicate in English. Main barriers to the introduction and implementation of HIA were a lack of skill, knowledge and experience of HIA, the newness of the concept, the lack of a legal basis for implementation and a lack of political support. Main facilitating factors were political support, training in HIA, collaboration with an academic/public health institution or local health agency, a pre-existing culture of intersectoral working, a supportive national policy context, access to WHO materials about or expertise in HIA and membership of the WHO-EHCN, HIA Sub-Network or a National Network. The majority of respondents did not feel that they had had the resources, knowledge or experience to achieve all of the objectives set for HIA in Phase IV. The cities that appear to have been most successful at introducing and implementing HIA had pre-existing experience of HIA, came from a country with a history of applying HIA, were HIA Sub-Network members or had made a commitment to implementing HIA during successive years of Phase IV. Although HIA was recognised as an important component of Healthy Cities' work, the experience in the WHO-EHCN underscores the need for political buy-in, capacity building and adequate resourcing for the introduction and implementation of HIA to be successful.

  3. Quality of Life Experienced by Human Capital: An Assessment of European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Paulo; Migueis, Vera L.; Camanho, Ana S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an assessment of urban quality of life (QoL) of European cities from the perspective of qualified human resources. The competitiveness of cities relies increasingly in their capacity to attract highly educated workers, as they are important assets for firms when choosing a location. Qualified human resources, on the…

  4. The role of health impact assessment in Phase V of the Healthy Cities European Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, Jean; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola; Christie, Derek

    2015-06-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a prospective decision-making aid tool that aims to improve the quality of policies, programmes or projects through recommendations that promote health. It identifies how and through which pathways a decision can impact a wide range of health determinants and seeks to define the distribution of effects within populations, thereby raising the issue of equity. HIA was introduced to the WHO European Healthy Cities Network as one of its four core themes during the Phase IV (2004-08). Here we present an evaluation of the use of HIA during Phase V (2009-13), where HIA was linked with the overarching theme of health and health equity in all local policies and a requirement regarding capacity building. The evaluation was based on 10 case studies contributed by 9 Healthy Cities in five countries (France, Hungary, Italy, Spain and the UK). A Realist Evaluation framework was used to collect and aggregate data obtained through three methods: an HIA factors analysis, a case-study template analysis using Nvivo software and a detailed questionnaire. The main conclusion is that HIA significantly helps promote Health in All Policies (HiAP) and sustainability in Healthy Cities. It is recommended that all Healthy City candidates to Phase VI (2014-18) of the WHO Healthy Cities European Network effectively adopt HIA and HiAP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  6. Policymaking in European healthy cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper assesses policy development in, with and for Healthy Cities in the European Region of the World Health Organization. Materials for the assessment were sourced through case studies, a questionnaire and statistical databases. They were compiled in a realist synthesis methodology, applying theory-based evaluation principles. Non-response analyses were applied to ascertain the degree of representatives of the high response rates for the entire network of Healthy Cities in Europe. Further measures of reliability and validity were applied, and it was found that our material was indicative of the entire network. European Healthy Cities are successful in developing local health policy across many sectors within and outside government. They were also successful in addressing 'wicked' problems around equity, governance and participation in themes such as Healthy Urban Planning. It appears that strong local leadership for policy change is driven by international collaboration and the stewardship of the World Health Organization. The processes enacted by WHO, structuring membership of the Healthy City Network (designation) and the guidance on particular themes, are identified as being important for the success of local policy development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities: a scalable assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki; Asikainen, Arja; Perez, Laura; Trüeb, Stephan; Jantunen, Matti; Künzli, Nino; Sabel, Clive E

    2015-12-14

    Public health is often affected by societal decisions that are not primarily about health. Climate change mitigation requires intensive actions to minimise greenhouse gas emissions in the future. Many of these actions take place in cities due to their traffic, buildings, and energy consumption. Active climate mitigation policies will also, aside of their long term global impacts, have short term local impacts, both positive and negative, on public health. Our main objective was to develop a generic open impact model to estimate health impacts of emissions due to heat and power consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model should follow the building stock in time, make comparisons between scenarios, propagate uncertainties, and scale to different levels of detail. We tested The functionalities of the model in two case cities, namely Kuopio and Basel. We estimated the health and climate impacts of two actual policies planned or implemented in the cities. The assessed policies were replacement of peat with wood chips in co-generation of district heat and power, and improved energy efficiency of buildings achieved by renovations. Health impacts were not large in the two cities, but also clear differences in implementation and predictability between the two tested policies were seen. Renovation policies can improve the energy efficiency of buildings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly, but this requires systematic policy sustained for decades. In contrast, fuel changes in large district heating facilities may have rapid and large impacts on emissions. However, the life cycle impacts of different fuels is somewhat an open question. In conclusion, we were able to develop a practical model for city

  9. Application of land use regression modelling to assess the spatial distribution of road traffic noise in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Corradi, Elisabetta; Deltell, Alexandre; Morelli, Xavier; Phuleria, Harish C; Ragettli, Martina S; Rivera, Marcela; Thomasson, Alexandre; Slama, Rémy; Künzli, Nino

    2015-01-01

    Noise prediction models and noise maps are used to estimate the exposure to road traffic noise, but their availability and the quality of the noise estimates is sometimes limited. This paper explores the application of land use regression (LUR) modelling to assess the long-term intraurban spatial variability of road traffic noise in three European cities. Short-term measurements of road traffic noise taken in Basel, Switzerland (n=60), Girona, Spain (n=40), and Grenoble, France (n=41), were used to develop two LUR models: (a) a "GIS-only" model, which considered only predictor variables derived with Geographic Information Systems; and (b) a "Best" model, which in addition considered the variables collected while visiting the measurement sites. Both noise measurements and noise estimates from LUR models were compared with noise estimates from standard noise models developed for each city by the local authorities. Model performance (adjusted R(2)) was 0.66-0.87 for "GIS-only" models, and 0.70-0.89 for "Best" models. Short-term noise measurements showed a high correlation (r=0.62-0.78) with noise estimates from the standard noise models. LUR noise estimates did not show any systematic differences in the spatial patterns when compared with those from standard noise models. LUR modelling with accurate GIS source data can be a promising tool for noise exposure assessment with applications in epidemiological studies.

  10. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consec......Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed...

  11. European Strategies for Smarter Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Barresi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a worldwide scale, cities and regions must tackle the challenges set by the radical change in our society and in our economy, aiming to develop effective public policies and boost their managerial, evaluation and planning skills. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a rich social fabric go hand in hand, the social capital being able to produce an added value for the cities. We are exactly in a new phase of urban growth centred on the economy of services characterized by widespread digital technologies and new innovative organization patterns, which encourage the participation in the civic policy processes through the realization of structures to share information and data so as to define intervention policies. The most recent studies and trials about innovation and competitiveness, such as the examples illustrated in the present work (Amsterdam, Paredes, Aarhus and Gent show a growing interest in measuring the relationship between innovation and economic growth at various territorial levels, key factors in conceiving inclusive smart strategies, linked to principles of sustainability and territorial cohesion, and building smarter cities. In the light of these remarks, the article is divided into three parts: the first part is focussed on the above-mentioned central issues of the international debate; the second part examines four significant European initiatives; the third part draws preliminary conclusions and directions for further research.

  12. Healthy urban planning in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus; Mitcham, Claire; Tsourou, Catherine

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the WHO 'healthy urban planning' (HUP) initiative as it has developed through the laboratory of the Healthy Cities movement and evaluates the degree to which applicant cities successfully developed plans for HUP. The paper provides a brief historical perspective on the relationship of health and planning and an overview of the ways in which urban spatial development affects health. It then turns to the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) and explains the evolution of the HUP programme through Phase III (1998-2002) of the Healthy Cities Project, showing how the programme has grown from experimental beginnings to being 'mainstreamed' in Phase IV (2003-2008). Each city wishing to join the WHO-EHCN in this latter phase produced a programme for further development of HUP, and these were assessed by the Bristol Collaborating Centre. The paper presents the overall results, concluding that a significant progress has been made and the most advanced cities have much to offer municipalities everywhere in the best practice for integrating health into urban planning.

  13. Promoting ethnic entrepreneurship in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.; Swagerman, A.

    2011-01-01

    European cities are increasingly faced with the challenge of integrating people from very diverse backgrounds. As migrant populations increase, so do the opportunities for new business, job creation and international competitiveness. This report shows that ethnic entrepreneurs, however small their

  14. Household metabolism in European countries and cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Falkena, H.J.; Benders, R.M.J.; Moll, H.C.; Noorman, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of household metabolism was applied to enhance the understanding of the environmental impacts of household consumption in cities during the second phase of the ToolSust project. The household metabolism in four European cities was determined in terms of total energy requirements,

  15. The post-European city in Europe

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    Marco Venturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Established tools for forecasting urban development are evidently insufficient. Even most hypotheses seen as axiomatic in urbanisation processes are confronted by new phenomena on a daily basis. In the European tradition there is however a method, which allows definition of common methods and answers: the analysis of ties in urbanisation processes. By analysis of quantitative observation, re-evaluation of the essence of public investments, identification of signs of urbanity and transformation of hierarchies the author offers a possibility for urban futures of European cities, which stems from relationships of contradicting pairs.

  16. Adolescents' Sedentary Behaviors in Two European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibar Solana, Alberto; Bois, Julien E.; Zaragoza, Javier; Bru, Noëlle; Paillard, Thierry; Generelo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the correlates of objective sedentary behavior (SB) and nonschool self-reported SB in adolescents from 2 midsized cities, 1 in France (Tarbes) and 1 in Spain (Huesca). Stability of objective SB and nonschool self-reported SB were also assessed at different time points during 1 academic…

  17. Equity and the social determinants of health in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsatakis, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Equity in health has been the underlying value of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Health for All policy for 30 years. This article examines how cities have translated this principle into action. Using information designed to help evaluate phase IV (2003-2008) of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) plus documentation from city programs and websites, an attempt is made to assess how far the concept of equity in health is understood, the political will to tackle the issue, and types of action taken. Results show that although cities continue to focus considerable support on vulnerable groups, rather than the full social gradient, most are now making the necessary shift towards more upstream policies to tackle determinants of health such as poverty, unemployment, education, housing, and the environment, without neglecting access to care. Although local level data reflecting inequalities in health is improving, there is still a long way to go in some cities. The Healthy Cities Project is becoming an integral part of structures for long-term planning and intersectoral action for health in cities, and Health Impact Assessment is gradually being developed. Participation in the WHO-EHCN appears to allow new members to leap-frog ahead established cities. However, this evaluation also exposes barriers to effective local policies and processes to reduce health inequalities. Armed with locally generated evidence of critical success factors, the WHO-EHCN has embarked on a more rigorous and determined effort to achieve the prerequisites for equity in health. More attention will be given to evaluating the effectiveness of action taken and to dealing not only with the most vulnerable but a greater part of the gradient in socioeconomic health inequalities.

  18. Spatial Segregation and Socio-Economic Mobility in European Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; de Vuijst, E.; Zwiers, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Income inequality is increasing in European cities and this rising inequality has a spatial footprint in cities and neighbourhoods. Poor and rich people are increasingly living separated and this can threaten the social sustainability of cities. Low income people, often with an ethnic minority

  19. Noise exposure during commuting in three European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taimisto, P.; Yli-Tuomi, T.; Pennanen, A.; Vouitsis, I.; Samaras, Z.; Keuken, M.P.; Lanki, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the TRANSPHORM study, noise exposures during commuting were measured. Measurements were performed with noise dosimeters in three European cities, Helsinki, Thessaloniki and Rotterdam, during spring 2011. ln each city, two to five approximately 8 km commuting routes were selected to represent

  20. Modelling the dispersion of particle numbers in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Karl, M.; Keuken, M.P.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Denby, B.R.; Singh, V.; Douros, J.; Manders, A.M.M.; Samaras, Z.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Jonkers, S.; Aarnio, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Lutzenkirchen, S.; Petaja, T.; Vouitsis, I.; Sokhi, R.S.

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of the modelling of particle number concentrations (PNCs) in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam and Athens in 2008. Novel emission inventories of particle numbers have been compiled both on urban and European scales. We used atmospheric

  1. European and Italian experience of Smart Cities: A model for the smart planning of city built

    OpenAIRE

    Starlight Vattano

    2013-01-01

    The construction of the city through smart measures is now a frontier reached from many cities in the world. The built environment requires smart planning able to relate urban realities that are relegated to a marginal change. But how does the smart cities can create a relationship between sustainable cities of the future and their heritage? The article highlights the way of smart urban transformation of reality European and Italian proposing critical comparisons from which to infer smart par...

  2. Urban planning for healthy cities. A review of the progress of the European Healthy Cities Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the progress made by European cities in relation to Healthy Urban Planning (HUP) during Phase IV of the World Health Organization's Healthy Cities programme (2003-2008). The introduction sets out the general principle of HUP, identifying three levels or phases of health and planning integration. This leads on to a more specific analysis of the processes and substance of HUP, which provide criteria for assessment of progress. The assessment itself relies on two sources of data provided by the municipalities: the Annual Review Templates (ARTs) 2008 and the response to the Phase IV General Evaluation Questionnaire. The findings indicate that the evidence from different sources and questions in different sections are encouragingly consistent. The number of cities achieving a good level of understanding and activity in HUP has risen very substantially over the period. In particular, those achieving effective strategic integration of health and planning have increased. A key challenge for the future will be to develop planning frameworks which advance public health concerns in a spatial policy context driven often by market forces. A health in all policies approach could be valuable.

  3. European and Italian experience of Smart Cities: A model for the smart planning of city built

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the city through smart measures is now a frontier reached from many cities in the world. The built environment requires smart planning able to relate urban realities that are relegated to a marginal change. But how does the smart cities can create a relationship between sustainable cities of the future and their heritage? The article highlights the way of smart urban transformation of reality European and Italian proposing critical comparisons from which to infer smart parameters most used and easy to apply for the sustainable construction of these smart cities focusing on the urban sources of intelligent retrieval for quality their historical and cultural heritage.

  4. City leadership for health and sustainable development: the World Health Organization European Healthy Cities Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of European Healthy Cities Network (EHCN) organized by the WHO Regional Office Europe. The focus is on the third of five phases covering the period 1998-2002. Fifty-six cities were members of the WHO-EHCN and over 1000 European cities were members of national networks. Association with WHO has given municipalities legitimacy to move into a domain often associated with health service. Equity and community participation are core values. City mayors provide political leadership. Intersectoral cooperation underpins a Healthy Cities approach. The WHO Regional Office for Europe supports WHO-EHCN, providing guidance and technical leadership. Cities' processes and structures are prerequisits for improvements in health and are central to the evaluation of Phase III of the WHO-EHCN.

  5. Destination cities of European exchange students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; Ekamper, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Erasmus programme is generally considered the flagship of intra-European exchange programmes in higher education, with more than three million participants since 1987. Whereas a number of studies investigated the determinants of student mobility decisions, no knowledge exists on the main

  6. Residents' Dissatisfaction and All-Cause Mortality. Evidence from 74 European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 2/3 of the Europeans reside in cities. Thus, we must expand our knowledge on how city characteristics affect health and well-being. Perceptions about cities' resources and functioning might be related with health, as they capture subjective experiences of the residents. We characterized the health status of 74 European cities, using all-cause mortality as indicator, and investigated the association of mortality with residents' dissatisfaction with key domains of urban living.Methods: We considered 74 European cities from 29 countries. Aggregated data on residents' dissatisfaction was obtained from the Flash Eurobarometer, Quality of life in European cities (2004–2015. For each city a global dissatisfaction score and a dissatisfaction score by domain (environment, social, economic, healthcare, and infrastructures/services were calculated. Data on mortality and population was obtained from the Eurostat. Standardized Mortality Ratios, SMR, and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI were calculated. The association between dissatisfaction scores and SMR was estimated using Generalized Linear Models.Results: SMR varied markedly (range: 73.2–146.5, being highest in Eastern Europe and lowest in the South and Western European cities. Residents' dissatisfaction levels also varied greatly. We found a significant association between city SMR and residents' dissatisfaction with healthcare (β = 0.334; IC 95% 0.030–0.639 and social environment (β = 0.239; IC 95% 0.015–0.464. No significant association was found with the dissatisfaction scores related with the physical and economic environment and the infrastructures/services.Conclusions: We found a significant association between city levels of mortality and residents' dissatisfaction with certain urban features, suggesting subjective assessments can be also used to comprehend urban health.

  7. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2009-06-23

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens.

  8. The European City as a Place of Coexistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Luís Miguel; Bandeirinha, JA; Amorim Mota, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    The European urban institutions have always negotiated a balance between collective control and individual initiative. However, over the last seven decades this balance has been challenged. In the aftermath of World War II, the utopia of the functional city was hijacked to serve the welfare policies

  9. Modelling the dispersion of particle numbers in five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, J.; Karl, M.; Keuken, M. P.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Denby, B. R.; Singh, V.; Douros, J.; Manders, A.; Samaras, Z.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Jonkers, S.; Aarnio, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Lützenkirchen, S.; Petäjä, T.; Vouitsis, I.; Sokhi, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    We present an overview of the modelling of particle number concentrations (PNCs) in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008. Novel emission inventories of particle numbers have been compiled both on urban and European scales. We used atmospheric dispersion modelling for PNCs in the five target cities and on a European scale, and evaluated the predicted results against available measured concentrations. In all the target cities, the concentrations of particle numbers (PNs) were mostly influenced by the emissions originating from local vehicular traffic. The influence of shipping and harbours was also significant for Helsinki, Oslo, Rotterdam, and Athens, but not for London. The influence of the aviation emissions in Athens was also notable. The regional background concentrations were clearly lower than the contributions originating from urban sources in Helsinki, Oslo, and Athens. The regional background was also lower than urban contributions in traffic environments in London, but higher or approximately equal to urban contributions in Rotterdam. It was numerically evaluated that the influence of coagulation and dry deposition on the predicted PNCs was substantial for the urban background in Oslo. The predicted and measured annual average PNCs in four cities agreed within approximately ≤ 26 % (measured as fractional biases), except for one traffic station in London. This study indicates that it is feasible to model PNCs in major cities within a reasonable accuracy, although major challenges remain in the evaluation of both the emissions and atmospheric transformation of PNCs.

  10. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  11. Spatial variability and sources of ammonia in three European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Andre S. H.; Elser, Miriam; El Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Bozzetti, Carlo; Robert, Wolf; Richter, Rene; Slowik, Jay; Teinemaa, Erik; Hueglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    For the assessment of ammonia (NH3) effects on ecosystems and climate, one would ideally know the emission sources and also the spatial distributions. Agriculture is the largest global source of NH3. However traffic, especially gasoline vehicles, biomass burning or waste management can be significant in urban areas. Ambient NH3 measurements using cavity ring-down spectroscopy were performed online at high time resolution on a moving vehicle in three cities: Zurich (Switzerland), Tartu (Estonia) and Tallinn (Estonia). Initial tests showed that a regular inlet cannot be used. A heated line including an auxiliary flow was finally deployed to minimize NH3 adsorption onto the inlet walls. We will present the characterization of the response and recovery times of the measurement system which was used to deconvolve the true NH3 signal from the remaining adsorption-induced hysteresis. Parallel measurements with an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer were used to correct the observed NH3 for the contribution of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which completely evaporated to NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3) in the heated line at the chosen temperature, in contrast to ammonium sulfate. Finally, quantitative measurements of ambient NH3 are possible with sufficient time resolution to enable measurement of NH3 point or line sources with a mobile sampling platform. The NH3 analyzer and the aerosol mass spectrometer were complemented by an aethalometer to measure black carbon and various gas-phase analyzers to enable a complete characterization of the sources of air pollution, including the spatial distributions and the regional background concentrations and urban increments of all measured components. Although at all three locations similar urban increment levels of organic aerosols were attributed to biomass burning and traffic, traffic emissions clearly dominated the city enhancements of NH3, equivalent black carbon (eBC) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Concentration gradients in areas strongly

  12. The City without Qualities. Political Theories of Globalization in European Cities

    OpenAIRE

    DE FRANTZ, Monika

    2007-01-01

    While urban political economy tends to generalize the functional economic pressures upon socio-political transformations of cities, European research has stressed the importance of historical context and political institutions. Both perspectives’ references to urban culture imply either an economization or an essentialization of urbanity, and thus an underconceptualization of political agency. Whether defined economically, politically, or socio-culturally, most research of cities implies - mo...

  13. Smart Cities and a Stochastic Frontier Analysis: A Comparison among European Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Mundula, Luigi; Auci, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The level of interest in smart cities is growing, and the recent literature on this topic (Holland, 2008; Caragliu et al., 2009, Nijkamp et al., 2011 and Lombardi et al., 2012) identifies a number of factors that characterise a city as smart, such as economic development, environment, human capital, culture and leisure, and e-governance. Thus, the smartness concept is strictly linked to urban efficiency in a multifaceted way. A seminal research for European policy conducted by Giffinger et al...

  14. European Healthy Cities come to terms with health network governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Kickbusch, Ilona; Palmer, Nicola; Spanswick, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    A focus on good governance in the WHO European network of Healthy Cities mirrors the WHO Region's strategic emphasis-its member states in the Health 2020 strategy espouse governance for health as key. Healthy Cities adopted governance as a key value and approach to delivering specific health programmes and policies. This article reviews the extent to which they actually introduce and align governance concepts and approaches with their local government commitments. Healthy Cities show that better participation, policy-making and intersectoral action result from an emphasis on governance. This happens across the designated cities and is not limited to a certain class (in terms of population or geographical location) or the time they have been designated. The support of WHO in driving the governance agenda seems important, but no data are available to show that European Healthy Cities are different from other urban environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  16. A new model dependency ratio for European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Zamaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Sometimes referred to as ‘the demographic time bomb,’ the European Union, state and local governments are concerned about the impact of an ageing population on both sustainable economic development and the demand for health and social support services. Seeking to mitigate these pressures, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD has developed a policy framework Live Longer: Work Longer and the World Health Organization (WHO has set a policy framework for Active Ageing which maintains that early life course interventions can reduce levels of disability and dependency in older age. The WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN promotes healthy urban planning to encourage healthy lifestyles and maintain older people as a resource in the workplace and to their communities. Our objective is to develop a new model dependency ratio (NMDR for European cities which synthesises these three policy frameworks.

    Methods: Starting from the classic formulation of the dependency ratio (DR, which compares the 'dependent' population segments with the working-age or 'productive' segments, the model is developed in six stages, drawing on data from secondary European and national sources and from primary sources contained in Healthy Ageing Profiles of fifteen (WHO-EHCN cities.

    Results: From an orthodox baseline, the second stage of modelling increases the DR by moving economically inactive people of working age from denominator to numerator. Thereafter, refinements introduced in stages three to six, gradually reduce the DR.

    Conclusions: The NMDR challenges the 'demographic time bomb' predicted by orthodox formulations and can be used as a tool by city decision makers.

  17. Building-related health impacts in European and Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuomisto, Jouni T; Niittynen, Marjo; Pärjälä, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    consumption of buildings. In addition, the model should be usable for policy comparisons by non-health experts on city level with city-specific data, it should give guidance on the particular climate mitigation questions but at the same time increase understanding on the related health impacts and the model...... should follow the building stock in time, make comparisons between scenarios, propagate uncertainties, and scale to different levels of detail. We tested The functionalities of the model in two case cities, namely Kuopio and Basel. We estimated the health and climate impacts of two actual policies...... planned or implemented in the cities. The assessed policies were replacement of peat with wood chips in co-generation of district heat and power, and improved energy efficiency of buildings achieved by renovations. RESULTS: Health impacts were not large in the two cities, but also clear differences...

  18. European Healthy Cities evaluation: conceptual framework and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Dyakova, Mariana; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the methodology, programme logic and conceptual framework that drove the evaluation of the Fifth Phase of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. Towards the end of the phase, 99 cities were designated progressively through the life of the phase (2009-14). The paper establishes the values, systems and aspirations that these cities sign up for, as foundations for the selection of methodology. We assert that a realist synthesis methodology, driven by a wide range of qualitative and quantitative methods, is the most appropriate perspective to address the wide geopolitical, demographic, population and health diversities of these cities. The paper outlines the rationale for a structured multiple case study approach, the deployment of a comprehensive questionnaire, data mining through existing databases including Eurostat and analysis of management information generation tools used throughout the period. Response rates were considered extremely high for this type of research. Non-response analyses are described, which show that data are representative for cities across the spectrum of diversity. This paper provides a foundation for further analysis on specific areas of interest presented in this supplement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Disposable and Usable Pasts in Central European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lisiak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Central European cities memories and material histories of socialist regimes remain particularly difficult to address and incorporate into the new democratic present. After 1989, city authorities in the region have chosen to emphasize some pasts and neglect others and, thus, (rewrite their own versions of (urban history and (reshape their (urban identities. In my paper I inquire into how post-1989 Central European urbanities are shaped by and communicated through various designations including signs and symbols on city streets, monuments, and build-ings. Predictably, many material remnants of the socialist regimes have been de-stroyed or hidden from the public eye - my interest lies not only in which various designations on buildings and which monuments had to go, but also in why and how they disappeared. I discuss the most popular methods of hiding and/or effac-ing the remnants of socialism that range from subtle (surrounding of communist landmarks with tall buildings through the obvious (renaming of streets, squares, metro stations; giving old communist buildings new names and functions to the irreversible and, thus, most controversial (the razing of socialist architecture and monuments. The disappearance of the material capital of the socialist past has been accompanied by intense commemoration practices verging on memorial ob-sessions. New monuments, plaques, street names, and museums appeared almost as quickly as the old "disposable" ones were forced out from the urban landscape. The complexity of an urban identity as communicated through city streets, mo-numents, and buildings not only invites, but necessitates an interdisciplinary ap-proach and, thus, my analysis includes elements from such diverse areas of know-ledge as aesthetics, architecture, communication studies, comparative cultural studies, economics, history, and political science.

  20. A classification of european cities On the basis of e-images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has become a major enabling technology that is nowadays very much 'en vogue'. It has also become an important tool to promote a variety of business goals and public policies. The growing importance of ICT in daily life, business activities and governance prompts the need to consider ICT more explicitly in local policies. The expected benefits from ICT encourage urban policy-makers to formulate proper strategies for public ICT policies. But, what are the urban policy-makers' expectations about ICT? And how do they assess the future implications of ICT for their city? This paper is focusing on the way urban decision-makers perceive the opportunities of modern ICT and its related ICT policy. By highlighting the importance of understanding the decision-maker's 'black box' on ICT, we will address three crucial issues in European cities, viz. perception of the city, attitude towards ICT, and assessment of the relevance of ICT policy. We will give an operational meaning to these three variables by using a survey comprising more than 200 European cities as the basis for a classification of these cities by means of their e-images.

  1. Dark cities? Developing a methodology for researching dark tourism in European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James; Powell, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent growth of research into dark tourism (Dale & Robinson, 2011; Lennon & Foley, 2000; Stone, 2013; Tarlow, 2005) and the growth of the dark tourism market (Biran & Hyde, 2013; Stone 2005; Stone & Sharpley, 2008), there has been little interest shown in understanding the relationship between dark tourism and urban tourism (Page & Hall 2002). This paper presents the initial findings of a research project that investigates the dark tourism products offered by European cities. A s...

  2. Economic valuation of the mortality benefits of a regulation on SO2 in 20 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Henschel, Susann; Goodman, Patrick G; Analitis, Antonis; Atkinson, Richard W; Le Tertre, Alain; Zeka, Ariana; Medina, Sylvia

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1970s, legislation has led to progress in tackling several air pollutants. We quantify the annual monetary benefits resulting from reductions in mortality from the year 2000 onwards following the implementation of three European Commission regulations to reduce the sulphur content in liquid fuels for vehicles. We first compute premature deaths attributable to these implementations for 20 European cities in the Aphekom project by using a two-stage health impact assessment method. We then justify our choice to only consider mortality effects as short-term effects. We rely on European studies when selecting the central value of a life-year estimate (€ 2005 86 600) used to compute the monetary benefits for each of the cities. We also conduct an independent sensitivity analysis as well as an integrated uncertainty analysis that simultaneously accounts for uncertainties concerning epidemiology and economic valuation. The implementation of these regulations is estimated to have postponed 2212 (95% confidence interval: 772-3663) deaths per year attributable to reductions in sulphur dioxide for the 20 European cities, from the year 2000 onwards. We obtained annual mortality benefits related to the implementation of the European regulation on sulphur dioxide of € 2005 191.6 million (95% confidence interval: € 2005 66.9-€ 2005 317.2). Our approach is conservative in restricting to mortality effects and to short-term benefits only, thus only providing the lower-bound estimate. Our findings underline the health and monetary benefits to be obtained from implementing effective European policies on air pollution and ensuring compliance with them over time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  3. A Development Framework for Smart Cities Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Khudhair Al-Alwani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A smart city is rising as an approach and strategy to reduce the troubles produced by rapid urbanization and the growth of urban population. Although, cities continue to develop and purify their social, economic and environmental goals along with the strategies to achieve them, this phenomenon has been discussed by little research yet. However, due to the requiring immediate action or attention for practical application of the principles of smart cities, city authorities, stakeholders and local communities need to know the current reality of their city and where development is being attained in their systems. Therefore, constructing a framework for smart cities assessment will help share or exchange the newcomer strong and weak points, and emphasize where actual development is taking place and update a plan for future developments. Moreover, this assessment is able to assist cities prioritizes actions. This paper developed a guiding assessment framework for smart cites that will help the creating, carefully choosing and priorities of crucial indicators. These indicators can then show the way to the smart cites performance assessment and monitoring. Drawing on the investigation of an extensive and wide collection of literature from a variety of disciplinary areas and based on the conceptual literature on smart cities, in addition to interviews this study identify a good tool to help recognizing of virtual achievement of smart city. Furthermore, it is significant to be taken into consideration in assessing smart city smartness level.

  4. Advanced scoring method of eco-efficiency in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Robaina, Margarita; Villar, José

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes a set of selected German and French cities' performance in terms of the relative behavior of their eco-efficiencies, computed as the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) over their CO 2 emissions. For this analysis, eco-efficiency scores of the selected cities are computed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique, taking the eco-efficiencies as outputs, and the inputs being the energy consumption, the population density, the labor productivity, the resource productivity, and the patents per inhabitant. Once DEA results are analyzed, the Malmquist productivity indexes (MPI) are used to assess the time evolution of the technical efficiency, technological efficiency, and productivity of the cities over the window periods 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2008. Some of the main conclusions are that (1) most of the analyzed cities seem to have suboptimal scales, being one of the causes of their inefficiency; (2) there is evidence that high GDP over CO 2 emissions does not imply high eco-efficiency scores, meaning that DEA like approaches are useful to complement more simplistic ranking procedures, pointing out potential inefficiencies at the input levels; (3) efficiencies performed worse during the period 2000-2005 than during the period 2005-2008, suggesting the possibility of corrective actions taken during or at the end of the first period but impacting only on the second period, probably due to an increasing environmental awareness of policymakers and governors; and (4) MPI analysis shows a positive technological evolution of all cities, according to the general technological evolution of the reference cities, reflecting a generalized convergence of most cities to their technological frontier and therefore an evolution in the right direction.

  5. Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods in 571 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Selma; Dawson, Richard; Kilsby, Chris; Lewis, Elizabeth; Ford, Alistair

    2017-04-01

    Future changes in heat-waves, droughts and floods were assessed for 571 European cities. We used all available climate model runs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 - CMIP5 - for their higher emission scenario (RCP8.5) and grouped the projections into Low, Mid and High impact scenarios. This resulted in impact projections outside the range of published literature, but enabled us to better understand uncertainties in future climate projections (both due to climate model errors but also the effects of natural variability) therefore providing the basis for broad scale risk analysis and thereafter identification of robust adaptation strategies. While heat-waves will worsen for every European city, changes in droughts and floods are spatially variable and climate model dependent. The largest increases in the number of heat-wave days are shown to be in southern Europe, but higher heat-wave maximum temperature increases are expected in the mid-latitudes. In the low impact scenario, drought conditions are expected to intensify only in southern Europe while river flooding in expected to worsen in the north. However, in the high impact scenario most European cities show increases in both drought conditions and river flooding. There is a very wide range of projections for future changes in Europe with disagreement between different studies, partly due to their methodological differences but potentially also due to the small number of climate model runs that limits the uncertainties due to natural variability and model errors that each study captures.

  6. Housing context and social transformation strategies in neighbourhood regeneration in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the Western European city thesis, European cities have a unique institutional mix which helps to explain how social patterns come about. The most important elements of this mix are the interventionist state and the housing system legacy of non-private housing. While these two are vital,

  7. Socio-economic segregation in European capital cities: East meets West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly

  8. Trends of nitrogen oxides in ambient air in nine European cities between 1999 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Susann; Le Tertre, Alain; Atkinson, Richard W.; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco; Zeka, Ariana; Haluza, Daniela; Analitis, Antonis; Katsouyanni, Klea; Bouland, Catherine; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia; Goodman, Patrick G.

    2015-09-01

    Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has been credited with a general downward trend in NOx (NO2+NO) concentrations in Europe since the 1990's. However, recent studies suggest that traffic (roadside) (TR) NO2 concentrations have not decreased as expected, and in some cases increased, most likely due to the use of oxidation catalysts and particle filters in diesel vehicles (EURO III, IV, V, VI). In this study we describe the time trends in NOx, NO2 and NO concentrations in 9 European cities comparing TR and urban background (UB) monitoring locations. In each city, we collected hourly city-specific NOx, NO, and NO2 data from one TR and one UB monitoring site for each year. We describe hourly, weekly, seasonal and inter-annual patterns for periods corresponding to the implementation dates of various EURO vehicle emission standards regulating NOx emissions. The diurnal patterns in all 9 cities strongly reflected morning and evening traffic. In addition, lower weekend concentrations were observed. The NOx concentrations from the TR sites remain unchanged in the majority of the cities over the study period. When stratified by 3 time periods according to the implementation of the EURO standards, an increasing NO2/NOx ratio in 7/9 cities with time was noted. However, over the same time period the NO/NO2 ratio decreased in 8/9 cities. A permanent inversion of the NO/NO2 ratio was observed to occur in 2003 in 5/9 cities. Our analyses of temporal and diurnal patterns of NOx in European cities show reductions in concentrations consistent with reductions in primary emissions likely arising from the implementation of successive EURO standards. The generally constant or increasing NO2 concentrations in the majority of the cities assessed over the study period underline the need of further regulative measures to meet the air quality standards and consequently to minimise adverse effects on human health. The ongoing collection and analysis of pollution concentrations across

  9. Assessment of multi hazards in Semarang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Arief Laila; Hani'ah, Pratiwi, Rosika D.

    2017-07-01

    Semarang city is the centre of the city for the people of Central Java province, where it has been transformed into a centre of economic and administrative government. The condition becomes vulnerable because Semarang city has at least four natural disasters. The Natural disasters also negatively impact for the people of Semarang city. The Natural disasters are floods, tidal flooding, landslides, and drought. To find out which areas are experiencing high levels of threat from the disaster, must be done by mapping multi hazards. Multi hazards mapping is done by using the method of weighting parameters and be processed by GIS from disaster-forming parameters. The next step, the result of mapping multi hazards be overlay to get the value of the level of hazards. To get assessment of Level multi natural hazards, the overlay of the hazards map can be done by two methods, GIS and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) methods. The result will be obtained in high level of affected multi hazards area in the Semarang city is Genuk district, Semarang Utara district, and Tugu District. In wich total area in high level of multi hazards is 61944.14 hectares or 30.77% of total area Semarang city.

  10. Air pollution assessment on city of Tirana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandija, F.; Zoga, P.

    2012-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the hot topics on nowadays studies. This problem is often encountered on urban centers, especially on metropolitan areas. These areas are usually characterized by densely population, heavy traffic rates and the presence of many industrial plants on their suburbs. Problems regarding to air pollution on these areas are more evident over metropolitan areas in developing countries. Air pollution is mostly related to health effects, especially in outdoor environments. These effects regards primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution assessment on a specific area requires not only the estimation of pollutant concentrations in that area, but also determination of their principal sources as well as prediction of eventual scenarios on the area under investigation. This study is focused on air pollution assessment on the city of Tirana, which is the major urban centre and the capital city of Albania. This city has about one million inhabitants. During the last 20 years, its population has grown about four fold, and it is still growing. Because of Albania is a developing country, its capital city is involved on serious environmental problems. Considering these facts, we have conducted continuous monitoring campaigns on several sites of Tirana. These monitoring campaigns consist on measurement of several pollutant gases (SO2, CO, CO2, NOx, etc.) and particulate matter over a period of 20 months. In this paper there are obtained diurnal and annual variations of pollutant concentrations, there is modeled their spatial distributions over the area of the city, and there are estimated the potential contributions of principal sources like traffic and industrial plants. During the entire monitoring campaign there are recorded also meteorological parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitations, etc. In this way we have tried to obtain the correlations between pollutant

  11. Innovation capabilities and challenges for energy smartdevelopment in medium sized European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhult, Erik; Campillo, J.; Dahlquist, E.; Read, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Transition towards becoming Energy smart city integrating different areas of energy production, distribution and use in a community requires a spectrum of capabilities. The paper reports on findings from the EU planning project PLEEC, involving six medium sized European cities. The purpose of the

  12. Acculturation preferences of the Turkish second generation in 11 European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Valk, H.A.G.; van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines acculturation preferences of the Turkish second generation in 11 European cities and compares these with expectations of national society comparison group members. Multiple classification analysis (MCA) was used to examine the effects of city of residence, exposure to national

  13. Health inequalities in European cities: Perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Morrison (Jonathan); M. Pons-Vigués (Mariona); L. Bécares (Laia); B. Burström (Bo); A. Gandarillas (Ana); F. Domínguez-Berjón (Felicitas); E. Díez (Èlia); G. Costa (Giuseppe); M. Ruiz (Milagros); H. Pikhart (Hynek); C. Marinacci (Chiara); R. Hoffmann (Rasmus); P. Santana (Paula); C. Borrell (Carme)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To describe the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health and policies to reduce them in cities from different parts of Europe during 2010 and 2011. Design: Phenomenological qualitative study. Setting: 13 European cities. Participants: 19

  14. Guest editorial: Heteropolitanization: social and spatial change in Central and East European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentile, M.; Tammaru, T.; Kempen, R. van

    2012-01-01

    With more than 20 years of European post-socialist transition behind us, research on the cities of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) has yet to be situated in contemporary urban theory. Placed within a context of growing research interest on CEE cities, this theme issue on Heteropolitanization:

  15. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across

  16. Traffic Volumes and Manoeuvring Area Capacities at European Capital City Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Pavlin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Capital city airports in the European countries realise trafficvolume of several thousands to several hundred thousandaircraft operations i. e. landings and takeoffs annually. In itsAirport Planning Manual, the International Civil Aviation Organizationrecommends that the capital city airports have atleast two runways in order to avoid complete closing down ofthe airport in cases of aircraft accidents on the runway or therunway strip, due to repair or maintenance of the runway, removalof snow, unlawful interference in civil aviation etc. Thepaper analyses the current situation in traffic and the capacitiesof the manoeuvring areas at the European capital city airports.

  17. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics.

  18. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerat...

  19. Toward Sustainable EU Cities : A Quantitative Benchmark Study of 114 European and 31 Dutch Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoeteman, Bastiaan; Mulder, Rens; Smeets, Ruben; Wentink, Corné

    The sustainability scores for 114 EU cities were found to vary widely, while variations for the Dutch cities studied were relatively small. Based on these findings, cities can identify their stronger and weaker points and subsequently analyze whether and how these can and should be improved through,

  20. European Educational Systems and Assessment Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Robert Harry; Cross, David; Grangeat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    . Such associations are useful both for understanding different existing assessment conditions as well as for providing possible pathways for change. Next, the chapter takes a closer look at teacher practices in these educational systems in order to identify the actual assessment practices of teachers in each country......Abstract This chapter surveys the status of educational systems and assessment practices across eight European countries that are part of the ASSIST-ME project. First, variations in country educational systems are examined to identify possible connections between systems and educational practices....... With these understandings of the systems and current uses of assessment, it is possible to identify affordances and challenges for improving assessment practices....

  1. Exploring the use of tools for urban sustainability in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the main findings from case studies analysed within the Practical Evaluation Tools for Urban Sustainability (PETUS) project, about the practical use of tools for sustainable urban development in European cities. The paper looks across 60 case studies and identifies the main...... drivers for using tools, the benefits gained by using them and discusses why, in genera, there is limited use of available tools. The main question raised by the PETUS project was, ' why are so few tools for urban sustainability being used, when so many are available?' Recent years have shown a growing...... number of theoretical tools to assess and evaluate urban sustainability. However, experience also shows that only a few of such tools are being used in practice. The paper outlines the motivations for actors to use tools, the benefits achieved and the barriers for using tools. From this, different...

  2. Role of environment in strengthening competitiveness of cities by example of European Green Capitals and Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Ratas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Guaranteeing a high-level living environment is one of the most important preconditions to the balanced and sustainable economic and social development of the European Union. Serious environmental problems can be seen in European cities, which are the places where most of the population live and which create the highest number of jobs, economic growth and added value. The level of urbanisation in Europe was 72.7% in 2010 and the UN forecast that it will increase to 82.2% by 2050. The European Green Capital Award was created in 2006 in order to recognise cities that have contributed to the improvement of their quality of life. The cities that have won the award have started using the most innovative and efficient measures for increasing the city’s competitiveness, and are an example of how to achieve sustainable development for all cities, not just capitals. The environmental indicators of cities that have won the European Green Capital Award are high. In this article the problem is analysed using the example of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, which strives for a place among cities with the highest quality of life in Europe. The objective of this article is to analyse the areas of the city’s environmental activities and environmental organisation in the context of increasing competitiveness. The original database used by the author in this article consists of the responses given by the governments of the cities who have already been awarded the title of European Green Capital when asked to describe the impact that applying for and achieving the title had on their cities

  3. Pathways toward European creative-knowledge city-regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, M.; Musterd, S.; Kovacs, Z.; Murie, A.

    2011-01-01

    Across Europe there is a lively policy and academic debate on what the essential conditions are for the development of new economic activities in city-regions. The focus is on knowledge-intensive and creative industries. Different theories (glocalization, clustering, embeddedness, path dependence,

  4. TRESCIMO: European Union and South African smart city contextual dimension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities increasingly face challenges related to pollution, efficient use of resources (e.g. water, energy) and ensuring a good quality of life for its citizens. Solutions built on existing and emerging technologies such as Cloud computing, Internet...

  5. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  6. European Healthy City Network Phase V: patterns emerging for healthy urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcus

    2015-06-01

    There is a tradition of planning cities and their infrastructure to successfully tackle communicable disease arising from urban development. Non-communicable disease follows a different course. Development brings in its wake a basket of adverse health and health equity outcomes that are proving difficult to tackle. In response, within Phase V of the European Healthy Cities Network, municipalities have implemented a range of policy and physical interventions using a settings approach. Owing to the time lag between physical interventions and health outcomes, this research interrogates city activity itself to develop better understanding. Self-reported city case studies and questionnaire data were analysed to reveal patterns using an inductive approach. Findings indicate that some categories of intervention, such as whole city planning and transport, have a systemic impact across the wider determinants of health. Addressing transferability and stakeholder understanding helped cities create conditions for successful outcomes. Cities had varying urban development approaches for tackling climate change. Improvements to current practice are discussed, including; a distinction between supply side and demand side in healthy urban planning; valuing co-benefits and developing integrative approaches to the evidence-base. This evaluative article is important for cities wanting to learn how to maximize benefits to public health through urban development and for researchers exploring, with a systemic approach, the experiences of European cities acting at the interface of urban development and public health. This article also provides recommendations for future phases of the WHO European Healthy Cities programme, posing questions to better address governance and equity in spatial planning. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Indoor-outdoor relationships of particle number and mass in four European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.P.A.; Ten Brink, H.M. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands); Hoek, G.; De Hartog, J.; Meliefste, K. [IRAS, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Harrison, R.; Thomas, S.; Meddings, C. [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, University Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Katsouyanni, K.; Karakatsani, A. [Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Avenue, 11527 Athens (Greece); Lianou, M.; Kotronarou, A.; Kavouras, I. [National Observatory of Athens, Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, V. Pavlou and I. Metaxa Palaia Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Pekkanen, J.; Vallius, M. [Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, KTL-National Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 95, Kuopio (Finland); Kulmala, M.; Puustinen, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, UHEL (Finland); Ayres, J.G. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Van Wijnen, J.H. [Municipal Health Service Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haemeri, K. [Physics Department, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41a A, FIN-00250, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    The number of ultrafine particles in urban air may be more health relevant than the usually measured mass of particles smaller than 2.5 or 10 mm. Epidemiological studies typically assess exposure by measurements at a central site. Limited information is available about how well measurements at a central site reflect exposure to ultrafine particles. The goals of this paper are to assess the relationships between particle number (PN) and mass concentrations measured outdoors at a central site, right outside and inside the study homes. The study was conducted in four European cities: Amsterdam, Athens, Birmingham and Helsinki. Particle mass (PM10 and PM2.5), PN, soot and sulfate concentrations were measured at these sites. Measurements of indoors and outdoors near the home were made during 1 week in 152, mostly non-smoking, homes. In each city continuous measurements were also performed at a central site during the entire study period. The correlation between 24-h average central site outdoor and indoor concentrations was lower for PN (correlation among cities ranged from 0.18 to 0.45) than for PM2.5 (0.40-0.80), soot (0.64-0.92) and sulfate (0.91-0.99). In Athens, the indoor-central site correlation was similar for PN and PM2.5. Infiltration factors for PN and PM2.5 were lower than for sulfate and soot. Night-time hourly average PN concentrations showed higher correlations between indoor and central site, implying that indoor sources explained part of the low correlation found for 24-h average concentrations. Measurements at a central site may characterize indoor exposure to ambient particles less well for ultrafine particles than for fine particle mass, soot and sulfate.

  8. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  9. THE CLIMATE AS A KEY FACTOR OF PUBLIC LIFE IN EUROPEAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Arturo Cubillos-González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Is weather a factor that determines the efficiency of public life in European cities? It can be said that every six months public life changes radically in European cities in response to changes in the weather, such as, the type of activities that take place. Furthermore, in these European cities, culture is another important characteristic of public life. In the first stages the results of this research, identified the following characteristics as factors of efficiency of public life in these cities: climate, the mobility system, the historic area, vitality, materials, vegetation and buildings. These variables define the quality of public life in the cities studied. Weather conditions determine many of the patterns of urban organization. All these features would require the analysis of multiple variables which would be impossible to carry out manually. Thus, this article suggests the design of a software application that could enable the analysis of public life in light of these efficiency factors, to guide the city to sustainability.

  10. Mercury in urban soils: A comparison of local spatial variability in six European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, S. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: smorais@dq.ua.pt; Pereira, M.E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Duarte, A.C. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ajmone-Marsan, F. [DI.VA.P.R.A., Chimica Agraria, Universita di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci, 44 10095 Grugliasco, Torino (Italy); Davidson, C.M. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral St, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland (United Kingdom); Grcman, H. [Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniska fakulteta, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hossack, I. [School of Engineering and Science, University of Paisley, High Street, Paisley, PA1 2BE Scotland (United Kingdom); Hursthouse, A.S. [School of Engineering and Science, University of Paisley, High Street, Paisley, PA1 2BE Scotland (United Kingdom); Ljung, K. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Martini, C. [DI.VA.P.R.A., Chimica Agraria, Universita di Torino, Via Leonardo da Vinci, 44 10095 Grugliasco, Torino (Italy); Otabbong, E. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Reinoso, R. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Ruiz-Cortes, E. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (CSIC), Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Urquhart, G.J. [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, 295 Cathedral St, Glasgow G1 1XL, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vrscaj, B. [Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniska fakulteta, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15

    The objective of this study was to quantify and assess for the first time the variability of total mercury in urban soils at a European level, using a systematic sampling strategy and a common methodology. We report results from a comparison between soil samples from Aveiro (Portugal), Glasgow (Scotland), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Sevilla (Spain), Torino (Italy) and Uppsala (Sweden). At least 25 sampling points (in about 4-5 ha) from a park in each city were sampled at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm). Total mercury was determined by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The quality of results was monitored using certified reference materials (BCR 142R and BCR 141R). Measured total mercury contents varied from 0.015 to 6.3 mg kg{sup -1}. The lowest median values were found in Aveiro, for both surface (0-10 cm) and sub-surface (10-20 cm) samples (0.055 and 0.054 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively). The highest median mercury contents in soil samples were found in samples from Glasgow (1.2 and 1.3 mg kg{sup -1}, for surface and sub-surface samples, respectively). High variability of mercury concentrations was observed, both within each park and between cities. This variability reflecting contributions from natural background, previous anthropogenic activities and differences in the ages of cities and land use, local environmental conditions as well as the influence of their location within the urban area. Short-range variability of mercury concentrations was found to be up to an order of magnitude over the distance of only a few 10 m.

  11. The Analysis of Strategic Priorities for the Development of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries of the European Union have gained rich experience in developing and implementing a balanced socio-economic and regional policy. The development of regions and individual territories and cities in these countries is given special attention, since this direction provides one of the greatest opportunities to create a synergetic effect by reducing the unevenness of regional (territorial development and the effective use of existing potential and, as a result, ensures the welfare of citizens of the territories, decrease of socio-political tension in the society, creation of new jobs and increase of competitiveness of the national economy as a whole. The integration of Ukraine into the modern world community envisages development and implementation of an effective regional policy in view of integrated and rational use of all multipurpose resources and depends on a comprehensive evaluation of the existing social and economic potential of the country as a whole and its regions. Also it involves identification of sources and scales of development, definition and assessment of long-term options for socio-economic development of the country and individual territories based on the rational allocation of productive forces with consideration to specialization and individual characteristics. In the context of introducing the reform of power decentralization in Ukraine, the responsibility of local authorities for ensuring effective management in many areas of life is becoming ever greater. Sustainable and efficient economic development of territories is a guarantee of a high level of the population life quality in all its aspects. At the same time, it is necessary to fully understand the main problems of communities, cities and ways to solve them in the context of global trends in the development of territories, in particular cities.

  12. Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Canavan, Réamonn

    2012-07-27

    AbstractBackgroundMental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities.MethodTwo methods of data collection were employed; (i) In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii) Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them.ResultsAcross the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision.ConclusionsWhile there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of homeless specific and generic

  13. Service provision and barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems across 14 European capital cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canavan Réamonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities. Method Two methods of data collection were employed; (i In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them. Results Across the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision. Conclusions While there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of

  14. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. Urban Scaling to Mapping European Economic Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP $\\propto$ Y pop $^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta$ always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, $\\beta$ = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities $\\beta >$1 and increases from $\\sim$1.2 to $\\sim$1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of e...

  15. Impact of passenger car NOX emissions on urban NO2 pollution - Scenario analysis for 8 European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraeuwe, Bart; Thunis, Philippe; Clappier, Alain; Weiss, Martin; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Vranckx, Stijn

    2017-12-01

    Residents of large European cities are exposed to NO2 concentrations that often exceed the established air quality standards. Diesel cars have been identified as a major contributor to this situation; yet, it remains unclear to which levels the NOX emissions of diesel cars have to decrease to effectively mitigate urban NO2 pollution across Europe. Here, we take a continental perspective and model urban NO2 pollution in a generic street canyon of 8 major European cities for various NOX emission scenarios. We find that a reduction in the on-road NOX emissions of diesel cars to the Euro 6 level can in general decrease the regional and urban NO2 concentrations and thereby the frequency of exceedances of the NO2 air quality standard. High NO2 fractions in the NOX emissions of diesel cars tend to increase the urban NO2 concentrations only in proximity of intense road traffic typically found on artery roads in large cities like Paris and London. In cities with a low share of diesel cars in the vehicle fleet such as Athens or a high contribution from the NO2 background to the urban NO2 pollution such as Krakow, measures addressing heavy-duty vehicles, and the manufacturing, energy, and mining industry are necessary to decrease urban air pollution. We regard our model results as robust albeit subject to uncertainty resulting from the application of a generic street layout. With small modifications in the input parameters, our model could be used to assess the impact of NOX emissions from road transport on NO2 air pollution in any European city.

  16. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, JM; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390-429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were

  17. Segregation and housing of minority ethnic groups in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; van Kempen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Segregation of minority ethnic groups is a returning issue in public and political debates in many parts of the world. This paper focuses on Western European cities and presents information on levels and dynamics of segregation. While acknowledging the measurement problems, we feel comfortable in

  18. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Marcińczak, S.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of

  19. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, K.V.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A.; Emke, E.; Grabic, R.; Hernández, F.; Karolak, S.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Lindberg, R.H.; Meierjohann, A.; Ort, C.; Pico, Y.; Quintana, J.; Reid, M.; Rieckermann, J.; Terzic, S.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare

  20. Exposure to ultrafine particles and respiratory hospitalisations in five European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the associations between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP), with aerodynamic electrical mobility diameters <100 nm, and health is limited. We gathered data on UFP from five European cities within 2001-2011 to investigate associations between short-term changes in c...

  1. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  2. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  3. Socioeconomic segregation in European capital cities : Increasing separation between poor and rich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, Sako; Marcińczak, Szymon; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality is on the rise in major European cities, as are concerns over it, since it is seen as a threat to social cohesion and stability. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the spatial dimensions of rising socioeconomic inequality. This paper builds on a study of

  4. The Copper Balance of Cities: Exploratory Insights into a European and an Asian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-05-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available.

  5. Analyzing the efficiency of short-term air quality plans in European cities, using the CHIMERE air quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, P; Degraeuwe, B; Pisoni, E; Meleux, F; Clappier, A

    2017-01-01

    Regional and local authorities have the obligation to design air quality plans and assess their impacts when concentration levels exceed the limit values. Because these limit values cover both short- (day) and long-term (year) effects, air quality plans also follow these two formats. In this work, we propose a methodology to analyze modeled air quality forecast results, looking at emission reduction for different sectors (residential, transport, agriculture, etc.) with the aim of supporting policy makers in assessing the impact of short-term action plans. Regarding PM10, results highlight the diversity of responses across European cities, in terms of magnitude and type that raises the necessity of designing area-specific air quality plans. Action plans extended from 1 to 3 days (i.e., emissions reductions applied for 24 and 72 h, respectively) point to the added value of trans-city coordinated actions. The largest benefits are seen in central Europe (Vienna, Prague) while major cities (e.g., Paris) already solve a large part of the problem on their own. Eastern Europe would particularly benefit from plans based on emission reduction in the residential sectors; while in northern cities, agriculture seems to be the key sector on which to focus attention. Transport is playing a key role in most cities whereas the impact of industry is limited to a few cities in south-eastern Europe. For NO2, short-term action plans focusing on traffic emission reductions are efficient in all cities. This is due to the local character of this type of pollution. It is important, however, to stress that these results remain dependent on the selected months available for this study.

  6. University and place branding: The case of universities located in ECC (European Capital of Culture cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Rekettye

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the globalising landscape of higher education more and more universities are going international. These universities are facing growing competition, especially in enrolling international students. International competition forces them to use marketing and especially branding activity. University branding requires that the higher education institutions clearly define their differentiating features. One of the most important differentiating features is the place where the institution is located. University and place branding should work together to help the potential students in their decisions to choose the place of their study. The ECC (European Capital of Culture program which started in 1985 has helped many cities to identify their values and to develop their place branding activities. The study examines how the European Capital of Culture designation of the city helped the marketing activities of the universities located in these cities. The study attempts to explore to what extent universities located in ECCs used this special feature of their cities in their international marketing communication. The paper also attempts to analyse the effects the European Capital of Culture title could have on the international student enrolment activity of the concerned universities.

  7. Integration Policies of European Cities in Comparative Perspective: Structural Convergence and Substantial Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinus Penninx

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the comparative study of integration policies of European cities. The first two sections present an analytical framework for the study of immigrants’ integration processes and the policies that intend to steer such processes. The third section outlines how local integration policies have developed in relation to national policies and EU integration policies, particularly after 2003. The fourth and main section analyses the framing and content of integration policies of European cities, looking at their diversity in the legal/political dimension, the socio-economic dimension – including the domains of work, housing, education and health – and the cultural, religious and ethnic dimension. It is concluded that there is a structural convergence, in the sense that in the complex structure of multilevel governance of migration and integration, cities do take a similar position, developing horizontal relations of cooperation and exchange. Cities that develop explicit integration policies tend to do this from a more inclusive and pragmatic framing than national and EU-policies. At the same time, there is great variation in what cities actually do: in the legal/political and in the cultural/religious dimensions, framing, intentions and measures do vary greatly; in the socio-economic dimension this variation is less when it comes to the domains of activity, but more in the intensity of policy intervention.

  8. Urban sprawl and growth management - drivers, impacts and responses in selected European and US cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2016-01-01

    in 6 European and 2 US American city-regions. The paper compares the urban development focusing on a quantification of drivers and effects of urban growth and a qualitative analysis of the applied urban growth management tools. We build our analysis on findings from the EU-FP6 project PLUREL....... The cities have different success in dealing with urban growth pressure - some can accommodate most growth in existing urban areas and densify, others expand or sprawl. Urban growth management is no guarantee to contain urban growth, but the case studies offer some innovative ways how to deal with particular...

  9. Interaction between Cities and Climate Change: Modelling Urban Morphology and Local Urban Planning Scenarios from Open Datasets across European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bart; Stevens, Catherine; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Cities are characterised by a large spatiotemporal diversity of local climates induced by a superposition of various factors and processes interacting at global and regional scales but also at the micro level such as the urban heat island effect. As urban areas are known as 'hot spots' prone to climate and its variability over time leading to changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heat waves, it is of crucial importance to capture the spatial heterogeneity resulting from variations in land use land cover (LULC) and urban morphology in an effective way to drive local urban climate simulations. The first part of the study conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission focusses on the extraction of land surface parameters linked to urban morphology characteristics from detailed 3D city models and their relationship with openly accessible European datasets such as the degree of soil sealing and disaggregated population densities from the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). While it has been demonstrated that good correlations can be found between those datasets and the planar and frontal area indices, the present work has expanded the research to other urban morphology parameters including the average and variation of the building height and the sky view factor. Correlations up to 80% have been achieved depending on the considered parameter and the specific urban area including the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Moreover, the transferability of the established relations has been investigated across the various cities. Secondly, a flexible and scalable approach as a function of the required the level of detail has been elaborated to update the various morphology parameters in case of integration with urban planning data to analyse the local impact of future land use scenarios

  10. The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a study in six European cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Perelman, Julian; Alves, Joana; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Moor, Irene; Federico, Bruno; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Richter, Matthias; Rimpela, Arja; Kunst, Anton E.; Lorant, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: This study investigates the link between personal income and smoking among adolescents, and aims to answer the following questions: (i) to what extent is personal income related to smoking, independent of family socio-economic status (SES) and (ii) does the association between personal income and smoking apply to different subpopulations? DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Six cities from European countries (Amersfoort, the Netherlands; Coimbra, Portugal; Hannover, Germany; Latina,...

  11. Using Landsat vegetation indices to estimate impervious surface fractions for European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surfaces (IS) are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas a...

  12. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, K. V.; Bijlsma, L.; Castiglioni, S.; Covaci, A; Emke, E.; Grabic, R.; Hernández, F; Karolak, S.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Lindberg, R.H.; Meierjohann, A.; Ort, C.; Pico, Y.; Quintana, J; Reid, M

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of sewage for urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs is a promising and complementary approach for estimating the use of these substances in the general population. For the first time, this approach was simultaneously applied in 19 European cities, making it possible to directly compare illicit drug loads in Europe over a 1-week period. An inter-laboratory comparison study was performed to evaluate the analytical performance of the participating laboratories. Raw 24-hour composite s...

  13. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Bosque-Prous; Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Albert Espelt; Matthias Richter; Arja Rimpelä; Julian Perelman; Bruno Federico; M Teresa Brugal; Vincent Lorant; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Many risk behaviours in adolescence are socially patterned. However, it is unclear to what extent socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adolescent drinking in various parts of Europe. We examined how alcohol consumption is associated with parental SEP and adolescents? own SEP among students aged 14?17?years. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in the 2013 SILNE study. Participants were 8705 students aged 14?17?years from 6 European cities. The dependent variable was weekl...

  14. Individual and contextual determinants of perceived peer smoking prevalence among adolescents in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Richter, Matthias; Rathmann, Katharina; Rimpelä, Arja H; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    Young people perceiving a high peer smoking prevalence are more likely to initiate smoking. It is unclear which factors contribute to perceived peer smoking prevalence and if these factors vary according to education. This study aimed to assess the determinants of perceived smoking prevalence and assessed its variation at school and country-level. Data of 10,283 14-17-year-old students in 50 secondary schools in six European cities were derived from the 2013 SILNE survey. The outcome was the perceived smoking prevalence score among peers at school (0-10 scale, 10 represented 100% smoking prevalence). Multilevel linear regression models estimated the associations of factors with perceived prevalence score and variance at school and country-levels. Analyses were also stratified by academic achievement of the adolescent and parental education. Determinants of a higher perceived prevalence score were female sex, ever smoking, having friends who smoke, low academic achievement, low parental educational level, and higher actual prevalence of smoking in the school. The perceived prevalence score was not associated with school policies or with the availability of cigarettes near the school. Determinants were very similar across levels of academic achievement and parental education. Perceived prevalence scores substantially varied between schools and countries: 10% and 11% of total variance was related to schools and countries respectively. Across educational levels, perceptions of peer smoking are strongly determined by both individual characteristics and school and national contexts. Future studies should assess why perceived smoking prevalence varies between schools and countries and identify modifiable factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of the environmental broadband electromagnetic waves in a mid-size European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, R; Gil, I

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the level of exposure to broadband radiofrequency electromagnetic field in a mid-size European city was evaluated in accordance with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines from 1998. With the aim to analyse all the potential electromagnetic waves present in the city up to 18GHz, a total of 271 locations distributed along Terrassa (Spain) have been measured. To show the results in an easy-to-interpret way by the citizen, the results have been represented in a set of raster maps. The measurement results obtained showed that the electromagnetic wave measured in all broadband frequency range along the city is much lower than the safety level according to the international regulations for both public and occupational sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Deprivation and AIDS in a southern European city: different patterns across transmission group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugal, M Teresa; Borrell, Carme; Díaz-Quijano, Estela; Pasarín, M Isabel; García-Olalla, Patricia; Villalbí, Joan R

    2003-09-01

    To analyse deprivation and AIDS among three AIDS transmission groups (men who have sex with men--MSM, heterosexuals, and intravenous drug users--IDUs) in Barcelona, Spain, during the period 1990-95. This is an ecological study, the unit of analysis being the neighbourhoods. Included were AIDS cases residents in Barcelona. The association among AIDS rate and deprivation was studied using Spearman correlation coefficients and Poisson regression. For MSM, inner city neighbourhood residence meant a greater risk of AIDS; but lower educational level was inversely related with AIDS rates. For heterosexuals, variables related with AIDS rates were younger age, inner city areas and social unrest for women, and extreme poverty for men. Among UDIs variables related with AIDS were unemployment and social unrest for both sexes. The association between AIDS rates and deprivation differs across transmission groups in a southern European city.

  17. Assessing competence: The European survey on aging protocol (ESAP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ballesteros, R.; Zamarron, M.D.; Rudinger, G.; Schroots, J.J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The main goal of this research project was to translate and adapt the European Survey on Ageing Protocol (ESAP) to 7 European countries/cultures. This article presents preliminary results from the ESAP, the basic assessment instrument of EXCELSA (European Longitudinal Study of Aging).

  18. ESCO FORMATION AS ENABLING FACTOR FOR SMART CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION (UE: SPAIN CASE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Morcillo Bellido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities have reached a huge magnitude and they represent great potential improvement platforms for wealth, employment and competitiveness creation, but also they involve an enormous amount of complexity that emphasized their future management challenges. Cities evolution could be seen as a strong trend towards the development of more efficient and livable cities that have been called "Smart Cities", where one of key topics is linked to how efficiently scarce resources are managed. This document analyzes the development of Energy Service Companies (ESCO in Spain, as a type of organization preliminary focused on promoting and managing projects related to the efficient use of energy, being their business success linked to energy savings achieved by their clients and getting their revenue from these achieved savings. Outcome of this study expects to provide information of interest to understand the current development of ESCO model projects in Spain as example of what is happening in several major European Union (EU countries in relation to Smart Cities development and subsequence ESCO growth, the important barriers they currently face to grow faster, and to find evidences of how collaboration between organizations could facilitate energy efficiency management, which at the end is linked to a better understanding of the future development of “Smart Cities” initiatives in EU countries.

  19. Development of urban bird indicators using data from monitoring schemes in two large European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrando, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bird monitoring projects have provided valuable data for developing biological indicators to evaluate the state of natural and agricultural habitats. However, fewer advances have been made in urban environments. In this study we used bird monitoring data from 2002 to 2012 in two cities with different climates (Brussels and Barcelona, to generate two multi–species urban indicators to evaluate temporal trends on abundance of urban avifauna. To do this we used two different conceptual approaches, one based on a list of widespread species in European cities (WSEC and another based exclusively on species widespread at city level (WCS regardless of the birds occurring in other cities. The two indicators gave a similar general pattern, although we found a 3% difference in the mean annual change in both cities, thus suggesting that the values provided by urban indicators may differ depending on the conceptual approach and, hence, by the species list used to generate them. However, both indicators may have their own value and could be treated as complementary indices.

  20. Soils and cultural layers of ancient cities in the south of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrovskii, A. L.; Aleksandrovskaya, E. I.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zamotaev, I. V.; Kurbatova, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Antique cities in the south of European Russia are characterized by a considerable thickness of their cultural layers (urbosediments) accumulated as construction debris and household wastes. Under the impact of pedogenesis and weathering in dry climate of the steppe zone, these sediments have acquired the features of loesslike low-humus calcareous and alkaline deposits. They are also enriched in many elements (P, Zn, Ca, Cu, Pb, As) related to the diverse anthropogenic activities. The soils developed from such urbosediments can be classified as urbanozems (Urban Technosols), whereas chernozems close to their zonal analogues have developed in the surface layer of sediments covering long-abandoned ancient cities. Similar characteristics have been found for the soils of the medieval and more recent cities in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of the pollutants are locally found in the antique and medieval urbosediments enriched in dyes, handicrafts from nonferrous metals, and other artifacts. Surface soils of ancient cities inherit the properties and composition of the cultural layer. Even in chernozems that developed under steppe vegetation on the surface of the abandoned antique cities of Phanagoria and Tanais for about 1000—1500 years, the concentrations of copper, zinc, and calcium carbonates remain high. Extremely high phosphorus concentrations in these soils should be noted. This is related to the stability of calcium phosphates from animal bones that are abundant in the cultural layer acting as parent material for surface soils.

  1. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the

  2. Study tour: welcome to 11 european cities. Exchanges of good practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Pejovic, D.; Schilken, P.; Vallar, J.P.

    2001-11-01

    On-site visits, information, meetings with players engaged in practical actions and exchanges of experience: eleven European cities organize visits of about forty sites or installations which include: energy efficient and high environmental quality buildings and districts, cogeneration and tri-generation installations, new technologies such as the fuel cell or the Stirling engine, bike-stations or tram-train stations within the scope of innovative mobility policies, low energy consumption equipment, renewable energy installations, solar buildings, hydro-electric or photovoltaic power stations, wind farms.This document presents a typical two day's visit for the following cities: Amersfoort/Utrecht, Barcelona, Frankfurt, Freiburg, Grenoble, Hannover, Heidelberg, Lausanne, London, Montpellier, Saarbrucken. (J.S.)

  3. The Role of Contextual Socioeconomic Circumstances and Neighborhood Poverty Segregation on Mortality in 4 European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinacci, Chiara; Demaria, Moreno; Melis, Giulia; Borrell, Carme; Corman, Diana; Dell'Olmo, Marc Marí; Rodriguez, Maica; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have recognized the health disadvantage of residents in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods, independent of the influence of individual socioeconomic conditions. The effect of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation on general mortality has appeared heterogeneous among the cities analyzed: the underlying mechanisms have been less empirically explored, and explanations for this heterogeneous health effect remain unclear. The present study aimed to: (1) analyze the distribution of socioeconomically disadvantaged persons in neighborhoods of 4 European cities-Turin, Barcelona, Stockholm and Helsinki-trying to measure segregation of residents according to their socioeconomic conditions. Two measuring approaches were used, respectively, through dissimilarity index and clustering estimated from Bayesian models. (2) Analyze the distribution of mortality in the above mentioned cities, trying to disentangle the independent effects of both neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and neighborhood segregation of residents according to their socioeconomic conditions, using multilevel models. A significantly higher risk of death was observed among residents in more deprived neighborhoods in all 4 cities considered, slightly heterogeneous across them. Poverty segregation appeared to be slightly associated with increasing mortality in Turin and, among females and only according to dissimilarity, in Barcelona. Few studies have explored the health effects of social clustering, and results could inform urban policy design with regard to social mix.

  4. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with −20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC. The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3, but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5–0.8 and 0.4–0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2–0.5. The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5 are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50–70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5, but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10–20 %. Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of % fraction of the

  5. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful

    OpenAIRE

    Kunzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Gotschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brandli, O

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans.

  6. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984–2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood hazard assessments. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense. Results suggest that the past 30 years of urban development alone has increased the city's exposure to pluvial flooding by 6% for 10-year rainfall up to 26% for 100-year rainfall. Corresponding estimates for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate change scenarios (2071–2100 are in the order of 40 and 100%, indicating that land cover changes within cities can play a central role for the cities' exposure to flooding and conversely also for their adaptation to a changed climate.

  7. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  8. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Skougaard Kaspersen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Impervious surfaces (IS are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and applicability of vegetation indices (VI, from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR, and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s < 2% of sub-pixel imperviousness, and are found to be applicable for cities with dissimilar climatic and vegetative conditions. The VI/IS relationship across cities is examined by quantifying the MAEs and MBEs between all combinations of models and urban areas. Also, regional regression models are developed by compiling data from multiple cities to examine the potential for developing and applying a single regression model to estimate IS fractions for numerous urban areas without reducing the accuracy considerably. Our findings indicate that the models can be applied broadly for multiple urban areas, and that the accuracy is reduced only marginally by applying the regional models. SAVI is identified as a superior index for the development of regional quantification models. The findings of this study highlight that IS fractions, and spatiotemporal changes herein, can be mapped by use of simple regression models based on VIs from remote sensors, and that the method presented enables simple, accurate and resource efficient quantification of IS.

  9. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  10. On the impact of emissions from central European cities on tropospheric chemistry and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.

    2015-12-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupledwith the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/orNMVOC. The model was validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration over occurs over cities while over rural areas futher from them, ozone production os modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissionsalso significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%).Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areasand minor cities.The radiative impact of the perturbed air chemistry (gases/aerosols) due to urban emissions is dominated mainly by the aerosol direct/indirect effect and is characterized by decrease of temperatures up to -0.08 K at the surface but the decrease concerns the whole PBL. Decreases are modeled for the PBL height as well, while the impact on total precipitation and wind speed is statistically insignifcant. The impact of all (urban and non-urban) emissions is about up to -0.2, so considerable part of the radiative effects of all

  11. A history of health technology assessment at the European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, David; Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Jonsson, Egon

    2009-07-01

    This study summarizes the experience with health technology assessment (HTA) at the European level. Geographically, Europe includes approximately fifty countries with a total of approximately 730 million people. Politically, twenty-seven of these countries (500 million people) have come together in the European Union. The executive branch of the European Union is named the European Commission, which supports several activities, including research, all over Europe and in many other parts of the world. The European Commission has promoted HTA by several policy positions and has funded a series of projects aimed at strengthening HTA in Europe. Around fifteen of the European countries now have formal national programs on HTA and some also have regional public programs. All countries that are members of the European Union and do not have a national approach to HTA have an interest in becoming more involved. The HTA projects sponsored by the European Commission have focused on networking and collaboration among established agencies and institutions for HTA, however, also on capacity building, support, and facilitation in creating mechanisms for HTA in European countries that still do not have any program in the field.

  12. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted...... Vegetation Index (SAVI) are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR), and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s ... the potential for developing and applying a single regression model to estimate IS fractions for numerous urban areas without reducing the accuracy considerably. Our findings indicate that the models can be applied broadly for multiple urban areas, and that the accuracy is reduced only marginally by applying...

  13. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Espelt, Albert; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Brugal, M Teresa; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E

    2017-08-08

    Many risk behaviours in adolescence are socially patterned. However, it is unclear to what extent socioeconomic position (SEP) influences adolescent drinking in various parts of Europe. We examined how alcohol consumption is associated with parental SEP and adolescents' own SEP among students aged 14-17 years. Cross-sectional data were collected in the 2013 SILNE study. Participants were 8705 students aged 14-17 years from 6 European cities. The dependent variable was weekly binge drinking. Main independent variables were parental SEP (parental education level and family affluence) and adolescents' own SEP (student weekly income and academic achievement). Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance and random intercept were fitted to estimate the association between adolescent drinking and SEP. Prevalence of weekly binge drinking was 4.2% (95%CI = 3.8-4.6). Weekly binge drinking was not associated with parental education or family affluence. However, weekly binge drinking was less prevalent in adolescents with high academic achievement than those with low achievement (PR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.14-0.87), and more prevalent in adolescents with >€50 weekly income compared to those with ≤€5/week (PR = 3.14; 95%CI = 2.23-4.42). These associations were found to vary according to country, but not according to gender or age group. Across the six European cities, adolescent drinking was associated with adolescents' own SEP, but not with parental SEP. Socio-economic inequalities in adolescent drinking seem to stem from adolescents' own situation rather than that of their family.

  14. Adolescent alcohol use and parental and adolescent socioeconomic position in six European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bosque-Prous

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many risk behaviours in adolescence are socially patterned. However, it is unclear to what extent socioeconomic position (SEP influences adolescent drinking in various parts of Europe. We examined how alcohol consumption is associated with parental SEP and adolescents’ own SEP among students aged 14–17 years. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in the 2013 SILNE study. Participants were 8705 students aged 14–17 years from 6 European cities. The dependent variable was weekly binge drinking. Main independent variables were parental SEP (parental education level and family affluence and adolescents’ own SEP (student weekly income and academic achievement. Multilevel Poisson regression models with robust variance and random intercept were fitted to estimate the association between adolescent drinking and SEP. Results Prevalence of weekly binge drinking was 4.2% (95%CI = 3.8–4.6. Weekly binge drinking was not associated with parental education or family affluence. However, weekly binge drinking was less prevalent in adolescents with high academic achievement than those with low achievement (PR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.14–0.87, and more prevalent in adolescents with >€50 weekly income compared to those with ≤€5/week (PR = 3.14; 95%CI = 2.23–4.42. These associations were found to vary according to country, but not according to gender or age group. Conclusions Across the six European cities, adolescent drinking was associated with adolescents’ own SEP, but not with parental SEP. Socio-economic inequalities in adolescent drinking seem to stem from adolescents’ own situation rather than that of their family.

  15. Population exposure to benzene: One day cross-sections in six European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesta, Pascual Pérez; Field, Robert A.; Connolly, Richard; Cao, Natale; Baeza Caracena, Antonia; De Saeger, Emile

    This paper describes the experimental methodology and basic results of the PEOPLE project (Population Exposure to Air Pollutants in Europe). Simultaneous diffusive measurements of outdoor, indoor and human exposure benzene concentrations were made during one day campaigns. Six cities were assessed, namely: Brussels and Lisbon (22 October 2002), Bucharest and Ljubljana (27 May 2003), Madrid (3 December 2003) and Dublin (28 April 2004). In general, human exposure to benzene was higher than concentrations reported at urban background monitoring sites. Traffic was the dominant source of benzene in all the six cities that were studied. The highest exposure levels from the commuting groups were car users. The control group, with no influence from commuting or smoking, reported concentrations closer to the background level of the city. The smoking group had the highest level of exposure. The level of exposure of school children was similar to that of the commuting groups. Indoor locations that were influenced by smoking sources, or with free access to busy streets, reported relatively high concentrations. The highest indoor concentrations were measured in bars and inside motor vehicles. When considering the six cities together, a linear relationship was evident between ambient levels and human exposure. Daily median values of human exposure for non-smoking commuters were 1.5 times the level of urban background and 0.6 times the maximum outdoor value (hotspot).

  16. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  17. Glossario per la città europea / Glossary for the European city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Tsiomis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il concetto di “città in estensione” di Giuseppe Samonà è l'occasione per riflettere sul significato del fenomeno urbano oggi. L’autore lo fa attraverso nove punti, da “estensione” a “polisemia”, passando per “scala”, “metodo” e “funzione”, che diventano i termini di un nuovo glossario ragionato per la città europea, per un approccio cosciente allo studio e al progetto di quello che lui chiama “il dilemma territoriale”. / Giuseppe Samonà's idea of the "city in extension" offers the occasion to reflect on the meaning of the urban phenomenon today. The author does so through nine points, from “extension” to “polysemy”, passing via “scale”, “method” and “function”, which become the terms of a new reasoned glossary for the European city, for an aware approach to studio and the project of what he calls “the territorial dilemma”.

  18. Particulates and noise exposure during bicycle, bus and car commuting: A study in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe O; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Turunen, Anu W; Taimisto, Pekka; Pennanen, Arto; Vouitsis, Ilias; Samaras, Zissis; Voogt, Marita; Keuken, Menno; Lanki, Timo

    2017-04-01

    In order to curb traffic-related air pollution and its impact on the physical environment, contemporary city commuters are encouraged to shift from private car use to active or public transport modes. However, personal exposures to particulate matter (PM), black carbon and noise during commuting may be substantial. Therefore, studies comparing exposures during recommended modes of transport versus car trips are needed. We measured personal exposure to various-sized particulates, soot, and noise during commuting by bicycle, bus and car in three European cities: Helsinki in Finland, Rotterdam in the Netherlands and Thessaloniki in Greece using portable monitoring devices. We monitored commonly travelled routes in these cities. The total number of one-way trips yielding data on any of the measured parameters were 84, 72, 94 and 69 for bicycle, bus, closed-window car and open-window car modes, respectively. The highest mean PM 2.5 (85µg/m 3 ), PM 10 (131µg/m 3 ), black carbon (10.9µg/m 3 ) and noise (75dBA) levels were recorded on the bus, bus (again), open-window car and bicycle modes, respectively, all in Thessaloniki, PM and soot concentrations were generally higher during biking and taking a bus than during a drive in a a car with closed windows. Ratios of bike:car PM 10 ranged from 1.1 in Thessaloniki to 2.6 in Helsinki, while bus:car ratios ranged from in 1.0 in Rotterdam to 5.6 in Thessaloniki. Higher noise levels were mostly recorded during bicycle rides. Based on our study, active- and public-transport commuters are often at risk of higher air pollution and noise exposure than private car users. This should be taken into account in urban transportation planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Kolkata City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Devaraj, N.; Maiti, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world and a major industrial and commercial hub of the eastern and northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components, namely land use/land cover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the city by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS, which in turn are integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework for the estimation of both the socioeconomic and structural risk of the city. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the city that is termed as "low". The damage distribution in the city due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake of Mw = 8.1 matches satisfactorily well with the demarcated risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the city have been worked out for all the fundamental periods that indicate suitability for "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "none", "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the predominantly four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each seismic structural risk zone in the city. Both the seismic hazard and risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake-inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

  20. Nightlife young risk behaviours in Mediterranean versus other European cities: are stereotypes true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Amador; Blay, Nicole T; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark; Juan, Montse; Duch, Mariàngels; Kokkevi, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Mediterranean lifestyle has long been hailed as protective against certain risk behaviours and diseases. Mediterranean drinking patterns of moderate alcohol consumption as part of daily life have often been assumed to protect young people from harmful alcohol consumption, in contrast to Northern European drinking patterns. Nightlife environments are strong related to alcohol and drugs use, and other health risk behaviours but few cross-national studies have been undertaken amongst young Europeans frequenting bars and nightclubs. This study aims to understand differences in nightlife risk-taking behaviours between young nightlife users from Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean cultures, including alcohol and illicit drug use, unprotected sex, violence and driving under the influence of alcohol. A total of 1363 regular nightlife users aged 16-35 years were surveyed in nine European cities by means of a self-reported questionnaire. Sample selection was done through respondent driven sampling techniques. after controlling for demographic variables, no differences among the Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean samples were found in current alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, or cocaine use, neither in violent behaviours, but Northern people were more likely to get drunk [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.53], while Mediterranean were more likely to have unprotected sex (AOR = 2.01) and to drive drunken (AOR = 5.86). Our data suggest that stereotypes are partially confirmed, and that Mediterranean lifestyle is protective for some risk behaviours (drunkenness, ecstasy and amphetamines current use), but not for all of them. Further research in depth is needed in order to clarify the relations between cultural patterns, social norms and nightlife risk behaviours assumed by the young people.

  1. Teaching America: East European Jewish Immigrants and the Public School Curriculum in Turn-of-the-Century New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    This paper describes the curriculum that immigrant children encountered when they entered the New York City public schools at the beginning of the twentieth century. Focusing on the interaction between the curriculum and one group, East European Jews, the paper examines: (1) what the schools were attempting to teach Jewish and other immigrant…

  2. Tales Out of School: Reports of East European Jewish Immigrants in New York City Schools, 1893-1917.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Stephan F.

    The public schools responsible for educating hundreds of thousands of East European Jewish immigrant children in New York City between 1893 and 1917 had three major goals: scholastic preparation, especially literacy in English, acculturation, and socioeconomic stratification. According to information obtained from interviews of students and…

  3. Assessment of the Landfill Situation of Addis Ababa City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Landfill Situation of Addis Ababa City Administration. ... This qualitative study was conducted during March 2001 at the Addis Ababa landfill site found at the southwestern end of Addis Ababa commonly called 'Repi'. The methods employed were comparing the site with a standard checklist, observation of ...

  4. Water quality assessment in Bangwe Township, Blantyre City, Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed microbial contamination of water in sources (boreholes and open wells) and selected households in four Malawian villages (situated in Bangwe Township, Blantyre city) by analyzing the presence of faecal coliforms using membrane filtration. Additionally, pH, conductivity and temperature of the water ...

  5. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion...... of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different...... geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We...

  6. High contributions of vehicular emissions to ammonia in three European cities derived from mobile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Miriam; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; Slowik, Jay G.; Richter, Rene; Teinemaa, Erik; Hüglin, Christoph; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2018-02-01

    Ambient ammonia (NH3) measurements were performed with a mobile platform in three European cities: Zurich (Switzerland), Tartu (Estonia) and Tallinn (Estonia) deploying an NH3 analyzer based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A heated inlet line along with an auxiliary flow was used to minimize NH3 adsorption onto the inlet walls. In addition, a detailed characterization of the response and recovery times of the measurement system was used to deconvolve the true NH3 signal from the remaining adsorption-induced hysteresis. Parallel measurements with an aerosol mass spectrometer were used to correct the observed NH3 for the contribution of ammonium nitrate, which completely evaporated in the heated line at the chosen temperature, in contrast to ammonium sulfate. In this way a quantitative measurement of ambient gaseous NH3 was achieved with sufficient time resolution to enable measurement of NH3 point sources with a mobile sampling platform. The NH3 analyzer and the aerosol mass spectrometer were complemented by an aethalometer and various gas-phase analyzers to enable a complete characterization of the sources of air pollution, including the spatial distributions and the regional background concentrations and urban increments of all measured components. Although at all three locations similar increment levels of organic aerosols were attributed to biomass burning and traffic, traffic emissions clearly dominated the city enhancements of NH3, equivalent black carbon (eBC) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Urban increments of 3.4, 1.8 and 3.0 ppb of NH3 were measured in the traffic areas in Zurich, Tartu and Tallinn, respectively, representing an enhancement of 36.6, 38.3 and 93.8% over the average background concentrations. Measurements in areas strongly influenced by traffic emissions (including tunnel drives) were used to estimate emission factors (EF) for the traffic-related pollutants. The obtained median EFs range between 136.8-415.1 mg kg-1 fuel for NH3, 157.1-734.8 mg

  7. Housing shortage and communal politics in European cities around 1900: the cases of Basel 1889 and Belgrade 1906.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Nataša

    2011-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, European cities faced a problem well known in postindependence India: the population escalated due to immigration from the rural areas causing rapid and considerable housing shortage. This forced large parts of the poorer classes into miserable living conditions. Lack of space, money and hygiene facilitated the epidemic spread of diseases such as tuberculosis and diarrhoea. The town authorities were called upon to stop speculation and to launch state financed housing projects. However, in reality the situation was very different depending on the place, political aims and financial possibilities arising out of the particular crisis. This article discusses the issue in two continental European cities of around 100,000 inhabitants. The Swiss town of Basel was a hub of trade in Central Europe, while Belgrade was the capital of the Southeastern European kingdom of Serbia.

  8. European Union Risk Assessment Report - Sodium Perborate

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides , with conclusions, the risk assessment report of the substance sodium perborate that has been prepared by Austria in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances.

  9. Dealing with Sustainability Trade-Offs of the Compact City in Peri-Urban Planning Across European City Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink - Petersen, J.; Haase, D.; Bauer, A.; Ravetz, J.; Jarrige, F.; Aalbers, C.B.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    The compact city has become a leading concept in the planning of peri-urban areas. The compact city concept is often advocated as “sustainable” because of claims that include lower emissions and conservation of the countryside. The literature shows, however, that there are certain trade-offs in

  10. The Influence of Drivers and Barriers on Urban Adaptation and Mitigation Plans—An Empirical Analysis of European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckien, Diana; Flacke, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cities are recognised as key players in global adaptation and mitigation efforts because the majority of people live in cities. However, in Europe, which is highly urbanized and one of the most advanced regions in terms of environmental policies, there is considerable diversity in the regional distribution, ambition and scope of climate change responses. This paper explores potential factors contributing to such diversity in 200 large and medium-sized cities across 11 European countries. We statistically investigate institutional, socio-economic, environmental and vulnerability characteristics of cities as potential drivers of or barriers to the development of urban climate change plans. Our results show that factors such as membership of climate networks, population size, GDP per capita and adaptive capacity act as drivers of mitigation and adaptation plans. By contrast, factors such as the unemployment rate, warmer summers, proximity to the coast and projected exposure to future climate impacts act as barriers. We see that, overall, it is predominantly large and prosperous cities that engage in climate planning, while vulnerable cities and those at risk of severe climate impacts in the future are less active. Our analysis suggests that climate change planning in European cities is not proactive, i.e. not significantly influenced by anticipated future impacts. Instead, we found that the current adaptive capacity of a city significantly relates to climate planning. Along with the need to further explore these relations, we see a need for more economic and institutional support for smaller and less resourceful cities and those at high risk from climate change impacts in the future. PMID:26317420

  11. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.

    2009-04-01

    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  12. A.P.H.E.I.S.:air Pollution and Health: A European Information System Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution In 26 European Cities; Synthese des resultats europeens et resultats detailles des villes francaises issus du rapport paru en octobre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-15

    Air pollution is a public health problem, in spite of more severe norms in matter of emissions rates, a stricter surveillance of the atmospheric pollution and the decrease of levels of some atmospheric pollutants. this situation has lead to the creation of a programme A.p.h.e.i.s. in 1999, in order to supply to Europeans authorities information on air pollution. In the report are presented the results of E.I.S. (evaluation of sanitary impact) made in towns.

  13. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  14. Economic flows, spatial folds and intra-urban borders: Reflections on city centre redevelopment plans from a European border studies perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of recent redevelopment plans and projects for European city centres is to remove intra-urban ‘borders’ and thereby to promote the profitability of cities. Consumer mobility within city centres is encouraged to facilitate flows of consumption capital and generate consumer spending.

  15. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984 and present-day (2014 urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984–2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity

  16. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, Per; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Madsen, Henrik; Drews, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984) and present-day (2014) urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984-2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity resembles present

  17. Relationship between different size classes of particulate matter and meteorology in three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hartog, Jeroen J; Hoek, Gerard; Mirme, Aadu; Tuch, Thomas; Kos, Gerard P A; ten Brink, Harry M; Brunekreef, Bert; Cyrys, Josef; Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Lanki, Timo; Vallius, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha; Kreyling, Wolfgang G

    2005-04-01

    Evidence on the correlation between particle mass and (ultrafine) particle number concentrations is limited. Winter- and spring-time measurements of urban background air pollution were performed in Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Erfurt (Germany) and Helsinki (Finland), within the framework of the EU funded ULTRA study. Daily average concentrations of ambient particulate matter with a 50% cut off of 2.5 microm (PM2.5), total particle number concentrations and particle number concentrations in different size classes were collected at fixed monitoring sites. The aim of this paper is to assess differences in particle concentrations in several size classes across cities, the correlation between different particle fractions and to assess the differential impact of meteorological factors on their concentrations. The medians of ultrafine particle number concentrations were similar across the three cities (range 15.1 x 10(3)-18.3 x 10(3) counts cm(-3)). Within the ultrafine particle fraction, the sub fraction (10-30 nm) made a higher contribution to particle number concentrations in Erfurt than in Helsinki and Amsterdam. Larger differences across the cities were found for PM2.5(range 11-17 microg m(-3)). PM2.5 and ultrafine particle concentrations were weakly (Amsterdam, Helsinki) to moderately (Erfurt) correlated. The inconsistent correlation for PM2.5 and ultrafine particle concentrations between the three cities was partly explained by the larger impact of more local sources from the city on ultrafine particle concentrations than on PM2.5, suggesting that the upwind or downwind location of the measuring site in regard to potential particle sources has to be considered. Also, relationship with wind direction and meteorological data differed, suggesting that particle number and particle mass are two separate indicators of airborne particulate matter. Both decreased with increasing wind speed, but ultrafine particle number counts consistently decreased with increasing

  18. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  19. A social network analysis of substance use among immigrant adolescents in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorant, Vincent; Soto Rojas, Victoria; Bécares, Laia; Kinnunen, Jaana M; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Moor, Irene; Roscillo, Gaetano; Alves, Joana; Grard, Adeline; Rimpelä, Arja; Federico, Bruno; Richter, Matthias; Perelman, Julian; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-11-01

    Social integration and the health of adolescents with a migration background is a major concern in multicultural societies. The literature, however, has paid little attention to the wider determinants of their health behaviours, including the composition of their social networks. The aim of this study was to describe the composition of adolescents' social networks according to migration background, and to examine how social networks are associated with substance use. In 2013, the SILNE study surveyed 11,015 secondary-school adolescents in 50 schools in six European cities in Belgium, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal, using a social network design. Each adolescent nominated up to five of their best and closest friends. Migration status was defined as first-generation migrants, second-generation migrants, and speaking another language at home. We computed two groups of network structural positions, the centrality of individual adolescents in networks, and the homophily of their social ties regarding migration (same-migration). Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the association between network structural position and smoking, alcohol use, and cannabis use. Compared with non-migrant adolescents, adolescents with migration backgrounds had similar relationship patterns. But almost half their social ties were with same-migration-background adolescents; non-migrants had few social ties to migrants. For adolescents with a migration background, a higher proportion of social ties with non-migrants was associated with increased use of cannabis (OR = 1.07, p = 0.03) and alcohol (OR = 1.08, p social ties by migration background is noticeable in European schools. The tendency of migrant adolescents to have same-migration social ties may isolate them from non-migrant adolescents, but also reduces their risky health behaviours, in particular cannabis and alcohol use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in Urmia city, Iran: First report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgani-Firouzjaee, Tahmineh; Pour-Reza, Behzad; Naem, Soraya; Tavassoli, Mousa

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70%) were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus). Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%). There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05) but found in fleas (p 0.05). Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05). The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran. PMID:25653796

  1. Trees as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in three European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawidis, T. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Breuste, J., E-mail: juergen.breuste@sbg.ac.at [Department of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, 5010 Salzburg (Austria); Mitrovic, M.; Pavlovic, P. [Department of Ecology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsigaridas, K. [Department of Botany, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-12-15

    Concentrations of four heavy metals were determined in tree leaves and bark collected from polluted and non-polluted areas of three European cities (Salzburg, Belgrade and Thessaloniki) for a comparative study. Platanus orientalis L. and Pinus nigra Arn., widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, were tested for their suitability for air quality biomonitoring. Leaves and barks were collected uniformly of an initial quantity of about 30 g of each sample. Analysis was accomplished by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after total digestion. Site-dependent variations were found with the highest concentration level measured in Belgrade, followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. A higher accumulation of heavy metals was found in bark compared to leaves. Pine tree bark, accumulating higher concentrations of trace metals compared to plane tree bark, shows a higher efficiency as bioindicator for urban pollution. Both indicator species are suitable for comparative studies on bioindication of urban air pollution. - Highlights: > Oriental plane and Austrian pine are suitable for comparative urban air quality biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution. > Pine tree is excellently suitable as urban bioindicator as it accumulates high concentrations of trace metals. > The highest heavy metal pollution was found in Belgrade followed by Thessaloniki and Salzburg. - Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis L.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), widespread in urban northern and southern Europe, are suitable for comparative biomonitoring of urban air pollution.

  2. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  3. Ectoparasitic infestations of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus in Urmia city, Iran: First report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Gorgani-Firouzjaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal mammals that become popular in the world and have significant role in transmission of zoonotic agents. Some of the agents are transmitted by ticks and fleas such as rickettsial agents. For these reason, a survey on ectoparasites in European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus carried out between April 2006 and December 2007 from different parts of Urmia city, west Azerbaijan, Iran. After being euthanized external surface of body of animals was precisely considered for ectoparasites, and arthropods were collected and stored in 70% ethanol solution. Out of 34 hedgehogs 23 hedgehogs (67.70% were infested with ticks (Rhipicephalus turanicus. Fleas of the species Archaeopsylla erinacei were found on 19 hedgehogs of 34 hedgehogs (55.90%. There was no significant differences between sex of ticks (p > 0.05 but found in fleas (p 0.05. Highest occurrence of infestation in both tick and flea was in June. Among three seasons of hedgehog collection significant differences was observed (p < 0.05. The result of our survey revealed that infestation rate in hedgehog was high. According to zoonotic importance of this ectoparasite and ability to transmission of some pathogens, more studies are needed to investigate hedgehog parasites in different parts of Iran.

  4. Using Landsat Vegetation Indices to Estimate Impervious Surface Fractions for European Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Fensholt, Rasmus; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surfaces (IS) are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy and applic......Impervious surfaces (IS) are a key indicator of environmental quality, and mapping of urban IS is important for a wide range of applications including hydrological modelling, water management, urban and environmental planning and urban climate studies. This paper addresses the accuracy...... and applicability of vegetation indices (VI), from Landsat imagery, to estimate IS fractions for European cities. The accuracy of three different measures of vegetation cover is examined for eight urban areas at different locations in Europe. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted...... Vegetation Index (SAVI) are converted to IS fractions using a regression modelling approach. Also, NDVI is used to estimate fractional vegetation cover (FR), and consequently IS fractions. All three indices provide fairly accurate estimates (MAEs ≈ 10%, MBE’s

  5. District heating and cooling: a 28-city assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshenberg, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    Findings of a project that assessed the potential for construction of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in 28 US cities are presented. The project sought to determine whether DHC could promote local community and economic development. In the preliminary assessment, 17 of the cities identified up to 23 projects that could be built within three to five years. Most of these projects would rely on nonscarce heat sources such as refuse or geothermal energy, and to improve financial feasibility, the majority would cogenerate electricity along with heat. Many would use existing power plants or industrial boilers to hold down capital costs. Overall, the projects could generate as amany as 24,000 jobs and retain $165 million that otherwise could leave the communities, thereby helping to stabilize local economies.

  6. Red list assessment of European habitat types. A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be

  7. Beyond Vulnerability Assessment: Impact of Developments toward Local Adaptive Capacity in Kemijen City Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanimitta, M. E.; Puspasari, D. A.; Widyahantari, R.; Kristina, D.; Ratnaningtyas, T.; Setionurjaya, A.; Anindita, Y. A.

    2018-02-01

    Vulnerability Assessment is usually used for assessing the ability of an area on facing disaster. In previous studies, the study of Vulnerability Assessment applied only quantitative method to show the vulnerability level. Therefore, this study attempts to add information reviews using qualitative method. Kemijen City Village is one of the administrative areas in the northern part of Semarang City affected by climate change. The residents have to adapt it by renovating and elevating their houses and other infrastructures to avoid floods. There are some development programs held by government, NGOs, and corporations such as Banger Polder Development, PLPBK, etc. It is interesting to know how big the vulnerability level of Kemijen on facing flood disasters, then how the projects can affect local adaptive capacity. To answer it, this research uses mixed-method approach. Vulnerability Assessment uses quantitative method by scoring indicators of Exposure, Sensitivity, and Adaptive Capacity, while the development impact uses qualitative method. The data were collected through interviews and FGD conducted in Joint Studio Course between Diponegoro University and University of Hawaii in October 2016. Non-physical programs such as community empowerment have more positive impacts on local adaptive capacity in Kemijen. Community participation is important for environmental sustainability that can not be done in a short time to educate the people.

  8. Integrated urban flood risk assessment - adapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubal, C.; Haase, D.; Meyer, V.; Scheuer, S.

    2009-11-01

    Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  9. Integrated urban flood risk assessment – adapting a multicriteria approach to a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kubal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk assessment is an essential part of flood risk management. As part of the new EU flood directive it is becoming increasingly more popular in European flood policy. Particularly cities with a high concentration of people and goods are vulnerable to floods. This paper introduces the adaptation of a novel method of multicriteria flood risk assessment, that was recently developed for the more rural Mulde river basin, to a city. The study site is Leipzig, Germany. The "urban" approach includes a specific urban-type set of economic, social and ecological flood risk criteria, which focus on urban issues: population and vulnerable groups, differentiated residential land use classes, areas with social and health care but also ecological indicators such as recreational urban green spaces. These criteria are integrated using a "multicriteria decision rule" based on an additive weighting procedure which is implemented into the software tool FloodCalc urban. Based on different weighting sets we provide evidence of where the most flood-prone areas are located in a city. Furthermore, we can show that with an increasing inundation extent it is both the social and the economic risks that strongly increase.

  10. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site, Tuba City, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-11-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Tuba City uranium mill tailings site located approximately six miles east of Tuba City, Arizona. The site covers 105 acres and contains 25 acres of tailings and some of the original mill structures. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604, authorizes the US Department of Energy to clean up the site to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at the site and at associated properties off the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated standards for the remedial actions (40 CFR Part 192). Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed action is to stabilize the tailings at their present location by consolidating the tailings and associated contaminated materials into a recontoured pile. A radon barrier would be constructed over the pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to assure the long-term stability of the pile. Another alternative which would involve moving the tailings to a new location is also assessed in this document. This alternative would generally involve greater short-term impacts and costs but would result in stabilization of the tailings at a more remote location. The no action alternative is also assessed in this document.

  11. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  12. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  13. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during extreme precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, N.; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    In this paper we present a methodology suitable for investigating the relative and combined influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of cities to pluvial flooding. A combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach enables the quantification...... of the flood risk relative to changes in imperviousness and climate change. The methodology is evaluated for the Danish city of Odense, but is easily applicable for the majority of cities within Europe, as it relies on open source data for the European continent. Results from Odense show that urban development...... during the past 30 years caused an increase in flood exposure that is comparable to what is expected in the RCP4.5 (+2°C) climate scenario....

  14. ECOSYSTEM HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF MINING CITIES BASED ON LANDSCAPE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem health assessment (EHA is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005–2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.

  15. Ecosystem Health Assessment of Mining Cities Based on Landscape Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, M.; Fang, F.; Xiao, R.

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystem health assessment (EHA) is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR) model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005-2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.

  16. Illicit drug use among gay and bisexual men in 44 cities: Findings from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel J; Bourne, Adam; Weatherburn, Peter; Reid, David; Marcus, Ulrich; Hickson, Ford

    2016-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) are increasingly combining sex and illicit drugs (an activity referred to as 'chemsex'), in particular GHB/GBL, ketamine, crystal meth, or mephedrone (here called 4-chems). Use of such drugs has been associated with mental health and sexual health harms. We aim to compare patterns of illicit drug use among MSM in 44 European urban centres. In 2010, EMIS recruited 174,209 men from 38 countries to an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages. As harm reduction services for drugs and sex are organised at a local level, we chose to compare cities rather than countries. We defined 44 cities based on region/postal code and settlement size. For multivariable regression analyses, three comparison groups of MSM not living in these cities were applied: MSM living in Germany, the UK, and elsewhere in Europe. Data from 55,446 MSM living in 44 urban centres were included. Use of 4-chems (past 4 weeks) was highest in Brighton (16.3%), Manchester (15.5%), London (13.2%), Amsterdam (11.2%), Barcelona (7.9%), Zurich (7.0%) and Berlin (5.3%). It was lowest in Sofia (0.4%). The rank order was largely consistent when controlling for age, HIV diagnosis, and number of sexual partners. City of residence was the strongest demographic predictor of chemsex-drug use. Use of drugs associated with chemsex among MSM varies substantially across European cities. As city is the strongest predictor of chemsex-drug use, effective harm reduction programmes must include structural as well as individual interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. European national healthy city networks: the impact of an elite epistemic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Zoë; Green, Geoff

    2013-10-01

    National healthy cities networks (NNs) were created 20 years ago to support the development of healthy cities within the WHO Europe Region. Using the concept of epistemic communities, the evolution and impact of NNs is considered, as is their future development. Healthy cities national networks are providing information, training and support to member cities. In many cases, they are also involved in supporting national public health policy development and disseminating out healthy city principles to other local authorities. National networks are a fragile but an extremely valuable resource for sharing public health knowledge.

  18. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-09-07

    Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders (e.g., healthcare professionals, managers and policy makers) improve the quality of cancer research and care and lead to patient benefits. This paper presents key aspects of assessments undertaken by European cancer centers, such as: are assessments mandatory or voluntary? Do they focus on evaluating research, care or both? And are they international or national? A survey was sent to 33 cancer centers in 28 European Union member states. Participants were asked to score the specifics for each assessment that they listed. Based on the responses from 19 cancer centers from 18 member states, we found 109 assessments. The numbers have steadily increased from 1990's till 2015. Although, a majority of assessments are on patient-care aspects (n = 45), it is unclear how many of those include assessing patient benefits. Only few assessments cover basic research. There is an increasing trend towards mixed assessments (i.e., combining research and patient-care aspects) The need for assessments in cancer centers is increasing. To improve efforts in the quality of research and patient care and to prevent new assessments that "reinvent the wheel", it is advised to start comparative research into the assessments that are likely to bring patient benefits and improve patient outcome. Do assessments provide consistent and reliable information that create added value for all key stakeholders?

  19. Revitalization of Public Spaces as a High Priority Strategy for European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Kozlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, public spaces have been suffering from a progressive dystrophy. Prevalence of private cars in the absence of a good alternative to public transport and fragmentation of the city in the absence of its proper complex organization do a lot of harm to the city’s image.Many foreign cities started to value urban public spaces and to revitalize them about forty years ago. Examples of successful cities and various inspiring decisions encourage us to create a city structure as a place where people meet. Each city has an individual approach, but common features of the cities are: aspiration to create a comfort environment for a human being, a strong leader who can realize this idea and sequential and decisive actions to create a humane city for people.

  20. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants......, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone #4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly...... at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local ‘hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques...

  1. An integrated assessment framework for land subsidence in delta cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Bucx

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In many delta cities land subsidence exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten by excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without change, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other delta (and coastal cities will sink below sea level. Increased flooding and also other widespread impacts of land subsidence result already in damage of billions of dollars per year. In order to gain insight in the complex, multi-sectoral aspects of subsidence, to raise awareness and to support decision making on appropriate adaptation strategies and measures, an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF for subsidence is introduced, illustrated by several (delta case studies. Based on that a list of 10 generic key issues and possible solutions is presented in order to further develop and support a (generic approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas. For exchange of experiences and knowledge development.on subsidence in deltas the Delta Alliance, a knowledge network of deltas worldwide, can be supportive.

  2. European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants - the first year of EuroBionet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A.; Klumpp, G.; Ansel, W.; Fomin, A. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    2002-07-01

    Air pollution is still a prominent environmental problem in European cities and a major issue of European environmental policy. EuroBionet, the 'European Network for the Assessment of Air Quality by the Use of Bioindicator Plants', was founded in 1999 and is currently consisting of ten cities from seven countries of the European Union. At more than 90 monitoring sites the bioindicator plants tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Bel-W3), poplar (Populus nigra 'Brandaris'), spiderwort (Tradescantia sp. clone 4430), Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum italicum) and curly kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) are exposed to ambient air according to standardised methods. Visible injuries and effects on growth parameters are assessed and the accumulation of toxic substances in leaves determined. The scientific programme is accompanied by a professional communication concept. (orig.)

  3. Assessing the resources and mitigation potential of European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenauer, Hubert; Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Running, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Today 40 % of the European land area is covered with forests managed for the provision of ecosystem services including timber production. Forests store large amounts of carbon and are the main resource for the growing demand of a bio-based economy. They are also a major source for biodiversity. Thus a consistent pan-European gridded data set on the state of forest resources is essential for researchers, policy makers and conservationists to study and understand the European forests for the global carbon cycle independent of political boundaries. The purpose of this study is to use existing European data to develop a consistent pan-European data set for Net Primary Production (NPP), live tree carbon per hectare, volume per hectare, mean tree height and mean tree age by integrating remotely sensed satellite data and harmonized NFI data from 13 different European countries. We provide new NPP estimates using the MOD17 algorithm by collating a newly down-scaled daily climate dataset across Europe. By consolidating these two independent productivity data sources (top down satellite versus bottom up terrestrial forest NFI data) for assessing forest resources in Europe, we are able to detect and quantify forest management impacts. We produce a pan-European map for each of the five key variables on a 0.133° grid representing the time period 2000-2010. The results show distinct differences in the carbon storage of European forests due to biophysical limits and regional historic drivers in forest management, which directly affect the carbon mitigation option of European forests. We use this data to assess the state of forest resources across Europe showing that mountainous regions have the highest carbon and volume per hectare values, central Europe has the tallest mean tree heights and Austria and Northern Scandinavia have the oldest mean tree ages. Cross-validation of the data indicates that the error varies by forest characteristic but shows negligible biases for all. We

  4. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Gotschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brandli, O

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. Methods: In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. Results: The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p < 0.001) higher in the non-smoking cafe. Conclusion: In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies. PMID:12958388

  5. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing a European Drought Observatory for Monitoring, Assessing and Forecasting Droughts across the European Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, J.; Barbosa, P.; Hofer, B.; Magni, D.; Jager, A. D.; Singleton, A.; Horion, S.; Sepulcre, G.; Micale, F.; Sokolova, E.; Calcagni, L.; Marioni, M.; Antofie, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Many European countries have repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage. Climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement national activities with a European view. As droughts affect the entire water cycle continuous monitoring of a suite of indicators is required. Drought indicators at continental scale are supplemented by indicators at national, regional and local scales, providing more detailed information. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) are a portal and a map server presenting Europe-wide up-to-date drought-relevant information to the public and to decision makers in policy and water resources management. The final portal will include access to metadata catalogues, media reports, a map server and other related resources. The current version of EDO publishes continental information based on data processed and analysed at JRC as well as more detailed information at national and river basin scale processed by the local authorities. Available drought products include monthly updated Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPI), modelled soil moisture anomalies, remote sensing observations on the state of the vegetation cover (i.e. fAPAR and NDWI) and groundwater levels. A one-week soil moisture anomaly forecast complements the picture. Access to information at the national and river basin scale is established through interoperability arrangements with local authorities, making use of a special metadata catalogue and OWS standards (especially WMS and WCS). In addition, time series of drought indices can be retrieved for grid cells and administrative regions in

  7. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  8. The association between personal income and smoking among adolescents: a study in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Alves, Joana; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Moor, Irene; Federico, Bruno; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Richter, Matthias; Rimpela, Arja; Kunst, Anton E; Lorant, Vincent

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the link between personal income and smoking among adolescents, and aims to answer the following questions: (i) to what extent is personal income related to smoking, independent of family socio-economic status (SES) and (ii) does the association between personal income and smoking apply to different subpopulations? Cross-sectional study. Six cities from European countries (Amersfoort, the Netherlands; Coimbra, Portugal; Hannover, Germany; Latina, Italy; Namur, Belgium; Tampere, Finland) in 2013. A school-based sample of 10 794 adolescents aged 14-17 years. We modelled smoking experimentation, weekly smoking, daily smoking and (among daily smokers) smoking intensity as function of personal income, adjusting for age, sex, family SES, parental smoking and country. We tested interactions between personal income and covariates. Stratification analyses were performed for the variables for which interactions were significant. Adolescents in the highest income quintile were more likely to be smoking experimenters [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87; P < 0.01], weekly smokers (OR = 3.51; P < 0.01) and daily smokers (OR = 4.55; P < 0.01) than those in the lowest quintile. They also consumed more cigarettes per month (β = 0.79; P < 0.01). Adjusting for family SES did not modify the significance of relationships, and increased the magnitude of the association for daily smoking. None of the interactions between covariates and personal income was significant for smoking measures. For the intensity of smoking, the interaction was significant for SES. The stratified analysis showed a non-significant association between smoking intensity and personal income among the oldest adolescents and those with the lowest SES background, while significant among younger and higher SES backgrounds. In the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Finland, adolescents' personal income is related positively to smoking behaviours independent of family socio

  9. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The City of Man, European Émigrés, and the Genesis of Postwar Conservative Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Gordon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the forgotten manifesto The City of Man: A Declaration on World Democracy, which was composed in 1940 by a group of prominent American and European anti-isolationist intellectuals, including Thomas Mann, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Hermann Broch. Written in response to the victories of Nazi Germany, the manifesto declared that the United States had a new global responsibility not only to lead the war against fascism and Marxism, but also to establish a global order of peace and democracy under U.S. hegemony. Moreover, the authors of the manifesto claimed that such an order would have to be based on the rejuvenation of conservative values; in their view, the collapse of Western democracies under the weight of totalitarian aggression was the consequence of inner moral and intellectual degeneration. The City of Man therefore called on the United States to lead the spiritual transformation of democracy into a modern political religion, which would bring about the intellectual and political unity of humanity under one state and one creed. This article analyzes the manifesto as a rare window into the difficulty intellectuals faced as they tried to conceptualize the totalitarian challenge prior to the United States’ entry into the war. Moreover, it claims that The City of Man expressed the emergence of postwar conservatism and Cold War ideology, as well as the unique role played by European émigrés in this process.

  11. Analysis on Green Agriculture Policy during the Development of Eco-city in European Countries and United States and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Li; Qi, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ecological agriculture is the important industrial foundation for building eco-cities, while green agriculture policy plays an essential role in promoting sustainable development of ecological agriculture. This paper analyzed the relationship between green agriculture policy and developing eco-cities and characteristics of green agriculture policies in European countries and the United States developing ecological cities. Besides, it summarized experience, in hope of providing beneficial refe...

  12. European Fissure Sealant Guidelines: assessment using AGREE II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin-Galindo, L; Rodríguez-Lozano, F J; Abalos-Labruzzi, C; Niederman, R

    2017-02-01

    Pit and fissure sealants are effective in reducing the incidence of occlusal caries, and multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed for recommending their proper use. The usefulness of CPGs depends on their quality and on the rigour of the guideline development process. A study was made to assess the quality of current European CPGs based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, which uses 23 key items rated on a 7-point scale to assess practice guideline development and the quality of reporting. A search was conducted for fissure sealant guidelines for preventing caries in children and adults at high and low risk published in the last 10 years. Calibration was carried out before scoring to assess agreement between the appraisers using the AGREE II instrument. The searches identified 19 relevant guidelines, and following application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria, three guidelines were retained for evaluation. The proportion of observed agreement was calculated, expressed by the agreement separately for positive and negative ratings (PA = 0.89, NA = 0-91). The results of the guideline assessments revealed the highest score for the Irish guideline, a moderate score for the French guideline and the lowest score for the European guideline. Based on the AGREE II instrument, the results obtained show significant variation in the quality assessment of the three European Fissure Sealant Guidelines. Future studies should be carried out both to develop quality dental CPGs and to investigate effective ways of adopting them. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Urban Green Space Policies : A Comparative Study on Performance and Success Conditions in European Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Baycan-Levent, T.

    2004-01-01

    Urban green spaces play a key role in improving the liveability of our towns and cities. The quality and viability of cities depend largely on the design, management and maintenance of urban green as well as on open and public spaces that make up an important social constellation and offer a

  14. Learning From Waterfront Regeneration Projects and Contemporary Design Approaches of European Port Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, F.; Erkok, F; Hein, Carola

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the processes and approaches of waterfront regenerations in Europe and aims to evaluate the implementations. There are some common processes and cross-cultural transactions between port cities, as all port cities have to respond to the same functions to be part of the network.

  15. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Musterd, S.; Van Ham, M.; Marcinczak, S.

    2015-01-01

    The research leading to the results presented in this chapter has received funding from the Estonian Research Council (Institutional Research Grant IUT no. 2–17 on Spatial Population Mobility and Geographical Changes in Urban Regions); European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh

  16. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Götschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brändli, O

    2003-09-01

    In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p smoking regulation was the most often cited selection criterion (83%). In the non-smoking café, 89% indicated that they were usually annoyed by smoke in coffee houses, and 62% would avoid or leave cafes for this reason. Two thirds stated that all cafe/restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p smoking cafe. In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies.

  17. Consumer preferences for cultural heritage and tourism e-sevices: A case study of three European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a marketing study aimed at discovering consumer preferences for the e-services in European cultural destinations. Our results are central to eliciting potential consumers’ preferences for tourism and cultural heritage-related e-services. The paper is based on the analysis of user surveys conducted by the authors within the ISAAC EU-funded project in Amsterdam, Genoa and Leipzig in 2007-2009. Three types of consumers were contacted: residents, visitors and (cultural heritage service providers. Our results provide a number of important recommendations for the design of e-tourism ICT platforms in European cities. The ICT platforms constitute a new market product, representing a novel approach to increasing the revenues from incoming tourism. The recommendations suggest priorities to ensure that the information system will most readily meet potential consumers’ needs.

  18. Assessment of morphosyntactic development in European Portuguese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadório, Inês; Lousada, Marisa; Aparici, Melina; Hall, Andreia

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the late acquisition of morphosyntax in European Portuguese (EP)-speaking children are relatively scarce in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to report data on the morphosyntactic domain from typically developing children. The present investigation focused on differences in morphosyntactic performance according to specific demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, ecological setting, and socioeconomic background). Eighty EP-speaking children aged between 6 years and 6 years and 11 months were assessed with the Language Test - Preschool Language Assessment (TL-ALPE). Within the age range considered, some receptive and productive competencies were acquired. Significant differences were found for gender and age. These outcomes contribute to the knowledge of late developmental processes in the morphosyntactic domain, in EP-speaking children, presenting well-established performance standards. The provided reference information is fundamental to accurately identify children with language impairment and to construct new valid assessment instruments. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Assessing quality in European educational research indicators and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansen, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Competition-based models for research policy and management have an increasing influence throughout the research process, from attracting funding to publishing results. The introduction of quality control methods utilizing various forms of performance indicators is part of this development. The authors presented in this volume deal with the following questions: What counts as ‘quality’ and how can this be assessed? What are the possible side effects of current quality control systems on research conducted in the European Research Area, especially in the social sciences and the humanities?

  20. Development through Knowledge Economy: Cluj-Napoca - a European Smart City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elena Marilena Porumb; Nadia Valentina Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    .... The authors have designed a mixture of research methodology that covers literature review, comparative case-study analysis, and best practices in the Smart-City field, in order to propose an adequate...

  1. An Assessment of Radiation Modification from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, J. E.; Lawrence, M. G.; Boucher, O.; Haywood, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Muri, H.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, M.; Vaughan, N.; Watson, M.; Born, W.; Schaefer, S.; Stelzer, H.

    2014-12-01

    The European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE) project (2012-2014) is funded by the European Commission (EC). In EuTRACE, researchers from the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities have joined forces to assess various proposed geoengineering techniques concerning their radiative forcing potential and side effects, ethical aspects, economics aspects, as well as governance and regulation aspects. A comprehensive assessment report will be submitted to the EC in autumn 2014. We will present some highlights of the part of the EuTRACE assessment that deals with the natural science aspects of proposed Radiation Modification (RM) techniques. The techniques considered are: a) Stratospheric Sulfur Injections; b) Marine Cloud Brightening; c) Desert Brightening; d) Vegetation Brightening; and e) Cirrus Cloud Thinning. A large number of publications in the scientific literature has been considered, as well as recently published assessment reports by the Royal Society in the UK and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Some of the findings of the assessment are: Globally averaged, the current anthropogenic radiative forcing could conceivably be offset by the RM techniques considered. The RM techniques could have a significant global effect already after 1 year or less. Model simulations consistently show that Solar RM leads to regional imbalances due to different spatial footprints of solar and carbon dioxide radiative forcings. This may have significant consequences for precipitation patterns and the hydrological cycle. Very rapid warming is virtually certain if RM were to be stopped abruptly or over a period of one to a few years. Model studies of RM usually assume that the techniques are technologically feasible. In fact, the technological challenges are poorly known, and in many cases the physical processes involved are poorly understood. We will end by discussing key research questions and knowledge gaps.

  2. A CONCEPTUAL MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR ASSESSING SMART SUSTAINABLE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Al-Nasrawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC is gaining increasing attention by the countries around the globe, particularly in response to potential future environmental challenges and increased proportion of populations living in cities. Several countries claim to have implemented or in the process of implementing SSCs, and there are many models that can be used to measure how 'smart' the initiatives and cities are. This paper critically evaluates the main models to measure city smartness and identifies deficiencies, namely that they are not sensitive to the needs, resources, priorities and wider context for individual cities. The paper suggests a multidimensional methodological model that assists in evaluating the smartness level of a city while being sensitive to its context. It provides further contribution by combining sustainable and smart attributes of a city

  3. Health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramukumba, Tendani S; Mathikhi, Makwena S

    2016-11-30

    Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers. The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors. An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician. The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation. The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.

  4. Assessment of avionics technology in European aerospace organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinec, D. A.; Baumbick, Robert; Hitt, Ellis; Leondes, Cornelius; Mayton, Monica; Schwind, Joseph; Traybar, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the observations and recommendations made by a technical panel formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The panel, comprising prominent experts in the avionics field, was tasked to visit various organizations in Europe to assess the level of technology planned for use in manufactured civil avionics in the future. The primary purpose of the study was to assess avionics systems planned for implementation or already employed on civil aircraft and to evaluate future research, development, and engineering (RD&E) programs, address avionic systems and aircraft programs. The ultimate goal is to ensure that the technology addressed by NASa programs is commensurate with the needs of the aerospace industry at an international level. The panel focused on specific technologies, including guidance and control systems, advanced cockpit displays, sensors and data networks, and fly-by-wire/fly-by-light systems. However, discussions the panel had with the European organizations were not limited to these topics.

  5. Impact Assessment of Public Innovation Support in European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is related to the public innovation support in Euro-pean Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. Main aim of the re-search presented in this paper is to propose new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, which could be relevant to the contempo-rary needs and would be based on new explored practice of public innova-tion support developments. The methods of comparative, regression, model-ling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Proposed original system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level.

  6. Assessment of Solar Ultraviolet A Radiation in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rostampour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological effects of ultraviolet (UV radiation on the body of live organisms, have been studied by researchers in recent years. UV affects human organs such as skin, eyes and immune system, as well as animals and plants. The main natural source of UV radiation is the Sun. So, the integral observation of UV levels and their effects at ground level is important to determine the present and future environmental and health implications of the solar UV radiation. Since the amount of UVR (UV radiation has not already been measured in Hamadan, the aim of this study was to measure the amount in Hamadan city in different months of the year. Materials & Methods: This work was a cross-sectional study and has assessed the solar UVA radiation, by calibrated Hagner digital radiometer, model EC1 UV-A. The monthly quantity of solar UVR was measured in Hamadan during one year (2011-2012. Results: The maximum UVA received on the ground level was 27.3±1.09 W/m2 in Shahrivar month (Aug 23 – Sep 22 while the minimum was 11.8±1.32 W/m2 in Azar month (Nov 22 – Dec 21 . Total UVA radiation received on the ground level was 19.74±1.56 W/m2 during the period of measurment.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that the annual UVA in Hamadan city exceeded the amounts recommended by the WHO and further studies are needed to measure UVB and UVC to determine the total UV radiation level in thecity. Based on these results, it is recommended to wear appropriate sunglasses and minimize sun exposure during the midday hours.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:69-74

  7. Living Close to Natural Outdoor Environments in Four European Cities: Adults’ Contact with the Environments and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Triguero-Mas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether residential availability of natural outdoor environments (NOE was associated with contact with NOE, overall physical activity and physical activity in NOE, in four different European cities using objective measures. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted in Barcelona (Spain; Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom; Doetinchem (The Netherlands; and Kaunas (Lithuania. Smartphones were used to collect information on the location and physical activity (overall and NOE of around 100 residents of each city over seven days. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS to determine residential NOE availability (presence/absence of NOE within 300 m buffer from residence, contact with NOE (time spent in NOE, overall PA (total physical activity, NOE PA (total physical activity in NOE. Potential effect modifiers were investigated. Participants spent around 40 min in NOE and 80 min doing overall PA daily, of which 11% was in NOE. Having residential NOE availability was consistently linked with higher NOE contact during weekdays, but not to overall PA. Having residential NOE availability was related to NOE PA, especially for our Barcelona participants, people that lived in a city with low NOE availability.

  8. CITY MARKETING AND ITS IMPACT OVER URBAN TOURISM – SIBIU EUROPEAN CAPITAL OF CULTURE 2007 - A SUCCESS STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LIDIA ALEXA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past years tourism has become the fastest-growing economic sector, both in terms of turnover and the opportunity to create jobs. In this context, it begun to be one of the activities with an important potential and, in the same time, a challenge for the development of urban centers which find themselves forced to redefine their identity, due to the decrease of other types of industries under the impact of the global economic crisis and the economic reset. After analyzing the main indicators of the touristic activity in the urban area, it is noticeable that cities have an important percentage in the overall touristic circulation. The future development of this form of tourism is, however, conditioned by the assimilation in the urban management process of marketing strategies meant to allow the development of touristic functions in the main urban localities and of touristic programs designed to bring added value to the cultural attractions for large and small cities alike. Urban marketing comes, in this case, as a natural response to the requirements of the city to better answer the market’s needs and to adjust to the dynamics of the tourist market. The present article aims to analyze the different urban marketing strategies used by urban centers interested in attracting important tourist flows and their impact over their future development, based on the Sibiu case after implementing the “Sibiu - European Capital of Culture” Programme in 2007.

  9. ECHO: health care performance assessment in several European health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Delgado, E; Christiansen, T; Bloor, K; Mateus, C; Yazbeck, A M; Munck, J; Bremner, J

    2015-02-01

    Strengthening health-care effectiveness, increasing accessibility and improving resilience are key goals in the upcoming European Union health-care agenda. European Collaboration for Health-Care Optimization (ECHO), an international research project on health-care performance assessment funded by the seventh framework programme, has provided evidence and methodology to allow the attainment of those goals. This article aims at describing ECHO, analysing its main instruments and discussing some of the ECHO policy implications. Using patient-level administrative data, a series of observational studies (ecological and cross-section with associated time-series analyses) were conducted to analyze population and patients' exposure to health care. Operationally, several performance dimensions such as health-care inequalities, quality, safety and efficiency were analyzed using a set of validated indicators. The main instruments in ECHO were: (i) building a homogeneous data infrastructure; (ii) constructing coding crosswalks to allow comparisons between countries; (iii) making geographical units of analysis comparable; and (iv) allowing comparisons through the use of common benchmarks. ECHO has provided some innovations in international comparisons of health-care performance, mainly derived from the massive pooling of patient-level data and thus: (i) has expanded the usual approach based on average figures, providing insight into within and across country variation at various meaningful policy levels, (ii) the important effort made on data homogenization has increased comparability, increasing stakeholders' reliance on data and improving the acceptance of findings and (iii) has been able to provide more flexible and reliable benchmarking, allowing stakeholders to make critical use of the evidence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectators, who are they? A demographic analysis of theatre audiences in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, H.; Šorli, M.; Toome, H.-L.; Wilders, M.L.; Edelman, J.; Szabó, A.; Balkànyi, M.

    2015-01-01

    When speculating on how theatre functions in a society, the most obvious questions are how many people make use of the theatre that is on offer and, subsequently, which parts of the population make use of what types of theatrical events. In this article, both questions are answered for the cities of

  11. Validation of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme with measurements from two mid-latitude European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hamdi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Martilli's urban parameterization scheme is improved and implemented in a mesoscale model in order to take into account the typical effects of a real city on the air temperature near the ground and on the surface exchange fluxes. The mesoscale model is run on a single column using atmospheric data and radiation recorded above roof level as forcing. Here, the authors validate Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme using measurements from two mid-latitude European cities: Basel, Switzerland and Marseilles, France. For Basel, the model performance is evaluated with observations of canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes obtained during the Basel urban boundary layer experiment (BUBBLE. The results show that the urban parameterization scheme represents correctly most of the behavior of the fluxes typical of the city center of Basel, including the large heat uptake by the urban fabric and the positive sensible heat flux at night. For Marseilles, the model performance is evaluated with observations of surface temperature, canyon temperature, surface radiation, and energy balance fluxes collected during the field experiments to constrain models of atmospheric pollution and transport of emissions (ESCOMPTE and its urban boundary layer (UBL campaign. At both urban sites, vegetation cover is less than 20%, therefore, particular attention was directed to the ability of Martilli's urban boundary layer scheme to reproduce the observations for the Marseilles city center, where the urban parameters and the synoptic forcing are totally different from Basel. Evaluation of the model with wall, road, and roof surface temperatures gave good results. The model correctly simulates the net radiation, canyon temperature, and the partitioning between the turbulent and storage heat fluxes.

  12. Health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendani S. Ramukumba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taxi driving seems to be a strenuous occupation. There was evidence-based paucity of literature on health assessment of taxi drivers. Meanwhile taxi drivers of South Africa were burdened by communicable and non-communicable diseases including high-level exposure to injuries and criminal attacks. Health assessment of this cohort group enables mitigation to engage in appropriation of relevant interventions related to the occupational needs of taxi drivers.Objectives: The objective of the study was to conduct health assessment of taxi drivers in the city of Tshwane to identify health risk factors.Method: An exploratory, descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted and anthropometric measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference were monitored and recorded on a convenience sample of 69 taxi drivers in Tshwane Municipality. Consent was sought from individual taxi drivers who participated in the study, while taxi rank queue marshals assisted with smooth running of the process. Data were gathered using a questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using statistical STATA II with the assistance of a statistician.Results: The study found that taxi drivers were obese, hypertensive, had type II diabetes-related risk factors, including unhealthy life style practices. The results indicate that the general health of taxi drivers impacts their occupation.Conclusion: The findings implicate that the health status of taxi operators in Tshwane was a serious concern and urgent concerted effort is needed to engage in lifestyle modification of taxi drivers. The need for health promotion and formalised occupational health services was recommended.

  13. Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.; Schneider, J.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to local

  14. A comparative study on innovation in European cities by means of multicriteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reggiani, Aura; Nijkamp, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of innovative behaviour of firms in an urban European context. It aims to identify key factors for innovation at thelocal level, based on micro survey information from firms. In seeking for prominent explanatory variables for entrepreneurial innovation in

  15. "European Islam" in practice-in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M; Bartels, E.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The current debate about Islam in Western Europe is predominantly theoretical by nature and fails to adequately reflect on the experience of and knowledge about inherently European Muslim societies. Consequently, the debate lacks a sound empirical foundation and has started to live a life on its

  16. Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schneider, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to local

  17. Seismic hazard assessment of Chennai city considering local site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chennai city suffered moderate tremors during the 2001 Bhuj and Pondicherry earthquakes and the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. After the Bhuj earthquake, Indian Standard IS: 1893 was revised and Chennai city was upgraded from zone II to zone III which leads to a substantial increase of the design ground motion ...

  18. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    , was observed. Only the Spanish cities did not fit this pattern; there, ozone levels were again lower than in central European cities, probably due to the direct influence of strong car traffic emissions. In general, ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure were significantly higher at suburban sites than......In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning...

  19. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  20. Stigma of Schizophrenia: Assessing Attitudes among European University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etien Benov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stigma creates a barrier in the recovery from severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Although stigmatising behaviour can be observed both among the general public and healthcare professionals, little is known about stigmatisation towards people with schizophrenia (PwS among university students. This study will target psychology students, medical students and students of subjects not directly associated with healthcare professions in seven European countries (Bulgaria, Denmark, England, Ireland, Malta, Slovenia and Switzerland. The aims of the current study are to explore the stigma held by students in the aforementioned countries, and any possible differences between students of health-related and non health-related subjects. Furthermore, potential differences between those that have taken a module in psychopathology and/or schizophrenia will be considered. Measures assessing knowledge, contact, negative emotions and desired social distance were distributed in an online format.

  1. Development through Knowledge Economy: Cluj-Napoca – a European Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marilena PORUMB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is related to both theoretical concepts and best practice in the field of Knowledge Management Strategy. We have designed a mixture of research methodology that covers literature review, comparative case-study analysis, and best practices in the Smart-City field, in order to propose an adequate model, with a suitable quick guide for implementation that may provide a solution for the development of Cluj-Napoca case study. After an in-depth literature review, we proposed the following as the main research question: Could a smart city comparative case study methodology be used as a knowledge management strategy for development? After a preparatory stage we focused on the upgrading of a smart city development model. To put this model at work we looked for and designed a quick guide that can be used as a tool for implementing the model named Knowledge Broker Intervention Model (KBIM. This KBIM and the quick guide for implementation may be seen as our small contribution to the theory and practice in the field. The Knowledge Broker Intervention Model was designed to improve the networks of components in a new way and a more sustainable development. These outcomes of the comparative analysis may be used as a starting point for the transformation of Cluj Napoca into a Smart City based on the quick guide we developed. Cluj Innovation City is a first step towards transforming Cluj-Napoca into a Smart City, which could be developed around the existing Cluj IT Cluster. The role of a knowledge broker would be to ensure that knowledge of the organizational culture of private firms could be harvested, processed and further transferred to universities. In their turn, universities would adopt the new knowledge and apply it in such a way in which it will influence the nurture of scientists. This would come as a solution in the process of closing the gap between knowledge generation, dissemination and feedback actions. It will link research results with

  2. Baseline assessment and best practices in urban water cycle services in the city of Hamburg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071976817; Bertram, N.P.

    2013-01-01

    Megatrends (e.g. demographic changes, water scarcity, water pollution and climate change) pose urgent water challenges in cities. This is highlighted in the European Union (EU) project TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow; www.trust-i.net/index.php). The main objective of TRUST

  3. 75 FR 69433 - City of Boulder, CO; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Boulder, CO; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment November 5, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy... Energy Projects has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for an application filed by City of Boulder...

  4. Development through Knowledge Economy: Cluj-Napoca – a European Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Marilena PORUMB; Nadia Valentina IVANOVA

    2014-01-01

    The paper is related to both theoretical concepts and best practice in the field of Knowledge Management Strategy. We have designed a mixture of research methodology that covers literature review, comparative case-study analysis, and best practices in the Smart-City field, in order to propose an adequate model, with a suitable quick guide for implementation that may provide a solution for the development of Cluj-Napoca case study. After an in-depth literature review, we proposed the following...

  5. Development through Knowledge Economy: Cluj-Napoca – European Smart City

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Marilena PORUMB; Nadia Valentina IVANOVA

    2014-01-01

    The paper is related to both theoretical concepts and best practice in the field of Knowledge Management Strategy. We have designed a mixture of research methodology that covers literature review, comparative case-study analysis, and best practices in the Smart-City field, in order to propose an adequate model, with a suitable quick guide for implementation that may provide a solution for the development of Cluj-Napoca case study. After an in-depth literature review, we proposed the following...

  6. Urban Fluxes Monitoring and Development of Planning Strategies to Reduce Ghg Emissions in AN European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Bellucco, V.; Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Duce, P.; Blecic, I.; Trunfio, G. A.; Cecchini, A.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Cities and human settlements in general are a primary source of emissions that contribute to human-induced climate change. To investigate the impact of an urbanized area on urban metabolism components, an eddy covariance (EC) tower will be set up in a city (Sassari) located in the center of the Mediterranean basin (Sardinia, Italy). The EC tower, as well as a meteorological station and radiometers, will be set up to monitor energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the city center. A GHG emissions inventory will be also compiled to identify the main emission sources. In addition, a modeling framework will be used to study the impact of different urban planning strategies on carbon emission rates. The modeling framework consists of four models to analyze fluxes both at local and municipality scale: (i) a land surface model ACASA (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm, ACASA) to simulate the urban metabolism components at local scale; (ii) a Cellular Automata model to simulate the urban land-use dynamics in the near future (20-30 years); (iii) a transportation model to estimate the variation of the transportation network load, and (iv) the coupled model WRF-ACASA will be finally used to simulate the urban metabolism components at municipality scale. The participation of local stakeholders will allow the definition of future planning strategies with the aim to identify low carbon emissions strategies. The projects activities, methodologies applied, as well as the preliminary results will be reported here.

  7. Bioindication and air quality in European cities: research, application, communication. 3. Hohenheim workshop on Bioindication at the Power Plant Altbach/Deizisau 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, A.; Fomin, A.; Klumpp, G.; Ansel, W. (eds.) [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    2002-07-01

    In many European cities the air quality is still unsatisfactory, despite a successful reduction of the emission of air pollutants during the last decades. Measurements of ambient air pollutant concentrations are being made by physical and chemical methods in order to control whether the air quality standards are complied with. The harmful effects of air pollutants on living organisms, however, can only be demonstrated and determined by the use of bioindicator plants. Furthermore, bioindication makes air pollution problems visible and understandable to people directly and within their everyday life. Thus, the exposure of bioindicator plants also aims at raising the environmental awareness of the urban population and at inducing an environmentally friendly behaviour in the sense of a sustainable urban development. The utilisation of bioindicator plants in science and research, their application in routine air quality control and their use for environmental communication and education were the topics of the Third Hohenheim Workshop on Bioindication in March 2001. The 'European Network for the Assessment of Air Quality by the Use of Bioindicator Plants (EuroBionet)' as well as other bioindication projects on local, national and international level were in the centre of interest of this meeting. (orig.)

  8. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  9. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding...

  10. "CITY 2020+": assessing climate change impacts for the city of Aachen related to demographic change and health - a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Balzer, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Eßer, K.; Ginski, S.; Hahmann, J.; Ketzler, G.; Klemme, M.; Kröpelin, A.; Merbitz, H.; Michael, S.; Sachsen, T.; Siuda, A.; Weishoff-Houben, M.; Brunk, M. F.; Dott, W.; Hofmeister, H.; Pfaffenbach, C.; Roll, C.; Selle, K.

    2011-09-01

    The research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the city of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops strategies, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. The investigation focuses on how urban environment, political structure and residential behaviour can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and their impacts on human health. The interdisciplinary research is organized in three clusters. Within the first cluster, strategies of older people exposed to heat stress, and their networks as well as environmental health risks according to atmospheric conditions are examined. The second cluster addresses governance questions, urban planning and building technologies as well as spatial patterns of the urban heat island. The third cluster includes studies on air quality related to particulate matter and a historical perspective of city development concerning environmental issues and climate variability. However, it turns out that research topics that require an interdisciplinary approach are best addressed not by pre-structuring the work into related sub-projects but through combining them according to shared methodological approaches. Examples illustrating this rather practical approach within ongoing research are presented in this paper.

  11. Land Surface Temperature Differences within Local Climate Zones, Based on Two Central European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Geletič

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main factors influencing the spatiotemporal variability of urban climate are quite widely recognized, including, for example, the thermal properties of materials used for surfaces and buildings, the mass, height and layout of the buildings themselves and patterns of land use. However, the roles played by particular factors vary from city to city with respect to differences in geographical location, overall size, number of inhabitants and more. In urban climatology, the concept of “local climate zones” (LCZs has emerged over the past decade to address this heterogeneity. In this contribution, a new GIS-based method is used for LCZ delimitation in Prague and Brno, the two largest cities in the Czech Republic, while land surface temperatures (LSTs derived from LANDSAT and ASTER satellite data are employed for exploring the extent to which LCZ classes discriminate with respect to LSTs. It has been suggested that correctly-delineated LCZs should demonstrate the features typical of LST variability, and thus, typical surface temperatures should differ significantly among most LCZs. Zones representing heavy industry (LCZ 10, dense low-rise buildings (LCZ 3 and compact mid-rise buildings (LCZ 2 were identified as the warmest in both cities, while bodies of water (LCZ G and densely-forested areas (LCZ A made up the coolest zones. ANOVA and subsequent multiple comparison tests demonstrated that significant temperature differences between the various LCZs prevail. The results of testing were similar for both study areas (89.3% and 91.7% significant LST differences for Brno and Prague, respectively. LSTs computed from LANDSAT differentiated better between LCZs, compared with ASTER. LCZ 8 (large low-rise buildings, LCZ 10 (heavy industry and LCZ D (low plants are well-differentiated zones in terms of their surface temperatures. In contrast, LCZ 2 (compact mid-rise, LCZ 4 (open high-rise and LCZ 9 (sparsely built-up are less distinguishable in both

  12. City Blueprints: Baseline Assessments of Sustainable Water Management in 11 Cities of the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071976817

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of Urban Water Cycle Services (UWCS) adapting to future stresses calls for changes that take sustainability into account. Megatrends (e.g. population growth, water scarcity, pollution and climate change) pose urgent water challenges in cities. In a previous paper, a set of indicators,

  13. Tolerance in the postindustrial city: Assessing the ethnocentrism of less educated natives in 22 dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Waal (Jeroen); D. Houtman (Dick)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies whether and why less educated natives are less ethnocentric in postindustrial Dutch cities than in industrial ones, as suggested by several theories in urban studies. A multilevel analysis of survey data collected among the native working populations (source:

  14. Temporal trends of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in everyday environments across European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The rapid development and increased use of wireless telecommunication technologies led to a substantial change of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in the general population but little is known about temporal trends of RF-EMF in our everyday environment. The objective of our study is to evaluate temporal trends of RF-EMF exposure levels in different microenvironments of three European cities using a common measurement protocol. We performed measurements in the cities of Basel (Switzerland), Ghent and Brussels (Belgium) during one year, between April 2011 and March 2012. RF-EMF exposure in 11 different frequency bands ranging from FM (Frequency Modulation, 88 MHz) to WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network, 2.5 GHz) was quantified with portable measurement devices (exposimeters) in various microenvironments: outdoor areas (residential areas, downtown and suburb), public transports (train, bus and tram or metro rides) and indoor places (airport, railway station and shopping centers). Measurements were collected every 4s during 10-50 min per environment and measurement day. Linear temporal trends were analyzed by mixed linear regression models. Highest total RF-EMF exposure levels occurred in public transports (all public transports combined) with arithmetic mean values of 0.84 V/m in Brussels, 0.72 V/m in Ghent, and 0.59 V/m in Basel. In all outdoor areas combined, mean exposure levels were 0.41 V/m in Brussels, 0.31 V/m in Ghent and 0.26 V/m in Basel. Within one year, total RF-EMF exposure levels in all outdoor areas in combination increased by 57.1% (p<0.001) in Basel by 20.1% in Ghent (p=0.053) and by 38.2% (p=0.012) in Brussels. Exposure increase was most consistently observed in outdoor areas due to emissions from mobile phone base stations. In public transports RF-EMF levels tended also to increase but mostly without statistical significance. An increase of RF-EMF exposure levels has been observed between April 2011 and March 2012 in various

  15. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  16. Imported Zika Virus in a European City: How to Prevent Local Transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Millet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission.Methods: An observational cross-sectional population-based study in Barcelona, Spain was performed.An analysis of the socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mosquito control activities of the ZIKV cases detected between January 1st and December 2016 was carried out using a specific ZIKV epidemiological survey of the Barcelona Public Health Agency.Results: A total of 118 notifications of possible ZIKV infections were received, and 44 corresponded to confirmed cases in Barcelona residents.Amongst these, the median age was 35 years and 57% were women. All cases were imported, 48% were Spanish-born and 52% foreign-born. Dominican Republic was the most visited country amongst foreign-born patients and Nicaragua amongst Spanish-born. The most frequent symptoms were exanthema, fever, and arthralgia. Among the 24 diagnosed women, 6 (25% were pregnant. There was one case of microcephaly outside Barcelona city. Entomological inspections were done at the homes of 19 cases (43.2% of the total and in 34 (77.3% public spaces. Vector activity was found in one case of the 44 confirmed cases, and 134 surveillance and vector control were carried out associated to imported ZIKV cases. In all cases prevention measures were recommended to avoid mosquito bites on infected cases.Conclusion: Epidemiological and entomological surveillance are essential for the

  17. Imported Zika Virus in a European City: How to Prevent Local Transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Joan-Pau; Montalvo, Tomàs; Bueno-Marí, Ruben; Romero-Tamarit, Arancha; Prats-Uribe, Albert; Fernández, Lidia; Camprubí, Esteve; del Baño, Lucía; Peracho, Victor; Figuerola, Jordi; Sulleiro, Elena; Martínez, Miguel J.; Caylà, Joan A.; Álamo-Junquera, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    Background: On February 1st 2016 the WHO declared the Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection a worldwide public health emergency because of its rapid expansion and severe complications, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome or microcephaly in newborn. The huge amount of people traveling to endemic areas and the presence of Aedes albopictus in Barcelona increase the risk of autochtonous transmission. The objective of this study was to describe the first ZIKV cases diagnosed in our city and to analyze the surveillance, prevention, and control measures implemented to avoid autochthonous transmission. Methods: An observational cross-sectional population-based study in Barcelona, Spain was performed.An analysis of the socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and mosquito control activities of the ZIKV cases detected between January 1st and December 2016 was carried out using a specific ZIKV epidemiological survey of the Barcelona Public Health Agency. Results: A total of 118 notifications of possible ZIKV infections were received, and 44 corresponded to confirmed cases in Barcelona residents.Amongst these, the median age was 35 years and 57% were women. All cases were imported, 48% were Spanish-born and 52% foreign-born. Dominican Republic was the most visited country amongst foreign-born patients and Nicaragua amongst Spanish-born. The most frequent symptoms were exanthema, fever, and arthralgia. Among the 24 diagnosed women, 6 (25%) were pregnant. There was one case of microcephaly outside Barcelona city. Entomological inspections were done at the homes of 19 cases (43.2% of the total) and in 34 (77.3%) public spaces. Vector activity was found in one case of the 44 confirmed cases, and 134 surveillance and vector control were carried out associated to imported ZIKV cases. In all cases prevention measures were recommended to avoid mosquito bites on infected cases. Conclusion: Epidemiological and entomological surveillance are essential for the prevention of

  18. Health risk assessment of dioxin exposure in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J. [Flemish Inst. for Tech. Research (VITO) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) were in full operation since the eighties. Both waste incinerators are still operational and emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite of this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burdening of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. In the past, before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally valorized as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open wastefires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all measurements in this area was made. An additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out in order to achieve an optimal human risk assessment for the City of Menen. At first instance this risk assessment was carried out by using a deterministic approach. The used human exposure model calculates point estimates based on a combination of unique parameter values. This, however, gives no indication of the variation of the model output. The value of a model parameter is chosen such that a conservative point estimate is obtained for the risk index. Due to variation, it is often unclear how conservative this estimate really is. Hence the variation of the calculated risk index is not known. The calculations of the risk index are subjected to

  19. Reporting heterogeneity in self-assessed health among elderly Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals’ health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. Methods We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. Results We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account. PMID:23036352

  20. A critical assessment of the European approach to financial reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical assessment of the financial reforms adopted or proposed at the European level. The reshaping of the EU institutional architecture and the adoption of the new Basel 3 rules should reduce the national margins of discretion that have up to now characterised supervisory practices, often leading to light touch supervision, and restrain the growth of bankarisation, hence excessive systemic leveraging. However, the limitations of a purely prudential approach to regulation may not be overcome by setting up new institutions and make prudential requirements more stringent. In addition, given unavoidable national banking specificities, more severe rulebooks homogenously applied across the EU countries could further worsen the inconsistencies of a one-size-fits-all rule. The criticisms directed at the new regulatory framework assume particular relevance in the EU, whose peculiar construction requires that the financial sector should not be permitted to jeopardise its critical fiscal equilibrium. This opens the way to the adoption of structural measures, as the one presented by the Vickers Commission on ring-fencing. Looking at the financial system as a whole, we argue that even these measures do not offer effective protection for the economy and tax-payers, and that much more radical interventions are needed.

  1. Reporting heterogeneity in self-assessed health among elderly Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2012-10-05

    Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals' health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account.

  2. Catalogue of good practice case studies in european towns and cities from 1995 to 2002; Catalogue des bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes de 1995 a 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    Many towns and cities have already implemented sustainable local energy policies. This has also been the ''raison d'etre of Energie-Cites'', the association of European towns and cities that has been promoting sustainable local energy policies over the last ten years. Energie-Cites has a portfolio of about 400 European good practice case studies in sustainable local energy policies. The 3 to 5 page case studies provide complete information on the action carried out. After general information about the city and a brief introduction to the subject and its general context, the action is presented in detail: local players involved, costs, positive and negative evaluation, prospects and one or more local contacts. (A.L.B.)

  3. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment of Road Traffic in Taiz City.

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Fareed M. A. Karim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study an attempt was made to estimate and predict the pollution emission by road traffic in Taiz city (Yemen). Mobile 6.2 software designed by EPA in the united states was used for the estimation of the pollutions such as CO, THC, NOx , SO2 and PM. Hourly classified vehicle count was carried out in the city network in year 2010, and forecasted for the year 2014, 2020 and 2025. The metrological data, vehicle fleet characteristics and fuel specifications of T...

  5. Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Nilsson, Mats E; Stenkvist, Dag; Bellander, Tom; Pershagen, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Digital noise maps produced according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END) could provide valuable exposure information in noise and health research. However, their usefulness in epidemiological studies has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate Swedish END maps for assessments of residential traffic noise exposure. END maps from three Swedish cities were used to assess residential traffic noise exposure for a population sample of 2496 men and women included in a national Environmental Health Survey. For each subject, we assessed noise levels manually and automatically at three geographical points, using survey data to locate dwellings within buildings. Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was used to assess agreement between the noise estimates. To evaluate the maps, we compared the observed and predicted proportions of annoyed residents as a function of noise exposure using survey data and already established exposure-response relationships. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) was used to assess the precision of observed estimates. The agreement between the noise estimates ranged from κ=0.4 to 0.8. Generally, there was a high correspondence between observed and predicted exposure-response relationships for noise annoyance, regardless of method and if data on dwelling location within building were used. The best precision was, however, found when we manually corrected the noise level according to the location of the dwelling within buildings (r.m.s.=0.029). Noise maps based on the END appear useful for assessing residential traffic noise exposure, particularly if combined with survey data on dwelling location.

  6. [Ecological suitability assessment and optimization of urban land expansion space in Guiyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cong-hao; Li, Yang-bing; Feng, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the case study of Guiyang City, the minimum cumulative resistance model integrating construction land source, ecological rigid constraints and ecological function type resistance factor, was built by use of cost-distance analysis of urban spatial expansion resistance value through ArcGIS 9.3 software in this paper. Then, the ecological resistance of city spatial expansion of Guiyang from 2010 was simulated dynamically and the ecological suitability classification of city spatial expansion was assessed. According to the conflict between the newly increased city construction land in 2014 and its ecological suitability, the unreasonable city land spatial allocation was discussed also. The results showed that the ecological suitability zonation and the city expansion in the study area were basically consistent during 2010-2014, but the conflict between the new city construction and its land ecological suitability was more serious. The ecological conflict area accounted for 58.2% of the new city construction sites, 35.4% of which happened in the ecological control area, 13.9% in the limited development area and 8.9% in the prohibition development area. The intensification of ecological land use conflict would impair the ecological service function and ecological safety, so this paper put forward the city spatial expansion optimal path to preserve the ecological land and improve the construction land space pattern of Guiyang City so as to ensure its ecological safety.

  7. Model assessing the impact of biomass burning on air quality and photochemistry in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Yokelson, R. J.; Molina, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major global emission source for trace gases and particulates. Various multi-platform measurements during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)-2003 and Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO)-2006 campaigns suggest significant influences of biomass burning (BB) on air quality in Mexico City during the dry season, and the observations show emissions from BB impose viable yet highly variable impacts on organic aerosols (OA) in and around Mexico City. We have developed emission inventories for forest fires surrounding Mexico City based on measurement-estimated emission factors and MODIS fire counts, and for garbage fires in Mexico City based on in situ-measured emission factors and the population distribution and socioeconomic data. In this study, we will comprehensively assess the impact of biomass burning on the aerosol loading, chemical composition, OA formation and photochemistry in Mexico City using WRF-Chem. Analysis of the model results, in conjunction with concurrent field measurements, will be presented.

  8. Road dust emission profiles and levels from paved road in Mediterranean and central European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Furger, M.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Bukowiecki, N.; Gehrig, R.; Richard, A.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2009-04-01

    The burden of road dust re-suspension on urban air quality varies depending on several local factors such as precipitation rate, vehicle fleets and state of pavement. In Mediterranean cities emissions from traffic re-suspension can be comparable or even higher than direct exhaust emissions while in central Europe precipitation helps in maintaining street cleaning, reducing re-suspension. Receptor models are useful tools to estimate the contribution of urban re-suspension to PM. Target factor analysis and chemical mass balance can be successfully applied but a key task for the application of the aforementioned models is obtaining valid emission profiles for road dust re-suspended by traffic re-suspension. In this study two different campaigns were carried out in Zurich (February 2008) and Barcelona (June 2007) in order to estimate the load and chemical properties of road dust in two dissimilar urban environments. To this aim 7 and 9 locations were selected in Zurich (CH) and Barcelona (E) city centers respectively. Samplings were performed by means of a field re-suspension chamber, collecting into filters the PM10 fraction of deposited materials from one square meter of active traffic lanes (Amato et al., 2009). The sampling sites selected for this study had different traffic loads (from background to major roads) allowing to evaluate the impact of traffic to the levels of pollutants, especially those from brake wear such as Sb, Cu, Zn, Ba, and Fe among others. In Zurich the levels of deposited PM10 (0.2-1.3 mg/m2) were lower than in Barcelona (3.7-23.1 mg/m2) where levels were mainly controlled by the dust handling at kerbside works and uncovered transport by trucks. Such dust accretion, favoured by the lack of rain, increases re-suspension. This process is likely to be the main cause of the high atmospheric mineral matter in the urban background of Barcelona (31%), rather than in Zurich (10%) where PM10 mass is dominated by secondary inorganic aerosols (37%) and

  9. The European nitrogen assessment: sources, effects, and policy perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    ... to the nitrogen cycle processes. Issues of upscaling from farm plot and city to national and continental scales are addressed in detail with emphasis on opportunities for better management at local to global levels...

  10. Seeing the People’s Republic of China through the Eyes of Montesquieu: Why Sino-European Collaboration on Eco City Development Suffers from European Misinterpretations of “Good Governance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Jong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China faces a number of impressive challenges in dealing with climate change: rising energy use, growing emission levels of greenhouse gases, dangerous levels of air pollution over cities and low resilience against flood and drought. Sustainable urbanization has been adopted as a keyword in handling these challenges. The Chinese central government has undertaken a variety of measures, including the launch of large Sino-European programs to learn from ‘developed nations’. In the wake of these partnerships, a great variety of cross-national and cross-city agreements were signed. Sino-European cooperation does not often run as smoothly as initially hoped because of diverging interests, cultural misunderstandings and practical limitations. In the background, a mismatch in normative conceptions Chinese and European participants have of ‘good governance’ plays a role. In this contribution, insights taken from Montesquieu’s ‘The Spirit of Laws’ regarding checks and balances and trias politica (updated to ‘sextas politica’ for the 21st century are used to comprehend how the exertion of power is distributed and expected to be distributed differently in Chinese than in European administrative traditions. The article will end with conclusions on how European misconceptions of Chinese governance complicate Sino-European collaboration in sustainable urbanization policies.

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality of Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of groundwater of Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated between February and July 2008. Water samples were collected from functional bore holes from five locations (stations 1 – 5) and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including heavy metals. Data obtained were compared with World ...

  12. Assessment of groundwater contamination in an industrial city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The groundwater quality of Sialkot, an industrial city of Pakistan, was evaluated using water samples collected from 25 localities during October-November 2005. Twenty-two physiochemical parameters including pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Salinity, Temperature, Turbidity, Sulfate (SO4)

  13. The unwanted past and urban regeneration of Communist heritage cities. Case study: European Capitals of Culture (ECoC Riga 2014, Pilsen 2015 and Wroclaw 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Turșie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the ECoC programme, it has been argued that the European dimension is most visible when the candidates reflect their own history as a part of European history, particularly when hinting at their involvement with the major ideologies of twentieth century, such as National Socialism or Communism. ECoC is about cities re-inventing their identities, re-narrating their history in a European context. But how should ex-communist cities deal with their unwanted past and narrate it in order to fit into the European dimension of the project? The focus of this investigation is on three ex-ECOCs from ex-Communist Europe, chosen for several reasons: geographical position (Central, Eastern/Northern European countries, ex-communist past, new membership of the European Union (since 2004, the year of holding the title (the two ECoC selection criteria exist since 2010. Using qualitative content analysis on a set of documents (application books, official web pages and ex-post evaluations the study will offer an analysis of cities’ politics of memory and urban regeneration strategies.

  14. Baseline assessment and best practices in urban water cycle services in the city of Hamburg

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Niels-Peter; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Megatrends (e.g. demographic changes, water scarcity, water pollution and climate change) pose urgent water challenges in cities. This is highlighted in the European Union (EU) project TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow; www.trust-i.net/index.php). The main objective of TRUST is to support water authorities and utilities in Europe in formulating and implementing appropriate urban water policies as well as new technology and management solutions in order to enhance urba...

  15. Environmental assessment of a city on the model of energy-ecological efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzovkina Tat’yana Vladimirovna

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the analytical methodology for assessing the environmental safety in construction, the existing government programs in energy saving, and the analysis of the actual state of the investigated problem, proposed a method of assessment of environmental safety efficiency criteria of a city. The analysis is based on the data on housing and communal services of the City of Moscow. As a result of the consideration of the government programs and methods of assessing the environmental security in construction the conclusion was made that none of the programs reviewed and non of the methods include consideration of the relationship between environmental parameters of environmental security and energy efficiency (indicators of them are considered separately from each other. In order to determine the actual state of environmental safety analytical review was performed of energy efficiency programs of the government in Moscow and the methods of assessing the environmental safety of a construction. After considering a methodology for assessing the environmental safety of a construction, the author proposes to use the model for determining the indicator of efficiency of the city to ensure the environmental safety of the processes of life-support of the city, which takes into account the dependence of the parameters of environmental safety and energy efficiency. The author describes the criteria for selecting thr data on energy and environmental efficiency of the city. The article shows the sequence to identify the criteria for determining the indicator of efficiency of the city. In the article the author presents the results of ecological assessment of Moscow on the energy-ecological efficiency model, using the model defined performance indicators of the city to ensure environmental safety processes of life support of the city. The model takes into account the dependence of environmental safety parameters, environmental and

  16. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, M.L.; Morrow, R C; Calva, J.J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated ...

  17. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Falls City Site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    An engineering assessment was performed of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Falls City, Texas. Services included taking soil samples, the performance of radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 2.5 million tons of tailings at the Falls City site constitutes the most significant environmental impact. Windblown tailings, external gamma radiation and localized contamination of surface waters are other environmental effects. The two alternative remedial action options presented include on-site and off-site cleanup, fencing, and hydrological monitoring, and in addition, stabilization of pile 2 with 2 ft of cover material. The costs are $1.84 million for Option I and $2.45 million for Option II.

  18. Individual and contextual determinants of perceived peer smoking prevalence among adolescents in six European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Robert, Pierre-Olivier; Richter, Matthias; Rathmann, Katharina; Rimpelä, Arja H.; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Lorant, Vincent; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Young people perceiving a high peer smoking prevalence are more likely to initiate smoking. It is unclear which factors contribute to perceived peer smoking prevalence and if these factors vary according to education. This study aimed to assess the determinants of perceived smoking prevalence and

  19. [Deficits in STI diagnosis for men who have sex with men (MSM) in German-speaking cities: results of the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A J; Marcus, U

    2013-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as anal/genital warts, syphilis, and genital/rectal gonorrheal/chlamydial infections compromise the health of men who have sex with men (MSM), and increase the per-contact risk of HIV infection. Early detection of asymptomatic STIs requires regular screening including physical examinations and collection of clinical specimens that allow for the detection of infections at sites common to men's same-sex practices. From June to August 2010, the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) recruited 174,209 MSM from 38 European countries to an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages. As sexual health care for MSM in most countries is organized locally, we chose cities for comparison. Multivariable regression models were used to compare accessibility of services and applied diagnostic procedures across 1 Dutch, 1 Swiss, 1 Austrian, 3 English, and 19 German cities (N = 29,962). The proportion of respondents tested for STIs in the last 12 months in the absence of symptoms ranged from 13 % in Magdeburg to 48.0 % in Amsterdam. At a city level, low STI screening correlated with inaccessible services (R(2) = 0.72). At an individual level, anal/penile inspection and anal swabbing was most common in English cities and in Amsterdam. Compared to London, MSM in German-speaking cities had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 0.06-0.20 for anal/penile inspection, and of 0.05-0.17 for anal swabbing (p < 0.001). Anal/genital warts and rectal infections are likely to be profoundly underdiagnosed among MSM in all German-speaking cities. This has implications for the sexual health of MSM, for HIV prevention, and for comparing European surveillance data. There is an urgent need to implement or improve sexual health care tailored to MSM at risk for STIs.

  20. Health risk assessment of exposure to dioxin-like PCBs and dioxins in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J.; Fre, R. de; Clauvenbergern, R. van [Flemish Insitute for Technological Research (Vito) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) are in full operation since the eighties. Emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burden of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. Before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally used as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open waste fires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all dioxin measurements within the city area was made. The ratio of the dioxin-like PCBs compared to the PCDD/Fs in these measurement results was unexpectedly high. As a consequence of this and in order to achieve an optimal risk assessment for the people living in the City of Menen an additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out. This article focuses on the relative amounts of dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the different media and the consequences for the outcome of the risk assessment.

  1. Towards life cycle sustainability assessent of cities. A review of background knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, Jaume; Balaguera, Alejandra; Brodhag, Christian; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2017-12-31

    This article analyses whether existing LCA and sustainability methods can be used in the assessment of a city or an urban region. The approach is performed through the review of current existing LCA-based and sustainability standards and guidelines. A focus is put into those LCA-based standards specially designed for the built environment. Moreover, a review of non-LCA based standards, indices and guides for the assessment of the sustainability of countries, cities or urban regions is done. The purpose is to check if these assessment tools can provide good results in the absence of LCA-based assessments for cities and urban regions. This review demonstrates the lack of consensus in the definition of both, the city and its boundaries, which hinders the development of useful sustainability standards. Furthermore, it is concluded that current sustainability assessment tools miss, at least, one of these aspects: (i) holistic point of view, (ii) focus on various environmental impacts, (iii) a Life Cycle (LC) perspective, and (iv) the possibility to compare the results among different cities or urban regions. From the LCA perspective, the deficiencies found also include the need for a definition of the function, functional unit (FU), and reference flow (RF) of neighbourhoods, cities, and urban regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Harmonisation of food categorisation systems for dietary exposure assessments among European children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Neve, Melissa; Sioen, Isabelle; Boon, Polly

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project called EXPOCHI (Individual Food Consumption Data and Exposure Assessment Studies for Children), 14 different European individual food consumption databases of children were used to conduct harmonised dietary exposure assessments for lead, chromium, selenium and food co...... coded and in level of detail provided about the consumed foods. The work done and the problems encountered in this project can be of interest for future projects in which food consumption data will be collected on a pan-European level and used for common exposure assessments....

  3. European clinical guidelines for Tourette Syndrome and other tic disorders. Part I : assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, Danielle C.; Hedderly, Tammy; Ludolph, Andrea G.; Stern, Jeremy S.; Murphy, Tara; Hartmann, Andreas; Czernecki, Virginie; Robertson, Mary May; Martino, Davide; Munchau, A.; Rizzo, R.

    A working group of the European Society for the Study of Tourette Syndrome (ESSTS) has developed the first European assessment guidelines of Tourette Syndrome (TS). The available literature including national guidelines was thoroughly screened and extensively discussed in the expert group of ESSTS

  4. A Digital European Self-Assessment Tool for Student Teachers of Foreign Languages: The EPOSTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirici, Ismail Hakki; Hergüner, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The acronym "EPOSTL" stands for the "European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages", which is a digital self-assessment tool for students in foreign language teacher training programs across Europe. It builds on insights from the "Common European Framework of Reference" ("CEFR") and the "European…

  5. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. Method This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. Results High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA and nicotine did not correlate with other sources of data. Most of the poor correlations were explained as part of the uncertainties related with the use estimates and were improved with other complementary sources of data. Conclusions This work confirms the promising future of WBE as a complementary approach to obtain a more accurate picture of substance use situation within different communities. Our findings suggest further improvements to reduce the uncertainties associated with both sources of information in order to make the data more comparable.

  6. The AIRMEX study - VOC measurements in public buildings and schools/kindergartens in eleven European cities: Statistical analysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Otmar; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Tirendi, Salvatore; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Larsen, Bo R.; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    Indoor and outdoor air concentrations as well as personal exposure concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured during 2003-2008 in public buildings, schools, kindergartens and private homes in eleven cities over Europe covering geographic areas in north, central and south Europe during different seasons within the frame of the AIRMEX (European Indoor Air Monitoring and Exposure assessment) study. A database is presented containing the results for 23 VOCs based upon approximately 1000 samples taken from 182 different working environments (offices, classrooms, waiting halls) in public buildings, schools and kindergartens, from 103 private homeplaces and from adult volunteers (148 samples). The statistical analysis of the data demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs with indoor/outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios following the order: hexanal ≈ D-limonene ≫ formaldehyde > acetone > 1-butoxy-2-propanol > acetaldehyde > propanal > 1-butanol > n-undecane > methylcyclohexane > n-dodecane. For aromatic hydrocarbons the main impact was shown to be penetration from outdoor air as indicated by I/O ratios near one and is characterised by significantly higher indoor as well as outdoor concentrations in the south of Europe with respect to the north. For the terpenes, the lowest indoor concentrations were measured during the warm season, which may be explained by higher ventilation rates and reactions with ozone penetrated from outdoor air.

  7. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Bade, Richard; Castiglioni, Sara; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Hernandez, Felix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; van Nuijs, Alexander; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Ramin, Pedram; Reid, Malcolm; Rousis, Nikolaos I; Ryu, Yeonsuk; de Voogt, Pim; Bramness, Jorgen; Thomas, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring the scale of pharmaceuticals, illicit and licit drugs consumption is important to assess the needs of law enforcement and public health, and provides more information about the different trends within different countries. Community drug use patterns are usually described by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used for the comparison. High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources of data. Most of the poor correlations were explained as part of the uncertainties related with the use estimates and were improved with other complementary sources of data. This work confirms the promising future of WBE as a complementary approach to obtain a more accurate picture of substance use situation within different communities. Our findings suggest further improvements to reduce the uncertainties associated with both sources of information in order to make the data more comparable.

  8. Assessment of Recreational Facilities in Federal Capital City, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Kanayo Ezeamaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuja Master Plan provided development of adequate Green Areas and other Recreational Facilities within the Federal Capital City (FCC, as part of its sustainability principles and provided for these recreational facilities within each neighborhood (FCDA, 1979. However, there have been several recent foul cries about the negative development of recreational facilities and the abuse of the Master Plan in the FCC.  The motivation for carrying out this study arose from the observation that recreational facilities in Phase 1 of the Federal Capital City Abuja are not clearly developed as intended by the policy makers and thus, the need to identify the recreational facilities in the Phase 1 of FCC and observe their level of development as well as usage. The field survey revealed that the Central Business District and Gazupe have higher numbers of recreational facilities with 45 and 56. While Wuse II (A08 and Wuse II (A07 Districts have lesser recreational facilities with 10 and 17. The field survey further revealed that all the districts in Phase 1 have over 35% cases of land use changes from recreational facilities to other use. The survey shows that over 65% of these recreational facilities are fully developed. The study also shows that just about 11% of the recreational sporting facilities were developed in line with the Abuja Master Plan in Phase 1. The study revealed that recreational facilities in Phase 1 of the FCC, Abuja has not being developed in compliance with the Abuja Master Plan.

  9. Quality Assessment of Some High Consumption Foods in Zanjan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzad Azar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foods go through many changes from production to table and continuous control is necessary to maintain food safety and supply foods with good quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of some foods with high consumption in Zanjan city within 5 years from 2009 to 2013. Methods: In a case-control descriptive study with an annually- controlled program within 5 years from 2009 to 2014, some food samples including pasteurized milk, vegetable oils, flour, kebab, salt, confectionary products and a special cookie called nan-chay were collected and analyzed in food control laboratory of Zanjan university of medical sciences. Results: According to national standard of Iran, of Nan-chay, salt, vegetable oils, kebab, confectionary products, and pasteurized milk samples 68.4%, 46%, 24.3%, 10.4%, 9.3%, 5% were out of national standard limits and unacceptable, respectively. All flour samples had good standard quality. Mean± sd values of pH in Nan-chay samples were 7.5 and 1.19, respectively. Mean± sd values of the degree of purity in salt samples were 98.21 and 1.75, respectively. Conclusion: Results showed that among the 7 types of collected foods in Zanjan city, the most nonstandard cases were of Nan-chay samples and the best quality was seen in flour samples.

  10. Establishing relationships between chemical health stressors in urban traffic environments: Prediction of toluene concentration levels in European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Chourdakis, E.; Michalidou, A. V.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Kelessis, A.; Petrakakis, M.

    2012-08-01

    Health can be impacted in many ways by exposure to chemical stressors in urban areas. Epidemiological research community has established consistent associations between traffic related air pollution and various health outcomes. Nevertheless, many urban environments, due to practical reasons (bulk of equipment) and mainly due to economical constraints, are characterised by the absence of the necessary monitoring infrastructure, for pollutants such as toluene. This chemical stressor is associated with numerous risks to human health, mainly with acute and chronic effects on the central nervous system. Due to the lack of monitoring data, it may be convenient to identify and establish a set of possible empirical relationships between health stressors in order to assess air quality trends of traffic related pollution in an urban area and support decision making. The use of environmental statistics can be meaningful towards this direction. This paper aims at developing and presenting a tractable approach, in order to reliably forecast toluene levels in EU urban environments. Multiple stepwise regression analysis is used for this purpose and a strong statistical relationship is detected mainly between toluene, benzene and CO. The adopted regression models are validated in order to depict their applicability and representativeness. In addition the models are applied to Thessaloniki, Greece, which is considered one of the most polluted cities within Europe. A comparison between available measurements, predictions based on the developed statistical models and air quality modelling output, provides discussion for transferability issues of such statistical relations between cities, but also interesting insights for the specific city. In general the presented results demonstrate that the adopted approach is capable of capturing toluene concentration trends and should be considered as complementary to air quality monitoring.

  11. Ongoing outbreaks of hepatitis A among men who have sex with men (MSM), Berlin, November 2016 to January 2017 - linked to other German cities and European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Dirk; Michaelis, Kai; Hausner, Marius; Sissolak, Dagmar; Wenzel, Jürgen; Bitzegeio, Julia; Belting, Anne; Sagebiel, Daniel; Faber, Mirko

    2017-02-02

    Since 14 November 2016, 38 cases of hepatitis A have been notified in Berlin; of these, 37 were male and 30 reported to have sex with men (MSM). Median age of MSM cases is 31 years (range: 24-52 years). Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct sequences, linking cases in Berlin to those in other German cities and to clusters recognised in other European countries in 2016. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  12. Towards a holistic perspective on city-level vulnerability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    The deliverable introduces a map of the vulnerability to flooding in Dar es Salaam at the resolution of the finest administrative level (the subward/mtaa; comprising approx. 5-15 000 residents). Overlaying a hydrological model, representing the areas of the city most likely to become flooded......, the high-risk areas may be identified. That is, where the flood-prone areas coincide with the highly vulnerable subwards. The deliverable explores in a step-by-step manner how to capture, measure and process spatial data of multiple dimensions and integrating them into a Geographical Information System...... (GIS). The overall approach is a spatial multiple criteria evaluation (S-MCE) process, following a series of steps, whereby the most important multi-dimensional indicators of vulnerability to flooding are selected, measured and analyzed. Eventually the output is presented as a product in one...

  13. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihollah Yousefi; Farzad Kazemi; Reza Ali Mohammadpour5

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran). Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. ...

  14. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    OpenAIRE

    Probhakar Biswas; Triveni Dutt; Patel, M.(Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom); Reena Kamal; Bharti, P.K.; Subhasish Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was ke...

  15. Safety assessment of smoke flavouring primary products by the European Food Safety Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theobald, A.; Arcella, D.; Carere, A.; Croera, C.; Engel, K.H.; Gott, D.; Gurtler, R.; Meier, D.; Pratt, I.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Simon, R.; Walker, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the safety assessments of eleven smoke flavouring primary products evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Data on chemical composition, content of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and results of genotoxicity tests and subchronic toxicity studies are presented and

  16. Bibliometric assessment of European Research Council Grantees – Comparative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Grøngaard, Pernille Hamburger; Isaksson, Eva; Koivula, Leena; Arévalo, Javier; Warnan, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Since their creation in 2007, European Research Council (ERC) Starting, Consolidator and Advanced grants have increasingly become a measure of prestige for universities. The number of ERC grantees a university gets per year can now appear as a proxy to its research excellence. As universities are putting a lot of effort to best support their applicants for ERC grants, they are looking for ways to (i) pre-select the researchers who have the best chances to have a successful application and (ii...

  17. Influence of urban land cover changes and climate change for the exposure of European cities to flooding during high-intensity precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    owing to recent changes in urban land cover, under present and future climatic conditions. Estimated changes in impervious urban surfaces based on Landsat satellite imagery covering the period 1984–2014 are combined with regionally downscaled estimates of current and expected future rainfall extremes......The extent and location of impervious surfaces within urban areas due to past and present city development strongly affects the amount and velocity of run-off during high-intensity rainfall and consequently influences the exposure of cities towards flooding. The frequency and intensity of extreme...... rainfall are expected to increase in many places due to climate change and thus further exacerbate the risk of pluvial flooding. This paper presents a combined hydrological-hydrodynamic modelling and remote sensing approach suitable for examining the susceptibility of European cities to pluvial flooding...

  18. Pilgrimages to the museums of the new age: appropriating European industrial museums in New York City (1927–1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Jaume Sastre-Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available How did industrial museums cross the Atlantic? When the first American museums of science and industry were created in the 1920s, they looked to Europe in order to import what was seen at that time as a burgeoning cultural institution. In this article, I look at this process of appropriation through an analysis of the changing perceptions of European industrial museums as expressed in the reports, surveys and books written by the curators, directors and trustees of the New York Museum of Science and Industry. I will pay particular attention to the 1927 film Museums of the New Age, documenting the main national industrial museums in Europe, and to a 1937 report on the techniques of display at the Palais de la Découverte. I will argue that their contrasting assessment of European industrial museums, which in only ten years ceased to be seen as cathedrals of a new age to become old-fashioned storehouses, is symptomatic of the significant transformation of museums of science and industry as cultural institutions during the 1930s in the United States.

  19. Airborne pollen in three European cities: Detection of atmospheric circulation pathways by applying three-dimensional clustering of backward trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makra, LáSzló; SáNta, TamáS.; Matyasovszky, IstváN.; Damialis, Athanasios; Karatzas, Kostas; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Vokou, Despoina

    2010-12-01

    The long-range transport of particulates can substantially contribute to local air pollution. The importance of airborne pollen has grown due to the recent climate change; the lengthening of the pollen season and rising mean airborne pollen concentrations have increased health risks. Our aim is to identify atmospheric circulation pathways influencing pollen levels in three European cities, namely Thessaloniki, Szeged, and Hamburg. Trajectories were computed using the HYSPLIT model. The 4 day, 6 hourly three-dimensional (3-D) backward trajectories arriving at these locations at 1200 UT are produced for each day over a 5 year period. A k-means clustering algorithm using the Mahalanobis metric was applied in order to develop trajectory types. The delimitation of the clusters performed by the 3-D function "convhull" is a novel approach. The results of the cluster analysis reveal that the main pathways for Thessaloniki contributing substantially to the high mean Urticaceae pollen levels cover western Europe and the Mediterranean. The key pathway patterns for Ambrosia for Szeged are associated with backward trajectories coming from northwestern Europe, northeastern Europe, and northern Europe. A major pollen source identified is a cluster over central Europe, namely the Carpathian basin with peak values in Hungary. The principal patterns for Poaceae for Hamburg include western Europe and the mid-Atlantic region. Locations of the source areas coincide with the main habitat regions of the species in question. Critical daily pollen number exceedances conditioned on the clusters were also evaluated using two statistical indices. An attempt was made to separate medium- and long-range airborne pollen transport.

  20. Urban–Rural Contrasts in Central-Eastern European Cities Using a MODIS 4 Micron Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tomaszewska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A primary impact of urbanization on the local climate is evident in the phenomenon recognized as the Urban Heat Island (UHI effect. This urban thermal anomaly can increase the health risks of vulnerable populations to heat waves. The surface UHI results from emittance in the longer wavelengths of the thermal infrared; however, there are also urban anomalies that are detectable from radiance in the shorter wavelengths (3–5 micron of the Middle Infrared (MIR. Radiance in the MIR can penetrate urban haze which frequently obscures urban areas by scattering visible and near infrared radiation. We analyzed seasonal and spatial variations in MIR for three Central European cities from 2003 through 2012 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS band 23 (~4 micron to evaluate whether MIR radiance could be used to characterize heat anomalies associated with urban areas. We examined the seasonality of MIR radiance over urban areas and nearby croplands and found that the urban MIR anomalies varied due to time of year: cropland MIR could be larger than urban MIR when there was more exposed soil at planting and harvest times. Further, we compared monthly mean MIR with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to analyze contrasts between urban and rural areas. We found that the seasonal dynamic range of the MIR could exceed that of the NDVI. We explored the linkage between meteorological data and MIR radiance and found a range of responses from strong to weak dependence of MIR radiance on maximum temperature and accumulated precipitation. Our results extend the understanding of the anomalous characteristics of urban areas within a rural matrix.

  1. 76 FR 65717 - City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... Forest. Staff prepared a final environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes the potential environmental...

  2. 75 FR 51032 - City of Kaukauna, WI; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Kaukauna, WI; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment August 12, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy... Environmental Assessment (EA) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In the EA, Commission staff...

  3. Final Environmental Assessment of remedial action at the Falls City uranium mill tailings site, Falls City, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which requires Federal agencies to assess the impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This EA examines the short- and long-term effects of the DOE`s proposed remedial action for the Falls City tailings site. The no action alternative is also examined. The DOE will use the information and analyses presented here to determine whether the proposed action would have a significant impact on the environment. If the impacts are determined to be significant, an EIS will be prepared. If the impacts are not judged to be significant, the DOE will issue an official ``Finding of No Significant Impact`` and implement the proposed action.

  4. Assessment of Urban Structure for The Holy City of Al-Najaf in light of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Al-Jameel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability represents a measure of the efficiency for the urban structure. Al-Najaf city is one of the most important cities in Iraq in terms of religious and historical issues. This study tries to assess AL- Najaf Urban structure – as a sample of Iraqi cities- in the light of sustainable to investigate the extent of the application of urban sustainability principles such as how the density of the population distributed across different quarters, the land use and the hierarchy of the roads in the city. GIS program has been adopted to represent the city and the length of roads. The results of this study indicate that the AL- Najaf urban spatial structure is inefficient, It contains a lot of faults, the city lacks in the hierarchy of roads and land use, which spread across a large area, the population density distribution is irregular, most densities are farther away from the city center, which leads to long trips and random and irregular in it.

  5. A global economic assessment of city policies to reduce climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Botzen, W. J. Wouter; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2017-06-01

    Climate change impacts can be especially large in cities. Several large cities are taking climate change into account in long-term strategies, for which it is important to have information on the costs and benefits of adaptation. Studies on climate change impacts in cities mostly focus on a limited set of countries and risks, for example sea-level rise, health and water resources. Most of these studies are qualitative, except for the costs of sea-level rise in cities. These impact estimates do not take into account that large cities will experience additional warming due to the urban heat island effect, that is, the change of local climate patterns caused by urbanization. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of the economic costs of the joint impacts of local and global climate change for all main cities around the world. Cost-benefit analyses are presented of urban heat island mitigation options, including green and cool roofs and cool pavements. It is shown that local actions can be a climate risk-reduction instrument. Furthermore, limiting the urban heat island through city adaptation plans can significantly amplify the benefits of international mitigation efforts.

  6. A review of heavy metal pollution levels and health risk assessment of urban soils in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Libo; Wang, Yue; Ma, Jin; Hu, Yu; Su, Benying; Fang, Guangling; Wang, Lei; Xiang, Bao

    2017-11-13

    This study assessed literature-based data for the period 2006-2016 regarding heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Hg) concentrations in soils from 32 Chinese cities and the associated human health risks. The mean concentrations of the eight metals were lower than the soil environmental quality standards in China, but were much higher than the background values for most cities. The enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I geo) values showed moderate pollution levels, possibly influenced by anthropogenic activity for Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn. The pollution levels in eastern cities were much higher than those in western cities, and heavy metals concentrations in different types of cities followed the order: industrial based cities > more developed cities > metropoles > underdeveloped cities. The human health risk assessment for heavy metals in most cities indicated that non-carcinogenic risks were within threshold values (HI urban areas was in excess of 1 × 10(-5), but was lower than 1 × 10(-4). However, in some cities (e.g., Baoji City, Tiyuan City, and Xuzhou City), Ni and Cr have potential cancer risks for both adults and children. Compared to adults, children could be more seriously threatened by heavy metal contamination in soils. In general, we recommend that Cd, Hg, and Pb are selected as priority heavy metals pollutants that require control in Chinese cities.

  7. Landslide assessment of Newell Creek Canyon, Oregon City, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Growney, L.; Burris, L.; Garletts, D.; Walsh, K. (Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    A study has been conducted in Newell Creek Canyon near Oregon City, Oregon, T3S, T2S, R2E. A landslide inventory has located 53 landslides in the 2.8 km[sup 2] area. The landslides range in area from approximately 15,000m[sup 2] to 10m[sup 2]. Past slides cover an approximate 7% of the canyon area. Landslide processes include: slump, slump-translational, slump-earthflow and earthflow. Hard, impermeable clay-rich layers in the Troutdale Formation form the failure planes for most of the slides. Slopes composed of Troutdale material may seem to be stable, but when cuts and fills are produced, slope failure is common because of the perched water tables and impermeable failure planes. Good examples of cut and fill failures are present on Highway 213 which passes through Newell Creek Canyon. Almost every cut and fill has failed since the road construction began. The latest failure is in the fill located at mile-post 2.1. From data gathered, a slope stability risk map was generated. Stability risk ratings are divided into three groups: high, moderate and low. High risk of slope instability is designated to all landslides mapped in the slide inventory. Moderate risk is designated to slopes in the Troutdale Formation greater than 8[degree]. Low risk is designated to slopes in the Troutdale Formation less than 8[degree].

  8. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population.

  9. Shuttle bus services quality assessment Tangerang Selatan toward smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassa, Ferdinand; Sitorus, Fredy Jhon Philip; Adikesuma, Tri Nugraha

    2017-11-01

    Around the world, shuttle bus operation played the significant role to accommodate transportation for commuting bus passengers. Shuttle Bus services in cities are provided by various bus agencies with kinds of own specific purposes. For instance, at Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia, it was said that shuttle bus In Trans Bintaro is run and operated by private bus companies hire by Bintaro developer. The aim of this research is to identify factors of satisfaction of shuttle bus service in Kota Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia. Several factors are used to analyze sums of 20 parameters performance indicators of Shuttle Bus. A face to face interview using a questionnaire (N=200) was used to collect data on October and March 2017. Likert and diagram Cartesian were used to model the all the parameters. This research succeeded in finding some categories of Shuttle bus service attributes such as accessibility, comfort, and safety. Users agreed that eight indicators in shuttle bus have the excellent achievement, while three indicators on performance remain low and should receive more attention especially punctuality of the bus.

  10. Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arab

  11. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  12. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... the best dietary assessment methodologies, experts were brought together at a workshop. The paper presents the discussion of the best available method and the final recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method among 4- to 14-year-old children. Subjects/Methods: The starting point...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...

  13. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  14. Assessment of Urban Heat Islands in Small- and Mid-Sized Cities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata dos Santos Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat islands (UHIs in large cities and different climatic regions have been thoroughly studied; however, their effects are becoming a common concern in smaller cities as well. We assessed UHIs in three tropical cities, analyzing how synoptic conditions, urban morphology, and land cover affect the heat island magnitude. Data gathering involved mobile surveys across Paranavaí (Paraná, Rancharia (São Paulo, and Presidente Prudente (São Paulo, Brazil, during summer evenings (December 2013–January 2014. Temperature data collected over five days in each city point to heat islands with magnitudes up to 6 °C, under calm synoptic conditions, whereas summer average UHI magnitudes peak at 3.7 °C. In addition, UHI magnitudes were higher in areas with closely spaced buildings and few or no trees and building materials that are not appropriate for the region’s climate and thermal comfort.

  15. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  16. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  17. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2016. Dietary exposure assessment to pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154......–214 ng/kg bw per day in the highly exposed population (LB–UB, also in ‘Toddlers’). Following a rather conservative scenario, the highest estimates of acute mean exposure and 95th percentile exposure were calculated for ‘Toddlers’, with mean exposure up to 311 ng/kg bw per day and 95th percentile exposure...... consumers. Ad hoc exposure scenarios for food supplements via consumption of pollen-based supplements showed chronic exposure to PAs that ranged between 0.7 and 12 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), while acute exposure was between 2.8 and 44 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), in both cases...

  18. A systematic map of ecosystem services assessments around European agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholm, Nora; Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Burgess, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Agroforestry offers proven strategies as an environmentally benign and ecologically sustainable land management practice to promote ecosystem services. In this literature review, we systematically consider the agroforestry and ecosystem services literature with the aim to identify and catalogue...... the knowledge field and provide the first systematic synthesis of ecosystem services research in relation to European agroforestry. We reviewed 71 scientific publications from studies conducted in farmland and forest ecosystems with various types of agroforestry management. Each publication was systematically...... characterized and classified by agroforestry practice and research approach in order to provide an insight into the current research state in addressing ecosystem services (including methods, indicators, and approaches). Spatial distribution of the case study sites in Europe was also explored. In addition...

  19. Remaking Nigeria’s Urbanism: Assessing and Redressing the Dearth of Open Spaces in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndubisi Onwuanyi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned land use in most Nigerian cities has meant that all urban land needs are not adequately provided for within their landscapes. Open spaces are either conspicuously missing or inadequate. There is a tendency for existing open spaces to be lost to urban development pressure and a disregard for zoning. This paper identifies available and accessible open spaces in Benin City and assesses their adequacy using as a guide standards established in two selected international jurisdictions, discusses the potential benefits of open space to the city on the one hand and its residents on the other given the incipient impacts of global warming and climate change, and the prospects of mitigation by greening the city even in its already built-up state. Data is sourced from journals, reports, archival records and inspections of the urban environment. The findings confirm a great dearth of open spaces as well as deteriorating urban environmental conditions which have implications for health, well-being and urban sustainability. The recommendations are that future expansions of the city space incorporate adequate provisions for open spaces, whilst within the existing built-up city, solutions be sought in the creation of greenways, green paths, private green spaces, promoting street trees and the conversion of brownfield sites to green areas.

  20. The European nitrogen assessment: sources, effects, and policy perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    "Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction...

  1. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  2. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anke; Rajan, A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders

  3. Characterization and assessment of potential European and Japanese competition in photovoltaics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential of European and Japanese firms to produce and market photovoltaic (PV) power systems internationally in competition with firms in the United States. It consists of three distinct parts: (1) an overview of worldwide export activity which describes the general posture of selected European countries and Japan; (2) an assessment of European competition focusing on Germany, France, and the United Kingdom; and (3) an assessment of Japanese competition. All research was conducted within the United States relying on published reports in the scientific, trade, and business press; a firm's annual reports; and telephone interviews with representatives of European and Japanese firms. European and Japanese government representatives were also contacted and government-sponsored programs evaluated. European competition is addressed in three areas: characterization of the PV industry; current and potential marketing activity; and the status of PV and related technological developments. The same areas are addressed for depicting Japanese competition except that greater emphasis is placed on past industrial experience and related semiconductor sales.

  4. Mandatory Genres: The case of European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) summaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    of departure in one of the most recent mandatory genres within an EU medicinal assessment and approval context (the European Public Assessment Report [EPAR] summary) the article presents the results of an empirical study of 15 EU approved, Danish EPAR summaries, testing whether the respondents believe the EPAR...

  5. The role of indicators in assessing transport policies: an application to European transport scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Sytze A.; Stead, Dominic

    1997-01-01

    Indicators play an important role in the strategic assessment of policy packages. In this paper the role of indicators in assessing transport policiesis examined. As case study, the European Common Transport Policy (CTP) is used. Its three main objectives may be summarized as

  6. Smart City Research : Contextual Conditions, Governance Models, and Public Value Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon; Bolívar, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    There are three issues that are crucial to advancing our academic understanding of smart cities: (1) contextual conditions, (2) governance models, and (3) the assessment of public value. A brief review of recent literature and the analysis of the included papers provide support for the assumption

  7. Why count trees: assessing volunteer motivations in participating in New York City's 2015 tree census

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Johnson; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika. Svendsen

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of an assessment of participants in the TreesCount! tree census initiative, which occurred in New York City during 2015 and 2016. We posed questions to volunteers about their motivations and experiences of the program and their feelings on how they or their neighborhood may have been changed by the experience of counting...

  8. 75 FR 4373 - City of Kaukauna, WI; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Kaukauna, WI; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment January 20, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy... Hydroelectric Project located on the Fox River in Outagamie County, Wisconsin, and has prepared an Environmental...

  9. 77 FR 41977 - City of Seattle, WA; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Seattle, WA; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's... amendment of license for the Skagit River Project (FERC No. 553) and has prepared an Environmental...

  10. Seeing the people's Republic of China through the eyes of montesquieu: Why Sino-European collaboration on eco city development suffers from European misinterpretations of "good governance"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Martin); Stout, H. (Helen); Sun, L. (Li)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractChina faces a number of impressive challenges in dealing with climate change: rising energy use, growing emission levels of greenhouse gases, dangerous levels of air pollution over cities and low resilience against flood and drought. Sustainable urbanization has been adopted as a keyword

  11. Biodiversity in marine ecosystems – European developments towards robust assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Stiina Heiskanen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of marine ecosystems and their services are dependent on marine biodiversity, which is threatened worldwide. Biodiversity protection is a major target of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, requiring assessment of the status of biodiversity on the level of species, habitats, and ecosystems including genetic diversity and the role of biodiversity in food web functioning and structure. This paper provides a summary of the development of new indicators and refinement of existing ones in order to address some of the observed gaps in indicator availability for marine biodiversity assessments considering genetic, species, habitat, and ecosystem levels. Promising new indicators are available addressing genetic diversity of microbial and benthic communities. Novel indicators to assess biodiversity and food webs associated with habitats formed by keystone species (such as macroalgae as well as to map benthic habitats (such as biogenic reefs using high resolution habitat characterization were developed. We also discuss the advances made on indicators for detecting impacts of non-native invasive species and assessing the structure and functioning of marine food-webs. The latter are based on indicators showing the effects of fishing on trophic level and size distribution of fish and elasmobranch communities well as phytoplankton and zooplankton community structure as food web indicators. New and refined indicators are ranked based on quality criteria. Their applicability for various EU and global biodiversity assessments and the need for further development of new indicators and refinement of the existing ones is discussed.

  12. Assessment of real time traffic noise attenuation by tree belts within Kolkata city (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Lahiri, Madhumita Banerjee; Tudu, Bharati; Deb, Argha; Majumder, Ashis; Bose, Asok Nath; Chakrabarty, Debashis

    2012-07-01

    The study of the existing scenario of the effect of trees and shrubs as urban screen plantings for abating the level of real time traffic-induced noise pollution in Kolkata city deserves extreme importance. However, no such data are available till date in this area. This paper reports the result of a preliminary study to assess the attenuation of real time traffic noise by tree belts at three different important locations of the city. This measurement provides some new and interesting data which will be useful for further study and subsequent plan.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF SOILS IN INDUSTRIAL CITIES OF MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kosheleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents qualitative and quantitative assessment of technogenic anomalies of heavy metals in urban soils of Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet (Mongolia, including the assessment of background geochemical conditions of the study area and technological specialization of the cities. The research efforts concentrated on identifying spatial geochemical heterogeneity of urban soils depending upon their functional identity. The ecological status of the urban soils was evaluated based on standards accepted in Mongolia.

  14. Prioritizing action on health inequities in cities: An evaluation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in 15 cities from Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Amit; Kano, Megumi; Dagg, Kendra Ann-Masako; Mori, Hanako; Senkoro, Hawa Hamisi; Ardakani, Mohammad Assai; Elfeky, Samar; Good, Suvajee; Engelhardt, Katrin; Ross, Alex; Armada, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Following the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (2008), the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) to support local stakeholders in identifying and planning action on health inequities. The objective of this report is to analyze the experiences of cities in implementing Urban HEART in order to inform how the future development of the tool could support local stakeholders better in addressing health inequities. The study method is documentary analysis from independent evaluations and city implementation reports submitted to WHO. Independent evaluations were conducted in 2011-12 on Urban HEART piloting in 15 cities from seven countries in Asia and Africa: Indonesia, Iran, Kenya, Mongolia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Local or national health departments led Urban HEART piloting in 12 of the 15 cities. Other stakeholders commonly engaged included the city council, budget and planning departments, education sector, urban planning department, and the Mayor's office. Ten of the 12 core indicators recommended in Urban HEART were collected by at least 10 of the 15 cities. Improving access to safe water and sanitation was a priority equity-oriented intervention in 12 of the 15 cities, while unemployment was addressed in seven cities. Cities who piloted Urban HEART displayed confidence in its potential by sustaining or scaling up its use within their countries. Engagement of a wider group of stakeholders was more likely to lead to actions for improving health equity. Indicators that were collected were more likely to be acted upon. Quality of data for neighbourhoods within cities was one of the major issues. As local governments and stakeholders around the world gain greater control of decisions regarding their health, Urban HEART could prove to be a valuable tool in helping them pursue the goal of health equity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Assessment of environmental correlates of physical activity: development of a European questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oja Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the influence of the physical environment on physical activity is rapidly expanding and different measures of environmental perceptions have been developed, mostly in the US and Australia. The purpose of this paper is to (i provide a literature review of measures of environmental perceptions recently used in European studies and (ii develop a questionnaire for population monitoring purposes in the European countries. Methods This study was done within the framework of the EU-funded project 'Instruments for Assessing Levels of Physical Activity and Fitness (ALPHA', which aims to propose standardised instruments for physical activity and fitness monitoring across Europe. Quantitative studies published from 1990 up to November 2007 were systematically searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, TRIS and Geobase. In addition a survey was conducted among members of the European network for the promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA Europe and European members of the International Physical Activity and Environment Network (IPEN to identify published or ongoing studies. Studies were included if they were conducted among European general adult population (18+y and used a questionnaire to assess perceptions of the physical environment. A consensus meeting with an international expert group was organised to discuss the development of a European environmental questionnaire. Results The literature search resulted in 23 European studies, 15 published and 8 unpublished. In these studies, 13 different environmental questionnaires were used. Most of these studies used adapted versions of questionnaires that were developed outside Europe and that focused only on the walkability construct: The Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS, the abbreviated version of the NEWS (ANEWS and the Neighborhood Quality of Life Study (NQLS questionnaire have been most commonly used. Based on the results of the literature review and

  16. MnemoCity Task: Assessment of Childrens Spatial Memory Using Stereoscopy and Virtual Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Andrés

    Full Text Available This paper presents the MnemoCity task, which is a 3D application that introduces the user into a totally 3D virtual environment to evaluate spatial short-term memory. A study has been carried out to validate the MnemoCity task for the assessment of spatial short-term memory in children, by comparing the children's performance in the developed task with current approaches. A total of 160 children participated in the study. The task incorporates two types of interaction: one based on standard interaction and another one based on natural interaction involving physical movement by the user. There were no statistically significant differences in the results of the task using the two types of interaction. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were not found in relation to gender. The correlations between scores were obtained using the MnemoCity task and a traditional procedure for assessing spatial short-term memory. Those results revealed that the type of interaction used did not affect the performance of children in the MnemoCity task.

  17. MnemoCity Task: Assessment of Childrens Spatial Memory Using Stereoscopy and Virtual Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Andrés, David; Juan, M-Carmen; Méndez-López, Magdalena; Pérez-Hernández, Elena; Lluch, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the MnemoCity task, which is a 3D application that introduces the user into a totally 3D virtual environment to evaluate spatial short-term memory. A study has been carried out to validate the MnemoCity task for the assessment of spatial short-term memory in children, by comparing the children's performance in the developed task with current approaches. A total of 160 children participated in the study. The task incorporates two types of interaction: one based on standard interaction and another one based on natural interaction involving physical movement by the user. There were no statistically significant differences in the results of the task using the two types of interaction. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were not found in relation to gender. The correlations between scores were obtained using the MnemoCity task and a traditional procedure for assessing spatial short-term memory. Those results revealed that the type of interaction used did not affect the performance of children in the MnemoCity task.

  18. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using...

  19. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 μm in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns

  20. Harassment among university hospital physicians in four European cities. Results from a cross-sectional study in Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Italy (the HOUPE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlöw; Fridner, Ann; Lövseth, Lise Tevik

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cross-national study was to identify work-related factors related to the prevalence of harassment, and identify potential similarities and differences in harassment levels and appointed perpetrators within the same professional group across four European cities. 2078 physicians working in university hospitals in Trondheim, Stockholm, Reykjavik, and Padova participated in the study. Questionnaire comprised items on direct and indirect experience of workplace harassment, appointed perpetrators, psychosocial work environment and basic socio-demographics. Harassment was found to be a relatively frequent work environment problem among physicians in all four European cities, with particular high levels in Padova. Role conflict, human resource primacy, empowerment leadership, and control over work pace were all found to be significantly related to workplace harassment. Differences in harassment prevalence and perpetrators indicated a cultural difference between the Italian and the Nordic hospitals. Harassment followed the line of command in Padova in contrast to being a horizontal phenomenon in the Scandinavian hospitals. This may be explained by national differences in organizational systems and traditions. In order to decrease harassment level and create a positive and productive work environment, each organization must employ different strategies in accordance with their harassment patterns.

  1. Assessing the Potential of Climate Change Mitigation Actions in Three Different City Types in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the effects of global warming have become more evident, ambitious short-term greenhouse gas emission reduction targets have been set in recent years. Many cities worldwide have adopted an active approach to climate change mitigation, but policy makers are not always knowledgeable of the true effects of their planned mitigation action. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of different mitigation strategies in achieving low-carbon urban communities. The assessment is conducted via means of consumption based hybrid life-cycle assessment, which allows the reduction potential to be analyzed from the perspective of an individual resident of the urban community. The assessed actions represent strategies that are both adopted by the case cities and possible to implement with current best practices in Finland. The four assessed actions comprise: (1 dense urban structure with less private driving; (2 the use of energy production based on renewable sources; (3 new low-energy residential construction; and (4 improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings. The findings show that the effectiveness depends greatly on the type of city, although in absolute terms the most significant reduction potential lies with lowering the fossil fuel dependence of the local energy production.

  2. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano-Gurrola, Sergio; Perez-Tapia, Angelica; Pinedo-Alvarez, Carmelo; Carrillo-Flores, Jorge; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena; Renteria-Villalobos, Marusia

    2015-01-01

    Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize. PMID:26437425

  3. Committed dose assessment based on background outdoor gamma exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luevano G, S.; Perez T, A.; Pinedo A, C.; Renteria V, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecologia, Perif. Francisco R. Almada Km 1, 31415 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Carrillo F, J.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: mrenteria@uach.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31136 Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on populations health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the committed dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, annual effective dose, and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected along the Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Muller counter. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 n Gy h{sup -1}. Results indicated that lifetime effective dose to inhabitants of Chihuahua City is in average of 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of activity concentrations in soil were 51.8, 73.1, and 1096.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. From the analysis of the spatial distribution of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K is to north, to north-center, and to south of city, respectively. In conclusion, natural background gamma dose received by inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to geological characteristics of the zone. (Author)

  4. Lifetime Effective Dose Assessment Based on Background Outdoor Gamma Exposure in Chihuahua City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luevano-Gurrola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining ionizing radiation in a geographic area serves to assess its effects on a population’s health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the background environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Chihuahua City. This study also estimated the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risks of the population of this city. To determine the outdoor gamma dose rate in air, the annual effective dose and the lifetime cancer risk, 48 sampling points were randomly selected in Chihuahua City. Outdoor gamma dose rate measurements were carried out by using a Geiger-Müller counter. Outdoor gamma dose rates ranged from 113 to 310 nGy·h−1. At the same sites, 48 soil samples were taken to obtain the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and to calculate their terrestrial gamma dose rates. Radioisotope activity concentrations were determined by gamma spectrometry. Calculated gamma dose rates ranged from 56 to 193 nGy·h−1. Results indicated that the lifetime effective dose of the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is on average 19.8 mSv, resulting in a lifetime cancer risk of 0.001. In addition, the mean of the activity concentrations in soil were 52, 73 and 1097 Bq·kg−1, for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. From the analysis, the spatial distribution of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K is to the north, to the north-center and to the south of city, respectively. In conclusion, the natural background gamma dose received by the inhabitants of Chihuahua City is high and mainly due to the geological characteristics of the zone. From the radiological point of view, this kind of study allows us to identify the importance of manmade environments, which are often highly variable and difficult to characterize.

  5. Assessing the effects of 35 European-derived BMI-associated SNPs in Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Arkan; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana I; Cruz, Miguel; Meyre, David

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Mexico has increased at an alarming rate in both adults and children. This study was undertaken to test in Mexican children the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that have been associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity in Europeans. School-age children (N = 1,559, 5-17 years) were recruited in Mexico City. Thirty-five SNPs with established effects on BMI and obesity were genotyped and analyzed individually and as a combined gene score (GS). SNPs in FAIM2 (rs7138803), GPRC5BB (rs12444979), MTIF3 (rs4771122), TFAP2B (rs987237), TMEM18 (rs7561317), and the GS were significantly associated with BMI. The GS explained 0.9% of the variance of BMI. Also, SNPs in LRRN6C (rs10968576) and MC4R (rs17782313) were significantly associated with overweight and obesity categories, respectively. Importantly, the effect allele frequency of 26/35 SNPs (74.3%) differed significantly between Mexican children and European adults. No significant gene × environment or gene × gene interactions were detected after Bonferroni adjustment. Several SNPs first associated with BMI/obesity in European adults replicated well in Mexican children, and investigating differences in the distribution of effect alleles across ethnic populations may shed light on genetic susceptibilities of different populations to obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. Impact assessment of the European biofuel directive on land use and biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmann, F.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the potential impact of the EUs biofuel directive on European land use and biodiversity. In a spatially explicit analysis, it is determined which ecologically valuable land use types are likely to be directly replaced by biofuel crops. In addition, it is

  7. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  8. Evaluating European imports of Asian aquaculture products using statistically supported life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksson, Patrik John Gustav

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to evaluate the environmental sustainability of European imports of farmed aquatic food products from Asia, using life cycle assessment (LCA). Farming of Asian tiger prawn, whiteleg shrimp, freshwater prawn, tilapia and pangasius catfish in Bangladesh, China, Thailand and Vietnam

  9. Assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Dise, N.B.; Gundersen, P.; Erisman, J.W.; Posch, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the major result of a research project that focused on the assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils by estimation of the: (i) retention or release of nitrogen species for selected Intensive Monitoring plots by comparing the input,

  10. Assessing the risks of aquatic species invasions via European inland waterways: from concepts to environmental indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Vadim E; Alexandrov, Boris; Arbaciauskas, Kestutis; Binimelis, Rosa; Copp, Gordon H; Grabowski, Michal; Lucy, Frances; Leuven, Rob S E W; Nehring, Stefan; Paunović, Momir; Semenchenko, Vitaliy; Son, Mikhail O

    2009-01-01

    Over the past century, the potential for aquatic species to expand their ranges in Europe has been enhanced both as a result of the construction of new canals and because of increased international trade. A complex network of inland waterways now connects some previously isolated catchments in southern (Caspian, Azov, Black, Mediterranean seas) and northern (Baltic, North, Wadden, White seas) Europe, and these waterways act as corridors for nonnative species invasions. We have developed a conceptual risk assessment model for invasive alien species introductions via European inland waterways, with specific protocols that focus on the development of environmental indicators within the socioeconomic context of the driving forces-pressures-state-impact-response framework. The risk assessment protocols and water quality indicators on alien species were tested for selected ecosystems within 3 main European invasion corridors, and these can be recommended for application as part of the Common Implementation Strategy of the European Commission Water Framework Directive, which aims to provide a holistic risk-based management of European river basins. The conceptual structure of the online Risk Assessment Toolkit for aquatic invasive alien species is provided and includes 3 main interlinked components: online risk assessment protocols, an early warning system, and an information transmitter for risk communication to end users.

  11. Teachers' Perspectives and Practices in Assessing Young Foreign Language Learners in Three Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumen, Mihaela; Cagran, Branka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate foreign language teachers' experiences, understanding, attitudes and expertise in regard to the assessment of foreign languages at the primary level in three Eastern European countries (the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Croatia). The central part of the paper focuses on the current assessment…

  12. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment for Salmonella in Pigs for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snary, Emma L.; Swart, Arno N.; Simons, Robin R. L.

    2016-01-01

    A farm‐to‐consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter‐pig prevalence and the imp......A farm‐to‐consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter‐pig prevalence...... and the impact of control measures on the risk of human Salmonella infection. A key consideration during the QMRA development was the characterization of variability between E.U. Member States (MSs), and therefore a generic MS model was developed that accounts for differences in pig production, slaughterhouse...... practices, and consumption patterns. To demonstrate the parameterization of the model, four case study MSs were selected that illustrate the variability in production of pork meat and products across MSs. For the case study MSs the average probability of illness was estimated to be between 1 in 100...

  13. The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Groothoff, Johan W.; de Boer, Wout E. L.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Assessment of efforts to promote return-to-work (RTW) includes all efforts (vocational and non-vocational) designed to improve the work ability of the sick-listed employee and increase the chance to return to work. Aim of the study was to investigate whether in 13 European countries

  14. Exposure assessment for a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; Ferro, G.; Olsson, A.; Burstyn, I.; de Vocht, F.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S.; Stucker, I.; Ahrens, W.; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.; Shaham, J.; Boffetta, P.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Development of a method for retrospective assessment of exposure to bitumen fume, bitumen condensate, organic vapour, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and co-exposures to known or suspected lung carcinogens for a nested case-control study of lung cancer mortality among European asphalt

  15. European experience on application of site-specific ecological risk assessment in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the current state of the development toward a common European framework for site-specific ecological risk assessment (SS-ERA) Although common progression has been slow in the past two years, earlier activities were very promising. Results are presented of a 2001 workshop to

  16. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  17. Assessment of gross urban product in Russian cities and its contribution to Russian GDP in 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Kosareva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new methodology for estimating gross urban product (the gross domestic product by city or metropolitan level in Russia under extremely low statistical data availability about economy performance at the local level. These estimates provide new analytical instruments for assessing disparities in economic development between more than 1,000 Russian cities and other areas, and cities’ contributions to GDP as well as for comparing indicators of Russian cities with those of foreign countries.

  18. Fuzzy model for determination and assessment of groundwater quality in the city of Zrenjanin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski-Milosević Jelena Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the fuzzy logic for determination and assessment of the chemical quality of groundwater for drinking purposes in the city of Zrenjanin is presented. The degree of certainty and uncertainties are one of the problems in the most commonly used methods for assessing the water quality. Fuzzy logic can successfully handle these problems. Evaluation of fuzzy model was carried out on the samples from two representative wells that are located at depths of two aquifers from which water is taken to supply the population as drinking water. The samples were analyzed on 8 different chemical water quality parameters. In the research arsenic concentration (As3+, As5+ is considered as the dominant parameter due to its suspecting carcinogenic effects on human health. This type of research is for the first time conducted in the city of Zrenjanin, middle Banat region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. MNTR174009 i br. TR34014

  19. Assessment of the environmental impact of artificial effluent lagoon in Jiayuguan City of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yuan-sheng; Luan, Zhao-kun; Barber, C; Williamson, D

    2003-07-01

    An artificial effluent lagoon for storing wastewater were excavated in Jiayuguan City since 1994. As a part of a demonstration project of Sino-Australia cooperation, an assessment of the environmental impact of the lagoon was carried out. The assessment was based on field and laboratory tests and predictive model. The main impacts from the lagoon site are likely to be on the groundwater system, and, to a lesser extent, on ambient air quality in the vicinity. Currently it is expected that groundwater is being polluted with effluent from the effluent lagoon. Air pollution (odor nuisance) is mainly caused by untreated effluent in the irrigation channel. The impact of high total dissolved salt (TDS) on groundwater is likely to be significant in the long run if the lagoon is continuously used. There is, consequently, no likelihood of contamination of surface water system, particularly of the city water supply system, from infiltration of effluent at the lagoon.

  20. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  1. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  2. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  3. Assessing the knowledge of dietitians regarding diet and oral health in Bengaluru city

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Keshav Bhat; Shwetha Hulikere Lingaraj; C N Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of dietitians regarding diet and oral health in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the life members of Indian Dietetic Association, Bangalore chapter. A close ended, self-administered 23 item questionnaire was distributed and collected after 10 min. The data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: About 36% felt dietary supplements can prevent oral mucosal diseases, and only 12% were aware that high con...

  4. Urban growth patterns in major Southeast Asian cities: Toward exposure mapping and vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Pradeep; Kamarajugedda, Shankar A.; Lo, Edmond Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is undergoing rapid urbanization, with urban population percentage increasing from 32% in 1990 to 48% in 2015. It is projected that by the year 2040, urban regions in SEA account for 60% of its total population. The region is home to 600 million people, with many densely populated cities, including megacities such as Jakarta, Bangkok, and Manila. The region has more than 20,000 islands, and many cities lie on coastal low-lands and floodplains. These geographical characteristics together with the increasing population, infrastructure growth, and changing climate makes the region highly vulnerable to natural hazards. This study assessed urban growth dynamics in major (defined as population exceeding 1 million) SEA cities using remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) data. A recently proposed brightness gradient approach was applied on 21 years (1992-2012) of NTL annual composites to derive core-urban (CU) and peri-urban (PU) regions within each city. The study also assessed the sensitivity of above extracted urban categories to different NTL thresholds. The temporal trends in CU and PU regions were quantified, and compared with trends in socio-economic indicators. The spatial expansion of CU and PU regions were found to depend on geographical constraints and socio-economic factors. Quantification of urban growth spatial-temporal patterns, as conducted here contributes towards the understanding of exposure and vulnerability of people and infrastructures to natural hazards, as well as the evolving trends for assessment under projected urbanization conditions. This will underpin better risk assessment efforts for present and future planning.

  5. Time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and its application to Hualien City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Chan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we propose a time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and apply it to Hualien City, Taiwan. A declustering catalog from 1940 to 2005 was used to build up a long-term seismicity rate model using a smoothing Kernel function. We also evaluated short-term seismicity rate perturbations according to the rate-and-state friction model, and the Coulomb stress changes imparted by earthquakes from 2006 to 2010. We assessed both long-term and short-term probabilistic seismic hazards by considering ground motion prediction equations for crustal and subduction earthquakes. The long-term seismic hazard in Hualien City gave a PGA (peak ground acceleration of 0.46 g for the 2.1‰ annual exceedance probability. The result is similar to the levels determined in previous studies. Seismic hazards were significantly elevated following the 2007 ML =5.8 earthquake that occurred approximately 10 km from Hualien City. This work presents an assessment of a suitable mechanism for time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard determinations using an updated earthquake catalog. Using minor model assumptions, our approach provides a suitable basis for rapid re-evaluations and will benefit decision-makers and public officials regarding seismic hazard mitigation.

  6. Characterisation and systematic assessment of urban open spaces in Glasgow City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salama Ashraf M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban open spaces have substantially contributed to the development of cities in terms of image, function, form, and social engagement, and thus have been a central concern of urban researchers for several decades. This paper contributes to the contemporary urban discourse as it relates to the city and its users. It demonstrates a mechanism for characterisation and systematic assessment of key urban open spaces in Glasgow City Centre. The mechanism is implemented in three layers of investigation that involve the development of space profiles through preliminary observations, an examination of functional, social, and perceptual attributes through a walking tour assessment procedure with checklists and a scoring system, and an understanding of how users perceive and comprehend these spaces through a photographic attitude survey. The paper places emphasis on key findings by conveying similarities and differences between the spaces in terms of assessment outcomes and users’ perception, while revealing their essential attributes and qualities. Conclusions are offered as reflections on the findings while suggesting possibilities for future research through additional complementary layers of investigation.

  7. GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR DRINKING PURPOSES USING GIS MODELLING (CASE STUDY: CITY OF TABRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jeihouni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1 specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, hardness and sulphate (2 mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  8. The Minimum Impact House : Applications of the Frankfurt Prototype for sustainable building in Cities of the European Rhine Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.; Curiel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Minimum Impact House in Frankfurt am Main is a sustainable solution for low cost living within city centers - a prototype typology with minimal footprint, built on a leftover urban space. The planning process itself became part of a scientific study. The ecological advantages of building in the

  9. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION’S CIVIL SOCIETY DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL PLATFORM OF EUROPEAN NGOs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    KUTAY, RIZA ACAR

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation engages in a critical analysis of the involvement of the Brussels- based European NGOs in European governance. It conducts a survey on the European Commission’s relevant initiatives after the 1990s and interrogates the implications of these initiatives on one of the prominent...... European NGO network, the Social Platform of European NGOs. The common understanding conceives of these organizations as conducive to democratization of EU governance within the scope of participatory democracy. However, I endeavour to argue that the Commission has had an aim to make use of the civil...... in Europe. With respect to this goal, it has encouraged the Social Platform to act like its interlocutor vis-à-vis the NGO community organised both at national and European level. Deriving from the Foucaultian concept of governmentality, I inquiry into the effects of this discourse on the Social Platform...

  10. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... 24, 2012 regarding the company's proposed expansion of its LHG facilities in Houston and Texas City... SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance...

  11. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westen, Cees J.; Montoya, L.; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena

    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction‿ a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  12. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Ludlow, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Randall, Scott; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and knowledge, the mutual critical reflection

  13. Assessing the Compliance of Balanced Housing Policy in the Philippines: The Case of Davao City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario G Pampanga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines have suffered continuing setbacks to provide a steady stream of supply of housing needs to the homeless urban poor. The reformist policy through the balanced housing principle of the Urban Development and Housing Act, has augured well as a strategy to cope with the socialized housing demand brought by rapid urbanization. This paper seeks to assess the implementation of the balanced housing policy by the State and the private sector, particularly in Davao city; explore the mechanisms used to ensure compliance including the modalities; and provides policy recommendation for the efficient implementation and compliance with the policy. A structured interview was afforded to 32 housing developers and extensive interview of key informants on the senior staff of city’s Housing and Land Use Regulatory Unit, some members of the city legislative council, and the staff of the regional administrative office of the national government’s Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board. Although there was compliance by the private sector, the developers have tweaked the policy resulting in a considerable loss of housing units in Davao City due to the policy’s ambiguous application. The fragmented and the lack of collaboration between the city government and the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board, have likewise caused a failure in the compliance and monitoring efforts, coupled with the city’s lack of knowledge on the policy’s implementing guidelines. Hence, the city government of Davao needs to approach the problem of growing urban homelessness with creativity and urgency to accelerate the production of socialized housing through the balanced housing development policy.

  14. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  15. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  16. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  17. The impact of heat waves on mortality in 9 European cities: results from the EuroHEAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisanti Luigi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at developing a standardized heat wave definition to estimate and compare the impact on mortality by gender, age and death causes in Europe during summers 1990-2004 and 2003, separately, accounting for heat wave duration and intensity. Methods Heat waves were defined considering both maximum apparent temperature and minimum temperature and classified by intensity, duration and timing during summer. The effect was estimated as percent increase in daily mortality during heat wave days compared to non heat wave days in people over 65 years. City specific and pooled estimates by gender, age and cause of death were calculated. Results The effect of heat waves showed great geographical heterogeneity among cities. Considering all years, except 2003, the increase in mortality during heat wave days ranged from + 7.6% in Munich to + 33.6% in Milan. The increase was up to 3-times greater during episodes of long duration and high intensity. Pooled results showed a greater impact in Mediterranean (+ 21.8% for total mortality than in North Continental (+ 12.4% cities. The highest effect was observed for respiratory diseases and among women aged 75-84 years. In 2003 the highest impact was observed in cities where heat wave episode was characterized by unusual meteorological conditions. Conclusions Climate change scenarios indicate that extreme events are expected to increase in the future even in regions where heat waves are not frequent. Considering our results prevention programs should specifically target the elderly, women and those suffering from chronic respiratory disorders, thus reducing the impact on mortality.

  18. Towards a sampling strategy for the assessment of forest condition at European level: combining country estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Davide; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Barbati, Anna; Bottalico, Francesca; Corona, Piermaria; Ferretti, Marco; Chirici, Gherardo

    2013-04-01

    A correct characterization of the status and trend of forest condition is essential to support reporting processes at national and international level. An international forest condition monitoring has been implemented in Europe since 1987 under the auspices of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The monitoring is based on harmonized methodologies, with individual countries being responsible for its implementation. Due to inconsistencies and problems in sampling design, however, the ICP Forests network is not able to produce reliable quantitative estimates of forest condition at European and sometimes at country level. This paper proposes (1) a set of requirements for status and change assessment and (2) a harmonized sampling strategy able to provide unbiased and consistent estimators of forest condition parameters and of their changes at both country and European level. Under the assumption that a common definition of forest holds among European countries, monitoring objectives, parameters of concern and accuracy indexes are stated. On the basis of fixed-area plot sampling performed independently in each country, an unbiased and consistent estimator of forest defoliation indexes is obtained at both country and European level, together with conservative estimators of their sampling variance and power in the detection of changes. The strategy adopts a probabilistic sampling scheme based on fixed-area plots selected by means of systematic or stratified schemes. Operative guidelines for its application are provided.

  19. Trade sustainability impact assessment - transformation and modelling: roles of the European Union and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Neimane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper as a theoretical perspective based on a literature study addresses trade sustainability impact assessments. They are defined and designed to enhance free trade agreements and conducted either by regional organizations or individual states. The paper includes sections on the historical background of the different generations of the impact assessments (sustainability impact assessment, human rights impact assessment used in the context of international trade, its impact on human rights and relation to environmental refugees, as well as, the influence of the European Union and Switzerland as the international players in shaping these assessments. The conclusion reached in this paper is that although diverse assessment tools are available, there is a need to encourage their greater adoption and use, based upon a holistic approach. The paper highlights the need for the use of theoretical models of trade sustainability impact assessment

  20. Consumer preferences for cultural heritage and tourism e-sevices: A case study of three European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Wadim Strielkowski; Jing Wang; Stephen Platt

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a marketing study aimed at discovering consumer preferences for the e-services in European cultural destinations. Our results are central to eliciting potential consumers’ preferences for tourism and cultural heritage-related e-services. The paper is based on the analysis of user surveys conducted by the authors within the ISAAC EU-funded project in Amsterdam, Genoa and Leipzig in 2007-2009. Three types of consumers were contacted: residents, visitors an...

  1. Real Estate Profitability in three European cities : A quantitative study of risk adjusted returns from real estate investments

    OpenAIRE

    Hagängen, Johan; Najafzadeh, Yashar

    2005-01-01

    This is a study of the profitability of three European real estate markets. The returns from real estate investments in Stockholm, London and Paris are compared on a risk-adjusted basis. The study takes the perspective of a corporate real estate investor, an investment bank, insurance company or other actor who whishes to invest in real estate. Real estate consists of land and any buildings or improvements located on the land. The real estate market has a few characteristics that differentiat...

  2. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma

    2016-01-01

    by national surveys, sales and seizure data. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been shown to be a reliable approach complementing such surveys. METHOD: This study aims to compare and correlate the consumption estimates of pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine from wastewater...... analysis and other sources of information. Wastewater samples were collected in 2015 from 8 different European cities over a one week period, representing a population of approximately 5 million people. Published pharmaceutical sale, illicit drug seizure and alcohol, tobacco and caffeine use data were used...... for the comparison. RESULTS: High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources...

  3. The European City in the Age of Globalisation La ville européenne à l'ère de la globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This conceptual paper identifies a gap between two meaningful fields of research in urban geography : the first, old-established and reinforced by the European integration process, asks for recent and future trends, primarily on intra-urban development of cities on the European scale. The second focuses on inter-urban relations on a global scale, inspired by global city theories established since early 1990s. As a consequence of this research gap, a research agenda has been formulated with the aim to deliver the missing links between these two fields. Therein, three methodological improvements are put forward : first, more research has to be done to prove the widely accepted thesis of an existing link between global integration and internal urban structure. Second, the role of specific national politics for the production of a global city has to be examined – such as the type of welfare-regime or the impact of historical political structures. Finally, global city research should seriously consider the territorial arrangements that impinge upon the development of global cities on a national and a European scale.Cet article conceptuel identifie un écart entre deux grands domaines de recherche en géographie urbaine : le premier, établi de longue date et renforcé par le processus d'intégration européen, se concentre principalement sur les tendances récentes ou à venir en matière de développement intra-urbain à l'échelle européenne. Le second pose la question des relations inter-urbaines à l'échelle globale, née des théories sur la Ville Globale échafaudées depuis le début des années 1990. Au vu de cette lacune, un programme de recherche a été mis en place afin de fournir les chaînons manquants entre ces deux domaines. A cet égard, trois améliorations méthodologiques sont proposées : la première est la nécessité d'accroître le volume des recherches pour prouver la thèse largement admise d'un lien entre int

  4. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Miles, Christopher O.; de la Iglesia, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    ) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight......-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1–12 µg/kg PnTX-G and 26–66 µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively...... indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment....

  5. European Social Work Research Association SIG to Study Decisions, Assessment, and Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian; Killick, Campbell; Bertotti, Teresa; Enosh, Guy; Gautschi, Joel; Hietamäki, Johanna; Sicora, Alessandro; Whittaker, Andrew

    2017-12-13

    The increasing interest in professional judgement and decision making is often separate from the discourse about "risk," and the time-honored focus on assessment. The need to develop research in and across these topics was recognized in the founding of a Decisions, Assessment, and Risk Special Interest Group (DARSIG) by the European Social Work Research Association in 2014. The Group's interests include cognitive judgements; decision processes with clients, families, other professionals and courts; assessment tools and processes; the assessment, communication, and management of risk; and legal, ethical, and emotional aspects of these. This article outlines the founding and scope of DARSIG; gives an overview of decision making, assessment, and risk for practice; illustrates connections between these; and highlights future research directions. Professional knowledge about decision making, assessment, and risk complements knowledge about effectiveness of interventions. DARSIG promises to be a useful mechanism for the purpose.

  6. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  7. Microbial Risk Assessment of Tidal−Induced Urban Flooding in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Quan Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health risks from urban flooding are a global concern. Contaminated floodwater may expose residents living in cities as they are in direct contact with the water. However, the recent literature does not provide much information about this issue, especially for developing countries. In this paper, the health risk due to a flood event occurred in Can Tho City (Mekong Delta, Vietnam on 7 October 2013 was investigated. The Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment method was used in this study. The data showed that the pathogen concentrations were highly variable during the flood event and exceeded water standards for surface water. Per 10,000 people in contact with the floodwater, we found Salmonella caused the highest number of infections to adults and children (137 and 374, respectively, while E. coli caused 4 and 12 cases, per single event, respectively. The results show that further investigations on health risk related to flood issues in Can Tho City are required, especially because of climate change and urbanization. In addition, activities to raise awareness- about floods, e.g., “living with floods”, in the Mekong Delta should also consider health risk issues.

  8. Assessment of forest fire impacts and emissions in the European Union based on the European forest fire information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo Barbosa; Andrea Camia; Jan Kucera; Giorgio Libertá; Ilaria Palumbo; Jesus San-Miguel-Ayanz; Guido Schmuck

    2009-01-01

    An analysis on the number of forest fires and burned area distribution as retrieved by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) database is presented. On average, from 2000 to 2005 about...

  9. CERTAIN ASSESSMENTS RELATED TO THE IMPORTANCE OF EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EUROPEAN LAW SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca, GHERGHINA; Ana-Maria, GHERGHINA

    2013-01-01

    Being so intensely debated in the contemporary world, the human rights issues is acquiring a well defined contour through the human rights protection systems. The role of these systems is to establish a series of fundamental rights and freedoms, so that they can no longer be violated. The main systems of promotion and protection of human rights are: the Inter-American system of human rights protection, the African system and the European system. Two years before the European Convention on Hum...

  10. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities Part II. Ozone-induced plant injury and its relationship with descriptors of ozone pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of a biomonitoring study conducted in twelve urban agglomerations in eight European countries, the ozone-sensitive bioindicator plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bel-W3 was employed in order to assess the occurrence of phytotoxic ozone effects at urban, suburban, rural and traffic......-exposed sites. The tobacco plants were exposed to ambient air for biweekly periods at up to 100 biomonitoring sites from 2000 to 2002. Special emphasis was placed upon methodological standardisation of plant cultivation, field exposure and injury assessment. Ozone-induced leaf injury showed a clearly increasing...... gradient from northern and northwestern Europe to central and southern European locations. The strongest ozone impact occurred at the exposure sites in Lyon and Barcelona, while in Edinburgh, Sheffield, Copenhagen and Düsseldorf only weak to moderate ozone effects were registered. Between-site differences...

  11. Assessment of the Phytotoxicity of Soils on Main Streets of Voronezh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Klevtsova, M. A.; Lepeshkina, L. A.; Mikheev, A. A.; Yeprintsev, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    This research looks at the results of a study assessment of phytotoxicity soils of the main streets of the city Voronezh. The experiments were performed under ecologo-analitic laboratory Voronezh State University conditions over a 21-day evaluation period. The phytotoxic effect germination was analyzed on Avena sativa L. seeds, germination energy, morphological parameters of seedlings, and plant biomass. The research soil samples had both an inhibitory and stimulating effect on the growth of the above-ground part of the seedlings and roots Avena sativa. The sections of main streets with increased phytotoxicity soils were revealed. It is recommended to carry out measures to reduce the phytotoxicity of urban soils.

  12. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB, one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR. After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX and non-exhaust (NEX contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m−3 (16–32 % to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m−3 (15–36 % to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics in PM2.5 (37–82 % but also in PM10 (40–71 %, mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB contributions vary widely, from 14–24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to  <  2 % in BCN-UB. In PM2.5, BB is the second most important source in MLN-UB (21 % and in POR-TR (18 %, the third one in FI-UB (21 % and ATH-SUB (11 %, but is again negligible (< 2 % in BCN-UB. This large variability among cities is mostly due to the degree of penetration of biomass for residential heating. In Barcelona natural gas is very well supplied across the city and is used as fuel in 96 % of

  13. Assessing school disaster preparedness by applying a comprehensive school safety framework: A case of elementary schools in Banda Aceh City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, A.; Bisri, M. B. F.; Oda, T.; Oktari, R. S.; Murayama, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The study assessed the depth of school disaster safety at public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia in terms of comprehensive school safety, especially school location, disaster management and disaster education. The findings indicate that 56% of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City are exposed to high tsunami risk, and most externally driven school disaster preparedness activities were not continued by the schools due to lack of ownership and funding. To realize comprehensive school safety, disaster preparedness programs should neither be brought in by external donors, nor be in a patchwork. Rather, it should be conducted jointly and sustainably by the local school and the community and supported by multi-sectoral support in the city. Comprehensive school safety of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City could be realized by reviewing, updating and localizing school disaster preparedness programs by all the education partners in the city with strong political will and commitment.

  14. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines in influent wastewater of eight European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.

    2017-01-01

    (SPE) with Oasis MCX cartridges. Isotopically labelled internal standards were used to correct for matrix effects and potential SPE losses. Following chromatographic separation on a C18 column within 6 min, the compounds were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ionization mode. The method...... relatively stable for up to 7 days. The method was then applied to influent wastewater samples from eight European countries, in which mephedrone, methylone and MDPV were detected. This work reveals that although NPS use is not as extensive as for classic illicit drugs, the application of a highly sensitive...... analytical procedure makes their detection in wastewater possible. The developed analytical methodology forms the basis of a subsequent model-based back-calculation of abuse rate in urban areas (i.e. wastewater-based epidemiology)....

  15. Integrated Approach for the Assessment of Land Deformation in the Jazan City and Surroundings, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, H. G.; Sultan, M.; Elkadiri, R.; AlMogren, S. M.; Gebremichael, E.; Ahmed, M.; Emil, M.; Othman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Jazan City is a growing (in size and population) industrial city in the Jazan Province and an important port on the Red Sea coastline of Saudi Arabia. Parts of the city are built on sabkha deposits and others on a salt plateau (diaper) that intrudes overlying sedimentary sequences. Both areas are reported to experience various degrees of ground deformation, causing severe damages to buildings and infrastructure. An integrated study involving remote sensing (i.e. optical, multispectral, and radar) and geophysical (gravity) was applied to address the following objectives: (1) identification of the spatial distribution and areal extent of lithologic units in the study area, (2) assessment of the factors controlling the deformation, (3) locating the areas that are most susceptible to present and future deformation, and (4) quantifying the relative deformation rates in various parts of the city. The following methodology was adopted: (1) deformation rates were extracted applying both Persistent Scatterer (PS) and Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) radar interferometric techniques using seven Envisat scenes over a time span of six years (from 2003 to 2009), (2) the extracted deformation rates were correlated spatially in a GIS platform with relevant datasets (e.g. lithology, soil type, geologic structures, subsurface data) to identify the factors controlling land deformation, and (3) temporal datasets (e.g. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; TRMM) were used to investigate whether deformation rates are affected by rainfall intensity. Our preliminary findings indicate a spatial correspondence between the PS results: (1) subsidence rates (-1.4 mm/yr) correlates with the distribution of the mapped sabkha units and uplift rates (0.95 mm/yr) with the mapped distribution of salt dome plateau outcrops. The sabkha subsidence could be associated with agricultural activities, poor waste management practices, and large rainfall events that induce salt removal from the sabkha soil

  16. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  17. How to assess the emergence of the European Pirate Parties. Towards a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Uszkai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the emergence of the pirate movements in the European Union. Our goal is to sketch the steps towards a research agenda for this grassroots political movement which gained momentum since 2009. To attain our goal we showed the re-signification of the concept of piracy in the debate around intellectual property and its institutional settlement. Afterwards we analysed the big political themes of several European Pirate Parties and their struggle to follow the preferences of the median voter. We concluded with a set of hypotheses of which the most important is that the pirates will inscribe neither to the left nor to the right part of the political spectrum.

  18. A Model for Assessing Pedestrian Corridors. Application to Vitoria-Gasteiz City (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Delso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From a mobility perspective, walking is considered to be the most sustainable transport mode. One of the consequences of motor-oriented urban configuration on pedestrian mobility is urban fragmentation, which affects sustainability in cities. In this paper, we use a natural-based approach to landscape fragmentation and connectivity (inherited from landscape ecology for pedestrian mobility planning. Our aim is to design a useful methodology to identify priority pedestrian corridors, and to assess the effects of implementing barrier-free pedestrian corridors in the city. For this purpose, we developed a method that integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS network analysis with kernel density methods, which are commonly used for designating habitat corridors. It was applied to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain. Pedestrian mobility was assessed by comparison of travel times between different scenarios. Results show that the implementation of pedestrian corridors reduces travel time by approximately 6%. Thus, an intervention in a small percentage of the city’s street network could considerably reduce pedestrian travel times. The proposed methodology is a useful tool for urban and transport planners to improve pedestrian mobility and manage motorised traffic.

  19. Cancer Risk Assessment From Multi-Exposure to Chloroform in Drinking Water of Ilam City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Arman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Among various trihalomethane (THM compounds, chloroform is considered to be the main compound and was selected as an indicator of THMs in this study. This study aims to calculate and assess the lifetime cancer risks resulting from chloroform intakes of various exposure routes in Ilam’s urban drinking water. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The results showed that average chloroform concentrations in different districts were between 20 and 30.3 μg/L, and the highest concentrations were detected in district 4 with a value of 32.2 μg/L. All water samples contained concentrations of chloroform below the standards of the world health organization (WHO and the institute of standards and industrial research of Iran (ISIRI. Assessment of lifetime cancer risks was carried out using prediction models for different exposure routes, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal routes for people living in Ilam city. The highest risk from chloroform seems to be from the oral ingestion route, followed by inhalation and dermal absorption. The maximum and minimum lifetime cancer risks were 6.59 × 10 - 6 and 5.95 × 10 - 6 in districts 4 and 3, respectively. It was also concluded that the average lifetime cancer risk was 6.26 × 10 - 6 in all districts. Based on the population data, the total number of expected lifetime cancer cases from exposure to chloroform is 1 for Ilam city.

  20. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  1. Risk Assessment of Metals in Urban Soils from a Typical Industrial City, Suzhou, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Liu, Hou-Qi; Gong, Yu; Wei, Yang; Miao, Ai-Jun; Yang, Liu-Yan; Zhong, Huan

    2017-01-01

    Risk of metals in urban soils is less studied, compared to that in other types of soils, hindering accurate assessment of human exposure to metals. In this study, the concentrations of five metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg) were analyzed in 167 surface soil samples collected from Suzhou city and their potential ecological and human health risks were assessed. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg except Cr, were higher than the background values in Jiangsu Province. Metal concentrations varied among districts, where sites of high contamination showed a punctate distribution. Principal components and correlation analyses revealed that As, Pb, and Cd could originate from the same sources. The geo-accumulation (Igeo) and potential ecological risk indices (RI) were calculated and the relatively low values of Igeo (metals were relatively low for Suzhou residents (i.e., average hazard index or HI: 0.1199 for adults and 0.5935 for children, metals could help better understand the risks of metals in urban soils of industrial cities in China. PMID:28880235

  2. Assessment of Seasonal and Annual Rainfall Trends and Variability in Sharjah City, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Merabtene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a few studies on rainfall spatial and temporal variability in the UAE have been carried out, evidence of the impact of climate change on rainfall trends has not been reported. This study aims at assessing the significance of long-term rainfall trends and temporal variability at Sharjah City, UAE. Annual rainfall and seasonal rainfall extending over a period of 81 years (1934–2014 recorded at Sharjah International Airport have been analyzed. To this end, several parametric and nonparametric statistical measures have been applied following systematic data quality assessment. The analyses revealed that the annual rainfall trend decreased from −3 mm to −9.4 mm per decade over the study periods. The decreasing annual rainfall trend is mainly driven by the significant drop in winter rainfall, particularly during the period from 1977 to 2014. The results also indicate that high probability extreme events have shifted toward low frequency (12.7 years with significant variations in monthly rainfall patterns and periodicity. The findings of the present study suggest reevaluating the derivation of design rainfall for infrastructure of Sharjah City and urge developing an integrated framework for its water resources planning and risk under climate change impacts scenarios.

  3. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  4. Health technology assessment of medical devices: What is different? An overview of three European projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Mayer, Julia; Lauterberg, Jörg; Hunger, Theresa; Arvandi, Marjan; Conrads-Frank, Annette; Nachtnebel, Anna; Wild, Claudia; Siebert, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    With the growing use and importance of health technology assessment (HTA) in decision making during recent years, health technology assessors, decision makers and stakeholders are confronted with methodological challenges due to specific characteristics of health technologies (e. g., pharmaceuticals, diagnostic tests, screening programs), their developmental environment, and their regulation process. Being aware of the necessity to use HTA as a policy instrument for sustainable health care systems in a regulatory environment of decentralized Conformité Européenne (CE) marking, the European Union (EU) is increasingly supporting the development of methods for the assessment of medical devices (MD) on different levels: within the scope of European research projects and within joint assessment activities of the member states of the European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA). First, this article describes three projects: MedtecHTA-Methods for Health Technology Assessment of Medical Devices, a European Perspective Work Package 3 (WP3), Comparative Effectiveness of Medical Devices led by the University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology (UMIT). Second, we discuss the experiences of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Technology Assessment (LBI HTA) with the joint production of rapid assessments of medical devices by several European HTA agencies within EUnetHTA. Third, a brief outline is given of the framework of joint methodological guideline elaboration by the EUnetHTA partner organizations because a guideline for therapeutic MD is also being developed here. We will describe aims, methods and some preliminary results of MedtecHTA and EUnetHTA Joint Action 2 Work Package 5 Strand B (WP5B) applying the HTA Core Model for Rapid Assessment for national adaptation and reporting, and give an overview of the development process of methodological guidelines within WP 7 of EUnetHTA Joint Action 2. Based on a literature review in Medtec

  5. Zinc status, psychological and nutritional assessment in old people recruited in five European countries: Zincage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Fiorella; Giuli, Cinzia; Papa, Roberta; Gagliardi, Cristina; Dedoussis, George; Herbein, George; Fulop, Tamas; Monti, Daniela; Rink, Lothar; Jajte, Jolanta; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the results on the relationship between zinc status, psychological dimensions (cognitive functions, mood, perceived stress) and nutritional aspects in European healthy old subjects recruited for ZINCAGE Project (supported by the European Commission in the Sixth Framework Programme). The old healthy subjects were recruited in Italy, Greece, Germany, France, Poland taking into account the different dietary habits between Northern and Southern European Countries and the pivotal role played by zinc for psychological functions. Measures of the cognitive status, mood and perceived stress level were obtained at baseline, using the "Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)"; the "Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS - 15 items)" and the "Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)", respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using "Frequency Food Questionnaire". The sample included 853 old subjects, classified in 4 groups of age: 60-69-years-old (n = 359); 70-74-years-old (n = 225); 75-79-years-old (n = 153); 80-84-years-old (n = 116). Subjects were studied on the basis of plasma zinc, in which zinc cognitive decline, whereas 76% presented a low GDS value indicating no depression. However, all psychological variables were related to plasma zinc values and nutritional assessment. In particular, a relationship between marginal zinc deficiency and impaired psychological dimensions occurred in Greece than in other European countries due to low intake and less variety of foods rich of zinc. This phenomenon was independent by the age, suggesting that a correct zinc intake from a wide range of foods may be useful to maintain a satisfactory plasma zinc levels as well as psychological status in elderly with subsequent achievement of healthy ageing.

  6. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by applying the modified DRASTIC model in Beihai City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Bin; Ma, Chuanming

    2018-02-21

    This study assesses vulnerability of groundwater to pollution in Beihai City, China, as a support of groundwater resource protection. The assessment result not only objectively reflects potential possibility of groundwater to contamination but also provides scientific basis for the planning and utilization of groundwater resources. This study optimizes the parameters consisting of natural factors and human factors upon the DRASTIC model and modifies the ratings of these parameters, based on the local environmental conditions for the study area. And a weight of each parameter is assigned by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to reduce the subjectivity of humans to vulnerability assessment. The resulting scientific ratings and weights of modified DRASTIC model (AHP-DRASTLE model) contribute to obtain the more realistic assessment of vulnerability of groundwater to contaminant. The comparison analysis validates the accuracy and rationality of the AHP-DRASTLE model and shows it suits the particularity of the study area. The new assessment method (AHP-DRASTLE model) can provide a guide for other scholars to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination. The final vulnerability map for the AHP-DRASTLE model shows four classes: highest (2%), high (29%), low (55%), and lowest (14%). The vulnerability map serves as a guide for decision makers on groundwater resource protection and land use planning at the regional scale and that it is adapted to a specific area.

  8. Preliminary assessment report for Waiawa Gulch, Installation 15080, Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Hawaii Army National Guard (HIARNG) property near Pearl City, Oahu, Hawaii. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Waiawa Gulch property, phase I of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program (IRP).

  9. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Bade, Richard; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Hernàndez, Félix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Ramin, Pedram; Ryu, Yeonsuk; Thomas, Kevin V; van Nuijs, Alexander; Yang, Zhugen; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-09-15

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This study applied the WBE approach for the first time to evaluate human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were highest for organophosphates and lowest for triazines. Different patterns were observed among the cities and for the various classes of pesticides. Population weighted loads of specific biomarkers indicated higher exposure in Castellon, Milan, Copenhagen and Bristol for pyrethroids, and in Castellon, Bristol and Zurich for organophosphates. The lowest mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were found in Utrecht and Oslo. These results were in agreement with several national statistics related to pesticides exposure such as pesticides sales. The daily intake of pyrethroids was estimated in each city and it was found to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) only in one city (Castellon, Spain). This was the first large-scale application of WBE to monitor population exposure to pesticides. The results indicated that WBE can give new information about the "average exposure" of the population to pesticides, and is a useful complementary biomonitoring tool to study population-wide exposure to pesticides. Copyright

  10. European network for health technology assessment, EUnetHTA: planning, development, and implementation of a sustainable European network for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Neikter, Susanna Allgurin; Rehnqvist, Nina; Håheim, Lise Lund; Mørland, Berit; Milne, Ruairidh; Nielsen, Camilla Palmhøj; Busse, Reinhard; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; Wild, Claudia; Espallargues, Mireia; Chamova, Julia

    2009-12-01

    The European network on Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) aimed to produce tangible and practical results to be used in the various phases of health technology assessment and to establish a framework and processes to support this. This article presents the background, objectives, and organization of EUnetHTA, which involved a total of sixty-four partner organizations. Establishing an effective and sustainable structure for a transnational network involved many managerial, policy, and methodological tools, according to the objective of each task or Work Package. Transparency in organization, financial transactions, and decision making was a key principle in the management of the Project as was the commitment to appropriately involve stakeholders. EUnetHTA activities resulted in a clear management and governance structure, efficient partnership, and transnational cooperation. The Project developed a model for sustainable continuation of the EUnetHTA Collaboration. The EUnetHTA Project achieved its goals by producing a suite of practical tools, a strong network, and plans for continuing the work in a sustainable EUnetHTA Collaboration that facilitates and promotes the use of HTA at national and regional levels. Responsiveness to political developments in Europe should be balanced with maintaining a high level of ambition to promote independent, evidence-based information and well-tested tools for best practice based on a strong network of HTA institutions.

  11. Comparison of Chemical, Biological and Physical Quality Assessment of Indoor Swimming Pools in Shahrekord City, Iran in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Fadaei, Abdolmajid; Amiri, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mismanaged swimming pools could transmit water-borne diseases. The objective of the present study was the quality assessment of chemical, biological and physical characteristics of swimming pools in Shahrekord city, southwest of Iran. The two main indoor swimming pools of Shahrekord city were considered during the summer and winter of 2013. The number of 459 samples were analysed from swimming pools, showers and dressing rooms for chemical, biological and phys...

  12. A Critical Assessment of a Eurosceptic Party Group on European Integration: A Case Study of the European Conservatives and Reformists Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbaba Sertan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores Euroscepticism and the way it is utilized within the politics of Europe, analyzed upon evidence from a Eurosceptic Euro-party located in the European Parliament, namely the European Conservatives and Reformists Group (ECR. The aim of this article is to clarify that the selected party> disproves the argument of EU- criticism being an unfavourable condition, and, more importantly, its contribution to the political contestation in the EU. For such an assessment, a survey of the party> manifesto, party working documents, as well as the discourses of the Member of the European Parliament (MEPs will be analyzed, and the concept of Euroscepticism will be once again in the centre of this analysis. This argument is evaluated based on the transnational-level analysis of the aforementioned party, focusing primarily on three specific issues-the democratic deficit, the issue of sovereignty! and anti-immigration rhetoric.

  13. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values. This approach is problematic, because fluoxetine is predominantly a cationic substance at environmental pH values. Consequently, the fate of fluoxetine (and other ionic substances) cannot be predicted using partition coefficients established for nonionic compounds. Further, published estimates for partition coefficients of fluoxetine vary, resulting in considerable uncertainties in both the

  15. STUDY OF WATER QUALITY OF SYLHET CITY AND ITS RESTAURANTS: HEALTH ASSOCIATED RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alam, J. B. Alam, M. M. Hasan, S. R. Das, K. Rahman, B. K. Banik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available study of the water quality conditions of Sylhet city of Bangladesh and its restaurants was carried out to assess risks to human health. The investigation was based on questionnaire survey of restaurants and laboratory tests on water samples obtained from the restaurants, tube wells of the city and Surma River the two main sources of water supply to the city. The test parameters were dissolved oxygen; conductance, hardness, pH, temperature, turbidity, essential and trace elements, dissolved and suspended solids and coliform bacteria. The quality of sanitary facilities and handling of food in the restaurants were also examined. It was found that the drinking water of each restaurant was contaminated with fecal coliforms and 25% restaurants had unsafe levels of iron in the water supply. Improper solid waste dumping was found as one of the reasons of groundwater pollution. Statistical analysis based on Pearson’s correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between the extent of groundwater pollution and dumping of solid waste effluents in the immediate vicinity of ground water (tube wells. It was observed that 75.69% (coefficient of determination r2= 0.7569 variation in the value of groundwater near the dumping place showed association with variation in the value of water quality within the dumping place. Health risk score for coliform bacteria was 1,474.77, indicating high risk. The results of the study help in enhancing awareness of health hazards of contaminated food among the consumers as well as in drawing attention of health regulatory authorities.

  16. Assessment of allergenicity to fungal allergens of Rohtak city, Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Sanjeeta; Ahlawat, Manisha; Chaudhary, Dhruva

    2014-01-01

    Fungal spores are known as one of the important bioparticles causing allergic manifestation in human beings. Hence, knowledge of season and prevalence of the airborne allergens to which the patients are exposed is a prerequisite for proper diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders in hypersensitive individuals. Keeping this in view, aerial survey was performed in the atmosphere of Rohtak city for 2 consecutive years (March 2008–February 2010), using a volumetric petri plate sampler. A total of 45 fungal spore types were recorded during the survey period. In the present study, February–April and July–November were identified as the peak seasons for Rohtak city. Cladosporium was the main contributor to the total fungal load with 25.14% followed by Alternaria (18.05%), Aspergillus niger (7.66%), Curvularia (5.31%), and Epicoccum (5.29%). Fifteen dominant viable fungal spore types were represented in the form of a fungal calendar. An attempt has also been made to assess the allergenicity of some of the fungal types recorded from the atmosphere of Rohtak city. The magnitude of variations observed in markedly positive skin reactions (2+ and above) varied from 17.3 to 2.3%. Penicillium oxalicum showed a markedly positive reaction in maximum number of patients (26; 17.3%) followed by Rhizopus nigricans (23; 15.3%). ELISA was performed with the sera of patients showing markedly positive skin reactions and the sera were classified into four groups based on percent binding. The majority of the sera showed 0–15% binding to different antigenic extracts, while sera showing >60% binding were least in number. Greater than 30% binding was observed against antigens of Rhizopus nigricans, Epicoccum purpurascens, Penicillium oxalicum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Neurospora sitophila. The concordance between positive skin reaction and serum-specific IgE antibodies ranged from 16.7 to 69.2%. PMID:24988378

  17. An assessment of disaster-related mortality post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tacloban City was seriously affected by Typhoon Haiyan with 2321 deaths distributed across its 138 villages and subvillages. In January 2014, a team from the Department of Health conducted a mortality assessment to identify risk factors for deaths that occurred during Typhoon Haiyan. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted in the four coastal villages in Tacloban City with the highest numbers of typhoon-associated deaths. A case was defined as a person who died in Tacloban City during Typhoon Haiyan and whose body was recovered and identified. Controls were selected from surviving family members. Information about typhoon-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the cases was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Results: There were 100 cases and 100 controls included in the study. The cause of death for all cases was drowning, and all bodies were found inside or near their house. Multivariate analysis identified that the significant risk factors for mortality due to Haiyan were not evacuating before the storm hit (odds ratio [OR] = 10.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8–29.1 and exiting their house during the storm (OR = 3.6; 95% CI: 1.9–7.1. Proxies reported that all cases had heard about the coming typhoon, but that 88% did not understand the message about the storm surge. Ninety-five per cent of cases did not evacuate because they did not expect the magnitude of storm. Conclusion: Warning messages delivered before and during emergencies should be conveyed in terms understood by the population at risk. We recommend that the results from this study be used to develop more effective messages to be used before future disasters.

  18. Strategic Environmental Assessment practices in European small islands: Insights from Azores and Orkney islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polido, Alexandra, E-mail: a.polido@campus.fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); João, Elsa, E-mail: elsa.joao@strath.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Level 5, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ramos, Tomás B., E-mail: tabr@fct.unl.pt [CENSE, Center for Environmental and Sustainability Research, Departamento de Ciências e Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    The literature concerning Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) often refers to the importance of context-specific approaches. However, there is a lack of systematised and consistent studies that enhance tailor-made SEA practices and procedures. Small islands are bounded units of study which may help explore SEA theory and practice in special territories. Small islands present particular features and unique values, such as, small size and population, geographic isolation, limited resources and vulnerable ecosystems. Hence, the main goal of this research was to profile SEA practices and procedures in European small islands and provide a background for future research aiming to improve context-specific SEA applications. To achieve this goal, an exploratory case study was developed using Azores (Portugal) and Orkney (Scotland) archipelagos. An analysis of the corresponding mainland was also carried out to contextualise both case studies. The data collection was achieved through a qualitative content analysis of 43 Environmental Reports. The research found that there is not an SEA context-specific approach used within these European small islands, including guidelines, assessment topics, assessment techniques, follow-up and stakeholders engagement. The debate concerning specific approaches to small islands must be re-focused on the enhancement of SEA capacity-building amongst different stakeholders (including decision-makers), on the development and implementation of collaborative approaches, and on the exchange of knowledge and experiences between small islands networks. - Highlights: • Reviewed the differences between the Portuguese and Scottish SEA system • Showed a low integration of SEA specific features in reports of European small islands • Provides background for future SEA research for small islands approaches.

  19. Pan-European Coastal Erosion and Accretion: translating incomplete data and information for coastal reslience assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heteren, Sytze; Moses, Cherith; van der Ven, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    EMODnet has changed the face of the European marine data landscape and is developing tools to connect national data and information resources to make them easily available for multiple users, for multiple purposes. Building on the results of EUROSION, an EU-project completed some ten years ago, EMODnet-Geology has been compiling coastal erosion and sedimentation data and information for all European shorelines. Coverage is being expanded, and data and information are being updated. Challenges faced during this compilation phase are posed by a) differences between parameters used as indicators of shoreline migration, b) restricted access to third-party data, and c) data gaps. There are many indicators of coastal behaviour, with inherent incompatibilities and variations between low-lying sediment and cliffed rock shorelines. Regionally, low data availability and limited access result in poor coverage. With Sentinel data expected to become increasingly available, it is time to invest in automated methods to derive coastal-erosion data from satellite monitoring. Even so, consistency of data and derived information on coastal erosion and accretion does not necessarily translate into usability in pan-European coastal-zone management. Indicators of shoreline change need to be assessed and weighted regionally in light of other parameters in order to be of value in assessing coastal resilience or vulnerability. There is no single way to portray coastal vulnerability for all of Europe in a meaningful way. A common legend, however attractive intuitively, results in data products that work well for one region but show insufficient or excessive detail elsewhere. For decision making, uniform products are often not very helpful. The ability to zoom in on different spatial levels is not a solution either. It is better to compile and visualize vulnerability studies with different legends, and to provide each map with a confidence assessment and other relevant metadata.

  20. Factors associated with diabetes mellitus among adults with tuberculosis in a large European city, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martínez, A; Casals, M; Orcau, À; Gorrindo, P; Masdeu, E; Caylà, J A

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute to the development of tuberculosis (TB). To analyse the prevalence of DM and its associated factors among adults with TB in a large city in an industrialised country. This is a population-based study in adults diagnosed with TB between 2000 and 2013 in Barcelona. We studied potentially associated sociodemographic and clinical/epidemiological factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 5849 TB patients, 349 (5.9%) had DM. The annual prevalence of DM ranged from 4.0% to 7.2%. Factors associated with DM were being Spanish-born (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.11-1.96), age ⩾40 years (OR 6.08, 95%CI 4.36-8.66), cavitary patterns on chest X-ray (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.08-1.86), experiencing more side effects due to anti-tuberculosis treatment (OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.28-2.64) and hospitalisation at the time of diagnosis (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.40-2.31). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was associated with a lower probability of DM in both subjects with a history of injection drug use (OR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.57) and those without (OR 0.04, 95%CI 0.002-0.19). DM prevalence among adults with TB in Barcelona is low and remained stable over the 14-year study period. However, TB patients with DM were potentially more infectious and their clinical management was more complicated.

  1. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  2. Productivity Assessment and Improvement Measurement of Decision Making Units--An Application for Ranking Cities in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yossi; Keren, Baruch; Ben-Yair, Avner

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will demonstrate how productivity and improvement rate of urban organizational units (called also Decision Making Units--DMUs) may be assessed when measured along several time periods. The assessment and subsequent ranking of cities is achieved by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to determine DMU's…

  3. 77 FR 3775 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for Proposed Federal Building Kansas City, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for Proposed Federal Building Kansas City... environmental assessment (EA), that analyzes the environmental impacts of constructing and operating a proposed... the draft EA, including the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action...

  4. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  5. Curriculum structure, content, learning and assessment in European undergraduate dental education - update 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manogue, M

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents an updated statement on behalf of the Association for Dental Education in Europe (ADEE) in relation to proposals for undergraduate Curriculum Structure, Content, Learning, Assessment and Student \\/ Staff Exchange for dental education in Europe. A task force was constituted to consider these issues and the two previous, related publications produced by the Association (Plasschaert et al 2006 and 2007) were revised. The broad European dental community was circulated and contributed to the revisions. The paper was approved at the General Assembly of ADEE, held in Amsterdam in August 2010 and will be updated again in 2015.

  6. A pan-European quantitative assessment of soil loss by wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion by wind is a serious environmental problem often low perceived but resulting in severe soil degradation forms. On the long-term a considerable part of topsoil - rich in nutrient and organic matters - could be removed compromising the agricultural productivity and inducing an increased use of fertilizers. Field scale studies and observations proven that wind erosion is a serious problem in many European sites. The state-of-the-art suggests a scenario where wind erosion locally affects the temperate climate areas of the northern European countries, as well as the semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean region. However, observations, field measurements and modelling assessments are extremely limited and unequally distributed across Europe. It implies a lack of knowledge about where and when wind erosion occurs, limiting policy actions aimed at mitigating land degradation. To gain a better understanding about soil degradation process, the Soil Resource Assessment working group of the Joint Research Centre carried out the first pan-European assessments of wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) (Geoderma, 232, 471-478, 2014) and land susceptibility to wind erosion (Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2318). Today's challenge is to integrate the insights archived by these pan-European assessments, local experiments and field-scale models into a new generation of regional-scale wind erosion models. A GIS version of the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) was developed with the aim to i) move a step forward into the aforementioned challenges, and ii) evaluate the soil loss potential due to wind erosion in the agricoltural land of the EU. The model scheme was designed to describe daily soil loss potential, combining spatiotemporal conditions of soil erodibility, crust factor, soil moisture content, vegetation coverage and wind erosivity at 1 km2 resolution. The average soil loss predicted by GIS-RWEQ in the EU arable land ranges from 0 to 39.9 Mg ha-1 yr

  7. Continental level landslide susceptibility assessment in the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Hervás, J.; Malet, J.; Guzzetti, F.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of the European Union's Soil Thematic Strategy, and the formulation of a draft of a European framework directive devoted to the sustainable protection of soil, landslides are recognized as one of the eight soil threats requiring harmonized spatial hazard assessments over the EU territory. The general framework for the harmonized assessment of soil threats (namely erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation, compaction, landslides, contamination, sealing and loss of biodiversity) consists of a nested geographical approach based on "Tiers", where a semi-quantitative, low-resolution (1:1 million) evaluation ("Tier 1") using already available pan-European datasets should enable the delineation of priority areas requiring more detailed quantitative inventory-based assessments with additional data ("Tier 2"). In this contribution, we present the elaboration of a continental level "Tier 1" generic landslide susceptibility model based on a heuristic, spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) approach exploiting the most important conditioning factors for landslides being slope gradient, lithology and land cover. Additionally, extensive landslide locations available at regional and national levels were collected, harmonized and standardized over the EU territory to obtain a signal for input parameter specification and model calibration, evaluation and classification. Since the analyzed area is highly complex in terms of climatic, physiographic and seismotectonic conditions controlling landslide occurrences, a terrain differentiation based on climatic and geomorphologic criteria is proposed to delineate distinct zones to which specific predictor class weights have been allocated through the SMCE approach for susceptibility evaluation. The heuristic indexing scheme is cross-validated with multivariate statistical evaluations in representative areas for which detailed inventory information is available. The resulting pan-European susceptibility estimate

  8. Using city-wide mobile noise assessments to estimate bicycle trip annual exposure to Black Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that a significant amount of daily air pollution exposure, in particular Black Carbon (BC), is inhaled during bicycle trips. Previously, the instantaneous BC exposure of cyclists was modeled as the sum of a background concentration and a local traffic related component based on a local assessment of traffic noise. We present a fast and low cost methodology to achieve a city-wide assessment of yearly average BC exposure of cyclists along their trips, based on a city-wide mobile noise sensing campaign. The methodology requires participatory sensing measurements of noise, partially combined with BC and/or other air pollutants sensitive to local traffic variations. The combined measurements cover the spatial and meteorological variability and provide the data for an instantaneous exposure model. The mobile noise-only measurements map the full city; and yearly meteorology statistics are used to extrapolate the instantaneous exposure model to a yearly average map of in-traffic air pollution exposure. Less than four passages at each segment along the network with mobile noise equipment are necessary to reach a standard error of 500 ng/m(3) for the yearly average BC exposure. A strong seasonal effect due to the BC background concentration is detected. The background contributes only 25% to the total trip exposure during spring and summer. During winter the background component increases to 50-60%. Engine related traffic noise along the bicyclist's route is a valid indicator of the BC exposure along the route, independent of the seasonal background. Low exposure route selection results in an exposure reduction of 35% in winter and 60% in summer, sensitive to the weather conditions, specific trip attributes and the available alternatives. The methodology is relevant for further research into the local effects of air pollution on health. Mobile noise mapping adds local traffic data including traffic dynamics into the air pollution exposure

  9. National Assessment of Tree City USA Participation According to Geography and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree City USA is a national program that recognizes municipal commitment to community forestry. In return for meeting program requirements, Tree City USA participants expect social, economic, and/or environmental benefits. Understandingthe geographic distribution and socioeconomi...

  10. Compared assessment of selected environmental indicators of photovoltaic electricity in OECD cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-03

    Energy Return Factor (ERF) and one environmental indicator, the potential for CO{sub 2} emissions mitigation. All factors are dependant on the PV installation location. EPBT and ERF are calculated with the yearly energy production which depends on the amount of sun at a location and the environmental indicator depends on the local electricity mix. The performance of PV systems is therefore assessed on a country-by-country basis and even a city-by-city approach in larger countries where the potential for urban-scale integrated PV is highest, with a view to both better reflect the varying reality and to facilitate the use of the results at national and local levels. The global range for 41 main cities in 26 OECD countries are presented in the second section of the study and detailed results on a country-by-country - and city-by-city when relevant - basis are given in the third part. Finally, some indications of comparison and ranking between countries are given in annexes for the purpose of comparison of an individual country's performance amongst the others. These figures clearly demonstrate how beneficial urban-scale PV systems are for reducing the use of highly polluting conventional energy sources and for contributing to improving the general efficiency of large cities wherever they are located worldwide. Country results can be used to raise the awareness of politicians and decision-makers at national level in order to accelerate the development and the deployment of PV technologies in a given country. (au)

  11. Environmental assessment of sewer construction in small to medium sized cities using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In a world with an increasing urban population, analysing the construction impacts of sanitation infrastructures through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is necessary for defining the best environmental management strategies. In this study, the environmental impacts of one linear meter of sewer constructive solution were analysed for different pipe materials and diameters used in Southern Europe; a unit of different sewer appurtenances (pump, manhole and inspection chamber) was also considered. Th...

  12. A global economic assessment of city policies to reduce climate change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrada, Francisco; Botzen, W. J.Wouter; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change impacts can be especially large in cities. Several large cities are taking climate change into account in long-term strategies, for which it is important to have information on the costs and benefits of adaptation. Studies on climate change impacts in cities mostly focus on a limited

  13. A decadência da cidade européia: tendência social ou repetição de uma figura retórica? Decline of the European city: a social tendency or a rhetoric figure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gegner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Há décadas, a sociologia urbana discute a "decadência da cidade européia". Nas diagnoses de teóricos como Saskia Sassen ou Manuel Castells, a cidade européia é descrita como conceito antiquado que não tem futuro nas condições da globalização. Ultimamente, na Alemanha, se pronuncia um novo sintoma desse desenvolvimento: o "encolhimento da cidade". De fato, os dados demográficos indicam uma diminuacão da população metropolitana. Mas... será que isso significa uma decadência? Em uma revisão crítica da sociologia urbana alemã contempôranea, o artigo discute se se trata de uma tendência social ou apenas mais uma variacão de uma figura retórica de uma disciplina científica em crise.Since decades, the Urban Sociology discusses the so called decline of the European city. International social theorists, like Saskia Sassen or Manuel Castells, describe the European city as an antiquated concept which, in times of the globalization, faces no future. Recently in Germany the urban sociology stresses a new phenomenon as an expression of this development: the shrinking city. In fact, demographic data indicates a diminuation of the population in metropolitan areas. But, does this mean that the European city is declining? In a critic review of contemporary studies in German Urban Sociology, this article tries to find out whether the decline of the European city can be considered as a social tendency or merely as a rhetoric figure of a scientific discipline in crisis.

  14. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Matter Element Analysis: A Case Study of 13 Cities in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie

    2017-08-21

    Urban public health is an important global issue and receives public concern. The urban ecosystem health (UEH) indicator system was constructed with 27 assessment indicators selected from vigor, organization, resilience, service function, and population health, then the matter element analysis (MEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) weighting method were used to assess the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province during the period of 2000-2014. The results show that the overall ecosystem health status of each city shows continuous improvement. The UEH status of each city gradually transferred from poor, general, and medium condition to good and excellent condition. From the perspective of spatial distribution, the city's UEH showing a steady status after increasing for 10 years, and their spatial variations have gradually reduced. The UEH status in Southern Jiangsu and Central Jiangsu was better than that of Northern Jiangsu Province. From each component point of view, the vigor, resilience, and population health of each city in Jiangsu Province showed a trend of continuous improvement, while the organization and service function first increased and then decreased. The common limiting factors of UEH in Jiangsu Province were Engel's coefficient of urban households, number of beds of hospitals, health centers per 10,000 people, and total investment in the treatment of environmental pollution as percent GDP. These results help decision makers to make suitable decisions to maintain the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province.

  15. A primary care-based health needs assessment in inner city Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, C M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2001, a primary care-based health needs assessment (HNA) in South Inner City of Dublin identified high levels of morbidity and widespread and frequent use of primary care and specialist hospital services as particular concerns. AIMS: This study aims to determine the primary care health needs of a local community, from the perspective of service users and service providers. METHODS: A similar methodology to our 2001 HNA was adopted, involving semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of patients attending two general practices and key informants regarding local health issues and health service utilisation. RESULTS: High levels of morbidity and chronic illness were found. A correlation between the local environment and ill-health was identified, as well as high utilisation of primary care services in the area. CONCLUSION: The establishment of a Primary Care Team would begin to address the health needs of the community.

  16. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE....... The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3. L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE...

  17. Toward Probabilistic Risk Analyses - Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Crescent City, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F. I.; Leveque, R. J.; Hatheway, D.; Metzger, N.

    2011-12-01

    Risk is defined in many ways, but most are consistent with Crichton's [1999] definition based on the ''risk triangle'' concept and the explicit identification of three risk elements: ''Risk is the probability of a loss, and this depends on three elements: hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. If any of these three elements in risk increases or decreases, then the risk increases or decreases respectively." The World Meteorological Organization, for example, cites Crichton [1999] and then defines risk as [WMO, 2008] Risk = function (Hazard x Vulnerability x Exposure) while the Asian Disaster Reduction Center adopts the more general expression [ADRC, 2005] Risk = function (Hazard, Vulnerability, Exposure) In practice, probabilistic concepts are invariably invoked, and at least one of the three factors are specified as probabilistic in nature. The Vulnerability and Exposure factors are defined in multiple ways in the relevant literature; but the Hazard factor, which is the focus of our presentation, is generally understood to deal only with the physical aspects of the phenomena and, in particular, the ability of the phenomena to inflict harm [Thywissen, 2006]. A Hazard factor can be estimated by a methodology known as Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) [González, et al., 2009]. We will describe the PTHA methodology and provide an example -- the results of a previous application to Seaside, OR. We will also present preliminary results for a PTHA of Crescent City, CA -- a pilot project and coastal modeling/mapping effort funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region IX office as part of the new California Coastal Analysis and Mapping Project (CCAMP). CCAMP and the PTHA in Crescent City are being conducted under the nationwide FEMA Risk Mapping, Assessment, and Planning (Risk MAP) Program which focuses on providing communities with flood information and tools they can use to enhance their mitigation plans and better protect their citizens.

  18. The role of parental smoking on adolescent smoking and its social patterning: a cross-sectional survey in six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Joana; Perelman, Julian; Soto-Rojas, Victoria; Richter, Matthias; Rimpelä, Arja; Loureiro, Isabel; Federico, Bruno; Kuipers, Mirte A G; Kunst, Anton E; Lorant, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have observed socio-economic (SE) inequalities in smoking among adolescents, but its causes are not fully understood. This study investigates the association between parental and adolescent smoking, and whether this association is socially patterned. We used data from a survey administered in 2013 to students aged 14-17 years old of six European cities (n = 10 526). Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, we modelled the probability of being a daily smoker as a function of parental smoking and SE status. We tested whether the smoking association differed across social strata. The prevalence of parental smoking was higher in low SE status adolescents. Boys and girls were more likely to smoke if they have a father [boys: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.47-2.46; girls: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.09-1.86] and mother (boys: AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.35-2.31; girls: AOR = 3.36, 95% CI = 2.56-4.40) who smoked. Among boys, the odds of smoking when having a smoking parent were higher in lower SE classes. However, this was not statistically significant, nor was it observed among girls. Adolescents are more likely to smoke when their father and mother smoke. Although the susceptibility to parental smoking was similar across social classes, SE differences in parental smoking contribute to the transmission of SE inequalities in smoking.

  19. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  20. Are Lead Exposures a Risk in European Fresh Waters? A Regulatory Assessment Accounting for Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Adam; Wilson, Iain; Merrington, Graham; Chowdhury, M Jasim

    2018-01-01

    An indicative compliance assessment of the Europe-wide bioavailable lead Environmental Quality Standard of 1.2 µg L-1 (EQS) was undertaken against regulatory freshwater monitoring data from six European member states and FOREGS database. Bio-met, a user-friendly tool based upon Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs) was used to account for bioavailability, along with the current European Water Framework Directive lead dissolved organic carbon correction approach. The outputs from both approaches were compared to the BLM. Of the 9054 freshwater samples assessed only 0.6% exceeded the EQS of 1.2 µg L-1 after accounting for bioavailability. The data showed that ambient background concentrations of lead across Europe are unlikely to influence general compliance with the EQS, although there may be isolated local issues. The waters showing the greatest sensitivity to potential lead exposures are characterized by relatively low DOC (< 0.5 mg L-1), regardless of the pH and calcium concentrations.

  1. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A., E-mail: j.hagger@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Galloway, Tamara S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Langston, William J. [Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon (United Kingdom); Jones, Malcolm B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  2. Spatial variation in lake benthic macroinvertebrate ecological assessment: a synthesis of European case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandin, Leif Leonard; Solimini, Angelo G.

    2012-01-01

    local invertebrate assemblages. In this issue we provide a contribution towards the understanding of basic sources of spatial variation of invertebrate assemblages in different European lake habitat types and their relationship with major human pressures. All papers have an obvious applied objective...... Baltic, Atlantic, and Mediterranean). The goal of the papers was to assess the main environmental factors and how they affected benthic macroinvertebrate variation at different ecological scales and thus better our basic understanding of how changes in these environmental variables can be tracked using......This paper summarizes eight case studies that were analysed as part of the research theme ``lake benthic macroinvertebrates'' forming part of the EU-funded WISER project ``Water bodies in Europe: Integrative Systems to assess Ecological status and Recovery''. The relationships between lake benthic...

  3. Assessing the Sustainability of Credit Growth: The case of Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coudert, Virginie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Credit growth rates as high as 30% or 50% a year were observed in some Central Eastern European countries (CEECs in 2006-2007, such as the Baltic States, Bulgaria or Romania. This strong credit growth could have been due to the catching-up process but could also have been excessive, paving the way to the credit crunch that followed the crisis in 2008-2009. We try to assess the excessiveness of credit by applying a number of methods. First, we consider the gap between current credit and its long-term trend and we find some signs of credit booms, in several CEECs in 2005-2007. Second, we assess the "normal" growth of credit with regard to fundamentals through econometric estimations. Credit growth is also shown to have been excessive in several countries just before the 2008-2009 financial crisis.

  4. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André

    2013-01-01

    As part of the research work carried out by the Working Group 3 of COST Action FP0702, the need for vibrational comfort design for buildings and current regulations for comfort assessment of structural vibrations of timber floors in Europe have been summarised. Also the design practices of timber...... floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed...... with three types of joists, i.e. solid timber joists, engineered I-joists and metal web joists. The unit point load deflection criterion is the most crucial one for structural design of timber floors with various types of joists and usually dominates the whole design. Finland tends to be the strictest...

  5. On Track to Become a Low Carbon Future City? First Findings of the Integrated Status Quo and Trends Assessment of the Pilot City of Wuxi in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vallentin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Low Carbon Future Cities (LCFC project aims at facing a three dimensional challenge by developing an integrated city roadmap balancing: low carbon development, gains in resource efficiency and adaptation to climate change. The paper gives an overview of the first outcomes of the analysis of the status quo and assessment of the most likely developments regarding GHG emissions, climate impacts and resource use in Wuxi—the Chinese pilot city for the LCFC project. As a first step, a detailed emission inventory following the IPCC guidelines for Wuxi has been carried out. In a second step, the future development of energy demand and related CO2 emissions in 2050 were simulated in a current policy scenario (CPS. In parallel, selected aspects of material and water flows for the energy and the building sector were analyzed and modeled. In addition, recent and future climate impacts and vulnerability were investigated. Based on these findings, nine key sectors with high relevance to the three dimensions could be identified. Although Wuxi’s government has started a path to implement a low carbon plan, the first results show that, for the shift towards a sustainable low carbon development, more ambitious steps need to be taken in order to overcome the challenges faced.

  6. Integrated assessment framework for quantifying multi-hazard risk in large cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xiaodong; Liang, Qiuhua; Yamazaki, Hiro; Dawson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    To better understand the integrated disaster risk in the region exposed to multiple natural hazards, there is a need for quantitative assessments that comprehensively consider all the regional major natural hazards and their interactions and correlations. This study developed an integrated assessment framework for quantifying water-related multi-hazard risk in costal cities, taking into account the possibility and outcome of the concurrence of river flood, heavy rain and storm surge. As the first part of this framework, copula theory is applied to measure the dependence between the three hazards and fit their joint probability distributions, which are used to simulate the concurrent events under different scenarios of probability. For each of the simulated events, a GPU-accelerated hydraulic model based on 2D Shallow Water Equation is operated to calculate the the flooding area and water depth. Vulnerability curves that illustrate the possible loss of different exposures as a function of hazard (flooding area and water depth) are generated and then applied to calculate the probability of loss at various level. London, which is a typical area threatened by pluvial, fluvial and costal floods, is selected as the study case in this framework. Compared with single-hazard risk, the integrated and quantitative assessment of disaster risk due to the three water-related hazard can provide more scientific reference for regional land-use planning, disaster prevention and emergency management.

  7. Application of high resolution geophysical prospecting to assess the risk related to subsurface deformationin Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Centeno-Salas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern sector of Mexico City the sub soil consists of high contrasting sequences (lacustrine and volcanic inter bedded deposits that favor the development of erratic fracturing in the surface causing damage to the urban infrastructure. The high-resolution geophysical prospecting are useful tools for the assessment of ground deformation and fracturing associated with land subsidence phenomena. The GPR method allowed to evaluate the fracture propagation and deformation of vulcano-sedimentary sequences at different depths, the main electrical parameters are directly related with the gravimetric and volumetric water content and therefore with the plasticity of the near surface prospected sequences. The active seismology prospection consisted in a combination of Seismic Refraction (SR and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW for the estimation of the velocity of the mechanical compressive (P and the shear (S waves. The integration of both methods allowed to estimate the geomechanical parameters characterizing the studied sequence, the Poisson Ratio and the volumetric compressibility. The obtained mechanical parameters were correlated with laboratory measured parameters such as plasticity index, density, shear strength and compressibility and, GPR and seismic profiles were correlated with the mapped fracture systems in the study area. Once calibrated, the profiles allowed to identify the lithological contact between lacustrine and volcanic sequences, their variations of thicknesses in depth and to assess the deformation area in the surface. An accurate determination of the geometry of fracturing was of the most importance for the assessment of the geological risk in the study area.

  8. Flood risk assessment and robust management under deep uncertainty: Application to Dhaka City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahed, Vahid; Gain, Animesh Kumar; Giupponi, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    in future and based on a meaningful synthesis of parameters' values with control of their correlations for maintaining internal consistencies. This paper aims at incorporating a set of data mining and sampling tools to assess uncertainty of model outputs under future climatic and socio-economic changes for Dhaka city and providing a decision support system for robust flood management and mitigation policies. After constructing an uncertainty matrix to identify the main sources of uncertainty for Dhaka City, we identify several hazard and vulnerability maps based on future climatic and socio-economic scenarios. The vulnerability of each flood management alternative under different set of scenarios is determined and finally the robustness of each plausible solution considered is defined based on the above assessment.

  9. Managing the Marine Environment, Conceptual Models and Assessment Considerations for the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models summarize, visualize and explain actual or predicted situations and how they might be tackled. In recent years, Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R frameworks have been central to conceptualizing marine ecosystem issues and then translating those to stakeholders, environmental managers and researchers. Society is concerned about the risks to the natural and human system posed by those Pressures (thus needing risk assessment and then needs to act to minimize or compensate those risks (as risk management. This research relates this to the DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State(change-Impact-Response hierarchical framework using standardized terminology/definitions and lists of impacting Activities and Pressures affecting ecosystem components, incorporating the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD legal decision components. This uses the example of fishing activity and the pressure of trawling from abrasion on the seabed and its effects on particular components. The mechanisms of Pressure acting on State changes are highlighted here as an additional refinement to DPSIR. The approach moves from conceptual models to actual assessments including: assessment methodologies (interactive matrices, ecosystem modeling, Bayesian Belief Networks, Bow-tie approach, some assessment tools data availability, confidence, scaling, cumulative effects and multiple simultaneous Pressures, which more often occur in multi-use and multi-user areas. In defining and describing the DPSIR Conceptual Framework we consider its use in re-world ecosystems affected by multiple pressures or multiple mechanisms of single pressures, and show how it facilitates management and assessment issues with particular relevance to the MSFD.

  10. Public Innovation Support index for Impact Assessment in the European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The object of this research is public innovation support in European Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. The main aim is to propose a new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, adjusted to contemporary needs and based on practice of public innovation support development. Research Design & Methods: The methods of comparative, cluster, regression, modelling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Findings:  The paper conceptualizes a new model for the assessment of public innovation support. It is based on theoretical argumentation and practical verification. Its structure is based on new solutions and quantitative assessment methods. Implications & Recommendations: The analysis of the proposed model applicability revealed important patterns for the public innovation support impact assessment. Findings suggest that the increase of public innovation support index is a necessary but insufficient condition for the growth of the countries innovation index. The impact of public innovation support occurs only in the long run, as the delay of the effect exists. Contribution & Value Added: The proposed system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables the creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level. The practical application of the suggested model is significant for the effectiveness improvement of public innovation support at EU institutions.

  11. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult......This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun...... and cultural experience are emerging. The physical, cultural and democratic consequences of this development are discussed in the paper, which concludes with a presentation of a new field of research that highlights the problems and the new opportunities with which "the experience city" is faced. Special...... attention is put on a new research project called "Experience City - hybrid cultural projects and performative urban spaces". The thesis and research themes are presented and related to the general framework of present cultural planning and post industrial urban transformation....

  12. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  13. Environmental Assessment of the City of El Cerrito, CA: Creek, Trash and Air Quality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A.; Ilan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The City of El Cerrito, CA is located within Western Contra Costa County and adjacent to the San Francisco Bay. Local land-uses that affect its overall public and environmental health include major freeways, railways, and commercial and industrial zones. In an effort to assess the overall health of the local environment, students at Korematsu Middle School conducted a comprehensive analysis that included street litter auditing, water monitoring of Cerritos Creek and air quality measurements made along local streets. In 2014 the City of El Cerrito adopted a long-term trash plan that included strategies for reducing trash loads of local stormwater sewer systems. This plan called for load reduction of 70% by July 1, 2017 and 100% by July 1, 2022. To evaluate the effectiveness of the trash plan, our team quantified and scored trash concentration levels at two locations—one in a residential neighborhood and the other in a commercial zone. We also monitored water quality at nearby Cerritos Creek to investigate the impacts that each area's trash concentrations had on water quality. We also monitored particulate matter (PM) concentration levels in air within these locations to determine whether or not differences exist between residential and commercial areas. Preliminary analysis of litter data suggests that the Long Term Trash Plan has thus far been effective in reducing concentrations of street litter along San Pablo Avenue, which is located within a major commercial zone, but has been inadequate in reducing trash in nearby parks. Water quality results indicate that Cerritos Creek contains waters that are quite healthy with respect to Ammonia and Nitrate concentration levels (i.e., very low values for every sample collected). However, elevated concentration levels of Phosphates were detected in every sample collected. Air quality data surprisingly revealed that extremely high PM concentration levels occur in air surrounding a residential park in El Cerrito.

  14. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-03-01

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  15. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  16. An Assessment Framework for Cities Coping with Climate Change: The Case of New York City and its PlaNYC 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Jabareen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its resulting uncertainties challenge the concepts, procedures, and scope of conventional approaches to planning, creating a need to rethink and revise current planning methods. This paper proposes a new conceptual framework for assessing city plans based on the idea of sustainability and planning countering climate change. It applies this framework to assess the recent master plan for the city of New York City: PlaNYC 2030. The framework consists of eight concepts that were identified through conceptual analyses of the planning and interdisciplinary literature on sustainability and climate change. Using the proposed conceptual framework to evaluate PlaNYC 2030 reveals some of the merits of the Plan. PlaNYC promotes greater compactness and density, enhanced mixed land use, sustainable transportation, greening, and renewal and utilization of underused land. With regard to the concept of uncertainty, it addresses future uncertainties related to climate change with institutional measures only. From the perspective of ecological economics, the Plan creates a number of mechanisms to promote its climate change goals and to create a cleaner environment for economic investment. It offers an ambitious vision of reducing emissions by 30% and creating a “greener, greater New York,” and links this vision with the international agenda for climate change. On the other hand, the assessment reveals that PlaNYC did not make a radical shift toward planning for climate change and adaptation. It inadequately addresses social planning issues that are crucial to New York City. NYC is “socially differentiated” in terms of the capacity of communities to meet climate change uncertainties, and the Plan fails to address the issues facing vulnerable communities due to climate change. The Plan calls for an integrative approach to climate change on the institutional level, but it fails to effectively integrate civil society, communities, and

  17. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography......Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE......) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This study applied the WBE approach for the first time to evaluate...

  18. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Benaissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA to analyze the impact on a given population’s health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10 in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG. Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3 was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3 would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects.

  19. Assessment of Displacement Flow at Ketandan Creeks to Optimizing Land Use in Jember New City Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entin Hidayah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Displacement flow will caused a change in the flow characteristics such as flow depth, discharge, river slope and width of the river surface. If not carefully examined, it will cause the riverbed erosion, sedimentation and risk of flooding. This paper aims to assess the hydrology and hydraulics of the river flow changes in Ketandan creek in optimizing the use of land housing for Jember New City (JNC. Hydrology modelling studies conducted for the return period rainfall include a 2 year as normal discharge, and 100 year as flood condition. Simulation of flood designs used to assess changes in the flow regime in the channel and the risk of flooding with HEC-RAS program. The results of the study showed that for the flood design 3,1 m3/sec and 12,8 m3/sec will give the effect of critical water surface. In order to keep the flow of the river bed of critically needed as the drop-structure and spillway construction.

  20. Impact assessment of the 1977 New York City blackout. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, J. L.; Miles, W. T.

    1978-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES), Department of Energy (DOE) shortly after the July 13, 1977 New York City Blackout. The objectives were two-fold: to assess the availability and collect, where practical, data pertaining to a wide variety of impacts occurring as a result of the blackout; and to broadly define a framework to assess the value of electric power reliability from consideration of the blackout and its effects on individuals, businesses, and institutions. The impacts were complex and included both economic and social costs. In order to systematically classify the most significant of these impacts and provide guidance for data collection, impact classification schemes were developed. Major economic impact categories examined are business; government; utilities (Consolidated Edison); insurance industry; public health services; and other public services. Impacts were classified as either direct or indirect depending upon whether the impact was due to a cessation of electricity or a response to that cessation. The principal economic costs of the blackout are shown. Social impacts, i.e., the changes in social activities and adaptations to these changes were particularly significant in New York due to its unique demographic and geographic characteristics. The looting and arson that accompanied the blackout set aside the NYC experience from other similar power failures. (MCW)

  1. Health impact assessment of free immunization program in Jinju City, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon Yeop; Jeon, So Youn; Jeon, Man Joong; Lee, Kwon Ho; Lee, Sok Goo; Kim, Dongjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Bae, Sang Geun; Kim, Jinhee

    2012-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential health impacts and improve the quality of the free immunization program in Jinju City by maximizing the predicted positive health gains and minimizing the negative health risks. A steering committee was established in September 2010 to carry out the health impact assessment (HIA) and began the screening and scoping stages. In the appraisal stage, analysis of secondary data, a literature review, case studies, geographic information systems analysis, a questionnaire, and expert consultations were used. The results of the data collection and analyses were discussed during a workshop, after which recommendations were finalized in a written report. Increased access to immunization, comprehensive services provided by physicians, the strengthened role of the public health center in increasing immunization rates and services, and the ripple effect to other neighboring communities were identified as potential positive impacts. On the other hand, the program might be inaccessible to rural regions with no private clinics where there are more at-risk children, vaccine management and quality control at the clinics may be poor, and vaccines may be misused. Recommendations to maximize health gains and minimize risks were separately developed for the public health center and private clinics. The HIA provided an opportunity for stakeholders to comprehensively overview the potential positive and negative impacts of the program before it was implemented. An HIA is a powerful tool that should be used when developing and implementing diverse health-related policies and programs in the community.

  2. Freshwater vulnerability under high end climate change. A pan-European assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, A G; Papadimitriou, L V; Grillakis, M G; Tsanis, I K; Wyser, K; Betts, R A

    2018-02-01

    As freshwater availability is crucial for securing a sustainable, lower‑carbon future, there is a critical connection between water management and climate policies. Under a rapidly changing climate, it is more important than ever to estimate the degree of future water security. This is a challenging task as it depends on many different variables: the degree of warming and its consequent effects on hydrological resources, the water demand by different sectors, and the possible ameliorations or deteriorations of the effects due to climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. A simple and transparent conceptual framework has been developed to assess the European vulnerability to freshwater stress under the present hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions, in comparison to projections of future vulnerability for different degrees of global warming (1.5°C, 2°C and 4°C), under the high-rate warming scenario (RCP8.5). Different levels of adaptation to climate change are considered in the framework, by employing various relevant pathways of socioeconomic development. A spatially detailed pan-European map of vulnerability to freshwater shortage has been developed at the local administrative level, making this approach extremely useful for supporting regional level policymaking and implementation and strategic planning against future freshwater stress. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The European Ionosonde Service: current status, performance assessment and development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagouri, Ioanna; Belehaki, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The European Ionosonde Service (EIS) is a federated service belonging to the Expert Service Center Ionospheric Weather (I-ESC) of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme - Space Weather segment of ESA. EIS operates since 2014 and releases a set of products to characterize the bottomside and topside ionosphere over Europe. EIS is based on a set of prediction models driven by data from ground based DPS4 and DPS4D ionosondes and supportive data from GNSS satellites and the ACE spacecraft. The service monitors the critical frequency foF2 and the bottomside electron density, extrapolates the electron density profile up to the height of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) at European middle and high latitudes. EIS releases maps for nowcasting, forecasting and long-term planning purposes and provides estimates for forthcoming disturbances mainly triggered by geo-effective Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The performance of models implemented by EIS has been validated and based on these results, it was possible to issue together with the products, quality metrics characterizing the product's reliability. The EIS products meet the requirements of various SSA service domains, especially the transionospheric radio link and the spacecraft operations. In this contribution we present an assessment of the EIS performance and an outlook for improving existing products and developing new ones.

  4. Assessment of HIV molecular surveillance capacity in the European Union, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Patrick; Pharris, Anastasia; Leitmeyer, Katrin; De Angelis, Stefania; Wensing, Annemarie; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Broberg, Eeva

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionExpanding access to HIV antiretroviral treatment is expected to decrease HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. However, this may also result in increased HIV drug resistance (DR). Better monitoring and surveillance of HIV DR is required to inform treatment regimens and maintain the long term effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs. As there is currently no formal European Union (EU)-wide collection of HIV DR data, this study aimed to assess the current HIV molecular surveillance capacity in EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in order to inform the planning of HIV DR monitoring at EU level. Methods: Thirty EU/EEA countries were invited to participate in a survey on HIV molecular surveillance capacity, which also included laboratory aspects. Results: Among 21 responding countries, 13 reported using HIV sequence data (subtype and/or DR) for surveillance purposes at national level. Of those, nine stated that clinical, epidemiological and sequence data were routinely linked for analysis. Discussion/conclusion: We identified similarities between existing HIV molecular surveillance systems, but also found important challenges including human resources, data ownership and legal issues that would need to be addressed.Information on capacities should allow better planning of the phased introduction of HIV DR surveillance at EU/EEA level.

  5. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  6. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Capital Questionnaire: Assessment of European nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Romeo, Marina; Berger, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare accreditation models generally include indicators related to healthcare employees' perceptions (e.g. satisfaction, career development, and health safety). During the accreditation process, organizations are asked to demonstrate the methods with which assessments are made. However, none of the models provide standardized systems for the assessment of employees. In this study, we analyzed the psychometric properties of an instrument for the assessment of nurses' perceptions as indicators of human capital quality in healthcare organizations. The Human Capital Questionnaire was applied to a sample of 902 nurses in four European countries (Spain, Portugal, Poland, and the UK). Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: satisfaction with leadership, identification and commitment, satisfaction with participation, staff well-being, career development opportunities, and motivation. The results showed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, which when applied to healthcare organizations, provide a better understanding of nurses' perceptions, and is a parsimonious instrument for assessment and organizational accreditation. From a practical point of view, improving the quality of human capital, by analyzing nurses and other healthcare employees' perceptions, is related to workforce empowerment. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Airborne molds and bacteria, microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), plasticizers and formaldehyde in dwellings in three North European cities in relation to sick building syndrome (SBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlberg, Bo; Gunnbjörnsdottir, Maria; Soon, Argo; Jogi, Rain; Gislason, Thorarinn; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norback, Dan

    2013-02-01

    There are few studies on associations between airborne microbial exposure, formaldehyde, plasticizers in dwellings and the symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS). As a follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II), indoor measurements were performed in homes in three North European cities. The aim was to examine whether volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin (MVOCs), and airborne levels of bacteria, molds, formaldehyde, and two plasticizers in dwellings were associated with the prevalence of SBS, and to study associations between MVOCs and reports on dampness and mold. The study included homes from three centers included in ECRHS II. A total of 159 adults (57% females) participated (19% from Reykjavik, 40% from Uppsala, and 41% from Tartu). A random sample and additional homes with a history of dampness were included. Exposure measurements were performed in the 159 homes of the participants. MVOCs were analyzed by GCMS with selective ion monitoring (SIM). Symptoms were reported in a standardized questionnaire. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. In total 30.8% reported any SBS (20% mucosal, 10% general, and 8% dermal symptoms) and 41% of the homes had a history of dampness and molds There were positive associations between any SBS and levels of 2-pentanol (P=0.002), 2-hexanone (P=0.0002), 2-pentylfuran (P=0.009), 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.002), formaldehyde (P=0.05), and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (Texanol) (P=0.05). 1-octen-3-ol (P=0.009) and 3-methylfuran (P=0.002) were associated with mucosal symptoms. In dwellings with dampness and molds, the levels of total bacteria (P=0.02), total mold (P=0.04), viable mold (P=0.02), 3-methylfuran (P=0.008) and ethyl-isobutyrate (P=0.02) were higher. In conclusion, some MVOCs like 1-octen-3-ol, formaldehyde and the plasticizer Texanol, may be a risk factor for sick building syndrome. Moreover, concentrations of airborne molds

  9. Innovation in Europe's cities: a report by LSE Cities on Bloomberg Philanthropies' 2014 Mayors Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ricky Burdett; Peter Griffiths; Catarina Heeckt; Francis Moss; Shan Vahidy; Philipp Rode; Tony Travers

    2015-01-01

    Innovation in European Cities sets out the context for Bloomberg Philanthropies’ European Mayors Challenge. It gives an overview of the key themes facing European cities today and provides an independent analysis of the 155 submissions to the award and a detailed review of the five winning proposals. Throughout 2014, researchers from LSE Cities provided input to Bloomberg Philanthropies on the political and demographic make-up of selected European cities, and carried out an objective assessme...

  10. Intersectoral planning for city health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff

    2012-04-01

    The article reviews the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the European Network of Healthy Cities organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance, and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 77 cities which participated in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the network. Evidence was gathered principally from a general evaluation questionnaire sent to all network cities. CHDPs are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed a trend away from "classic" CHDPs with a primary focus on health development towards ensuring a health dimension to other sector plans, and into the overarching strategies of city governments. Linked to the Phase IV priority themes of Healthy aging and healthy urban planning, cities further developed the concept and application of human-centered sustainability. More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity.

  11. Study tours. Come and get a whole set of ideas in 14 european towns and cities; Study tours. Venez faire le plein d'idees neuves dans 14 villes d'Europes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The European towns and cities which have been selected by Energie-Cites are all members of Energie-Cites and have for many years been involved in innovative projects in the field of energy (energy efficiency, renewable and distributed energy). To acquire a better understanding of how these projects came into being and, why not, use them as a source of inspiration for a municipality? During two days, Energie-Cites proposes to take deciders to the city of their choice. Tours include site visits as well as meetings with local political and technical stakeholders. These study tours are specifically intended for elected representatives and municipal officers in charge of energy matters, Local Agenda 21, town planning and environmental issues (30 persons as a max. per visit). A 14 typical visit is provided for each town or city, in this document. (A.L.B.)

  12. The Graduating European Dentist: Contemporaneous Methods of Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Dental Undergraduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J C; Walmsley, A D; Paganelli, C; McLoughlin, J; Szep, S; Kavadella, A; Manzanares Cespedes, M C; Davies, J R; DeLap, E; Levy, G; Gallagher, J; Roger-Leroi, V; Cowpe, J G

    2017-12-01

    It is often the case that good teachers just "intuitively" know how to teach. Whilst that may be true, there is now a greater need to understand the various processes that underpin both the ways in which a curriculum is delivered, and the way in which the students engage with learning; curricula need to be designed to meet the changing needs of our new graduates, providing new, and robust learning opportunities, and be communicated effectively to both staff and students. The aim of this document is to draw together robust and contemporaneous methods of teaching, learning and assessment that help to overcome some of the more traditional barriers within dental undergraduate programmes. The methods have been chosen to map specifically to The Graduating European Dentist, and should be considered in parallel with the benchmarking process that educators and institutions employ locally. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  14. The Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Bones of Domestic Animals from three Cities of the European Part of Russia: First Results and Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskaya Liliya Vyacheslavovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the results of first purposeful research on isotopic composition (carbon 13С and nitrogen 15N in the bones collagen of domestic and wild animals from medieval towns at the European part of Russia. The published information about δ 13С и δ 15N was obtained from 61 samples of osteological collections of Yaroslavl, Rostov and Bolgar. The average values of carbon isotope in cattle bones are almost the same in all three cities. By contrast, these values for horses and pigs from Rostov and Bolgar are higher than for Yaroslavl animals. Unusual similarity for δ13С in the bones of sheep, camels and dogs among themselves from the Bolgar collection were fixed. The comparative analysis of the values δ13С in bones of domestic and wild animals allowed us to propose the hypothesis that sheep, camels and dogs appeared in Bolgar from the southern arid areas. The data on δ15N showed the inexplicably high accumulation of the nitrogen stable isotope in sheep and camel bones from the collection of Bolgar and in beaver bones from Rostov samples. This is probably due to the peculiarities of the diet of these dogs, enriched by the entrails of domestic ungulates or fish. The minimum values of δ15N in the bones of dogs from Bolgar reflect the specific diet of herding dogs with a minimal volume of meat. Simultaneously the data of 15N in sheep and camel bones from Bolgar collection and in beaver bones from Rostov samples howed the inexplicably high level of nitrogen stable isotope accumulation.

  15. Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Miles, Christopher O; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Samdal, Ingunn A; Sandvik, Morten; Barbosa, Vera; Tediosi, Alice; Madorran, Eneko; Granby, Kit; Kotterman, Michiel; Calis, Tanja; Diogene, Jorge

    2018-02-01

    Cyclic imines constitute a quite recently discovered group of marine biotoxins that act on neural receptors and that bioaccumulate in seafood. They are grouped together due to the imino group functioning as their common pharmacore, responsible for acute neurotoxicity in mice. Cyclic imines (CIs) have not been linked yet to human poisoning and are not regulated in the European Union (EU), although the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requires more data to perform conclusive risk assessment for consumers. Several commercial samples of bivalves including raw and processed samples from eight countries (Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Ireland, Norway, The Netherlands and Denmark) were obtained over 2 years. Emerging cyclic imine concentrations in all the samples were analysed on a LC-3200QTRAP and LC-HRMS QExactive mass spectrometer. In shellfish, two CIs, pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) and 13-desmethylspirolide C (SPX-1) were found at low concentrations (0.1-12µg/kg PnTX-G and 26-66µg/kg SPX-1), while gymnodimines and pteriatoxins were not detected in commercial (raw and processed) samples. In summary, SPX-1 (n: 47) and PnTX-G (n: 96) were detected in 9.4% and 4.2% of the samples, respectively, at concentrations higher than the limit of quantification (LOQ), and in 7.3% and 31.2% of the samples at concentrations lower than the LOQ (25µg/kg for SPX-1 and 3µg/kg for PnTX-G), respectively. For the detected cyclic imines, the average exposure and the 95th percentile were calculated. The results obtained indicate that it is unlikely that a potential health risk exists through the seafood diet for CIs in the EU. However, further information about CIs is necessary in order to perform a conclusive risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Customer satisfaction survey to improve the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2011-08-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis European Network, coordinated from within the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, is the provider of the European cystic fibrosis external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. The network aimed to seek feedback from laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis scheme in order to improve services offered. In this study we analysed responses to an on-line customer satisfaction survey conducted between September and November 2009. The survey was sent to 213 laboratories that participated in the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme of 2008; 69 laboratories (32%) responded. Scores for importance and satisfaction were obtained from a five-point Likert scale for 24 attributes. A score of one corresponded to very dissatisfied/very unimportant and five corresponded to very satisfied/very important. Means were calculated and placed in a two-dimensional grid (importance-satisfaction analysis). Means were subtracted from each other to obtain gap values (gap-analysis). No attribute had a mean score below 3.63. The overall mean of satisfaction was 4.35. Opportunities for improvement enclosed clarity, usefulness and completeness of the general report and individual comments, and user-friendliness of the electronic datasheet. This type of customer satisfaction survey was a valuable instrument to identify opportunities to improve the cystic fibrosis EQA scheme. It should be conducted on a regular basis to reveal new opportunities in the future and to assess effectiveness of actions taken. Moreover, it could be a model for other EQA providers seeking feedback from participants. Overall, the customer satisfaction survey provided a powerful quality of care improvement tool.

  17. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  18. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; de Vos, Willem M; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU) regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available), publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  19. Reporting quality of abstracts presented at the European Association of Urology meeting: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Marco; Yakoubi, Rachid; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Damiano, Rocco; Balsamo, Raffaele; Di Palma, Camine; Cantiello, Francesco; Azzarito, Giuseppina; Mirone, Vicenzo; Tubaro, Andrea; Autorino, Riccardo

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the reporting quality of randomized and nonrandomized, controlled trials presented in abstract form at the European Association of Urology annual meeting in a 10-year period and determined the impact on subsequent publication. Abstracts presented at the European Association of Urology annual meetings in 1998, 1999, 2008 and 2009 were retrieved and included in analysis. Two 2-year meeting periods were considered, including 1) 1998 and 1999, and 2) 2008 and 2009. Two standardized forms were constructed based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines, each including 15 and 16 items for randomized and nonrandomized, controlled trials, respectively. Reporting quality was assessed by measuring the proportion of items respected by authors when preparing the abstract, defined as the score ratio. Subsequent full-length publication within 2 years after the meeting was also determined by a PubMed® search. Differences between the 2 periods were analyzed by the chi-square and simple t tests. Predictors of subsequent full-length publication were evaluated by multiple logistic regression using meeting period, topic, country of origin, design, multi-institutional study and the proportion of reported items (score ratio). A total of 3,139 abstracts were included in analysis, of which 375 (11.9%) were randomized, controlled trials. Overall oncology represented the main topic (49.2% of all abstracts). The score ratio (proportion of adequately reported items in each abstract) was better for period 1 than 2 for randomized, controlled trials (63% vs 57%) but better for period 2 than 1 for nonrandomized, controlled trials (55.4% vs 53.2%, each p European Association of Urology meeting abstracts did not improve in a decade. Nevertheless, this factor did not impact subsequent full-length publication. Ultimately, the reporting quality of abstracts remains to be improved

  20. Faculty Development for Metro New York City Postdoctoral Dental Program Directors: Delphi Assessment and Program Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Marcie S; Millery, Mari; Edelstein, Burton L

    2017-03-01

    Faculty development for dental academicians is essential to cultivate a continuous faculty workforce, retain existing faculty members, enhance their teaching skill sets, and remain responsive to changing program requirements and curricular reforms. To maximize the utility of dental faculty development, it is important to systematically assess and address faculty members' perceived training needs. The aims of this study were to determine priority topics among one group of postdoctoral program directors and to translate those topics into faculty development programs as part of Columbia University's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)-sponsored faculty training program for primary care educators. The study was conducted in 2013-16. A Delphi consensus technique was implemented with three sequential surveys of 26 New York City metropolitan area general, pediatric, and public health dentistry residency program directors. On the first survey, the five respondents (19% response rate) identified 31 topics. On the second survey, 17 respondents (response rate 65%) rated the 15 most important topics. In the third and final round, 19 respondents (73% response rate) ranked teaching research methods and teaching literature reviews as the topics of greatest interest. Overall, the responses highlighted needs for faculty development on teaching research methods, motivating trainees, trainee evaluation, and clinical care assessment. Based on these results, a series of six Faculty Forums was developed and implemented for dental educators in the metropolitan area, starting with the topic of teaching research methods. The process flow used for assessing training needs and developing and evaluating training can be applied to a variety of populations of educators.

  1. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Enjoying green cities: Assessing visitors' attitude and preferences of urban forests in Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelio II Andrada; Jinyang. Deng

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and preferences of visitors toWashington, D.C., one of the top tourism cities in the United States. Results of a visitor survey conducted at two sites show that respondents have a highly positive attitude towards the city's urban forest and that their appreciation of the urban forest has a positive influence on their experiences...

  3. Assessment of the Sustainability of Water Resources Management : A Critical Review of the City Blueprint Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, Steven H A; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071976817

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, urbanization and water pollution cause adverse effects and rehabilitation costs that may exceed the carrying capacity of cities. Currently, there is no internationally standardized indicator framework for urban Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The City Blueprint® is a

  4. Paradigms, Power, and PR in New York City: Assessing Two School Accountability Implementation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…

  5. Assessment of Urban Ecosystem Health Based on Matter Element Analysis: A Case Study of 13 Cities in Jiangsu Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie

    2017-01-01

    Urban public health is an important global issue and receives public concern. The urban ecosystem health (UEH) indicator system was constructed with 27 assessment indicators selected from vigor, organization, resilience, service function, and population health, then the matter element analysis (MEA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) weighting method were used to assess the UEH of each city in Jiangsu Province during the period of 2000?2014. The results show that the overall ecosystem healt...

  6. An Environmental Risk Assessment for Human-Use Trimethoprim in European Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Oliver Straub

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An environmental risk assessment (ERA for the aquatic compartment in Europe from human use was developed for the old antibiotic Trimethoprim (TMP, comparing exposure and effects. The exposure assessment is based on European risk assessment default values on one hand and is refined with documented human use figures in Western Europe from IMS Health and measured removal in wastewater treatment on the other. The resulting predicted environmental concentrations (PECs are compared with measured environmental concentrations (MECs from Europe, based on a large dataset incorporating more than 1800 single MECs. On the effects side, available chronic ecotoxicity data from the literature were complemented by additional, new chronic results for fish and other organisms. Based on these data, chronic-based deterministic predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs were derived as well as two different probabilistic PNEC ranges. The ERA compares surface water PECs and MECs with aquatic PNECs for TMP. Based on all the risk characterization ratios (PEC÷PNEC as well as MEC÷PNEC and risk graphs, there is no significant risk to surface waters.

  7. Is the European Patent Office's approach to assessing obviousness of antibody inventions consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Antibodies can be highly effective in the diagnosis and/or treatment of a wide range of diseases, including certain cancers, viral infections and inflammatory diseases. The development of any new therapeutic antibody is very time consuming, requires significant resources and only a small percentage of initial candidates ever make it onto the market. Patent protection therefore plays a key role in allowing companies to obtain a good return on this investment. However, in Europe, the bar for assessing the inventiveness (obviousness) of antibodies is currently set particularly high, so there is a significant risk that new antibodies may be denied patent protection despite having beneficial properties. This article looks at the rationale behind the European Patent Office's (EPO) current approach to assessing the patentability of antibodies, contrasting it with US practice as well as the EPO's assessment of obviousness in the chemical field. It also explores whether a recent decision by an EPO Appeal Board may help to bring about a change in this practice.

  8. Top-down NOX emissions over European cities from LOTOS-EUROS simulated and OMI observed tropospheric NO2 columns using the Exponentially Modified Gaussian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Douros, John; Williams, Jason E.; Eskes, Henk H.; Delcloo, Andy

    2017-04-01

    conditions (surface wind speeds > 3 m s-1). We then compare the top-down derived surface NOX emissions with the 2011 MACC-III emission inventory, used in the LOTOS-EUROS model as input to simulate the NO2 columns. We also apply the EMG methodology on OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) tropospheric NO2 column data, providing us with real-time observation-based estimates of midday NO2 lifetime and NOX emissions over 21 European cities in 2013. Results indicate that the top-down derived NOX emissions from LOTOS-EUROS (respectively OMI) are comparable with the MACC-III inventory with a R2 of 0.99 (respectively R2 = 0.79). For St-Petersburg and Moscow the top-down NOX estimates from 2013 OMI data are biased low compared to the MACC-III inventory which uses a 2011 NOX emissions update.

  9. [Assessment of soil nutrient status in urban green space of main cities in Hubei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-Shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Run-Hua; Chen, Fang

    2013-08-01

    According to the topography of the cities in Hubei Province, soil samples were collected from the urban green space in two mountainous cities (Enshi and Shiyan), three hilly cities (Jing-men, Xiangfan and Yichang), and five plain cities (Wuhan, Xiaogan, Xianning, Jingzhou, Suizhou and Huangshi). Within each city, subsoil samples were taken in accordance with four different types of land use, including park, residential, institutional (school, hospital and government, etc.), and roadside. In the main cities in Hubei, the soil pH of urban green space was averagely 7.9, being obviously higher than that of natural soils, while the soil organic matter content was rather low (6.8 g x kg(-1)). The soil available N and P contents were at a low level, while the soil available trace element (Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B) contents were moderate. Land use type had significant effects on the soil nutrient contents in plain cities. The soil pH in the residential green space was significantly higher than that in the park, roadside and institutional green space, while the contents of soil available trace elements (S, Cu, Mn and Zn) in roadside green space were significantly higher than those of green space in the other land use types. Park green space had the lowest soil nutrient contents. There existed significant differences in the soil nutrient contents among the cities with different topography. The soil organic matter, NH4-N, available K and P, and Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu and Mn contents were significantly higher in plain cities than in mountainous cities.

  10. Assessing socioeconomic inequalities of hypertension among women in Indonesia's major cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Y; Byles, J E; Tavener, M; Dugdale, P

    2015-11-01

    Although hypertension has been recognized as one of the major public health problems, few studies address economic inequality of hypertension among urban women in developing countries. To assess this issue, we analysed data for 1400 women from four of Indonesia's major cities: Jakarta, Surabaya, Medan and Bandung. Women were aged ⩾15 years (mean age 35.4 years), and were participants in the 2007/2008 Indonesia Family Life Survey. The prevalence of hypertension measured by digital sphygmomanometer among this population was 31%. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, socioeconomic disadvantage (based on household assets and characteristics) as well as age, body mass index and economic conditions were significantly associated with hypertension (Pinequality between less and more economically advantaged groups could be accounted for by the distribution of socioeconomic characteristics. Education was the strongest contributor to inequality, with lower education levels increasing the predicted probability of hypertension among less economically advantaged groups. This work highlights the importance of socioeconomic inequality in the development of hypertension, and particularly the effects of education level.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution of topsoils and plants in the City of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejić Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess heavy metal pollution in the city of Belgrade (Serbia concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were measured on 18 topsoil samples collected in the proximity to central urban boulevards and in urban parks. In addition, concentrations of specified elements were determined in leaves of three evergreen plant species Buxus sempervirens L., Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh Nutt. and Prunus laurocerasus L. so as to estimate their sensitivity to heavy metal pollution. Even though various types of soils from different quarts of Belgrade were sampled, their heavy metal contents were very similar, with somewhat higher concentrations of almost all elements detected in the proximity to high traffic roads. Generally, concentrations of heavy metals in leaves of investigated plant species paralleled the heavy metal concentrations found in their respective soils and were higher in plants sampled from boulevards then from urban parks. Since investigated plant show no visible injuries induced by detected heavy metal pollution these species are suitable for the successful urban landscaping. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  12. Electromagnetic Field Assessment as a Smart City Service: The SmartSantander Use-Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing presence of wireless communications in everyday life, there exist some voices raising concerns about their adverse effects. One particularly relevant example is the potential impact of the electromagnetic field they induce on the population’s health. Traditionally, very specialized methods and devices (dosimetry have been used to assess the strength of the E-field, with the main objective of checking whether it respects the corresponding regulations. In this paper, we propose a complete novel approach, which exploits the functionality leveraged by a smart city platform. We deploy a number of measuring probes, integrated as sensing devices, to carry out a characterization embracing large areas, as well as long periods of time. This unique platform has been active for more than one year, generating a vast amount of information. We process such information, and the obtained results validate the whole methodology. In addition, we discuss the variation of the E-field caused by cellular networks, considering additional information, such as usage statistics. Finally, we establish the exposure that can be attributed to the base stations within the scenario under analysis.

  13. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  14. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  15. A climatic environmental performance assessment method for ecological city construction: Application to Beijing Yanqi Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yi Fang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the input perspective for evaluating planning metrics, this research takes the climatic environmental output effects as the starting point for assessing ecological city construction. Based on approaches such as observation data analysis, meteorological model simulation, and remote sensing, a set of climatic environmental performance assessment methods is developed and established. These methods mainly focus on surface ventilation assessment and urban thermal environment assessment. With the Yanqi Lake ecological development demonstration area located in Huairou district, Beijing as an example, the assessment of the local climatic environment before and after the construction are conducted, and relevant policy suggestions for urban planning and construction are presented. The results show that after development, the ventilation capacity will decrease overall and the ventilation potential index will decrease from 0.53 to 0.44. While this is not a large reduction, and is still at a favorable level, the ventilation potential in some local areas will markedly decrease. Furthermore, the thermal environment will become poorer to some extent; the urban heat island (UHI area and intensity will increase compared with the current situation; continuous heat islands may occur in local areas; the UHI potential index of the core area will rise from 0.0878 to 0.1217 (still a favorable level. Therefore, urban surfaces should be carefully developed and arranged during planning. It is suggested that the negative impacts of large areas of urban construction on the local climatic environment in the Yanqi Lake could be mitigated by 1 strengthening the airflow by introducing fresh, cold, northwesterly air via constructed ventilation corridors, 2 increasing the number of ecological cold sources, particularly for water bodies and green belts to prevent the UHI in the southern region of Yanqi Lake from becoming linked with each other, and 3 considering a

  16. Challenges and opportunities for integrated environmental assessment : proceedings of the First Workshop of the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment, Amsterdam, 12-14 March 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, H.; Tol, R.S.J.; Vellinga, P.

    2004-01-01

    The first workshop of the European Forum on Integrated Environmental Assessment (EFIEA) took place in Amsterdam on 12-14 March 1998. Integrated Environmental Assessment is loosely defined as policy-relevant, multi-disciplinary research into complex environmental issues. The workshop provided an

  17. Integrative fuzzy hierarchical model for river health assessment: A case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. W.; Yang, Z. F.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasingly serious ecological degradation of river systems, the river health research has attracted more and more attention of the researchers and decision-makers. This paper aims to integrate the fuzzy assessment method with analytic hierarchy process to establish the integrative fuzzy hierarchical assessment model, thus combing qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment and overcoming the disadvantages of subjectivity of the previous evaluation methods. The results show that the proposed assessment method is able to reveal how the river system is disturbed by human activities. Finally, the integrative fuzzy hierarchical method is validated and applied to the case study of Yong River in Ningbo City, China.

  18. Assessment of Water Supply as an Ecosystem Service in a Rural-Urban Watershed in Southwestern Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujnovsky, Julieta; González-Martínez, Teresa Margarita; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique Arturo; Almeida-Leñero, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Studies from the ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful framework because they allow us to fully examine the benefits that humans obtain from socio-ecological systems. Mexico City, the second largest city in the world, has faced severe problems related to water shortages, which have worsened due to increasing population. Demand for space has forced changes in land cover, including covering areas that are essential for groundwater recharge. The city has 880 km2 of forest areas that are crucial for the water supply. The Magdalena River Watershed was chosen as a model because it is a well-preserved zone within Mexico City and it provides water for the population. The general aim of this study was to assess the ecosystem service of the water supply in the Magdalena River Watershed by determining its water balance (SWAT model) and the number of beneficiaries of the ecosystem services. The results showed that the watershed provides 18.4 hm3 of water per year. Baseflow was dominant, with a contribution of 85%, while surface runoff only accounted for 15%. The zone provides drinking water to 78,476 inhabitants and could supply 153,203 potential beneficiaries. This work provides an example for understanding how ecosystem processes determine the provision of ecosystem services and benefits to the population in a rural-urban watershed in Mexico City.

  19. Assessment of counseling practice in medicine retail outlets in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay YB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yared Belete Belay,1 Terefe Teshome Kassa,1 Abraham Gebregziabiher Welie,1 Merafe Samuel Alemayehu,2 Fantaye Teka Dinkashe3 1Pharmacoepidemiology and Social Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Addis Ababa City Administration, Addis Ababa, 3Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Pharmaceutical Fund and Supply Agency, Central Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Patient counseling can ideally be providing medication information orally or in written form to patients or their attendants, and it helps to form a concordant approach on encouraging patient involvement in the pharmaceutical care process and to explore patient’s knowledge and understanding. Lack of adequate knowledge on drugs and up-to-date drug information are the major factor that hinders counseling services. This study assessed counseling practice of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle City. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Professionals who volunteered to participate were involved. Self-administered questionnaires were used as data collecting tool to grasp professionals’ practice on patient counseling, and the data were analyzed by using SPSS version 23. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc statistical tests were done to check for association between sociodemographic and other variables of counseling practice. In the statistical analyses, p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence interval were considered.Results: The most frequent drug information given by the pharmacy professionals to clients were unit dose (65%, frequency of administration (79%, and duration of therapy (62%. Study participants claimed that lack of knowledge (37%, lack of updated drug information (49%, high patient load (62%, and absence of a private counseling room (51% were the main factors that prohibit pharmacy professionals from counseling their patients. Those pharmacy professionals whose monthly income was <2000 Ethiopian Birr claimed lack of knowledge (p=0

  20. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  1. Assessment of the prevailing motivation within the sports teams from the city of Iasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.

  2. Assessment of medication adherence among type 2 diabetic patients in Quetta city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Qaiser; Bashir, Sajid; Iqbal, Javeid; Iftikhar, Shehla; Godman, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a growing burden among all countries including Pakistan, with medication adherence very important to improve care. However, little is known about medication adherence in Pakistan and potential predictors among T2DM patients to provide future guidance. This needs to be addressed. Consequently, the present study sought to assess medication adherence among type 2 diabetic patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Questionnaire based, descriptive study among 300 Pakistani patients attending public and private hospitals aged 18 years and above, having a confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, without additional co-morbidities were targeted. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and disease characteristics. The association between socio-demographic data and study variables was compared through the Mann Whitney/Kruskal Wallis test (where applicable). The factors that were significantly associated with medication adherence were further assessed by logistic regression analysis. 55.6% of patients had high adherence although overall patients reported moderate adherence. Age, gender, education, diabetes-related knowledge and treatment satisfaction were significantly associated with medication adherence. Older males with only primary education and with poor diabetes-related knowledge had the lowest adherence. This study presents a model that is associated with medication adherence among T2DM patients, with disease-related knowledge as a significant predictor of likely adherence. Results of the current study revealed that improved diabetes related knowledge plays a significant role in improving medication adherence. Healthcare practitioners and the system should formalize and acknowledge patient education as a key component to treat patients with T2DM. This should include a greater role for pharmacists and other professionals.

  3. Assessing the solar potential of low-density urban environments in Andean cities with desert climates: The case of the city of Mendoza, in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arboit, M.; Fernandez Llano, J.C.; Rosa, C. de [Instituto de Ciencias Humanas, Sociales y Ambientales (INCIHUSA - CONICET), R and D Unit, Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda (LAHV), Adrian Ruiz Leal s/n, Parque General San Martin 5500, Mendoza (Argentina); Diblasi, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, UNCuyo, Centro Universitario (5500) Mendoza (Argentina)

    2008-08-15

    Energy use in the built environment is globally recognized as a key issue for sustainable urban development. In tempered-cold arid regions with a generous solar resource, adequate design and technology can substantially reduce the energy demand for space and water heating in urban buildings. This study assessed the solar potential of low-density urban environments in the city of Mendoza, Argentina. The results of the study will be used to develop technical guidelines for urban and energy planning agencies and professionals involved in the production of habitat. The study included the following successive steps: (i) selection of a representative sample of analysis units (city blocks); (ii) selection of a series of urban and building variables; (iii) definition of indicators accounting for solar masking, building's potential use of the solar radiation on the whole urban area, and availability of adequate collecting areas to satisfy high percentages of the energy demand in low-density urban environments; and (iv) insolation of potential collectors simulated by a graphic-computational model developed in the R and D unit. Only the results for solar space heating are presented in this paper. The results, direct and statistical, indicate that it is technically feasible to meet the target solar fractions. At the same time, by means of the solar recycling of existing building stocks, it is possible to considerably reduce the environmental impacts due to the extraction of materials from, and the disposal of solid wastes into, the ecosystem. (author)

  4. Remote Monitoring of Chronic Diseases: A Landscape Assessment of Policies in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rojahn

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring (RM is defined as the surveillance of device-transmitted outpatient data. RM is expected to enable better management of chronic diseases. The objective of this research was to identify public policies concerning RM in four European countries.Searches of the medical literature, the Internet, and Ministry of Health websites for the United Kingdom (UK, Germany, Italy, and Spain were performed in order to identify RM policies for chronic diseases, including end stage renal disease (ESRD, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD, diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. Searches were first performed in Q1 2014 and updated in Q4 2015. In addition, in depth interviews were conducted with payers/policymakers in each country. Information was obtained on existing policies, disease areas and RM services covered and level of reimbursement, other incentives such as quality indicators, past/current assessments of RM technologies, diseases perceived to benefit most from RM, and concerns about RM.Policies on RM and/or telemedicine were identified in all four countries. Pilot projects (mostly in diabetes, COPD, and/or heart failure existed or were planned in most countries. Perceived value of RM was moderate to high, with the highest rating given for heart failure. Interviewees expressed concerns about sharing of medical information, and the need for capital investment. Patients recently discharged from hospital, and patients living remotely, or with serious and/or complicated diseases, were believed to be the most likely to benefit from RM. Formal reimbursement is scarce, but more commonly available for patients with heart failure.In the four European countries surveyed, RM has attracted considerable interest for its potential to increase the efficiency of healthcare for chronic diseases. Although rare at this moment, incentives to use RM technology are likely to increase in the near future as the body of evidence of clinical and

  5. Assessing Forest Classification in a Landscape-Level Framework: An Example from Central European Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Kusbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional land classifications developed on the basis of what was once prevailing expert knowledge have since largely become obsolete. We assessed expert knowledge based landscape-level units delineated in central European temperate forests: Natural Forest Areas (NFA and Forest Vegetation Zones (FVZ. Our focus was determining to what degree these units reflect vegetation-environmental relationships. After considering as many as 49,000 plots with vegetation and 25,000 plots with environmental data within a territory of the Czech Republic, we analyzed 11,885 plots. We used multivariate statistics to discriminate between the landscape-level units. While NFAs performed extremely well, FVZ results were less successful. Classification of the environment provided better results than classification of vegetation for both the Hercynicum and Carpaticum phytogeographic part of the Czech Republic. Taking into account significance of the environment in our analysis, a delimitation of FVZs and similar vegetation-driven structures worldwide via explicit a priori stratification by tree species without consideration of environmental limits would not be supported by our analysis. We suggest not relying only on vegetation in classification analyses, but also including the significant environmental factors for direct classification of FVZ and units in particular in altered vegetation composition setting such as the central European forests. We propose a novel interpretation of FVZ via appropriate vegetation stratification throughout the environment used in conjunction with the zonal concept. Understanding of coarse-scaled vegetation-environmental relationships is not only fundamental in forest ecology and forest management, but is also essential for improving lower classification levels. Valuable expert knowledge should be combined with formal quantification, which is consistent with recent calls for advanced multidisciplinary ecological classifications in Europe

  6. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  7. Nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD: a European Respiratory Society statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, Annemie M; Ferreira, Ivone M; Franssen, Frits M; Gosker, Harry R; Janssens, Wim; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Pison, Christophe; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen; Slinde, Frode; Steiner, Michael C; Tkacova, Ruzena; Singh, Sally J

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition and metabolism have been the topic of extensive scientific research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but clinical awareness of the impact dietary habits, nutritional status and nutritional interventions may have on COPD incidence, progression and outcome is limited. A multidisciplinary Task Force was created by the European Respiratory Society to deliver a summary of the evidence and description of current practice in nutritional assessment and therapy in COPD, and to provide directions for future research. Task Force members conducted focused reviews of the literature on relevant topics, advised by a methodologist. It is well established that nutritional status, and in particular abnormal body composition, is an important independent determinant of COPD outcome. The Task Force identified different metabolic phenotypes of COPD as a basis for nutritional risk profile assessment that is useful in clinical trial design and patient counselling. Nutritional intervention is probably effective in undernourished patients and probably most when combined with an exercise programme. Providing evidence of cost-effectiveness of nutritional intervention is required to support reimbursement and thus increase access to nutritional intervention. Overall, the evidence indicates that a well-balanced diet is beneficial to all COPD patients, not only for its potential pulmonary benefits, but also for its proven benefits in metabolic and cardiovascular risk. ©ERS 2014.

  8. Assessment of zoonotic potential of four European swine influenza viruses in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    herds and enhanced focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Of the four viruses, two were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian......-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high viral titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via respiratory droplets....... Growth kinetics using human bronchial cells showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titers. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the α2,6-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that they were all sensitive...

  9. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchev, L.

    2012-05-01

    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2012-09-30

    One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Colposcopy training and assessment across the member countries of the European Federation for Colposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, E L; Redman, C W E; Arbyn, M; Dollery, E; Petry, K U; Nieminen, P; Myerson, N; Leeson, S C

    2015-05-01

    Colposcopy training and assessment is not uniform across Europe with individual countries determining their own required standards and regulations. In light of the significant changes in colposcopic practice that have occurred over the past decade and the expansion of the European Federation for Colposcopy (EFC) membership, a study was conducted firstly, to assess the current requirements for training in each of the member countries and secondly, to review an EFC-approved core training curriculum for colposcopy. A questionnaire survey of the EFC representatives from all member countries investigating their country's current practices/requirements with regard to training, assessment and accreditation for colposcopy. A two-round Delphi consultation with representation from the full, associate and three potential member countries was conducted using a 5-point Likert scale for scoring opinions. The results were analysed with respect to each country's population size and World Bank economic classification. For the questionnaire survey, responses were received from 31/34 countries invited to participate. Training programmes were reported to be in place in 21 of the 31 countries but only 17 of the 21 countries had a committee overseeing the training programme. An assessment was part of the training programme in 20 countries with multiple choice questions and portfolios the most common assessment tools. Countries with a population size less than 2 million have a statistically significant lower probability of having a structured training/assessment programme, 1/5 compared to 20/26 for a populations greater than 2 million, p=0.013. For the Delphi study, responses were received from 34/39 countries invited to participate. Of the 51 competencies previously identified only 2 did not receive full support: 'perform bacterial swabs' and 'provide data to national body'. There was no significant difference in the responses given by member, associate member or potential member

  12. Algorithms to Assess Music Cities: Case Study—Melbourne as a Music Capital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Andréa Jean

    2017-01-01

    ... “significant economic, employment, cultural and social benefits.” This article highlights that no empirical study has combined all these values and offers a relevant and comprehensive definition of a music city...

  13. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  14. A quantitative assessment of policy options for no net loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; van Teeffelen, A.J.A.; Tucker, G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    The Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union includes a target to "ensure no-net-loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services by 2020". Many policy options can be envisioned to achieve such a no-net-loss target, mainly acting on land use and land management. To assess the effectiveness of such

  15. For better and for worse : The relationship between union dissolution and self-assessed health in European Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, C.W.S.; Uunk, W.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the association between union dissolution and self-assessed health in European panel data. Previous studies suggest that this association might be negative, yet it is unclear to what extent this reflects causation (an effect of union dissolution of health) and/or selection (an effect

  16. Assessment of the Maturity of eGoverment Building Blocks for Public Administrations in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a maturity assessment of a set of generic building blocks for public administrations in the EU. In the European e-SENS project, various generic building blocks are developed, such as eID, eSignature, eDelivery and eDocument building blocks. They should be used by

  17. An Assessment of the Quality of Life in the European Union Based on the Social Indicators Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marco; Canova, Luciano

    2008-01-01

    This article carries out a multidimensional analysis of welfare based on the social indicators approach aimed at assessing the quality of life in the 25 member countries of the European Union. It begins with description of the social indicators approach and provides some specifications on its most controversial points. It then specifies the…

  18. Urban prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in the European capital city Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, D; Schmalwieser, A; Szakmary-Brändle, K; Stessl, B; Wagner, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) in urban public lavatories and on shoe soles of facility patrons in a European capital city. More than 91% of all municipal public lavatories in Vienna close to public hubs were included in this study. Overall, 373 swab samples of public lavatories and shoes of facility patrons were enriched, according to ISO 11290-1. Listeria monocytogenes isolates were subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 24 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 6.4% (24/373). Listeria monocytogenes was found in 2.1% (8/373) of all samples. Swabs from lavatories in parks, container lavatories and lavatories at markets had the highest prevalences of 20.7% (6/29), 20% (2/10) and 12.5% (1/8) Listeria spp., respectively. These detection rates were statistically significantly higher than those associated with lavatories in shopping centres (P = 0.003, P = 0.002, P = 0.02) and at public transport locations (P = 0.0004, P = 0.005, P = 0.02). Shoes sampled at Christmas markets showed the highest Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes prevalences of 80% (4/5) and 40% (2/5), respectively. With regard to shoe type, Listeria spp. detection rates were 14.3% (3/21; winter boots), 13.3% (2/15; hiking boots), sport shoes (5.9%; 2/34) and brogues (5.1%; 4/79). No Listeria spp. were found on shoe soles that had smooth treads (0/76), while Listeria spp. were detected on 19.5% (8/41) of medium depth tread shoe types and on 9.4% (3/32) of deep tread shoes. These data suggest that soil environment is still one of the most important reservoirs for the foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. A catchment-wide assessment of bed sediment metal concentrations in the first industrial city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Rachel; Rothwell, James; Woodward, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    Manchester is often heralded as the 'first industrial city'. Rapid industrialisation in the 18th and 19th centuries saw vast quantities of fine-grained sediments (e.g. boiler ash and cinders) and contaminants (e.g. dyes, bleaches, and chemicals) deposited into the river channels of the Irwell and Mersey in a manner largely unchecked until the 1970s. Although water quality has improved in recent decades, there is a paucity of information on fluvial sediment quality and the extent to which a legacy of historical contamination persists in the contemporary river network. Forty five sites were sampled across the Irwell and Mersey catchments during low flow conditions in spring/summer 2015. Fine-grained bed sediment was collected using the Lambert and Walling (1988) method. Wet sieving was used to isolate the <63 μm fraction for geochemical analysis. Heavy metal concentrations were obtained via XRF with a particular focus on As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. In order to explore controls on sediment-associated metal concentrations, additional characteristics of the bed sediment were also investigated, including particle size and organic matter content. Enrichment factors, based on mean concentrations obtained from pre-industrial floodplain deposits, were calculated. The enrichment factors reveal severe or very severe metal contamination across the whole catchment, including the headwater basins. Relationships between bed sediment quality and hotspots of historic industrial activity have been examined - these reveal complex spatial patterns associated with the high number and variety of historic contaminant inputs. These data form the first baseline assessment and will be used within a larger project investigating the impact of extreme hydrological events on bed sediment quality and transfer in these catchments.

  20. Night-sky brightness monitoring in Hong Kong: a city-wide light pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Chun Shing Jason; So, Chu Wing

    2012-04-01

    Results of the first comprehensive light pollution survey in Hong Kong are presented. The night-sky brightness was measured and monitored around the city using a portable light-sensing device called the Sky Quality Meter over a 15-month period beginning in March 2008. A total of 1,957 data sets were taken at 199 distinct locations, including urban and rural sites covering all 18 Administrative Districts of Hong Kong. The survey shows that the environmental light pollution problem in Hong Kong is severe-the urban night skies (sky brightness at 15.0 mag arcsec(- 2)) are on average ~ 100 times brighter than at the darkest rural sites (20.1 mag arcsec(- 2)), indicating that the high lighting densities in the densely populated residential and commercial areas lead to light pollution. In the worst polluted urban location studied, the night-sky at 13.2 mag arcsec(- 2) can be over 500 times brighter than the darkest sites in Hong Kong. The observed night-sky brightness is found to be affected by human factors such as land utilization and population density of the observation sites, together with meteorological and/or environmental factors. Moreover, earlier night skies (at 9:30 p.m. local time) are generally brighter than later time (at 11:30 p.m.), which can be attributed to some public and commercial lightings being turned off later at night. On the other hand, no concrete relationship between the observed sky brightness and air pollutant concentrations could be established with the limited survey sampling. Results from this survey will serve as an important database for the public to assess whether new rules and regulations are necessary to control the use of outdoor lightings in Hong Kong.

  1. Improving Coastal Flood Risk Assessments for the Northeastern United States: New York City to Boston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Stromer, Z.; Talke, S. A.; Orton, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interest in extreme flood vulnerability in the Northeastern U.S. has increased significantly since Hurricane Sandy caused more than $50 billion dollars in damages. Despite increased focus there is still no overall consensus regarding the true return period in the region for flood events of Sandy's magnitude. The application of Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory to water level data is one of the most common techniques for estimating the return period for these rare events. Here we assess the skill of this popular technique by combining modeled, instrumental and sedimentologically derived records of flooding for the region. We show that GEV derived return periods greatly and consistently underappreciate risk for sites from New York City east to southern Cape Cod. This is in part because at these locations maximum annual flood data represents a mixture of two very different populations of storms, i.e. tropically derived disturbances and extratropical Nor'easters. Nor'easters comprise a majority of floods with 10-yr return periods and shorter, hurricanes for 100-yr floods or longer, and a combination in between. In contrast, the GEV technique functions better in estimating the 100-yr flood for points north of Cape Cod including Boston. At these locations flooding occurs more often from just one type of disturbance, i.e. Nor'easters. However, modeled and sedimentary reconstructions of storms indicate hurricanes likely still dominate flood distribution at northern location like Boston for 500 yr or greater events. Results stress the need for separating storm populations before applying the GEV technique, especially where flood behavior can vary depending on the type of disturbance.

  2. What are we drinking? Assessment of water quality in an urban city of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanjot K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ground water is the ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in the urban areas of India. Studies regarding ground water quality have shown that the higher rate of exploration as compared to the rate of recharging, inappropriate dumping of solid, as well as liquid waste, lack of strict enforcement of law has led to the deterioration of ground water quality. The present study was thus, carried out to evaluate physicochemical, as well as a microbiological profile of tap water, and filtered water in urban areas of Patiala, Punjab. Materials and Methods: The three zones under Municipal Corporation and two areas under Public Health Department were chosen according to the simple random sampling from Patiala city. From each area, 10 houses were chosen according to the systematic random sampling technique (n = 50. Water was taken from two sources, tap water, and from the water filter. Two samples were taken from each source one for the physicochemical analysis and another for bacteriological analysis. The samples which were sent for bacteriological assessment were collected in a sterile container. Results: The number of water samples found to be within desirable limits with respect to physicochemical parameters were significantly more with the filter water sample than the tap water samples. Suspicious/unsatisfactory microbiological quality of water was observed in 28% and 4% of tap and filter water samples, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that certain chemical parameters such as hardness, chloride, and fluoride levels were beyond the permissible limits. Therefore, we recommend that home filters should be installed, serviced appropriately, and their water quality should be checked routinely. Also, any leak from sewage pipes should be promptly repaired to prevent contamination of drinking water.

  3. What are we drinking? Assessment of water quality in an urban city of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amanjot K; Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Sharma, Bhuvan; Singla, Bhavna; Kaur, Paramjeet; Walia, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Ground water is the ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in the urban areas of India. Studies regarding ground water quality have shown that the higher rate of exploration as compared to the rate of recharging, inappropriate dumping of solid, as well as liquid waste, lack of strict enforcement of law has led to the deterioration of ground water quality. The present study was thus, carried out to evaluate physicochemical, as well as a microbiological profile of tap water, and filtered water in urban areas of Patiala, Punjab. The three zones under Municipal Corporation and two areas under Public Health Department were chosen according to the simple random sampling from Patiala city. From each area, 10 houses were chosen according to the systematic random sampling technique (n = 50). Water was taken from two sources, tap water, and from the water filter. Two samples were taken from each source one for the physicochemical analysis and another for bacteriological analysis. The samples which were sent for bacteriological assessment were collected in a sterile container. The number of water samples found to be within desirable limits with respect to physicochemical parameters were significantly more with the filter water sample than the tap water samples. Suspicious/unsatisfactory microbiological quality of water was observed in 28% and 4% of tap and filter water samples, respectively. The results indicate that certain chemical parameters such as hardness, chloride, and fluoride levels were beyond the permissible limits. Therefore, we recommend that home filters should be installed, serviced appropriately, and their water quality should be checked routinely. Also, any leak from sewage pipes should be promptly repaired to prevent contamination of drinking water.

  4. An assessment of long term ecosystem research activities across European socio-ecological gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzger, M.J.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Eupen, van M.; Mirtl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of European long term ecosystem research (LTER) would provide important support for the management of the pan-European environment and ecosystems, as well as international policy commitments. This does require appropriate coverage of Europe and standardised frameworks and research

  5. Assessment of dementia in ethnic minority patients in Europe: a European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Riepe, Matthias W

    2011-01-01

    In most European countries the ethnic minority migrant populations are currently reaching an age where dementia becomes an increasingly important issue. There is no European consensus on good clinical practice with these patient groups, who often have special needs and expectations with regard to...

  6. Assessment of reportable disease incidence after Hurricane Sandy, New York City, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sharon K; Wilson, Elisha L; Konty, Kevin J; Fine, Annie D

    2013-10-01

    Hurricane Sandy's October 29, 2012 arrival in New York City caused flooding, power disruption, and population displacement. Infectious disease risk may have been affected by floodwater exposure, residence in emergency shelters, overcrowding, and lack of refrigeration or heating. For 42 reportable diseases that could have been affected by hurricane-related exposures, we developed methods to assess whether hurricane-affected areas had higher disease incidence than other areas of NYC. We identified post-hurricane cases as confirmed, probable, or suspected cases with onset or diagnosis between October 30 and November 26 that were reported via routine passive surveillance. Pre-hurricane cases for the same 4-week period were identified in 5 prior years, 2007-2011. Cases were geocoded to the census tract of residence. Using data compiled by the NYC Office of Emergency Management, we determined (1) the proportion of the population in each census tract living in a flooded block and (2) the subset of flooded tracts severely "impacted", e.g., by prolonged service outages or physical damage. A separate multivariable regression model was constructed for each disease, modeling the outcome of case counts using a negative binomial distribution. Independent variables were: neighborhood poverty; whether cases were pre- or post-hurricane (time); the proportion of the population flooded in impacted and not impacted tracts; and interaction terms between the flood/impact variables and time. Models used repeated measures to adjust for correlated observations from the same tract and an offset term of the log of the population size. Sensitivity analyses assessed the effects of case count fluctuations and accounted for variations in reporting volume by using an offset term of the log of total cases. Only legionellosis was statistically significantly associated with increased occurrence in flooded/impacted areas post-hurricane, adjusting for baseline differences (P = .04). However, there was

  7. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  8. An assessment of air pollutant exposure methods in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-González, Luis O; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sánchez, Brisa N; Zhang, Kai; Brown, Daniel G; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; O'Neill, Marie S

    2015-05-01

    Geostatistical interpolation methods to estimate individual exposure to outdoor air pollutants can be used in pregnancy cohorts where personal exposure data are not collected. Our objectives were to a) develop four assessment methods (citywide average (CWA); nearest monitor (NM); inverse distance weighting (IDW); and ordinary Kriging (OK)), and b) compare daily metrics and cross-validations of interpolation models. We obtained 2008 hourly data from Mexico City's outdoor air monitoring network for PM10, PM2.5, O3, CO, NO2, and SO2 and constructed daily exposure metrics for 1,000 simulated individual locations across five populated geographic zones. Descriptive statistics from all methods were calculated for dry and wet seasons, and by zone. We also evaluated IDW and OK methods' ability to predict measured concentrations at monitors using cross validation and a coefficient of variation (COV). All methods were performed using SAS 9.3, except ordinary Kriging which was modeled using R's gstat package. Overall, mean concentrations and standard deviations were similar among the different methods for each pollutant. Correlations between methods were generally high (r=0.77 to 0.99). However, ranges of estimated concentrations determined by NM, IDW, and OK were wider than the ranges for CWA. Root mean square errors for OK were consistently equal to or lower than for the IDW method. OK standard errors varied considerably between pollutants and the computed COVs ranged from 0.46 (least error) for SO2 and PM10 to 3.91 (most error) for PM2.5. OK predicted concentrations measured at the monitors better than IDW and NM. Given the similarity in results for the exposure methods, OK is preferred because this method alone provides predicted standard errors which can be incorporated in statistical models. The daily estimated exposures calculated using these different exposure methods provide flexibility to evaluate multiple windows of exposure during pregnancy, not just trimester or

  9. Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment for Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Natalie; Rojas-Rueda, David; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dadvand, Payam; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Foraster, Maria; Gascon, Mireia; Martinez, David; Tonne, Cathryn; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Valentín, Antònia; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2017-01-01

    , Gascon M, Martinez D, Tonne C, Triguero-Mas M, Valentín A, Nieuwenhuijsen M. 2017. Urban and transport planning related exposures and mortality: a health impact assessment for cities. Environ Health Perspect 125:89-96; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP220.

  10. [European Association of Urology guidelines on assessment and nonsurgical management of urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M G; Bosch, R J L; Burkhard, F C; Cruz, F; Madden, T B; Nambiar, A K; Neisius, A; de Ridder, D J M K; Tubaro, A; Turner, W H; Pickard, R S

    2013-04-01

    The previous European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urinary incontinence comprised a summary of sections of the 2009 International Consultation on Incontinence. A decision was made in 2010 to rewrite these guidelines based on an independent systematic review carried out by the EAU guidelines panel, using a sustainable methodology. We present a short version of the full guidelines on assessment, diagnosis, and nonsurgical treatment of urinary incontinence, with the aim of increasing their dissemination. Evidence appraisal included a pragmatic review of existing systematic reviews and independent new literature searches, based on Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome questions. Appraisal of papers was carried out by an international panel of experts, who also collaborated on a series of consensus discussions, to develop concise structured evidence summaries and action-based recommendations using a modified Oxford system. The full version of the guidelines is available online (http://www.uroweb.org/guidelines/online-guidelines/). The guidelines include algorithms that refer the reader back to the supporting evidence, and they are more immediately useable in daily clinical practice. These new guidelines present an up-to-date summary of the available evidence, together with clear clinical algorithms and action-based recommendations based on the best available evidence. Where such evidence does not exist, they present a consensus of expert opinion. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. [New standardized texts in Brazilian Portuguese to assess reading speed--comparison with four European languages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, André; Velasco e Cruz, Antonio Augusto; Schallenmüller, Sonia Jecov; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    To develop standardized texts in Brazilian Portuguese to assess reading speed and compare performances among four European languages. 10 texts were designed by a linguistic expert at the level of a sixth grade reading material (reading ages 10-12 years) and were matched for length and syntactic complexity, according to the syntactic prediction locality theory of Gibson. Normally sighted native speaking volunteers aged 18-35 years read each text aloud at random. The reading speed was on average 1100 +/- 167 (standard deviation) characters per minute. Only small differences were found between the measured reading speeds of the 10 texts, and these differences were not statistically significant in groups of at least 6 texts. The mean reading speed in age-matched volunteers in Finnish was: 1263 +/- 142; French: 1214 +/- 152; English: 1234 +/- 147; and German: 1126 +/- 105. The authors developed a set of standardized, homogeneous, and comparable texts in Brazilian Portuguese. These texts will be a valuable tool to measure reading speed for repeated measurements and in international studies in the field of reading and low vision research.

  12. A spatial assessment model for European eel (Anguilla anguilla in a delta, The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Wolfshaar K.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the poor status of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla population, good assessments are essential to optimise recovery measures. Quantifying eel stock size is challenging given the fractal nature of the distribution of eels, particularly in The Netherlands with its dense interconnected network of drainage ditches, rivers and lakes. Dynamic demographic models as used by others are inappropriate in this delta with a demand for regional information on stock size. We therefore estimated the standing eel stock biomass for all freshwater water bodies, using fish monitoring data collected under the Water Framework Directive and a static GIS approach. Density data were extrapolated to total biomass estimates using GIS data concerning water type, surface area and bank length, and biological parameters obtained from biological data. The analysis yielded density and biomass estimates of the total eel and silver eel stock, with most silver eel biomass being confined to a few coastal regions. The main conclusion is that over half of the Dutch eel biomass is found in the small, regionally managed waters, revealing a crude underestimation of the eel biomass in the 2009 Dutch Eel Management Plan. The silver eel biomass estimate presented here is two to three times higher than previous estimates. Providing spatial information on eel biomass will aid in prioritising management measures to reduce anthropogenic mortality.

  13. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    CERN Document Server

    Bett, Philip E; Clark, Robin T

    2014-01-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 140 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation, and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Variations in the form of the wind speed distribution are assessed in terms of its deciles; we find that the commonly-used Weibull distribution often pro...

  14. Assessment of the pharmaceutical market in Poland after accession to the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willert, Patricia L

    2007-12-01

    The Republic of Poland joined the European Union (EU) on 1 May 2004. The EU accession brought new opportunities to the Polish health care system and the pharmaceutical market. However, there are still barriers to overcome such as bureaucracy, lack of transparency in pricing and reimbursement, decision-making processes, the short period of data exclusivity, respect for intellectual property rights, favorisation of local companies and low health care investment. Additionally, drug costs outpace overall economic development, a trend which is universally valid for almost all EU countries and which forms one of the most serious factors in health care expenditure. A systematic cost-effective assessment, the so-called fourth hurdle (after quality, efficacy and safety), of prescription drugs seems a necessity in most EU countries. The Polish Ministry of Health has defined aims for the future health care system in the National Drug Policy 2004-2008, including health economical criteria and instruments. Howeve