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Sample records for european cardiovascular magnetic

  1. Current variables, definitions and endpoints of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwitter Juerg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR is increasingly used in daily clinical practice. However, little is known about its clinical utility such as image quality, safety and impact on patient management. In addition, there is limited information about the potential of CMR to acquire prognostic information. Methods The European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry (EuroCMR Registry will consist of two parts: 1 Multicenter registry with consecutive enrolment of patients scanned in all participating European CMR centres using web based online case record forms. 2 Prospective clinical follow up of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM every 12 months after enrolment to assess prognostic data. Conclusion The EuroCMR Registry offers an opportunity to provide information about the clinical utility of routine CMR in a large number of cases and a diverse population. Furthermore it has the potential to gather information about the prognostic value of CMR in specific patient populations.

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazacu, A.; Ciubotaru, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of congenital heart disease can be attributed to major improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the clinical management strategy of patients with congenital heart disease. The development of new cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques allows comprehensive assessment of complex cardiac anatomy and function and provides information about the long-term residual post-operative lesions and complications of surgery. It overcomes many of the limitations of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. This review evaluates the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging modality in the management of subject with congenital heart disease (CHD). (authors)

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  4. Cardiovascular nuclear medicine and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiber, J.H.C.; Wall, E.E. van der

    1992-01-01

    This book is based on a meeting of the Working Group on Nuclear Cardiology, which held March 22-23,1991 under the auspices of the European Society of Cardiology and the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, and on the Second International Symposium on Computer Applications in Nuclear Medicine and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which was held March 20-22,1991 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. It covers almost every aspect of quantitative cardio-vascular nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging. The main topics are: single photon emission computed tomography (technical aspects); new development in cardiovascular nuclear medicine; advances in cardiovascular imaging; cardiovascular clinical applications; and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. (A.S.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Thor; Plein, Sven; Saraste, Antti; Pierard, Luc A; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-07-01

    The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, and Part II will focus on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Thor; Plein, Sven; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-06-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was started in 2012. During its first year, the new Journal has published an impressive collection of cardiovascular studies utilizing all cardiovascular imaging modalities. We will summarize the most important studies from its first year in two articles. The present 'Part I' of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging.

  8. Hybrid cardiac imaging using PET/MRI: a joint position statement by the European Society of Cardiovascular Radiology (ESCR) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nensa, Felix; Bamberg, Fabian; Rischpler, Christoph; Menezes, Leon; Poeppel, Thorsten D; la Fougère, Christian; Beitzke, Dietrich; Rasul, Sazan; Loewe, Christian; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bucerius, Jan; Kjaer, Andreas; Gutberlet, Matthias; Prakken, Niek H; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Slart, Riemer H J A; Nekolla, Stephan G; Lassen, Martin L; Pichler, Bernd J; Schlosser, Thomas; Jacquier, Alexis; Quick, Harald H; Schäfers, Michael; Hacker, Marcus

    2018-05-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have both been used for decades in cardiovascular imaging. Since 2010, hybrid PET/MRI using sequential and integrated scanner platforms has been available, with hybrid cardiac PET/MR imaging protocols increasingly incorporated into clinical workflows. Given the range of complementary information provided by each method, the use of hybrid PET/MRI may be justified and beneficial in particular clinical settings for the evaluation of different disease entities. In the present joint position statement, we critically review the role and value of integrated PET/MRI in cardiovascular imaging, provide a technical overview of cardiac PET/MRI and practical advice related to the cardiac PET/MRI workflow, identify cardiovascular applications that can potentially benefit from hybrid PET/MRI, and describe the needs for future development and research. In order to encourage its wide dissemination, this article is freely accessible on the European Radiology and European Journal of Hybrid Imaging web sites. • Studies and case-reports indicate that PET/MRI is a feasible and robust technology. • Promising fields of application include a variety of cardiac conditions. • Larger studies are required to demonstrate its incremental and cost-effective value. • The translation of novel radiopharmaceuticals and MR-sequences will provide exciting new opportunities.

  9. Current European guidelines for management of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Johan L; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2018-01-01

    Background Health checks of the general population are widely used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, but are the current clinical guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) suitable for screening the general population? Design A cross-sectional, population-based study of 978 men...... and women aged 40-65 years examined in 2010-2011 was used to estimate the proportion of the general Danish population fulfilling the criteria from the clinical guidelines from the ESC on medical treatment and lifestyle intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease. Methods The ESC criteria for medical...... treatment and lifestyle intervention were applied to a general population using information on previous cardiovascular diseases, known diabetes, urinalbumin, smoking, total cholesterol, systolic and diabolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a multifactor risk score (SCORE). Results...

  10. Clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, C.B.; Beek, A.M.; Van Rossum, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from an effective research tool into a clinically proven, safe and comprehensive imaging modality. It provides anatomic and functional information in acquired and congenital heart disease and is the most precise technique for quantification of ventricular volumes, function and mass. Owing to its excellent interstudy reproducibility, cardiovascular MRI is the optimal method for assessment of changes in ventricular parameters after therapeutic intervention. Delayed contrast enhancement is an accurate and robust method used in the diagnosis of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and less common diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and myocarditis. First-pass magnetic contrast myocardial perfusion is becoming an alternative to radionuclide techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease. In this review we outline the techniques used in cardiovascular MRI and discuss the most common clinical applications. (author)

  11. The year 2014 in the European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Thor; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Saraste, Antti; Pierard, Luc A; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-07-01

    The new multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. It has already gained an impressive impact factor of 3.669 during its first 2 years. In two articles, we will summarize the most important studies from the journal's third year. Part I of the review will focus on studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, and Part II will focus on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The year 2014 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernhard L; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-11-01

    The European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging, created in 2012, has become a reference for publishing multimodality cardiovascular imaging scientific and review papers. The impressive 2014 impact factor of 4.105 confirms the important position of our journal. In this part, we summarize the most important studies from the journal's third year, with specific emphasis on cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, valvular heart diseases, and heart failure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yoshiaki; Imai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Sigeru; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Yukio; Ikehira, Hiroo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique for visualization of the cardiovascular system, and is used to evaluate tissue characteristics, cardiac function and blood flow abnormalities, as well as to obtain morphological information. In this paper we presented results of clinical and laboratory research obtained using conventional spin echo MRI with regard to cardiovascular anatomy, tissue characterization and physiology. Furthermore, experience with two new techniques, cine-MRI and volume-selected MR spectroscopy, and their potential clinical usefulness in detecting cardiovascular diseases are documented. (author)

  14. Formalized Combined 2003 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana

    23 Suppl. 2, - (2005), s. 196 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /15./. 17.06.2005-21.06.2005, Milan] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : European medical guidelines * formalization of combined guidelines Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  15. Clinical advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonace imaging and angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den H.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is an important noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis, clinical work‐up and treatment planning in patients suspected for a wide range of cardiovascular pathology. CMR imaging is accurate and reliable, and provides invaluable information to evaluate

  16. LEADER 7: cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, G.E.; Tack, C.J.J.; Pieber, T.R.; Comlekci, A.; Orsted, D.D.; Baeres, F.M.; Marso, S.P.; Buse, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. METHODS: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular

  17. LEADER 7 : Cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Guy E H M; Tack, Cees J.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Baeres, Florian M M; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular

  18. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  19. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckel, C.G.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Wicks, J.D.; Stevens, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    How does magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) currently contribute in the evaluation of patients with suspected heart disease? What role will MRI play in the future in evaluation of cardiovascular disease? To understand better where MRI fits into the diagnostic algorithm of cardiovascular disease the authors first consider the characteristics that they would like to see in the ideal diagnostic test and then survey the available cardiac diagnostic tests to note the characteristics that limit or recommend a test. In the final analysis, the justification for expensive diagnostic tests such as MRI must be an overall improvement in survival or quality of life in those patients treated after diagnosis

  1. Improving clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases: a position paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neville; Atar, Dan; Borentain, Maria; Breithardt, Günter; van Eickels, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Fraass, Uwe; Friede, Tim; Hannachi, Hakima; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Landray, Martin; Lautsch, Dominik; Le Floch, Chantal; Mol, Peter; Naci, Huseyin; Samani, Nilesh J; Svensson, Anders; Thorstensen, Cathrine; Tijssen, Jan; Vandzhura, Victoria; Zalewski, Andrew; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, but the pharmaceutical industry's willingness to invest in this field has declined because of the many challenges involved with bringing new cardiovascular drugs to market, including late-stage failures, escalating regulatory requirements, bureaucracy of the clinical trial business enterprise, and limited patient access after approval. This contrasts with the remaining burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe and in the world. Thus, clinical cardiovascular research needs to adapt to address the impact of these challenges in order to ensure development of new cardiovascular medicines. The present paper is the outcome of a two-day workshop held by the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology. We propose strategies to improve development of effective new cardiovascular therapies. These can include (i) the use of biomarkers to describe patients who will benefit from new therapies more precisely, achieving better human target validation; (ii) targeted, mechanism-based approaches to drug development for defined populations; (iii) the use of information technology to simplify data collection and follow-up in clinical trials; (iv) streamlining adverse event collection and reducing monitoring; (v) extended patent protection or limited rapid approval of new agents to motivate investment in early phase development; and (vi) collecting data needed for health technology assessment continuously throughout the drug development process (before and after approval) to minimize delays in patient access. Collaboration across industry, academia, regulators, and payers will be necessary to enact change and to unlock the existing potential for cardiovascular clinical drug development. A coordinated effort involving academia, regulators, industry, and payors will help to foster better and more effective conduct of clinical cardiovascular trials, supporting earlier

  2. Lipoprotein(a) and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldeyer, Christoph; Makarova, Nataliya; Zeller, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Aims: As promising compounds to lower Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) are emerging, the need for a precise characterization and comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk is increasing. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Lp(a) concentrations across the European population......, to characterize the association with cardiovascular outcomes and to provide high comparability of the Lp(a)-associated cardiovascular risk by use of centrally determined Lp(a) concentrations. Methods and results: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE)-project, we......-Meier curves showed the highest event rate of MCE and CVD events for Lp(a) levels≥90th percentile (log-rank test: Prisk factors revealed a significant association of Lp(a) levels with MCE and CVD with a hazard ratio (HR...

  3. Nuclear cardiology core syllabus of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Neglia, Danilo; Schindler, Thomas H; Cosyns, Bernard; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Kitsiou, Anastasia

    2015-04-01

    The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) Core Syllabus for Nuclear Cardiology is now available online. The syllabus lists key elements of knowledge in nuclear cardiology. It represents a framework for the development of training curricula and provides expected knowledge-based learning outcomes to the nuclear cardiology trainees. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel

    OpenAIRE

    Durif, Caroline M. F.; Browman, Howard I.; Phillips, John B.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn; Stockhausen, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at ge...

  5. Advances in cardiovascular research. 15th Annual Meeting of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research (ECCR). La Colle sur Loup, France, 8–10 October 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steckelings, U. Muscha; de Mey, Jo G. R.; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan; Henrion, Daniel; Unger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The 15th Annual Meeting of the European Council of Cardiovascular Research brought together basic and clinical scientists working in the cardiovascular field in La Colle sur Loup, France. Upfront basic and clinical research addressing the mechanisms of disease, identification of biomarkers or

  6. Technical competence in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Azevedo Filho, Clerio Francisco de; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Pinto, Ibraim Marciarelli Francisco; Lopes, Marly Maria Uellendahl; Schvartzman, Paulo Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography have evolved as very practical and useful techniques applied in clinical cardiology. Due to their rapid acceptance in the cardiology community and widespread use, training of both cardiologists and radiologists on this subspecialty has not been homogeneous so far. This in part explains significant differences observed in the diverse background found in today’s practicing physicians who execute these exams. In order to guide training facilities as well as both payers, contractors and general cardiologists ordering the exam, this document provides a minimum standard that should be accomplished by all physicians who pursue education in the field and for those who already practice in it. The clinical competences listed in this statement are by no means thorough but should be required by all those involved in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography as the customary requirements for current and future practitioners. (author)

  7. Review of Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There were 56 articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in 2009. The editors were impressed with the high quality of the submissions, of which our acceptance rate was about 40%. In accordance with open-access publishing, the articles go on-line as they are accepted with no collating of the articles into sections or special thematic issues. We have therefore chosen to briefly summarise the papers in this article for quick reference for our readers in broad areas of interest, which we feel will be useful to practitioners of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. In some cases where it is considered useful, the articles are also put into the wider context with a short narrative and recent CMR references. It has been a privilege to serve as the Editor of the JCMR this past year. I hope that you find the open-access system increases wider reading and citation of your papers, and that you will continue to send your quality manuscripts to JCMR for publication.

  8. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people with severe mental illness position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, M; Dekker, J M; Wood, D; Kahl, K G; Holt, R I G; Möller, H-J

    2009-09-01

    People with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, have worse physical health and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. The excess cardiovascular mortality associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is attributed in part to an increased risk of the modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors; obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Antipsychotic medication and possibly other psychotropic medication like antidepressants can induce weight gain or worsen other metabolic cardiovascular risk factors. Patients may have limited access to general healthcare with less opportunity for cardiovascular risk screening and prevention than would be expected in a non-psychiatric population. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published this statement with the aim of improving the care of patients suffering from severe mental illness. The intention is to initiate cooperation and shared care between the different healthcare professionals and to increase the awareness of psychiatrists and primary care physicians caring for patients with severe mental illness to screen and treat cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes.

  9. ECG gated magnetic resonance imaging in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Im, Chung Kie; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Using KAIS 0.15 Tesla resistive magnetic imaging system, ECG gated magnetic resonance (MR) image of various cardiovascular disease was obtained in 10 patients. The findings of MR image of the cardiovascular disease were analysed and the results were as follows: 1. In 6 cases of acquired and congenital cardiac diseases, there were 2 cases of myocardial infarction, 1 case of mitral stenosis and 3 cases of corrected transportation of great vessels. The others were 3 cases of aortic disease and 1 case of pericardial effusion with lymphoma. 2. Myocardial thinning and left ventricular aneurysm were detected in MR images of myocardial infarction. The left atrium was well delineated and enlarged in the case of mitral stenosis. And segmental analysis was possible in the cases of corrected transposition since all cardiac structures were well delineated anatomically. 3. In aortic diseases, the findings of MR image were enlarged lumen, compressed cardiac chambers in ascending aortic aneurysm, intimal flap, enhanced false lumen in dissecting aneurysm and irregular narrowing of aorta with arterial obstruction in Takayasu's arteritis. 4. Pericardial effusion revealed a conspicuous contrast with neighboring mediastinal fat and cardiac wall due to it low signal encircling cardiac wall. 5. ECG gated MR image is an accurate non-invasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and better results of its clinical application are expected in the future with further development in the imaging system and more clinical experiences

  10. Technical competence in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography; Competencia tecnica em ressonancia e tomografia cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Azevedo Filho, Clerio Francisco de; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Pinto, Ibraim Marciarelli Francisco; Lopes, Marly Maria Uellendahl; Schvartzman, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: jlaraf@fcm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/GERT) SP (Brazil). Grupo de Estudo em Ressonancia e Tomografia Cardiovascular

    2009-10-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography have evolved as very practical and useful techniques applied in clinical cardiology. Due to their rapid acceptance in the cardiology community and widespread use, training of both cardiologists and radiologists on this subspecialty has not been homogeneous so far. This in part explains significant differences observed in the diverse background found in today’s practicing physicians who execute these exams. In order to guide training facilities as well as both payers, contractors and general cardiologists ordering the exam, this document provides a minimum standard that should be accomplished by all physicians who pursue education in the field and for those who already practice in it. The clinical competences listed in this statement are by no means thorough but should be required by all those involved in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography as the customary requirements for current and future practitioners. (author)

  11. Advances in cardiovascular research. 15th Annual Meeting of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research (ECCR). La Colle sur Loup, France, 8–10 October 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckelings, U Muscha; De Mey, Jo G R; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan; Henrion, Daniel; Unger, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The 15th Annual Meeting of the European Council of Cardiovascular Research brought together basic and clinical scientists working in the cardiovascular field in La Colle sur Loup, France. Upfront basic and clinical research addressing the mechanisms of disease, identification of biomarkers or development of new treatments was communicated in 101 presentations, 35 of them as a part of five on-topic oral sessions and three workshops. Three keynote lectures reviewed current knowledge and the latest data about mechanosensitive channels in pressure regulation, cell therapy in cardiovascular disease and mechanisms of cardiovascular risk associated with diabetic nephropathy. This article summarizes highlights of the oral sessions, workshops and keynote lectures.

  12. GEMAS: Unmixing magnetic properties of European agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Nurgaliev, Danis

    2016-04-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements provide new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soil which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment and consequences of climatic change, for planning economic and ecological land use, and for forensic applications. Hysteresis measurements of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey yield a comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in European agricultural soil on a continental scale. Low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k were measured using a Bartington MS2B sensor. Hysteresis properties were determined by a J-coercivity spectrometer, built at the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T. The resulting data are used to create the first continental-scale maps of magnetic soil parameters. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas contains a comprehensive set of geochemical data for the same soil samples, the new data can be used to map magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The data set also provides a unique opportunity to analyze the magnetic mineral fraction of the soil samples by unmixing their IRM acquisition curves. The endmember coefficients are interpreted by linear inversion for other magnetic, physical and chemical properties which results in an unprecedented and detailed view of the mineral magnetic composition of European agricultural soils.

  13. Quantitative characterization of myocardial infarction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts future cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauly John M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR can provide quantitative data of the myocardial tissue utilizing high spatial and temporal resolution along with exquisite tissue contrast. Previous studies have correlated myocardial scar tissue with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia. This study was conducted to evaluate whether characterization of myocardial infarction by CMR can predict cardiovascular events in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM. Results We consecutively studied 86 patients with ICM (LVEF Conclusion Quantification of the scar volume and scar percentage by CMR is superior to LVEDV, LVESV, and LVEF in prognosticating the future likelihood of the development of cardiovascular events in patients with ICM.

  14. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2013-01-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European...

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Hernandez, Ramiro J.; Dorfman, Adam L.; Attili, Anil K.; Agarwal, Prachi P.; Mueller, Gisela C.; Bell, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) plays an important complementary role to echocardiography and conventional angiography in the evaluation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This imaging modality is particularly useful for assessing cardiovascular postsurgical changes, extracardiac vascular anatomy, ventricular and valvular function, and a variety of complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the role of CMR in the management of untreated and surgically palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children. (orig.)

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  17. Highlights of the 16th annual scientific sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John-Paul; Patel, Amit R; Fernandes, Juliano Lara

    2013-07-19

    The 16th Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) took place in San Francisco, USA at the end of January 2013. With a faculty of experts from across the world, this congress provided a wealth of insight into cutting-edge research and technological development. This review article intends to provide a highlight of what represented the most significant advances in the field of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during this year's meeting.

  18. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiology Practice: A Concise Guide to Image Acquisition and Clinical Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena-López, Silvia; Hinojar, Rocío; Puntmann, Valentina O

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance plays an increasingly important role in routine cardiology clinical practice. It is a versatile imaging modality that allows highly accurate, broad and in-depth assessment of cardiac function and structure and provides information on pertinent clinical questions in diseases such as ischemic heart disease, nonischemic cardiomyopathies, and heart failure, as well as allowing unique indications, such as the assessment and quantification of myocardial iron overload or infiltration. Increasing evidence for the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance, together with the spread of knowledge and skill outside expert centers, has afforded greater access for patients and wider clinical experience. This review provides a snapshot of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in modern clinical practice by linking image acquisition and postprocessing with effective delivery of the clinical meaning. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance frontiers: Tissue characterisation with mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, R.; Bhuva, A.; Manacho, K.; Moon, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has expanded rapidly over the last decade. Its role in cardiac morphological and functional assessment is established, with perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for scar increasingly used in day-to-day clinical decision making. LGE allows a virtual histological assessment of the myocardium, with the pattern of scar suggesting disease aetiology, and the extent of predicting risk. However, even combined, the ...

  20. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: from knowledge to implementation. A position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo Francesco; Corrà, Ugo; Benzer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the importance of cardiovascular prevention is not yet matched by the resources and actions within health care systems. Recent publication of the European Commission's European Heart Health Charter in 2008 prompts a review of the role of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to card......Increasing awareness of the importance of cardiovascular prevention is not yet matched by the resources and actions within health care systems. Recent publication of the European Commission's European Heart Health Charter in 2008 prompts a review of the role of cardiac rehabilitation (CR......) to cardiovascular health outcomes. Secondary prevention through exercise-based CR is the intervention with the best scientific evidence to contribute to decrease morbidity and mortality in coronary artery disease, in particular after myocardial infarction but also incorporating cardiac interventions and chronic...... makers and consumers in the recognition of the comprehensive nature of CR. Those charged with responsibility for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, whether at European, national or individual centre level, need to consider where and how structured programmes of CR can be delivered to all...

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance activity in the United Kingdom: a survey on behalf of the british society of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargie Henry J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The indications, complexity and capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR have rapidly expanded. Whether actual service provision and training have developed in parallel is unknown. Methods We undertook a systematic telephone and postal survey of all public hospitals on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to identify all CMR providers within the United Kingdom. Results Of the 60 CMR centres identified, 88% responded to a detailed questionnaire. Services are led by cardiologists and radiologists in equal proportion, though the majority of current trainees are cardiologists. The mean number of CMR scans performed annually per centre increased by 44% over two years. This trend was consistent across centres of different scanning volumes. The commonest indication for CMR was assessment of heart failure and cardiomyopathy (39%, followed by coronary artery disease and congenital heart disease. There was striking geographical variation in CMR availability, numbers of scans performed, and distribution of trainees. Centres without on site scanning capability refer very few patients for CMR. Just over half of centres had a formal training programme, and few performed regular audit. Conclusion The number of CMR scans performed in the UK has increased dramatically in just two years. Trainees are mainly located in large volume centres and enrolled in cardiology as opposed to radiology training programmes.

  2. Cardiovascular prevention guidelines in daily practice: a comparison of EUROASPIRE I, II, and III surveys in eight European countries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotseva, Kornelia

    2009-03-14

    The first and second EUROASPIRE surveys showed high rates of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. The third EUROASPIRE survey was done in 2006-07 in 22 countries to see whether preventive cardiology had improved and if the Joint European Societies\\' recommendations on cardiovascular disease prevention are being followed in clinical practice.

  3. Technological Innovations in Magnetic Resonance for Early Detection of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Maria F; Positano, Vincenzo; Martini, Nicola; Valvano, Giuseppe; Landini, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Most recent technical innovations in cardiovascular MR imaging (CMRI) are presented in this review. They include hardware and software developments, and novelties in parametric mapping. All these recent improvements lead to high spatial and temporal resolution and quantitative information on the heart structure and function. They make it achievable ambitious goals in the field of magnetic resonance, such as the early detection of cardiovascular pathologies. In this review article, we present recent innovations in CMRI, emphasizing the progresses performed and the solutions proposed to some yet opened technical problems.

  4. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and infiltrative cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Rebecca; Manacho, Katia; Castelletti, Silvia; Moon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disease. Cardiac imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management, with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) an important modality. CMR provides a number of different techniques in one examination: structure and function, flow imaging and tissue characterisation particularly with the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. Other techniques include vasodilator perfusion, mapping (especially T1 mapping and ex...

  5. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data...... -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth...... from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer...

  6. [Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Prevention Committee (CEIPC) on the 2012 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Villar Alvarez, Fernando; Sans, Susana; Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Moreno Carriles, Rosa María; Maiques, Antonio; Lizcano, Angel; Lizarbe, Vicenta; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Fornés Ubeda, Francisco; Elosua, Roberto; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; de Álvaro Moreno, Fernando; Cortés, Olga; Cordero, Alberto; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Armario, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Based on the two main frameworks for evaluating scientific evidence--SEC and GRADE--European cardiovascular prevention guidelines recommend interventions across all life stages using a combination of population-based and high-risk strategies with diet as the cornerstone of prevention. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk (CVR) incorporates HDL levels and psychosocial factors, a very high risk category, and the concept of age-risk. They also recommend cognitive-behavioural methods (e.g., motivational interviewing, psychological interventions, led by health professionals and with the participation of the patient's family, to counterbalance psychosocial stress and reduce CVR through the institution of positive habits such as a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and adherence to treatment. Additionally, public health interventions--such as smoking ban in public areas or the elimination of trans fatty acids from the food chain--are also essential. Other innovations include abandoning antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention and the recommendation of maintaining blood pressure (BP) within the 130-139/80-85 mmHg range in diabetic patients and individuals with high CVR. Finally, due to the significant impact on patient progress and medical costs, special emphasis is given to the low therapeutic adherence levels observed. In sum, improving cardiovascular prevention requires a true partnership among the political class, public administrations, scientific and professional associations, health foundations, consumer associations, patients and their families. Such partnership would promote population-based and individual strategies by taking advantage of the broad spectrum of scientific evidence available, from clinical trials to observational studies and mathematical models to evaluate population-based interventions, including cost-effectiveness analyses.

  7. Quantification of right and left ventricular function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellenger, N.G.; Smith, G.C.; Pennell, D.J.; Grothues, F.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accurate and reproducible assessment of cardiac function is essential for the diagnosis, the assessment of prognosis and evaluation of a patient's response to therapy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides a measure of global and regional function that is not only accurate and reproducible but is noninvasive, free of ionising radiation, and independent of the geometric assumptions and acoustic windows that limit echocardiography. With the advent of faster scanners, automated analysis, increasing availability and reducing costs, CMR is fast becoming a clinically tenable reference standard for the measurement of cardiac function. (orig.) [de

  8. The Role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterzan, Mark A; Rider, Oliver J; Anderson, Lisa J

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular imaging is key for the assessment of patients with heart failure. Today, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging plays an established role in the assessment of patients with suspected and confirmed heart failure syndromes, in particular identifying aetiology. Its role in informing prognosis and guiding decisions around therapy are evolving. Key strengths include its accuracy; reproducibility; unrestricted field of view; lack of radiation; multiple abilities to characterise myocardial tissue, thrombus and scar; as well as unparalleled assessment of left and right ventricular volumes. T2* has an established role in the assessment and follow-up of iron overload cardiomyopathy and a role for T1 in specific therapies for cardiac amyloid and Anderson-Fabry disease is emerging.

  9. What does the Development of the European Core Curriculum for Cardiovascular Nurses Mean for Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubeck, Lis; Lin, Stella Hsi-Man; Ferry, Cate; Gallagher, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    A core curriculum for the continuing professional development of nurses has recently been published by the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions of the European Society of Cardiology. This core curriculum was envisaged to bridge the educational gap between qualification as a nurse and an advance practice role. In addition, the shared elements and international consensus on core themes creates a strong pathway for nursing career development that is directly relevant to Australia. Education programs for nurses in Australia must meet the mandatory standards of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council (ANMAC), but without a national core curriculum, there can be considerable variation in the content of such courses. The core curriculum is developed to be adapted locally, allowing the addition of nationally relevant competencies, for example, culturally appropriate care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals. Two existing specialist resources could be utilised to deliver a tailored cardiovascular core curriculum; the Heart Education Assessment and Rehabilitation Toolkit (HEART) online (www.heartonline.org.au) and HeartOne (www.heartone.com.au). Both resources could be further enhanced by incorporating the core curriculum. The release of the European core curriculum should be viewed as a call to action for Australia to develop a core curriculum for cardiovascular nurses. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lifestyle and risk factor management in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease. A report from the European Society of Cardiology European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) IV cross-sectional survey in 14 European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; Ryden, Lars; Jennings, Catriona; Gyberg, Viveca; Abreu, Ana; Aguiar, Carlos; Conde, Almudena C.; Davletov, Kairat; Dilic, Mirza; Dolzhenko, Maryna; Gaita, Dan; Georgiev, Borislav; Gotcheva, Nina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE) IV in primary care was a cross-sectional survey carried out by the European Society of Cardiology, EURObservational Research Programme in 2014-2015 in 71 centres from 14 European countries. The main objective was to determine whether the 2012 Joint European Societies' guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in people at high CVD risk have been followed in clinical practi...

  11. PREFACE: Joint European Magnetic Symposia - JEMS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spałek, Jozef

    2011-07-01

    Conference banner The Joint European Magnetic Symposia JEMS 2010 took place in the complex Auditorium Maximum of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, between 23-28 August 2010. It followed the series of the conferences in Grenoble (2001), Dresden (2004), San Sebastian (2006), and Dublin (2008). The next Symposia will be held in 2012 in Parma (Italy). The Symposia cover a broad range of aspects of magnetism and magnetic materials, as well as providing a forum for the magnetism community to discuss new concepts, properties, and developments in all branches of fundamental and applied magnetism. The JEMS 2010 Symposia were organized by the Institute of Physics of Jagiellonian University, in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology (Kraków), Cracow University of Technology, Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków, and the Silesian University in Katowice. I thank the Local Committee, and in particular Professor Krzysztof Tomala, for their hard work long before, during, and after the Conference. We dedicate this volume to Professor Henryk Szymczak from the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences for his long lasting service to the magnetism community and the organizational effort in bringing this Conference to our community. Thank you Henryk! The Conference contained Plenary Sessions and 16 Symposia, which are listed below. Most of them had two chairpersons (also listed), one from abroad and one from Poland. I believe that a collective chairmanship of the Symposia is very helpful in both their organization, as well as in the reviewing process of the papers submitted to the Conference Proceedings. I would like to cordially thank all the persons listed below, who have contributed enormously to the success of our meeting. The Proceedings comprises 116 invited and contributed papers. I thank the Co-editors for their continuing work long after the Conference. Arrivederci in Parma! Jozef Spa

  12. A joint procedural position statement on imaging in cardiac sarcoidosis : from the Cardiovascular and Inflammation & Infection Committees of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H J A; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Hyafil, Fabien; Blankstein, Ron; Schwartz, Ronald G; Jaber, Wael A; Russell, Raymond; Gimelli, Alessia; Rouzet, François; Hacker, Marcus; Gheysens, Olivier; Plein, Sven; Miller, Edward J; Dorbala, Sharmila; Donal, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    This joint position paper illustrates the role and the correct use of echocardiography, radionuclide imaging with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation and management of

  13. A joint procedural position statement on imaging in cardiac sarcoidosis: from the Cardiovascular and Inflammation & Infection Committees of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Hyafil, Fabien; Blankstein, Ron; Schwartz, Ronald G.; Jaber, Wael A.; Russell, Raymond; Gimelli, Alessia; Rouzet, Francois; Hacker, Marcus; Gheysens, Olivier; Plein, Sven; Miller, Edward J.; Dorbala, Sharmila; Donal, Erwan; Sciagra, Roberto; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Lindner, Oliver; Uebleis, Christopher; Agostini, Denis; Signore, Alberto; Edvardsen, Thor; Neglia, Danilo; Beanlands, Rob S.; Di Carli, Marcelo; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya; Dilsizian, Vasken; Soman, Prem; Habib, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    This joint position paper illustrates the role and the correct use of echocardiography, radionuclide imaging with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation and management of

  14. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam; Morani, Ajaykumar C.; Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L.; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Jeph, Sunil; Agarwal, Prachi P.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  15. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Parga, Jose Rodrigues; Arteaga, Edmundo; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Tassi, Eduardo Marinho

    2007-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequent genetic cardiac disease that causes sudden death in young people, with an incidence of 1:500 adults. The routinely used criteria for worst prognosis have limited sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the estimated risk of evolving to dilated cardiomyopathy or sudden death is somewhat inaccurate, leading to management uncertainty of HCM patients. Therefore, an accurate noninvasive method for the diagnosis of HCM with prognostic value is of great importance. In the last years, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) emerged not only as a diagnostic tool, but also as a study with prognostic values, by characterizing myocardial fibrosis with great accuracy in HCM patients. Additionally, CMR identifies the types of hypertrophy, analyses the ventricular function, estimates the intraventricular gradient and allows the determination of differential diagnosis. Moreover, CMR can uniquely access myocardial fibrosis in HCM. (author)

  17. Ethnic differences in cross-sectional associations between impaired glucose regulation, identified by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and cardiovascular disease in a cohort of European and South Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, S V; Tillin, T; Mayet, J; Shibata, D K; Wright, A; Heasman, J; Beauchamp, N; Forouhi, N G; Hughes, A D; Chaturvedi, N

    2016-03-01

    We contrasted impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes) prevalence, defined according to oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c values, and studied cross-sectional associations between prediabetes and subclinical/clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a cohort of European and South Asian origin. For 682 European and 520 South Asian men and women, aged 58-85 years, glycaemic status was determined by oral glucose tolerance test or HbA1c thresholds. Questionnaires, record review, coronary artery calcification scores and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging established clinical plus subclinical coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Prediabetes was more prevalent in South Asian participants when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Accounting for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and waist-hip ratio, prediabetes was associated with coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease in European participants, most obviously when defined by HbA1c rather than by oral glucose tolerance test [odds ratios for HbA1c -defined prediabetes 1.60 (95% CI 1.07, 2.39) for coronary heart disease and 1.57 (95% CI 1.00, 2.51) for cerebrovascular disease]. By contrast, non-significant associations were present between oral glucose tolerance test-defined prediabetes only and coronary heart disease [odds ratio 1.41 (95% CI 0.84, 2.36)] and HbA1c -defined prediabetes only and cerebrovascular disease [odds ratio 1.39 (95% CI 0.69, 2.78)] in South Asian participants. Prediabetes defined by HbA1c or oral glucose tolerance test criteria was associated with cardiovascular disease (defined as coronary heart and/or cerebrovascular disease) in Europeans [odds ratio 1.95 (95% CI 1.31, 2.91) for HbA1c prediabetes criteria] but not in South Asian participants [odds ratio 1.00 (95% CI 0.62, 2.66); ethnicity interaction P = 0.04]. Prediabetes appeared to be less associated with cardiovascular disease in the South Asian than in the European

  18. Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular devices: principles, problems, and proposals for European regulatory reform. Report of a policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alan G; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Van de Werf, Frans; Estes, N A Mark; Smith, Sidney C; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Vardas, Panos E; Komajda, Michel

    2011-07-01

    The European Commission announced in 2008 that a fundamental revision of the medical device directives is being considered in order to clarify and strengthen the current legal framework. The system for testing and approving devices in Europe was established >20 years ago as a 'New Approach' to a previously little-regulated industry. It is recognized by many that the regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances and changing patterns of medical practice. New legislation will be drafted during 2011, but medical experts have been little involved in this important process. This context makes it an opportune time for a professional association to advise from both clinical and academic perspectives about changes which should be made to improve the safety and efficacy of devices used in clinical practice and to develop more appropriate systems for their clinical evaluation and post-marketing surveillance. This report summarizes how medical devices are regulated and it reviews some serious clinical problems that have occurred with cardiovascular devices. Finally, it presents the main recommendations from a Policy Conference on the Clinical Evaluation of Cardiovascular Devices that was held at the European Heart House in January 2011.

  19. Measurements of Pulmonary Artery Size for Assessment of Pulmonary Hypertension by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan YANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary hypertension (PH often leads to dilatation of main pulmonary artery (MPA. MPA measurements can be used to predict PH. This aim of this study is to investigate power of MPA vessel indices, which are acquired from cardiovascular magnetic resonance, to evaluate PH. Methods Cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-determined parameters of MPA were acquired and calculated in 83 PH patients, whose diagnosis were confirmed with right heart catheterization and 49 healthy volunteers; these parameters included MPA diameter (DPA, ratio of DPA and ascending aorta diameter (DPA/DAo, max mean diameter (MDmax, min mean diameter (MDmin, fraction transverse diameter (fTD, fraction longitudinal diameter (fLD, and distensibility. Results Compared with control group, DPA, DPA/DAo, MDmax, and MDmin were significantly higher in patients with PH (P28.4 mm, and MDmax>32.4 mm (area under the curve, AUC=0.979, 0.981 showed best performance in predicting PH, yielding highest specificity at 100%. Conclusion Noninvasive cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-derived MPA measurements provide excellent and practical reference in clinical settings for detecting PH.

  20. Cardiovascular assessment of patients with Ullrich-Turner's Syndrome on Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiovascular features of Ullrich-Turner's syndrome using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, and to correlate them with the phenotype and karyotype of the patients. The diagnostic concordance between the 2 methods was also assessed. METHODS: Fifteen patients with the syndrome were assessed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac chambers, valves, and aorta. Their ages ranged from 10 to 28 (mean of 16.7 years. The karyotype was analyzed in 11 or 25 metaphases of peripheral blood lymphocytes, or both. RESULTS: The most common phenotypic changes were short stature and spontaneous absence of puberal development (100%; 1 patient had a cardiac murmur. The karyotypes detected were as follows: 45,X (n=7, mosaics (n=5, and deletions (n=3. No echocardiographic changes were observed. In regard to magnetic resonance imaging, coarctation and dilation of the aorta were found in 1 patient, and isolated dilation of the aorta was found in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The frequencies of coarctation and dilation of the aorta detected on magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those reported in the literature (5.5% to 20%, and 6.3% to 29%, respectively. This confirmed the adjuvant role of magnetic resonance imaging to Doppler echocardiography for diagnosing cardiovascular alterations in patients with Ullrich-Turner's syndrome.

  1. Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Noninvasive Risk Stratification in Tetralogy of Fallot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Jouke P.; de Wilde, Koen C.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; van Dijk, Arie P.; van Melle, Joost P.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Bouma, Berto J.

    IMPORTANCE Adults late after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are at risk for majorcomplications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is recommended toquantify right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) function. However, a commonly usedrisk model by Khairy et al

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension represents a group of conditions characterized by higher than normal pulmonary artery pressures. Despite improved treatments, outcomes in many instances remain poor. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension. This technique offers certain advantages over other imaging modalities since it is well suited to the assessment of the right ventricle and the proximal pulmonary arteries. Reflecting the relatively sparse evidence supporting its use, CMR is not routinely recommended for patients with pulmonary hypertension. However, it is particularly useful in patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease. Furthermore, it has proven informative in a number of ways; illustrating how right ventricular remodeling is favorably reversed by drug therapies and providing explicit confirmation of the importance of the right ventricle to clinical outcome. This review will discuss these aspects and practical considerations before speculating on future applications. PMID:22257586

  3. [Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Armario, Pedro; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Cortés, Olga; Serrano, Benilde; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Pérez, Antonio; Maiques, Antonio; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Castro, Almudena; Alegría, Eduardo; Baeza, Ciro; Herranz, María; Sans, Susana; Campos, Pilar

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  4. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Manka, R; Paetsch, I; Schnackenburg, B; Gebker, R; Fleck, E; Jahnke, C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years,) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was perfor...

  5. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M F Durif

    Full Text Available European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C, their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C, eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations. These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.

  6. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durif, Caroline M F; Browman, Howard I; Phillips, John B; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.

  7. Uncomplicated obesity is associated with abnormal aortic function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channon Keith M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. Methods and results We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and stiffness index in 27 obese subjects (BMI 33 kg/m2 without insulin resistance and with normal cholesterol and blood pressure, and 12 controls (BMI 23 kg/m2. Obesity was associated with reduced aortic compliance (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2 mm2/mmHg in controls, p -1 × 10-3, p Conclusion Aortic elastic function is abnormal in obese subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the independent importance of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Cardiovascular mortality and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields: a cohort study of Swiss railway workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfluger Dominik

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to intermittent magnetic fields of 16 Hz has been shown to reduce heart rate variability, and decreased heart rate variability predicts cardiovascular mortality. We examined mortality from cardiovascular causes in railway workers exposed to varying degrees to intermittent 16.7 Hz magnetic fields. Methods We studied a cohort of 20,141 Swiss railway employees between 1972 and 2002, including highly exposed train drivers (median lifetime exposure 120.5 μT-years, and less or little exposed shunting yard engineers (42.1 μT-years, train attendants (13.3 μT-years and station masters (5.7 μT-years. During 464,129 person-years of follow up, 5,413 deaths were recorded and 3,594 deaths were attributed to cardio-vascular diseases. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For all cardiovascular mortality the hazard ratio compared to station masters was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.91, 1.08 in train drivers, 1.13 (95%CI: 0.98, 1.30 in shunting yard engineers, and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.19 in train attendants.Corresponding hazard ratios for arrhythmia related deaths were 1.04 (95%CI: 0.68, 1.59, 0.58 (95%CI: 0.24, 1.37 and 1.30 (95%CI: 0.87, 1.93 and for acute myocardial infarction 1.00 (95%CI: 0.73, 1.36, 1.56 (95%CI: 1.04, 2.32, and 1.14 (95%CI: 0.85, 1.53. The hazard ratio for arrhythmia related deaths per 100 μT-years of cumulative exposure was 0.94 (95%CI: 0.71, 1.24 and 0.91 (95%CI: 0.75, 1.11 for acute myocardial infarction. Conclusion This study provides evidence against an association between long-term occupational exposure to intermittent 16.7 Hz magnetic fields and cardiovascular mortality.

  9. National differences in screening programmes for cardiovascular risks could obstruct understanding of cardiovascular prevention studies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thio, S. L.; Twickler, Th B.; Cramer, M. J.; Giral, P.

    2011-01-01

    In North-West Europe, cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of death and despite several efforts (e.g. European guidelines and conferences) cardiovascular risk factors are still inconsistently diagnosed and treated. We evaluated the first consultations of patients in two cardiovascular

  10. Food consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Serrat, S; Mouratidou, T; Börnhorst, C; Peplies, J; De Henauw, S; Marild, S; Molnár, D; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Krogh, V; Moreno, L A

    2013-06-01

    Few studies addressing the relationship between food consumption and cardiovascular disease or metabolic risk have been conducted in children. Previous findings have indicated greater metabolic risk in children with high intakes of solid hydrogenated fat and white bread, and low consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products. In a large multinational sample of 2 to 9 years old children, high consumption of sweetened beverages and low intake of nuts and seeds, sweets, breakfast cereals, jam and honey and chocolate and nut-based spreads were directly associated with increased clustered cardiovascular disease risk. These findings add new evidence to the limited literature available in young populations on the role that diet may play on cardiovascular health. To investigate food consumption in relation to clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Children (n = 5548, 51.6% boys) from eight European countries participated in the IDEFICS study baseline survey (2007-2008). Z-scores of individual CVD risk factors were summed to compute sex- and age-specific (2-chocolate and nut-based spreads (boys: OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.32-0.69; girls: OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.86), jam and honey (girls: OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.26-0.78) and sweets (boys: OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.48-0.98). OR of being at risk significantly increased with the highest consumption of soft drinks (younger boys) and manufactured juices (older girls). Concerning CVD risk score B, older boys and girls in the highest tertile of consumption of breakfast cereals were 0.41 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79) and 0.45 (95% CI = 0.22-0.93) times, respectively, less likely to be at risk than those in tertile 1. High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and low intake of breakfast cereals, jam and honey, sweets and chocolate and nut-based spreads seem to adversely affect clustered CVD risk. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francone Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases.

  12. [Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-04-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  13. Conflicts of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is neither systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This article provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardized questionnaire, are discussed.

  14. Conflict of interest policies and disclosure requirements among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Timmis, Adam; Pinto, Fausto J; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ector, Hugo; Kulakowski, Piotr; Vardas, Panos

    2012-06-01

    Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.

  15. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in assessment of patients after radical surgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, K.; Dasheva, A.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in residual anatomic and functional abnormalities in majority of patients. Primarily considered as a benign pulmonary regurgitation with the time results in right ventricular overload, loses the compensatory mechanisms and irreversible right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved during the last two decades as the reference standard imaging modality to assess the anatomic and functional changes in patients with repaired TOF. This article reviews the role of CMR to assess the right ventricular function and to evaluate the degree of pulmonary regurgitation and comments some technical aspects, based to our experience. Key words: Tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Pulmonary regurgitation. Right ventricular assessment

  16. [Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Prevention Committee (CEIPC for its Spanish acronym) on the 2012 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Angel; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Villar Alvarez, Fernando; Sans, Susana; Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Moreno Carriles, Rosa María; Maiques, Antonio; Lizcano, Angel; Lizarbe, Vicenta; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Fornés Ubeda, Francisco; Elosua, Roberto; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Pablo Zarzosa, Carmen; de Álvaro Moreno, Fernando; Cortés, Olga; Cordero, Alberto; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Armario, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Based on the two main frameworks for evaluating scientific evidence (SEC and GRADE) European cardiovascular prevention guidelines recommend interventions across all life stages using a combination of population-based and high-risk strategies with diet as the cornerstone of prevention. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk (CVR) incorporates HDL levels and psychosocial factors, a very high risk category, and the concept of age-risk. They also recommend cognitive-behavioural methods (e.g., motivational interviewing, psychological interventions) led by health professionals and with the participation of the patient's family, to counterbalance psychosocial stress and reduce CVR through the institution of positive habits such as a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and adherence to treatment. Additionally, public health interventions - such as smoking ban in public areas or the elimination of trans fatty acids from the food chain - are also essential. Other innovations include abandoning antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention and the recommendation of maintaining blood pressure within the 130-139/80-85mmHg range in diabetic patients and individuals with high CVR. Finally, due to the significant impact on patient progress and medical costs, special emphasis is given to the low therapeutic adherence levels observed. In sum, improving cardiovascular prevention requires a true partnership among the political class, public administrations, scientific and professional associations, health foundations, consumer associations, patients and their families. Such partnership would promote population-based and individual strategies by taking advantage of the broad spectrum of scientific evidence available, from clinical trials to observational studies and mathematical models to evaluate population-based interventions, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow imaging of the cardiovascular system using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Makoto; Sunami, Yuko

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow images by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.25 T unit were evaluated for nine normal volunteers and 108 subjects with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. Using the non-gated short-spin echo (SE) technique, blood flow in the cardiovascular systems was not imaged in the normal volunteers. Using end-systolic and end-diastolic SE techniques for the normal subjects, blood flow in the cardiac chambers was not clearly imaged. Blood flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch often did not appear in the gated SE images of the normal subjects. However, blood flow in the descending aorta was often observed in the gated SE images. Blood flow imaging was demonstrated by both non-gated and gated SE techniques in regions where blood flow was relatively slow; for example, in the left atrium of mitral stenosis, in an aortic aneurysm, in a false lumen of an aortic dissection, and in the left ventricle having old myocardial infarction. Using the non-gated inversion recovery (IR) technique, no blood flow was imaged in the cardiovascular system except in the left atrium of one case with mitral stenosis. Using the non-gated short SE technique, there was good correlation between the thrombus formation and the presence of blood flow images in the left atria of 17 patients with mitral stenosis, and in the aneurysmal portions of the aorta or in the false lumens of aortic dissection of 18 patients. It was suggested that mural thrombi in such diseases were related to the relatively slow blood flow. Blood flow imaging easily distinguished stagnant blood flow from mural thrombi using non-gated short SE, end-systolic SE, and IR techniques. Thus, blood flow imaging using MRI should become an important means of evaluating the cardiovascular system. (author)

  18. Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, M Á; Armario, P; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Pedro-Botet, J; Villar Alvarez, F; Elosua, R; Brotons Cuixart, C; Cortés, O; Serrano, B; Camafort Babkowski, M; Gil Núñez, A; Pérez, A; Maiques, A; de Santiago Nocito, A; Castro, A; Alegría, E; Baeza, C; Herranz, M; Sans, S; Campos, P

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. [Spanish adaptation of the 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Armario, Pedro; Lobos Bejarano, José María; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Cortés, Olga; Serrano, Benilde; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Gil Núñez, Antonio; Pérez, Antonio; Maiques, Antonio; de Santiago Nocito, Ana; de Castro, Almudena; Alegría, Eduardo; Baeza, Ciro; Herranz, María; Sans, Susana; Campos, Pilar

    The VI European Guidelines for Cardiovascular Prevention recommend combining population and high-risk strategies with lifestyle changes as a cornerstone of prevention, and propose the SCORE function to quantify cardiovascular risk. The guidelines highlight disease specific interventions, and conditions as women, young people and ethnic minorities. Screening for subclinical atherosclerosis with noninvasive imaging techniques is not recommended. The guidelines distinguish four risk levels (very high, high, moderate and low) with therapeutic objectives for lipid control according to risk. Diabetes mellitus confers a high risk, except for subjects with type 2 diabetes with less than <10 years of evolution, without other risk factors or complications, or type 1 diabetes of short evolution without complications. The decision to start pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension will depend on the blood pressure level and the cardiovascular risk, taking into account the lesion of target organs. The guidelines don't recommend antiplatelet drugs in primary prevention because of the increased bleeding risk. The low adherence to the medication requires simplified therapeutic regimes and to identify and combat its causes. The guidelines highlight the responsibility of health professionals to take an active role in advocating evidence-based interventions at the population level, and propose effective interventions, at individual and population level, to promote a healthy diet, the practice of physical activity, the cessation of smoking and the protection against alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Cardiovascular dynamics of Canadian Indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Heather J A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Warburton, Darren E R

    2018-12-01

    Limited understanding of Indigenous adults' cardiovascular structure and function exists despite high rates of cardiovascular disease. This investigation characterised cardiovascular structure and function among young Indigenous adults and compared to age- and sex-matched European descendants. Echocardiographic assessments included apical two- and four-chamber images, parasternal short-axis images and Doppler. Analyses included cardiac volumes, dimensions, velocities and strains. Cardiovascular structure and function were similar between Indigenous (n=10, 25 ± 3 years, 4 women) and European-descendant (n=10, 24 ± 4 years, 4 women,) adults, though European descendants demonstrated greater systemic vascular resistance (18.19 ± 3.94 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 15.36 ± 2.97 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.03). Among Indigenous adults, women demonstrated greater arterial elastance (0.80 ± 0.15 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 vs. 0.55 ± 0.17 mmHg·mL -1 ·m -2 , p=0.02) and possibly greater systemic vascular resistance (17.51 ± 2.20 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 vs. 13.93 ± 2.61 mmHg∙min -1 ∙L -1 , p=0.07). Indigenous men had greater cardiac size, dimensions and output, though body size differences accounted for cardiac size differences. Similar cardiac rotation and strains were observed across sexes. Arterial elastance and cardiac size were different between Indigenous men and women while cardiovascular structure and function may be similar between Indigenous and European descendants.

  1. Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance with variable-density spiral pulse sequences accurately detects coronary artery disease: initial clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Michael; Taylor, Angela; Yang, Yang; Kuruvilla, Sujith; Ragosta, Michael; Meyer, Craig H; Kramer, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    Adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging can be limited by motion-induced dark-rim artifacts, which may be mistaken for true perfusion abnormalities. A high-resolution variable-density spiral pulse sequence with a novel density compensation strategy has been shown to reduce dark-rim artifacts in first-pass perfusion imaging. We aimed to assess the clinical performance of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance using this new perfusion sequence to detect obstructive coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging was performed during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg per minute) and at rest on a Siemens 1.5-T Avanto scanner in 41 subjects with chest pain scheduled for coronary angiography. Perfusion images were acquired during injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate at 3 short-axis locations using a saturation recovery interleaved variable-density spiral pulse sequence. Significant stenosis was defined as >50% by quantitative coronary angiography. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the perfusion images for the presence of adenosine-induced perfusion abnormalities and assessed image quality using a 5-point scale (1 [poor] to 5 [excellent]). The prevalence of obstructive coronary artery disease by quantitative coronary angiography was 68%. The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 89%, 85%, and 88%, respectively, with a positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 93% and 79%, respectively. The average image quality score was 4.4±0.7, with only 1 study with more than mild dark-rim artifacts. There was good inter-reader reliability with a κ statistic of 0.67. Spiral adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance results in high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease with excellent image quality and minimal dark-rim artifacts. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the follow-up of patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Thomas; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; de Roos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is becoming an important tool in the clinical management of patients with congenital heart disease. Because of the diverse problems patients may face after initial correction for tetralogy of Fallot and the large amount of CMR techniques that can be applied,

  3. Statement of the Spanish Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Prevention Committee (CEIPC for its Spanish acronym) on the 2012 European Cardiovascular Prevention Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, M A; Lobos Bejarano, J M; Villar Alvarez, F; Sans, S; Pérez, A; Pedro-Botet, J; Moreno Carriles, R M; Maiques, A; Lizcano, Á; Lizarbe, V; Gil Núñez, A; Fornés Ubeda, F; Elosua, R; de Santiago Nocito, A; de Pablo Zarzosa, C; de Álvaro Moreno, F; Cortés, O; Cordero, A; Camafort Babkowski, M; Brotons Cuixart, C; Armario, P

    2016-04-01

    Based on the two main frameworks for evaluating scientific evidence (SEC and GRADE) European cardiovascular prevention guidelines recommend interventions across all life stages using a combination of population-based and high-risk strategies with diet as the cornerstone of prevention. The evaluation of cardiovascular risk (CVR) incorporates HDL levels and psychosocial factors, a very high risk category, and the concept of age-risk. They also recommend cognitive-behavioural methods (e.g., motivational interviewing, psychological interventions) led by health professionals and with the participation of the patient's family, to counterbalance psychosocial stress and reduce CVR through the institution of positive habits such as a healthy diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, and adherence to treatment. Additionally, public health interventions - such as smoking ban in public areas or the elimination of trans fatty acids from the food chain - are also essential. Other innovations include abandoning antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention and the recommendation of maintaining blood pressure within the 130-139/80-85 mmHg range in diabetic patients and individuals with high CVR. Finally, due to the significant impact on patient progress and medical costs, special emphasis is given to the low therapeutic adherence levels observed. In sum, improving cardiovascular prevention requires a true partnership among the political class, public administrations, scientific and professional associations, health foundations, consumer associations, patients and their families. Such partnership would promote population-based and individual strategies by taking advantage of the broad spectrum of scientific evidence available, from clinical trials to observational studies and mathematical models to evaluate population-based interventions, including cost-effectiveness analyses. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights

  4. European Practice Assessment of Cardiovascular risk management (EPA Cardio: protocol of an international observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lieshout Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important improvements in available prevention and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Not all high-risk patients and patients with CVD have healthy lifestyles and receive the best possible healthcare. Internationally comparative data are needed to compare cardiovascular risk management in different countries, and to examine the impact of improvement programs and others factors. Objectives This study aims to provide internationally comparative data on cardiovascular risk management provided in primary care and on health-related lifestyles of patients in Europe. The study will also explore the views of doctors and patients on innovative preventive services for CVDs. Design and methods An observational cross-sectional study is planned. In 10 European countries, stratified samples of 36 practices per country will be recruited. In each practice, three samples of 15 patients each will be sampled: patients with coronary heart disease, patients at high risk for CVD, and healthy adult patients. The quality of cardiovascular risk management has been specified in terms of 44 performance indicators that resulted from an international Delphi-procedure with general practitioners. Most indicators are based on medical records, and some on a structured interview with a contact person of the practice. Lifestyle (smoking, physical exercise, diet will be measured with previously validated questionnaires that are completed by patients. Additional measures include practice characteristics and exposure to programs to improve cardiovascular care.

  5. Isometric stress in cardiovascular magnetic resonance - a simple and easily replicable method of assessing cardiovascular differences not apparent at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Kristian H.; Jones, Alexander; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Muthurangu, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Isometric exercise may unmask cardiovascular disease not evident at rest, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is proven for comprehensive resting assessment. This study devised a simple isometric exercise CMR methodology and assessed the hemodynamic response evoked by isometric exercise. A biceps isometric exercise technique was devised for CMR, and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed at rest, after 3-minute biceps exercise, and 5-minute of recovery using: (1) blood pressure (BP) and (2) CMR measured aortic flow and left ventricular function. Total peripheral resistance (SVR) and arterial compliance (TAC), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular volumes and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, power output), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product were assessed at all time points. Image quality was preserved during stress. During exercise there were increases in CO (+14.9 %), HR (+17.0 %), SVR (+9.8 %), systolic BP (+22.4 %), diastolic BP (+25.4 %) and mean BP (+23.2 %). In addition, there were decreases in TAC (-22.0 %) and left ventricular ejection fraction (-6.3 %). Age and body mass index modified the evoked response, even when resting measures were similar. Isometric exercise technique evokes a significant cardiovascular response in CMR, unmasking physiological differences that are not apparent at rest. (orig.)

  6. Isometric stress in cardiovascular magnetic resonance - a simple and easily replicable method of assessing cardiovascular differences not apparent at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Kristian H.; Jones, Alexander; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Muthurangu, Vivek [UCL Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Level 6 Old Nurses Home, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Isometric exercise may unmask cardiovascular disease not evident at rest, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is proven for comprehensive resting assessment. This study devised a simple isometric exercise CMR methodology and assessed the hemodynamic response evoked by isometric exercise. A biceps isometric exercise technique was devised for CMR, and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed at rest, after 3-minute biceps exercise, and 5-minute of recovery using: (1) blood pressure (BP) and (2) CMR measured aortic flow and left ventricular function. Total peripheral resistance (SVR) and arterial compliance (TAC), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular volumes and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, power output), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product were assessed at all time points. Image quality was preserved during stress. During exercise there were increases in CO (+14.9 %), HR (+17.0 %), SVR (+9.8 %), systolic BP (+22.4 %), diastolic BP (+25.4 %) and mean BP (+23.2 %). In addition, there were decreases in TAC (-22.0 %) and left ventricular ejection fraction (-6.3 %). Age and body mass index modified the evoked response, even when resting measures were similar. Isometric exercise technique evokes a significant cardiovascular response in CMR, unmasking physiological differences that are not apparent at rest. (orig.)

  7. National differences in screening programmes for cardiovascular risks could obstruct understanding of cardiovascular prevention studies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thio, S.L.; Twickler, T.B.; Cramer, M.J.; Giral, P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In North-West Europe, cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of death and despite several efforts (e.g. European guidelines and conferences) cardiovascular risk factors are still inconsistently diagnosed and treated. Methods We evaluated the first consultations of patients in two

  8. Non Hodgkin lymphoma metastasis to the heart detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Florange; Morales, Marisela; Pedreanez, Norma; Pabon, Luz; Carrillo, Milton

    2009-01-01

    Primary and secondary heart tumors are relatively rare occurrences but usually imply significant treatment decisions. The differential diagnosis among these tumors and other masses can sometimes be difficult and require the use of different imaging modalities to establish a confident verdict. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR imaging is a very useful tool in these cases by allowing for the application of different strategies to better delineate masses, heart structures and adjacent tissues. In this case description, we present a woman with shortness of breath and a paracardiac mass showing how CMR can be applied. (author)

  9. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance T2-STIR Imaging is Unable to Discriminate Between Intramyocardial Haemorrhage and Microvascular Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have used cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) imaging to detect intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) as a measure of ischemic/reperfusion injury. We investigated the ability of T2-STIR to differentiate between microvascular...

  10. Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agricultural Policy on dietary saturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Mwatsama, Modi; Birt, Christopher; Ireland, Robin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the burden of cardiovascular disease within 15 European Union countries (before the 2004 enlargement) as a result of excess dietary saturated fats attributable to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). A spreadsheet model was developed to synthesize data on population, diet, cholesterol levels and mortality rates. A conservative estimate of a reduction in saturated fat consumption of just 2.2 g was chosen, representing 1% of daily energy intake. The fall in serum cholesterol concentration was then calculated, assuming that this 1% reduction in saturated fat consumption was replaced with 0.5% monounsaturated and 0.5% polyunsaturated fats. The resulting reduction in cardiovascular and stroke deaths was then estimated, and a sensitivity analysis conducted. Reducing saturated fat consumption by 1% and increasing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat by 0.5% each would lower blood cholesterol levels by approximately 0.06 mmol/l, resulting in approximately 9800 fewer coronary heart disease deaths and 3000 fewer stroke deaths each year. The cardiovascular disease burden attributable to CAP appears substantial. Furthermore, these calculations were conservative estimates, and the true mortality burden may be higher. The analysis contributes to the current wider debate concerning the relationship between CAP, health and chronic disease across Europe, together with recent international developments and commitments to reduce chronic diseases. The reported mortality estimates should be considered in relation to the current CAP and any future reforms.

  11. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Incremental Value in a Series of 361 Patients Demonstrating Cost Savings and Clinical Benefits: An Outcome-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinayak A; Biederman, Robert WW; Mikolich, J Ronald

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to assess the clinical impact and cost-benefit of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In the face of current health care cost concerns, cardiac imaging modalities have come under focused review. Data related to CMR clinical impact and cost-benefit are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS Retrospective review of 361 consecutive patients (pts) who underwent CMR exams was conducted. Indications for CMR were tabulated for appropriateness criteria. Components of the CMR exam were identified along with evidence of clinical impact. The cost of each CMR exam was ascertained along with cost savings attributable to the CMR exam for calculation of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 354 of 361 pts (98%) had diagnostic quality studies. Of the 361 pts, 350 (97%) had at least 1 published Appropriateness Criterion for CMR. A significant clinical impact attributable to CMR exam results was observed in 256 of 361 pts (71%). The CMR exam resulted in a new diagnosis in 69 of 361 (27%) pts. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging results avoided invasive procedures in 38 (11%) pts and prevented additional diagnostic testing in 26 (7%) pts. Comparison of health care savings using CMR as opposed to current standards of care showed a net cost savings of $833 037, ie, per patient cost savings of $2308. CONCLUSIONS Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging provides diagnostic image quality in >98% of cases. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings have documentable clinical impact on patient management in 71% of pts undergoing the exam, in a cost beneficial manner. PMID:28579858

  12. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Incremental Value in a Series of 361 Patients Demonstrating Cost Savings and Clinical Benefits: An Outcome-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Vinayak A; Biederman, Robert Ww; Mikolich, J Ronald

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the clinical impact and cost-benefit of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In the face of current health care cost concerns, cardiac imaging modalities have come under focused review. Data related to CMR clinical impact and cost-benefit are lacking. Retrospective review of 361 consecutive patients (pts) who underwent CMR exams was conducted. Indications for CMR were tabulated for appropriateness criteria. Components of the CMR exam were identified along with evidence of clinical impact. The cost of each CMR exam was ascertained along with cost savings attributable to the CMR exam for calculation of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 354 of 361 pts (98%) had diagnostic quality studies. Of the 361 pts, 350 (97%) had at least 1 published Appropriateness Criterion for CMR. A significant clinical impact attributable to CMR exam results was observed in 256 of 361 pts (71%). The CMR exam resulted in a new diagnosis in 69 of 361 (27%) pts. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging results avoided invasive procedures in 38 (11%) pts and prevented additional diagnostic testing in 26 (7%) pts. Comparison of health care savings using CMR as opposed to current standards of care showed a net cost savings of $833 037, ie, per patient cost savings of $2308. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging provides diagnostic image quality in >98% of cases. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings have documentable clinical impact on patient management in 71% of pts undergoing the exam, in a cost beneficial manner.

  13. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Incremental Value in a Series of 361 Patients Demonstrating Cost Savings and Clinical Benefits: An Outcome-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak A Hegde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to assess the clinical impact and cost-benefit of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR. In the face of current health care cost concerns, cardiac imaging modalities have come under focused review. Data related to CMR clinical impact and cost-benefit are lacking. Methods and Results: Retrospective review of 361 consecutive patients (pts who underwent CMR exams was conducted. Indications for CMR were tabulated for appropriateness criteria. Components of the CMR exam were identified along with evidence of clinical impact. The cost of each CMR exam was ascertained along with cost savings attributable to the CMR exam for calculation of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A total of 354 of 361 pts (98% had diagnostic quality studies. Of the 361 pts, 350 (97% had at least 1 published Appropriateness Criterion for CMR. A significant clinical impact attributable to CMR exam results was observed in 256 of 361 pts (71%. The CMR exam resulted in a new diagnosis in 69 of 361 (27% pts. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging results avoided invasive procedures in 38 (11% pts and prevented additional diagnostic testing in 26 (7% pts. Comparison of health care savings using CMR as opposed to current standards of care showed a net cost savings of $833 037, ie, per patient cost savings of $2308. Conclusions: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging provides diagnostic image quality in >98% of cases. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging findings have documentable clinical impact on patient management in 71% of pts undergoing the exam, in a cost beneficial manner.

  14. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology Position Statement on Dyslipidemia Management: differences between the European and American Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention.

  15. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Use of Delayed Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Luiz Gustavo Pignataro; Junqueira, Flávia Pegado; Bandeira, Marcelo Luiz da Silva; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Lavall, Guilherme; Torres, Diego; Waetge, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe and progressive disease. Its early diagnosis is the greatest clinical challenge. To evaluate the presence and extension of the delayed myocardial contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance, as well as to verify if the percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass is a severity predictor. Cross-sectional study with 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of groups I and IV, subjected to clinical, functional and hemodynamic evaluation, and to cardiac magnetic resonance. The mean age of patients was 52 years old, with female predominance (77%). Among the patients, 53% had right ventricular failure at diagnosis, and 90% were in functional class II/III. The mean of the 6-minute walk test was 395m. In hemodynamic study with right catheterism, the mean average pulmonary arterial pressure was 53.3mmHg, of the cardiac index of 2.1L/ min.m 2 , and median right atrial pressure was 13.5 mmHg. Delayed myocardial contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance was found in 28 patients. The mean fibrosis mass was 9.9 g and the median percentage of fibrosis mass was 6.17%. The presence of functional class IV, right ventricular failure at diagnosis, 6-minute walk test < 300 meters and right atrial pressure ≥ 15 mmHg, with cardiac index < 2.0 L/ min.m 2 , there was a relevant association with the increased percentage of myocardial fibrosis. The percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass indicates a non-invasive marker with promising perspectives in identifying patients with high risk factors for pulmonary hypertension

  16. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Use of Delayed Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessa, Luiz Gustavo Pignataro, E-mail: lgpignataro@ig.com.br; Junqueira, Flávia Pegado; Bandeira, Marcelo Luiz da Silva; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Lavall, Guilherme; Torres, Diego; Waetge, Daniel [Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Ilha do Fundão, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe and progressive disease. Its early diagnosis is the greatest clinical challenge. To evaluate the presence and extension of the delayed myocardial contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance, as well as to verify if the percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass is a severity predictor. Cross-sectional study with 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of groups I and IV, subjected to clinical, functional and hemodynamic evaluation, and to cardiac magnetic resonance. The mean age of patients was 52 years old, with female predominance (77%). Among the patients, 53% had right ventricular failure at diagnosis, and 90% were in functional class II/III. The mean of the 6-minute walk test was 395m. In hemodynamic study with right catheterism, the mean average pulmonary arterial pressure was 53.3mmHg, of the cardiac index of 2.1L/ min.m{sup 2}, and median right atrial pressure was 13.5 mmHg. Delayed myocardial contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance was found in 28 patients. The mean fibrosis mass was 9.9 g and the median percentage of fibrosis mass was 6.17%. The presence of functional class IV, right ventricular failure at diagnosis, 6-minute walk test < 300 meters and right atrial pressure ≥ 15 mmHg, with cardiac index < 2.0 L/ min.m{sup 2}, there was a relevant association with the increased percentage of myocardial fibrosis. The percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass indicates a non-invasive marker with promising perspectives in identifying patients with high risk factors for pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance frontiers: Tissue characterisation with mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Schofield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR imaging has expanded rapidly over the last decade. Its role in cardiac morphological and functional assessment is established, with perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE imaging for scar increasingly used in day-to-day clinical decision making. LGE allows a virtual histological assessment of the myocardium, with the pattern of scar suggesting disease aetiology, and the extent of predicting risk. However, even combined, the full range of pathological processes occurring in the myocardium are not interrogated. Mapping is a new frontier where the intrinsic magnetic properties of heart muscle are measured to probe further. T1, T2 and T2* mapping measures the three fundamental tissue relaxation rate constants before contrast, and the extracellular volume (ECV after contrast. These are displayed in colour, often providing an immediate appreciation of pathology. These parameters are differently sensitive to pathologies. Iron (cardiac siderosis, intramyocardial haemorrhage makes T1, T2 and T2* fall. T2 also falls with fat infiltration (Fabry disease. T2 increases with oedema (acute infarction, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, rheumatological disease. Native T1 increases with fibrosis, oedema and amyloid. Some of these changes are large (e.g. iron, oedema, amyloid, others more modest (diffuse fibrosis. They can be used to detect early disease, distinguish aetiology and, in some circumstances, guide therapy. In this review, we discuss these processes, illustrating clinical application and future advances.

  18. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z.; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Aim European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed the potential...

  19. The future of cardiovascular imaging and non-invasive diagnosis. A joint statement from the European Association of Echocardiography, the Working Groups on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Computers in Cardiology, and Nuclear Cardiology, of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Alan G.; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Buser, Peter T.; Schwitter, Juerg; Bax, Jeroen J.; Knuuti, Juhani M.; Dassen, Willem R.; Hoeher, Martin; Bengel, Frank; Szatmari, Andras

    2006-01-01

    Advances in medical imaging now make it possible to investigate any patient with cardiovascular disease using multiple methods which vary widely in their technical requirements, benefits, limitations and costs. The appropriate use of alternative tests requires their integration into joint clinical diagnostic services where experts in all methods collaborate. This statement summarises the principles that should guide developments in cardiovascular diagnostic services. (orig.)

  20. The future of cardiovascular imaging and non-invasive diagnosis. A joint statement from the European Association of Echocardiography, the Working Groups on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Computers in Cardiology, and Nuclear Cardiology, of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Alan G; Buser, Peter T; Bax, Jeroen J; Dassen, Willem R; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Schwitter, Jürg; Knuuti, Juhani M; Höher, Martin; Bengel, Frank; Szatmári, András

    2006-08-01

    Advances in medical imaging now make it possible to investigate any patient with cardiovascular disease using multiple methods which vary widely in their technical requirements, benefits, limitations and costs. The appropriate use of alternative tests requires their integration into joint clinical diagnostic services where experts in all methods collaborate. This statement summarises the principles that should guide developments in cardiovascular diagnostic services.

  1. [Current strategies to diminish the impact of cardiovascular diseases in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramba Badiale, Marco; Priori, Silvia G

    2006-11-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently promoted the "Women at Heart" program in order to organize initiatives targeted at promoting research and education in the field of cardiovascular diseases in women. Comparisons of the gender differences in specific disease and treatment trends across Europe are provided by analyzing data from the Euro Heart Surveys. A Policy Conference has been organized with the objective to summarize the state of the art from an European perspective, to identify the scientific gaps and to delineate the strategies for changing the misperception of cardiovascular diseases in women, improving risk stratification, diagnosis, and therapy from a gender perspective and increasing women representation in clinical trials. A Statement from the Policy Conference has been provided and published in the European Heart Journal. Synergic activities should be undertaken at European level with the support of national scientific societies, European institutions, national health care authorities, patients' associations, and foundations. The commitment of the Board of the ESC is that these initiatives contribute to increase the awareness across Europe that cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death in women and to improve the knowledge of risk factors, presentation and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in women.

  2. [Recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Atherosclerosis Society on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management of Dyslipidemias. for the Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis and Dyslipidemia Treatment (2016): Basic S.G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, M G; Kukharchuk, V V

    2017-03-01

    This review summarizes the main provisions of the new, issued in 2016, recommendations of the European Society of Cardiology and Atherosclerosis Society in cooperation with the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular disease prevention and Management of dyslipidemia. In these recommendations, the following trends can be traced distinctly: priority in primary prevention is given to non-drug methods of influence; targets of hypolipidemic therapy are identified not only for low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (CH), but also for non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) CH, especially in cases of concomitant hypertriglyceridemia. In the field of therapy, in which statins remain the main tool of correction of hyperlipidemia, it is recommended to more widely resort to the use of combination therapy, especially in cases of familial hypercholesterolemia or intolerance to statins; introduction of a new class of drugs- inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 makes it possible to further reduce the level of LDLCH, lipoprotein(a) more than 60%. Regarding the wider application of these drugs there are issues related to the relatively limited experience of their use and the lack of data on long-term results and the incidence of side effects. Much attention is paid to more active correction of dyslipidemia in elderly patients, patients with chronic renal failure, diabetes, and several other diseases. The emergence of new European recommendations will undoubtedly serve as a stimulus to the revision of the Russian recommendations, which remain unchanged from 2012.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system: present state of the art and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates high-resolution images of the cardiovascular system. Conventional MRI techniques provide images in six to ten minutes per tomographic slice. New strategies have substantially improved the speed of imaging. The technology is relatively expensive, and its cost-effectiveness remains to be defined in relation to other effective, less expensive, and noninvasive technologies, such as echocardiography and nuclear medicine. The ultimate role of MRI will depend on several factors, including the development of specific applications such as (1) noninvasive angiography, especially of the coronary arteries;(2) noninvasive, high-resolution assessment of regional myocardial blood flow distribution (e.g., using paramagnetic contrast agents); (3) characterization of myocardial diseases using proton-relaxation property changes; and (4) evaluation of in vivo myocardial biochemistry. The three-dimensional imaging capability and the ability to image cardiovascular structures without contrast material give MRI a potential advantage over existing noninvasive diagnostic imaging techniques. This report analyzes current applications of MRI to the cardiovascular system and speculates on their future

  4. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecsenyi Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD, patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio, we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. Methods A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey. Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. Results The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD-patients - and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. Conclusions An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  5. Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-11-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. [Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology position statement on dyslipidemia management. Differences between the European and American guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Bejarano, José María; Galve, Enrique; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Alegría Ezquerra, Eduardo; Armario, Pedro; Brotons Cuixart, Carlos; Camafort Babkowski, Miguel; Cordero Fort, Alberto; Maiques Galán, Antonio; Mantilla Morató, Teresa; Pérez Pérez, Antonio; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Villar Álvarez, Fernando; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The publication of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on the treatment of high blood cholesterol has had a strong impact due to the paradigm shift in its recommendations. The Spanish Interdisciplinary Committee for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and the Spanish Society of Cardiology reviewed this guideline and compared it with current European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia management. The most striking aspect of the American guideline is the elimination of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol treat-to-target strategy and the adoption of a risk reduction strategy in 4 major statin benefit groups. In patients with established cardiovascular disease, both guidelines recommend a similar therapeutic strategy (high-dose potent statins). However, in primary prevention, the application of the American guidelines would substantially increase the number of persons, particularly older people, receiving statin therapy. The elimination of the cholesterol treat-to-target strategy, so strongly rooted in the scientific community, could have a negative impact on clinical practice, create a certain amount of confusion and uncertainty among professionals, and decrease follow-up and patient adherence. Thus, this article reaffirms the recommendations of the European guidelines. Although both guidelines have positive aspects, doubt remains regarding the concerns outlined above. In addition to using risk charts based on the native population, the messages of the European guideline are more appropriate to the Spanish setting and avoid the possible risk of overtreatment with statins in primary prevention. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org/en. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier España.

  7. Higher protein diets consumed ad libitum improve cardiovascular risk markers in children of overweight parents from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hlavaty, Petr; Saris, Wim H M; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2013-06-01

    Dietary strategies to improve early cardiovascular markers in overweight children are needed. We investigated the effect of dietary protein and glycemic index (GI) on cardiovascular markers and metabolic syndrome (MetS) scores in 5- to 18-y-old children of overweight/obese parents from 8 European centers. Families were randomized to 1 of 5 diets consumed ad libitum: high protein (HP) or low protein (LP) combined with high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI), or a control diet. At 6 centers, families received dietary instruction (instruction centers); at 2 centers, free foods were also provided (supermarket centers). Diet, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cardiovascular markers (lipid profile, glucose regulation, and inflammation) were measured in 253 children at baseline, 1 mo, and/or 6 mo. Protein intake was higher in the HP groups (19.9 ± 1.3% energy) than in the LP groups at 6 mo (16.8 ± 1.2% energy) (P = 0.001). The GI was 4.0 points lower (95% CI: 2.1, 6.1) in the LGI compared with the HGI groups (P pressure (P children, particularly in those undergoing most intensive intervention.

  8. Comparing the new European cardiovascular disease prevention guideline with prior American Heart Association guidelines: an editorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Van-Khue; Martin, Seth S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Atherosclerotic heart disease and stroke remain the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention can improve the well-being of a population and possibly cut downstream healthcare spending, and must be the centerpiece of any sustainable health economy model. As lifestyle and CVD risk factors differ among ethnicities, cultures, genders, and age groups, an accurate risk assessment model is the critical first step for guiding appropriate use of testing, lifestyle counseling resources, and preventive medications. Examples of such models include the US Framingham Risk Score and the European SCORE system. The European Society of Cardiology recently published an updated set of guidelines on CVD prevention. This review highlights the similarities and differences between European and US risk assessment models, as well as their respective recommendations on the use of advanced testing for further risk reclassification and the appropriate use of medications. In particular, we focus on head-to-head comparison of the new European guideline with prior American Heart Association statements (2002, 2010, and 2011) covering risk assessment and treatment of asymptomatic adults. Despite minor disagreements on the weight of recommendations in certain areas, such as the use of coronary calcium score and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in risk assessment, CVD prevention experts across the 2 continents agree on 1 thing: prevention works in halting the progression of atherosclerosis and decreasing disease burden over a lifetime. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Rationale and methods of the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The EURIKA study aims to assess the status of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD across Europe. Specifically, it will determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors in current clinical practice in relation to the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention. It will also assess physicians' knowledge and attitudes about CVD prevention as well as the barriers impeding effective risk factor management in clinical practice. Methods/Design Cross-sectional study conducted simultaneously in 12 countries across Europe. The study has two components: firstly at the physician level, assessing eight hundred and nine primary care and specialist physicians with a daily practice in CVD prevention. A physician specific questionnaire captures information regarding physician demographics, practice settings, cardiovascular prevention beliefs and management. Secondly at the patient level, including 7641 patients aged 50 years or older, free of clinical CVD and with at least one classical risk factor, enrolled by the participating physicians. A patient-specific questionnaire captures information from clinical records and patient interview regarding sociodemographic data, CVD risk factors, and current medications. Finally, each patient provides a fasting blood sample, which is sent to a central laboratory for measuring serum lipids, apolipoproteins, hemoglobin-A1c, and inflammatory biomarkers. Discussion Primary prevention of CVD is an extremely important clinical issue, with preventable circulatory diseases remaining the leading cause of major disease burden. The EURIKA study will provide key information to assess effectiveness of and attitudes toward primary prevention of CVD in Europe. A transnational study creates opportunities for benchmarking good clinical practice across countries and improving outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00882336.

  10. Fluorine cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography in vivo at 1.5 T with perfluorocarbon nanoparticle contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Anne M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Hockett, Franklin D; Cyrus, Tillman; Robertson, J David; Allen, J Stacy; Williams, Todd D; Fuhrhop, Ralph W; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    While the current gold standard for coronary imaging is X-ray angiography, evidence is accumulating that it may not be the most sensitive technique for detecting unstable plaque. Other imaging modalities, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), can be used for plaque characterization, but suffer from long scan and reconstruction times for determining regions of stenosis. We have developed an intravascular fluorinated contrast agent that can be used for angiography with cardiovascular magnetic resosnace at clinical field strengths (1.5 T). This liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticle contains a high concentration of fluorine atoms that can be used to generate contrast on 19F MR images without any competing background signal from surrounding tissues. By using a perfluorocarbon with 20 equivalent fluorine molecules, custom-built RF coils, a modified clinical scanner, and an efficient steady-state free procession sequence, we demonstrate the use of this agent for angiography of small vessels in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. The surprisingly high signal generated with very short scan times and low doses of perfluorocarbon indicates that this technique may be useful in clinical settings when coupled with advanced imaging strategies.

  11. Predictors of ischaemic mitral regurgitation recurrence in patients undergoing combined surgery: additional value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaveckaite, Sigita; Uzdavinyte-Gateliene, Egle; Petrulioniene, Zaneta; Palionis, Darius; Valeviciene, Nomeda; Kalinauskas, Gintaras; Serpytis, Pranas; Laucevicius, Aleksandras

    2018-03-09

    We aimed to evaluate (i) the effectiveness of combined surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting with restrictive mitral valve annuloplasty) and (ii) the late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance-based predictors of ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) recurrence. The prospective analysis included 40 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease, IMR >II° and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction undergoing combined surgery. The degree of IMR and LV parameters were assessed preoperatively by transthoracic echocardiography, 3D transoesophageal echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance and postoperatively by transthoracic echocardiography. The effective mitral valve repair group (n = 30) was defined as having recurrent ischaemic mitral regurgitation (RIMR) ≤II° at the end of follow-up (25 ± 11 months). The surgery was effective: freedom from RIMR >II° at 1 and 2 years after surgery was 80% and 75%, respectively. Using multivariable logistic regression, 2 independent predictors of RIMR >II° were identified: ≥3 non-viable LV segments (odds ratio 22, P = 0.027) and ≥1 non-viable segment in the LV posterior wall (odds ratio 11, P = 0.026). Using classification trees, the best combinations of cardiovascular magnetic resonance-based and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography-based predictors for RIMR >II° were (i) posterior mitral valve leaflet angle >40° and LV end-systolic volume index >45 ml/m2 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 89%) and (ii) scar transmurality >68% in the inferior LV wall and EuroSCORE II >8 (sensitivity 83%, specificity 78%). There is a clear relationship between the amount of non-viable LV segments, especially in the LV posterior and inferior walls, and the recurrence of IMR after the combined surgery.

  12. Report of the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table regulatory workshop update of the evaluation of new agents for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, Héctor; de Graeff, Pieter; Richard-Lordereau, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    syndrome (ACS) to achieve consistency with current knowledge in the field. This manuscript summarizes the key output from a collaborative workshop, organized by the Cardiovascular Round Table and the European Affairs Committee of the European Society of Cardiology, involving clinicians, academic...... researchers, trialists, European and US regulators, and pharmaceutical industry researchers. Specific questions in four key areas were selected as priorities for changes in regulatory guidance: patient selection, endpoints, methodologic issues and issues related to the research for novel agents. Patients......Regulatory authorities interpret the results of randomized controlled trials according to published principles. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is planning a revision of the 2000 and 2003 guidance documents on clinical investigation of new medicinal products for the treatment of acute coronary...

  13. Comparative analysis of Danggui and European Danggui using nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Du, Guan-Hua; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-25

    Danggui is a widely used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine, and adulteration with European Danggui is frequently encountered in the market. We compared the chemical compositions and biological effects of Danggui and European Danggui using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. Results showed that Danggui and European Danggui differed in both primary and secondary metabolites. Danggui contained higher levels of alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, adenosine, arginine, sucrose, α-glucose, β-glucose, tryptophan, and cis-Z,Z'-3a.7a',7a.3a'-dihydroxyligustilide than European Danggui. Meanwhile, European Danggui contained higher contents of valine, proline, fumaric acid, phenylalanine, nicotinamide derivative, Z-butylidenephthalide, coniferyl ferulate, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, and Z,Z-6,6'7,3a-diligustilide than Danggui. A blood deficiency model was used to compare the biological effects of the two drugs. Despite its higher levels of Z-ligustilide and ferulic acid, European Danggui showed a weaker blood enriching effect than Danggui. Thus, the bioactive compounds responsible for the blood enriching effect in Danggui and their possible synergistic effects should be further studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cardiovascular fluid dynamics. Methods for flow and pressure field analysis from magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbers, T.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular blood flow is highly complex and incompletely understood. Blood flow patterns are expected to influence the opening and closing of normal and prosthetic heart valves, the efficiency of cardiac filling and ejection, and the resistance to thrombus formation within the heart. Conventional diagnostic techniques are poorly suited to the study of the three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns in the heart chambers and large vessels. Noninvasive methods have also been inadequate in studying intracardiac pressure differences, which are the driving force of flow and are critical in the evaluation of many cardiovascular abnormalities. This thesis focuses on the development of non-invasive methods for analysis of 3D cardiovascular blood flow. Simultaneous study of cardiovascular fluid dynamics allowed knowledge exchange across the two disciplines, facilitating the development process and broadening the applicability of the methods. A time-resolved 3D phase-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to acquire the velocity vector field in a 3D volume encompassing the entire heart or a large vessel. Cardiovascular blood flow patterns were visualized by use of particle traces, which revealed, for instance, vortical flow patterns in the left atrium. By applying the Navier-Stokes equation along a user-defined line in the 3D velocity vector field, the relative pressure could be obtained as an excellent supplement to the flow pattern visualization. Using a delineation of the blood pool, the time-varying 3D relative pressure field in the human left ventricle was obtained from the velocity field by use of the pressure Poisson equation. A delineation of the heart muscle, a task that is almost impossible to perform on 3D MRI either automatically or manually, was also achieved by usage of particle traces. This segmentation allows automatic calculation of the 3D relative pressure field, as well as calculation of well-established parameters such as

  15. Cardiovascular fluid dynamics. Methods for flow and pressure field analysis from magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, T

    2001-05-01

    Cardiovascular blood flow is highly complex and incompletely understood. Blood flow patterns are expected to influence the opening and closing of normal and prosthetic heart valves, the efficiency of cardiac filling and ejection, and the resistance to thrombus formation within the heart. Conventional diagnostic techniques are poorly suited to the study of the three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns in the heart chambers and large vessels. Noninvasive methods have also been inadequate in studying intracardiac pressure differences, which are the driving force of flow and are critical in the evaluation of many cardiovascular abnormalities. This thesis focuses on the development of non-invasive methods for analysis of 3D cardiovascular blood flow. Simultaneous study of cardiovascular fluid dynamics allowed knowledge exchange across the two disciplines, facilitating the development process and broadening the applicability of the methods. A time-resolved 3D phase-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to acquire the velocity vector field in a 3D volume encompassing the entire heart or a large vessel. Cardiovascular blood flow patterns were visualized by use of particle traces, which revealed, for instance, vortical flow patterns in the left atrium. By applying the Navier-Stokes equation along a user-defined line in the 3D velocity vector field, the relative pressure could be obtained as an excellent supplement to the flow pattern visualization. Using a delineation of the blood pool, the time-varying 3D relative pressure field in the human left ventricle was obtained from the velocity field by use of the pressure Poisson equation. A delineation of the heart muscle, a task that is almost impossible to perform on 3D MRI either automatically or manually, was also achieved by usage of particle traces. This segmentation allows automatic calculation of the 3D relative pressure field, as well as calculation of well-established parameters such as

  16. Whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to stratify symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic burden in patients with isolated cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Duce, Suzanne L.; Gandy, Stephen J.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Cassidy, Deirdre B.; McCormick, Lynne; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (WB CVMR) to assess the heart and arterial network in a single examination, so as to describe the burden of atherosclerosis and subclinical disease in participants with symptomatic single site vascular disease. 64 patients with a history of symptomatic single site vascular disease (38 coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 cerebrovascular disease, 17 peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) underwent whole body angiogram and cardiac MR in a 3 T scanner. The arterial tree was subdivided into 31 segments and each scored according to the degree of stenosis. From this a standardised atheroma score (SAS) was calculated. Cine and late gadolinium enhancement images of the left ventricle were obtained. Asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease with greater than 50 % stenosis in arteries other than that responsible for their presenting complain was detected in 37 % of CAD, 33 % of cerebrovascular and 47 % of PAD patients. Unrecognised myocardial infarcts were observed in 29 % of PAD patients. SAS was significantly higher in PAD patients 24 (17.5-30.5) compared to CAD 4 (2–11.25) or cerebrovascular disease patients 6 (2-10) (ANCOVA p < 0.001). Standardised atheroma score positively correlated with age (β 0.36 p = 0.002), smoking status (β 0.34 p = 0.002), and LV mass (β -0.61 p = 0.001) on multiple linear regression. WB CVMR is an effective method for the stratification of cardiovascular disease. The high prevalence of asymptomatic arterial disease, and silent myocardial infarctions, particularly in the peripheral arterial disease group, demonstrates the importance of a systematic approach to the assessment of cardiovascular disease

  17. Cardiovascular side effects of cancer therapies: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenhagen, Thomas; Force, Thomas; Ewer, Michael S; de Keulenaer, Gilles W; Suter, Thomas M; Anker, Stefan D; Avkiran, Metin; de Azambuja, Evandro; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Brutsaert, Dirk L; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Hansen, Arne; Heymans, Stephane; Hill, Joseph A; Hirsch, Emilio; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Janssens, Stefan; de Jong, Steven; Neubauer, Gitte; Pieske, Burkert; Ponikowski, Piotr; Pirmohamed, Munir; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Sawyer, Douglas; Sugden, Peter H; Wojta, Johann; Zannad, Faiez; Shah, Ajay M

    2011-01-01

    The reductions in mortality and morbidity being achieved among cancer patients with current therapies represent a major achievement. However, given their mechanisms of action, many anti-cancer agents may have significant potential for cardiovascular side effects, including the induction of heart failure. The magnitude of this problem remains unclear and is not readily apparent from current clinical trials of emerging targeted agents, which generally under-represent older patients and those with significant co-morbidities. The risk of adverse events may also increase when novel agents, which frequently modulate survival pathways, are used in combination with each other or with other conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. The extent to which survival and growth pathways in the tumour cell (which we seek to inhibit) coincide with those in cardiovascular cells (which we seek to preserve) is an open question but one that will become ever more important with the development of new cancer therapies that target intracellular signalling pathways. It remains unclear whether potential cardiovascular problems can be predicted from analyses of such basic signalling mechanisms and what pre-clinical evaluation should be undertaken. The screening of patients, optimization of therapeutic schemes, monitoring of cardiovascular function during treatment, and the management of cardiovascular side effects are likely to become increasingly important in cancer patients. This paper summarizes the deliberations of a cross-disciplinary workshop organized by the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (held in Brussels in May 2009), which brought together clinicians working in cardiology and oncology and those involved in basic, translational, and pharmaceutical science.

  18. Present and future of clinical cardiovascular PET imaging in Europe - a position statement by the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guludec, D.; Lautamaeki, R.; Bengel, F.M.; Knuuti, J.; Bax, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    This position statement was prepared by the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology and summarises the current and future potential of PET as a clinical cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tool. The first section describes how methodological developments have positively influenced the transition of PET from a research tool towards a clinical diagnostic test. In the second section, evidence in support of its superior diagnostic accuracy, its value to guide decision making and to predict outcome and its cost effectiveness is summarised. The third section finally outlines new PET-based approaches and concepts, which will likely influence clinical cardiovascular medicine in the future. The notion that integration of cardiac PET into healthcare systems and disease management algorithms will advance quality of care is increasingly supported by the literature highlighted in this statement. (orig.)

  19. Members of the European Parliament (MEP) Heart Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofield, Andros

    2013-06-01

    The MEP Heart Group is a discussion forum aimed at promoting measures to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the European Union and raise cardiovascular disease as a priority on the EU political agenda.

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of carcinoid heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmann, H.; Pakkal, M. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steeds, R. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rick.steeds@uhb.nhs.uk

    2009-08-15

    Carcinoid disease arises from a low-grade neuroendocrine tumour derived from serotonin-producing enterochromaffin cells. It is the most common tumour affecting the small bowel. The majority of patients who progress to carcinoid syndrome develop cardiac disease selectively involving the right side of the heart, whereas left heart disease is unusual. The most common cause of death is dilatation and dysfunction of the right ventricle. Right ventricular dysfunction is largely secondary to pathological endocardial fibrosis of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, presenting with regurgitation and stenosis. Average survival falls to only 11 months with the onset of symptoms, but recent evidence suggests that survival can be improved by early surgery in selected individuals. This article reviews the particular role that cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has in the management of carcinoid heart disease.

  1. Machine learning based analysis of cardiovascular images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, JM

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary artery disease (CAD) and congenital heart disease (CHD) are the global leading cause of death. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow non-invasive imaging of cardiovascular structures. This thesis presents machine

  2. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  3. The Role of Clinical Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in China: Current Status and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular diseases. The state-of-the-art CMR imaging has many advantages in cardiac imaging, including excellent spatial and temporal resolution, unrestricted imaging field, no exposure to ionizing radiation, excellent tissue contrast, and unique myocardial tissue characterization. Clinical CMR imaging is used during the cardiovascular diagnostic workup in the United States and some European countries. Use of CMR imaging is emerging in hospitals in China and has a promising future. This review briefly describes the real-world clinical application of CMR imaging in China and discuss obstacles for its future development.

  4. Value of black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter John Paul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess whether black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance is superior to conventional white blood imaging of cardiac iron in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Materials and methods We performed both conventional white blood and black blood T2* CMR sequences in 100 TM patients to determine intra and inter-observer variability and presence of artefacts. In 23 patients, 2 separate studies of both techniques were performed to assess interstudy reproducibility. Results Cardiac T2* values ranged from 4.5 to 43.8 ms. The mean T2* values were not different between black blood and white blood acquisitions (20.5 vs 21.6 ms, p = 0.26. Compared with the conventional white blood diastolic acquisition, the coefficient of variance of the black blood CMR technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (1.47% vs 4.23%, p Conclusions Black blood T2* CMR has superior reproducibility and reduced imaging artefacts for the assessment of cardiac iron, in comparison with the conventional white blood technique, which make it the preferred technique for clinical practice.

  5. REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conception of total cardio-vascular risk plays important role in defining tactics of arterial hypertension therapy according to the new European recommendations. Choice of antihypertensive therapy is based on meta-analysis of large clinical studies with hard end points. It is recommended to use five classes of antihypertensive drugs in mono- and combined therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors keep important place in the therapy of arterial hypertension accompanying with risk factors and associated diseases. Enalapril is one of the widely used ACE inhibitors, its efficiency was proved in prospective clinical studies. In high risk patients monotherapy with Enam (enalapril, Dr. Reddy’s decreases blood pressure and leads to positive metabolic changes. This results in significant risk reduction of cardio-vascular complications.

  6. REDUCTION OF CUMULATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS ACCORDING TO THE NEW EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Mamedov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conception of total cardio-vascular risk plays important role in defining tactics of arterial hypertension therapy according to the new European recommendations. Choice of antihypertensive therapy is based on meta-analysis of large clinical studies with hard end points. It is recommended to use five classes of antihypertensive drugs in mono- and combined therapy. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors keep important place in the therapy of arterial hypertension accompanying with risk factors and associated diseases. Enalapril is one of the widely used ACE inhibitors, its efficiency was proved in prospective clinical studies. In high risk patients monotherapy with Enam (enalapril, Dr. Reddy’s decreases blood pressure and leads to positive metabolic changes. This results in significant risk reduction of cardio-vascular complications.

  7. Can cardiovascular magnetic resonance prompt early cardiovascular/rheumatic treatment in autoimmune rheumatic diseases? Current practice and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Sfikakis, Petros P; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Koutsogeorgopoulou, Loukia; Katsifis, Gikas; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kitas, George D

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) remains lower compared to the general population, due to various comoborbidities. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main contributor to premature mortality. Conventional and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have considerably improved long-term outcomes in ARDs not only by suppressing systemic inflammation but also by lowering CVD burden. Regarding atherosclerotic disease prevention, EULAR has recommended tight disease control accompanied by regular assessment of traditional CVD risk factors and lifestyle changes. However, this approach, although rational and evidence-based, does not account for important issues such as myocardial inflammation and the long asymptomatic period that usually proceeds clinical manifestations of CVD disease in ARDs before or after the diagnosis of systemic disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can offer reliable, reproducible and operator independent information regarding myocardial inflammation, ischemia and fibrosis. Some studies suggest a role for CMR in the risk stratification of ARDs and demonstrate that oedema/fibrosis visualisation with CMR may have the potential to inform cardiac and rheumatic treatment modification in ARDs with or without abnormal routine cardiac evaluation. In this review, we discuss how CMR findings could influence anti-rheumatic treatment decisions targeting optimal control of both systemic and myocardial inflammation irrespective of clinical manifestations of cardiac disease. CMR can provide a different approach that is very promising for risk stratification and treatment modification; however, further studies are needed before the inclusion of CMR in the routine evaluation and treatment of patients with ARDs.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of congenital cardiovascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shirou; Imai, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Huminori; Uematsu, Sadao; Arimizu, Noboru

    1986-01-01

    In order to determine the value of MRI in diagnosing congenital cardiovascular malformations, MR Images were obtained in 25 adult patients with congenital cardiovascular malformations. Gated MRI detected all of 13 atrial septal defects, and all of 4 ventricular septal defects, but ungated MRI detected none of 3 atrial septal defects. Other congenital cardiovascular malformations (2 with Ebstein's disease, 1 with Fallot's pentalogy, and 1 with Pulmonary stenosis) were well visualized. Vascular malformations (1 with Patent ducts arteriosus, 1 with Supravalvelar aortic stenosis, 1 with Coarctation of Aorta, 1 with Right Aortic Arch) were well visualized in all of 7 patients by ungated MRI. MRI was a valuable noninvasive method of diagnosing congenital heart disease. (author)

  9. Consensus statement on the definition of neurogenic supine hypertension in cardiovascular autonomic failure by the American Autonomic Society (AAS) and the European Federation of Autonomic Societies (EFAS) : Endorsed by the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciulli, Alessandra; Jordan, Jens; Biaggioni, Italo; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Cheshire, William P; Cortelli, Pietro; Eschlboeck, Sabine; Grassi, Guido; Hilz, Max J; Kaufmann, Horacio; Lahrmann, Heinz; Mancia, Giuseppe; Mayer, Gert; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Pavy-Le Traon, Anne; Raj, Satish R; Robertson, David; Rocha, Isabel; Struhal, Walter; Thijs, Roland; Tsioufis, Konstantinos P; van Dijk, J Gert; Wenning, Gregor K

    2018-05-15

    Patients suffering from cardiovascular autonomic failure often develop neurogenic supine hypertension (nSH), i.e., high blood pressure (BP) in the supine position, which falls in the upright position owing to impaired autonomic regulation. A committee was formed to reach consensus among experts on the definition and diagnosis of nSH in the context of cardiovascular autonomic failure. As a first and preparatory step, a systematic search of PubMed-indexed literature on nSH up to January 2017 was performed. Available evidence derived from this search was discussed in a consensus expert round table meeting in Innsbruck on February 16, 2017. Statements originating from this meeting were further discussed by representatives of the American Autonomic Society and the European Federation of Autonomic Societies and are summarized in the document presented here. The final version received the endorsement of the European Academy of Neurology and the European Society of Hypertension. In patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, nSH is defined as systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, measured after at least 5 min of rest in the supine position. Three severity degrees are recommended: mild, moderate and severe. nSH may also be present during nocturnal sleep, with reduced-dipping, non-dipping or rising nocturnal BP profiles with respect to mean daytime BP values. Home BP monitoring and 24-h-ambulatory BP monitoring provide relevant information for a customized clinical management. The establishment of expert-based criteria to define nSH should standardize diagnosis and allow a better understanding of its epidemiology, prognosis and, ultimately, treatment.

  10. Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide in magnetic resonance imaging of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirrat CG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Colin G Stirrat,1 Alex T Vesey,1 Olivia MB McBride,1 Jennifer MJ Robson,1 Shirjel R Alam,1 William A Wallace,2 Scott I Semple,1,3 Peter A Henriksen,1 David E Newby1 1British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 2Department of Pathology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; 3Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Abstract: Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO are iron-oxide based contrast agents that enhance and complement in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI by shortening T1, T2, and T2* relaxation times. USPIO can be employed to provide immediate blood pool contrast, or to act as subsequent markers of cellular inflammation through uptake by inflammatory cells. They can also be targeted to specific cell-surface markers using antibody or ligand labeling. This review will discuss the application of USPIO contrast in MRI studies of cardiovascular disease. Keywords: cardiac, aortic, MRI, USPIO, carotid, vascular, molecular imaging

  11. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  12. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  13. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/ critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  14. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  15. Implementing the European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in the primary care setting in Cyprus: Lessons learned from a health care services study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philalithis Anastasios

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent guidelines recommend assessment and treatment of the overall risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD through management of multiple risk factors in patients at high absolute risk. The aim of our study was to assess the level of cardiovascular risk in patients with known risk factors for CVD by applying the SCORE risk function and to study the implications of European guidelines on the use of treatment and goal attainment for blood pressure (BP and lipids in the primary care of Cyprus. Methods Retrospective chart review of 1101 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2, or hypertension or hyperlipidemia in four primary care health centres. The SCORE risk function for high-risk regions was used to calculate 10-year risk of cardiovascular fatal event. Most recent values of BP and lipids were used to assess goal attainment to international standards. Most updated medications lists were used to compare proportions of current with recommended antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug (LLD users according to European guidelines. Results Implementation of the SCORE risk model labelled overall 39.7% (53.6% of men, 31.3% of women of the study population as high risk individuals (CVD, DM2 or SCORE ≥5%. The SCORE risk chart was not applicable in 563 patients (51.1% due to missing data in the patient records, mostly on smoking habits. The LDL-C goal was achieved in 28.6%, 19.5% and 20.9% of patients with established CVD, DM2 (no CVD and SCORE ≥5%, respectively. BP targets were achieved in 55.4%, 5.6% and 41.9% respectively for the above groups. There was under prescription of antihypertensive drugs, LLD and aspirin for all three high risk groups. Conclusion This study demonstrated suboptimal control and under-treatment of patients with cardiovascular risk factors in the primary care in Cyprus. Improvement of documentation of clinical information in the medical records as well as GPs training for implementation

  16. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  17. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, J. C.; Sheppard, M.; Reed, E.; Lee, P.; Elliott, P. M.; Pennell, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic d...

  18. Non Hodgkin lymphoma metastasis to the heart detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Metastasis cardiaca secundaria al linfoma de Hodgkin detectada por la resonancia magnetica cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Florange; Morales, Marisela; Pedreanez, Norma [Hospital Cardiologico Infantil Latinoamericano Dr Gilberto Rodriguez Ochoa, Carcacas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pabon, Luz; Carrillo, Milton [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV/HUC), Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Instituto de Hematoncologia. Hospital Universitario; Fernandes, Juliano Lara [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    Primary and secondary heart tumors are relatively rare occurrences but usually imply significant treatment decisions. The differential diagnosis among these tumors and other masses can sometimes be difficult and require the use of different imaging modalities to establish a confident verdict. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR imaging is a very useful tool in these cases by allowing for the application of different strategies to better delineate masses, heart structures and adjacent tissues. In this case description, we present a woman with shortness of breath and a paracardiac mass showing how CMR can be applied. (author)

  19. Statistical and data reporting guidelines for the European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and the Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Dunning, Joel; Seifert, Burkhardt; Sodeck, Gottfried; Carr, Matthew J; Burger, Hans Ulrich; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2015-08-01

    As part of the peer review process for the European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EJCTS) and the Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (ICVTS), a statistician reviews any manuscript that includes a statistical analysis. To facilitate authors considering submitting a manuscript and to make it clearer about the expectations of the statistical reviewers, we present up-to-date guidelines for authors on statistical and data reporting specifically in these journals. The number of statistical methods used in the cardiothoracic literature is vast, as are the ways in which data are presented. Therefore, we narrow the scope of these guidelines to cover the most common applications submitted to the EJCTS and ICVTS, focusing in particular on those that the statistical reviewers most frequently comment on. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic force study for the helical afterburner for the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wei, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    At present the SASE3 undulator line at the European XFEL is using a planar undulator producing linear polarized soft Xray radiation only. In order to satisfy the demand for circular polarized radiation a helical undulator system, the so-called afterburner is in construction. It will be operated as a radiator using the pre-bunched beam of the SASE3 undulator system. Among several options for the magnetic structure the Apple-X geometry was chosen. This is a pure permanent magnet undulator using NdFeB material. Four magnet arrays are arranged symmetrically the beam axis. Polarization can be changed by adjusting the phase shift (PS) between the two orthogonal structures. The field strength can be adjusted either by gap adjustment or alternatively by the amplitude shift (AS) scheme. For an engineering design the maximum values of forces and torques on each of the components under worst case operational conditions are important. The superposition principle is used to reduce calculation time. It is found that the maximum forces Fx, Fy and Fz for a 2m long Apple-X undulator are 1.8*104N, 2.4*104N and 2.3*104N, respectively. More results are presented in this paper.

  1. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Uebleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  2. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Department of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute (CARIM), P. Debyelaan 25, HX, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hyafil, Fabien [Bichat University Hospital, Inserm 1148, DHU FIRE, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Verberne, Hein J. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Biomedical Photonic Imaging, Faculty of Science and Technology, Enschede (Netherlands); Lindner, Oliver [Heart and Diabetes Center NRW, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Institute of Radiology, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany); Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, Florence (Italy); Agostini, Denis [Normandie Universite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Uebleis, Christopher [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Hacker, Marcus [Medical University Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided therapy, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: on behalf of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)

    2016-04-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as ''strict guidelines'' but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards &apos

  3. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health....

  4. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in Anderson-Fabry disease. Evidence for a disease specific abnormality of the myocardial interstitium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C C; Sachdev, Bhavesh; Elkington, Andrew G; McKenna, William J; Mehta, Atul; Pennell, Dudley J; Leed, Philip J; Elliott, Perry M

    2003-12-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD), an X-linked disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, is a cause of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy but the mechanism of hypertrophy is poorly understood. Gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance can detect focal myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesised that hyperenhancement would be present in AFD. Eighteen males (mean 43+/-14 years) and eight female heterozygotes (mean 48+/-12 years) with AFD underwent cine and late gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Nine male (50%) had myocardial hyperenhancement ranging from 3.4% to 20.6% (mean 7.7+/-5.7%) of total myocardium; in males, percentage hyperenhancement related to LV mass index (r=0.78, P=0.0002) but not to ejection fraction or left ventricular volumes. Lesser hyperenhancement was also found in four (50%) heterozygous females (mean 4.6%). In 12 (92%) patients with abnormal gadolinium uptake, hyperenhancement occurred in the basal infero-lateral wall where, unlike myocardial infarction, it was not sub-endocardial. In two male patients with severe LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) and systolic impairment there was additional hyperenhancement in other myocardial segments. These observations suggests that myocardial fibrosis occurs in AFD and may contribute to the hypertrophy and the natural history of the disease.

  5. Comparing American, European and Asian practice guidelines for aortic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozado, Jose; Martin, Maria; Pascual, Isaac; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Moris, Cesar

    2017-05-01

    The aortic disease comprises a group of different pathologies of high prevalence, seriousness and ever changing by the medical and surgical investigations. Therefore cardiovascular scientific societies in USA, Europe and Asia have created Task Force on practice guidelines (PG) to develop, update and revise PG for aortic diseases. These documents issue recommendations on the diagnosis and management of different aortic diseases. The three societies agree on the recommendations about diagnostic tests and on the value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance as the main tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic disease. Concerning to acute aortic syndromes (AAS), American and European GPs recognize intramural hematoma (IMH) as a type of AAS with surgery indication; however Asian guidelines consider IMH a pathological process different from AAS and indicate medical treatment. In thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), all express the need for an adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, emphasizing strict control of blood pressure, smoking cessation and recommend the use of beta-blockers and statins. The threshold for asymptomatic repair is 5.5 cm in European and American and 6 cm for Asian PG, with lower thresholds in Marfan and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). As regards the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), the PGs recognize the adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there are differences in class of recommendation on statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or beta-blockers to prevent progression of AAA. For intervention, the threshold diameter in asymptomatic is 5.5 cm but can be reduced to 5 cm in women as recommended by Asian PG. Moreover the specific diseases such as Marfan, BAV, pregnancy or atherosclerosis aortic present specific recommendations with small differences between PGs. In conclusion, PGs are interesting and appropriate documents at present. They issue recommendations based on evidence that help the clinician and

  6. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-aged/ senior individuals engaged in leisure-time sport activities: position stand from the sections of exercise physiology and sports cardiology of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjesson, Mats; Urhausen, Alex; Kouidi, Evangelia; Dugmore, Dorian; Sharma, Sanjay; Halle, Martin; Heidbüchel, Hein; Björnstad, Hans Halvor; Gielen, Stephan; Mezzani, Alessandro; Corrado, Domenico; Pelliccia, Antonio; Vanhees, Luc

    2011-06-01

    Regular aerobic exercise at moderate intensities and an increased physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary events in middle-aged individuals. In contrast, moderate and vigorous physical exertion is associated with an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death in individuals harbouring cardiovascular disease. The risk-benefit ratio may differ in relation to the individual’s age, fitness level, and presence of cardiovascular disease; sedentary individuals with underlying coronary artery disease are at greatest risk. The intention of the present position stand of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation is to encourage individuals to participate in regular physical activity and derive the benefits of physical exercise while minimizing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Therefore, the aim is to establish the most practical method of cardiovascular evaluation in middle-age/senior individuals, who are contemplating exercise or who are already engaged in nonprofessional competitive or recreational leisure sporting activity. These recommendations rely on existing scientific evidence, and in the absence of such, on expert consensus. The methodology of how middle-aged and older individuals should be evaluated appropriately before engaging in regular physical activity is both complex and controversial. On practical grounds the consensus panel recommend that such evaluation should vary according to the individual’s cardiac risk profile and the intended level of physical activity. Self assessment of the habitual physical activity level and of the risk factors, are recommended for screening of large populations. Individuals deemed to be at risk require further evaluation by a qualified physician. In senior/adult individuals with an increased risk for coronary events, maximal exercise testing (and possibly further evaluations) is advocated. Hopefully, the recommendations

  7. 21 CFR 870.3690 - Pacemaker test magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker test magnet. 870.3690 Section 870.3690...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3690 Pacemaker test magnet. (a) Identification. A pacemaker test magnet is a device used to test an inhibited or triggered type...

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, John P

    2010-11-30

    There are many excellent specialised texts and articles that describe the physical principles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. There are also many texts written with the clinician in mind that provide an understandable, more general introduction to the basic physical principles of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and applications. There are however very few texts or articles that attempt to provide a basic MR physics introduction that is tailored for clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. This is the first of two reviews that are intended to cover the essential aspects of CMR physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to this group. It begins by explaining the basic physical principles of MR, including a description of the main components of an MR imaging system and the three types of magnetic field that they generate. The origin and method of production of the MR signal in biological systems are explained, focusing in particular on the two tissue magnetisation relaxation properties (T1 and T2) that give rise to signal differences from tissues, showing how they can be exploited to generate image contrast for tissue characterisation. The method most commonly used to localise and encode MR signal echoes to form a cross sectional image is described, introducing the concept of k-space and showing how the MR signal data stored within it relates to properties within the reconstructed image. Before describing the CMR acquisition methods in detail, the basic spin echo and gradient pulse sequences are introduced, identifying the key parameters that influence image contrast, including appearances in the presence of flowing blood, resolution and image acquisition time. The main derivatives of these two pulse sequences used for cardiac imaging are then described in more detail. Two of the key requirements for CMR are the need for data acquisition first to be to be synchronised with the subject's ECG and to be fast enough for the subject

  9. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease in Turkish undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badir, Aysel; Tekkas, Kader; Topcu, Serpil

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. However, there is not enough data exploring student nurses' understanding, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease. To investigate knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among undergraduate nursing students, with an emphasis on understanding of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity, both in Turkey and worldwide. This cross-sectional survey assessed 1138 nursing students enrolled in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were collected using the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) scale and questions from the Individual Characteristics Form about students' gender, age, level of education, and family cardiovascular health history, as well as smoking and exercise habits. Respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease, with years of education (p healthy, they could improve their practice of health-promoting behaviors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  10. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European des...

  11. Improving clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases: a position paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Neville; Atar, Dan; Borentain, Maria; Breithardt, Günter; van Eickels, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Fraass, Uwe; Friede, Tim; Hannachi, Hakima; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Landray, Martin; Lautsch, Dominik; Le Floch, Chantal; Mol, Peter; Naci, Huseyin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Svensson, Anders; Thorstensen, Cathrine; Tijssen, Jan; Vandzhura, Victoria; Zalewski, Andrew; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, but the pharmaceutical industry's willingness to invest in this field has declined because of the many challenges involved with bringing new cardiovascular drugs to market, including late-stage failures,

  12. Improving clinical trials for cardiovascular diseases : a position paper from the Cardiovascular Round Table of the European Society of Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Neville; Atar, Dan; Borentain, Maria; Breithardt, Guenter; van Eickels, Martin; Endres, Matthias; Fraass, Uwe; Friede, Tim; Hannachi, Hakima; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Joerg; Landray, Martin; Lautsch, Dominik; Le Floch, Chantal; Mol, Peter; Naci, Huseyin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Svensson, Anders; Thorstensen, Cathrine; Tijssen, Jan; Vandzhura, Victoria; Zalewski, Andrew; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2016-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in the world, but the pharmaceutical industry's willingness to invest in this field has declined because of the many challenges involved with bringing new cardiovascular drugs to market, including late-stage failures,

  13. Cardiovascular diseases in women: a statement from the policy conference of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Fox, Kim M; Priori, Silvia G; Collins, Peter; Daly, Caroline; Graham, Ian; Jonsson, Benct; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Tendera, Michal

    2006-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality both in men and women. In Europe, about 55% of all females' deaths are caused by CVD, especially coronary heart disease and stroke. Unfortunately, however, the risk of heart disease in women is underestimated because of the perception that women are 'protected' against ischaemic heart disease. What is not fully understood is that women during the fertile age have a lower risk of cardiac events, but this protection fades after menopause thus leaving women with untreated risk factors vulnerable to develop myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease in women may be different from those commonly observed in males and this factor may account for under-recognition of the disease. The European Society of Cardiology has recently initiated an extensive 'Women at heart' program to coordinate research and educational initiatives on CVD in women. A Policy Conference on CVD in Women was one of the first steps in the development of this program. The objective of the conference was to collect the opinion of experts in the field coming from the European Society of Cardiology member countries to: (1) summarize the state-of-the-art from an European perspective; (2) to identify the scientific gaps on CVD in women; and (3) to delineate the strategies for changing the misperception of CVD in women, improving risk stratification, diagnosis, and therapy from a gender perspective and increasing women representation in clinical trials. The Policy Conference has provided the opportunity to review and comment on the current status of knowledge on CVD in women and to prioritize the actions needed to advance this area of knowledge in cardiology. In the preparation of this document we intend to provide the medical community and the stakeholders of this field with an overview of the more critical aspects that have emerged during the discussion. We

  14. The European fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    With the 1982-86 pluriannual programme, reactor technology became a separate chapter in the fusion research programme of the European Commission. It comprises work on materials, the breeder blanket, tritium management, magnet coils, maintenance and the safety and environmental aspects. After an overview of the programme each of these areas is discussed briefly and some remarks are made on the role played by the European fission energy and magnet laboratories. (author)

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors in a southern European population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999-2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients.

  16. Comparison of 2-D Magnetic Designs of Selected Coil Configurations for the Next European Dipole (NED)

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, F; Felice, H; Fessia, Paolo; Loveridge, P W; Regis, Federico; Rochford, J; Sanz, S; Schwerg, Nikolai; Védrine, P; Völlinger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity is developing a high-performance Nb$_{3}$Sn wire (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T), within the framework of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project. This activity is expected to lead to the fabrication of a large aperture, high field dipole magnet. In preparation for this phase, a Working Group on Magnet Design and Optimization (MDO) has been established to propose an optimal design. Other parallel Work Packages are concentrating on relevant topics, such as quench propagation simulation, innovative insulation techniques, and heat transfer measurements. In a first stage, the MDO Working Group has selected a number of coil configurations to be studied, together with salient parameters and features to be considered during the evaluation: the field quality, the superconductor efficiency, the conductor peak field, the stored magnetic energy, the Lorentz Forces and the fabrication difficulties. 2-D magnetic...

  17. Therapeutic implications of selecting the SCORE (European versus the D'AGOSTINO (American risk charts for cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giné-Garriga Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No comparisons have been made of scales estimating cardiovascular mortality and overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study objectives were to assess the agreement between the Framingham-D'Agostino cardiovascular risk (CVR scale and the chart currently recommended in Europe (SCORE with regard to identification of patients with high CVR, and to describe the discrepancies between them and the attendant implications for the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Methods A total of 474 hypertensive patients aged 40–65 years monitored in primary care were enrolled into the study. CVR was assessed using the Framingham-D'Agostino scale, which estimates the overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk, and the SCORE chart, which estimates the cardiovascular mortality risk. Cardiovascular risk was considered to be high for values ≥ 20% and ≥ 5% according to the Framingham-D'Agostino and SCORE charts respectively. Kappa statistics was estimated for agreement in classification of patients with high CVR. The therapeutic recommendations in the 2007 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention were followed. Results Mean patient age was 54.1 (SD 7.3, and 58.4% were males. A high CVR was found in 17.5% using the SCORE chart (25.3% males, 6.6% females and in 32.7% using the D'Agostino method (56.9% males, 12,7% females. Kappa coefficient was 0.52, and increased to 0.68 when the high CVR threshold was established at 29% according to D'Agostino. Hypertensive patients with high SCORE and non-high D'Agostino (1.7% were characterized by an older age, diabetes, and a lower atherogenic index, while the opposite situation (16.9% was associated to males, hyperlipidaemia, and a higher atherogenic index. Variables with a greater weight in discrepancies were sex and smoking. A 32.0% according to SCORE and 33.5% according to D'Agostino would be candidates to receive antihypertensive treatment, and 15.8% and

  18. [Therapeutic strategies. Evolution and current status of the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Carlos; García-Díaz, Juan de Dios

    2013-01-01

    The European Guidelines on Dyslipidaemias (2011) and Cardiovascular Prevention (2012) have incorporated important changes. Firstly, it highlights the identification of a group of "very high risk" patients: patients with atherosclerotic disease in any vascular area, diabetes with associated risk factors, advanced chronic renal failure, or a SCORE estimate >10%. Patients with diabetes and no other risk factors, moderate renal failure, severe hypertension, genetic dyslipidaemias, or a SCORE estimate 5-10%, are considered as "high risk". The HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels are considered as modulators of risks, but not therapeutic objectives per se. The therapeutic objectives are set at LDL cholesterol levels < 70 mg/dl (or at least a reduction of at least 50%) for patients at very high risk, and an LDL < 100 mg/dl for high risk patients. As well as the changes in lifestyle, pharmacological treatment with statins is the focal point of lipid lowering treatments. Other pharmacological options may be considered if the treatment with the maximum tolerable doses of statins do not achieve the therapeutic objectives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of left ventricular apical-basal muscle bundle identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, Christiane; Chan, Raymond H.; Crean, Andrew; Rakowski, Harry; Rowin, Ethan J.; Care, Melanie; Deva, Djeven; Williams, Lynne; Appelbaum, Evan; Gibson, C. Michael; Lesser, John R.; Haas, Tammy S.; Udelson, James E.; Manning, Warren J.; Siminovitch, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has improved diagnostic and management strategies in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by expanding our appreciation for the diverse phenotypic expression. We sought to characterize the prevalence and clinical significance of a recently identified accessory left ventricular (LV) muscle bundle extending from the apex to the basal septum or anterior wall (i.e. apical-basal). Methods and results CMR was performed in 230 genotyped HCM patients (48 ± 15...

  20. The histological basis of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a patient with Anderson-Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James C; Sheppard, Mary; Reed, Emma; Lee, Phillip; Elliott, Perry M; Pennell, Dudley J

    2006-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry Disease (AFD) is a storage disease that mimics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance occurs in approximately 50% of patients in the basal inferolateral LV wall, but how an intracellular storage disease causes focal LGE is unknown. We present a whole-heart histological validation that LGE is caused by focal myocardial collagen scarring. This scarring may be the substrate for electrical re-entry and sudden arrhythmic death. The reasons for this distribution of fibrosis are unclear, but may reflect inhomogeneous left ventricular wall stress.

  1. Clinical application of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (resistive type) on cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Katsuya; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki; Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Nobuo; Tateno, Yukio.

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging in diagnosing cardiovascular disease, 27 subjects were examined using a 0.1-Tesla resistive type (ASAHI MARK-J). In 10 normal subjects, four cardiac chambers, interventricular septum, aorta, pulmonary vessels and vena cava were clearly identified in NMR imaging. In two patients with old anteroseptal myocardial infarction, anteroseptal wall thinning and left ventricular aneurysm with mural thrombi were demonstrated. In two cases of antrolateral and posterolateral myocardial infarction, however, infarcted areas were not identified in NMR imaging. In one patient with congestive cardiomyopathy, enlarged left ventricle without hypertrophy was recognized. In two patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, NMR imaging disclosed thickened left ventricular wall associated with its narrowed cavity. A mural thrombus in the right ventricle was distinctly visualized in one patient with cardio-vascular Behcet's disease. In two patients with mitral valve stenosis, enlarged left atrium with a mural thrombus was clearly demonstrated in both cross and longitudinal sections. In three patients with thoratic aortic aneurysm, local dilatation of aorta and mural thrombi were recognized. In four patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm, double channels with an intimal flap in the aorta were visualized in NMR imaging. Mean T 1 values and standard deviations of left ventricle, left ventricular wall, and thrombi were 593+-89, 341+-20, 316+-84 msec, respectively. Mean T 1 values of thrombi were ordinally shorter than those of left ventricule. But some thrombi which might be expected fresh had longer T 1 values. (J.P.N.)

  2. Extent of undertreatment and overtreatment with cholesterol-lowering therapy according to European guidelines in 92,348 Danes without ischemic cardiovascular disease and diabetes in 2004-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Anne; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-01-01

    35-100 years recruited from 2004 through 2014 in the Copenhagen General Population Study. Each individual was assigned their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease according to the European SCORE chart based on age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. European...... guidelines recommend cholesterol-lowering therapy definitely at ≥10% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥1.8 mmol/L, definitely at 5-9% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥2.5 mmol/L, possibly at 1-4% risk and LDL cholesterol ≥3 mmol/L, but not at ...,131 had 1-4% risk, and 23,104 had Definite undertreatment and overtreatment according to guidelines were found in 19% and 0.2% or in 187,660 and 1570 per million 35...

  3. Secondary prevention in the clinical management of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Core components, standards and outcome measures for referral and delivery: a policy statement from the cardiac rehabilitation section of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. Endorsed by the Committee for Practice Guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Benzer, Werner; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; Cupples, Margaret; Dendale, Paul; Doherty, Patrick; Gaita, Dan; Höfer, Stefan; McGee, Hannah; Mendes, Miguel; Niebauer, Josef; Pogosova, Nana; Garcia-Porrero, Esteban; Rauch, Bernhard; Schmid, Jean Paul; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo

    2014-06-01

    Despite major improvements in diagnostics and interventional therapies, cardiovascular diseases remain a major health care and socio-economic burden both in western and developing countries, in which this burden is increasing in close correlation to economic growth. Health authorities and the general population have started to recognize that the fight against these diseases can only be won if their burden is faced by increasing our investment on interventions in lifestyle changes and prevention. There is an overwhelming evidence of the efficacy of secondary prevention initiatives including cardiac rehabilitation in terms of reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, secondary prevention is still too poorly implemented in clinical practice, often only on selected populations and over a limited period of time. The development of systematic and full comprehensive preventive programmes is warranted, integrated in the organization of national health systems. Furthermore, systematic monitoring of the process of delivery and outcomes is a necessity. Cardiology and secondary prevention, including cardiac rehabilitation, have evolved almost independently of each other and although each makes a unique contribution it is now time to join forces under the banner of preventive cardiology and create a comprehensive model that optimizes long term outcomes for patients and reduces the future burden on health care services. These are the aims that the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation has foreseen to promote secondary preventive cardiology in clinical practice. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. The Cardiovascular Risk of White-Coat Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and the white-coat-effect (WCE) in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the population-based, 11-cohort IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring...... in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes), this study compared daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with conventional blood pressure measurements in 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. METHODS: European Society Hypertension guidelines were used as a 5-stage risk score...

  5. Troponin-positive chest pain with unobstructed coronary arteries: incremental diagnostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Raman, Betty; Mohd Amin, Nor Hanim; Mahadavan, Devan; Rajendran, Sharmalar; McGavigan, Andrew D; Grover, Suchi; Smith, Emma; Mazhar, Jawad; Bridgman, Cameron; Ganesan, Anand N; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

    2016-10-01

    Troponin-positive chest pain patients with unobstructed coronaries represent a clinical dilemma. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has an increasingly prominent role in the assessment of these patients; however, its utility in addition to expert clinical judgement is unclear. We sought to determine the incremental diagnostic value of CMR and the heterogeneity in diagnoses by experienced cardiologists when presented with blinded clinical and investigative data in this population. A total of 125 consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary centre between 2010 and 2014 with cardiac chest pain, elevated troponin (>29 ng/L), and unobstructed coronaries were enrolled and underwent CMR. A panel of three experienced cardiologists unaware of the CMR diagnosis and blinded to each other's assessment provided a diagnosis based on clinical and investigative findings. A consensus panel diagnosis was defined as two or more cardiologists sharing the same clinical diagnosis. Findings were classified into acute myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or indeterminate. CMR provided a diagnosis in 87% of patients. Consensus panel diagnosis and CMR were concordant in 65/125 (52%) patients. There was an only moderate level of agreement between the three cardiologists (k = 0.47, P < 0.05) and a poor level of agreement between the consensus panel and CMR (k = 0.38, P < 0.05) with the most disagreement seen in patients with AMI diagnosed on CMR. The clinical diagnosis of patients with non-obstructive coronaries and positive troponin remains a challenge. The concordance between CMR and clinical diagnosis is poor. CMR provides a diagnosis in majority of these patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. Methods: We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993–1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular out...

  7. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  8. Visualization of coronary venous anatomy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crean Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary venous imaging with whole-heart cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR angiography has recently been described using developmental pulse sequences and intravascular contrast agents. However, the practical utility of coronary venous imaging will be for patients with heart failure in whom cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT is being considered. As such complementary information on ventricular function and myocardial viability will be required. The aim of this study was to determine if the coronary venous anatomy could be depicted as part of a comprehensive CMR protocol and using a standard extracellular contrast agent. Methods and Results Thirty-one 3D whole heart CMR studies, performed after intravenous administration of 0.05 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA, were reviewed. The cardiac venous system was visualized in all patients. The lateral vein of the left ventricle was present in 74%, the anterior interventricular vein in 65%, and the posterior interventricular vein in 74% of patients. The mean maximum distance of demonstrable cardiac vein on the 3D images was 81.5 mm and was dependent on the quality of the 3D data set. Five patients showed evidence of myocardial infarction on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE images. Conclusion Coronary venous anatomy can be reliably demonstrated using a comprehensive CMR protocol and a standard extracellular contrast agent. The combination of coronary venous imaging, assessment of ventricular function and LGE may be useful in the management of patients with LV dysfunction being considered for CRT.

  9. Role of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Tevfik F; Jabbour, Andrew; Gulati, Ankur; Mallorie, Amy; Raza, Sadaf; Cowling, Thomas E; Das, Bibek; Khwaja, Jahanzaib; Alpendurada, Francisco D; Wage, Ricardo; Roughton, Michael; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Varnava, Amanda; Shakespeare, Carl; Cowie, Martin R; Cook, Stuart A; Elliott, Perry; O'Hanlon, Rory; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2014-12-01

    Myocardial fibrosis identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but its value as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We investigated the role of LGE-CMR in the risk stratification of HCM. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a tertiary referral centre. Consecutive patients with HCM (n=711, median age 56.3 years, IQR 46.7-66.6; 70.0% male) underwent LGE-CMR and were followed for a median 3.5 years. The primary end point was SCD or aborted SCD. Overall, 471 patients (66.2%) had myocardial fibrosis (median 5.9% of left ventricular mass, IQR: 2.2-13.3). Twenty-two (3.1%) reached the primary end point. The extent but not the presence of fibrosis was a significant univariable predictor of the primary end point (HR per 5% LGE: 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45; p=0.007 and HR for LGE: 2.69, 95% CI 0.91 to 7.97; p=0.073, respectively). However, on multivariable analysis, only LV-EF remained statistically significant (HR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.95; p<0.001). For the secondary outcome of cardiovascular mortality/aborted SCD, the presence and the amount of fibrosis were significant predictors on univariable but not multivariable analysis after adjusting for LV-EF and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. The amount of myocardial fibrosis was a strong univariable predictor of SCD risk. However, this effect was not maintained after adjusting for LV-EF. Further work is required to elucidate the interrelationship between fibrosis and traditional predictors of outcome in HCM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Systemic right ventricular fibrosis detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is associated with clinical outcome, mainly new-onset atrial arrhythmia, in patients after atrial redirection surgery for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydman, Riikka; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Ho, Siew Yen; Ernst, Sabine; Swan, Lorna; Li, Wei; Wong, Tom; Sheppard, Mary; McCarthy, Karen P; Roughton, Michael; Kilner, Philip J; Pennell, Dudley J; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts outcomes in patients with transposition of the great arteries post atrial redirection surgery. These patients have a systemic right ventricle (RV) and are at risk of arrhythmia, premature RV failure, and sudden death. Fifty-five patients (aged 27±7 years) underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance and were followed for a median 7.8 (interquartile range, 3.8-9.6) years in a prospective single-center cohort study. RV LGE was present in 31 (56%) patients. The prespecified composite clinical end point comprised new-onset sustained tachyarrhythmia (atrial/ventricular) or decompensated heart failure admission/transplantation/death. Univariate predictors of the composite end point (n=22 patients; 19 atrial/2 ventricular tachyarrhythmia, 1 death) included RV LGE presence and extent, RV volumes/mass/ejection fraction, right atrial area, peak Vo(2), and age at repair. In bivariate analysis, RV LGE presence was independently associated with the composite end point (hazard ratio, 4.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.60-15.28]; P=0.005), and only percent predicted peak Vo(2) remained significantly associated with cardiac events after controlling for RV LGE (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95]; P=0.009/5%). In 8 of 9 patients with >1 event, atrial tachyarrhythmia, itself a known risk factor for mortality, occurred first. There was agreement between location and extent of RV LGE at in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance and histologically documented focal RV fibrosis in an explanted heart. There was RV LGE progression in a different case restudied for clinical indications. Systemic RV LGE is strongly associated with adverse clinical outcome especially arrhythmia in transposition of the great arteries, thus LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance should be incorporated in risk stratification of these patients. © 2015 American Heart

  11. NMR techniques in the study of cardiovascular structure and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Haselgrove, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter titles of this book are: Introduction to NMR Techniques;Theory of NMR Probe Design;Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Study the Cardiovascular System;Vascular Anatomy and Physiology Studied with NMR Techniques;Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging;The Use of MRI in Congenital Heart Disease;Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis Studied with NMR Techniques;Determination of Myocardial Mechanical Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques;Determination of Flow Using NMR Techniques;The Use of Contrast Agents in Cardiac MRI;Can Cardiovascular Disease Be Effectively Evaluated with NMR Spectroscopy? NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis Reactions in the Isolated Heart;Studies of Intermediary Metabolism in the Heart by 13C NMR Spectroscopy;23Na and 39K NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Intact Beating Heart;and Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Using Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  12. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. Copyright © 2011 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  14. Identification and assessment of Anderson-Fabry disease by cardiovascular magnetic resonance noncontrast myocardial T1 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Daniel M; White, Steven K; Piechnik, Stefan K; Banypersad, Sanjay M; Treibel, Thomas; Captur, Gabriella; Fontana, Marianna; Maestrini, Viviana; Flett, Andrew S; Robson, Matthew D; Lachmann, Robin H; Murphy, Elaine; Mehta, Atul; Hughes, Derralynn; Neubauer, Stefan; Elliott, Perry M; Moon, James C

    2013-05-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is a rare but underdiagnosed intracellular lipid disorder that can cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Lipid is known to shorten the magnetic resonance imaging parameter T1. We hypothesized that noncontrast T1 mapping by cardiovascular magnetic resonance would provide a novel and useful measure in this disease with potential to detect early cardiac involvement and distinguish AFD LVH from other causes. Two hundred twenty-seven subjects were studied: patients with AFD (n=44; 55% with LVH), healthy volunteers (n=67; 0% with LVH), patients with hypertension (n=41; 24% with LVH), patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=34; 100% with LVH), those with severe aortic stenosis (n=21; 81% with LVH), and patients with definite amyloid light-chain (AL) cardiac amyloidosis (n=20; 100% with LVH). T1 mapping was performed using the shortened modified Look-Locker inversion sequence on a 1.5-T magnet before gadolinium administration with primary results derived from the basal and midseptum. Compared with health volunteers, septal T1 was lower in AFD and higher in other diseases (AFD versus healthy volunteers versus other patients, 882±47, 968±32, 1018±74 milliseconds; Pgadolinium enhancement (1001±82 versus 891±38 milliseconds; P<0.0001). Noncontrast T1 mapping shows potential as a unique and powerful measurement in the imaging assessment of LVH and AFD.

  15. Two-way effect modifications of air pollution and air temperature on total natural and cardiovascular mortality in eight European urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wolf, Kathrin; Breitner, Susanne; Gasparrini, Antonio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bero-Bedada, Getahun; Bellander, Tom; Hennig, Frauke; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Pekkanen, Juha; Hampel, Regina; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2018-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), and ozone with daily total natural and cardiovascular mortality were modified by air temperature and whether air pollution levels affected the temperature-mortality associations in eight European urban areas during 1999-2013. We first analyzed air temperature-stratified associations between air pollution and total natural (nonaccidental) and cardiovascular mortality as well as air pollution-stratified temperature-mortality associations using city-specific over-dispersed Poisson additive models with a distributed lag nonlinear temperature term in each city. All models were adjusted for long-term and seasonal trend, day of the week, influenza epidemics, and population dynamics due to summer vacation and holidays. City-specific effect estimates were then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled associations between air pollutants and total and cardiovascular mortality were overall positive and generally stronger at high relatively compared to low air temperatures. For example, on days with high air temperatures (>75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm 3 in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. Our findings showed that

  16. Blood pressure monitoring: theory and practice. European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability Teaching Course Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Palatini, Paolo; Asmar, Roland; Bilo, Grzegorz; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Head, Geoff; Kario, Kazuomi; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Wang, Jiguang; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin; Parati, Gianfranco

    2018-02-01

    The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability organized a Teaching Course on 'Blood Pressure Monitoring: Theory and Practice' during the 2017 ESH Meeting in Milan, Italy. This course performed by 11 international BP monitoring experts covered key topics of BP monitoring, including office BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, home BP monitoring, ambulatory versus home BP, white-coat and masked hypertension, cuff use, and BP variability. This article presents a summary of the proceedings of the ESH BP Monitoring Teaching Course, including essential information, practical issues, and recommendations on the clinical application of BP monitoring methods, aiming to the optimal management of patients with suspected or diagnosed hypertension.

  17. Hypertensive heart disease versus hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance discriminators when end-diastolic wall thickness ≥ 15 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan C.L. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, NIHR Bristol Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Department, Bristol Heart Institute (United Kingdom); University of Bristol, School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (United Kingdom); Rohan, Stephen [University of Bristol, Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (United Kingdom); Ghosh Dastidar, Amardeep; Harries, Iwan; Lawton, Christopher B. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, NIHR Bristol Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Department, Bristol Heart Institute (United Kingdom); Ratcliffe, Laura E.; Burchell, Amy E.; Nightingale, Angus K. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, CardioNomics Research Group, Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, Bristol Heart Institute (United Kingdom); Hart, Emma C.; Paton, Julian F.R. [University of Bristol, School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, CardioNomics Research Group, Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, Bristol Heart Institute (United Kingdom); Hamilton, Mark C.K. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom); Manghat, Nathan E. [University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, NIHR Bristol Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Department, Bristol Heart Institute (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Bristol Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    European guidelines state left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) ≥15 mm suggests hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but distinguishing from hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is challenging. We identify cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of HHD over HCM when EDWT ≥15 mm. 2481 consecutive clinical CMRs between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. 464 segments from 29 HCM subjects with EDWT ≥15 mm but without other cardiac abnormality, hypertension or renal impairment were analyzed. 432 segments from 27 HHD subjects with EDWT ≥15 mm but without concomitant cardiac pathology were analyzed. Magnitude and location of maximal EDWT, presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV asymmetry (>1.5-fold opposing segment) and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) were measured. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Significance was defined as p<0.05. HHD and HCM cohorts were age-/gender-matched. HHD had significantly increased indexed LV mass (110±27 g/m{sup 2} vs. 91±31 g/m{sup 2}, p=0.016) but no difference in site or magnitude of maximal EDWT. Mid-wall LGE was significantly more prevalent in HCM. Elevated indexed LVM, mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM were significant multivariate predictors of HHD, but LV asymmetry was not. Increased indexed LV mass, absence of mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM are better CMR discriminators of HHD from HCM than EDWT ≥15 mm. circle Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often diagnosed with end-diastolic wall thickness ≥15 mm. (orig.)

  18. Hypertensive heart disease versus hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance discriminators when end-diastolic wall thickness ≥ 15 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan C.L.; Rohan, Stephen; Ghosh Dastidar, Amardeep; Harries, Iwan; Lawton, Christopher B.; Ratcliffe, Laura E.; Burchell, Amy E.; Nightingale, Angus K.; Hart, Emma C.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Hamilton, Mark C.K.; Manghat, Nathan E.

    2017-01-01

    European guidelines state left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) ≥15 mm suggests hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but distinguishing from hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is challenging. We identify cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of HHD over HCM when EDWT ≥15 mm. 2481 consecutive clinical CMRs between 2014 and 2015 were reviewed. 464 segments from 29 HCM subjects with EDWT ≥15 mm but without other cardiac abnormality, hypertension or renal impairment were analyzed. 432 segments from 27 HHD subjects with EDWT ≥15 mm but without concomitant cardiac pathology were analyzed. Magnitude and location of maximal EDWT, presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV asymmetry (>1.5-fold opposing segment) and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) were measured. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Significance was defined as p<0.05. HHD and HCM cohorts were age-/gender-matched. HHD had significantly increased indexed LV mass (110±27 g/m"2 vs. 91±31 g/m"2, p=0.016) but no difference in site or magnitude of maximal EDWT. Mid-wall LGE was significantly more prevalent in HCM. Elevated indexed LVM, mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM were significant multivariate predictors of HHD, but LV asymmetry was not. Increased indexed LV mass, absence of mid-wall LGE and absence of SAM are better CMR discriminators of HHD from HCM than EDWT ≥15 mm. circle Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often diagnosed with end-diastolic wall thickness ≥15 mm. (orig.)

  19. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  20. Out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility and environmental magnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18 (2016), EGU2016-6808 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetic susceptibility * environmental magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2016/EGU2016-6808.pdf

  1. Cardiovascular risk estimation by professionally active cardiovascular nurses: results from the Basel 2005 Nurses Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte op Reimer, Wilma J M; Moons, Philip; De Geest, Sabina; Fridlund, Bengt; Heikkilä, Johanna; Jaarsma, Tiny; Lenzen, Mattie; Martensson, Jan; Norekvål, Tone M; Smith, Karen; Stewart, Simon; Strömberg, Anna; Thompson, David R

    2006-12-01

    Nurses play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and one would, therefore, expect them to have a heightened awareness of the need for systematic screening and their own CVD risk profile. The aim of this study was to examine personal awareness of CVD risk among a cohort of cardiovascular nurses attending a European conference. Of the 340 delegates attending the 5th annual Spring Meeting on Cardiovascular Nursing (Basel, Switzerland, 2005), 287 (83%) completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their own risk factors for CVD. Delegates were also asked to give an estimation of their absolute total risk of experiencing a fatal CVD event in the next 10 years. Level of agreement between self-reported CVD risk estimation and their actual risk according to the SCORE risk assessment system was compared by calculating weighted Kappa (kappa(w)). Overall, 109 responders (38%) self-reported having either pre-existing CVD (only 2%), one or more markedly raised CVD risk factors, a high total risk of fatal CVD (> or =5% in 10 years) or a strong family history of CVD. About half of this cohort (53%) did not know their own total cholesterol level. Less than half (45%) reported having a 10-year risk of fatal CVD of or =5%. Based on the SCORE risk function, the estimated 10-year risk of a fatal CVD event was or =5% risk of such an event. Overall, less than half (46%) of this cohort's self-reported CVD risk corresponded with that calculated using the SCORE risk function (kappa(w)=0.27). Most cardiovascular nurses attending a European conference in 2005 poorly understood their own CVD risk profile, and the agreement between their self-reported 10-year risk of a fatal CVD and their CVD risk using SCORE was only fair. Given the specialist nature of this conference, our findings clearly demonstrate a need to improve overall nursing awareness of the role and importance of systematic CVD risk assessment.

  2. Review of Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    There were 90 articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (JCMR) in 2012, which is an 8% increase in the number of articles since 2011. The quality of the submissions continues to increase. The editors are delighted to report that the 2011 JCMR Impact Factor (which is published in June 2012) has risen to 4.44, up from 3.72 for 2010 (as published in June 2011), a 20% increase. The 2011 impact factor means that the JCMR papers that were published in 2009 and 2010 were cited on average 4.44 times in 2011. The impact factor undergoes natural variation according to citation rates of papers in the 2 years following publication, and is significantly influenced by highly cited papers such as official reports. However, the progress of the journal's impact over the last 5 years has been impressive. Our acceptance rate is approximately 25%, and has been falling as the number of articles being submitted has been increasing. In accordance with Open-Access publishing, the JCMR articles go on-line as they are accepted with no collating of the articles into sections or special thematic issues. For this reason, the Editors have felt that it is useful once per calendar year to summarize the papers for the readership into broad areas of interest or theme, so that areas of interest can be reviewed in a single article in relation to each other and other recent JCMR articles. The papers are presented in broad themes and set in context with related literature and previously published JCMR papers to guide continuity of thought in the journal. We hope that you find the open-access system increases wider reading and citation of your papers, and that you will continue to send your quality manuscripts to JCMR for publication. PMID:24006874

  3. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asians : effects of dietary interventions on metabolism and cardiovascular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Leontine Erica Henriëtte

    2015-01-01

    People of South Asian origin have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people of Western European descent. Not only is the prevalence of these diseases higher in South Asians, they also occur at a younger age and lower BMI, and have a

  4. NMR imaging of the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canby, R.C.; Evanochko, W.T.; Pohost, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging permits high-resolution tomographic and three-dimensional images of the human body to be obtained without exposure to ionizing radiation. Such imaging not only yields anatomic resolution comparable to X-ray examinations but also provides a potential means to discriminate between healthy tissue and diseased tissue. This potential is based on certain NMR properties known as relaxation times, which determine, in part, the signal intensity in an image. These properties are related to such factors as the sizes and concentrations of proteins and mobile lipids and the compartmentalization of the protons of water. Although NMR imaging (also called magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) is becoming widely available for clinical use, application to the cardiovascular system, though promising, remains primarily a research tool. Gated proton NMR imaging can generate cardiac images with excellent morphologic detail and contrast; however, its ultimate importance as a cardiovascular diagnostic modality will depend on the development of several unique applications. These applications are discussed in this paper

  5. Velocity encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance to assess left atrial appendage emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muellerleile Kai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of impaired left atrial appendage (LAA function identifies patients who are prone to thrombus formation in the LAA and therefore being at high risk for subsequent cardioembolic stroke. LAA function is typically assessed by measurements of LAA emptying velocities using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE in clinical routine. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of assessing LAA emptying by velocity encoded (VENC cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods This study included 30 patients with sinus rhythm (n = 18 or atrial fibrillation (n = 12. VENC-CMR velocity measurements were performed perpendicular to the orifice of the LAA. Peak velocities were measured of passive diastolic LAA emptying (e-wave in all patients. Peak velocities of active, late-diastolic LAA emptying (a-wave were assessed in patients with sinus rhythm. Correlation and agreement was analyzed between VENC-CMR and TEE measurements of e- and a-wave peak velocities. Results A significant correlation and good agreement was found between VENC-CMR and TEE measurements of maximal e-wave velocities (r = 0.61, P  Conclusions The assessment of active and passive LAA emptying by VENC-CMR is feasible. Further evaluation is required of potential future clinical applications such as risk stratification for cardioembolic stroke.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM 10 ), fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m 3 increase in long-term exposure to PM 2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM 2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-06

    Mar 6, 2011 ... Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a routine diagnostic technique. BRUCE s sPOTTiswOOdE, PhD. MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, University of Cape Town, and Division of Radiology, Stellenbosch University. Bruce Spottiswoode ...

  8. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death: 2017 update from the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Cristina; Aguilera, Beatriz; Banner, Jytte; Cohle, Stephan; d'Amati, Giulia; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; di Gioia, Cira; Fabre, Aurelie; Gallagher, Patrick J; Leone, Ornella; Lucena, Joaquin; Mitrofanova, Lubov; Molina, Pilar; Parsons, Sarah; Rizzo, Stefania; Sheppard, Mary N; Mier, Maria Paz Suárez; Kim Suvarna, S; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard; Vink, Aryan; Michaud, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Although sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the most important modes of death in Western countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed and the accurate diagnosis of the causes of SCD is now of particular importance. Pathologists are responsible for determining the precise cause and mechanism of sudden death but there is still considerable variation in the way in which they approach this increasingly complex task. The Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology has developed these guidelines, which represent the minimum standard that is required in the routine autopsy practice for the adequate investigation of SCD. The present version is an update of our original article, published 10 years ago. This is necessary because of our increased understanding of the genetics of cardiovascular diseases, the availability of new diagnostic methods, and the experience we have gained from the routine use of the original guidelines. The updated guidelines include a detailed protocol for the examination of the heart and recommendations for the selection of histological blocks and appropriate material for toxicology, microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular investigation. Our recommendations apply to university medical centers, regionals hospitals, and all healthcare professionals practicing pathology and forensic medicine. We believe that their adoption throughout Europe will improve the standards of autopsy practice, allow meaningful comparisons between different communities and regions, and permit the identification of emerging patterns of diseases causing SCD. Finally, we recommend the development of regional multidisciplinary networks of cardiologists, geneticists, and pathologists. Their role will be to facilitate the identification of index cases with a genetic basis, to screen appropriate family members, and ensure that

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, Mieke M.P. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN) - Netherlands Heart Institute, PO Box 19258, Utrecht (Netherlands); Breur, Johannes M.P.J. [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Oorschot, Joep W.M. van; Leiner, Tim [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kimmenade, Roland R.J. van; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijboom, Folkert J. [University of Utrecht, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, PO Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in cardiac surgery, survival of patients with congenital heart disease has increased considerably during the past decades. Many of these patients require repeated cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess cardiac anatomy and function. In the past decade, technological advances have enabled faster and more robust cardiovascular magnetic resonance with improved image quality and spatial as well as temporal resolution. This review aims to provide an overview of advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance hardware and acquisition techniques relevant to both pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease and discusses the techniques used to assess function, anatomy, flow and tissue characterization. (orig.)

  11. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozan Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Methods Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. Results We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  12. Trends in cardiovascular diseases in Bosnia and Herzegovina and perspectives with heartscore programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Dilic, Mirza; Raljevic, Enver; Vulic, Dusko; Mott, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the major cause of death, morbidity, mortality and loss of quality of life in European countries and worldwide. In Bosnia and Herzegovina we have burden of cardiovascular diseases with higher rate of morbidity and mortality than in the countries of EU zone or broader Europe. The cause of mortality is in close relation to multiple risk factors but also with specific conditions in our country; post war situation, transition and overall economic position. The main mission of European Society of Cardiology is to improve quality of life in the European population by reducing the impact of cardiovascular diseases. HeartScore web based program and PS Standalone program are introduce to assesses the overall risk of cardiovascular death for a period of 10 years, based on variables such as age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels in the blood, or total cholesterol/HDL ratio. Standalone PS HeartScore is practical to use, requires no permanent internet connection, the system offers its own database for each patient and the print version of the guidelines to reduce risk factors, based on evidence based medicine Program is tailored to patients, the system provides a graphical representation of the absolute risk of CVD, a version for our country is developed on the principle of high-risk populations and is available in the languages of the peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Program is available for all types of medical practice which is equipped with computers, the laptop, and suitable for community nursing service as well.

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and infiltrative cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Schofield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common inherited cardiac disease. Cardiac imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management, with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR an important modality. CMR provides a number of different techniques in one examination: structure and function, flow imaging and tissue characterisation particularly with the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE technique. Other techniques include vasodilator perfusion, mapping (especially T1 mapping and extracellular volume quantification [ECV] and diffusion-weighted imaging with its potential to detect disarray. Clinically, the uses of CMR are diverse. The imaging must be considered within the context of work-up, particularly the personal and family history, Electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiogram findings. Subtle markers of possible HCM can be identified in genotype positive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH-negative subjects. CMR has particular advantages for assessment of the left ventricle (LV apex and is able to detect both missed LVH (apical and basal antero-septum, when the echocardiography is normal but the ECG abnormal. CMR is important in distinguishing HCM from both common phenocopies (hypertensive heart disease, athletic adaptation, ageing related changes and rarer pheno and/or genocopies such as Fabry disease and amyloidosis. For these, in particular the LGE technique and T1 mapping are very useful with a low T1 in Fabry’s, and high T1 and very high ECV in amyloidosis. Moreover, the tissue characterisation that is possible using CMR offers a potential role in patient risk stratification, as scar is a very strong predictor of future heart failure. Scar may also play a role in the prediction of sudden death. CMR is helpful in follow-up assessment, especially after septal alcohol ablation and myomectomy.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were related to each of the thirteen individual words: artery, cardiovascular, heart, myocyte, vasorelaxant, vessel, hypotension, hypotensive, cardiomyocyte, ventricular, vasodilatory, aorta, and aortic. The research utilized 22 articles published mainly in the journals Phytomedicine, Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, Planta Medica, Life Science, European Journal of Pharmacology, and Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Of the 33 monoterpenes studied surveyed, sixteen of them had already been studied for their effects on the cardiovascular system: carvacrol, citronellol, p-cymene, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-pinene, rotundifolone (piperitenone oxide, sobrerol, thymol, α-limonene, α-terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and perillyl alcohol. The main effects observed were vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate and blood pressure. This review showed that the monoterpenes may be considered promising agents for prevention or treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  15. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were related to each of the thirteen individual words: artery, cardiovascular, heart, myocyte, vasorelaxant, vessel, hypotension, hypotensive, cardiomyocyte, ventricular, vasodilatory, aorta, and aortic. The research utilized 22 articles published mainly in the journals Phytomedicine, Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, Planta Medica, Life Science, European Journal of Pharmacology, and Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Of the 33 monoterpenes studied surveyed, sixteen of them had already been studied for their effects on the cardiovascular system: carvacrol, citronellol, p-cymene, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-pinene, rotundifolone (piperitenone oxide, sobrerol, thymol, α-limonene, α-terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and perillyl alcohol. The main effects observed were vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate and blood pressure. This review showed that the monoterpenes may be considered promising agents for prevention or treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  16. Prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary care patients at moderate-very high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Nuria; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Cabré, Anna; Ruiz, Emilio; Masana, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aim to determine atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence in primary care patients at moderate-very high cardiovascular risk and its associated cardiovascular risk perception in Spain. This cross-sectional study included 1137 primary care patients. Patients had previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, SCORE risk ≥ 3, severe hypertension or dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL [males], <50 mg/dL [females]) and elevated triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL). A visual analog scale was used to define a perceived cardiovascular disease risk score. Mean age was 63.9 ± 9.7 years (64.6% males). The mean BMI was 29.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), and mean waist circumference 104.2 ± 12.7 cm (males), and 97.2 ± 14.0 cm (females). 29.4% were smokers, 76.4% had hypertension, 48.0% were diabetics, 24.7% had previous myocardial infarction, and 17.8% peripheral arterial disease. European guidelines classified 83.6% at very high cardiovascular risk. Recommended HDL-C levels were achieved by 50.1% of patients and 37.3% had triglycerides in the reference range. Target LDL-C was achieved by 8.8%. The overall atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence was 27.1% (34.1% in diabetics). This prevalence in patients achieving target LDL-C was 21.4%. Cardiovascular risk perceived by patients was 4.3/10, while primary care physicians scored 5.7/10. When LDL-C levels are controlled, atherogenic dyslipidemia is more prevalent in those patients at highest cardiovascular risk and with diabetes. This highlights the importance of intervention strategies to prevent the residual vascular risk in this population. Both patients and physicians underestimated cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  18. Methodological issues in cardiovascular epidemiology: the risk of determining absolute risk through statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Vassilis StavrinosOffice of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Department of Dietetics, Nutrition, Harokopio University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: During the past years there has been increasing interest in the development of cardiovascular disease functions that predict future events at individual level. However, this effort has not been so far very successful, since several investigators have reported large differences in the estimation of the absolute risk among different populations. For example, it seems that predictive models that have been derived from US or north European populations  overestimate the incidence of cardiovascular events in south European and Japanese populations. A potential explanation could be attributed to several factors such as geographical, cultural, social, behavioral, as well as genetic variations between the investigated populations in addition to various methodological, statistical, issues relating to the estimation of these predictive models. Based on current literature it can be concluded that, while risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is a useful tool and might be valuable in controlling the burden of the disease in a population, further work is required to improve the accuracy of the present predictive models.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk, models

  19. Detection of hydroxyapatite in calcified cardiovascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Sam; Morrisett, Joel D; Tung, Ching-Hsuan

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method for selective detection of the calcific (hydroxyapatite) component in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues ex vivo. This method uses a novel optical molecular imaging contrast dye, Cy-HABP-19, to target calcified cells and tissues. A peptide that mimics the binding affinity of osteocalcin was used to label hydroxyapatite in vitro and ex vivo. Morphological changes in vascular smooth muscle cells were evaluated at an early stage of the mineralization process induced by extrinsic stimuli, osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension cell culture. Hydroxyapatite components were detected in monolayers of these cells in the presence of osteogenic factors and a magnetic suspension environment. Atherosclerotic plaque contains multiple components including lipidic, fibrotic, thrombotic, and calcific materials. Using optical imaging and the Cy-HABP-19 molecular imaging probe, we demonstrated that hydroxyapatite components could be selectively distinguished from various calcium salts in human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro and in calcified cardiovascular tissues, carotid endarterectomy samples and aortic valves, ex vivo. Hydroxyapatite deposits in cardiovascular tissues were selectively detected in the early stage of the calcification process using our Cy-HABP-19 probe. This new probe makes it possible to study the earliest events associated with vascular hydroxyapatite deposition at the cellular and molecular levels. This target-selective molecular imaging probe approach holds high potential for revealing early pathophysiological changes, leading to progression, regression, or stabilization of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  1. Healthy lifestyle interventions to combat noncommunicable disease-a novel nonhierarchical connectivity model for key stakeholders: a policy statement from the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Cherie Franklin, Nina; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter; Arena, Ross; Berra, Kathy; Dengel, Donald; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Hivert, Marie-France; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Myers, Jonathan; Whitsel, Laurie; Williams, Mark; Corra, Ugo; Cosentino, Francesco; Dendale, Paul; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Gielen, Stephan; Guazzi, Marco; Halle, Martin; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Piepoli, Massimo F; Pinto, Fausto J; Guthrie, George; Lianov, Liana; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-14

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and the European Society of Cardiology. This article is being published concurrently in Mayo Clinic Proceedings [1]. The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. Either citation can be used when

  2. Formalized Interconnected Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Those for Management of Diabetes, Dyslipidemia and Hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvárová, Jana

    24 Suppl. 4, - (2006), s. 172-172 ISSN 0263-6352. [European Meeting on Hypertension /16./. 12.06.2006-15.06.2006, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : computer presentation * interconnected medical guidelines * cardiovascular prevention Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy mimics: role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly used in patients with suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) based on ECG, echocardiogram and Holter. However, various diseases may present with clinical characteristics resembling ARVC causing diagnostic dilemmas. The aim of this study was to explore the role of CMR in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected ARVC. Methods 657 CMR referrals suspicious for ARVC in a single tertiary referral centre were analysed. Standardized CMR imaging protocols for ARVC were performed. Potential ARVC mimics were grouped into: 1) displacement of the heart, 2) right ventricular overload, and 3) non ARVC-like cardiac scarring. For each, a judgment of clinical impact was made. Results Twenty patients (3.0%) fulfilled imaging ARVC criteria. Thirty (4.6%) had a potential ARVC mimic, of which 25 (3.8%) were considered clinically important: cardiac displacement (n=17), RV overload (n=7) and non-ARVC like myocardial scarring (n=4). One patient had two mimics; one patient had dual pathology with important mimic and ARVC. RV overload and scarring conditions were always thought clinically important whilst the importance of cardiac displacement depended on the degree of displacement from severe (partial absence of pericardium) to epiphenomenon (minor kyphoscoliosis). Conclusions Some patients referred for CMR with suspected ARVC fulfil ARVC imaging criteria (3%) but more have otherwise unrecognised diseases (4.6%) mimicking potentially ARVC. Clinical assessment should reflect this, emphasising the assessment and/or exclusion of potential mimics in parallel with the detection of ARVC major and minor criteria. PMID:23398958

  4. Exploratory use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in liver transplantation: a one-stop shop for preoperative cardiohepatic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sahadev T; Thai, Ngoc L; Fakhri, Asghar A; Oliva, Jose; Tom, Kusum B; Dishart, Michael K; Doyle, Mark; Yamrozik, June A; Williams, Ronald B; Grant, Saundra B; Poydence, Jacqueline; Shah, Moneal; Singh, Anil; Nathan, Swami; Biederman, Robert W W

    2013-11-15

    Preoperative cardiovascular risk stratification in orthotopic liver transplantation candidates has proven challenging due to limitations of current noninvasive modalities. Additionally, the preoperative workup is logistically cumbersome and expensive given the need for separate cardiac, vascular, and abdominal imaging. We evaluated the feasibility of a "one-stop shop" in a magnetic resonance suite, performing assessment of cardiac structure, function, and viability, along with simultaneous evaluation of thoracoabdominal vasculature and liver anatomy. In this pilot study, patients underwent steady-state free precession sequences and stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), thoracoabdominal magnetic resonance angiography, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a standard MRI scanner. Pharmacologic stress was performed using regadenoson, adenosine, or dobutamine. Viability was assessed using late gadolinium enhancement. Over 2 years, 51 of 77 liver transplant candidates (mean age, 56 years; 35% female; mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, 10.8; range, 6-40) underwent MRI. All referred patients completed standard dynamic CMR, 98% completed stress CMR, 82% completed late gadolinium enhancement for viability, 94% completed liver MRI, and 88% completed magnetic resonance angiography. The mean duration of the entire study was 72 min, and 45 patients were able to complete the entire examination. Among all 51 patients, 4 required follow-up coronary angiography (3 for evidence of ischemia on perfusion CMR and 1 for postoperative ischemia), and none had flow-limiting coronary disease. Nine proceeded to orthotopic liver transplantation (mean 74 days to transplantation after MRI). There were six ascertained mortalities in the nontransplant group and one death in the transplanted group. Explant pathology confirmed 100% detection/exclusion of hepatocellular carcinoma. No complications during CMR examination were encountered. In this proof-of-concept study, it

  5. The polypill in cardiovascular prevention: evidence, limitations and perspective - position paper of the European Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Antonio; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Cifkova, Renata; Manolis, Athanasios J; Redón, Josep; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    : Antihypertensive, lipid lowering, antidiabetic and antiplatelet treatments all substantially reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbid and fatal events. In real life, however, effective implementation of these treatments is rare, and thus their contribution to cardiovascular prevention is much less than it could be, based on research data. This article reviews the pros and cons of cardiovascular prevention by the polypill approach. It is argued that the high prevalence of individuals with a multifactorial risk profile provides a strong rationale for a therapeutic strategy based on the combination in a single tablet of drugs against different risk factors. It is further argued that other important favourable arguments exist. First, in real-life adherence to all above treatments is very low, leading to a major increase in the incidence and risk of cardiovascular outcomes. Second, although a large number of factors are involved, adherence is adversely affected by the complexity of the prescribed treatment regimen and can be considerably improved by treatment simplification. Third, recent studies in patients with a history of manifest cardiovascular disease have documented that different cardiovascular drugs can be combined in a single tablet with no loss of their individual efficacy or unexpected inconveniences and this does favour adherence to treatment and multiple risk factor control, supporting use of the polypill in secondary cardiovascular prevention. It is finally also mentioned, however, that the polypill may have some drawbacks and that at present no evidence is available that this approach reduces cardiovascular outcome to a greater degree than standard treatment strategies. Trials are under way to provide an answer to this question and thus allow the therapeutic value of this approach to be known.

  6. Dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance for the detection of myocardial ischemia with the use of myocardial tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Ho, Kai Yiu J A M; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of high-dose dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with myocardial tagging for the detection of wall motion abnormalities as a measure of myocardial ischemia in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Two hundred eleven consecutive patients with chest pain underwent dobutamine-CMR 4 days after antianginal medication was stopped. Dobutamine-CMR was performed at rest and during increasing doses of dobutamine. Cine-images were acquired during breath-hold with and without myocardial tagging at 3 short-axis levels. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment short-axis model. Patients with new wall motion abnormalities (NWMA) were examined by coronary angiography. Dobutamine-CMR was successfully performed in 194 patients. Dobutamine-CMR without tagging detected NWMA in 58 patients, whereas NWMA were detected in 68 patients with tagging (P=0.002, McNemar). Coronary angiography showed coronary artery disease in 65 (96%) of these 68 patients. All but 3 of the 65 patients needed revascularization. In the 112 patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study, without baseline wall motion abnormalities, the cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 98.2% during the mean follow-up period of 17.3 months (range, 7 to 31). Dobutamine-CMR with myocardial tagging detected more NWMA compared with dobutamine-CMR without tagging and reliably separated patients with a normal life expectancy from those at increased risk of major adverse cardiac events.

  7. Design of the new magnetic sensors for Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccorese, V.; Albanese, R.; Altmann, H.; Cramp, S.; Edlington, T.; Fullard, K.; Gerasimov, S.; Huntley, S.; Lam, N.; Loving, A.; Riccardo, V.; Sartori, F.; Marren, C.; McCarron, E.; Sowden, C.; Tidmarsh, J.; Basso, F.; Cenedese, A.; Chitarin, G.; DegliAgostini, F.

    2004-01-01

    A new magnetic diagnostics system has been designed for the 2005 Joint European Torus (JET) experimental campaigns onward. The new system, which adds to the existing sensors, aims to improve the JET safety, reliability, and performance, with respect to: (i) equilibrium reconstruction; (ii) plasma shape control; (iii) coil failures; (iv) VDEs; (v) iron modeling; and (vi) magnetohydrodynamics poloidal mode analysis. The system consists of in-vessel and ex-vessel sensors. The former are a set of 38 coil pairs (normal and tangential), located as near as possible to the plasma. Coils are generally grouped in rails, in order to ease remote handling in-vessel installation. The system includes: (i) two outer poloidal limiter arrays (2x7 coil pairs); (ii) two divertor region arrays (2x7 coil pairs); and (iii) two top coil arrays (2x5 coil pairs). Ex-vessel sensors, including discrete coils, Hall probes, and flux loops (26 in total) will be installed on the iron limbs, in order to provide experimental data for the treatment of iron in equilibrium codes. The design is accompanied by a software analysis, aiming to predict the expected improvement

  8. Impact of early, late, and no ST-segment resolution measured by continuous ST Holter monitoring on left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size as determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeck, Joost D. E.; Verouden, Niels J. W.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Koch, Karel T.; Majidi, Mohamed; Hirsch, Alexander; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of ST-segment resolution (STR) early after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), late STR, and no STR for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (IS) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at

  9. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Dijkman, Paul R.M. van; Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) (P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event (P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy. (orig.)

  10. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkman, Paul R.M. van [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands); Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) (P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event (P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy. (orig.)

  11. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Janssen, Caroline H C; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) ( P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event ( P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy.

  12. Mortality from circulatory diseases by specific country of birth across six European countries: test of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhopal, Raj S.; Rafnsson, Snorri B.; Agyemang, Charles; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Giampaoli, Simona; Hammar, Niklas; Harding, Seeromanie; Hedlund, Ebba; Juel, Knud; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Primatesta, Paola; Rey, Gregoire; Rosato, Michael; Wild, Sarah; Kunst, Anton E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Important differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality by country of birth have been shown within European countries. We now focus on CVD mortality by specific country of birth across European countries. Methods: For Denmark, England and Wales, France, The Netherlands, Scotland

  13. Cardiac remodeling following percutaneous mitral valve repair - initial results assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radunski, U K; Franzen, O; Barmeyer, A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, California, USA) is a novel therapeutic option in patients with mitral regurgitation. This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiac volume measurements by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging...... (CMR) to assess reverse myocardial remodeling in patients after MitraClip implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 patients underwent CMR at baseline (BL) before and at 6 months follow-up (FU) after MitraClip implantation. Cine-CMR was performed in short- and long-axes for the assessment of left...... end-systolic (48 [42 - 80] vs. 51 [40 - 81] ml/m(2); p = 0.48), and LA (87 [55 - 124] vs. 92 [48 - 137] ml/m(2); p = 0.20) volume indices between BL and FU. CONCLUSION: CMR enables the assessment of cardiac volumes in patients after MitraClip implantation. Our CMR findings indicate that percutaneous...

  14. Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement in specific cardiomyopathies by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Caterina; Moon, James C; Elkington, Andrew G; John, Anna S; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Pennell, Dudley J

    2007-12-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can visualize myocardial interstitial abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess whether regions of abnormal myocardium can also be visualized by late enhancement gadolinium CMR in the specific cardiomyopathies. A retrospective review of all referrals for gadolinium CMR with specific cardiomyopathy over 20 months. Nine patients with different specific cardiomyopathies were identified. Late enhancement was demonstrated in all patients, with a mean signal intensity of 390 +/- 220% compared with normal regions. The distribution pattern of late enhancement was unlike the subendocardial late enhancement related to coronary territories found in myocardial infarction. The affected areas included papillary muscles (sarcoid), the mid-myocardium (Anderson-Fabry disease, glycogen storage disease, myocarditis, Becker muscular dystrophy) and the global sub-endocardium (systemic sclerosis, Loeffler's endocarditis, amyloid, Churg-Strauss). Focal myocardial late gadolinium enhancement is found in the specific cardiomyopathies, and the pattern is distinct from that seen in infarction. Further systematic studies are warranted to assess whether the pattern and extent of late enhancement may aid diagnosis and prognostic assessment.

  15. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with ischaemic heart disease: A report from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Endorsed by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Tan, Siok Swan; Bucerius, Jan; Gimelli, Alessia; Gaemperli, Oliver; Lindner, Oliver; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Sciagrà, Roberto; Slart, Riemer H; Underwood, S Richard; Hyafil, Fabien; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability. Several diagnostic tests, such as myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), are accurate for the detection of CAD, as well as having prognostic value for the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these tests should be cost-effective and should lead to improved clinical outcome. We have reviewed the literature on the cost-effectiveness of MPS in different circumstances: (i) the diagnosis and management of CAD; (ii) comparison with exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and other imaging tests; (iii) as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), (iv) the impact of appropriate use criteria; (v) acute chest pain, and (vi) screening of asymptomatic patients with type-2 diabetes. In total 57 reports were included. Although most non-invasive imaging tests are cost-effective compared with alternatives, the data conflict on which non-invasive strategy is the most cost-effective. Different definitions of cost-effectiveness further confound the subject. Computer simulations of clinical diagnosis and management are influenced by the assumptions made. For instance, diagnostic accuracy is often defined against an anatomical standard that is wrongly assumed to be perfect. Conflicting data arise most commonly from these incorrect or differing assumptions. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Executive summary of the joint position paper on renal denervation of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe and the European Society of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jonathan G; Belli, Anna-Maria; Coca, Antonio; Lee, Michael; Mancia, Giuseppe; Peregrin, Jan H; Redon, Josep; Reekers, Jim A; Tsioufis, Costas; Vorwerk, Dierk; Schmieder, Roland E

    2016-12-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) was reported as a novel exciting treatment for resistant hypertension in 2009. An initial randomized trial supported its efficacy and the technique gained rapid acceptance across the globe. However, a subsequent large blinded, sham arm randomized trial conducted in the USA (to gain Food and Drug Administration approval) failed to achieve its primary efficacy end point in reducing office blood pressure at 6 months. Published in 2014 this trial received both widespread praise and criticism. RDN has effectively stopped out with clinical trials pending further evidence. This joint consensus document representing the European Society of Hypertension and the Cardiovascular and Radiological Society of Europe attempts to distill the current evidence and provide future direction and guidance.

  17. Prevalence of cardiovascular morbidities in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Ko Ko; Nwe, Nwe; Hlaing, Su Su

    2017-02-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are now in a rising trend in South East Asia including Myanmar due to increase in major cardiovascular risk factors in both urban and rural areas, such as smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to determine CVD morbidities in Myanmar for planning of prevention and control activities for CVDs. The cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2012 with 600 people aged 40 years and above in four townships (Kyauk-Tan, Mawlamyaing, Pathein and Pyay) and used face-to-face interview with standard questionnaire [Rose Angina Questionnaire and Questionnaire by European Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set (EUROCISS) Research Group] to determine the level of reported CVD morbidities in adult population. Age of the study population ranged from 40 to 99 years with the mean age of 56 years. Seventy-one percent of the study population was women. Nine percent of the study population have suffered from angina according to Rose Angina Questionnaire. Prevalence of possible heart attack, stroke and heart failure was 7.5, 1.5 and 2.8%. Prevalence of hypertension was 51%. The CVD morbidities are high. There is a need for strengthening prevention and control activities of CVDs.

  18. Multidirectional flow analysis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in aneurysm development following repair of aortic coarctation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalder Aurelien F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aneurysm formation is a life-threatening complication after operative therapy in coarctation. The identification of patients at risk for the development of such secondary pathologies is of high interest and requires a detailed understanding of the link between vascular malformation and altered hemodynamics. The routine morphometric follow-up by magnetic resonance angiography is a well-established technique. However, the intrinsic sensitivity of magnetic resonance (MR towards motion offers the possibility to additionally investigate hemodynamic consequences of morphological changes of the aorta. We demonstrate two cases of aneurysm formation 13 and 35 years after coarctation surgery based on a Waldhausen repair with a subclavian patch and a Vosschulte repair with a Dacron patch, respectively. Comprehensive flow visualization by cardiovascular MR (CMR was performed using a flow-sensitive, 3-dimensional, and 3-directional time-resolved gradient echo sequence at 3T. Subsequent analysis included the calculation of a phase contrast MR angiography and color-coded streamline and particle trace 3D visualization. Additional quantitative evaluation provided regional physiological information on blood flow and derived vessel wall parameters such as wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index. The results highlight the individual 3D blood-flow patterns associated with the different vascular pathologies following repair of aortic coarctation. In addition to known factors predisposing for aneurysm formation after surgical repair of coarctation these findings indicate the importance of flow sensitive CMR to follow up hemodynamic changes with respect to the development of vascular disease.

  19. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manka, Robert; Paetsch, Ingo; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Gebker, Rolf; Fleck, Eckart; Jahnke, Cosima

    2010-09-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years,) with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was performed in 3 short axis slices of the heart at rest and during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg/min) followed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In all 16 standard myocardial segments, T2* values were derived at rest and under adenosine stress. Quantitative coronary angiography served as the standard of reference and defined normal myocardial segments (i.e. all 16 segments in patients without any CAD), ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a coronary artery with ≥50% luminal narrowing) and non-ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a non-significantly stenosed coronary artery in patients with significant CAD). Coronary angiography demonstrated significant CAD in 23 patients. BOLD CMR at rest revealed significantly lower T2* values for ischemic segments (26.7 ± 11.6 ms) compared to normal (31.9 ± 11.9 ms; p BOLD CMR at 3Tesla proved feasible and differentiated between ischemic, non-ischemic, and normal myocardial segments in a clinical patient population. BOLD CMR during vasodilator stress identified patients with significant CAD.

  20. Cardiac Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2 Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Detection by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmacht, Luisa; Traber, Julius; Grieben, Ulrike; Utz, Wolfgang; Dieringer, Matthias A; Kellman, Peter; Blaszczyk, Edyta; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Spuler, Simone; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2016-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a genetic disorder characterized by skeletal muscle symptoms, metabolic changes, and cardiac involvement. Histopathologic alterations of the skeletal muscle include fibrosis and fatty infiltration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subclinical cardiac involvement in DM2 is already detectable in preserved left ventricular function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 54±10 years; 20 females) with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of DM2 were compared with 17 healthy age- and sex-matched controls using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. For myocardial tissue differentiation, T1 and T2 mapping, fat/water-separated imaging, focal fibrosis imaging (late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]), and (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed. Extracellular volume fraction was calculated. Conduction abnormalities were diagnosed based on Groh criteria. LGE located subepicardial basal inferolateral was detectable in 22% of the patients. Extracellular volume was increased in this region and in the adjacent medial inferolateral segment (P=0.03 compared with healthy controls). In 21% of patients with DM2, fat deposits were detectable (all women). The control group showed no abnormalities. Myocardial triglycerides were not different in LGE-positive and LGE-negative subjects (P=0.47). Six patients had indicators for conduction disease (60% of LGE-positive patients and 12.5% of LGE-negative patients). In DM2, subclinical myocardial injury was already detectable in preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Extracellular volume was also increased in regions with no focal fibrosis. Myocardial fibrosis was related to conduction abnormalities. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The importance of Pharmacovigilance for the drug safety: Focus on cardiovascular profile of incretin-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportiello, Liberata; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    With the recent introduction of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation, all new drugs must be carefully monitored after admission on the European market, in order to assess the long safety profile. Currently, special attention is given to several hypoglycemic agents with recent market approval (agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4i]), which act through the potentiation of incretin hormone signaling. Their inclusion in European additional monitoring is also due to safety problems, which seem to characterize their pharmacological class. In fact, these drugs initially showed a good tolerability profile with mainly gastrointestinal adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia and minor effects on body weight. But, new concerns such as infections, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and above all cardiovascular events (especially risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization) are now arising. In this review, we highlighted aspects of the new Pharmacovigilance European dispositions, and then we investigated the tolerability profile of incretin-based therapies, in particular DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, we focused our attention on new safety concerns, which are emerging mostly in the post-marketing period, as the cardiovascular risk profile. Evidence in literature and opinions of regulatory agencies (e.g., European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration) about risks of incretin-based therapies are yet controversial, and there are many open questions in particular on cancer and cardiovascular effects. Thus, it is important to continue to monitor closely the use of these drugs in clinical practice to improve the knowledge on their long-term safety and their place in diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is not lower in Inuit compared to Europeans: A cohort study of Greenlandic Inuit, Nunavik Inuit and Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Lucas, Michel; Laouan Sidi, Elhadji A; Tvermosegaard, Maria; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Lauritzen, Torsten; Toft, Ulla; Carstensen, Bendix; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-10-01

    Inuit populations have lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors for the same level of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) compared to Europeans in cross-sectional studies. We aimed to compare the longitudinal associations of anthropometric measures with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in Inuit and Europeans. Using pooled data from three population-based studies in Canada, Greenland and Denmark, we conducted a cohort study of 10,033 adult participants (765 Nunavik Inuit, 2960 Greenlandic Inuit and 6308 Europeans). Anthropometric measures collected at baseline included: BMI, WC, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) and a body shape index (ABSI). Information on CVD and death was retrieved from national registers or medical files. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate incidence rates for CVD and all-cause mortality. During a median follow-up of 10.5 years, there were 642 CVD events and 594 deaths. Slightly higher absolute incidence rates of CVD for a given anthropometric measure were found in Nunavik Inuit compared with Greenlandic Inuit and the Europeans; however, no cohort interactions were observed. For all-cause mortality, all anthropometric measures were positively associated in the Europeans, but only ABSI in the two Inuit populations. In contrast, BMI and WC were inversely associated with mortality in the two Inuit populations. Inuit and Europeans have different absolute incidences of CVD and all-cause mortality, but the trends in the associations with the anthropometric measures only differ for all-cause mortality. Previous findings of a lower obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk among Inuit were not confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Right Ventricular Volumes and Systolic Function by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and the Impact of Sex, Age, and Obesity in a Longitudinally Followed Cohort Free of Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Disease: The Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Murilo; Arora, Garima; Gona, Philimon; Ashrafi, Arman; Salton, Carol J; Yeon, Susan B; Blease, Susan J; Levy, Daniel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J; Chuang, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance is uniquely well suited for noninvasive imaging of the right ventricle. We sought to define normal cardiac magnetic resonance reference values and to identify the main determinants of right ventricular (RV) volumes and systolic function using a modern imaging sequence in a community-dwelling, longitudinally followed cohort free of clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. The Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort has been followed since 1971. We scanned 1794 Offspring cohort members using steady-state free precession cardiac magnetic resonance and identified a reference group of 1336 adults (64±9 years, 576 men) free of prevalent cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. RV trabeculations and papillary muscles were considered cavity volume. Men had greater RV volumes and cardiac output before and after indexation to body size (all Pheart rate account for most of the variability in RV volumes and function in this community-dwelling population. We report sex-specific normative values for RV measurements among principally middle-aged and older adults. RV ejection fraction is greater in women. RV volumes increase with body size, are greater in men, and are smaller in older people. Body surface area seems to be appropriate for indexation of cardiac magnetic resonance-derived RV volumes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Twentieth congress of the European Society of Pediatric Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    91 Abstracts of lectures are presented given at the 20th Congress of the European Society of Pediatric Radiology. The topics of the different sessions were as follows: Urinary tract, musculo-skeletal system, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skull and neuroradiology, genital tract, new modality imaging and cardiovascular system. (MG)

  5. 2017 Position Paper of the Italian Society for Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC) for an Updated Clinical Management of Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Risk: Executive Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Volpe, Roberto; Gallo, Giovanna; Presta, Vivianne; Tocci, Giuliano; Folco, Emanuela; Peracino, Andrea; Tremoli, Elena; Trimarco, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The benefits achieved by implementing cardiovascular prevention strategies in terms of reduced incidence of atherosclerotic diseases and mortality are accepted, worldwide. In particular, the clinical management of hypercholesterolemia has a fundamental role for all preventive strategies, both in primary and secondary prevention, at each stage of cardiovascular risk. Since the net clinical benefit of lipid-lowering therapy largely depends on baseline individual cardiovascular risk profile, the assessment of individual risk is essential to establish type and intensity of both preventive and therapeutic strategies. Thus, the real challenge in a setting of clinical practice is not only to identify whom to treat among individuals at low-to-moderate risk, but mostly how much and how long to treat high or very-high risk patients. This manuscript, which reflects concepts and positions that have been published in a more extensive document of the Italian Society for Cardiovascular Prevention (SIPREC), deals with the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with dyslipidaemia, with an evidence-based approach adapted and updated from recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology and very recent results of randomized clinical trials. The purpose is to suggest a multidimensional and integrated actions aimed at eliminating or minimizing the impact of cardiovascular diseases and their related disabilities and mortality in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

  6. The association of daily sulfur dioxide air pollution levels with hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Europe (The Aphea-II study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunyer, J; Ballester, F; Le Tertre, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Vonk, JM; Bisanti, L; Tenias, JM; Medina, S; Schwartz, J; Katsouyvanni, K

    The objective of this study is to assess the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution levels on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. Daily mean hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), and stroke in seven European areas (the cities

  7. Targeted drug delivery to magnetic implants for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellen, Benjamin B.; Forbes, Zachary G.; Halverson, Derek S.; Fridman, Gregory; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert; Friedman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new method for locally targeted drug delivery is proposed that employs magnetic implants placed directly in the cardiovascular system to attract injected magnetic carriers. Theoretical simulations and experimental results support the assumption that using magnetic implants in combination with externally applied magnetic field will optimize the delivery of magnetic drug to selected sites within a subject

  8. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Loke, Yoon K.; Luben, Robert N.; Yeong, Jessica K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Myint, Phyo K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency

  9. MetroBeta: Beta Spectrometry with Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters in the Framework of the European Program of Ionizing Radiation Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, M.; Beyer, J.; Bockhorn, L.; Enss, C.; Györi, D.; Kempf, S.; Kossert, K.; Mariam, R.; Nähle, O.; Paulsen, M.; Rodrigues, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2018-05-01

    MetroBeta is a European project aiming at the improvement of the knowledge of the shapes of beta spectra, both in terms of theoretical calculations and measurements. It is part of a common European program of ionizing radiation metrology. Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) with the beta emitter embedded in the absorber have in the past proven to be among the best beta spectrometers, in particular for low-energy beta transitions. Within this project, new designs of MMCs optimized for five different beta energy ranges were developed. A new detector module with thermal decoupling of MMC and SQUID chips was designed. An important aspect of the research and development concerns the source/absorber preparation techniques. Four beta spectra with maximum energies ranging from 76 to 709 keV will be measured. Improved theoretical calculation methods and complementary measurement techniques complete the project.

  10. Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson-Falk, K.; Bakker, B.; Rosenfeld, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome: utility of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson-Falk, K; Bakker, B; Rosenfeld, R G [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1992-08-01

    Forty patients with karyotypically proven Turner syndrome were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular anomalies and to assess the utility of both imaging modalities as methods for cardiovascular evaluation in Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular anomalies were found in 45% of patients. A high absolute prevalence of bicuspid aortic valve (17.5%) and aortic coarctation (12.5%) were observed relative to comparable series. Of clinically significant abnormalities, three of five aortic coarctations and four of five ascending aortic dilatations were solely MRI detected and not evident at echocardiographic examination. MRI is thus seen as a valuable adjunct to echocardiography in the cardiovascular evaluation of Turner syndrome patients. The usefulness of MRI primarily relates to its ability to provide excellent visualisation of the entire thoracic aorta where a large proportion of clinically significant anomalies occur in Turner syndrome. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. European Association of Echocardiography: Research Grant Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargani, Luna; Muraru, Denisa; Badano, Luigi P; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Sicari, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) offers a variety of grants/fellowships to help young professionals in the field of cardiological training or research activities throughout Europe. The number of grants has significantly increased in recent years with contributions from the Associations, Working Groups and Councils of the ESC. The European Association of Echocardiography (EAE) is a registered branch of the ESC and actively takes part in this initiative. One of the aims of EAE is to promote excellence in research in cardiovascular ultrasound and other imaging modalities in Europe. Therefore, since 2008, the EAE offers a Research Grant Programme to help young doctors to obtain research experience in a high standard academic centre (or similar institution oriented to clinical or pre-clinical research) in an ESC member country other than their own. This programme can be considered as a valorization of the geographical mobility as well as cultural exchanges and professional practice in the field of cardiovascular imaging. The programme has been very successful so far, therefore in 2012 the EAE has increased its offer to two grants of 25,000 euros per annum each.

  13. Postmortem cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses and children: a masked comparison study with conventional autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew M; Sebire, Neil J; Ashworth, Michael T; Schievano, Silvia; Scott, Rosemary J; Wade, Angie; Chitty, Lyn S; Robertson, Nikki; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2014-05-13

    Perinatal and pediatric autopsies have declined worldwide in the past decade. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with conventional autopsy and histopathology assessment in fetuses and children. We performed postmortem magnetic resonance imaging in 400 fetuses and children, using a 1.5-T Siemens Avanto magnetic resonance scanner before conventional autopsy. A pediatric CMR imager reported the CMR images, masked to autopsy information. The pathologists were masked to the information from CMR images. The institutional research ethics committee approved the study, and parental consent was obtained. Assuming a diagnostic accuracy of 50%, 400 cases were required for a 5% precision of estimate. Three cases were excluded from analysis, 2 with no conventional autopsy performed and 1 with insufficient CMR sequences performed. Thirty-eight CMR data sets were nondiagnostic (37 in fetuses ≤24 weeks; 1 in a fetus >24 weeks). In the remaining 359 cases, 44 cardiac abnormalities were noted at autopsy. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of CMR was 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%) for detecting any cardiac pathology, with positive and negative predictive values of 72.7% (58.2-83.7%) and 96.2% (93.5-97.8%), respectively. Higher sensitivity of 92.6% (76.6-97.9%), specificity of 99.1% (97.4-99.7%), positive predictive value of 89.3% (72.8-96.3%), and negative predictive value of 99.4% (97.8-99.8%) were seen for major structural heart disease. Postmortem CMR imaging may be a useful alternative to conventional cardiac autopsy in fetuses and children for detecting cardiac abnormalities. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01417962.

  14. [Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors in older than 65 years persons in an urban area: DERIVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Mora-Simón, Sara; Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Escribano-Hernández, Alfonso; Patino-Alonso, María C

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular risk factors, and the psychosocial characteristics associated with them in an urban population aged 65 years and older. Descriptive cross-sectional study of the population. City of Salamanca (Spain). A total of 480 participants aged 65 and older were selected using a stratified randomized sampling method. A health questionnaire was completed in the participants' homes. Weight, height, waist circumference, arterial pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol, were measured, and the standardized prevalence for a European population was estimated. A total of 327 participants were interviewed (68.10% of those selected), mean age of participants was 76 (SD: 7.33). Of the total, 64.5% were women and 20.2% (15.8-24.5) had some cardiovascular disease. In males, the most prevalent cardiovascular disease was ischemic heart disease (12.1% [6.1-18]), while in females it was heart failure (10.4% [6.3-14.6]). Hypertension was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor for males (63.8% [53.2-70.9]) and females (69.7%.[63.5-75.9]), followed by diabetes in males (36.2% [27.5-45]), and sedentary lifestyle in females (36.0% [29.5-42.5]). Those with cardiovascular diseases were more dependent and had a worse prognosis (Charlson's Comorbility Index). Ischemic heart disease is the most prevalent heart disease in males, while heart failure is the most prevalent disease for females. Almost 80% of the population aged 65 and older did not suffer any of the three cardiovascular diseases that are the main causes of mortality in this group of age. Participants who had a CVD were more dependent for activities of daily living. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity diagnostics for the quality of NLFF field extrapolations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Kostas; Archontis, Vasilis; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    We calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity of solar active regions using two independent approaches: a) a non-linear force-free (NLFF) method that requires only a single photospheric vector magnetogram, and b) well known semi-analytical formulas that require the full three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field structure. The 3D field is obtained either from MHD simulations, or from observed magnetograms via respective NLFF field extrapolations. We find qualitative agreement between the two methods and, quantitatively, a discrepancy not exceeding a factor of 4. The comparison of the two methods reveals, as a byproduct, two independent tests for the quality of a given force-free field extrapolation. We find that not all extrapolations manage to achieve the force-free condition in a valid, divergence-free, magnetic configuration. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  16. Right and Left Ventricular Function and Mass in Male Elite Master Athletes: A Controlled Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Schneider, Günther; Linneweber, Lutz; Rentzsch, Axel; Krämer, Nadine; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim; Scharhag, Jürgen

    2016-05-17

    It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Thirty-three healthy white competitive elite male master endurance athletes (age range, 30-60 years) with a training history of 29±8 years, and 33 white control subjects pair-matched for age, height, and weight underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography including tissue-Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Indexed left ventricular mass and right ventricular mass (left ventricular mass/body surface area, 96±13 and 62±10 g/m(2); Pright ventricular mass/body surface area, 36±7 and 24±5 g/m(2); Pleft ventricular end-diastolic volume and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (left ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 104±13 and 69±18 mL/m(2); Pright ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 110±22 and 66±16 mL/m(2); PRight ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between athletes and control subjects (52±8 and 54±6%; P=0.26). Pathological late enhancement was detected in 1 athlete. No correlations were found for left ventricular and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitive troponin was negative in all subjects. Based on our results, chronic right ventricular damage in elite endurance master athletes with lifelong high training volumes seems to be unlikely. Thus, the hypothesis of an exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has to be questioned. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Imaging focal and interstitial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy: implications for sporting participation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F

    2012-11-01

    Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the \\'athlete\\'s heart\\'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening.

  18. Cardiac magnetic resonance: Impact on diagnosis and management of patients with congenital cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, F., E-mail: francescosecchimd@gmail.com [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Di Leo, G. [S.C. di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Papini, G.D.E. [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Nardella, V.G. [Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy); Negura, D.; Carminati, M. [S.C. di Cardiologia Pediatrica, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, F. [S.C. di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Medico-Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Aim: To estimate the clinical impact of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with congenital cardiovascular disease (CCD). Materials and methods: Since 2003, 1.5 T CMR was used at our university hospital to evaluate morphology, cardiac kinetics, aortic and pulmonary flow, and vascular anatomy in patients with CCD. The present study considered a consecutive series of these patients from 2003 to 2006. A paediatric cardiologist judged our reports as expected or unexpected and, secondarily, as not reliable (level 0), describing findings already known (level 1), not changing therapy/suggested lifestyle (level 2), changing therapy/suggested lifestyle (level 3) or changing diagnosis (level 4). Results: CMR reports were judged to be expected in 187/214 (87%) and unexpected in 27/214 (13%). Less than 2% of CMRs were judged as levels 0 or 1, 66% as level 2, and 5% as level 4. During 2005-2006 the clinical impact improved toward higher impact levels (p < 0.001, chi-square test). Conclusions: In patients with CCD, more than one in 10 CMR reports were unexpected to cardiologists and over seven in 10 prompted a change of diagnosis or therapy.

  19. BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3.0 tesla in myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebker Rolf

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to detect stress-inducible myocardial ischemic reactions in the presence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods Forty-six patients (34 men; age 65 ± 9 years, with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent CMR at 3Tesla prior to clinically indicated invasive coronary angiography. BOLD CMR was performed in 3 short axis slices of the heart at rest and during adenosine stress (140 μg/kg/min followed by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE imaging. In all 16 standard myocardial segments, T2* values were derived at rest and under adenosine stress. Quantitative coronary angiography served as the standard of reference and defined normal myocardial segments (i.e. all 16 segments in patients without any CAD, ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a coronary artery with ≥50% luminal narrowing and non-ischemic segments (i.e. supplied by a non-significantly stenosed coronary artery in patients with significant CAD. Results Coronary angiography demonstrated significant CAD in 23 patients. BOLD CMR at rest revealed significantly lower T2* values for ischemic segments (26.7 ± 11.6 ms compared to normal (31.9 ± 11.9 ms; p Conclusions Rest and stress BOLD CMR at 3Tesla proved feasible and differentiated between ischemic, non-ischemic, and normal myocardial segments in a clinical patient population. BOLD CMR during vasodilator stress identified patients with significant CAD.

  20. Review of cardiovascular imaging in the journal of nuclear cardiology in 2015. Part 1 of 2: Plaque imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, many original articles pertaining to cardiovascular imaging with impressive quality were published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. In a set of 2 articles, we provide an overview of these contributions to facilitate for the interested reader a quick review of the advancements that occurred in the field over this year. In this first article, we focus on arterial plaque imaging, cardiac positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  1. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  2. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim El-Sayed H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1 Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM, delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE, and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM; and 2 Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, and strain encoding (SENC. Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention

  3. [Statins and ASS for primary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, L; Bodechtel, U; Siepmann, T

    2014-02-01

    Whereas statins and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) are considered gold standard for secondary prevention following myocardial infarction or atherotrombotic stroke, there are inconsistent data on the use of these drugs for primary prevention in patients with increased cardiovascular risk. Some meta-analyses indicated that the use of statins and ASA for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease can reduce the risk of cardiovascular events such as ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction. However, the effects of primary prevention with statins and ASA on mortality varied in the data included in these meta-analyses. Therefore the guidelines of the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians recommend primary prevention with statins and ASA only in those patients who have a 10-year risk of cardiovascular events which exceeds 20 %. Divergently, primary prevention with ASA is not recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. Observational studies suggested that treatment success of primary prevention with statins and ASA depends on various factors such as adherence to medication and prescription behavior of physicians. This review summarizes the current literature on primary prevention of cardiovascular events with ASA and statins. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Cardiovascular risk-benefit profile of sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2010-01-01

    (Sibutramine Cardiovascular and Diabetes Outcome Study) was designed to prospectively evaluate the efficacy/safety ratio of sibutramine in a high-risk population. The efficacy/safety results of the first 6-week lead-in open period of treatment with sibutramine 10 mg/day were reassuring in 10 742 overweight/obese high-risk subjects (97% had cardiovascular disease, 88% had hypertension, and 84% had type 2 diabetes mellitus). However, the final results of SCOUT showed that long-term (5 years') treatment with sibutramine (10-15 mg/day) exposed subjects with pre-existing cardiovascular disease to a significantly increased risk for nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke, but not cardiovascular death or all-cause mortality. Because the benefit of sibutramine as a weight-loss aid seems not to outweigh the cardiovascular risks, the European Medicines Agency recommended the suspension of marketing authorizations for sibutramine across the EU. The US FDA stated that the drug should carry a 'black box' warning due to an increased risk of stroke and heart attack in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, concern still persists about the safety profile of sibutramine regarding cardiovascular outcomes, and the drug should not be prescribed for overweight/obese patients with a high cardiovascular risk profile.

  5. Footprint and imprint: an ecologic time-trend analysis of cardiovascular publications in general and specialty journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Abigail S; Huffman, Mark D; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2014-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated strong associations between publication source and citations, as well as investigatory analysis of collaboration effects, in general and medical literature, but are limited to specific journals or short duration of time. This study sought to analyze time trends in cardiovascular research publications in leading general and specialty journals and to determine the association between collaboration and citation index. Cardiovascular publications were retrieved from Web of Knowledge by a cardiovascular bibliometric filter, and annual publication volumes in 8 general and specialty journals were compared. Univariable linear regression models were used to determine global and journal-specific trends for overall publication, cardiovascular publication, proportion of cardiovascular publication, collaboration, and citations. Cardiovascular publications increased (1999 to 2008) by 36% and number of sources by 74%. Volume increased in European Heart Journal (beta: 18.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.6 to 26.3) and decreased in Circulation (beta: -42.9, 95% CI: -79.3 to -6.5), Annals of Internal Medicine (beta: -1.9, 95% CI: -3.5 to -0.3), and Lancet (beta: -11.2, 95% CI: -14.7 to -7.8). Number of contributing countries increased in 3 journals: BMJ (beta: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.2 to 1.5), European Heart Journal (beta: -1.2, 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.7), and New England Journal of Medicine (beta: 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.7). Fraction of collaborative publications increased (beta: 1.1 to 2.9) in all but Annals of Internal Medicine. Collaboration was associated with a higher median actual citation index (p general and specialty journals. Contribution by country in selected journals was disproportionate and under-represents total cardiovascular research in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of late gadolinium enhancement to improve outcomes prediction in patients referred for cardiovascular magnetic resonance after echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Echocardiography (echo) is a first line test to assess cardiac structure and function. It is not known if cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) ordered during routine clinical practice in selected patients can add additional prognostic information after routine echo. We assessed whether CMR improves outcomes prediction after contemporaneous echo, which may have implications for efforts to optimize processes of care, assess effectiveness, and allocate limited health care resources. Methods and results We prospectively enrolled 1044 consecutive patients referred for CMR. There were 38 deaths and 3 cardiac transplants over a median follow-up of 1.0 years (IQR 0.4-1.5). We first reproduced previous survival curve strata (presence of LGE and ejection fraction (EF) echocardiography, CMR with LGE further improves risk stratification of individuals at risk for death or death/cardiac transplant. PMID:23324403

  7. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to assess myocardial fibrosis in valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-01-01

    The left ventricular (LV) remodeling process associated with significant valvular heart disease (VHD) is characterized by an increase of myocardial interstitial space with deposition of collagen and loss of myofibers. These changes occur before LV systolic function deteriorates or the patient develops symptoms. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) permits assessment of reactive fibrosis, with the use of T1 mapping techniques, and replacement fibrosis, with the use of late gadolinium contrast enhancement. In addition, functional consequences of these structural changes can be evaluated with myocardial tagging and feature tracking CMR, which assess the active deformation (strain) of the LV myocardium. Several studies have demonstrated that CMR techniques may be more sensitive than the conventional measures (LV ejection fraction or LV dimensions) to detect these structural and functional changes in patients with severe left-sided VHD and have shown that myocardial fibrosis may not be reversible after valve surgery. More important, the presence of myocardial fibrosis has been associated with lesser improvement in clinical symptoms and recovery of LV systolic function. Whether assessment of myocardial fibrosis may better select the patients with severe left-sided VHD who may benefit from surgery in terms of LV function and clinical symptoms improvement needs to be demonstrated in prospective studies. The present review article summarizes the current status of CMR techniques to assess myocardial fibrosis and appraises the current evidence on the use of these techniques for risk stratification of patients with severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation and mitral regurgitation.

  9. Relationship between coronary flow reserve evaluated by phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance and serum eicosapentaenoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with a low risk for cardiovascular disease. Phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC cine CMR) can assess coronary flow reserve (CFR). The present study investigates the relationship between CFR evaluated by PC cine CMR and the serum EPA. Methods We studied 127 patients (male, 116 (91%); mean age, 72.2 ± 7.4 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). X-ray coronary angiography revealed no significant coronary arterial stenoses (defined as luminal diameter reduction ≥50% on quantitative coronary angiogram (QCA) analysis) in all study participants. Breath-hold PC cine CMR images of the coronary sinus (CS) were acquired to assess blood flow of the CS both at rest and during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion. We calculated CFR as CS blood flow during ATP infusion divided by that at rest. Patients were allocated to groups according to whether they had high (n = 64, EPA ≥ 75.8 μg/mL) or low (n = 63, EPA  2.5, which is the previously reported lower limit of normal flow reserve without obstructive CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that EPA is an independent predictor of CFR > 2.5 (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 – 1.02, p = 0.008). Conclusions The serum EPA is significantly correlated with CFR in CAD patients without significant coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24359564

  10. Cardiovascular effects of the combined exposure to noise and outdoor air pollution: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekaviciute, J.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Laszlo, H.E.; Hansell, A.; Floud, S.; Lercher, P.; Babisch, W.; Kephalopoulos, S.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of noise with other environmental stressors, particularly traffic-related air pollution, has been of growing interest in recent years. Cardiovascular effects are among the most evidence-based physical health outcomes. Moreover, the European Network on Noise and Health (ENNAH), which

  11. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, L; Geladas, N; Hansen, D; Kouidi, E; Niebauer, J; Reiner, Z; Cornelissen, V; Adamopoulos, S; Prescott, E; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Björnstad, H H; Cohen-Solal, A; Conraads, V; Corrado, D; De Sutter, J; Doherty, P; Doyle, F; Dugmore, D; Ellingsen, Ø; Fagard, R; Giada, F; Gielen, S; Hager, A; Halle, M; Heidbüchel, H; Jegier, A; Mazic, S; McGee, H; Mellwig, K P; Mendes, M; Mezzani, A; Pattyn, N; Pelliccia, A; Piepoli, M; Rauch, B; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Takken, T; van Buuren, F; Vanuzzo, D

    2012-10-01

    In a previous paper, as the first of a series of three on the importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity (PA) and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health within the general population, we concluded that, in the population at large, PA and aerobic exercise capacity clearly are inversely associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and that a dose–response curve on cardiovascular outcome has been demonstrated in most studies. More and more evidence is accumulated that engaging in regular PA and exercise interventions are essential components for reducing the severity of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and abdominal fat, high BP, metabolic risk factors, and systemic inflammation. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit for each separate risk factor. The present paper, therefore, will review and make recommendations for PA and exercise training in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and individual members of the public. Based on previous and the current literature overviews, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and regarding appropriate risk evaluation during exercise in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Drug lag for cardiovascular drug approvals in India compared with the US and EU approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaven C. Kataria

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that there is a substantial drug lag in approval of new cardiovascular drugs in India compared with the United States and European Union. The impact of drug lag on health outcomes remains to be established.

  13. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  14. Plasma Clot Lysis Time and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Black Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); M. Pieters (Marlien); J.C. Jerling (Johann); A. Kruger (Annamarie); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStudies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid

  15. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease : Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Dale, Caroline E.; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J.; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Li, Shanshan; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357581164; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Borinskaya, Svetlana A.; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M.; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A.; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A.; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; Van Bockxmeer, Frank M.; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G.; Ferro, Jose M.; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Cramer, Maarten J.; Van Der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649; Dowling, Nicole F.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R.; Price, Jackie F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van Der Zee, Anke H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/255164688; Norman, Paul E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; De Jong, Pim A.; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W. M Monique; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M.; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J. Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J.; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Dai, James Y.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Siscovick, David S.; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Li, Yun R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Ellison, R. Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I.; Boerwinkle, Eric; De Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Whittaker, John; Smith, George Davey; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie A.; Hamidovic, Ajna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Keating, Brendan J.; Dudbridge, Frank; Casas, Juan P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants: 261 991 individuals of European

  16. Formalized 2003 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2004), s. 444 ISSN 0195-668X. [ESC Congress 2004. 28.08.2004-01.09.2004, Munich] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : formalized European guidelines on CVD prevention * computer GLIF model * decision algorithm Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  17. Energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD): magnetic chiral dichroism in the electron microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubino, S.; Schattschneider, P.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Hébert, S.; Rusz, Ján; Calmels, L.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Houdellier, F.; Serin, V.; Novák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2008), s. 2582-2590 ISSN 0884-2914 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 508971 - CHIRALTEM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetic circular dichroism * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2008

  18. Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only.......Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality have been widely recognized. However, health effects of long-term exposure to constituents of PM on total CVD mortality have been explored in a single study only....

  19. [Cardiovascular risk by Framingham and SCORE in patients 40-65 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carmen; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Justicia, Jorge; Pascual, José M

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and treatment implications of 2 cardiovascular risk stratification systems in a population of patients 40-65 years old. 929 non diabetic patients (40-65 years old) (51% female) with no evidence of previous cardiovascular disease were included in the study. The risk of cardiovascular death was assessed with the charts of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and coronary risk by the Framingham function (National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults -NCEP-ATP-III-). Patients were considered of high risk if risk of cardiovascular death was >or= 5% and coronary risk was > 20%, respectively. 4.1% of patients were considered as high risk by SCORE and 2.5% by Framingham. Only 0.2% of females were classified as high risk with either system. 8.2% and 4.8% of male population were considered as high risk by SCORE and Framingham, respectively. There was a low level of concordance between both systems. Patients classified as high risk by SCORE but not by Framingham were older, smoke less and had a better lipid profile. According to European Guidelines 28% of male and 23% of female were candidates to hypolipemic treatment, that proportion was higher, 43% of males and 28% of females, by NCEP-ATP-III guidelines. In Spanish patients 40-65 years old, SCORE charts almost duplicate the number of high risk individuals compared to Framingham. although the number of patients candidates to hypolipemic treatment is lower with the European than ATP-III guidelines. Differences were more evident in male.

  20. [Glycemic targets and cardiovascular morbi-mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordier, Lyse; Bauduceau, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    The 2008-year was full of learning experience and suspense in diabetologia. The past studies, UKPDS in type 2 diabetic patients and DCCT in type 1 diabetic patients have shown that intensive treatment during a short period did reduce the incidence of microvascular events and in the long term, the incidence of macrovascular events linked to diabetes. The conclusions of recent studies quote, from ACCORD, an increased mortality in the type 2 diabetic patients using intensive therapy, from ADVANCE, a reduction of microvascular complications and from VADT, no effect. The analysis of studies published since 2008 brings lessons for the clinical practice: presence of glycemic memory, absence of tensional memory, usefulness of control of every cardiovascular risk factors, need of early treatment of diabetes. Moreover, to define HbA1c objective, age, duration of diabetes, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, former HbA1c level and potential undesirable effects, such hypoglycaemia, must be considered. The management of type 2 diabetic patients requires an early, not to quick intensive treatment, which avoids hypoglycaemia and is combined with a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. So, the recent position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consideres needs and preferences of each patient and individualizes glycemic targets and treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic design of an Apple-X afterburner for the SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wei, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    In its startup configuration the SASE3 beamline of the European XFEL provides only soft X-ray radiation, linearly polarized in the horizontal plane. In order to enhance capabilities of this beamline an afterburner scheme is proposed. It will be used as a coherent radiator using the micro-bunched electron beam of the linear SASE3 system. Radiation with variable polarization, which covers the full SASE3 wavelength range can be generated. For the radiator a new type of undulator design called Apple-X will be used. In this paper the design is described and magnet parameters, which are compatible with the SASE3 afterburner are determined using RADIA simulations. The end structure of such a device is optimized for minimum 1st field integrals.

  2. Dilation of the ascending aorta in Turner syndrome - a prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Erik M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of aortic dissection is 100-fold increased in Turner syndrome (TS. Unfortunately, risk stratification is inadequate due to a lack of insight into the natural course of the syndrome-associated aortopathy. Therefore, this study aimed to prospectively assess aortic dimensions in TS. Methods Eighty adult TS patients were examined twice with a mean follow-up of 2.4 ± 0.4 years, and 67 healthy age and gender-matched controls were examined once. Aortic dimensions were measured at nine predefined positions using 3D, non-contrast and free-breathing cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Transthoracic echocardiography and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were also performed. Results At baseline, aortic diameters (body surface area indexed were larger at all positions in TS. Aortic dilation was more prevalent at all positions excluding the distal transverse aortic arch. Aortic diameter increased in the aortic sinus, at the sinotubular junction and in the mid-ascending aorta with growth rates of 0.1 - 0.4 mm/year. Aortic diameters at all other positions were unchanged. The bicuspid aortic valve conferred higher aortic sinus growth rates (p Conclusion A general aortopathy is present in TS with enlargement of the ascending aorta, which is accelerated in the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve.

  3. The technical report on sodium intake and cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries by the joint working group of the World Heart Federation, the European Society of Hypertension and the European Public Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Oparil, Suzanne; Whelton, Paul K; McKee, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Luft, Friedrich C; AlHabib, Khalid; Lanas, Fernando; Damasceno, Albertino; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; La Torre, Giuseppe; Weber, Michael; O'Donnell, Martin; Smith, Sidney C; Narula, Jagat

    2017-03-07

    Ingestion of sodium is essential to health, but excess sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Defining an optimal range of sodium intake in populations has been challenging and controversial. Clinical trials evaluating the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure have shown blood pressure lowering effects down to sodium intake of less than 1.5 g/day. Findings from these blood pressure trials form the basis for current guideline recommendations to reduce sodium intake to less than 2.3 g/day. However, these clinical trials employed interventions that are not feasible for population-wide implementation (i.e. feeding studies or intensive behavioural interventions), particularly in low and middle-income countries. Prospective cohort studies have identified the optimal range of sodium intake to reside in the moderate range (3-5 g/day), where the risk of cardiovascular disease and death is lowest. Therefore, there is consistent evidence from clinical trials and observational studies to support reducing sodium intake to less than 5 g/day in populations, but inconsistent evidence for further reductions below a moderate intake range (3-5 g/day). Unfortunately, there are no large randomized controlled trials comparing low sodium intake ( 5 g/day), which should be embedded within an overall healthy dietary pattern. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ethnicity and the association between anthropometric indices of obesity and cardiovascular risk in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Louise G H; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Welborn, Timothy A; Lee, Andy H; Della, Phillip R

    2014-05-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the cross-sectional associations between anthropometric obesity measures, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and calculated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using the Framingham and general CVD risk score models, are the same for women of Australian, UK and Ireland, North European, South European and Asian descent. This study would investigate which anthropometric obesity measure is most predictive at identifying women at increased CVD risk in each ethnic group. Cross-sectional data from the National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Population-based survey in Australia. 4354 women aged 20-69 years with no history of heart disease, diabetes or stroke. Most participants were of Australian, UK and Ireland, North European, South European or Asian descent (97%). Anthropometric obesity measures that demonstrated stronger predictive ability of identifying women at increased CVD risk and likelihood of being above the promulgated treatment thresholds of various risk score models. Central obesity measures, WC and WHR, were better predictors of cardiovascular risk. WHR reported a stronger predictive ability than WC and BMI in Caucasian women. In Northern European women, BMI was a better indicator of risk using the general CVD (10% threshold) and Framingham (20% threshold) risk score models. WC was the most predictive of cardiovascular risk among Asian women. Ethnicity should be incorporated into CVD assessment. The same anthropometric obesity measure cannot be used across all ethnic groups. Ethnic-specific CVD prevention and treatment strategies need to be further developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon BK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  6. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  7. Italian cardiovascular mortality charts of the CUORE project: are they comparable with the SCORE charts?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donfrancesco, Chiara

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to build risk charts for the assessment of cardiovascular mortality of the CUORE project, an Italian longitudinal study, and to compare them with the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) project charts for low risk European countries.

  8. Cardiovascular screening in Turner syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.L.; Wright, A.M.; Pitlick, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the utility of MR imaging as a cardiovascular screening method in patients with Turner syndrome and to compare its utility with that of echocardiography. Forty females with karytotypically proved Turner syndrome were prospectively evaluated with MR imaging and echocardiography. A 0.38-T resistive magnet was used to obtain ECG-gated axial and off-sagittal oblique images through the thorax with a spin-echo pulse sequence and TR 400--600 msec, TE 15--30 msec. Two-dimensional, M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography were performed and standard echocardiographic views were obtained

  9. Neuroimaging, cardiovascular physiology, and functional outcomes in infants with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Nathalie H. P.; Kelly, Christopher J; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    This review integrates data on brain dysmaturation and acquired brain injury using fetal and neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the contribution of cardiovascular physiology to differences in brain development, and the relationship between brain abnormalities and subsequent

  10. Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel blood pressure loci and offers biological insights into cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, Helen R.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Gao, He; Ren, Meixia; Mifsud, Borbala; Ntalla, Ioanna; Surendran, Praveen; Liu, Chunyu; Cook, James P.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Drenos, Fotios; Loh, Marie; Verweij, Niek; Marten, Jonathan; Karaman, Ibrahim; Lepe, Marcelo P. Segura; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Knight, Joanne; Snieder, Harold; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Tai, E. Shyong; Said, M. Abdullah; Porteous, David; Alver, Maris; Poulter, Neil; Farrall, Martin; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Magi, Reedik; Stanton, Alice; Connell, John; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Metspalu, Andres; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Brown, Morris; Sever, Peter; Esko, Tonu; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Saleheen, Danish; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Levy, Daniel; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Keavney, Bernard; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Samani, Nilesh J.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ehret, Georg B.; Wain, Louise V.; Barnes, Michael R.; Tzoulaki, Joanna; Caulfield, Mark J.; Elliott, Paul; Vaez, Ahmad; Jansen, Rick; Joehanes, Roby; van der Most, Peter J.; Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut; O'Reilly, Paul; Rose, Lynda M.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Arking, Dan E.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Guo, Xiuqing; Kutalik, Zoltan; Trompet, Stella; Shrine, Nick; Teumer, Alexander; Ried, Janina S.; Bis, Joshua C.; Smith, Albert V.; Amin, Najaf; Nolte, Ilja M.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hofer, Edith; Joshi, Peter K.; Kristiansson, Kati; Traglia, Michela; Havulinna, Aki S.; Goel, Anuj; Nalls, Mike A.; Sober, Siim; Vuckovic, Dragana; Luan, Jian'an; del Greco, Fabiola M.; Ayers, Kristin L.; Marrugat, Jaume; Ruggiero, Daniela; Lopez, Lorna M.; Niiranen, Teemu; Enroth, Stefan; Jackson, Anne U.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Weihua; Gandin, Ilaria; Harris, Sarah E.; Zemonik, Tatijana; Lu, Yingchang; Shah, Nabi; de Borst, Martin H.; Mangino, Massimo; Prins, Bram P.; Campbell, Archie; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Chauhan, Ganesh; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Abecasis, Goncalo; Abedi, Maryam; Barbieri, Caterina M.; Batini, Chiara; Blake, Tineka; Boehnke, Michael; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Braund, Peter S.; Brumat, Marco; Campbell, Harry; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis; Cordell, Heather J.; Damman, Jeffrey J.; Davies, Gail; de Geus, Eco J.; de Mutsert, Renee; Deelen, Joris; Demirkale, Yusuf; Doney, Alex S. F.; Dorr, Marcus; Ferreira, Teresa; Franberg, Mattias; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gieger, Christian; Giulianini, Franco; Gow, Alan J.; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Andrew D.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kahonen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Langenberg, Claudia; Larson, Marty; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehne, Benjamin; Liewald, David C. M.; Lin, Li; Lind, Lars; Mach, Francois; Mamasoula, Chrysovalanto; Menni, Cristina; Milaneschi, Yuri; Morgan, Anna; Morris, Andrew D.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Munson, Peter J.; Nandakumar, Priyanka; Nguyen, Quang Tri; Nutile, Teresa; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Org, Elin; Palotie, Aarno; Pare, Guillaume; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rice, Kenneth; Ridker, Paul M.; Riese, Harriette; Ripatti, Samuli; Robino, Antonietta; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Saba, Yasaman; Saint Pierre, Aude; Sala, Cinzia F.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Scott, Rodney; Seelen, Marc A.; Siscovick, David; Sorice, Rossella; Stott, David J.; Sundstrom, Johan; Swertz, Morris; Taylor, Kent D.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Volker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wild, Sarah; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Alan F.; Yao, Jie; Theriault, Sebastien; Conen, David; John, Attia; Debette, Stephanie; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Spector, Tim D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Polasek, Ozren; Starr, John M.; Girotto, Giorgia; Lindgren, Cecila M.; Vitart, Veronique; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Gyllensten, Ulf; Knekt, Paul; Deary, Ian J.; Ciullo, Marina; Elosua, Roberto; Keavney, Bernard D.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Scott, Robert A.; Gasparini, Paolo; Laan, Maris; Liu, Yongmei; Watkins, Hugh; Hartman, Catharina A.; Salomaa, Veikko; Toniolo, Daniela; Perola, Markus; Wilson, James F.; Schmidt, Helena; Zhao, Jing Hua; Lehtimaki, Terho; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Psaty, Bruce M.; Peters, Annette; Rettig, Rainer; James, Alan; Jukema, J. Wouter; Strachan, David P.; Palmas, Walter; Ingelsson, Erik; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Franco, Oscar H.; Bochud, Murielle; Morris, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure is the leading heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease worldwide. We report genetic association of blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure) among UK Biobank participants of European ancestry with independent replication in other cohorts, and robust

  11. Recommendations for processing cardiovascular surgical pathology specimens: a consensus statement from the Standards and Definitions Committee of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, James R.; Basso, Cristina; Baandrup, Ulrik T.; Bruneval, Patrick; Butany, Jagdish; Gallagher, Patrick J.; Halushka, Marc K.; Miller, Dylan V.; Padera, Robert F.; Radio, Stanley J.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Suvarna, Kim; Tan, Carmela D.; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard C.; Veinot, John P.

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of molecular subclassification of diseases, much consideration should be given to the proper processing of cardiovascular surgical pathology specimens to maximize patient care. Such specimens include endomyocardial biopsies, cardiac myectomy specimens, cardiac apical core segments,

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor about your child’s health problems, medications, recent surgeries and allergies. The magnetic field is not harmful, ... to the heart muscle evaluate findings following cardiovascular surgery In the abdominal and pelvic region, MRI is ...

  13. The European programme for controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This illustrated document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. The nuclear fusion reactors are presented with the two approaches: magnetic confinement and inertial confinement; are described: the place of fusion in the world energy scene and its importance for Europe, how research is at present organized, and the European programme with this next stage: the JET (Joint European Torus), the largest tokamak machine in Europe

  14. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The JET project and the European fusion research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuester, H.-O.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns the Joint European Torus (JET) project and the European Fusion Research Programme. Fusion as an energy source and commercial fusion power are briefly discussed. The main features of the JET apparatus and the tokamak magnetic field configuration are given. Also described are the specific aims of JET, and the proposed future fusion reactor programme. (U.K.)

  16. Ideal cardiovascular health and psychosocial risk factors among Finnish female municipal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veromaa, Veera; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saxen, Ulla; Malmberg-Ceder, Kirsi; Bergman, Elina; Korhonen, Päivi E

    2017-02-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and the presence of seven key health factors and behaviours. However, little is known about the mental aspects associated with ideal cardiovascular health metrics. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between psychosocial risk factors and ideal cardiovascular health metrics among Finnish women at municipal work units. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Finland among 732 female employees (mean±SD age 48±10 years) from ten work units in 2014. Ideal cardiovascular health metrics were evaluated with a physical examination, laboratory tests, medical history and self-administrated questionnaires. Psychosocial risk factors (social isolation, stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, hostility and type D personality) were assessed with core questions as suggested by the European Society of Cardiology. The prevalence of having 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was 183 (25.0%), of whom 54.1% had at least one psychosocial risk factor. Anxiety (31.3%), work stress (30.7%) and type D personality (26.1%) were the most prevalent of the psychosocial risk factors. The prevalence of depressive symptoms ( ppsychosocial risk factors at municipal work units. Although the association is possibly bidirectional, screening and treating depression and dealing with type D personality might be crucial in improving cardiovascular health among women.

  17. Fostering diffusion of scientific contents of National Society Cardiovascular Journals: The new ESC search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European Society of Cardiology (ESC National Society Cardiovascular Journals (NSCJs are high-quality biomedical journals focused on cardiovascular diseases. The Editors’ Network of the ESC devises editorial initiatives aimed at improving the scientific quality and diffusion of NSCJ. In this article we will discuss on the importance of the Internet, electronic editions and open access strategies on scientific publishing. Finally, we will propose a new editorial initiative based on a novel electronic tool on the ESC web-page that may further help to increase the dissemination of contents and visibility of NSCJs.

  18. Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcox, Julian P; Banegas, José R; Roy, Carine; Dallongeville, Jean; De Backer, Guy; Guallar, Eliseo; Perk, Joep; Hajage, David; Henriksson, Karin M; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-06-17

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes, yet markers of this condition are often ignored in clinical practice. Here, we address a clear evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and treatment of two markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia: elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This cross-sectional observational study assessed the prevalence of two atherogenic dyslipidemia markers, high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in the study population from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; N = 7641; of whom 51.6% were female and 95.6% were White/Caucasian). The EURIKA population included European patients, aged at least 50 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease. Over 20% of patients from the EURIKA population have either triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the proportions of patients with one of these markers were higher in subpopulations with type 2 diabetes mellitus or those already calculated to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 55% of the EURIKA population who have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. A considerable proportion of patients with at least one major cardiovascular risk factor in the primary cardiovascular disease prevention setting have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The majority of these patients are not receiving optimal treatment, as specified in international guidelines, and thus their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is possibly underestimated. The present study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT00882336).

  19. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  20. Dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The assessment of inducible wall motion abnormalities during high-dose dobutamine-stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR is well established for the identification of myocardial ischemia at 1.5 Tesla. Its feasibility at higher field strengths has not been reported. The present study was performed to prospectively determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of DCMR at 3 Tesla for depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis (≥ 50% diameter stenosis in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and methods Thirty consecutive patients (6 women (66 ± 9.3 years were scheduled for DCMR between January and May 2007 for detection of coronary artery disease. Patients were examined with a Philips Achieva 3 Tesla system (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands, using a spoiled gradient echo cine sequence. Technical parameters were: spatial resolution 2 × 2 × 8 mm3, 30 heart phases, spoiled gradient echo TR/TE: 4.5/2.6 msec, flip angle 15°. Images were acquired at rest and stress in accordance with a standardized high-dose dobutamine-atropine protocol during short breath-holds in three short and three long-axis views. Dobutamine was administered using a standard protocol (10 μg increments every 3 minutes up to 40 μg dobutamine/kg body weight/minute plus atropine if required to reach target heart rate. The study protocol included administration of 0.1 mmol/kg/body weight Gd-DTPA before the cine images at rest were acquired to improve the image quality. The examination was terminated if new or worsening wall-motion abnormalities or chest pain occurred or when > 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate was reached. Myocardial ischemia was defined as new onset of wall-motion abnormality in at least one segment. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE was performed. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers. Diagnostic accuracy was determined with coronary

  1. Cardiovascular imaging environment: will the future be cloud-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawel-Boehm, Nadine; Bluemke, David A

    2017-07-01

    In cardiovascular CT and MR imaging large datasets have to be stored, post-processed, analyzed and distributed. Beside basic assessment of volume and function in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging e.g., more sophisticated quantitative analysis is requested requiring specific software. Several institutions cannot afford various types of software and provide expertise to perform sophisticated analysis. Areas covered: Various cloud services exist related to data storage and analysis specifically for cardiovascular CT and MR imaging. Instead of on-site data storage, cloud providers offer flexible storage services on a pay-per-use basis. To avoid purchase and maintenance of specialized software for cardiovascular image analysis, e.g. to assess myocardial iron overload, MR 4D flow and fractional flow reserve, evaluation can be performed with cloud based software by the consumer or complete analysis is performed by the cloud provider. However, challenges to widespread implementation of cloud services include regulatory issues regarding patient privacy and data security. Expert commentary: If patient privacy and data security is guaranteed cloud imaging is a valuable option to cope with storage of large image datasets and offer sophisticated cardiovascular image analysis for institutions of all sizes.

  2. Pattern-based approach to fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies using the transverse aortic arch view on prenatal cardiac MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-01

    Fetal echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. However, echocardiography has limitations. Fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to complement US in detecting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. This article draws on our experience; it describes the transverse aortic arch view on fetal cardiac MRI and important clues on an abnormal transverse view at the level of the aortic arch to the diagnosis of fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies. (orig.)

  3. Pattern-based approach to fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies using the transverse aortic arch view on prenatal cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Su-Zhen; Zhu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Fetal echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular anomalies. However, echocardiography has limitations. Fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to complement US in detecting congenital cardiovascular anomalies. This article draws on our experience; it describes the transverse aortic arch view on fetal cardiac MRI and important clues on an abnormal transverse view at the level of the aortic arch to the diagnosis of fetal congenital cardiovascular anomalies. (orig.)

  4. Replacement and Original Magnet Engineering Options (ROMEOs): A European Seventh Framework Project to Develop Advanced Permanent Magnets Without, or with Reduced Use of, Critical Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguiness, P.; Akdogan, O.; Asali, A.; Bance, S.; Bittner, F.; Coey, J. M. D.; Dempsey, N. M.; Fidler, J.; Givord, D.; Gutfleisch, O.; Katter, M.; Le Roy, D.; Sanvito, S.; Schrefl, T.; Schultz, L.; Schwöbl, C.; Soderžnik, M.; Šturm, S.; Tozman, P.; Üstüner, K.; Venkatesan, M.; Woodcock, T. G.; Žagar, K.; Kobe, S.

    2015-06-01

    The rare-earth crisis, which peaked in the summer of 2011 with the prices of both light and heavy rare earths soaring to unprecedented levels, brought about the widespread realization that the long-term availability and price stability of rare earths could not be guaranteed. This triggered a rapid response from manufacturers involved in rare earths, as well as governments and national and international funding agencies. In the case of rare-earth-containing permanent magnets, three possibilities were given quick and serious consideration: (I) increased recycling of devices containing rare earths; (II) the search for new, mineable, rare-earth resources beyond those in China; and (III) the development of high-energy-product permanent magnets with little or no rare-earth content used in their manufacture. The Replacement and Original Magnet Engineering Options (ROMEO) project addresses the latter challenge using a two-pronged approach. With its basis on work packages that include materials modeling and advanced characterization, the ROMEO project is an attempt to develop a new class of novel permanent magnets that are free of rare earths. Furthermore, the project aims to minimize rare-earth content, particularly heavy-rare-earth (HRE) content, as much as possible in Nd-Fe-B-type magnets. Success has been achieved on both fronts. In terms of new, rare-earth-free magnets, a Heusler alloy database of 236,945 compounds has been narrowed down to approximately 20 new compounds. Of these compounds, Co2MnTi is expected to be a ferromagnet with a high Curie temperature and a high magnetic moment. Regarding the reduction in the amount of rare earths, and more specifically HREs, major progress is seen in electrophoretic deposition as a method for accurately positioning the HRE on the surface prior to its diffusion into the microstructure. This locally increases the coercivity of the rather small Nd-Fe-B-type magnet, thereby substantially reducing the dependence on the HREs Dy and

  5. Exercise for prevention of cardiovascular disease: Evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geevar Zachariah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In India, a large percentage of the people are physically inactive with fewer than 10% engaging in recreational physical activity. Physical activity has many beneficial effects on the risk factors for CVD. Apart from improving fitness level, it decreases myocardial oxygen demand and improves myocardial perfusion. There is an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. In primary prevention, physical inactivity is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk for coronary events. In secondary prevention, data confirm the existence of an inverse dose–response relationship between cardiovascular fitness and the all-cause mortality in large populations of cardiovascular patients. Guidelines from the American authorities as well as the European Society of Cardiology provide specific recommendations for exercise depending on the clinical setting (primary or secondary prevention of CVD and the patient-specific factors (the patient's physical activity level and the perceived CVD risk. The present review summarizes the clinical evidence regarding the role of exercise in CVD prevention and the exercise recommendations from the leading Cardiac societies.

  6. Multi-parametric quantification of tricuspid regurgitation using cardiovascular magnetic resonance: A comparison to echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedofsky, Diego [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Jimenez, Javier Leon [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Addetia, Karima; Singh, Amita; Lang, Roberto M. [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Mor-Avi, Victor, E-mail: vmoravi@bsd.uchicago.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Patel, Amit R. [Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Background: Velocity-encoding is used to quantify tricuspid regurgitation (TR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), but requires additional dedicated imaging. We hypothesized that size and signal intensity (SI) of the cross-sectional TR jet area in the right atrium in short-axis steady-state free-precession images could be used to assess TR severity. Methods: We studied 61 patients with TR, who underwent CMR and echocardiography within 24 h. TR severity was determined by vena contracta: severe (N = 20), moderate or mild (N = 41). CMR TR jet area and normalized SI were measured in the plane and frame that depicted maximum area. ROC analysis was performed in 21/61 patients to determine diagnostic accuracy of differentiating degrees of TR. Optimal cutoffs were independently tested in the remaining 40 patients. Results: Measurable regions of signal loss depicting TR jets were noted in 51/61 patients, while 9/10 remaining patients had mild TR by echocardiography. With increasing TR severity, jet area significantly increased (15 ± 14 to 38 ± 20 mm{sup 2}), while normalized SI decreased (57 ± 27 to 23 ± 11). ROC analysis showed high AUC values in the derivation group and good accuracy in the test group. Conclusion: TR can be quantified from short-axis CMR images in agreement with echocardiography, while circumventing additional image acquisition.

  7. Non-invasive methods for estimating mPAP in COPD using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, C.S.; Capener, D.A.; Oram, C.; Wild, J.M.; Rajaram, S.; Elliot, C.; Condliffe, R.; Kiely, D.G.; Swift, A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is diagnosed invasively. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) models. Patients with COPD and suspected PH, who underwent CMR and right heart catheter (RHC) were identified. Three candidate models were assessed: 1, CMR-RV model, based on right ventricular (RV) mass and interventricular septal angle; 2, CMR PA/RV includes RV mass, septal angle and pulmonary artery (PA) measurements; 3, the Alpha index, based on RV ejection fraction and PA size. Of 102 COPD patients, 87 had PH. The CMR-PA/RV model had the strongest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 92%, specificity 80%, positive predictive value 96% and negative predictive value 63%, AUC 0.93, p<0.0001). Splitting RHC-mPAP, CMR-RV and CMR-PA/RV models by 35mmHg gave a significant difference in survival, with log-rank chi-squared 5.03, 5.47 and 7.10. RV mass and PA relative area change were the independent predictors of mortality at multivariate Cox regression (p=0.002 and 0.030). CMR provides diagnostic and prognostic information in PH-COPD. The CMR-PA/RV model is useful for diagnosis, the RV mass index and PA relative area change are useful to assess prognosis. (orig.)

  8. Clinical evaluation of cardiovascular disease by gated-MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in the operating field of 0.35 and 1.5 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Naito, Hiroaki; Yamada, Yukinori; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the cardiovascular disease, 21 patients were examined using 0.35 and 1.5 Tesla superconductive type (Magnetom, Siemens). In our study, all patients were performed using ECG-gated MRI. Therefore, the cardiac chambers were discriminated clearly from the myocardial wall compared to non-gated MRI. Gated-MRI was performed in 6 normal persons in the operating field at 0.35 and 1.5 Tesla. The image of the latter showed superior than that of the former because of high S/N ratio. In myocardial infarction, infarct area was demonstrated as the wall thinning in 4 of 5 patients. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showed thickened left ventricle associated with its narrowed cavity in 7 patients. In the remaining such as congenital and valvular heart disease, global and regional cardiac morphology were assessed noninvasively by gated MRI. In addition, gated MRI was also applied to the diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases. In dissecting aneurysm, double channels with an intimal flap in the aorta were clearly visualized. And in the aortitis syndrome, aortic dilatation and stenosis were also assessed noninvasively. In conclusion, gated MRI in diagnosing various abnormalities of cardiovascular disease was confirmed. (author)

  9. [Gender issues in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Ursula

    2007-06-01

    In the last decade our knowledge about sex differences in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases has substantially increased. However; most information relates to coronary heart disease, and relatively little information is available on other forms of heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases. In the present paper, first, the age-adjusted mortality and morbidity rates of men and women across different European countries will be described as well as differences in case-fatality after myocardial infarction. Second, gender differences regarding the impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the development of coronary heart disease will be addressed, together with recent evidence from cardiac rehabilitation research. In general, we can say that significant sex differences exist at each stage of coronary heart disease, which need to be taken into account in primary prevention, acute therapy, and long-term rehabilitation. Further research is required on other forms of cardiovascular diseases, which are more prevalent among women than among men, especially in higher age groups.

  10. Normal values for myocardial deformation within the right heart measured by feature-tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Dardeer, Ahmed M; Moody, William E; Edwards, Nicola C; Hudsmith, Lucy E; Steeds, Richard P

    2018-02-01

    Reproducible and repeatable assessment of right heart function is vital for monitoring congenital and acquired heart disease. There is increasing evidence for the additional value of myocardial deformation (strain and strain rate) in determining prognosis. This study aims to determine the reproducibility of deformation analyses in the right heart using cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (FT-CMR); and to establish normal ranges within an adult population. A cohort of 100 healthy subjects containing 10 males and 10 females from each decade of life between the ages of 20 and 70 without known congenital or acquired cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or renal, hepatic, haematologic and systemic inflammatory disorders underwent FT-CMR assessment of right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) myocardial strain and strain rate. RV longitudinal strain (Ell) was -21.9±3.24% (FW+S Ell) and -24.2±3.59% (FW-Ell). Peak systolic strain rate (S') was -1.45±0.39s -1 (FW+S) and -1.54±0.41s -1 (FW). Early diastolic strain rate (E') was 1.04±0.26s -1 (FW+S) and 1.04±0.33s -1 (FW). Late diastolic strain rate (A') was 0.94±0.33s -1 (FW+S) and 1.08±0.33s -1 (FW). RA peak strain was -21.1±3.76%. The intra- and inter-observer ICC for RV Ell (FW+S) was 0.92 and 0.80 respectively, while for RA peak strain was 0.92 and 0.89 respectively. Normal values of RV & RA deformation for healthy individuals using FT-CMR are provided with good RV Ell and RA peak strain reproducibility. Strain rate suffered from sub-optimal reproducibility and may not be satisfactory for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring aortic pulse wave velocity using high-field cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparison of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Jean M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of arterial stiffness is increasingly used for evaluating patients with different cardiovascular diseases as the mechanical properties of major arteries are often altered. Aortic stiffness can be noninvasively estimated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV. Several methods have been proposed for measuring PWV using velocity-encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, including transit-time (TT, flow-area (QA, and cross-correlation (XC methods. However, assessment and comparison of these techniques at high field strength has not yet been performed. In this work, the TT, QA, and XC techniques were clinically tested at 3 Tesla and compared to each other. Methods Fifty cardiovascular patients and six volunteers were scanned to acquire the necessary images. The six volunteer scans were performed twice to test inter-scan reproducibility. Patient images were analyzed using the TT, XC, and QA methods to determine PWV. Two observers analyzed the images to determine inter-observer and intra-observer variabilities. The PWV measurements by the three methods were compared to each other to test inter-method variability. To illustrate the importance of PWV using CMR, the degree of aortic stiffness was assessed using PWV and related to LV dysfunction in five patients with diastolic heart failure patients and five matched volunteers. Results The inter-observer and intra-observer variability results showed no bias between the different techniques. The TT and XC results were more reproducible than the QA; the mean (SD inter-observer/intra-observer PWV differences were -0.12(1.3/-0.04(0.4 for TT, 0.2(1.3/0.09(0.9 for XC, and 0.6(1.6/0.2(1.4 m/s for QA methods, respectively. The correlation coefficients (r for the inter-observer/intra-observer comparisons were 0.94/0.99, 0.88/0.94, and 0.83/0.92 for the TT, XC, and QA methods, respectively. The inter-scan reproducibility results showed low variability between the repeated

  12. EUCARD magnet development

    OpenAIRE

    de Rijk, Gijs

    2011-01-01

    The FP7-EuCARD work package 7 (WP7), "HFM: Superconducting High Field Magnets for higher luminosities and energies" is a collaboration between 12 European institutes and firms with the objective of developing high field magnet technology. WP7 foresees to construct a 13 T dipole with a 100 mm aperture, a B = 6 T high temperature superconductor (HTS) dipole insert, a superconducting HTS link and a superconducting helical undulator.

  13. Echocardiography in the Era of Multimodality Cardiovascular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Benoy Nalin

    2013-01-01

    Echocardiography remains the most frequently performed cardiac imaging investigation and is an invaluable tool for detailed and accurate evaluation of cardiac structure and function. Echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and cardiovascular-computed tomography comprise the subspeciality of cardiovascular imaging, and these techniques are often used together for a multimodality, comprehensive assessment of a number of cardiac diseases. This paper provides the general cardiologist and physician with an overview of state-of-the-art modern echocardiography, summarising established indications as well as highlighting advances in stress echocardiography, three-dimensional echocardiography, deformation imaging, and contrast echocardiography. Strengths and limitations of echocardiography are discussed as well as the growing role of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography in the guidance of structural heart interventions in the cardiac catheter laboratory. PMID:23878804

  14. Geometria da valva mitral derivada da ressonância magnética cardiovascular na avaliação da gravidade da regurgitação mitral Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging-derived mitral valve geometry in determining mitral regurgitation severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Mauricio Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A regurgitação mitral é a doença valvar cardíaca mais comum em todo o mundo. A ressonância magnética pode ser uma ferramenta útil para analisar os parâmetros da valva mitral. OBJETIVO: diferenciar padrões geométricos da valva mitral em pacientes com diferentes gravidades por regurgitação mitral (RM com base na ressonância magnética cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e três pacientes foram submetidos à ressonância magnética cardiovascular. Os parâmetros da valva mitral analisados foram: área (mm2 e ângulo (graus de tenting, altura do ventrículo (mm, altura do tenting (mm, folheto anterior, comprimento posterior do folheto (leaflet e diâmetro do anulo (mm. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, um incluindo pacientes que necessitaram de cirurgia da valva mitral e o outro os que não. RESULTADOS: Trinta e seis pacientes apresentaram de RM discreta a leve (1-2+ e 27 RM de moderada a grave (3-4+. Dez (15,9% dos 63 pacientes foram submetidos à cirurgia. Pacientes com RM mais grave tiveram maior diâmetro sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo (38,6 ± 10,2 vs. 45,4 ± 16,8, p BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation is the most common valvular heart disease worldwide. Magnetic resonance may be a useful tool to analyze mitral valve parameters. OBJECTIVE: To distinguish mitral valve geometric patterns in patients with different severities of mitral regurgitation (MR based on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Sixty-three patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Mitral valve parameters analyzed were: tenting area (mm2 and angle (degrees, ventricle height (mm, tenting height (mm, anterior leaflet, posterior leaflet length and annulus diameter (mm. Patients were divided into two groups, one including patients who required mitral valve surgery and another which did not. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients had trace to mild (1-2+ MR and 27 had moderate to severe MR (3-4+. Ten (15.9% out of

  15. Cine magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.; Sechtem, U.P.; Pflugfelder, P.

    1987-01-01

    Cine magnetic resonance (MR) is a fast MR imaging process with referencing of the imaging data to the electrocardiogram (ECG) so that images corresponding to 21-msec segments of the cardiac cycle are acquired. A series of such images, each corresponding to a 21-msec segment of the cardiac cycle, can be laced together for viewing in the cine format at a framing rate of 20 to 40 frames per second. Since cine angiograms of the heart are usually done at 30 frames per second, this technique achieves a temporal resolution adequate for the evluation of central cardiovascular function. The major application of this technique is to depict central cardiovascular function and blood flow

  16. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Uebleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a

  17. Obesity and cardiovascular risk: a call for action from the European Society of Hypertension Working Group of Obesity, Diabetes and the High-risk Patient and European Association for the Study of Obesity: part B: obesity-induced cardiovascular disease, early prevention strategies and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Antza, Christina; Seravalle, Gino; Coca, Antonio; Sierra, Cristina; Lurbe, Empar; Stabouli, Stella; Jelakovic, Bojan; Redon, Josep; Redon, Pau; Nilsson, Peter M; Jordan, Jens; Micic, Dragan; Finer, Nicholas; Leitner, Deborah R; Toplak, Hermann; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Athyros, Vasilios; Elisaf, Moses; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Grassi, Guido

    2018-04-12

    : Obesity predisposes for atrial fibrillation, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, renal disease and ischemic stroke, which are the main causes of cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. As obesity and the cardiovascular effects on the vessels and the heart start early in life, even from childhood, it is important for health policies to prevent obesity very early before the disease manifestation emerge. Key roles in the prevention are strategies to increase physical exercise, reduce body weight and to prevent or treat hypertension, lipids disorders and diabetes earlier and efficiently to prevent cardiovascular complications.

  18. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18FDG-PET will show FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. CMR, due to its capability to perform function and tissue characterisation, can offer an integrated imaging of aorta, coronary arteries and the heart, assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and guide further treatment. However, multimodality imaging may be necessary for assessment of disease activity and fibrosis extent in those cases with multifocal CV involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research and the European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular disease (Part III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, L; Rauch, B; Piepoli, M; van Buuren, F; Takken, T; Börjesson, M; Bjarnason-Wehrens, B; Doherty, P; Dugmore, D; Halle, M

    2012-12-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise training and exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on symptom-free exercise capacity,cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, quality of life, general healthy lifestyle, and reduction of depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress is nowadays well recognized. However, it remains largely obscure, which characteristics of physical activity (PA) and exercise training--frequency, intensity, time (duration), type (mode), and volume (dose: intensity x duration) of exercise--are the most effective. The present paper, therefore, will deal with these exercise characteristics in the management of individuals with cardiovascular disease, i.e. coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure patients, but also in patients with congenital or valvular heart disease. Based on the current literature, and if sufficient evidence is available, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise inpatients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance of the exercise characteristics in the management of cardiovascular health. Part I is directed to the general population and Part II to individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. In general, PA recommendations and exercise training programmes for patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure need to be tailored to the individual's exercise capacity and risk profile, with the aim to reach and maintain the individually highest fitness level possible and to perform endurance exercise training 30–60 min daily (3–5 days per week) in combination with resistance training 2–3 times a week. Because of the frequently reported dose–response relationship between training effect and exercise intensity, one should seek sufficiently high training intensities

  1. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  2. Magnet production for the LHC is complete!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 27 November, the LHC teams celebrated the end of production of the machine's main magnets. Some 1232 main dipole and 392 main quadrupole magnets have been manufactured in an unprecedented collaboration effort between CERN and European industry.

  3. Homocysteine and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, N; Samir, N; Megahed, H; Farid, E

    2014-11-01

    Chronic inflammation was found to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. Homocysteine (Hcy) and fibrinogen have been identified as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lichen planus is assumed to be closely related to dyslipidaemia. Several cytokines involved in lichen planus pathogenesis, could explain its association with dyslipidaemia. Also chronic inflammation with lichen planus has been suggested as a component of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to detect a panel of cardiovascular risk factors in patients of lichen planus. This study was done on 40 patients of lichen planus and 40 healthy controls. All patients and controls were subjected to clinical examination. Serum levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Metabolic syndrome parameters including anthropometric measures, lipid profiles, blood sugar and blood pressure were studied. Patients with lichen planus showed significant association with metabolic syndrome parameters than controls (P lichen planus patients than controls (P lichen planus were found to have higher makers of both metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to controls most probably due to long standing inflammation. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Left ventricular hypertrophy: The relationship between the electrocardiogram and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Ugander, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Conventional assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) using the electrocardiogram (ECG), for example, by the Sokolow-Lyon, Romhilt-Estes or Cornell criteria, have relied on assessing changes in the amplitude and/or duration of the QRS complex of the ECG to quantify LV mass. ECG measures of LV mass have typically been validated by imaging with echocardiography or cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). However, LVH can be the result of diverse etiologies, and LVH is also characterized by pathological changes in myocardial tissue characteristics on the genetic, molecular, cellular, and tissue level beyond a pure increase in the number of otherwise normal cardiomyocytes. For example, slowed conduction velocity through the myocardium, which can be due to diffuse myocardial fibrosis, has been shown to be an important determinant of conventional ECG LVH criteria regardless of LV mass. Myocardial tissue characterization by CMR has emerged to not only quantify LV mass, but also detect and quantify the extent and severity of focal or diffuse myocardial fibrosis, edema, inflammation, myocarditis, fatty replacement, myocardial disarray, and myocardial deposition of amyloid proteins (amyloidosis), glycolipids (Fabry disease), or iron (siderosis). This can be undertaken using CMR techniques including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), T1 mapping, T2 mapping, T2* mapping, extracellular volume fraction (ECV) mapping, fat/water-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor CMR. This review presents an overview of current and emerging concepts regarding the diagnostic possibilities of both ECG and CMR for LVH in an attempt to narrow gaps in our knowledge regarding the ECG diagnosis of LVH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Bibliometric analysis of the top 100 cited cardiovascular articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Waqas; Khan, Muhammad S; Shahid, Hassan; Valdes, Emilio A; Alweis, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The number of citations an article receives is an important indication of its impact and contribution to the clinical world. There is a paucity of literature concerning top article citations in cardiology. The main objective of this investigation was to bridge this gap and to provide readers a practical guide in evaluating the cardiovascular literature. Scopus Library database was searched to determine the citations of all published cardiovascular articles. One hundred two journals were included in our investigation under the Institute of Science Information Web of Science subject category "cardiology, cardiovascular, and heart." We did not apply any time or study-type restriction in our search. The top 100 cited articles were selected and analyzed by 2 independent investigators. The journal with the highest number of top 100 cited articles was Circulation with 36, followed by 28 in the European Heart Journal. A statistically significant association was found between the journal impact factor and the number of top 100 cited articles (p journals such as The Lancet (n = 4) and The New England Journal of Medicine (n = 1) contributed only 5 articles to the list despite their extremely high impact factors. In conclusion, our analysis provides an insight on the citation frequency of top cited articles published in cardiovascular medicine to help recognize the quality of the works, discoveries, and the trends steering cardiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Acceleration of cardiovascular MRI using parallel imaging: basic principles, practical considerations, clinical applications and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niendorf, T.; Sodickson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CVMR) imaging has proven to be of clinical value for non-invasive diagnostic imaging of cardiovascular diseases. CVMR requires rapid imaging; however, the speed of conventional MRI is fundamentally limited due to its sequential approach to image acquisition, in which data points are collected one after the other in the presence of sequentially-applied magnetic field gradients and radiofrequency coils to acquire multiple data points simultaneously, and thereby to increase imaging speed and efficiency beyond the limits of purely gradient-based approaches. The resulting improvements in imaging speed can be used in various ways, including shortening long examinations, improving spatial resolution and anatomic coverage, improving temporal resolution, enhancing image quality, overcoming physiological constraints, detecting and correcting for physiologic motion, and streamlining work flow. Examples of these strategies will be provided in this review, after some of the fundamentals of parallel imaging methods now in use for cardiovascular MRI are outlined. The emphasis will rest upon basic principles and clinical state-of-the art cardiovascular MRI applications. In addition, practical aspects such as signal-to-noise ratio considerations, tailored parallel imaging protocols and potential artifacts will be discussed, and current trends and future directions will be explored. (orig.)

  7. New tendencies in isotopic analysis of pesticide residues from wines by mass spectrometry in concordance with the European standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Irimescu, Rodica; Saros-Rogobete, Gili

    2006-01-01

    Multi-isotope analysis, the determination of isotope ratios by mass spectrometry or magnetic resonance spectroscopy, becomes increasingly used in the food industry and by national food control laboratories as a method of authenticating both raw materials and finished products. These highly sophisticated techniques are capable of determining the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs, thus providing a means of detecting product adulteration and controlling mislabelling practices which are virtually impossible to circumvent. The European Union has officially adopted the used of isotope analysis as a means of controlling sugar addition in wines. Its successful implementation in the wine-producing Member States has considerably reduced the financial losses which the Community had incurred due to over - capitalisation. Coupling mass spectrometer with gas chromatograph is used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of traces of pesticides from food. The presence of pesticides in foods is harmful for the nervous system, the cardiovascular apparatus and decreases the immunity of human body. In addition, ensuring the foods quality and safety is a requirement, which must be fulfilled for the integration in EU. The subject of this paper is the presentation of the tests results of the isotopic analysis for pesticide residues in wines, in concordance with European Standard. (authors)

  8. Functional valve assessment: the emerging role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipan J

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of valvular heart disease is increasing along with the life span of the population. In assessing individuals with valve disease, echocardiography is the primary imaging modality used by clinicians both for initial assessment and for longitudinal evaluation. Information regarding valve morphology and function, cardiac chamber size, wall thickness, ventricular function, and estimates of pulmonary artery pressures can be readily obtained and integrated to formulate an assessment of valve disease severity. In some instances, body habitus or the presence of coexisting lung disease may result in suboptimal acoustic windows on echocardiography, which may lead to technically difficult studies. Additionally, in some patients, information from clinical history and physical examination or other diagnostic tests may be discordant with echocardiographic findings. In these instances, there is a significant clinical role for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The diagnostic capabilities of CMR have increased substantially over the past 20 years due to hardware and software advances. Today, CMR has a number of unique advantages over other imaging modalities - primarily, it provides a view of the entire heart without limitations from inadequate imaging windows or body habitus. Furthermore, CMR can obtain imaging data in any imaging plane prescribed by the scan operator, which makes it ideal for accurate investigation of all cardiac valves - aortic, mitral, pulmonic, and tricuspid. In addition, CMR for valve assessment is noninvasive, free of ionizing radiation, and in most instances does not require contrast administration. Since a comprehensive review of the role of CMR in all valve lesions is beyond the scope of this article, we will focus on the most common valvular indication for performance of clinical CMR techniques and an overview of selected validation and reproducibility studies. The objectives of a comprehensive CMR study for evaluating mitral

  9. Large superconducting magnet systems for plasma and fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, W.

    1976-05-01

    Work on superconducting magnet systems and state of the art of superconducting magnet technology are described. Conceptual design consideration and problems of large magnet systems (stability, magnetic forces, cooling modes, safety) are discussed. Recent results of experimental work at Karlsruhe are reported. An outline of American and European programs is given. (orig.) [de

  10. Nurses' Role in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in People with Inflammatory Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jette; Ferreira, Ricardo J O; Garcia-Diaz, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    , in order to suggest topics for practice development and research in this area regarding persons with IA. METHODS: We searched Embase, Cinahl, Cochrane, PsycInfo and PubMed databases and included European articles from the past ten years if they described how nurses assess and/or manage CVR. In addition...... to the systematic review, we provided case studies from five different countries to illustrate national guidelines and nurses' role regarding CVR assessment and management in patients with IA. RESULTS: Thirty-three articles were included. We found that trained nurses were undertaking CVR assessment and management......INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment and management in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is recommended but European nurses' involvement in this role has not been well studied. AIM: The aim of the present study was to explore European nurses' role in assessing and managing CVR...

  11. Strain-encoding cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of right-ventricular regional function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham M Roselle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue tagging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a comprehensive method for the assessment of cardiac regional function. However, imaging the right ventricle (RV using this technique is problematic due to the thin wall of the RV relative to tag spacing which limits assessment of regional function using conventional in-plane tagging. Hypothesis We hypothesize that the use of through-plane tags in the strain-encoding (SENC CMR technique would result in reproducible measurements of the RV regional function due to the high image quality and spatial resolution possible with SENC. Aim To test the intra- and inter-observer variabilities of RV peak systolic strain measurements with SENC CMR for assessment of RV regional function (systolic strain in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers (n = 21 were imaged using SENC. A four-chamber view was acquired in a single breath-hold. Circumferential strain was measured during systole at six equidistant points along the RV free wall. Peak contraction is defined as the maximum value of circumferential strain averaged from the six points, and regional function is defined as the strain value at each point at the time of peak contraction. Results Mean values for peak circumferential strain (± standard deviation of the basal, mid, and apical regions of the RV free wall were -20.4 ± 2.9%, -18.8 ± 3.9%, and -16.5 ± 5.7%, Altman plots showed good intra- and inter-observer agreements with mean difference of 0.11% and 0.32% and limits of agreement of -4.038 to 4.174 and -4.903 to 5.836, respectively. Conclusion SENC CMR allows for rapid quantification of RV regional function with low intra- and inter-observer variabilities, which could permit accurate quantification of regional strain in patients with RV dysfunction.

  12. Routine evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vido Diane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has excellent capabilities to assess ventricular systolic function. Current clinical scenarios warrant routine evaluation of ventricular diastolic function for complete evaluation, especially in congestive heart failure patients. To our knowledge, no systematic assessment of diastolic function over a range of lusitropy has been performed using CMR. Methods and Results Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed in 31 subjects (10 controls who underwent CMR and compared with Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE evaluation of mitral valve (MV and pulmonary vein (PV blood flow. Blood flow in the MV and PV were successfully imaged by CMR for all cases (31/31,100% while TTE evaluated flow in all MV (31/31,100% but only 21/31 PV (68% cases. Velocities of MV flow (E and A measured by CMR correlated well with TTE (r = 0.81, p Conclusion We have shown that there is homology between CMR and TTE for the assessment of diastolic inflow over a wide range of conditions, including normal, impaired relaxation and restrictive. There is excellent agreement of quantitative velocity measurements between CMR and TTE. Diastolic blood flow assessment by CMR can be performed in a single scan, with times ranging from 20 sec to 3 min, and we show that there is good indication for applying CMR to assess diastolic conditions, either as an adjunctive test when evaluating systolic function, or even as a primary test when TTE data cannot be obtained.

  13. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR SCREENING OF ADULTS PARTICIPATING IN LEISURE-TIME SPORT ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Ažman Juvan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in regular moderate aerobic physical activity and increased physical fitness is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, which is after the age of 35 most often due to coronary events. On the other hand, moderate and vigorous physical exertion is associated with an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death in individuals harbouring cardiovascular disease. The risk-benefit ratio may differ in relation to the individual's age, fitness level and the presence and type of cardiovascular disease.The latest position stand of the European association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation on cardiovascular evaluation in middle aged/senior individuals, who are contemplating exercise or who are already engaged in nonprofessional competitive or recreational leisure sporting activity, is presented in the article. The aim of recommendations is to evaluate and encourage as many individuals as possible to participate in regular physical activity while minimizing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Recommendations are based on the individual's risk profile and the intended level of physical activity. Because of the large size of the population, an initial self assessment through health questionaire is proposed, relating to symptoms, risk factors for coronary artery disease and habitual exercise level. For those with positive self-assessed risk profile and those willing to perform high-intensity activities, a further risk stratification/evaluation should be performed by a qualified physician. In individuals with an increased risk for coronary events, maximal exerise is advocated and then further (cardiological evaluation when needed.

  14. [Consensus on objectives and action guidelines on low density lipoproteins-cholesterol control in very high risk cardiovascular patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Enrique; Guijarro-Herraiz, Carlos; Masana-Marin, Luis; Cordero-Fort, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Among cardiovascular disease risk factors one of the most relevant is low-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol (LDL-c), but there is controversy about the methods used to control it. The aim was to obtain an expert opinion to clarify the most relevant issues regarding the control of dyslipidemia in very high cardiovascular risk patients. A survey with 55 items, stratified into 4 blocks: LDL-c as a therapeutic target, therapeutic goals, causes of the failure to achieve LDL-c goals, and recommendations to optimize their achievement, was addressed to 41 specialists (Cardiology and Internal Medicine) using the Delphi method to achieve professional consensus criteria. A high consensus was reached among all items, in line with the European recommendations. The panelists considered that the goal of 70mg/dl for LDL-c for high cardiovascular disease risk (mainly vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure), using combined treatment when necessary. Lack of adherence and therapeutic inertia were considered the main reasons for treatment failure. The Spanish experts show an elevated consensus with the European recommendations, confirming the LDL-c control target of <70mg/dl. The simplification of the guidelines and the combined treatment may favor an improvement the achievement of lipid target goals. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalian, Hamid; O'Donnell, James K; Bolen, Michael; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular system is affected by a wide range of pathological processes, including neoplastic, inflammatory, ischemic, and congenital aetiology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are state-of-the-art imaging modalities used in the evaluation of these cardiovascular disorders. MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization and multi-planar imaging/reconstruction capabilities, which makes it useful in the evaluation of cardiac morphology, ventricular and valvar function, disease characterization, and evaluation of myocardial viability. FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of the cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia, inflammation, and neoplasm. MRI and FDG-PET can provide complementary information on the evaluation of several cardiovascular disorders. For example, in cardiac masses, FDG-PET provides the metabolic information for indeterminate cardiac masses. MRI can be used for localizing and characterizing abnormal hypermetabolic foci identified incidentally on PET scan and also for local staging. A recent advance in imaging technology has been the development of integrated PET/MRI systems that utilize the advantages of PET and MRI in a single examination. The goal of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review on the incremental value of PET and MRI in the evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. • MRI has good spatial and temporal resolutions, tissue characterization, and multi-planar reconstruction • FDG-PET provides valuable information on the metabolic activity of cardiovascular disorders • PET and MRI provide complementary information on the evaluation of cardiovascular disorders.

  16. The contribution of educational class in improving accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction across European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrario, Marco M; Veronesi, Giovanni; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether educational class, an index of socioeconomic position, improves the accuracy of the SCORE cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equation. METHODS: In a pooled analysis of 68 455 40-64-year-old men and women, free from coronary heart disease at baseline, from 47...

  17. Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 1: guidance and optimization of coronary interventions. An expert consensus document of the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions: Endorsed by the Chinese Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räber, Lorenz; Mintz, Gary S; Koskinas, Konstantinos C; Johnson, Thomas W; Holm, Niels R; Onuma, Yoshinubo; Radu, Maria D; Joner, Michael; Yu, Bo; Jia, Haibo; Menevau, Nicolas; de la Torre Hernandez, Jose M; Escaned, Javier; Hill, Jonathan; Prati, Francesco; Colombo, Antonio; di Mario, Carlo; Regar, Evelyn; Capodanno, Davide; Wijns, William; Byrne, Robert A; Guagliumi, Giulio

    2018-05-22

    This Consensus Document is the first of two reports summarizing the views of an expert panel organized by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on the clinical use of intracoronary imaging including intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The first document appraises the role of intracoronary imaging to guide percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in clinical practice. Current evidence regarding the impact of intracoronary imaging guidance on cardiovascular outcomes is summarized, and patients or lesions most likely to derive clinical benefit from an imaging-guided intervention are identified. The relevance of the use of IVUS or OCT prior to PCI for optimizing stent sizing (stent length and diameter) and planning the procedural strategy is discussed. Regarding post-implantation imaging, the consensus group recommends key parameters that characterize an optimal PCI result and provides cut-offs to guide corrective measures and optimize the stenting result. Moreover, routine performance of intracoronary imaging in patients with stent failure (restenosis or stent thrombosis) is recommended. Finally, strengths and limitations of IVUS and OCT for guiding PCI and assessing stent failures and areas that warrant further research are critically discussed.

  18. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  19. Fostering diffusion of scientific contents of National Society Cardiovascular Journals: The new ESC search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Gonçalves, Lino; Pinto, Fausto; Timmis, Adam; Ector, Hugo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Vardas, Panos

    2015-05-01

    European Society of Cardiology (ESC) National Society Cardiovascular Journals (NSCJs) are high-quality biomedical journals focused on cardiovascular diseases. The Editors' Network of the ESC devises editorial initiatives aimed at improving the scientific quality and diffusion of NSCJ. In this article we will discuss on the importance of the Internet, electronic editions and open access strategies on scientific publishing. Finally, we will propose a new editorial initiative based on a novel electronic tool on the ESC web-page that may further help to increase the dissemination of contents and visibility of NSCJs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Advancing Cardiovascular, Neurovascular and Renal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Small Rodents Using Cryogenic Radiofrequency Coil Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoralf eNiendorf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in pathologies of the brain, heart and kidney have gained immensely from the plethora of studies that have helped shape new methods in magnetic resonance (MR for characterizing preclinical disease models. Methodical probing into preclinical animal models by MR is invaluable since it allows a careful interpretation and extrapolation of data derived from these models to human disease. In this review we will focus on the applications of cryogenic radiofrequency (RF coils in small animal MR as a means of boosting image quality (e.g. by supporting MR microscopy and making data acquisition more efficient (e.g. by reducing measuring time; both being important constituents for thorough investigational studies on animal models of disease. This review attempts to make the (biomedical imaging, molecular medicine and pharmaceutical communities aware of this productive ferment and its outstanding significance for anatomical and functional MR in small rodents. The goal is to inspire a more intense interdisciplinary collaboration across the fields to further advance and progress non-invasive MR methods that ultimately support thorough (pathophysiological characterization of animal disease models. In this review, current and potential future applications for the RF coil technology in cardiovascular, neurovascular and renal disease will be discussed.

  1. Lack of control of hypertension in primary cardiovascular disease prevention in Europe: Results from the EURIKA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Claudio; Tubach, Florence; De Backer, Guy; Dallongeville, Jean; Guallar, Eliseo; Medina, Jesús; Perk, Joep; Roy, Carine; Banegas, José R; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Halcox, Julian P

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of and factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension and apparent resistant hypertension were assessed in the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; NCT00882336). EURIKA was a cross-sectional observational study including patients being treated for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 12 European countries. Patients were assessed if they were being treated for hypertension (N=5220). Blood pressure control was defined according to European guidelines, with sensitivity analysis taking account of patients' age and diabetes status. Associated factors were assessed using multivariate analysis. In the primary analysis, a total of 2691 patients (51.6%) had uncontrolled hypertension. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of having uncontrolled hypertension included female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.93-2.73), body mass index (BMI; OR per kg/m(2): 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and geographic location. A total of 749 patients (14.3%) had apparent resistant hypertension. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of having apparent resistant hypertension included BMI (OR per kg/m(2): 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04-1.08), diabetes (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.53), use of statins (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.15-1.62), serum uric acid levels (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.09-1.23), and geographic location. Similar results were seen in sensitivity analyses. Over 50% of patients treated for hypertension continued to have uncontrolled blood pressure and 14.3% had apparent resistant hypertension. Positive associations were seen with other cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiovascular safety of vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes: A European multi-database, non-interventional post-authorization safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachael; de Vries, Frank; Kothny, Wolfgang; Serban, Carmen; Lopez-Leon, Sandra; Chu, Changan; Schlienger, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this non-interventional, multi-database, analytical cohort study was to assess the cardiovascular (CV) safety of vildagliptin vs other non-insulin antidiabetic drugs (NIADs) using real-world data from 5 European electronic healthcare databases. Patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years on NIAD treatment were enrolled. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the outcomes of interest (myocardial infarction [MI], acute coronary syndrome [ACS], stroke, congestive heart failure [CHF], individually and as a composite) were estimated using negative binomial regression. Approximately 2.8% of the enrolled patients (n = 738 054) used vildagliptin at any time during the study, with an average follow-up time of 1.4 years, resulting in a cumulative current vildagliptin exposure of 28 330 person-years. The adjusted IRRs (vildagliptin [±other NIADs] vs other NIADs) were in the range of 0.61 to 0.97 (MI), 0.55 to 1.60 (ACS), 0.02 to 0.77 (stroke), 0.49 to 1.03 (CHF), and 0.22 to 1.02 (composite CV outcomes). The IRRs and their 95% CIs were close to 1, demonstrating no increased risk of adverse CV events, including the risk of CHF, with vildagliptin vs other NIADs in real-world conditions. © 2017 Crown copyright. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The interplay between adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system: is fat always bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianakis, Ioannis; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological 'quality' of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognised as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers, and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways. Despite being able to mediate normal cardiovascular function under physiological conditions, AT undergoes a phenotypic shift characterised by acquisition of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory properties in cases of CVD. Crucially, recent evidence suggests that AT depots such as perivascular AT and epicardial AT are able to modify their phenotype in response to local signals of vascular and myocardial origin, respectively. Utilisation of this unique property of certain AT depots to dynamically track cardiovascular biology may reveal novel diagnostic and prognostic tools against CVD. Better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the 'quality' of AT secretome, as well as the communication links between AT and the cardiovascular system, is required for the efficient management of CVD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Bridging the gap between measurements and modelling: a cardiovascular functional avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Belén; Lantz, Jonas; Viola, Federica; Cedersund, Gunnar; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Karlsson, Matts; Ebbers, Tino

    2017-07-24

    Lumped parameter models of the cardiovascular system have the potential to assist researchers and clinicians to better understand cardiovascular function. The value of such models increases when they are subject specific. However, most approaches to personalize lumped parameter models have thus far required invasive measurements or fall short of being subject specific due to a lack of the necessary clinical data. Here, we propose an approach to personalize parameters in a model of the heart and the systemic circulation using exclusively non-invasive measurements. The personalized model is created using flow data from four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and cuff pressure measurements in the brachial artery. We term this personalized model the cardiovascular avatar. In our proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the capability of the avatar to reproduce pressures and flows in a group of eight healthy subjects. Both quantitatively and qualitatively, the model-based results agreed well with the pressure and flow measurements obtained in vivo for each subject. This non-invasive and personalized approach can synthesize medical data into clinically relevant indicators of cardiovascular function, and estimate hemodynamic variables that cannot be assessed directly from clinical measurements.

  5. EUROASPIRE (European Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) III--a comparison of Irish and European results.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, M T

    2009-04-01

    The EUROASPIRE III audit was a Europe-wide study which took place in 2006\\/2007. The objective was to examine the control of risk factors in subjects with established cardiovascular disease. Here, we compare the Irish results to those of the other 21 European countries which participated. Control of blood cholesterol was significantly better in Irish participants, with 73% below the target of 4.5 mmol\\/l. Blood pressure control was less satisfactory in both Irish and European individuals, with an average of 52% of Irish participants not achieving blood pressure targets. Medication usage was high throughout, particularly anti-platelet agents, beta-blockers and, especially in Ireland, statins. Obesity figures were particularly high in Ireland and throughout Europe, with 82% Irish men and women either overweight or obese. Smoking figures in Irish women were also of concern, with 24% continuing to smoke. Cardiac rehabilitation attendance was particularly high in Ireland, with 68% attending; substantially higher than the European figure of 34%. In common with the rest of Europe, current control of body weight and blood pressure in Ireland is unsatisfactory and in need of increased consideration on the part of both patients and healthcare professionals.

  6. Long-termexposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution, and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and lifelines cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Yutong; Hansell, Anna L.; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R.; de Hoogh, Kees; Doiron, Dany; Fortier, Isabel; Gulliver, John; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stéphane; Morley, DavidW.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Elliott, Paul; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Blood biochemistry may provide information on associations between road traffic noise, air pollution, and cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated this in two large European cohorts (HUNT3, Lifelines). Methods and results: Road traffic noise exposure was modelled for 2009 using a simplified

  7. Electrical detection of magnetization reversal without auxiliary magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejník, Kamil; Novák, Vít; Wunderlich, Joerg; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 18 (2015), , "180402-1"-"180402-5" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin Hall effect * magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  8. Effect of endocardial trabeculae on left ventricular measurements and measurement reproducibility at cardiovascular MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papavassiliu, T.; Kuhl, H.P.; Schroder, M.; Suselbeck, T.; Bondarenko, O.; Bohm, C.K.; van de Beek, A.; Hofman, M.M.; van Rossum, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To prospectively assess the effect of including or excluding endocardial trabeculae in left ventricular (LV) measurements and the reproducibility of these measurements at cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with true fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP).

  9. Geriatric patient profile in the cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korha, E.A.; Hakverdioglu, G.; Ozlem, M.; Yurekli, I.; Gurbuz, A.; Alp, N.A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine hospitalization durations and mortalities of elderly in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in a Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit in Turkey and comprised patient records from January 1 to December 31, 2011. Computerized epicrisis reports of 255, who had undergone a cardiac surgery were collected. The patients were grouped according to their ages, Group I aged 65-74 and Group II aged 75 and older. European society for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores of the two groups were compared using SPSS 17. Results: Overall, there were 80 (31.37%) females and 175 (68.62%) males. There were 138 (54.1%) patients in Group I and 117 (45.9%) in Group II. Regarding their hospitalization reasons, it was determined that 70 (27.5%) patients in Group I and 79 (30.9%) patients in Group II were treated with the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The average hospitalization duration of patients in the intensive care unit was determined to be 11.57+-10.40 days. Regarding the EuroSCORE score intervals of patients, 132 (51.8%)had 3-5 and 225 (88.2%) patients were transferred to the Cardiovascular Surgery and then all of them were discharged; 5 (4.1%) had a mortal course; and 11 (7.7%) were transferred to the anaesthesia intensive care unit Conclusions: The general mortality rates are very low in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit and the patients have a good prognosis. (author)

  10. Geriatric patient profile in the cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Esra Akin; Hakverdioglu, Gulendam; Ozlem, Maryem; Ozlem, Maryem; Yurekli, Ismail; Gurbuz, Ali; Alp, Nilgun Akalin

    2013-11-01

    To determine hospitalization durations and mortalities of elderly in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit. The retrospective study was conducted in a Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit in Turkey and comprised patient records from January 1 to December 31, 2011. Computerized epicrisis reports of 255, who had undergone a cardiac surgery were collected. The patients were grouped according to their ages, Group I aged 65-74 and Group II aged 75 and older. European society for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation scores of the two groups were compared using SPSS 17. Overall, there were 80 (31.37%) females and 175 (68.62%) males. There were 138 (54.1%) patients in Group I and 117 (45.9%) in Group II. Regarding their hospitalization reasons, it was determined that 70 (27.5%) patients in Group I and 79 (30.9%) patients in Group II were treated with the diagnosis ofcoronary artery disease. The average hospitalization duration of patients in the intensive care unit was determined to be 11.57 +/- 0.40 days. Regarding the EuroSCORE score intervals of patients, 132 (51.8%) had 3-5 and 225 (88.2%) patients were transferred to the Cardiovascular Surgery and then all of them were discharged; 5 (4.1%) had a mortal course; and 11 (7.7%) were transferred to the anaesthesia intensive care unit. The general mortality rates are very low in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit and the patients have a good prognosis.

  11. Urban Environment in European Big Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Cetkovský, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Klusáček, Petr; Kolibová, Barbora; Lacina, Jan; Mikulík, Oldřich; Zapletalová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2006), s. 46-62 ISSN 1210-8812 Grant - others:EU(XE) EVK4-CT-2002-00086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : European big cities * urban environment * reurbanisation * životní prostředí * Bologna * Ljubljana * León * Brno * Leipzig Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  12. The future of the cardiovascular image; El futuro de la imagen cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna M, J A [Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  13. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. Study Design and Setting: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  14. Ethnic disparities in educational and occupational gradients of estimated cardiovascular disease risk: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perini, Wilco; Agyemang, Charles; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    European societies are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse. This may have important implications for socio-economic inequalities in health due to the often disadvantaged position of ethnic minority groups in both socio-economic status (SES) and disease, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  15. Physical activity and cardiovascular prevention: Is healthy urban living a possible reality or utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Giordano, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Favoring correct lifestyles is the most important measure to contrast cardiovascular diseases and the epidemic of high cardiovascular risk conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Lifestyle is a broad expression that includes diet, physical exercise, and psychological and socio-economic factors, each of which must be taken into due consideration because of their intertwining influences, which may be a barrier to healthy changes at both the individual and population levels. While physical activity has probably received less attention in the last decades, it is likely the most important among the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Improving the habitual physical activity level is an achievable goal, and even small improvements may have important favorable effects on health. Strategies at the population level have to be urgently taken, and involve not only public health, but also administrators and politicians, starting from a rethinking of our cities. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Repaired tetralogy of Fallot: the roles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in evaluating pathophysiology and for pulmonary valve replacement decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in anatomic and functional abnormalities in the majority of patients. Although right ventricular volume load due to severe pulmonary regurgitation can be tolerated for many years, there is now evidence that the compensatory mechanisms of the right ventricular myocardium ultimately fail and that if the volume load is not eliminated or reduced by pulmonary valve replacement the dysfunction might be irreversible. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved during the last 2 decades as the reference standard imaging modality to assess the anatomic and functional sequelae in patients with repaired TOF. This article reviews the pathophysiology of chronic right ventricular volume load after TOF repair and the risks and benefits of pulmonary valve replacement. The CMR techniques used to comprehensively evaluate the patient with repaired TOF are reviewed and the role of CMR in supporting clinical decisions regarding pulmonary valve replacement is discussed. PMID:21251297

  17. Pioglitazone and cause-specific risk of mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: extended analysis from a European multidatabase cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongman, Helen; Christopher, Solomon; Majak, Maila; Williams, Rachael; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Linder, Marie; Heintjes, Edith M; Bennett, Dimitri; Korhonen, Pasi; Hoti, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Describe and compare the risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in patients whose antidiabetic therapy is modified to include pioglitazone compared with an alternative antidiabetic medication at the same stage of disease progression. This exploratory linked database cohort analysis used pooled health and mortality data from three European countries: Finland, Sweden and the UK. Propensity score together with exact matching was used to match 31 133 patients with type 2 diabetes first prescribed pioglitazone from 2000 to 2011, to 31 133 patients never prescribed pioglitazone. Exact matching variables were treatment stage, history of diabetes, diabetes complications and cardiovascular disease, and year of cohort entry. Mean follow-up time was 2.60 (SD 2.00) and 2.69 (SD 2.31) years in the pioglitazone and non-pioglitazone-exposed groups, respectively. Crude cause-specific mortality rates were ascertained. Association with pioglitazone use was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted a priori for country, age, sex, the propensity score quintile and time-dependent variables representing use of antidiabetic drugs. Stepwise testing identified no additional confounders to include in adjusted models. The crude mortality rate was lower in the pioglitazone-exposed group than the non-exposed group for both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. Adjusted HRs comparing pioglitazone to alternative antidiabetic exposure were 0.58 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.63) and 0.63 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.68) for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality, respectively. A protective effect associated with pioglitazone was also found for all specific cardiovascular causes. This analysis suggests that pioglitazone is associated with a decrease in both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. Results should be interpreted with caution due to the potential for residual confounding in this exploratory analysis. Further studies, specifically designed to test

  18. The influence of the work environment on cardiovascular health: a historical, conceptual, and methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasl, S V

    1996-01-01

    The framework of psychosocial epidemiology is used to examine research developments that characterize the accumulation of knowledge regarding the role of the work environment in cardiovascular health and disease. The discussion of current programs of research focuses on the work of T. Theorell and R. Karasek (1996) and J. Siegrist (1996) as exemplars of European and American studies that have contributed the most to the understanding of occupational cardiovascular health. It is argued that researchers need to maintain and nurture relatively broad conceptual models of etiology because cardiovascular disease involves multiple biomedical risk factors and because specific aspects of the work environment are embedded in a large, complex matrix of other psychosocial influences. At the same time, investigators need to push ahead with focused research strategies to clarify the precise nature of the work environmental risk factors that emerge in the broad, somewhat imprecise epidemiologic study designs.

  19. Separate and combined associations of obesity and metabolic health with coronary heart disease: a pan-European case-cohort analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassale, Camille; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Moons, Karel G M; Sweeting, Michael; Boer, Jolanda; Johnson, Laura; Huerta, José María; Agnoli, Claudia; Freisling, Heinz; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wennberg, Patrik; van der A, Daphne L; Arriola, Larraitz; Benetou, Vassiliki; Boeing, Heiner; Bonnet, Fabrice; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra M; Engström, Gunnar; Eriksen, Anne K; Ferrari, Pietro; Grioni, Sara; Johansson, Matthias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Katsoulis, Michail; Katzke, Verena; Key, Timothy J; Matullo, Giuseppe; Melander, Olle; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Norberg, Margareta; Overvad, Kim; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Saieva, Calogero; Skeie, Guri; Steffen, Annika; Stepien, Magdalena; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tumino, Rosario; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique; Langenberg, Claudia; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J; Danesh, John; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    The hypothesis of 'metabolically healthy obesity' implies that, in the absence of metabolic dysfunction, individuals with excess adiposity are not at greater cardiovascular risk. We tested this hypothesis in a large pan-European prospective study.

  20. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics Policy Statement No 14, The role of the Medical Physicist in the management of safety within the magnetic resonance imaging environment, EFOMP recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hand, J.; Bosmans, H.; Caruana, C.; Keevil, S.; Norris, David Gordon; Padovani, R.; Speck, O.

    2013-01-01

    This European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP) Policy Statement outlines the way in which a Safety Management System can be developed for MRI units. The Policy Statement can help eliminate or at least minimize accidents or incidents in the magnetic resonance environment and is

  1. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction...... and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention...... and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling...

  2. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Addo, Juliet; Bhopal, Raj; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Stronks, Karien

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups.

  4. Magnetic circular dichroism in electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusz, Ján; Novák, Pavel; Rubino, S.; Hébert, C.; Schattschneider, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2008), s. 599-604 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG'07. Košice, 09.07.2007-12.07.2007] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 508971 - CHIRALTEM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnetic circular dichroism * electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2008

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging - first human images in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddeley, H.; Doddrell, D.M.; Brooks, W.M.; Field, J.; Irving, M.; Williams, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging, in the demonstration of internal human anatomy and in the diagnosis of disease, has the major advantages that the technique is non-invasive, does not require the use of ionizing radiation and that it can demonstrate neurological and cardiovascular lesions that cannot be diagnosed easily by other imaging methods. The first magnetic resonance images of humans were obtained in Australia in October 1985 on the research instrument of the Queensland Medical Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, which is based at the Mater Hospital in Brisbane

  6. The European Medicines Agency's approval of new medicines for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blind, Eberhard; Janssen, Heidi; Dunder, Kristina; de Graeff, Pieter A

    2018-05-08

    Since 2005, more than 40 new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes have been introduced on the market. These consist of 15 new active substances establishing three new classes of non-insulin products, and several new or modified insulin products and combinations. The approval of these products in Europe is regulated via the centralized procedure at the European Medicines Agency. Demonstration of benefit with regard to improved glucose control remains the principal outcome required from confirmatory studies to demonstrate efficacy. For the majority of these new medicines approved since 2005, cardiovascular outcome trials have now been completed, and have invariably supported the cardiovascular safety of these products. In some of these trials additional important benefits have been observed, for instance, a reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events and improvement of renal outcome. The existing regulatory framework and the continuous adaption of regulatory requirements to emerging developments will continue to guide the approval of new products in the future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a pediatric population with isolated left ventricular non-compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction (LVNC is an uncommon disorder characterized by the presence of increased trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In adults, it has been found that Ejection Fraction (EF decreases significantly as non-compaction severity increases. In children however, there are a few data describing the relation between anatomical characteristics of LVNC and ventricular function. We aimed to find correlations between morphological features and ventricular performance in children and young adolescents with LVNC using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR. Methods 15 children with LVNC (10 males, mean age 9.7 y.o., range 0.6 - 17 y.o., underwent a CMR scan. Different morphological measures such as the Compacted Myocardial Mass (CMM, Non-Compaction (NC to the Compaction (C distance ratio, Compacted Myocardial Area (CMA and Non-Compacted Myocardial Area (NCMA, distribution of NC, and the assessment of ventricular wall motion abnormalities were performed to investigate correlations with ventricular performance. EF was considered normal over 53%. Results The distribution of non-compaction in children was similar to published adult data with a predilection for apical, mid-inferior and mid-lateral segments. Five patients had systolic dysfunction with decreased EF. The number of affected segments was the strongest predictor of systolic dysfunction, all five patients had greater than 9 affected segments. Basal segments were less commonly affected but they were affected only in these five severe cases. Conclusion The segmental pattern of involvement of non-compaction in children is similar to that seen in adults. Systolic dysfunction in children is closely related to the number of affected segments.

  8. Primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease in the community (PREVENTS): Methodology of a health wellness coaching intervention to reduce stroke and cardiovascular disease risk, a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Susan; Krishnamurthi, Rita; Vandal, Alain; Witt, Emma; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Parmar, Priya; Theadom, Alice; Barber, Alan; Arroll, Bruce; Rush, Elaine; Elder, Hinemoa; Dyer, Jesse; Feigin, Valery

    2018-02-01

    Rationale Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet 80% of strokes can be prevented through modifications of risk factors and lifestyle and by medication. While management strategies for primary stroke prevention in high cardiovascular disease risk individuals are well established, they are underutilized and existing practice of primary stroke prevention are inadequate. Behavioral interventions are emerging as highly promising strategies to improve cardiovascular disease risk factor management. Health Wellness Coaching is an innovative, patient-focused and cost-effective, multidimensional psychological intervention designed to motivate participants to adhere to recommended medication and lifestyle changes and has been shown to improve health and enhance well-being. Aims and/or hypothesis To determine the effectiveness of Health Wellness Coaching for primary stroke prevention in an ethnically diverse sample including Māori, Pacific Island, New Zealand European and Asian participants. Design A parallel, prospective, randomized, open-treatment, single-blinded end-point trial. Participants include 320 adults with absolute five-year cardiovascular disease risk ≥ 10%, calculated using the PREDICT web-based clinical tool. Randomization will be to Health Wellness Coaching or usual care groups. Participants randomized to Health Wellness Coaching will receive 15 coaching sessions over nine months. Study outcomes A substantial relative risk reduction of five-year cardiovascular disease risk at nine months post-randomization, which is defined as 10% relative risk reduction among those at moderate five-year cardiovascular disease risk (10-15%) and 25% among those at high risk (>15%). Discussion This clinical trial will determine whether Health Wellness Coaching is an effective intervention for reducing modifiable risk factors, and hence decrease the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease.

  9. PPARGC1A sequence variation and cardiovascular risk-factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, E C; Vimaleswaran, K S; Brage, S

    2009-01-01

    .005; rs13117172, p = 0.008) and fasting glucose concentrations (rs7657071, p = 0.002). None remained significant after correcting for the number of statistical comparisons. We proceeded by testing for gene x physical activity interactions for the polymorphisms that showed nominal evidence of association...... in the main effect models. None of these tests was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Variants at PPARGC1A may influence several metabolic traits in this European paediatric cohort. However, variation at PPARGC1A is unlikely to have a major impact on cardiovascular or metabolic health...

  10. Cardiovascular risk management of different ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in primary care in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Selak, Vanessa; Drury, Paul L; Kerse, Ngaire; Pearson, Janet; Lay-Yee, Roy; Arroll, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular preventive and renal protective treatment for different ethnic groups with diabetes in primary care. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes attending an annual review in New Zealand primary care during 2004. Primary care data were linked to hospital admission data to identify previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). For those without previous CVD, 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated. Proportions on, and predictors of appropriate treatment according to guidelines were investigated. Data were available on 29,179 patients. Maori and Pacific participants had high rates of obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Two thirds of all participants with previous CVD (68% of Maori and 70% of Pacific) and 44% with high CVD risk received appropriate CVD treatment; 73% of Maori, 62% of Pacific and 65% of European patients with albuminuria received ACE-inhibitors. Those with high CVD risk were more likely, and those that were young were less likely, to receive anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment after controlling for other factors. Maori and Pacific people were receiving similar high rates of appropriate CVD and renal preventive drug therapy to Europeans, but their prevalence of smoking, obesity, raised HbA1c and albuminuria were substantially higher. Non-drug components of preventive care also need to be addressed to reduce major ethnic disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in New Zealand.

  11. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: impact on statin therapy-European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel Statement on Assessment, Aetiology and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroes, Erik S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Corsini, Alberto; Vladutiu, Georgirene D.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Roden, Michael; Stein, Evan; Tokgözoğlu, Lale; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bruckert, Eric; de Backer, Guy; Krauss, Ronald M.; Laufs, Ulrich; Santos, Raul D.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mach, Francois; März, Winfried; Newman, Connie B.; Wiklund, Olov; Jacobson, Terry A.; Catapano, Alberico L.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Leiter, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are one of the principal reasons for statin non-adherence and/or discontinuation, contributing to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel overviews current understanding of the pathophysiology of

  12. Patients' Experiences of Nurse-Led Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Jannie Christina; Primdahl, Jette

    2015-01-01

    organization of screening programmes. METHODS: Three qualitative focus group interviews were carried out with 14 outpatients diagnosed with RA. The participants were stratified into groups, depending on whether they had a low-to-moderate or high ten-year risk of cardiovascular death according to the European...... screening programmes for CVD for patients with RA, it is important that the screening consultation is individualized and tailored to patients' needs and their RA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  13. 6th European symposium on uroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujlov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Materials of the 6th European symposium on uroradiology held in Strasbourg (France) in September, 1998. Symposium topics included problems of radiological diagnosis of kidneys, renovascular hypertension, man and woman sterility, pelvis organs of men and women, functional studies of lower urinary tract, pediatric and interventional uroradiology. Great attention is paid to magnetic resonance tomography, ultrasonography and conventional biomedical radiography [ru

  14. Klinefelter syndrome, cardiovascular system, and thromboembolic disease: review of literature and clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; Esposito, Daniela; Accardo, Giacomo; Giallauria, Francesco; Bossone, Eduardo; Vigorito, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Pasquali, Daniela; Isidori, Andrea M; Cittadini, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most frequently occurring sex chromosomal aberration in males, with an incidence of about 1 in 500-700 newborns. Data acquired from large registry-based studies revealed an increase in mortality rates among KS patients when compared with mortality rates among the general population. Among all causes of death, metabolic, cardiovascular, and hemostatic complication seem to play a pivotal role. KS is associated, as are other chromosomal pathologies and genetic diseases, with cardiac congenital anomalies that contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and hemostatic balance. In summary, patients with KS display an increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic abnormalities including Diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidemia, and alterations in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS does not, however, appear to be associated with arterial hypertension. Moreover, KS patients are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function and endothelial function, which, when associated with chronotropic incompetence may led to reduced cardiopulmonary performance. KS patients appear to be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, attributing to an increased risk of thromboembolic events with a high prevalence of recurrent venous ulcers, venous insufficiency, recurrent venous and arterial thromboembolism with higher risk of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It appears that cardiovascular involvement in KS is mainly due to chromosomal abnormalities rather than solely on low serum testosterone levels. On the basis of evidence acquisition and authors' own experience, a flowchart addressing the management of cardiovascular function and prognosis of KS patients has been developed for clinical use. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Magnetostatic interactions and forces between cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 22 (2009), s. 3758-3763 ISSN 0304-8853 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 46559 - CERINKA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : cylinder * force measurement * magnetostatic * permanent magnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  16. The role of preoperative cerebral magnetic resonance angiography in the prevention of cerebral complications following cardiovascular surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Masakazu; Sakai, Akira; Kodera, Koujirou; Sudo, Kyouichi; Oosawa, Mikio [Seirei Hamamatsu General Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Screening of carotid and intracranial artery diseases by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in forty-one adult patients prior to elective cardiovascular surgery. In twenty patients (48.8%), MRA demonstrated significant cerebrovascular lesions: carotid or main cerebral artery stenosis in 7, diffuse cerebral arteriosclerotic change in 6, vertebral artery lesion in 5 and berry aneurysm in 2. Advanced age (over 70 years) and previous cerebrovascular events increased the incidence of cerebrovascular lesions on MRA. Forty patients underwent scheduled surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass, and pulsatile flow perfusion was used in patients in whom significant cerebrovascular lesions were demonstrated on MRA. One patient with aortic arch aneurysm was judged to be an unacceptable candidate for surgery in light of his marked diffuse arteriosclerotic lesions on MRA. In five patients, staged operation was performed from 10 to 30 days after cerebrovascular surgery (bypass surgery for internal carotid occlusion in 2, aneurysm clipping in 2, carotid endarterectomy in 1). Postoperative neurological complications occurred in one patient (2.5%). In conclusion, screening of carotid and intracranial artery diseases by MRA is a safe and useful method for evaluation of cerebrovascular lesions in patients with advanced age, previous cerebrovascular events and/or arteriosclerotic diseases. (author)

  17. The impact of dyslipidaemia on cardiovascular mortality in individuals without a prior history of diabetes in the DECODE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Qiao, Q.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of dyslipidaemia on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to fasting (FPG) and 2-h (2hPG) plasma glucose levels in individuals without a prior history of diabetes. METHODS: Data from 14 European population-based prospective studies of 9132 men and 8631...

  18. Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grasgruber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. Design: The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993–2008 was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index and the historical stability of results were also examined. Results: We found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, p<0.001. The most significant dietary correlate of low CVD risk was high total fat and animal protein consumption. Additional statistical analyses further highlighted citrus fruits, high-fat dairy (cheese and tree nuts. Among other non-dietary factors, health expenditure showed by far the highest correlation coefficients. The major correlate of high CVD risk was the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and alcohol, or from potato and cereal carbohydrates. Similar patterns were observed between food consumption and CVD statistics from the period 1980–2000, which shows that these relationships are stable over time. However, we found striking discrepancies in men's CVD statistics from 1980 and 1990, which can probably explain the origin of the ‘saturated fat hypothesis’ that influenced public health policies in the following decades. Conclusion: Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. In the absence of any scientific evidence connecting saturated fat with CVDs, these

  19. European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Annual Congress Report From Barcelona 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kimio; Takahashi, Jun; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Tatebe, Shunsuke; Aoki, Tatsuo; Kikuchi, Yoku; Hao, Kiyotaka; Ohyama, Kazuma; Nogi, Masamichi; Suda, Akira; Kasahara, Shintaro; Sato, Koichi; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2017-11-24

    From August 26th to 30th, the 2017 Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC 2017) was held in Barcelona, Spain. Despite the terrorism tradegy just before the ESC congress, the congress attracted many medical professionals from all over the world to discuss the recent topics in cardiovascular medicine in more than 500 sessions, including COMPASS (Cardiovascular OutcoMes for People using Anticoagulation StrategieS Trial), CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study), and ORION (which assessed the effect of a novel siRNA inhibitor to PCSK9 on reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Japanese cardiologists and the Japanese Circulation Society greatly contributed to the congress. This report briefly introduces some late-breaking registry results, late-breaking clinical trials, and ESC Guidelines from the ESC 2017 Congress.

  20. Workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors has gathered 102 registered participants from research laboratories, universities and industry. 8 European companies, active in superconducting materials and cables were present. This workshop has been organized to deal with the status of the world research and development on superconducting materials and cables for high field magnets (B > 10 T). The workshop has also reviewed the status of high temperature superconductors and transmission line cables for potential use in low field superconducting magnets for injectors and beam transfer lines, as well as cables for pulsed magnets that might be used in future hadron colliders or injectors

  1. Workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The workshop on accelerator magnet superconductors has gathered 102 registered participants from research laboratories, universities and industry. 8 European companies, active in superconducting materials and cables were present. This workshop has been organized to deal with the status of the world research and development on superconducting materials and cables for high field magnets (B > 10 T). The workshop has also reviewed the status of high temperature superconductors and transmission line cables for potential use in low field superconducting magnets for injectors and beam transfer lines, as well as cables for pulsed magnets that might be used in future hadron colliders or injectors.

  2. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R; Ganesh, Santhi K; Lanktree, Matthew B; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E; Gaunt, Tom R; Gho, Johannes M I H; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P; Nolte, Ilja M; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Vonk, Judith M; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O L; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L; Berenson, Gerald S; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Connell, John M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Curtis, Sean P; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E; Hofker, Marten H; Hovingh, G Kees; Kim, Daniel S; Kirkland, Susan A; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Brien, Eoin T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ranchalis, Jane E; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Verschuren, W Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Bezzina, Connie R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Davidson, Karina W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dominiczak, Anna F; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gums, John G; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pankow, James S; Rader, Daniel J; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P; Schadt, Eric E; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V; Tobin, Martin D; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Samani, Nilesh J; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D; Reiner, Alex P; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I W; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Munroe, Patricia B; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped similar to 50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and

  3. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Tragante (Vinicius); M.J. Barnes (Michael); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); M.B. Lanktree (Matthew); W. Guo (Weixiang); N. Franceschini (Nora); G.D. Smith; T. Johnson (Toby); M.V. Holmes (Michael); S. Padmanabhan (Sandosh); K.J. Karczewski (Konrad); B. Almoguera (Berta); J. Barnard (John); J. Baumert (Jens); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); C.C. Elbers (Clara); M. Farrall (Martin); M.E. Fischer (Mary); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); J.M.I.H. Gho (Johannes); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Goel (Anuj); Y. Gong (Yeming); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); C.W. McDonough (Caitrin); M.F.L. Meijs (Matthijs); O. Melander (Olle); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); I.M. Nolte (Ilja); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); T.S. Price (Thomas); J. Shaffer (Jonathan); S. Shah (Sonia); M. Tomaszewski (Maciej); P.J. van der Most (Peter); E.P.A. van Iperen (Erik); J.M. Vonk (Judith); H.E. Witkowska (Ewa); C.O.L. Wong (Caroline); L. Zhang (Lingling); A.L. Beitelshees (Amber); G. Berenson (Gerald); D.L. Bhatt (Deepak); M.J. Brown (Morris); A.D. Burt (Alastair); R.M. Cooper-Dehoff (Rhonda); J. Connell (John); K.J. Cruickshanks (Karen); S.P. Curtis (Sean); G. Davey-Smith (George); C. Delles (Christian); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); X. Guo (Xiuqing); S. Haiqing (Shen); C.E. Hastie (Claire); M.A. Hofker (Marten); G.K. Hovingh (Kees); D.S. Kim (Daniel); S.A. Kirkland (Susan); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); Y.R. Li (Yun); R. Maiwald (Robert); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); E. O'Brien (Eoin); N.C. Onland-Moret (Charlotte); W. Palmas (Walter); A. Parsa (Afshin); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); M. Pettinger (Mary); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); J.E. Ranchalis (Jane); P. M Ridker (Paul); L.M. Rose (Lynda); P. Sever (Peter); D. Shimbo (Daichi); L. Steele (Linda); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); B. Thorand (Barbara); M.D. Trip (Mieke); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); W.M.M. Verschuren (W. M. Monique); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); S. Wyatt (Sally); J.C. Young (J. C.); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); C.R. Bezzina (Connie); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J.P. Casas (Juan); M. Caulfield (Mark); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); K.W. Davidson (Karina); P.A. Doevendans (Pieter); A. Dominiczak (Anna); G.A. Fitzgerald (Garret); J.G. Gums (John); M. Fornage (Myriam); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); H. van Halder (Han); H.L. Hillege (Hans); T. Illig (Thomas); G.P. Jarvik (Gail); J.A. Johnson (Jennifer ); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); M. Kumari (Meena); W. März (Winfried); S.S. Murray (Sarah); J.R. O'Connell (Jeffery); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); J.S. Pankow (James); D.J. Rader (Daniel); S. Redline (Susan); M.P. Reilly (Muredach); E.E. Schadt (Eric); K. Kottke-Marchant (Kandice); H. Snieder (Harold); M. Snyder (Michael); A. Stanton (Alice); M.D. Tobin (Martin); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. van der Harst (Pim); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Watkins (Hugh); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); A.P. Reiner (Alex); X. Zhu (Xiaofeng); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); P. Munroe (Patricia); J. Keating (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and

  4. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F. L.; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J.; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O. L.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Curtis, Sean P.; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kim, Daniel S.; Kirkland, Susan A.; Klein, Barbara E.; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R.; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M.; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S.; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pankow, James S.; Rader, Daniel J.; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D.; Reiner, Alex P.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ~50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined

  5. Is autonomic modulation different between European and Chinese astronauts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Shanguang; Chen, Zhanghuang; Gai, Yuqing; Liu, Jianzhong; Gao, Jianyi; Xie, Qiong; Yuan, Ming; Li, Qin; Li, Li; Aubert, André E

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences. Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions). Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability. Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts. Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc.

  6. Is autonomic modulation different between European and Chinese astronauts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexin Liu

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences.Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions. Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability.Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts.Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc.

  7. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Nuver, Janine; Suter, Thomas M.; Maraldo, Maja V.; Specht, Lena; Vrieling, Conny; Darby, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we describe current knowledge of the cardiotoxicity arising from cancer treatments, outline gaps in knowledge, and indicate directions for future research and guideline development, as discussed during the 2014 Cancer Survivorship Summit organised by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Better knowledge is needed of the late effects of modern systemic treatments and of radiotherapy to critical structures of the heart, including the effect of both radiation dose and volume of the heart exposed. Research elucidating the extent to which treatments interact in causing CVD, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results. Better knowledge of these cardiac effects will contribute to both primary and secondary prevention of late complications where exposure to cardiotoxic treatment is unavoidable. Also surrogate markers would help to identify patients at increased risk of cardiotoxicity. Evidence-based screening guidelines for CVD following cancer are also needed. Finally, risk prediction models should be developed to guide primary treatment choice and appropriate follow up after cancer treatment. PMID:26217163

  8. Fusion research in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Centering around the European joint project Joint European Torus (JET), in the framework of which hot fusion plasmas are already brought close to thermonuclear ignition, the individual research centres in Europe have taken over different special tasks. In Germany research concentrates above all on the development of super-conductive magnets, the stage of plasma-physical fundamentals or the investigation of the interaction between the plasma boundary layer and the material of the vessel wall. On this basis the development stage following JET, the Next European Torus (NET), is planned, with its main aim being the production and maintenance of a thermonuclear burning plasma, i.e. a plasma which maintains its active state from the gain of energy of its own fusion reactions. In the framework of a contractually agreed cooperation between the European Community, Japan, the USSR and the USA, the establishment of an international study group (with seat in Garching) was decided upon, which is to develop the concept of an 'International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)' jointly supported by these countries. The results of the studies presented show that the differences in the design data of ITER and NET are negligible. (orig./DG) [de

  9. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E. [Dept. of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-04-15

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  10. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yeonyee E. [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Kwan [Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong A [Department of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 411-706 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Jin Oh [Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Hyun [Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eui-Young [Division of Cardiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  11. 2014 Korean guidelines for appropriate utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: A joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yeon Yee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Choi, Eui Young

    2015-01-01

    The use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasing for the assessment of certain cardiovascular diseases, due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there has been no guideline for the use of CMR in Korean people. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates, and patients to improve the overall performances in medical system. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines, we hope to contribute to the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology.

  12. Full power in the European tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallia, P.P.; Hugon, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new research campaign begins at Jet (Abingdon, UK). At this occasion, authors review and compare the performances of the three big Tokamaks that are currently in competition: Jet, JT60 and TFTR, insisting upon the European one. Conditions of ignition are reviewed together and energy losses are specified. Magnetic configurations used in tokamaks are shown, together with the technological responses brought these last years

  13. Assessment of atrial septal defects in adults comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance with transoesophageal echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adult patients with secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDs are able to have these defects fixed percutaneously. Traditionally, this has involved an assessment of ASD size, geometry and atrial septal margins by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE prior to percutaneous closure. This is a semi-invasive technique, and all of the information obtained could potentially be obtained by non-invasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. We compared the assessment of ASDs in consecutive patients being considered for percutaneous ASD closure using CMR and TOE. Methods Consecutive patients with ASDs diagnosed on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE were invited to undergo both CMR and TOE. Assessment of atrial septal margins, maximal and minimal defect dimensions was performed with both techniques. Analyses between CMR and TOE were made using simple linear regression and Bland Altman Analyses. Results Total CMR scan time was 20 minutes, and comparable to the TOE examination time. A total of 20 patients (M:F = 5:15, mean age 42.8 years ± 15.7 were included in the analyses. There was an excellent agreement between CMR and TOE for estimation of maximum defect size (R = 0.87. The anterior inferior, anterior superior and posterior inferior margins could be assessed in all patients with CMR. The posterior superior margin could not be assessed in only one patient. Furthermore, in 1 patient in whom TOE was unable to be performed, CMR was used to successfully direct percutaneous ASD closure. Conclusions CMR agrees with TOE assessment of ASDs in the work-up for percutaneous closure. Potentially CMR could be used instead of TOE for this purpose.

  14. Troponin release following endurance exercise: is inflammation the cause? a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon Rory

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology and clinical significance of troponin release following endurance exercise is unclear but may be due to transient myocardial inflammation. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR affords us the opportunity to evaluate the presence of myocardial inflammation and focal fibrosis and is the ideal imaging modality to study this hypothesis. We sought to correlate the relationship between acute bouts of ultra endurance exercise leading to cardiac biomarkers elevation and the presence of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis using CMR. Methods 17 recreation athletes (33.5 +/- 6.5 years were studied before and after a marathon run with troponin, NTproBNP, and CMR. Specific imaging parameters to look for inflammation included T2 weighted images, and T1 weighted spin-echo images before and after an intravenous gadolinium-DTPA to detect myocardial hyperemia secondary to inflammation. Late gadolinium imaging was performed (LGE to detect any focal regions of replacement fibrosis. Results Eleven of the 17 participant had elevations of TnI above levels of cut off for myocardial infarction 6 hrs after the marathon (0.075 +/- 0.02, p = 0.007. Left ventricular volumes were reduced post marathon and a small increase in ejection fraction was noted (64+/- 1% pre, 67+/- 1.2% post, P = 0.014. Right ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were unchanged post marathon. No athlete fulfilled criteria for myocardial inflammation based on current criteria. No regions of focal fibrosis were seen in any of the participants. Conclusion Exercise induced cardiac biomarker release is not associated with any functional changes by CMR or any detectable myocardial inflammation or fibrosis.

  15. Overview and status of the Next European Dipole Joint Research Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A; Baudouy, B; Baynham, D E

    2006-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) Joint Research Activity was launched on 1 January 2004 to promote the development of high-performance Nb 3 Sn conductors in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A mm -2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb 3 Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of ∼15 T). It is part of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, which involves eight collaborators, and is half-funded by the European Union. After briefly recalling the Activity organization, we report the main progress achieved over the last year, which includes: the manufacturing of a double-bath He II cryostat for heat transfer measurements through Nb 3 Sn conductor insulation, detailed quench computations for various NED-like magnet configurations, the award of two industrial subcontracts for Nb 3 Sn conductor development, the first results of a cross-calibration programme of test facilities for Nb 3 Sn wire characterization, detailed investigations of the mechanical properties of heavily cold-drawn Cu/Nb/Sn composite wires, and the preliminary assessment of a new insulation system based on polyimide-sized glass fibre tapes. Last, we briefly review the efforts of an ongoing Working Group on magnet design and optimization

  16. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  17. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Tertre, A; Medina, S; Samoli, E; Forsberg, B; Michelozzi, P; Boumghar, A; Vonk, JM; Bellini, A; Atkinson, R; Ayres, JG; Sunyer, J; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: As part of the APHEA project this study examined the association between airborne particles and hospital admissions for cardiac causes (ICD9 390-429) in eight European cities (Barcelona, Birmingham, London, Milan, the Netherlands, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm). All admissions were

  18. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  19. Position paper: proposal for a core curriculum for a European Sports Cardiology qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Papadakis, Michael; Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, Nicole; Carré, François; Dugmore, Dorian; Mellwig, Klaus-Peter; Rasmusen, Hanne Kruuse; Solberg, Erik E; Borjesson, Mats; Corrado, Domenico; Pelliccia, Antonio; Sharma, Sanjay

    2013-10-01

    Sports cardiology is a new and rapidly evolving subspecialty. It aims to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of regular exercise and delineate its benefits and risks, so that safe guidance can be provided to all individuals engaging in sports and/or physical activity in order to attain the maximum potential benefit at the lowest possible risk. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) advocates systematic preparticipation cardiovascular screening in an effort to identify competitive athletes at risk of exercise-related cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death. However, the implementation of preparticipation screening is hindered because of lack of structured training and as a result lack of sufficient expertise in the field of sports cardiology. In 2008 the European Society of Cardiology published a core curriculum for the general cardiologist, in which sports cardiology was incorporated within the topic 'Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology'. However, the exponential rise in knowledge and the growing demand for expertise in the field of sports cardiology dictates the need to systematically structure the knowledge base of sports cardiology into a detailed curriculum. We envisage that the curriculum would facilitate more uniform training and guideline implementation throughout Europe, and safeguard that evaluation and guidance of competitive athletes or individuals who wish to engage in leisure-time sports activities is performed by physicians with expertise in the field. The current manuscript provides a comprehensive curriculum for sports cardiology, which may serve as a framework upon which universities and national and international health authorities will develop the training, evaluation and accreditation in sports cardiology.

  20. Recommendations for the imaging assessment of prosthetic heart valves: a report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging endorsed by the Chinese Society of Echocardiography, the Inter-American Society of Echocardiography, and the Brazilian Department of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Pibarot, Philippe; Chambers, John; Edvardsen, Thor; Delgado, Victoria; Dulgheru, Raluca; Pepi, Mauro; Cosyns, Bernard; Dweck, Mark R; Garbi, Madalina; Magne, Julien; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Bernard, Anne; Lowenstein, Jorge; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Rabischoffsky, Arnaldo; Vyhmeister, Rodrigo Hernández; Zhou, Xiao; Zhang, Yun; Zamorano, Jose-Luis; Habib, Gilbert

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is rare but potentially life-threatening. Although often challenging, establishing the exact cause of PHV dysfunction is essential to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. In clinical practice, a comprehensive approach that integrates several parameters of valve morphology and function assessed with 2D/3D transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography is a key to appropriately detect and quantitate PHV dysfunction. Cinefluoroscopy, multidetector computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and to a lesser extent, nuclear imaging are complementary tools for the diagnosis and management of PHV complications. The present document provides recommendations for the use of multimodality imaging in the assessment of PHVs. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Status of the Next European Dipole (NED) Activity of the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Baynham, D Elwyn; Boutboul, T; Canfer, S; Chorowski, M; den Ouden, A; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Fessia, P; Fydrych, J; Félice, H; Greco, Michela; Greenhalgh, J; Leroy, D; Loveridge, P W; Michel, F; Oberli, L R; Pedrini, D; Polinski, J; Previtali, V; Quettier, L; Rifflet, J M; Rochford, J; Rondeaux, F; Sanz, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Sorbi, M; Toral-Fernandez, F; Van Weelderen, R; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G; Védrine, P

    2005-01-01

    Plans for LHC upgrade and for the final focalization of linear colliders call for large aperture and/or high-performance dipole and quadrupole magnets that may be beyond the reach of conventional NbTi magnet technology. The Next European Dipole (NED) activity was launched on January 1st, 2004 to promote the development of high-performance, Nb$_{3}$Sn wires in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb$_{3}$Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of 15 T). It is integrated within the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, involves seven collaborators, and is partly funded by the European Union. We present here an overview of the NED activity and we report on the status of the various work packages it encompasses.

  2. Clinical application for cardiovascular diseases using 1.5 T senior MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shihua; Lu Minjie; Zhang Yan; Jiang Shiliang; Huang Lianjun; Wang Hongyu; Wu Yanling; Du Mojia; Liu Yuqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of 1.5 T senior magnet for cardiovascular diseases. Methods: A total of 355 cases with cardiovascular diseases were studied. One stop shop scanning included HASTE and TSE for morphology, TrueFisp for cine-MRI, TurboFlash for fist pass myocardial perfusion, PSIR TrueFisp and PSIR Turbo Flash for late enhancement, as well as Flash3D plus multiple planar reconstruction for contrast enhanced MR angiography. Results: Abnormal findings were reported in 158 cases in the present study. Those positive patients had 35 cases with coronary heart diseases, of which normal or slightly enlarged left ventricular cavity (n=19), considerably enlarged left ventricular cavity (n=16), aneurysum (n=13), regional wall thinning (n=30), hypokinesia or akinesia (n=33), myocardial perfusion defect (n=20) and late enhancement (n=25) were demonstrated. Others included cardiomyopathy (n=52), pericardial diseases (n=9), vessel diseases (n=34), valvular diseases (n=6), high blood pressure (n=6), congenital heart diseases (n=5), pulmonary embolism (n=4), cardiac tumors (n=7), respectively. Conclusion: One stop shop scanning with 1.5 T senior magnet can provide well- qualified images of the heart and great vessels for the morphology, wall motion and myocardial viability. (authors)

  3. Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellman, F.; Hoffmann, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Beach, G.S. D.; Fullerton, E.E.; Leighton, Ch.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ralph, D.C.; Arena, D.A.; Dürr, H.A.; Fischer, P.; Grollier, J.; Heremans, J.P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Kimel, A.V.; Koopmans, B.; Krivorotov, I.N.; May, S.J.; Petford-Long, A.K.; Rondinelli, J.M.; Samarth, N.; Schuller, I.K.; Slavin, A.N.; Stiles, M.D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Thiaville, A.; Zink, B.L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-79, č. článku 025006. ISSN 0034-6861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetism * interface s * spin-dynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 36.917, year: 2016

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance in cardiology: cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Claudio C.

    2003-01-01

    As a new gold standard for mass, volume and flow, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is probably the most rapidly evolving technique in the cardiovascular diagnosis. An integrated cardiac MRI examination allows the evaluation of morphology, global and regional function, coronary anatomy, perfusion, viability and myocardial metabolism, all of them in only one diagnostic test and in a totally noninvasive manner. The surgeons can obtain relevant information on all aspects of diseases of the heart and great vessels, which include anatomical details and relationships with the greatest field of view, and may help to reduce the number of invasive procedures required in pre and postoperative evaluation. However, despite these excellent advantages the present clinical utilization of MRI is still too often restricted to few pathologies or case studies in which other techniques fail to identify the cardiac or cardiovascular abnormalities. If magnetic resonance is an excellent method for diagnosing so many different cardiac conditions, why is so little it used in routine cardiac practice? Cardiologists are still not very familiar with the huge possibilities or cardiovascular MRI utilities. Our intention is to give a comprehensive survey of many of the clinical applications of this challenger technique in the study of the heart and great vessels. Those who continue to ignore this important and mature imaging technique will rightly fail to benefit. (author) [es

  5. Computational medical imaging and hemodynamics framework for functional analysis and assessment of cardiovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin K L; Wang, Defeng; Ko, Jacky K L; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Le, Thu-Thao; Ghista, Dhanjoo

    2017-03-21

    Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential. Some of these indicators constitute important cardiac functional parameters affecting the cardiovascular abnormalities. With the advancement of computer technology that facilitates high speed computational fluid dynamics, the realization of a support diagnostic platform of hemodynamics quantification and analysis can be achieved. This article reviews the state-of-the-art medical imaging and high fidelity multi-physics computational analyses that together enable reconstruction of cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic flow patterns within them, such as of the left ventricle (LV) and carotid bifurcations. The combined medical imaging and hemodynamic analysis enables us to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease-causing dysfunctions, such as how (1) cardiomyopathy causes left ventricular remodeling and loss of contractility leading to heart failure, and (2) modeling of LV construction and simulation of intra-LV hemodynamics can enable us to determine the optimum procedure of surgical ventriculation to restore its contractility and health This combined medical imaging and hemodynamics framework can potentially extend medical knowledge of cardiovascular defects and associated hemodynamic behavior and their surgical restoration, by means of an integrated medical image diagnostics and hemodynamic performance analysis framework.

  6. The contribution of hypoxia to the association between sleep apnoea, insomnia, and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling elderly with and without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Svensson, Erland; Alehagen, Urban; Jaarsma, Tiny; Broström, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study explores if nightly hypoxia (i.e. percentage of sleep time with oxygen saturation lower than 90% (SaO2insomnia in community-dwelling elderly with and without cardiovascular disease (CVD). A second aim was to explore a potential cut-off score for hypoxia to predict insomnia and the association of the cut-off with clinical characteristics and cardiovascular mortality. A total of 331 community-dwelling elderly aged 71-87 years underwent one-night polygraphic recordings. The presence of insomnia was recorded by a self-report questionnaire. The presence of CVD was objectively established and mortality data were collected after three and six years. In both patients with CVD (n=119) or without CVD (n=212) SDB was associated with hypoxia (pinsomnia (pinsomnia. Hypoxia of more than 1.5% of sleep time with SaO2causing insomnia. According to this criterion 32% (n=39) and 26% (n=55) of those with and without CVD had hypoxia, respectively. These groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory disease or levels of SDB. However, in the CVD group, hypoxia was associated with cardiovascular mortality at the three-year follow-up (p=0.008) and higher levels of insomnia (p=0.002). In the elderly with CVD, SDB mediated by hypoxia can be associated with more insomnia and a worse prognosis. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  7. European Society of Cardiology Congress 2017 (August 26-30, 2017 - Barcelona, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klischies, S

    2017-12-01

    The annual congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) is the largest medical congress in Europe for this area of research and took place this year in Barcelona, Spain. The ESC Congress 2017 gathered more than 30,000 registered participants from over 140 countries together to share their knowledge in all cardiovascular fields, from basic science to management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The congress comprised 5 days of science and education with over 11,000 abstracts submitted, 500 expert sessions and over 200 exhibiting companies, making it the prime meeting platform for the profession. This year's ESC Congress Spotlight was "40 years of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)." PCI is a nonsurgical procedure used to treat narrowing of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

  8. The pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisoni, G.B.; Henneman, W.J.; Weiner, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In North America, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has established a platform to track the brain changes of Alzheimer's disease. A pilot study has been carried out in Europe to test the feasibility of the adoption of the ADNI platform (pilot E-ADNI). METHODS: Seven...... academic sites of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) enrolled 19 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 22 with AD, and 18 older healthy persons by using the ADNI clinical and neuropsychological battery. ADNI compliant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, cerebrospinal fluid...

  9. Prognostic Value of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Magnetic Resonance in Systolic Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregat-Andrés, Óscar; Estornell-Erill, Jordi; Ridocci-Soriano, Francisco; Pérez-Boscá, José Leandro; García-González, Pilar; Payá-Serrano, Rafael; Morell, Salvador; Cortijo, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure. However, non-invasive diagnosis is still challenging in clinical practice. Objective: We sought to assess the prognostic utility of non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance to predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods: Prospective registry of patients with left ventricular e...

  10. Fast magnetization switching in GaMnAs induced by electrical fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balestriere, P.; Devolder, T.; Kim, J.-V.; Lecoeur, P.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Novák, Vít; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Chappert, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 24 (2011), 242505/1-242505/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08087 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE; European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnet ization switching * ferromagnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 3.844, year: 2011

  11. Contrasting patterns of hot spell effects on morbidity and mortality for cardiovascular diseases in the Czech Republic, 1994-2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzlíková, Hana; Plavcová, E.; Kynčl, J.; Kříž, B.; Kyselý, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2015), s. 1673-1684 ISSN 0020-7128 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hot spells * cardiovascular disease * cerebrovascular disease Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2015

  12. Comparing the 2010 North American and European atrial fibrillation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Anne M; Skanes, Allan C

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the important differences in the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA)/Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2010 guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF). All guidelines recommend more lenient targets for ventricular rate control although the CCS guidelines recommend a target heart rate at rest guidelines accept a target heart rate at rest guidelines recommend that the choice of antiarrhythmic drug for maintenance of sinus rhythm be based on the underlying cardiovascular disease state. However, the CCS guidelines do not recommend that the use of Class IC drugs or sotalol be restricted in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy alone. All the guidelines have incorporated dronedarone into their recommendations of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, the CCS guidelines do not make a specific recommendation that the use of dronedarone is reasonable to decrease the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in patients with AF. The ACCF/AHA/HRS update makes a strong recommendation for catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF who have failed a single anti-arrhythmic drug whereas the CCS and ESC guidelines make this a conditional recommendation. The CCS guidelines are the only guidelines at present that recommend dabigitran for prevention of stroke in high risk patients and suggest that dabigatran is preferred to warfarin for stroke prevention in most patient groups. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Coronary artery calcification score by multislice computed tomography predicts the outcome of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Overbosch, Jelle; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Dijkman, Paul R.M. van; Zijlstra, Felix

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of less than 11 can reliably rule out myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients suspected of having myocardial ischemia. In 114 of 136 consecutive patients clinically suspected of myocardial ischemia with an inconclusive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine CMR was performed and the CAC score was determined. The CAC score was obtained by 16-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and was calculated according to the method of Agatston. The CAC score and the results of the dobutamine CMR were correlated and the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of the CAC score for dobutamine CMR were calculated. A total of 114 (87%) of the patients were eligible for this study. There was a significant correlation between the CAC score and dobutamine CMR (p<0.001). Patients with a CAC score of less than 11 showed no signs of inducible ischemia during dobutamine CMR. For a CAC score of less than 101, the NPV and the PPV of the CAC score for the outcome of dobutamine CMR were, respectively, 0.96 and 0.29. In patients with an inconclusive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia a MDCT CAC score of less than 11 reliably rules out myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine CMR. (orig.)

  14. Coronary artery calcification score by multislice computed tomography predicts the outcome of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Caroline H C; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Overbosch, Jelle; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of less than 11 can reliably rule out myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients suspected of having myocardial ischemia. In 114 of 136 consecutive patients clinically suspected of myocardial ischemia with an inconclusive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine CMR was performed and the CAC score was determined. The CAC score was obtained by 16-row multidetector compued tomography (MDCT) and was calculated according to the method of Agatston. The CAC score and the results of the dobutamine CMR were correlated and the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of the CAC score for dobutamine CMR were calculated. A total of 114 (87%) of the patients were eligible for this study. There was a significant correlation between the CAC score and dobutamine CMR (p<0.001). Patients with a CAC score of less than 11 showed no signs of inducible ischemia during dobutamine CMR. For a CAC score of less than 101, the NPV and the PPV of the CAC score for the outcome of dobutamine CMR were, respectively, 0.96 and 0.29. In patients with an inconclusive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia a MDCT CAC score of less than 11 reliably rules out myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine CMR.

  15. Coronary artery calcification score by multislice computed tomography predicts the outcome of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Overbosch, Jelle; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Kuijpers, Dirkjan [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Dijkman, Paul R.M. van [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Zijlstra, Felix [University Hospital Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score of less than 11 can reliably rule out myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients suspected of having myocardial ischemia. In 114 of 136 consecutive patients clinically suspected of myocardial ischemia with an inconclusive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine CMR was performed and the CAC score was determined. The CAC score was obtained by 16-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and was calculated according to the method of Agatston. The CAC score and the results of the dobutamine CMR were correlated and the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of the CAC score for dobutamine CMR were calculated. A total of 114 (87%) of the patients were eligible for this study. There was a significant correlation between the CAC score and dobutamine CMR (p<0.001). Patients with a CAC score of less than 11 showed no signs of inducible ischemia during dobutamine CMR. For a CAC score of less than 101, the NPV and the PPV of the CAC score for the outcome of dobutamine CMR were, respectively, 0.96 and 0.29. In patients with an inconclusive diagnosis of myocardial ischemia a MDCT CAC score of less than 11 reliably rules out myocardial ischemia detected by dobutamine CMR. (orig.)

  16. The Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center at Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, S; Mueller, H-U; Anh, T T; Richter, B; Rossmann, H; Ortenberg, M von

    2006-01-01

    The Humboldt High Magnetic Field Center is operated by the Chair for Magnetotransport in Solids of the Department of Physics of the Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin. It provides DC-magnetic fields up to 20 T, pulsed nondestructive fields of up to 60 T and megagauss fields of up to 331 T using a single-turn coil generator for experimental application focusing on solid state physics. Magneto-optical investigations are carried out in the MIR, NIR and visible wavelength range as well as transport and magnetization experiments. The facility is open to the scientific community and welcomes users within the European project EuroMagNET. The laboratory will be closed in fall 2006 but its experimental facilities will be further accessible to the community in other labs. The single-turn coil generator will be transferred to LNCMP, Toulouse, France, continuing to provide applicable megagauss fields to the European Community

  17. High field accelerator magnet R&D in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Bottura, L; Chorowski, M; Fabbricatore, P; Leroy, D; den Ouden, A; Rifflet, J M; Rossi, L; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC magnet R&D program has shown that the limit of NbTi technology at 1.9 K was in the 10-to-10.5-T range. Hence, to go beyond the 10-T threshold, it is necessary to change the superconducting material. Given the state of the art in HTS, the only serious candidate is Nb$_{3}$Sn. A series of dipole magnet models built at Twente University and LBNL as well as a vigorous program carried out at Fermilab have demonstrated the feasibility of Nb$_{3}$Sn magnet technology. The next step is to bring this technology to maturity, which require further conductor and conductor insulation development and a simplification of manufacturing processes. After a brief history, we review ongoing R&D programs in Europe and we present the Next European Dipole (NED) initiative promoted by the European Steering Group on Accelerator R&D (ESGARD).

  18. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....

  19. Excitonic magnetism in d.sup.6./sup. perovskites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, J.F.; Kuneš, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 11 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 115131. ISSN 2469-9950 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 646807 - EXMAG Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : excitonic magnetism * cobaltites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  20. Cardiac involvement in ANCA (+) and ANCA (-) Churg-Strauss syndrome evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Karabela, Georgia; Gialafos, Elias; Stavropoulos, Efthymios; Spiliotis, George; Katsifis, Gikas; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2013-10-01

    The cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) pattern of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) includes myopericarditis, diffuse subendocardial vasculitis or myocardial infarction with or without cardiac symptoms and is usually associated with lack of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). To correlate the CMR pattern with ANCA in CSS, compare it with healthy controls and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and re-evaluate 2 yrs after the first CMR. 28 consecutive CSS, aged 42±7 yrs, were referred for CMR and 2 yrs re-evaluation. The CMR included left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), T2-weighted (T2-W), early (EGE) and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) imaging. Their results were compared with 28 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) under remission and 28 controls with normal myocardial perfusion, assessed by scintigraphy. CMR revealed acute cardiac lesions in all ANCA (-) CSS with active disease and acute cardiac symptoms and only in one asymptomatic ANCA (+) CSS, with active disease. Diffuse subendocardial fibrosis (DSF) or past myocarditis was identified in both ANCA(+) and ANCA (-) CSS, but with higher incidence and fibrosis amount in ANCA (-) CSS (p<0.05). In comparison to SLE, both ANCA (+) and ANCA (-) CSS had higher incidence of DSF, lower incidence of myocarditis and no evidence of myocardial infarction, due to coronary artery disease (p<0.05). In 2 yrs CMR follow up, 1/3 of CSS with DSF presented LV function deterioration and one died, although immunosuppressive treatment was given early after CSS diagnosis. Cardiac involvement either as DSF or myocarditis, can be detected in both ANCA (+) and ANCA (-) CSS, although more clinically overt in ANCA (-). DSF carries an ominous prognosis for LV function. CMR, due to its capability to detect disease severity, before cardiac dysfunction takes place, is an excellent tool for CSS risk stratification and treatment individualization.

  1. Characterization of Chronic Aortic and Mitral Regurgitation Undergoing Valve Surgery Using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, Christian L; Gao, Sinsia A; Johnsson, Åse A; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Bech-Hanssen, Odd

    2017-06-15

    Grading of chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) and mitral regurgitation (MR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently based on thresholds, which are neither modality nor quantification method specific. Accordingly, this study sought to identify CMR-specific and quantification method-specific thresholds for regurgitant volumes (RVols), RVol indexes, and regurgitant fractions (RFs), which denote severe chronic AR or MR with an indication for surgery. The study comprised patients with moderate and severe chronic AR (n = 38) and MR (n = 40). Echocardiography and CMR was performed at baseline and in all operated AR/MR patients (n = 23/25) 10 ± 1 months after surgery. CMR quantification of AR: direct (aortic flow) and indirect method (left ventricular stroke volume [LVSV] - pulmonary stroke volume [PuSV]); MR: 2 indirect methods (LVSV - aortic forward flow [AoFF]; mitral inflow [MiIF] - AoFF). All operated patients had severe regurgitation and benefited from surgery, indicated by a significant postsurgical reduction in end-diastolic volume index and improvement or relief of symptoms. The discriminatory ability between moderate and severe AR was strong for RVol >40 ml, RVol index >20 ml/m 2 , and RF >30% (direct method) and RVol >62 ml, RVol index >31 ml/m 2 , and RF >36% (LVSV-PuSV) with a negative likelihood ratio ≤ 0.2. In MR, the discriminatory ability was very strong for RVol >64 ml, RVol index >32 ml/m 2 , and RF >41% (LVSV-AoFF) and RVol >40 ml, RVol index >20 ml/m 2 , and RF >30% (MiIF-AoFF) with a negative likelihood ratio surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overview and status of the Next European Dipole (NED) joint research activity

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Baynham, D Elwyn; Boutboul, T; Canfer, S; Chorowski, M; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Félice, H; Fessia, P; Fydrych, J; Granata, V; Greco, Michela; Greenhalgh, J; Leroy, D; Loveridge, P W; Matkowski, M; Michalski, G; Michel, F; Oberli, L R; den Ouden, A; Pedrini, D; Pietrowicz, S; Polinski, J; Previtali, V; Quettier, L; Richter, D; Rifflet, J M; Rochford, J; Rondeaux, F; Sanz, S; Scheuerlein, C; Schwerg, N; Sgobba, Stefano; Sorbi, M; Toral-Fernandez, F; Van Weelderen, R; Védrine, P; Volpini, G

    2006-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) Joint Research Activity was launched on 1st January 2004 to promote the development of high performance Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb$_{3}$Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of ~ 15 T). It is part of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, involves eight collaborators and is half-funded by the European Union. After briefly recalling the Activity organization, we report the main progress achieved over the last year, which includes: the manufacturing of a double-bath He II cryostat for heat transfer measurements through Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor insulation, detailed quench computations for various NED-like magnet configurations, the award of two industrial subcontracts for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor development, the first results of a cros...

  3. Magnetic Design and Code Benchmarking of the SMC (Short Model Coil) Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Manil, P; Rochford, J; Fessia, P; Canfer, S; Baynham, E; Nunio, F; de Rijk, G; Védrine, P

    2010-01-01

    The Short Model Coil (SMC) working group was set in February 2007 to complement the Next European Dipole (NED) program, in order to develop a short-scale model of a Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole magnet. In 2009, the EuCARD/HFM (High Field Magnets) program took over these programs. The SMC group comprises four laboratories: CERN/TE-MSC group (CH), CEA/IRFU (FR), RAL (UK) and LBNL (US). The SMC magnet is designed to reach a peak field of about 13 Tesla (T) on conductor, using a 2500 A/mm2 Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strand. The aim of this magnet device is to study the degradation of the magnetic properties of the Nb$_{3}$Sn cable, by applying different levels of pre-stress. To fully satisfy this purpose, a versatile and easy-to-assemble structure has been realized. The design of the SMC magnet has been developed from an existing dipole magnet, the SD01, designed, built and tested at LBNL with support from CEA. The goal of the magnetic design presented in this paper is to match the high field region with the high stress region, l...

  4. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  5. Status of the Next European Dipole (NED) activity of the collaborated accelerator research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devred, A.; Baudouy, B.; den Ouden, A.; Baynham, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Plans for LHC upgrade and for the final focalization of linear colliders call for large aperture and/or high-performance dipole and quadrupole magnets that may be beyond the reach of conventional NbTi magnet technology. The Next European Dipole (NED) activity was launched on January 1st, 2004 to

  6. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  7. Superconducting magnet for EHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desportes, H.; Duthil, R.; Celebart, J.C.; Leschevin, C.; Lesmond, C.

    1980-10-01

    A 55 Mjoules Magnet has been installed and commissioned at CERN for the Rapid Cycling Bubble Chamber of the EHS experiment (European Hybrid Spectrometer). The magnet consists of two separate circular coils, assembled with their axis horizontal into a massive iron structure, and provides a central field of 3 T in a useful volume of 1.4 m in diameter and 0.82 m gap with a completely azimuthally free acceptance of +-18 deg from the central plane. Special features of the magnet, which is otherwise of a classical pancake-type, bath-cooled design, are a relatively high average current density (2500 Amp/cm 2 ) and an elaborate support structure required by the particular force configuration within the iron structure

  8. Combined effect of educational status and cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Ferrario, Marco M

    2017-01-01

    Background The combined effect of social status and risk factors on the absolute risk of cardiovascular disease has been insufficiently investigated, but results provide guidance on who could benefit most through prevention. Methods We followed 77,918 cardiovascular disease-free individuals aged 35......-74 years at baseline, from 38 cohorts covering Nordic and Baltic countries, the UK and Central Europe, for a median of 12 years. Using Fine-Gray models in a competing-risks framework we estimated the effect of the interaction of education with smoking, blood pressure and body weight on the cumulative risk...... genders. Less educated men and women with a cluster of two or more risk factors had an added cardiovascular disease risk of 3.6% (+0.1%, +7.0%) and of 2.6% (-0.5%, +5.6%), respectively, compared with their more educated counterparts. Conclusions Socially disadvantaged subjects have more to gain from...

  9. Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajuk Studen, Katica; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Pfeifer, Marija

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its effects on reproductive health, it is now well recognized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by decreased insulin sensitivity which leads to an excess lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PCOS patients are often obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic and insulin resistant; they have obstructive sleep apnea and have been reported to have higher aldosterone levels in comparison to normal healthy controls. These are all components of an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Many studies exploring subclinical atherosclerosis using different methods (flow-mediated dilatation, intima media thickness, arterial stiffness, coronary artery calcification) as well as assessing circulating cardiovascular risk markers, point toward an increased cardiovascular risk and early atherogenesis in PCOS. The risk and early features of subclinical atherosclerosis can be reversed by non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions. However, the long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as the clinical significance of different interventions still need to be properly addressed in a large prospective study. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. PEGylation of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microparticles for microfluidic bioassays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučerová, J.; Svobodová, Z.; Knotek, P.; Palarčik, J.; Vlček, Milan; Kincl, Miloslav; Horák, Daniel; Autebert, J.; Viovy, J.-L.; Bílková, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, 1 July (2014), s. 308-315 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12053; GA MŠk 7E09109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE; European Commission(XE) 228980 - CAMINEMS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PEGylation * magnetic microscopy * microfluidics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delewi, Ronak; Nijveldt, Robin; Hirsch, Alexander; Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens; Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J.; Tio, René A.; Tijssen, Jan G.P.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Zijlstra, Felix; Piek, Jan J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  12. Left ventricular thrombus formation after acute myocardial infarction as assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delewi, Ronak [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Nijveldt, Robin [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hirsch, Alexander [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marcu, Constantin B.; Robbers, Lourens [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hassell, Marriela E.C.J.; Bruin, Rianne H.A. de; Vleugels, Jim; Laan, Anja M. van der; Bouma, Berto J. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tio, René A. [Thorax Center, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tijssen, Jan G.P. [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rossum, Albert C. van [Department of Cardiology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zijlstra, Felix [Thorax Center, Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Piek, Jan J., E-mail: j.j.piek@amc.uva.nl [Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Introduction: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation is a feared complication of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed the prevalence of LV thrombus in ST-segment elevated MI patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compared the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Also, we evaluated the course of LV thrombi in the modern era of primary PCI. Methods: 200 patients with primary PCI underwent TTE and CMR, at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. Studies were analyzed by two blinded examiners. Patients were seen at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months for assessment of clinical status and adverse events. Results: On CMR at baseline, a thrombus was found in 17 of 194 (8.8%) patients. LV thrombus resolution occurred in 15 patients. Two patients had persistence of LV thrombus on follow-up CMR. On CMR at four months, a thrombus was found in an additional 12 patients. In multivariate analysis, thrombus formation on baseline CMR was independently associated with, baseline infarct size (g) (B = 0.02, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001). Routine TTE had a sensitivity of 21–24% and a specificity of 95–98% compared to CMR for the detection of LV thrombi. Intra- and interobserver variation for detection of LV thrombus were lower for CMR (κ = 0.91 and κ = 0.96) compared to TTE (κ = 0.74 and κ = 0.53). Conclusion: LV thrombus still occurs in a substantial amount of patients after PCI-treated MI, especially in larger infarct sizes. Routine TTE had a low sensitivity for the detection of LV thrombi and the interobserver variation of TTE was large.

  13. The effects of breath-holding on pulmonary regurgitation measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu-Narayan Sonya V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary regurgitation is a common and clinically important residual lesion after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR phase contrast velocity mapping is widely used for measurement of pulmonary regurgitant fraction. Breath-hold acquisitions, usually acquired during held expiration, are more convenient than the non-breath-hold approach, but we hypothesized that breath-holding might affect the amount of pulmonary regurgitation. Methods Forty-three adult patients with a previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot and residual pulmonary regurgitation were investigated with CMR. In each, pulmonary regurgitant fraction was measured from velocity maps transecting the pulmonary trunk, acquired during held expiration, held inspiration, by non-breath-hold acquisition, and also from the difference of right and left ventricular stroke volume measurements. Results Pulmonary regurgitant fraction was lower when measured by velocity mapping in held expiration compared with held inspiration, non-breath-hold or stroke volume difference (30.8 vs. 37.0, 35.6, 35.4%, p = 0.00017, 0.0035, 0.026. The regurgitant volume was lower in held expiration than in held inspiration (41.9 vs. 48.3, p = 0.0018. Pulmonary forward flow volume was larger during held expiration than during non-breath-hold (132 vs. 124 ml, p = 0.0024. Conclusion Pulmonary regurgitant fraction was significantly lower in held expiration compared with held inspiration, free breathing and stroke volume difference. Altered airway pressure could be a contributory factor. This information is relevant if breath-hold acquisition is to be substituted for non-breath-hold in the investigation of patients with a view to re-intervention.

  14. Multi-Centre Study on Cardiovascular Risk Management on Patients Undergoing AAA Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratzis, A; Dattani, N; Brown, A; Shalhoub, J; Bosanquet, D; Sidloff, D; Stather, P

    2017-07-01

    adequately protected from poor cardiovascular outcomes is lacking. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie, E-mail: soma13@otenet.gr; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. • CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. • Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques. • CT can assess periarteritis and coronary artery aneurysms, while 18FDG-PET shows FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. • CMR offers an integrated imaging of CV system, including assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and can guide further treatment. - Abstract: Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18

  16. IgG4-related cardiovascular disease. The emerging role of cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. • CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. • Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques. • CT can assess periarteritis and coronary artery aneurysms, while 18FDG-PET shows FDG uptake at the area of the lesion. • CMR offers an integrated imaging of CV system, including assessment of disease acuity, extent of fibrosis and can guide further treatment. - Abstract: Immunoglobulin 4-related disease (IgG4-related disease) is a systemic inflammatory disease that presents with increases of serum IgG4. It may affect various systems, including the cardiovascular (CV) system. Assessment of serum IgG4 levels and involved organ biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. IgG4-related disease is characterized by fibrosclerosis, lymphocytic infiltration and presence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The disease usually responds to treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive medication. CV involvement may manifest as cardiac pseudotumors, inflammatory periaortitis, coronary arteritis and/or pericarditis. IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders can severely affect patient prognosis. Various imaging techniques, including echocardiography, Computed Tomography (CT), 18FDG-PET, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) and cardiac catheterisation, have been successfully used for early disease detection and follow-up. Echocardiography and vascular ultrasound are the most commonly used non-invasive, non-radiating imaging techniques for the evaluation of IgG4-related CV disease. Periaortitis/periarteritis can be also assessed by CT, showing a soft tissue thickening around arteries. Coronary artery aneurysms can be easily diagnosed by coronary CT. In case of active periarterial or coronary artery inflammation, 18

  17. Blood pressure variability and risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with hypertension and different baseline risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Maria H; Liestøl, Knut; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Julius, Stevo; Hua, Tsushung A; Rothwell, Peter M; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco; Weber, Michael A; Berge, Eivind

    2018-01-20

    Blood pressure variability is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, particularly in high-risk patients. We assessed if variability was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients at different risk levels. The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation trial was a randomized controlled trial of valsartan vs. amlodipine in patients with hypertension and different risks of cardiovascular events, followed for a mean of 4.2 years. We calculated standard deviation (SD) of mean systolic blood pressure from visits from 6 months onward in patients with ≥3 visits and no events during the first 6 months. We compared the risk of cardiovascular events in the highest and lowest quintile of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability, using Cox regression. For analysis of death, variability was analysed as a continuous variable. Of 13 803 patients included, 1557 (11.3%) had a cardiovascular event and 1089 (7.9%) died. Patients in the highest quintile of SD had an increased risk of cardiovascular events [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.7-2.4; P risk of death (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17; P = 0.002). Associations were stronger among younger patients and patients with lower systolic blood pressure, and similar between patients with different baseline risks, except for higher risk of death among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Higher visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure variability is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension, irrespective of baseline risk of cardiovascular events. Associations were stronger in younger patients and in those with lower mean systolic blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease

  19. Physiological Changes to the Cardiovascular System at High Altitude and Its Effects on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Callum James; Gavin, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Riley, Callum James, and Matthew Gavin. Physiological changes to the cardiovascular system at high altitude and its effects on cardiovascular disease. High Alt Med Biol. 18:102-113, 2017.-The physiological changes to the cardiovascular system in response to the high altitude environment are well understood. More recently, we have begun to understand how these changes may affect and cause detriment to cardiovascular disease. In addition to this, the increasing availability of altitude simulation has dramatically improved our understanding of the physiology of high altitude. This has allowed further study on the effect of altitude in those with cardiovascular disease in a safe and controlled environment as well as in healthy individuals. Using a thorough PubMed search, this review aims to integrate recent advances in cardiovascular physiology at altitude with previous understanding, as well as its potential implications on cardiovascular disease. Altogether, it was found that the changes at altitude to cardiovascular physiology are profound enough to have a noteworthy effect on many forms of cardiovascular disease. While often asymptomatic, there is some risk in high altitude exposure for individuals with certain cardiovascular diseases. Although controlled research in patients with cardiovascular disease was largely lacking, meaning firm conclusions cannot be drawn, these risks should be a consideration to both the individual and their physician.

  20. Drop-out from cardiovascular magnetic resonance in a randomized controlled trial of ST-elevation myocardial infarction does not cause selection bias on endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Peter Nørkjær; Holmvang, L.; Kelbæk, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The extent of selection bias due to drop-out in clinical trials of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) as surrogate endpoints is unknown. We sought to interrogate the characteristics and prognosis of patients who dropped out before...... years of follow-up were assessed and compared between CMR-drop-outs and CMR-participants using the trial screening log and the Eastern Danish Heart Registry. Results: The drop-out rate from acute CMR was 28% (n = 92). These patients had a significantly worse clinical risk profile upon admission...... as evaluated by the TIMI-risk score (3.7 (± 2.1) vs 4.0 (± 2.6), p = 0.043) and by left ventricular ejection fraction (43 (± 9) vs. 47 (± 10), p = 0.029). CMR drop-outs had a higher incidence of known hypertension (39% vs. 35%, p = 0.043), known diabetes (14% vs. 7%, p = 0.025), known cardiac disease (11% vs...

  1. Overview on How Data Mining Tools May Support Cardiovascular Disease Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Andrei Sitar-Taut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Terms as knowledge discovery or KnowledgeDiscovery from Databases (KDD, Data Mining (DM, ArtificialIntelligence (AI, Machine Learning (ML, Artificial Neuralnetworks (ANN, decision tables and trees, gain from day to day,an increasing significance in medical data analysis. They permitthe identification, evaluation, and quantification of some lessvisible, intuitively unpredictable, by using generally large sets ofdata. Cardiology represents an extremely vast and importantdomain, having multiple and complex social and humanimplications. These are enough reasons to promote theresearches in this area, becoming shortly not just national orEuropean priorities, but also world-level ones. The profoundand multiple interwoven relationships among the cardiovascularrisk factors and cardiovascular diseases – but still far to becompletely discovered or understood – represent a niche forapplying IT&C modern and multidisciplinary tools in order tosolve the existing knowledge gaps.This paper’s aim is to present, by emphasizing their absoluteor relative pros and cons, several opportunities of applying DMtools in cardiology, more precisely in endothelial dysfunctiondiagnostic and quantification the relationships between theseand so-called “classical” cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in candidates for Fontan operation: Proposal of a new Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait-Ali Lamia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To propose a new diagnostic algorithm for candidates for Fontan and identify those who can skip cardiac catheterization (CC. Methods Forty-four candidates for Fontan (median age 4.8 years, range: 2-29 years were prospectively evaluated by trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE, Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and CC. Before CC, according to clinical, echo and CMR findings, patients were divided in two groups: Group I comprised 18 patients deemed suitable for Fontan without requiring CC; group II comprised 26 patients indicated for CC either in order to detect more details, or for interventional procedures. Results In Group I ("CC not required" no unexpected new information affecting surgical planning was provided by CC. Conversely, in Group II new information was provided by CC in three patients (0 vs 11.5%, p = 0.35 and in six an interventional procedure was performed. During CC, minor complications occurred in one patient from Group I and in three from Group II (6 vs 14%, p = 0.7. Radiation Dose-Area product was similar in the two groups (Median 20 Gycm2, range: 5-40 vs 26.5 Gycm2, range: 9-270 p = 0.37. All 18 Group I patients and 19 Group II patients underwent a total cavo-pulmonary anastomosis; in the remaining seven group II patients, four were excluded from Fontan; two are awaiting Fontan; one refused the intervention. Conclusion In this paper we propose a new diagnostic algorithm in a pre-Fontan setting. An accurate non-invasive evaluation comprising TTE and CMR could select patients who can skip CC.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and great vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitoh, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takamiya, Makoto; Kozuka, Takahiro.

    1985-01-01

    About sixty subjects with normal heart or various cardiovascular diseases were examined with 0.35 or 1.5 T superconductive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, and ECG-gated spin-echo multislice technique was used to evaluate cardiovascular anatomy. MRI accurately demonstrated ventricular wall thinning caused by myocardial infarction and asymmetric ventricular hypertrophy owing to cardiomyopathy. Rheumatic valvular thickening, congenital cardiac malformations, aortic aneurysm and dissection were also clearly demonstrated by gated MRI without the use of any contrast media. MRI was shown to be an excellent non-invasive imaging modality for evaluation of pathoanatomy of the heart and great vessels. (author)

  4. Coil end design for the LHC dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the coil ends for the Large Hadron Collider dipole magnets of the CERN European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Switzerland. This alternative to existing European designs was provided by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory by agreement between CERN and the United States. The superconducting cable paths are determined from both magnetic and mechanical considerations. The coil end parts used to shape and constrain the conductors in the coil ends are designed using the developable surface, grouped end approach. This method allows the analysis of strain energy within the conductor groups, and the optimization of mechanical factors during the design. Design intent and implementation are discussed. Inner and outer coil design challenges and end analysis are detailed

  5. Association of diastolic blood pressure with cardiovascular events in older people varies upon cardiovascular history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijsman, Liselotte W.; Muller, Majon; de Craen, Anton J .M.

    2018-01-01

    with those with normal DBP. After further adjusting for cardiovascular factors, this association attenuated to 1.05 (0.86; 1.28). A previous history of cardiovascular disease significantly modified the relation between DBP and risk of cardiovascular events (P-interaction 0.042). In participants without......BACKGROUND: In older age, a low DBP has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, especially in frail older people. We tested the hypothesis that low DBP is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events in people with a previous history of cardiovascular disease......-90 mmHg) or high (>90 mmHg). Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI); analyses were stratified for cardiovascular history. RESULTS: Participants with low DBP had a 1.24-fold (1.04; 1.49) increased risk of cardiovascular events compared...

  6. The intra-observer reproducibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking strain assessment is independent of field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, Andreas; Morton, Geraint; Hussain, Shazia T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT) is a promising novel method for quantification of myocardial wall mechanics from standard steady-state free precession (SSFP) images. We sought to determine whether magnetic field strength affects the intra-observer reproducibility of CMR-FT strain analysis. Methods: We studied 2 groups, each consisting of 10 healthy subjects, at 1.5 T or 3 T Analysis was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks using dedicated CMR-FT prototype software (Tomtec, Germany) to analyze standard SSFP cine images. Right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal strain (Ell RV and Ell LV ) and LV long-axis radial strain (Err LAX ) were derived from the 4-chamber cine, and LV short-axis circumferential and radial strains (Ecc SAX , Err SAX ) from the short-axis orientation. Strain parameters were assessed together with LV ejection fraction (EF) and volumes. Intra-observer reproducibility was determined by comparing the first and the second analysis in both groups. Results: In all volunteers resting strain parameters were successfully derived from the SSFP images. There was no difference in strain parameters, volumes and EF between field strengths (p > 0.05). In general Ecc SAX was the most reproducible strain parameter as determined by the coefficient of variation (CV) at 1.5 T (CV 13.3% and 46% global and segmental respectively) and 3 T (CV 17.2% and 31.1% global and segmental respectively). The least reproducible parameter was Ell RV (CV 1.5 T 28.7% and 53.2%; 3 T 43.5% and 63.3% global and segmental respectively). Conclusions: CMR-FT results are similar with reasonable intra-observer reproducibility in different groups of volunteers at 1.5 T and 3 T. CMR-FT is a promising novel technique and our data indicate that results might be transferable between field strengths. However there is a considerable amount of segmental variability indicating that further refinements are needed before CMR

  7. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-08-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993-1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 20,951 men and women were included in EPIC-Norfolk analysis (mean follow-up 11.3±2.8 years, median 11.9 years). The percentage of participants with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the highest and lowest quintile of chocolate consumption was 9.7% and 13.8%, and the respective rates for stroke were 3.1% and 5.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.88 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.01) for those in the top quintile of chocolate consumption (16-99 g/day) versus non-consumers of chocolate intake. The corresponding HR for stroke and cardiovascular disease (cardiovascular disease defined by the sum of CHD and stroke) were 0.77 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.97). The propensity score matched estimates showed a similar trend. A total of nine studies with 157,809 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Higher compared to lower chocolate consumption was associated with significantly lower CHD risk (five studies; pooled RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.92), stroke (five studies; pooled RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.87), composite cardiovascular adverse outcome (two studies; pooled RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.05), and cardiovascular mortality (three studies; pooled RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). Cumulative evidence suggests that higher chocolate intake is associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events, although residual confounding cannot be excluded. There does not appear to be any evidence to say that chocolate should be avoided in those who are concerned about

  8. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  9. Use of magnets in medical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, A.

    1983-01-01

    In the Soviet Union magnetic fields were first applied successfully for medical purposes in the treatment of various diseases in the forties. Clinical-experimental research has established that a constant magnetic field and a low-frequency alternating magnetic field posses analgesic, antiedematous and antifebril action, decrease dystrophic processes, and increase blood circulation. An alternating magnetic field at a frequency of 50 cycles per second has a rhythm close to that of muscle nerve currents in the normal bodily state. Thus, in applying a 50-cycle magnetic field to organs and tissues as a specific stimulus we normalize the frequency of the current. By normalizing the electrical state of the tissues it is possible to normalize the general state of the organism as well. It is assumed that the magnetic field, like a tape-recorder heat, erases the pathological recording which has distorted or replaced the normal information characteristic of the cells. The range of magnetotherapy's therapeutic action is very broad: it includes cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, skin diseases, obliterating endarteritis, disturbances of peripheral blood circulation, diseases of the digestive organs, diseases of the musculoskeletal apparatus, osteochondrosis, radiculitis, and many others.

  10. Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with APS bending magnet x-rays and 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Job, P. K.; Puhl, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as other third-generation synchrotron light sources, uses permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific research. When placed in a high-energy storage ring, these permanent magnets are subjected to irradiation from synchrotron radiation, high-energy bremsstrahlung, and bremsstrahlung-produced photoneutrons. Previous investigations have exhibited varying degrees of degradation in the intensity of magnetization of these magnets due to irradiation from electron beams, 60 Co γrays, and high-energy neutrons. The APS specifically uses Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets in their insertion devices. Although no detectable radiation-induced demagnetization has been observed in the APS insertion devices so far, partial demagnetization has been observed in at least one insertion device at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are also used

  11. Risk of misclassification with a non-fasting lipid profile in secondary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; Hartong, Simone C C; Vermeer, Henricus J; Schoofs, Mariette W C J; Kofflard, Marcel J M

    2017-09-01

    Routinely fasting is not necessary for measuring the lipid profile according to the latest European consensus. However, LDL-C tends to be lower in the non-fasting state with risk of misclassification. The extent of misclassification in secondary cardiovascular prevention with a non-fasting lipid profile was investigated. 329 patients on lipid lowering therapy for secondary cardiovascular prevention measured a fasting and non-fasting lipid profile. Cut-off values for LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B were set at fasting LDL-C (calculated using the Friedewald formula), direct LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B. Net misclassification fasting measurements resulted in lower LDL-C (-0.2±0.4mmol/l, Pfasting LDL-C target of fasting state. In the non-fasting state net misclassification with direct LDL-C was 5.7% (95% CI 2.1-9.2%), 4.0% (95% CI 1.0-7.4%) with non-HDL-C and 4.1% (95% CI 1.1-9.1%) with apolipoprotein B. Use of non-fasting LDL-C as treatment target in secondary cardiovascular prevention resulted in significant misclassification with subsequent risk of undertreatment, whereas non-fasting direct LDL-C, non-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B are reliable parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal and transverse right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension: cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study from the ASPIRE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Andrew J; Rajaram, Smitha; Capener, Dave; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M; Kiely, David G

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong predictor of outcome in cardiovascular diseases. Two components of RV function, longitudinal and transverse motion, have been investigated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, their individual clinical significance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with transverse and longitudinal RV motion in patients with PH. In 149 treatment-naive patients with PH and 16 patients with suspected PH found to have mean pulmonary arterial pressure of transverse motion (fractional septum to free wall distance [f-SFD]; P = 0.002). In patients without PH, no significant difference between f-SFD and f-TAAD was identified (P = 0.442). Longitudinal RV motion was singularly associated with RV ejection fraction independent of age, invasive hemodynamics, and cardiac magnetic resonance measurements (P = 0.024). In contrast, transverse RV motion was independently associated with left ventricular eccentricity (P = 0.036) in addition to RV ejection fraction (P = 0.014). In conclusion, RV motion is significantly greater in the longitudinal direction in patients with PH, whereas patients without PH have equal contributions of transverse and longitudinal motion. Longitudinal RV motion is primarily associated with global RV pump function in PH. Transverse RV motion not only reflects global pump function but is independently influenced by ventricular interaction in patients with PH.

  13. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non......-cardiovascular causes. Severe pre-eclampsia was associated with death from cardiovascular causes only. There was a less than additive effect on cardiovascular mortality hazard ratios with increasing number of pregnancy complications: preterm delivery 1.90 [95% confidence intervals 1.49, 2.43]; preterm delivery...

  14. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  15. Do European people with Type 1 diabetes consume a high atherogenic diet? 7-year follow-up of the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Chaturveldi, N.; Fuller, J.; Toeller, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives - Individuals with type 1 diabetes have a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and it has been reported that they consume a high atherogenic diet. We examined how nutrient intake and adherence to current European nutritional recommendations evolved in a large cohort

  16. ECG gated NMR-CT for cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, J.; Machida, K.; Iio, M.; Yoshimoto, N.; Sugimoto, T.; Kawaguchi, H.; Mano, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors applied NMR-CT to cardiac study with ECG gated technique to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function and compared it with cardiovascular nuclear medicine study (NM). The NMR-CT machine has resistive air-core magnet with 0.15 Tesla. The saturation recovery image or inversion recovery image were obtained as 256 x 256 matrix and 15 mm in thickness. The study population was ten patients who were evaluated both by NMR image and by NM performed within one week interval. The heart muscle was able to be visualized without any contrast material nor radioisotopes in inversion recovery images, whereas saturation recovery images failed to separate heart muscle from blood pool. The wall motions of LV in both methods were well correlated except for inferior wall. The values of ejection fraction in NMR image were moderately low, but two modalities showed satisfactory correlation (r=0.85). The region of myocardial infarction was revealed as wall thinning and/or wall motion abnormality. It is still preliminary to draw a conclusion, however, it can be said that in the evaluation of LV function, method by NMR might be of equal value to those of NM. It can be certain that eventually gated NMR-CT will become more effective method for various aspects of cardiovascular evaluation

  17. The future of the cardiovascular image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna M, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the future of the cardiovascular image is presented, it is important to know the advantages and disadvantages of the current image methods to apply them in each case. The characteristics of the methods are presented: X R simple plate, the cardiac ultrasound, the image by magnetic resonance, the computed tomography, the helicoid tomography, the SPECT of myocardial perfusion, the PET and the PET/CT and the used radiopharmaceuticals. The SPECT of myocardial perfusion is the more used method around the world for the evacuation of the coronary illness. It has a high sensitivity (between 90 and 97%), it is a non-invasive treatment (morbidity of 0.01%), of relative low cost and it is useful in the diagnosis of ischemia in groups of high risk like diabetics, dyslipidemia, obese and hypertension. (Author)

  18. Infraorbital nerve involvement on magnetic resonance imaging in European patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease: a specific sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soussan, J. Ben; Sadik, J.C.; Savatovsky, J.; Heran, F.; Lecler, A. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Deschamps, R. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Department of Neurology, Paris (France); Deschamps, L. [Bichat Hospital, APHP, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Puttermann, M. [Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, APHP, Department of Pathology, Paris (France); Zmuda, M.; Galatoire, O. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Department of Orbitopalpebral Surgery, Paris (France); Picard, H. [Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Clinical Research Unit, Paris (France)

    2017-04-15

    To measure the frequency of infraorbital nerve enlargement (IONE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in European patients suffering from an IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) as compared to patients suffering from non-IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (non-IgG4-ROD). From January 2006 through April 2015, 132 patients were admitted for non-lymphoma, non-thyroid-related orbital inflammation. Thirty-eight had both pre-therapeutic orbital MRI and histopathological IgG4 immunostaining. Fifteen patients were classified as cases of IgG4-ROD and 23 patients as cases of non-IgG4-ROD. Two readers performed blinded analyses of MRI images. The main criterion was the presence of an IONE, defined as the infraorbital nerve diameter being greater than the optic nerve diameter in the coronal section. IONE was present in 53% (8/15) of IgG4-ROD cases whereas it was never present (0/23) in cases of non-IgG4-ROD (P < 0.0001). IONE was only present in cases where, on MRI, the inflammation of the inferior quadrant was present and in direct contact with the ION canal. In European patients suffering from orbital inflammation, the presence of IONE on an MRI is a specific sign of IgG4-ROD. Recognition of this pattern may facilitate the accurate diagnosis for clinicians and allow for the adequate management and appropriate care of their patients. (orig.)

  19. Infraorbital nerve involvement on magnetic resonance imaging in European patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease: a specific sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, J. Ben; Sadik, J.C.; Savatovsky, J.; Heran, F.; Lecler, A.; Deschamps, R.; Deschamps, L.; Puttermann, M.; Zmuda, M.; Galatoire, O.; Picard, H.

    2017-01-01

    To measure the frequency of infraorbital nerve enlargement (IONE) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in European patients suffering from an IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD) as compared to patients suffering from non-IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (non-IgG4-ROD). From January 2006 through April 2015, 132 patients were admitted for non-lymphoma, non-thyroid-related orbital inflammation. Thirty-eight had both pre-therapeutic orbital MRI and histopathological IgG4 immunostaining. Fifteen patients were classified as cases of IgG4-ROD and 23 patients as cases of non-IgG4-ROD. Two readers performed blinded analyses of MRI images. The main criterion was the presence of an IONE, defined as the infraorbital nerve diameter being greater than the optic nerve diameter in the coronal section. IONE was present in 53% (8/15) of IgG4-ROD cases whereas it was never present (0/23) in cases of non-IgG4-ROD (P < 0.0001). IONE was only present in cases where, on MRI, the inflammation of the inferior quadrant was present and in direct contact with the ION canal. In European patients suffering from orbital inflammation, the presence of IONE on an MRI is a specific sign of IgG4-ROD. Recognition of this pattern may facilitate the accurate diagnosis for clinicians and allow for the adequate management and appropriate care of their patients. (orig.)

  20. Impact of Medical Therapy on Atheroma Volume Measured by Different Cardiovascular Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad C. N. Sinno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that affects most vascular beds. The gold standard of atherosclerosis imaging has been invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. Newer noninvasive imaging modalities like B-mode ultrasound, cardiac computed tomography (CT, positron emission tomography (PET, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have been used to assess these vascular territories with high accuracy and reproducibility. These imaging modalities have lately been used for the assessment of the atherosclerotic plaque and the response of its volume to several medical therapies used in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. To study the impact of these medications on atheroma volume progression or regression, imaging modalities have been used on a serial basis providing a unique opportunity to monitor the effect these antiatherosclerotic strategies exert on plaque burden. As a result, studies incorporating serial IVUS imaging, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA, B-mode ultrasound, electron beam computed tomography (EBCT, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging have all been used to evaluate the impact of therapeutic strategies that modify cholesterol and blood pressure on the progression/regression of atherosclerotic plaque. In this review, we intend to summarize the impact of different therapies aimed at halting the progression or even result in regression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease evaluated by different imaging modalities.

  1. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  2. Cardiovascular risk and lifestyle habits of consumers of a phytosterol-enriched yogurt in a real-life setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, F; Bruckert, E; Naelten, G; Picard, P; van Ganse, E

    2015-06-01

    Data on the characteristics of consumers of phytosterol-enriched products and modalities of consumption are rare. An observational study evaluating the lifestyle characteristics and cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile of phytosterol-enriched yogurt consumers was performed in France. Subjects were recruited from general practitioners via electronic medical records. Data were obtained from 358 consumers and 422 nonconsumers with 519 subject questionnaires (243 consumers, 276 nonconsumers; 67% response). Consumers had more cardiovascular risk factors than nonconsumers (2.0 ± 1.5 versus 1.6 ± 1.4; P Phytosterol-enriched yogurt intake conformed to recommendations in two-thirds of consumers and was mainly consumed because of concerns over cholesterol levels and CVR. The higher cardiovascular disease risk profile of phytosterol-enriched yogurt consumers corresponds to a population for whom European guidelines recommend lifestyle changes to manage cholesterol. The coherence of the data in terms of risk factors, adherence to lifestyle recommendations and the consumption of phytosterol-enriched yogurt conforming to recommendations reflects a health-conscious consumer population. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Global cardiovascular risk stratification among hypertensive patients treated in a Family Health Unit of Parnaíba, Piauí - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p287

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elce de Seixas Nascimento

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To stratify the global cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients attended in a Family Health Unit (FHU. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study with population of hypertensive patients undergoing treatment in a FHU, module 34, in Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, in the period from July to August 2011. The sample consisted of 45 volunteers, selected by free demand conglomerate, who filled a form with questions that support the analysis and Global Cardiovascular Risk stratification (GCR, according to the VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension (VI BGH - 2010, The European Society of Cardiology (ESC and European Society of Hypertension (ESH - 2007. The subjects were then submitted to measurement of blood pressure (BP, waist circumference (WC and body mass index (BMI. Results: The most evident risk factor in the sample was overweight/obesity in 75.5% (n=34, followed by sedentary lifestyle in 73.3% (n=33 and hypercholesterolemia in 55.5% (n=25. The data collected resulted in a stratification in which 84.4% (n=38 presented high added risk and 15.5% (n=7 a very high added risk of presenting cardiovascular events in the next 10 years. Conclusion: The stratification in the population studied indicated high incidence of such factors, pointing to the need of interfering in this population segment, in order to promote changes in lifestyle that generate prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  5. Desenvolvimento de um nanosensor para a deteção de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    OpenAIRE

    Justino, Celine Isabelle Lopes

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been increasing according to the European and global statistics. Thus, the development of new analytical devices, such as biosensors for assessing the risk of CVD could become a valuable approach for the improvement of healthcare service. In latest years, the nanotechnology has provided new materials with improved electronic properties which have an important contribution in the transduction mechanism of biosensors. Thus, in this thesis, bios...

  6. The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B J

    2006-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R and D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA)

  7. Relation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac remodeling and function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huaibing; Lu, Minjie; Hou, Cuihong; Chen, Xuhua; Wang, Jing; Yin, Gang; Chu, Jianmin; Zhang, Shu; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Shihua

    2015-02-01

    Although N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful screening test of impaired right ventricular (RV) function in conditions affecting the right-sided cardiac muscle, the role of NT-proBNP remains unclear in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). This study was designed to clarify the relation between the plasma NT-proBNP level and the RV function evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. We selected 56 patients with confirmed ARVC only when their blood specimens for NT-proBNP measurements were collected within 48 hours of a CMR scan. The NT-proBNP level was significantly higher in patients with RV dysfunction than in patients without RV dysfunction (median of 655.3 [interquartile range 556.4 to 870.0] vs 347.0 [interquartile range 308.0 to 456.2] pmol/L, p rights reserved.

  8. Large magnetic coils for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.; Ulbricht, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of research in this field and outlines future tasks and experiments for the Next European Torus (NET). Research and development work accomplished so far permits generation and safe operation of magnetic fields up to 9 T by means of NbTi coils. Fields up to 11 T are feasible if the coils are cooled with superfluid helium at 1.8 K. The potential of the Nb 3 Sn coils promise achievement of magnetic fields between 12 and 13 T. (MM) [de

  9. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  10. Standardized cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR protocols, society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance: board of trustees task force on standardized protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Raymond J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Index 1. General techniques 1.1. Stress and safety equipment 1.2. Left ventricular (LV structure and function module 1.3. Right ventricular (RV structure and function module 1.4. Gadolinium dosing module. 1.5. First pass perfusion 1.6. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE 2. Disease specific protocols 2.1. Ischemic heart disease 2.1.1. Acute myocardial infarction (MI 2.1.2. Chronic ischemic heart disease and viability 2.1.3. Dobutamine stress 2.1.4. Adenosine stress perfusion 2.2. Angiography: 2.2.1. Peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA 2.2.2. Thoracic MRA 2.2.3. Anomalous coronary arteries 2.2.4. Pulmonary vein evaluation 2.3. Other 2.3.1. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy 2.3.2. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC 2.3.3. Congenital heart disease 2.3.4. Valvular heart disease 2.3.5. Pericardial disease 2.3.6. Masses

  11. Calculated and perceived cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic subjects submitted to a routine medical evaluation: The perception gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Marcelo; Laurinavicius, Antonio G; Franco, Fabio G M; Conceicao, Raquel D; Carvalho, Jose A M; Pesaro, Antonio E P; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Santos, Raul D

    2015-08-01

    Poor adherence to medical treatment represents a major health problem. A subject's misperception of his own cardiovascular risk has been indicated as a key driver for low compliance with preventive measures. This study analysed the relationship between objectively calculated short- and long-term cardiovascular risk and its subjective perception. Cross-sectional study in asymptomatic Brazilian subjects. Individuals (N = 6544, mean age 49.1 ± 7 years, 22.2% female) who underwent a routine mandatory health evaluation were studied. A questionnaire in which each individual rated his own cardiovascular risk as low, intermediate or high according to his own perception was used. The 10-year and lifetime cardiovascular risk were calculated respectively using the Framingham risk (FRS) and Lifetime risk (LRS) scores. Individuals were classified as hypo-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk lower than estimated risk), normo-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk coincident with estimated risk) and hyper-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk higher than estimated risk). Cardiovascular risk, using the FRS, was low in 77.9% (N = 5071), intermediate in 14.4% (N = 939) and high in 7.7% (N = 499) of subjects. Cardiovascular risk, using the LRS, was low in 7.6% (N = 492), intermediate in 43.1% (N = 2787) and high in 49.3% (N = 3184) of the study population. The prevalence of normo-perceivers was 57.6% using the FRS and only 20.6% using the LRS. Using the LRS, 72.3% of the intermediate and 91.2% of the high-risk subjects were hypo-perceivers. In a large sample of asymptomatic individuals, there was a gap between calculated and perceived cardiovascular risk. Using a long-term risk score, most of the intermediate- and high-risk subjects were hypo-perceivers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Flexible Framework for Magnetic Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Inglese, V; Buzio, M

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis covers the specification, design, prototyping, and validation of a new version of a magnetic measurement control, acquisition, and data analysis software package: the Flexible Framework for Magnetic Measurements (FFMM). FFMM constitutes the software part of the new platform for magnetic measurements, including also new high-performance hardware, developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in cooperation with the Department of Engineering of the University of Sannio. FFMM is conceived as a unified solution to drive all the existing and future park of measurement systems (mainly magnetic but also optical, mechanical, etc.). The effort for the series test of the LHC superconducting magnets highlighted limitations in the measurement control and acquisition programs, mainly associated with the relatively long time needed for a development iteration (the cycle of specification-programming-debugging-validation). Moreover, the software capabilities needed...

  14. Cardiac arrest caused by sibutramine obtained over the Internet: a case of a young woman without pre-existing cardiovascular disease successfully resuscitated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Uemura, Shuji; Kyan, Ryoko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Junichi; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Kokubu, Nobuaki; Miura, Tetsuji; Narimatsu, Eichi

    2017-07-01

    Sibutramine is a weight loss agent that was withdrawn from the market in the USA and European Union because it increases adverse events in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, non-prescription weight loss pills containing sibutramine can be still easily purchased over the Internet. A 21-year-old woman without history of cardiovascular diseases developed cardiac arrest. She was a user of a weight loss pills, containing sibutramine and hypokalemia-inducing agents, imported from Thailand over the Internet. She was successfully resuscitated without any neurological deficits by using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory ventricular fibrillation. This case indicates that sibutramine can cause cardiac arrest even in subjects without pre-existing cardiovascular disease when combined with agents that promote QT prolongation.

  15. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David

    2018-02-28

    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  16. Saclay Magnet-Fest

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Ernwein

    Three large LHC projects in which the Saclay laboratory has contributed in a major way have recently come to their successful completion: the LHC quadrupoles, the CMS solenoid and the ATLAS barrel toroid. These superconducting magnets were initially designed and partly prototyped in Saclay, their components manufactured in European industry, assembled and tested in industry or at CERN in the framework of large collaborations. The barrel toroid "Common Project" was conducted by the ATLAS project management and involved, in addition to the Saclay "Magnet Lab", the Italian LASA and CERN. You may recall the various steps which led to the commissioning of the barrel toroid in the cavern with full current in November of last year. The initial "race track" magnet was tested in Saclay where the B0 prototype coil was also built. The eight full size coils were assembled and individually tested in building 180 at CERN, before being lowered to the cavern and assembled. To mark these achievements, a happy gathering of m...

  17. Bicaval obstruction complicating right atrial tuberculoma:the diagnostic value of Cardiovascular MR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajam Aref

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tuberculosis is rare and usually involves the pericardium. Myocardial tuberculoma is a very rare occurrence and only a few cases were reported. We describe the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of a rare case of cardiac tuberculoma involving the right atrium which was complicated by a bicaval obstruction. The patient made a remarkable improvement with the anti-tuberculous treatment. To our knowledge, this complication has never been reported in relation to cardiac tuberculoma.

  18. Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    , the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region...

  19. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J; Triche, Elizabeth W; Paidas, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy complications on early maternal death in a registry-based retrospective cohort study of 782 287 women with a first singleton delivery in Denmark 1978-2007, followed for a median of 14.8 years (range 0.25-30.2) accruing 11.6 million person-years. We employed Cox proportional hazard models of early death from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes. Severe pre-eclampsia was associated with death from cardiovascular causes only. There was a less than additive effect on cardiovascular mortality hazard ratios with increasing number of pregnancy complications: preterm delivery 1.90 [95% confidence intervals 1.49, 2.43]; preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age offspring 3.30 [2.25, 4.84]; preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and pre-eclampsia 3.85 [2.07, 7.19]. Thus, we conclude that, separately and combined, preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age are strong markers of early maternal death from both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes.

  20. Age determination of vessel wall hematoma in spontaneous cervical artery dissection: A multi-sequence 3T Cardiovascular Magnetic resonance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Previously proposed classifications for carotid plaque and cerebral parenchymal hemorrhages are used to estimate the age of hematoma according to its signal intensities on T1w and T2w MR images. Using these classifications, we systematically investigated the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in determining the age of vessel wall hematoma (VWH) in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD). Methods 35 consecutive patients (mean age 43.6 ± 9.8 years) with sCAD received a cervical multi-sequence 3T CMR with fat-saturated black-blood T1w-, T2w- and TOF images. Age of sCAD was defined as time between onset of symptoms (stroke, TIA or Horner's syndrome) and the CMR scan. VWH were categorized into hyperacute, acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic based on their signal intensities on T1w- and T2w images. Results The mean age of sCAD was 2.0, 5.8, 15.7 and 58.7 days in patients with acute, early subacute, late subacute and chronic VWH as classified by CMR (p hematomas with Cohen's kappa of 0.74 (p hematomas differs from that of cerebral hematomas. PMID:22122756

  1. WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects: A Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Elise; Casas, Maribel; Pershagen, Göran; Foraster, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To update the current state of evidence and assess its quality, we conducted a systematic review on the effects of environmental noise exposure on the cardio-metabolic systems as input for the new WHO environmental noise guidelines for the European Region. We identified 600 references relating to studies on effects of noise from road, rail and air traffic, and wind turbines on the cardio-metabolic system, published between January 2000 and August 2015. Only 61 studies, investigating different end points, included information enabling estimation of exposure response relationships. These studies were used for meta-analyses, and assessments of the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). A majority of the studies concerned traffic noise and hypertension, but most were cross-sectional and suffering from a high risk of bias. The most comprehensive evidence was available for road traffic noise and Ischeamic Heart Diseases (IHD). Combining the results of 7 longitudinal studies revealed a Relative Risk (RR) of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01–1.15) per 10 dB (LDEN) for the association between road traffic noise and the incidence of IHD. We rated the quality of this evidence as high. Only a few studies reported on the association between transportation noise and stroke, diabetes, and/or obesity. The quality of evidence for these associations was rated from moderate to very low, depending on transportation noise source and outcome. For a comprehensive assessment of the impact of noise exposure on the cardiovascular and metabolic system, we need more and better quality evidence, primarily based on longitudinal studies. PMID:29470452

  2. A core curriculum for the continuing professional development of nurses: Developed by the Education Committee on behalf of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions of the ESC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Felicity; Carroll, Diane L; Ruppar, Todd; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Kletsiou, Eleni; Serafin, Agnieszka; Ketchell, Alison

    2015-06-01

    The European Society of Cardiology and the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions share a vision; to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease in Europe. Nurses represent the largest sector of the health professional workforce and have a significant contribution to make, which has not yet been fully realised. Recent evidence highlights an association between the level of nurse education and inpatient mortality making this an important topic, particularly as the provision of nurse education in Europe is variable. To develop a core curriculum to inform the education of nurses following initial qualification for work in cardiovascular settings. A syllabus was developed using published literature, policy documents and existing curricula with expert input from service users, specialist nurses, cardiologists, educationalists and academics. The syllabus formed the framework for the development of the core curriculum. Eight key themes characterise the core curriculum which are presented together with an account of the development process. While the curriculum is not intended to cover all aspects of the highly complex role of the cardiovascular nurse, the themes do exemplify the science and art of nursing and are transferable across different levels of clinical practice and settings. The curriculum functions both as a 'map', which identifies key themes to include in nurse education, and as a 'tool' to inform educational provision that bridges' the gap between initial nurse education and advanced specialist practice. Content can be adapted for use to fit the national context and reflects the specific needs, health priorities, legislative and regulatory standards that govern safe nursing practice across different countries. The core curriculum can be used as a learning framework to guide nurse education, in particular the continuing professional education of post-qualifying nurses working in cardiovascular settings. This represents a significant step

  3. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  4. European Consensus on Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, G

    1988-07-01

    The European Consensus on Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease has recommended that providing care for individuals at particular risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) requires case finding through medical examinations in primary care, hospital and employment health examination settings. Decisions concerning management of elevated lipid levels should be based on overall cardiovascular risk. The goal of reducing cholesterol levels through risk reduction can ultimately be accomplished only with the implementation of health education efforts directed toward all age groups and actions by government and supranational agencies, including adequate food labelling to identify fat content, selective taxation to encourage healthful habits and wider availability of exercise facilities. Only measures directed at the overall population can eventually reach the large proportion of individuals at mildly to moderately increased risk for CAD. The European Policy Statement on the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease recognizes that the question of lipid elevation as a risk factor for CAD involves assessment, not only of cholesterol level alone, but also of triglycerides and the HDL cholesterol lipid fraction. Five specific categories of dyslipidemia have been identified, with individualized screening and treatment strategies advised for each. It is the consensus of the study group panel members that these procedures are both practical and feasible. They begin the necessary long term process to reduce the unacceptably high levels of morbidity and mortality due to CAD throughout the European community.

  5. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  6. Optimal dietary calcium intake in HIV treated patients: no femoral osteoporosis but higher cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Laura; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Cocorullo, Deborah; Salpietro, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gianotti, Nicola; Bigoloni, Alba; Vinci, Concetta; Mignogna, Giovanna; Sirtori, Marcella; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella

    2014-04-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck. Cardiovascular risk was assessed by the 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk score. 200 HIV-infected patients evaluated: 171 (86%) males with a median age of 48.1 (42.3-53.8) years and 10.6 (4.3-13.6) years of HAART exposure. DCI was 889 (589-1308) mg/day and 79 (40%) patients had an optimal DCI. Framingham risk>20% was found in 13 (6.7%) patients and femoral OP was diagnosed in 12 (6%) pts. By multivariate analysis, optimal DCI was more likely in patients with a Framingham risk>20% [OR = 5.547, 95% CI:1.337, p = 0.025] and less likely in patients with femoral osteoporosis [OR = 0.159, 95% CI: 0.018-0.790, p = 0.047]. We found that an optimal dietary calcium intake was more likely in patients with high cardiovascular risk and no femoral osteoporosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  8. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part I. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Dijkman, Paul R.M. van

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with proven or suspected coronary artery disease. Dobutamine CMR was evaluated retrospectively in 400 consecutive patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. Dobutamine was infused using an incremental protocol up to 40 μg/kg body weight per minute. All anti-anginal medication was stopped 4 days before the CMR study and infusion time of dobutamine was 6 min per stage. Hemodynamic data, CMR findings and side effects were reported. Patients with contraindications to CMR (metallic implants and claustrophobia) were excluded from analysis. Dobutamine CMR was successfully performed in 355 (89%) patients. Forty-five (11%) patients could not be investigated adequately because of non-cardiac side effects in 29 (7%) and cardiac side effects in 16 (4%) patients. Hypotension (1.5%) and arrhythmias (1%) were the most frequent cardiac side effects. One patient developed a severe complication (ventricular fibrillation) at the end of the study. There were no myocardial infarctions or fatal complications of the stress test. The most frequent non-cardiac side effects were nausea, vomiting and claustrophobia. Age >70 years, prior myocardial infarction and rest wall motion abnormalities showed no significant differences with side effects (P>0.05). Dobutamine CMR is safe and feasible in patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. (orig.)

  9. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part I. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Janssen, Caroline H C; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with proven or suspected coronary artery disease. Dobutamine CMR was evaluated retrospectively in 400 consecutive patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. Dobutamine was infused using an incremental protocol up to 40 microg/kg body weight per minute. All anti-anginal medication was stopped 4 days before the CMR study and infusion time of dobutamine was 6 min per stage. Hemodynamic data, CMR findings and side effects were reported. Patients with contraindications to CMR (metallic implants and claustrophobia) were excluded from analysis. Dobutamine CMR was successfully performed in 355 (89%) patients. Forty-five (11%) patients could not be investigated adequately because of non-cardiac side effects in 29 (7%) and cardiac side effects in 16 (4%) patients. Hypotension (1.5%) and arrhythmias (1%) were the most frequent cardiac side effects. One patient developed a severe complication (ventricular fibrillation) at the end of the study. There were no myocardial infarctions or fatal complications of the stress test. The most frequent non-cardiac side effects were nausea, vomiting and claustrophobia. Age >70 years, prior myocardial infarction and rest wall motion abnormalities showed no significant differences with side effects (P>0.05). Dobutamine CMR is safe and feasible in patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  10. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part I. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands); Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkman, Paul R.M. van [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with proven or suspected coronary artery disease. Dobutamine CMR was evaluated retrospectively in 400 consecutive patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. Dobutamine was infused using an incremental protocol up to 40 {mu}g/kg body weight per minute. All anti-anginal medication was stopped 4 days before the CMR study and infusion time of dobutamine was 6 min per stage. Hemodynamic data, CMR findings and side effects were reported. Patients with contraindications to CMR (metallic implants and claustrophobia) were excluded from analysis. Dobutamine CMR was successfully performed in 355 (89%) patients. Forty-five (11%) patients could not be investigated adequately because of non-cardiac side effects in 29 (7%) and cardiac side effects in 16 (4%) patients. Hypotension (1.5%) and arrhythmias (1%) were the most frequent cardiac side effects. One patient developed a severe complication (ventricular fibrillation) at the end of the study. There were no myocardial infarctions or fatal complications of the stress test. The most frequent non-cardiac side effects were nausea, vomiting and claustrophobia. Age >70 years, prior myocardial infarction and rest wall motion abnormalities showed no significant differences with side effects (P>0.05). Dobutamine CMR is safe and feasible in patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. (orig.)

  11. Low-temperature magnetic properties of Fe3C/iron oxide nanocomposite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Bohumil; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Mašláň, M.; Šantavá, Eva; Morjan, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 316, č. 2 (2007), s. 422-425 ISSN 0304-8853. [Joint European Magnetic Symposia /3./ (JEMS´06). San Sebastian, 26.06.2006-30.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Nanopowder * Fe3C * Mossbauer spectroscopy * Magnetic properties * AC susceptibility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2007

  12. Vector Fields European user group meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The "Vector Fields European user group meeting" will take place at CERN on 26 and 27 September 2007. Within this framework two workshops are organized at the CERN Training Centre: 24 September 2007
 Modelling Magnets with Opera 25 September 2007
Modelling of Charged Particle Beam Devices with Opera If you are interested in attending the workshop or the user group meeting please contact Julie Shepherd (Vector Fields) or Pierre Baehler (CERN) directly at: Julie.Shepherd@vectorfields.co.uk, +44 (0) 1865 854933 or +44 (0) 1865 370151 Pierre.Baehler@cern.ch, 75016 / 160156.

  13. Magnetic nanosensor particles in luminescence upconversion capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Stefan; Hirsch, Thomas; Scheucher, Elisabeth; Mayr, Torsten; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2011-09-05

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit interesting size-dependent electrical, optical, magnetic, and chemical properties that cannot be observed in their bulk counterparts. The synthesis of NPs (i.e., crystalline particles ranging in size from 1 to 100 nm) has been intensely studied in the past decades. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) form a particularly attractive class of NPs and have found numerous applications such as in magnetic resonance imaging to visualize cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and other diseases. Other uses include drug targeting, tissue imaging, magnetic immobilization, hyperthermia, and magnetic resonance imaging. MNPs, due to their magnetic properties, can be easily separated from (often complex) matrices and manipulated by applying external magnetic field. Near-infrared to visible upconversion luminescent nanoparticles (UCLNPs) form another type of unusual nanoparticles. They are capable of emitting visible light upon NIR light excitation. Lanthanide-doped (Yb, Er) hexagonal NaYF₄ UCLNPs are the most efficient upconversion phosphors known up to now. The use of UCLNPs for in vitro imaging of cancer cells and in vivo imaging in tissues has been demonstrated. UCLNPs show great potential as a new class of luminophores for biological, biomedical, and sensor applications. We are reporting here on our first results on the combination of MNP and UCLNP technology within an ongoing project supported by the DFG and the FWF (Austria).

  14. The Health Effects of Climate Change in the WHO European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of observed health effects as well as projections of future health risks from climate variability and climate change is growing. This article summarizes new knowledge on these health risks generated since the IPCC fourth assessment report (AR4 was published in 2007, with a specific focus on the 53 countries comprising the WHO European Region. Many studies on the effects of weather, climate variability, and climate change on health in the European Region have been published since 2007, increasing the level of certainty with regard to already known health threats. Exposures to temperature extremes, floods, storms, and wildfires have effects on cardiovascular and respiratory health. Climate- and weather-related health risks from worsening food and water safety and security, poor air quality, and ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as increasing allergic diseases, vector- and rodent-borne diseases, and other climate-sensitive health outcomes also warrant attention and policy action to protect human health.

  15. Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Santhi K; Tragante, Vinicius; Guo, Wei; Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B; Smith, Erin N; Johnson, Toby; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E; Franceschini, Nora; Gaunt, Tom R; Gho, Johannes M I H; Gieger, Christian; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Mellander, Olle; Molony, Cliona M; Nolte, Ilja M; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Price, Tom S; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Shen, Haiqing; Soranzo, Nicole; van der Most, Peter J; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Van Setten, Jessica; Van Setten, Jessic A; Vonk, Judith M; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L; Berenson, Gerald S; Bhatt, Deepak L; Boer, Jolanda M A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Burkley, Ben; Burt, Amber; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chen, Wei; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Curtis, Sean P; Dreisbach, Albert; Duggan, David; Ehret, Georg B; Fabsitz, Richard R; Fornage, Myriam; Fox, Ervin; Furlong, Clement E; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hofker, Marten H; Hovingh, G Kees; Kirkland, Susan A; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kutlar, Abdullah; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Langaee, Taimour Y; Li, Yun R; Lin, Honghuang; Liu, Kiang; Maiwald, Steffi; Malik, Rainer; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Ouwehand, Willem H; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W; Pepine, Carl J; Pettinger, Mary; Polak, Joseph F; Ramachandran, Vasan S; Ranchalis, Jane; Redline, Susan; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Scharnag, Hubert; Schork, Nicholas J; Shimbo, Daichi; Shuldiner, Alan R; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Stolk, Ronald P; Taylor, Herman A; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Verschuren, W Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J Hunter; Boehm, Bernhard O; Caulfield, Mark J; Chasman, Daniel I; Davidson, Karina W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Gums, John G; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hillege, Hans L; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; März, Winfried; Mitchell, Braxton D; Murray, Sarah S; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Reiner, Alex P; Schadt, Eric E; Silverstein, Roy L; Snieder, Harold; Stanton, Alice V; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Samani, Nilesh J; Johnson, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; de Bakker, Paul I W; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Keating, Brendan J; Asselbergs, Folkert W

    2013-04-15

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ∼2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  16. Consequências cardiovasculares na SAOS Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Lorenzi Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma condição clínica muito comum é SAOS, que está associada a várias doenças cardiovasculares, incluindo hipertensão arterial sistêmica, fibrilação atrial e aterosclerose. A associação entre SAOS e doença cardiovascular não é somente uma consequência da sobreposição de fatores de risco, incluindo obesidade, sedentarismo, ser do sexo masculino e ter idade maior. Existem evidências crescentes de que SAOS contribui de forma independente para o aparecimento e a progressão de várias doenças cardiovasculares. Os mecanismos pelos quais SAOS pode afetar o sistema cardiovascular são múltiplos e incluem a ativação do sistema nervoso simpático, inflamação sistêmica, resistência a insulina e geração de estresse oxidativo. Existem evidências que o tratamento de SAOS com CPAP pode reduzir a pressão arterial, sinais precoces de aterosclerose, risco de recorrência de fibrilação atrial e mortalidade, principalmente por acidente vascular cerebral e infarto agudo do miocárdio, em pacientes com SAOS grave.Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common condition associated with various cardiovascular diseases, including systemic arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis. The association between OSAS and cardiovascular disease has been related to the overlapping of risk factors, including obesity, having a sedentary lifestyle, being male, and being older. However, there is mounting evidence that OSAS can also independently contribute to the development and progression of various cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which OSAS can affect the cardiovascular system are multiple, including the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. There is also evidence that the treatment of OSAS with CPAP can reduce arterial blood pressure, early signs of atherosclerosis, the risk of atrial fibrillation recurrence, and mortality (principally

  17. Magnetic anisotropy and reduced neodymium magnetic moments in Nd.sub.3./sub.Ru.sub.4./sub.Al.sub.12./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorbunov, Denis; Henriques, Margarida Isabel Sousa; Andreev, Alexander V.; Eigner, Václav; Gukasov, A.; Fabrèges, X.; Skourski, Y.; Petříček, Václav; Wosnitza, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 024407. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S; GA ČR GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : rare- earth intermetallics * ferromagnetism * magnetic anisotropy * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  18. Thermal-driven evolution of magnetic domain structures in ultrathin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Maziewski, A.; Polyakova, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2006), s. 101-108 ISSN 1012-0394. [International School on Physics and Chemistry of Condensed Matter /17./ and International Symposium on Physics in Material Science /5./. Bialoweza, 21.06.2005-29.06.2005] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 3177 - NANOMAG- LAB Grant - others:PSCSR(PL) 4T11B00624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ultrathin magnetic films * magnetic domain * phase transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.493, year: 2005

  19. 14 CFR 67.111 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.111 Section 67.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.111 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...

  20. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cardiovascular. 67.311 Section 67.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...

  1. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010