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Sample records for european carbon balance

  1. The European carbon balance. Part 2: croplands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Wattenbach, M.; Vuichard, N.; Smith, P.; Piao, S.L.; Don, A.; Luyssaert, S.; Janssens, I.A.; Bondeau, A.; Dechow, R.; Leip, A.; Smith, P.C.; Beer, C.; van der Werf, G.R.; Gervois, S.; Van Oost, K.; Tomelleri, E.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We estimated the long-term carbon balance [net biome production (NBP)] of European (EU-25) croplands and its component fluxes, over the last two decades. Net primary production (NPP) estimates, from different data sources ranged between 490 and 846 gC m

  2. The European carbon balance. Part 3: forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.L.; Schulze, E.D.; Jung, M.; Zaehle, S.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Reichstein, M.; Churkina, G.; Papale, D.; Abril, G.; Beer, C.; Grace, J.; Loustau, D.; Matteucci, G.; Magnani, F.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Verbeeck, H.; Sulkava, M.; van der Werf, G.R.; Janssens, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new synthesis, based on a suite of complementary approaches, of the primary production and carbon sink in forests of the 25 member states of the European Union (EU-25) during 1990-2005. Upscaled terrestrial observations and model-based approaches agree within 25% on the mean net primary

  3. The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Marland, G.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S.L.; levin, I.; Pregger, T.; Scholz, Y.; Friedrich, R.; Rivier, L.; Houweling, S.; Schulze, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in

  4. Carbon balance gradient in European forests: Interpreting EUROFLUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, G. [Univ. of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy). Dept. of Forest Science; Adams, J.M. [Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Studies

    2000-12-01

    A latitudinal trend in forest carbon uptake across Europe has been described by the EUROFLUX group, suggesting a considerable uptake in Italian Quercus ilex, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies forests while a much lower C sink is reported in Scandinavian Picea abies forest. These results are discussed on the basis of the existing literature, and considered to be open to considerable doubt.

  5. Detecting the critical periods that underpin interannual fluctuations in the carbon balance of European forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Guerric; Delpierre, Nicolas; Jung, Martin

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis was first conducted at seven European forest flux tower sites with contrasting species and climatic conditions. Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), a generic process-based model, represented fairly well most features of the critical period patterns and their climate......The interannual variability of CO2 exchange by forest ecosystems in Europe was analyzed at site and regional scales by identifying critical periods that contributed to interannual flux anomalies. Critical periods were defined as periods in which monthly and annual flux anomalies were correlated...... drivers at the site scale. Simulations at the scale of European forests were performed with ORCHIDEE integrated at a 0.25° spatial resolution. The spatial and temporal distributions of critical periods for canopy photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) as well...

  6. Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071–2100 is predicted to be 1–5.5 °C higher than that for 1971–2000. Climate change and elevated CO2 concentration are anticipated to affect grassland management and livestock production in Europe. However, there has been little work done to quantify the European-wide response of grassland to future climate change. Here we applied ORCHIDEE-GM v2.2, a grid-based model for managed grassland, over European grassland to estimate the impacts of future global change. Results Increases in grassland productivity are simulated in response to future global change, which are mainly attributed to the simulated fertilization effect of rising CO2. The results show significant phenology shifts, in particular an earlier winter-spring onset of grass growth over Europe. A longer growing season is projected over southern and southeastern Europe. In other regions, summer drought causes an earlier end to the growing season, overall reducing growing season length. Future global change allows an increase of management intensity with higher than current potential annual grass forage yield, grazing capacity and livestock density, and a shift in seasonal grazing capacity. We found a continual grassland soil carbon sink in Mediterranean, Alpine, North eastern, South eastern and Eastern regions under specific warming level (SWL of 1.5 and 2 °C relative to pre-industrial climate. However, this carbon sink is found to saturate, and gradually turn to a carbon source at warming level reaching 3.5 °C. Conclusions This study provides a European-wide assessment of the future changes in productivity and phenology of grassland, and their

  7. Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-François; Klumpp, Katja; Sultan, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071-2100 is predicted to be 1-5.5 °C higher than that for 1971-2000. Climate change and elevated CO2 concentration are anticipated to affect grassland management and livestock production in Europe. However, there has been little work done to quantify the European-wide response of grassland to future climate change. Here we applied ORCHIDEE-GM v2.2, a grid-based model for managed grassland, over European grassland to estimate the impacts of future global change. Increases in grassland productivity are simulated in response to future global change, which are mainly attributed to the simulated fertilization effect of rising CO2. The results show significant phenology shifts, in particular an earlier winter-spring onset of grass growth over Europe. A longer growing season is projected over southern and southeastern Europe. In other regions, summer drought causes an earlier end to the growing season, overall reducing growing season length. Future global change allows an increase of management intensity with higher than current potential annual grass forage yield, grazing capacity and livestock density, and a shift in seasonal grazing capacity. We found a continual grassland soil carbon sink in Mediterranean, Alpine, North eastern, South eastern and Eastern regions under specific warming level (SWL) of 1.5 and 2 °C relative to pre-industrial climate. However, this carbon sink is found to saturate, and gradually turn to a carbon source at warming level reaching 3.5 °C. This study provides a European-wide assessment of the future changes in productivity and phenology of grassland, and their consequences for the management intensity and the carbon balance

  8. Past and future carbon balance of European ecosystems from pollen data and climatic models simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.H.; Guiot, J. [Laboratoire de Botanique Historique and Palynologie, CNRS UA 1152, Faculte de St. Jerome, Case 451, 13397 Marseille (France); Van Campo, E. [Laboratoire d` Ecologie Terrestre, UMR 5552 (CNRS-UPS) 13, Avenue du Colonel Roche-BP 4403, 31405 Toulouse (France)

    1998-09-01

    As climate changes, there is considerable uncertainty whether northern hemisphere ecosystems will act as atmospheric CO{sub 2} sinks or sources. Here, we used statistical models calibrated on field measurements, past terrestrial biomes and climates inferred from pollen and future climatic change scenarios simulated by General Circulation Models (GCMs), to investigate the processes controlling past, present and future CO{sub 2} fluxes in the European ecosystems. Our results suggest that climatic change can significantly affect spatial and temporal variations of net primary production and soil respiration, and alter the net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}. Most of the potential terrestrial biomes in Europe will likely change from a net CO{sub 2} sink, which provided a negative feedback for atmospheric CO{sub 2} during the last 13,000 yr BP, to a net CO{sub 2} source, providing a positive feedback following global warming. The results further illustrate that there is no analogue in the recent past (Late Quaternary) for the probable future ecosystem dynamics

  9. Carbon balance at represenative agroecosystems of Central European Russia with different crops assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that in Russia cropland's soils carbon loses 9 time higher than forest's soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), agroecosystems were not given sufficient attention and most of the papers are devoted to forestry and natural ecosystems. Carbon balance was calculated at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia, for two agroecosystems with different crops from the same crop rotation studied for 2 years. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured with eddy covariance technique, statistical method to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers (Burba, 2013). Crop rotation included potato, winter wheat, barley and vetch and oat mix. Two fields of the same crop rotation were studied in 2013-2014. One of the fields (A) was used in 2013 for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L.). The field B was in 2013 used for planting together vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Inversely oats and vetch grass mixt was sown in 2014 on field A. Winter wheat was sown on field A in the very beginning of September. On the second field (B) in 2014 winter wheat occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering, after harvesting it in mid of July, white mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the field with winter wheat and white mustard; perhaps because the two crops were cultivated on the field within one growing season. Three other cases showed CO2 emission. Great difference in 82 g C m-2 per year in NEE between two fields with vetch and oat mix was related to higher difference in grass yields. NEE for barley field was positive during the whole year; considering only the growing season, NEE for barley was 100 g C m-2 lower and was negative. Closed

  10. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  11. Effect of climate change, CO2 trends, nitrogen addition, and land-cover and management intensity changes on the carbon balance of European grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Wang, Xuhui; Sultan, Benjamin; Soussana, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to European managed grassland ecosystems being a sink of carbon. In this study, we apply ORCHIDEE-GM a process-based carbon cycle model that describes specific management practices of pastures and the dynamics of carbon cycling in response to changes in climatic and biogeochemical drivers. The model is used to simulate changes in the carbon balance [i.e., net biome production (NBP)] of European grasslands over 1991-2010 on a 25 km × 25 km grid. The modeled average trend in NBP is 1.8-2.0 g C m(-2)  yr(-2) during the past two decades. Attribution of this trend suggests management intensity as the dominant driver explaining NBP trends in the model (36-43% of the trend due to all drivers). A major change in grassland management intensity has occurred across Europe resulting from reduced livestock numbers. This change has 'inadvertently' enhanced soil C sequestration and reduced N2 O and CH4 emissions by 1.2-1.5 Gt CO2 -equivalent, offsetting more than 7% of greenhouse gas emissions in the whole European agricultural sector during the period 1991-2010. Land-cover change, climate change and rising CO2 also make positive and moderate contributions to the NBP trend (between 24% and 31% of the trend due to all drivers). Changes in nitrogen addition (including fertilization and atmospheric deposition) are found to have only marginal net effect on NBP trends. However, this may not reflect reality because our model has only a very simple parameterization of nitrogen effects on photosynthesis. The sum of NBP trends from each driver is larger than the trend obtained when all drivers are varied together, leaving a residual - nonattributed - term (22-26% of the trend due to all drivers) indicating negative interactions between drivers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. European Forest Carbon Mass Balances Estimated with Remote Sensing and the Production Efficiency Model C-Fix: A hot Future Unfolds for Kyoto Protocol Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W. W.

    2004-12-01

    using evaporative fraction (EF) and at the soil respiration level with soil moisture content (SMC). Water limitation is derived from optical and thermal information, extracted with NOAA/AVHRR and METEOSAT processing chains. A key feature of the approach outlined, is the direct inference of the bio-geophysical state of terrestrial forest cover from space borne observations. Since forest state is not estimated with deterministic models, the modelling of limiting factors like nutrient deficiency, pest and disease impacts, pollutant effects as well as any other long-term effect on forest carbon fluxes, is eliminated. The only processes still to be to be taken into account in C-Fix are by definition those that show temporal dynamics with response times shorter than the typical turnover time of chlorophyll metabolism. For example, short term water limitation effects on EF and SMC. Applications of the expert system include the mapping of the spatial and temporal patterns of GPP, NPP, NEP and soil respiration as well as the impact of water stress on water use efficiency and the carbon balance. Moreover an index indicating the ratio between carbon emission en its re-fixation by forests is mapped for Europe for non-water limiting conditions. It reveals large imbalances between carbon emissions (IPCC, 1997) and forest carbon re-fixation (1997) for almost all European countries. Keywords: Carbon relations, remote sensing, bio-geophysical variables, C-Fix, Kyoto protocol.

  13. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  14. Carbon balance of the Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Yarie; Tim Hammond

    1996-01-01

    Determination of the carbon balance in a broad forest region like the Alaskan boreal forest requires the development of a number of important environmental (state factors) classes to allow for the development of carbon balance estimates.

  15. BOREAS TE-19 Ecosystem Carbon Balance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Spruce and Moss Model (SPAM) was designed to simulate the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/moss boreal forest ecosystem. It is driven by daily weather...

  16. BOREAS TE-19 Ecosystem Carbon Balance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Spruce and Moss Model (SPAM) was designed to simulate the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/moss boreal forest ecosystem. It is driven by daily...

  17. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  18. Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, A.V.; Schiettecatte, L.-S.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Gazeau, F.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    We compiled from literature annually integrated air–water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) computed from field measurements, in 20 coastal European environments that were gathered into 3 main ecosystems: inner estuaries, upwelling continental shelves and non-upwelling continental shelves. The

  19. Balancing European SME Managers’ Training Contents: Perceived Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgado Leonel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the limited available time of in-service professionals, the balance between the perceived importance of the course content and training needs is essential for the acceptance and attractiveness of training courses aimed at them. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to contribute to the development of entrepreneurship and business training programs for European SME managers. Methods/Approach: In six European countries a survey focusing on SME managers’ views on the importance of individual items from a list of potential course content items, and their training needs was carried out, and followed by an analysis using exploratory and multivariate techniques. It was aimed at identifying homogeneous groups of managers with common training needs and perceptions of content importance. Results: Homogeneous groups of managers who assign the same importance to certain competences and who have common training needs are identified. Conclusions: Results of our research could help training institutions to develop courses aimed at SME managers. The balancing approach proved to be an interesting method of combining conflicting requirements for the training course curriculum development.

  20. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  1. Absence of a market in the Dutch balancing mechanism: European rules versus specific investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.; Jolink, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European directives for the electricity industry prescribe the creation of a market for balancing electricity supply and demand. In this paper, we demonstrate that a market for balancing has not emerged in the Dutch electricity industry, and that, instead, the balancing transactions are

  2. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindler, R.; Siemens, J.; Kaiser, K.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and

  3. Annual carbon balance of a peatland 10 yr following restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Strack

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Undisturbed peatlands represent long-term net sinks of carbon; however, peat extraction converts these systems into large and persistent sources of greenhouse gases. Although rewetting and restoration following peat extraction have taken place over the last several decades, very few studies have investigated the longer term impact of this restoration on peatland carbon balance. We determined the annual carbon balance of a former horticulturally-extracted peatland restored 10 yr prior to the study and compared these values to the carbon balance measured at neighboring unrestored and natural sites. Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes were measured using the chamber technique biweekly during the growing season from May to October 2010 and three times over the winter period. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC export was measured from remnant ditches in the unrestored and restored sites. During the growing season the restored site had greater uptake of CO2 than the natural site when photon flux density was greater than 1000 μmol m−2 s−1, while the unrestored site remained a source of CO2. Ecosystem respiration was similar between natural and restored sites, which were both significantly lower than the unrestored site. Methane flux remained low at the restored site except from open water pools, created as part of restoration, and remnant ditches. Export of DOC during the growing season was 5.0 and 28.8 g m−2 from the restored and unrestored sites, respectively. Due to dry conditions during the study year all sites acted as net carbon sources with annual balance of the natural, restored and unrestored sites of 250.7, 148.0 and 546.6 g C m−2, respectively. Although hydrological conditions and vegetation community at the restored site remained intermediate between natural and unrestored conditions, peatland restoration resulted in a large reduction in annual carbon loss from the system resulting in a carbon balance more similar to a natural

  4. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  5. Methodology for calculation of carbon balances for biofuel crops production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Snapp, S. S.; Robertson, G. P.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the carbon balance implications for different biofuel crop production systems is important for the development of decision making tools and policies. We present here a detailed methodology for assessing carbon balances in agricultural and natural ecosystems. We use 20 years of data from Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) experiments at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS), combined with models to produce farm level CO2 balances for different management practices. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically-based (organic) practices; and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In addition we use an abandoned agricultural field (successionnal ecosystem) as reference system. Measurements include fluxes of N2O and CH4, soil organic carbon change, agricultural yields, and agricultural inputs (e.g. fertilization and farm fuel use). In addition to measurements, we model carbon offsets associated with the use of bioenergy from agriculturally produced crops. Our analysis shows the importance of establishing appropriate system boundaries for carbon balance calculations. We explore how different assumptions regarding production methods and emission factors affect overall conclusions on carbon balances of different agricultural systems. Our results show management practices that have major the most important effects on carbon balances. Overall, agricultural management with conventional tillage was found to be a net CO2 source to the atmosphere, while agricultural management under reduced tillage, low input, or organic management sequestered carbon at rates of 93, -23, -51, and -14 g CO2e m-2 yr-1, respectively for conventionally tilled, no-till, low-input, and organically managed ecosystems. Perennial systems (alfalfa and the successionnal fields) showed net carbon

  6. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  7. Balancing European SME Managers’ Training Contents: Perceived Importance & Training Needs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonel Morgado; João Varajão; Caroline Dominguez; Irene Oliveira; Fernanda Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Given the limited available time of in-service professionals, the balance between the perceived importance of the course content and training needs is essential for the acceptance and attractiveness...

  8. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-12-01

    Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985-2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha -1 /year -1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the South One and Lateral West fires

  9. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sleeter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting. Results We modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C coming from above-ground biomass and detritus. Conclusions Natural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar, the total

  10. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCarbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting.ResultsWe modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus.ConclusionsNatural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the

  11. An outlook on the Sub-Saharan Africa carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bombelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an outlook on the carbon balance of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA by presenting a summary of currently available results from the project CarboAfrica (namely net ecosystem productivity and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation, by field and model estimates supplemented by bibliographic data and compared with a new synthesis of the data from national communications to UNFCCC. According to these preliminary estimates the biogenic carbon balance of SSA varies from 0.16 Pg C y−1 to a much higher sink of 1.00 Pg C y−1 (depending on the source data. Models estimates would give an unrealistic sink of 3.23 Pg C y−1, confirming their current inadequacy when applied to Africa. The carbon uptake by forests and savannas (0.34 and 1.89 Pg C y−1, respectively, are the main contributors to the resulting sink. Fires (0.72 Pg C y−1 and deforestation (0.25 Pg C y−1 are the main contributors to the SSA carbon emissions, while the agricultural sector and forest degradation contributes only with 0.12 and 0.08 Pg C y−1, respectively. Savannas play a major role in shaping the SSA carbon balance, due to their large extension, their fire regime, and their strong interannual NEP variability, but they are also a major uncertainty in the overall budget. Even if fossil fuel emissions from SSA are relative low, they can be crucial in defining the sign of the overall SSA carbon balance by reducing the natural sink potential, especially in the future. This paper shows that Africa plays a key role in the global carbon cycle system and probably could have a potential for carbon sequestration higher than expected, even if still highly uncertain. Further investigations are needed, particularly to better address the role of savannas and tropical forests and to improve biogeochemical models. The CarboAfrica network of carbon measurements could provide future

  12. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyassaert, S [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Abril, G [Laboratoire EPOC, CNRS; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Bastviken, D [Linkoping University; Bellassen, V [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Bergamaschi, P [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Bousquet, P [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Chevallier, F [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Corazza, M [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Dechow, R [Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute; Erb, K-H [Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt-Vienna-Graz; Etiope, G [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia; Fortems-Cheiney, A [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Grassi, G [European Commission Joint Research Centre; Hartmann, J [University of Hamburg; Jung, M. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Lathiere, J [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Lohila, A [Finnish Meteorological institute; Mayorga, E [University of Washington; Moosdorf, N [University of Hamburg; Njakou, D [University of Antwerp; Otto, J [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Papale, D. [University of Tuscia; Peters, W [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Peylin, P [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Raymond, Peter A [Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; Rodenbeck, C [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Saarnio, S [University of Eastern Finland; Schulze, E.-D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Szopa, S [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Thompson, R [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Verkerk, P [European Forest Institute; Vuichard, N [CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, LSCE; Wang, R [Peking University; Wattenbach, M [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre For Geosciences; Zaehle, S [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

    2012-01-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which (1) a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and (2) a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to (3) the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 {+-} 545 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}), inventories (1299 {+-} 200 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) and inversions (1210 {+-} 405 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 {+-} 72 Tg C yr{sup -1} from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO{sub 2} towards

  13. Carbon and nitrogen balances for six shrublands across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus; Emmett, Bridget A.; Tietema, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Shrublands constitute significant and important parts of European landscapes providing a large number of important ecosystem services. Biogeochemical cycles in these ecosystems have gained little attention relative to forests and grassland systems, but data on such cycles are required...... for developing and testing ecosystem models. As climate change progresses, the potential feedback from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere through changes in carbon stocks, carbon sequestration, and general knowledge on biogeochemical cycles becomes increasingly important. Here we present carbon...... that in the future a climate-driven land cover change between grasslands and shrublands in Europe will likely lead to increased ecosystem C where shrublands are promoted and less where grasses are promoted. However, it also emphasizes that if feedbacks on the global carbon cycle are to be predicted it is critically...

  14. The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A comment is made on a recent letter published on Nature, in which different methodologies are applied to estimate the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China. A global carbon sink of 0.19-0.26 Pg per year is estimated during the 1980s and 1990s, and it is estimated that in 2006 terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 28-37 per cent of global carbon emissions in China. Most of the carbon absorption is attributed to large-scale plantation made since the 1980s and shrub recovery. These results will certainly be valuable in the frame of the so-called “REDD” (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation forest Degradation in developing countries mechanism (UN convention on climate change UNFCCC.

  15. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  16. Hotspots of the European forests carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Thürig, E.; Heidema, N.; Armolaitis, K.; Biber, P.; Cieciala, E.; Kaufmann, E.; Mäkipää, R.; Nilsen, P.; Petritsch, R.; Pristova, T.; Rock, J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Sievanen, R.; Somogyi, Z.; Vallet, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of a group discussion held at the Savonlinna meeting `Management of forest ecosystems and its impact on the GHG budget¿. The aim of this break-out group discussion was to `Characterize forest management impacts on the GHG budget of forest ecosystems in different European

  17. Carbon balance and climate change in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, J. S.; Laird, L. D.; Banfield, E. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Van Kooten, G. C. [Victoria Univ., Dept. of Economics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Apps, M. J. [Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Campbell, I. D. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campbell, C. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turetsky, M. R. [U. S. Geological Survey, Western Region Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yu, Z. [Lehigh Univ., Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion, hence its importance to global climate. To explain that role, this chapter discusses the role of the boreal forest in the carbon cycle, the expected impacts of climate change on the boreal ecosystem, and the effects of various natural and human factors on the carbon balance of the forest. Economic and forest management issues in relation to carbon resources of the forest are also explored in light of the Kyoto Protocol commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, along with challenges to sustainable forest management seen from the vantage point of climatic change. Among natural disasters, fire, infestation by insects and pathogens,storms, floods, and landslides receive attention, whereas in the area of human impacts attention is focused on land-use practices, and forest stand and landscape-level management. An overview of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's commitments, the concepts of emissions trading, and carbon credits and the role of forestry, is provided. Other subjects explored include options for minimizing carbon emission in boreal forestry, and the economic impacts of adaptation to climate change on forestry. 245 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  18. Constructing an Efficient and Balanced European Patent System: “Muddling through”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses ways to construct a more efficient and balanced European patent system. It identifies and describes challenges relating to innovation, to non-economic issues and to governance. In order to improve the patent system, a cautious approach of “Muddling through” is recommended. More...... concretely, the paper puts forward some of the solutions proposed in the STOA Report to the European Parliament on “Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system” and suggest initiatives such as the insertion of a mission statement in the EPC, improvement of patent quality, increasing...... access to patented inventions and enhancement of governance....

  19. Variability in carbon exchange of European croplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddy J, Moors; Jacobs, Cor; Jans, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    as the standard deviation of these cropping periods was 251 gC m-2. These numbers do not include lateral inputs such as the carbon content of applied manure, nor the carbon exchange out of the cropping period. Both are expected to have a major effect on the C budget of high energy summer crops such as maize. NEE...... measured at these sites or reported at the NUTS2 level dataset of EUROSTAT is a relatively poor predictor of NEE. To investigate the difference in the variability in CO2 emissions of different crops at the same location and to compare this variation with the variation of the same crop at different...... locations and with the inter-annual variation the measured dataset at the flux sites was extended with simulated data. These simulations show that the variability in carbon exchange is determined by: firstly the choice of crop and the location and to a lesser extent by the yearly differences in climate....

  20. The image of fish from aquaculture among Europeans: impact of exposure to balanced information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of balanced, nonpersuasive information related to safety, healthiness, and sustainability of aquaculture on the image of farmed fish among European consumers. It was demonstrated that there is neither positive nor negative influence of this type of information on

  1. Carbon balance and energy fluxes of a Mediterranean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Consoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a long-term mass (carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy (solar radiation balance monitoring programme carried out during years 2010 and 2012 in an irrigated orange orchard in Sicily, using the Eddy Covariance (EC method. Orange (Citrus sinensis L. is one of the main fruit crops worldwide and its evergreen orchard may have a great potential for carbon sequestration, but few data are currently available. In the study, the role of the orchard system in sequestering atmospheric CO2 was analyzed, thus contributing to assess the carbon balance of the specie in the specific environment.Vertical energy fluxes of net radiation, soil heat, sensible heat and latent heat fluxes were measured at orchard scale by EC. Evapotranspiration (ET values were compared with upscaled transpiration data determined by the sap flow heat pulse technique, evidencing the degree of correspondence between instantaneous transpirational flux at tree level and the micrometeorological measurement of ET at orchard level.

  2. First sign of carbon sink saturation in European forest biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Lindner, M.; Verkerk, P.J.; Gunia, K.; Deda, P.; Michalak, R.; Grassi, G.

    2013-01-01

    European forests are seen as a clear example of vegetation rebound in the Northern Hemisphere; recovering in area and growing stock since the 1950s, after centuries of stock decline and deforestation. These regrowing forests have shown to be a persistent carbon sink, projected to continue for

  3. The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Libault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2. In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  4. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  5. The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency. PMID:24987690

  6. Plant Migrations Role on Future Carbon Balance from Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J.

    2014-12-01

    Current efforts to forecast the future of forested systems often oversimplify or overlook the role of plant migration in carbon balance. Research on plant migrations influence on the carbon balance from climate change has been limited from challenges that arise when the ecosystem characteristics of this fine scale process are modeled over large domains. The computational time required to simulate migration lends itself to studies with representative forests while still limiting domain size. For higher resolution runs without limiting domain size migration was introduced to the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. ED is an individual tree based model that uses a size and age-structured approximation for the first moment of the stochastic ecosystem model. Hence it can simulate large domains at high spatial resolution with reduced computational intensity. As it is an approximation, the specific location of an individual tree within a site is unknown so binomial probability of dispersal distance with respect to patch size was added to the model to determine when migration to a new site should occur. Migration probability also depends on the number of months reproduction occurs at a given site for deciduous and evergreen plant functional types. The maximum paleoecological data migration rate of 100 km per century was used for both functional types and calibrated in ED in a test domain of the eastern United States. After validation, meteorological data from NARCCAP for current and future climate were used to simulate migration at three rates (none, instantaneous and 100 km per century) with a North America domain at quarter degree resolution. Comparison of scenarios highlights plant migrations role on the terrestrial carbon balance under climate change simulations, particularly with regard to transition zones where biomes are expected to expand and contract.

  7. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Kimo C. van, E-mail: kimo.vandijk@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lesschen, Jan Peter, E-mail: janpeter.lesschen@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oenema, Oene, E-mail: oene.oenema@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  8. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  9. Spatial patterns of North Atlantic Oscillation influence on mass balance variability of European glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and validate a set of minimal models of glacier mass balance variability. The most skillful model is then applied to reconstruct 7735 individual time series of mass balance variability for all glaciers in the European Alps and Scandinavia. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of atmospheric variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO on the glaciers' mass balances.

    We find a spatial coherence in the glaciers' sensitivity to NAO forcing which is caused by regionally similar mechanisms relating the NAO forcing to the mass balance: in southwestern Scandinavia, winter precipitation causes a correlation of mass balances with the NAO. In northern Scandinavia, temperature anomalies outside the core winter season cause an anti-correlation between NAO and mass balances. In the western Alps, both temperature and winter precipitation anomalies lead to a weak anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO, while in the eastern Alps, the influences of winter precipitation and temperature anomalies tend to cancel each other, and only on the southern side a slight anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO prevails.

  10. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Kaiser, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands......, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its d13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.34.9 gm2 yr1 for forests, 24.17.2 gm2 yr1 for grasslands, and 14.64.8 gm2 yr1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.51.3 gm2 yr1 for forests, 5.32.0 gm2 yr1 for grasslands...... ecosystem exchange (NEE) plus carbon inputs with fertilization minus carbon removal with harvest. Carbon leaching increased the net losses from cropland soils by 24–105% (median: 25%). For the majority of forest sites, leaching hardly affected actual net ecosystem carbon balances because of the small...

  11. Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Don, Axel; Osborne, Bruce; Hastings, Astley

    2012-01-01

    . These greenhouse gases (GHGs) need to be included into the carbon footprint calculation of different bioenergy crops under a range of soil conditions and management practices. This review compiles existing knowledge on agronomic and environmental constraints and GHG balances of the major European bioenergy crops...... for Miscanthus). However, there was no positive or even negative effects on the C balance if energy crops are established on former grassland. Increased bioenergy production may also result in direct and indirect land-use changes with potential high C losses when native vegetation is converted to annual crops...

  12. Mitigating the greenhouse gas balance of ruminant production systems through carbon sequestration in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soussana, J F; Tallec, T; Blanfort, V

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (enhanced sinks) is the mechanism responsible for most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in the agriculture sector. Carbon sequestration in grasslands can be determined directly by measuring changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and indirectly by measuring the net balance of C fluxes. A literature search shows that grassland C sequestration reaches on average 5 ± 30 g C/m2 per year according to inventories of SOC stocks and -231 and 77 g C/m2 per year for drained organic and mineral soils, respectively, according to C flux balance. Off-site C sequestration occurs whenever more manure C is produced by than returned to a grassland plot. The sum of on- and off-site C sequestration reaches 129, 98 and 71 g C/m2 per year for grazed, cut and mixed European grasslands on mineral soils, respectively, however with high uncertainty. A range of management practices reduce C losses and increase C sequestration: (i) avoiding soil tillage and the conversion of grasslands to arable use, (ii) moderately intensifying nutrient-poor permanent grasslands, (iii) using light grazing instead of heavy grazing, (iv) increasing the duration of grass leys; (v) converting grass leys to grass-legume mixtures or to permanent grasslands. With nine European sites, direct emissions of N2O from soil and of CH4 from enteric fermentation at grazing, expressed in CO2 equivalents, compensated 10% and 34% of the on-site grassland C sequestration, respectively. Digestion inside the barn of the harvested herbage leads to further emissions of CH4 and N2O by the production systems, which were estimated at 130 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year. The net balance of on- and off-site C sequestration, CH4 and N2O emissions reached 38 g CO2 equivalents/m2 per year, indicating a non-significant net sink activity. This net balance was, however, negative for intensively managed cut sites indicating a source to the atmosphere. In conclusion, this review confirms that

  13. Effects of drought on leaf carbon source and growth of European beech are modulated by soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Arend, Matthias; Yang, Wen-Juan; Schaub, Marcus; Ni, Yan-Yan; Gessler, Arthur; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Rigling, Andreas; Li, Mai-He

    2017-02-01

    Drought potentially affects carbon balance and growth of trees, but little is known to what extent soil plays a role in the trade-off between carbon gain and growth investment. In the present study, we analyzed leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as an indicator of the balance of photosynthetic carbon gain and carbon use, as well as growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings, which were grown on two different soil types (calcareous and acidic) in model ecosystems and subjected to a severe summer drought. Our results showed that drought led in general to increased total NSC concentrations and to decreased growth rate, and drought reduced shoot and stem growth of plants in acidic soil rather than in calcareous soil. This result indicated that soil type modulated the carbon trade-off between net leaf carbon gain and carbon investment to growth. In drought-stressed trees, leaf starch concentration and growth correlated negatively whereas soluble sugar:starch ratio and growth correlated positively, which may contribute to a better understanding of growth regulation under drought conditions. Our results emphasize the role of soil in determining the trade-off between the balance of carbon gain and carbon use on the leaf level and growth under stress (e.g. drought).

  14. A minimal model for reconstructing interannual mass balance variability of glaciers in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, B.; Hofer, M.; Jarosch, A. H.; Kaser, G.; Mölg, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a minimal model of the glacier surface mass balance. The model relies solely on monthly precipitation and air temperatures as forcing. We first train the model individually for 15 glaciers with existing mass balance measurements. Based on a cross validation, we present a thorough assessment of the model's performance outside of the training period. The cross validation indicates that our model is robust, and our model's performance compares favorably to that from a less parsimonious model based on seasonal sensitivity characteristics. Then, the model is extended for application on glaciers without existing mass balance measurements. We cross validated the model again by withholding the mass balance information from each of the 15 glaciers above during the model training, in order to measure its performance on glaciers not included in the model training. This cross validation indicates that the model retains considerable skill even when applied on glaciers without mass balance measurements. As an exemplary application, the model is then used to reconstruct time series of interannual mass balance variability, covering the past two hundred years, for all glaciers in the European Alps contained in the extended format of the world glacier inventory. Based on this reconstruction, we present a spatially detailed attribution of the glaciers' mass balance variability to temperature and precipitation variability.

  15. A minimal model for reconstructing interannual mass balance variability of glaciers in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a minimal model of the glacier surface mass balance. The model relies solely on monthly precipitation and air temperatures as forcing. We first train the model individually for 15 glaciers with existing mass balance measurements. Based on a cross validation, we present a thorough assessment of the model's performance outside of the training period. The cross validation indicates that our model is robust, and our model's performance compares favorably to that from a less parsimonious model based on seasonal sensitivity characteristics. Then, the model is extended for application on glaciers without existing mass balance measurements. We cross validated the model again by withholding the mass balance information from each of the 15 glaciers above during the model training, in order to measure its performance on glaciers not included in the model training. This cross validation indicates that the model retains considerable skill even when applied on glaciers without mass balance measurements.

    As an exemplary application, the model is then used to reconstruct time series of interannual mass balance variability, covering the past two hundred years, for all glaciers in the European Alps contained in the extended format of the world glacier inventory. Based on this reconstruction, we present a spatially detailed attribution of the glaciers' mass balance variability to temperature and precipitation variability.

  16. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  17. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. S. Nowak; J. Arnone; L. Fenstermaker; and S. D. Smith

    2005-07-26

    This project provided the funding to operate and maintain the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. This support funds the CO{sub 2}, system repairs and maintenance, basic physical and biological site information, and personnel that are essential for the experiment to continue. They have continued to assess the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on three key processes: (1) leaf- to plant-level responses of desert vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}; (2) ecosystem-level responses; and (3) integration of plant and ecosystem processes to understand carbon balance of deserts. The focus is the seminal interactions among atmospheric CO{sub 2}, water, and nitrogen that drive desert responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and explicitly address processes that occur across scales (biological, spatial, and temporal).

  18. Global Peatland Carbon Balance and Land Use Change CO2 Emissions Through the Holocene

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a time series of global peatland carbon balance and carbon dioxide emissions from land use change throughout the Holocene (the past 11,000...

  19. Controls on declining carbon balance with leaf age among 10 woody species in Australian woodland: do leaves have zero daily net carbon balances when they die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Falster, Daniel S; Ellsworth, David S; Wright, Ian J; Westoby, Mark; Oleksyn, Jacek; Lee, Tali D

    2009-01-01

    * Here, we evaluated how increased shading and declining net photosynthetic capacity regulate the decline in net carbon balance with increasing leaf age for 10 Australian woodland species. We also asked whether leaves at the age of their mean life-span have carbon balances that are positive, zero or negative. * The net carbon balances of 2307 leaves on 53 branches of the 10 species were estimated. We assessed three-dimensional architecture, canopy openness, photosynthetic light response functions and dark respiration rate across leaf age sequences on all branches. We used YPLANT to estimate light interception and to model carbon balance along the leaf age sequences. * As leaf age increased to the mean life-span, increasing shading and declining photosynthetic capacity each separately reduced daytime carbon gain by approximately 39% on average across species. Together, they reduced daytime carbon gain by 64% on average across species. * At the age of their mean life-span, almost all leaves had positive daytime carbon balances. These per leaf carbon surpluses were of a similar magnitude to the estimated whole-plant respiratory costs per leaf. Thus, the results suggest that a whole-plant economic framework, including respiratory costs, may be useful in assessing controls on leaf longevity.

  20. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young

  1. Variability and recent trends in the African terrestrial carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the African terrestrial carbon balance over the past century using a spatially resolved process based vegetation model (ORCHIDEE. The model is forced by changing climate and by human-induced changes in land use. It includes a simple parameterization of natural fires, but the natural vegetation dynamics was ignored. The period analyzed is 1901–2002. Overall, we found that the African net terrestrial carbon balance (Net Biome Productivity, NBP increased from a net CO2 source to the atmosphere of 0.14 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s to a net sink of 0.15 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s. The land use flux alone is estimated to be a source of 0.13 Pg C yr−1 caused by deforestation. This implies that climatic trends (mainly increasing precipitation and CO2 increase (fertilization effect, are causing a sink of 0.28 Pg C yr−1 which offsets the land-use source. We found that the interannual variability of NBP is large, and mostly driven by photosynthesis variability. Over savannas, photosynthesis changes from one year to the next are strongly correlated with rainfall changes (R2=0.77 in northern Africa, and R2=0.42 in southern African savannas. Over forests, such a control by rainfall is not found. The main spatial pattern of interannual variability in NBP and photosynthesis/ecosystem respiration fluxes is related with ENSO, with dryer conditions prevailing over savannas during El Niño and wetter conditions over forests. Climate induced variations in fire emissions respond to this ENSO forcing, but do not determine strongly the NBP interannual variability. Finally, we model that ecosystem respiration variations (mostly autotrophic respiration are correlated with those of photosynthesis, on interannual as well as on decadal time scales, but this result is uncertain given the potential for acclimation for autotrophic respiration processes.

  2. Simultaneous mass balance inverse modeling of methane and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.; Rayner, P. J.; Simmonds, I.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2005-11-01

    We perform a simultaneous mass-balance inversion of atmospheric methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) using measurements from the NOAA/CMDL Cooperative Air Sampling Network and a model of tropospheric transport and background chemistry over the period 1990-2000. Our method has a spatial resolution of a semihemisphere and a temporal resolution of 1 month. The deduced CO sources show relatively low interannual variability except around the major biomass burning event in 1997-1998, when we calculate an anomalous emission between July 1997 and December 1998 of 270 Tg(CO). This is enough to suppress the modeled global air mass weighted hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration during this time by 2.2%, and account for 75% of the observed increase in CH4 mixing ratios during 1998. We compare our implied CH4/CO emissions factors with published biomass burning emissions factors, suggesting that the remainder of the increase in CH4 observed in 1998 is due to anomalously high biomass burning emissions, with CH4 emissions from wetlands showing a small negative anomaly in 1998.

  3. The European Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure (ECCSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Quale

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a non-emitting energy mix for power generation will take decades. This transition will need to be sustainable, e.g. economically affordable. Fossil fuels which are abundant have an important role to play in this respect, provided that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is progressively implemented. CCS is the only way to reduce emissions from energy intensive industries.Thus, the need for upgraded and new CCS research facilities is widely recognised among stakeholders across Europe, as emphasised by the Zero Emissions Platform (ZEP [1] and the European Energy Research Alliance on CCS (EERA-CCS [2].The European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure, ECCSEL, provides funders, operators and researchers with significant benefits by offering access to world-class research facilities that, in many cases, are unlikely for a single nation to support in isolation. This implies creation of synergy and the avoidance of duplication as well as streamlining of funding for research facilities.ECCSEL offers open access to its advanced laboratories for talented scientists and visiting researchers to conduct cutting-edge research.In the planning of ECCSEL, gap analyses were performed and CCS technologies have been reviewed to underpin and envisage the future experimental setup; 1 Making use of readily available facilities, 2 Modifying existing facilities, and 3 Planning and building entirely new advanced facilities.The investments required for the first ten years (2015–2025 are expected to be in the range of €80–120 million. These investments show the current level of ambition, as proposed during the preparatory phase (2011–2014.Entering the implementation phase in 2015, 9 European countries signed Letter of Intent (LoI to join a ECCSEL legal entity: France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Poland, Greece, Norway and Switzerland (active observer. As the EU ERIC-regulation [3] would offer the most

  4. When Forest become carbon sources: Impact of herbivory on carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K. V.; Clark, K. L.; Skowronski, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Traditionally forests are thought to be carbon sinks and are becoming important trading commodities in the carbon trading markets. However, disturbances such as fire, hurricanes and herbivory can lead to forests being sources rather than sinks of carbon. Here, we investigate the carbon balance of an oak/pine forest in the New Jersey Pine Barrens under herbivory attack in summer 2007. Net primary productivity (NPP) was reduced to ca 70% of previous year NPP (535 g m-2 a-1 in 2006) and canopy net assimilation (AnC), as modeled with the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation model (4C-A), was reduced to ca 65 % of previous year (1335 g m-2 a-1 in 2006) AnC or ca 1015 g C m-2 a-1. Although the trees were defoliated for only 15 % of the normal annual growing season, the impact amounted to ca 30 % of C accumulation loss when integrated over the year. Overall NPP in 2007 was ca 378 g C m-2 a-1 with 50 % of NPP being allocated to foliage production which constitutes a short term carbon pool. On an ecosystem level net ecosystem exchange amounted to a release of 293 g C m-2 a-1 thus becoming a carbon source over the course of the year rather than being a sink for C. The overall impact of the defoliation spanned 21% of upland forests (320 km2) in the New Jersey Pine Barrens thus representing a significant amount of overall C being emitted back to the atmosphere rather than being accumulated in the biosphere.

  5. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g. 0.27±0.16 GtC a-1 for 2000-2005 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17±0.44 GtC a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45±0.40 GtC a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40±0.42 GtC a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013)). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (1.0-1.3 GtC a-1 for 09/2009-08/2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 GtC a-1 in 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014)). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential retrieval biases and/or transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short-range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large-scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02±0.30 GtC a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. This is qualitatively consistent among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five independent satellite retrievals (BESD (Reuter et al., 2011) 2003-2010, ACOS (O'Dell et al., 2012) 2010, UoL-FP (Cogan et al., 2012) 2010, RemoTeC (Butz et al., 2011) 2010, and NIES (Yoshida et al., 2013) 2010

  6. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  7. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption...

  8. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption...

  9. Stable isotope mass balances versus concentration differences of dissolved inorganic carbon - implications for tracing carbon turnover in reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Johannes A C; Mader, Michael; Nenning, Franziska; van Geldern, Robert; Friese, Kurt

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sources of carbon turnover using stable isotope mass balances. For this purpose, two pre-reservoirs in the Harz Mountains (Germany) were investigated for their dissolved and particulate carbon contents (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon) together with their stable carbon isotope ratios. DIC concentration depth profiles from March 2012 had an average of 0.33 mmol L-1. Increases in DIC concentrations later on in the year often corresponded with decreases in its carbon isotope composition (δ13CDIC) with the most negative value of -18.4 ‰ in September. This led to a carbon isotope mass balance with carbon isotope inputs of -28.5 ‰ from DOC and -23.4, -31.8 and -30.7 ‰ from algae, terrestrial and sedimentary matter, respectively. Best matches between calculated and measured DIC gains were achieved when using the isotope composition of algae. This shows that this type of organic material is most likely responsible for carbon additions to the DIC pool when its concentrations and δ13CDIC values correlate negatively. The presented isotope mass balance is transferable to other surface water and groundwater systems for quantification of organic matter turnover.

  10. Differences in energy balance-related behaviours in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke De Craemer

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain within the ToyBox cross-sectional study.A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys had valid physical activity data (steps per day, parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play, and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking.The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays, while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively. German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays, while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays. A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays, and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays. Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day.Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours simultaneously, but should

  11. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C; Barnes, Kallie L; Ryan, Michael G; Neff, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass removed from the forest, and the occurrence and intensity of a future wildfire in this stand. In this study we investigate the carbon balance of a forest treatment with varying fates of harvested biomass, including use for bioenergy electricity production, and under varying scenarios of future disturbance and regeneration. Bioenergy is a carbon intensive energy source; in our study we find that carbon emissions from bioenergy electricity production are nearly twice that of coal for the same amount of electricity. However, some emissions from bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit achieved by using harvested biomass for bioenergy electricity production may be increased through avoided pyrogenic emissions if the forest treatment can effectively reduce severity. Forest treatments with the use of harvested biomass for electricity generation can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions due to reduced intensity and severity of a future wildfire in the treated stand. However, changes in future wildfire and regeneration regimes may affect forest carbon balance and these climate-induced changes may influence forest carbon balance as much, or more, than bioenergy production.

  12. Glacier albedo decrease in the European Alps: potential causes and links with mass balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Julitta, Tommaso; Colombo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Both mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets are losing mass all over the Earth. They are highly sensitive to climate variation, and the widespread reduction of glaciers has been ascribed to the atmospheric temperature increase. Beside this driver, also ice albedo plays a fundamental role in defining mass balance of glaciers. In fact, dark ice absorbs more energy causing faster glacier melting, and this can drive to more negative balances. Previous studies showed that the albedo of Himalayan glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet is decreasing with important rates. In this contribution, we tested the hypothesis that also glaciers in the European Alps are getting darker. We analyzed 16-year time series of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) snow albedo from Terra (MOD13A1, 2000-2015) and Aqua (MYD13A1, 2002-2015) satellites. These data feature a spatial resolution of 500m and a daily temporal resolution. We evaluated the existence of a negative linear and nonlinear trend of the summer albedo values both at pixel and at glacier level. We also calculated the correlation between MODIS summer albedo and glacier mass balances (from the World Glaciological Monitoring Service, WGMS database), for all the glaciers with available mass balance during the considered period. In order to estimate the percentage of the summer albedo that can be explained by atmospheric temperature, we correlated MODIS albedo and monthly air temperature extracted from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Results show that decreasing trends exist with a strong spatial variability in the whole Alpine chain. In large glaciers, such as the Aletch (Swiss Alps), the trend varies significantly also within the glacier, showing that the trend is higher in the area across the accumulation and ablation zone. Over the 17 glaciers with mass balance available in the WGMS data set, 11 gave significant relationship with the MODIS summer albedo. Moreover, the comparison between ERA-Interim temperature

  13. Tree carbon allocation dynamics determined using a carbon mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tamir; Hoch, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Tree internal carbon (C) fluxes between compound and compartment pools are difficult to measure directly. Here we used a C mass balance approach to decipher these fluxes and provide a full description of tree C allocation dynamics. We collected independent measurements of tree C sinks, source and pools in Pinus halepensis in a semi-arid forest, and converted all fluxes to g C per tree d(-1) . Using this data set, a process flowchart was created to describe and quantify the tree C allocation on diurnal to annual time-scales. The annual C source of 24.5 kg C per tree yr(-1) was balanced by C sinks of 23.5 kg C per tree yr(-1) , which partitioned into 70%, 17% and 13% between respiration, growth, and litter (plus export to soil), respectively. Large imbalances (up to 57 g C per tree d(-1) ) were observed as C excess during the wet season, and as C deficit during the dry season. Concurrent changes in C reserves (starch) were sufficient to buffer these transient C imbalances. The C pool dynamics calculated using the flowchart were in general agreement with the observed pool sizes, providing confidence regarding our estimations of the timing, magnitude, and direction of the internal C fluxes. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Effects of simulated drought on the carbon balance of Everglades short-hydroperiod marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkle L Malone; Gregory Starr; Christina L. Staudhammer; Michael G. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Hydrology drives the carbon balance of wetlands by controlling the uptake and release of CO2 and CH4. Longer dry periods in between heavier precipitation events predicted for the Everglades region, may alter the stability of large carbon pools in this wetland's ecosystems. To determine the effects of drought on CO2 fluxes and CH4 emissions, we simulated changes in...

  15. Partitioning the net ecosystem carbon balance of a semiarid steppe into biological and geological components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rey, A.; Belelli Marchesini, L.; Etiope, G.; Papale, D.; Canfora, E.; Valentini, R.; Pegoraro, E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the need to consider geological carbon sources when estimating the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of terrestrial ecosystems located in areas potentially affected by geofluid circulation. We propose a new methodology using physical parameters of the atmospheric

  16. Does peatland restoration make a difference to the millennial scale carbon balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillet, Anne; Roulet, Nigel; Wu, Jianghua

    2017-04-01

    Millennial peatland carbon balance is of crucial importance to assess the past and future forcing of peatlands carbon sequestration on climate. However drainage and exploitation of peatlands over the last and current centuries greatly affect the carbon balance of 25% of the global peatlands (Parish et al. 2008). Moreover, the impact of drainage is likely to remain for unforeseeable time, modifying the hydrology and the ecology of peatlands. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on the long-term carbon balance of restoration practices over abandonment on vacuum-extracted peatlands. We modified the Holocene Peat Model (Frolking et al. 2010) to simulate peat extraction as well as different post-extraction management strategies: abandonment, drainage blocking and restoration. Simulation results enable the comparison of the response of the system to different management strategies. The carbon balance is estimated for the millennia following extraction for different management strategies and different climate conditions. The difference between restoration practices and abandonment allows the assessment of the net carbon gain associated with restoration. Although it is expected that successful restoration practices are beneficial to the carbon budget of the ecosystem, it will take millennia to restore what has been extracted. In cases where the site is left abandoned, it is estimated that peat would degrade within centuries. The management strategies and the duration of the period of latency between extraction and restoration are key factors controlling the magnitude of the future carbon loss or gain of a peatland.

  17. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM 70.6 ± 5.0 kg had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2. There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11 and no influence of training session (p = 0.34 or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16 on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05. Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05. Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6% of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM. Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.

  18. Climate-Relation Control of Tropical Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, D.

    2015-12-01

    The humid tropics contain vast stores of carbon and dominate terrestrial-atmspheric carbon exchange. They are difficult to observe, whether in situ or from the atmosphere for logistical, climatic and ecological reasons, leading to persistent uncertainty about their quantitative role in the current carbon cycle, and how they might change in the future. In addition, as recent work has shown, the tropics have fast turnover times and short response times. As a result, they are the most likely focus of rapid change to terrestrial carbon-climate feedbacks. I will review what is known, and what remains controversial, about carbon fluxes in the tropics, and particularly in the Amazon. Current tropical carbon budgets suggest both high emissions, from land use, and high uptake from a combination of regrowth and carbon dioxide fertilization. Recent analyses also suggest significant trends in both these terms. We will propose a hypothesis to explain the current budget and a strategy for reducing uncertainty combining the OCO-2 satellite XCO2 observations in conjunction with other space-based measurememts.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen balances for six shrublands across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beier, C.; Emmett, B.A.; Tietema, A.; Schmidt, I.K.; Peñuelas, J.; Kovács Láng, E.; Duce, P.; De Angelis, P.; Gorissen, A.; Estiarte, M.; De Dato, G.D.; Sowerby, A.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Lellei-Kovács, E.; Kull, O.; Mand, P.; Petersen, H.; Gjelstrup, P.; Spano, D.

    2009-01-01

    Shrublands constitute significant and important parts of European landscapes providing a large number of important ecosystem services. Biogeochemical cycles in these ecosystems have gained little attention relative to forests and grassland systems, but data on such cycles are required for developing

  20. The oxygen and carbon dioxide balance in the earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    The oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle is described in detail, and steps which are sensitive to perturbation or instability are identified. About half of the carbon dioxide consumption each year in photosynthesis occurs in the oceans. Phytoplankton, which are the primary producers, have been shown to assimilate insecticides and herbicides. The impact of such materials on phytoplankton photosynthesis, both direct and as the indirect result of detrimental effects higher up in the food chain, cannot be assessed. Net oxygen production is very small in comparison with the total production and occurs almost exclusively in a few ocean areas with anoxic bottom conditions and in peat-forming marshes which are sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances. The carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is increasing at a relatively rapid rate as the result of fossil fuel combustion. Increases in photosynthesis as the result of the hothouse effect may in turn reduce the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere, leading to global cooling.

  1. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Carbon dioxide balance of subarctic tundra from plot to regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Marushchak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the carbon dioxide (CO2 budget of a 98.6 km2 subarctic tundra area in northeast European Russia based on measurements at two different scales and two independent upscaling approaches. Plot-scale measurements (chambers on terrestrial surfaces, gas gradient method and bubble collectors on lakes were carried out from July 2007 to October 2008. The landscape-scale eddy covariance (EC measurements covered the snow-free period of 2008. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE of different land cover types ranged from −251 to 84 g C m−2. Leaf area index (LAI was an excellent predictor of the spatial variability in gross photosynthesis (GP, NEE and ecosystem respiration (ER. The plot-scale CO2 fluxes were first scaled up to the EC source area and then to the whole study area using two data sets: a land cover classification and a LAI map, both based on field data and a 2.4 m pixel-sized QuickBird satellite image. The good agreement of the CO2 balances for the EC footprint based on the different measuring techniques (−105 to −81 g C m−2 vs. −79 g C m−2; growing season 2008 justified the integration of the plot-scale measurements over the larger area. The regional CO2 balance based on area-integrated plot-scale measurements was −41 or −79 g C m−2 yr−1 according to the two upscaling methods, the land cover classification and the LAI map, respectively. Due to the heterogeneity of tundra, the effect of climate change on CO2 uptake will vary strongly according to the land cover type and, moreover, likely changes in their relative coverage in the future will have great impact on the regional CO2 balance.

  3. Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vetter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the year 2003 is associated with one of the largest atmospheric CO2 rises on record. In the same year, Europe experienced an anomalously strong flux of CO2 from the land to the atmosphere associated with an exceptionally dry and hot summer in Western and Central Europe. In this study we analyze the magnitude of this carbon flux anomaly and key driving ecosystem processes using simulations of seven terrestrial ecosystem models of different complexity and types (process-oriented and diagnostic. We address the following questions: (1 how large were deviations in the net European carbon flux in 2003 relative to a short-term baseline (1998–2002 and to longer-term variations in annual fluxes (1980 to 2005, (2 which European regions exhibited the largest changes in carbon fluxes during the growing season 2003, and (3 which ecosystem processes controlled the carbon balance anomaly .

    In most models the prominence of 2003 anomaly in carbon fluxes declined with lengthening of the reference period from one year to 16 years. The 2003 anomaly for annual net carbon fluxes ranged between 0.35 and –0.63 Pg C for a reference period of one year and between 0.17 and –0.37 Pg C for a reference period of 16 years for the whole Europe.

    In Western and Central Europe, the anomaly in simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP over the growing season in 2003 was outside the 1σ variance bound of the carbon flux anomalies for 1980–2005 in all models. The estimated anomaly in net carbon flux ranged between –42 and –158 Tg C for Western Europe and between 24 and –129 Tg C for Central Europe depending on the model used. All models responded to a dipole pattern of the climate anomaly in 2003. In Western and Central Europe NEP was reduced due to heat and drought. In contrast, lower than normal temperatures and higher air humidity decreased NEP over Northeastern Europe. While models agree on the sign of changes in

  4. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Graham A; Mills, Benjamin J W

    2017-04-25

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ 13 C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ 13 C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ 13 C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ 13 C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ 13 C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth's surface environment.

  5. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Graham A.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ13C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ13C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater 87Sr/86Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ13C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ13C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth’s surface environment.

  6. Tectonic controls on the long-term carbon isotope mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Benjamin J. W.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term, steady-state marine carbon isotope record reflects changes to the proportional burial rate of organic carbon relative to total carbon on a global scale. For this reason, times of high δ13C are conventionally interpreted to be oxygenation events caused by excess organic burial. Here we show that the carbon isotope mass balance is also significantly affected by tectonic uplift and erosion via changes to the inorganic carbon cycle that are independent of changes to the isotopic composition of carbon input. This view is supported by inverse covariance between δ13C and a range of uplift proxies, including seawater 87Sr/86Sr, which demonstrates how erosional forcing of carbonate weathering outweighs that of organic burial on geological timescales. A model of the long-term carbon cycle shows that increases in δ13C need not be associated with increased organic burial and that alternative tectonic drivers (erosion, outgassing) provide testable and plausible explanations for sustained deviations from the long-term δ13C mean. Our approach emphasizes the commonly overlooked difference between how net and gross carbon fluxes affect the long-term carbon isotope mass balance, and may lead to reassessment of the role that the δ13C record plays in reconstructing the oxygenation of earth’s surface environment. PMID:28396434

  7. Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Reichstein, M.; Breda, N.

    2007-01-01

    stand to estimate the water balance terms: trees and understorey transpiration, rainfall interception, throughfall, drainage in the different soil layers and soil water content. This model calculated the onset date, duration and intensity of the soil water shortage (called water stress) using measured......The drought of 2003 was exceptionally severe in many regions of Europe, both in duration and in intensity. In some areas, especially in Germany and France, it was the strongest drought for the last 50 years, lasting for more than 6 months. We used continuous carbon and water flux measurements at 12...... European monitoring sites covering various forest ecosystem types and a large climatic range in order to characterise the consequences of this drought on ecosystems functioning. As soil water content in the root zone was only monitored in a few sites, a daily water balance model was implemented at each...

  8. Energy and mass balance observations on La Mare Glacier (Ortles-Cevedale, European Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carturan, L.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental site was setup in 2005 on the ablation area of La Mare Glacier, at 2990 m a.s.l., to study the energy and mass balance exchanges between the glacier surface and the atmosphere and to investigate the climatic sensitivity of this particular glacier. An Automatic Weather Station was operated, in the framework of a monitoring network which has been implemented in the Upper Val de La Mare experimental watershed (Trentino, Italy). This basin was selected for a study of climate change effects on cryosphere and hydrology at high-altitude catchments. The 36.2 km2 wide basin has an average altitude of 2906 m a.s.l. and at present the 25% of its surface is glacierized; the annual runoff regime is dominated by snow and ice melt. Direct mass balance measurements have been performed since 1967 on Careser glacier (2.83 km2) and since 2003 on La Mare glacier (3.97 km2). The AWS is mounted on a tripod which stands freely on the glacier surface and is solar-powered. The variables measured are: air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed and direction, shortwave and longwave incoming and outgoing radiation, precipitation and surface height. All the data are sampled at five-minute intervals as average values, with the exception of surface height which is sampled at hourly intervals, as instantaneous values. The collected data were used to calculate the point energy and mass balance and to compare the results with similar investigations carried out on glaciers and available in literature. In particular, our attention has been focussed on some processes which regulate the response to climate changes. The relative importance of the energy balance components was examined and a clear predominance of shortwave radiation inputs was found to exist during melt conditions. Given the relevance of the shortwave net balance, the ice albedo temporal variability (values ranging from 0.1 to 0.5) has been investigated and correlated with meteorological variables. Furthermore, a

  9. Contribution of root to soil respiration and carbon balance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    Global soil respiration is estimated to be 76.5 Pg C yr-1, which is 30–60 Pg C yr-1 greater than the net primary productivity. (NPP) (Raich and Potter 1995). Therefore, soil respiration is a major pathway for carbon to move from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and even small changes can strongly influence net ...

  10. The Degree of Permafrost Thawing Determines Arctic Tundra Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Sickman, J.; Lee, H.; Trucco, C.

    2007-12-01

    In interior Alaska, we measured gross photosynthesis (GP), ecosystem respiration (ER), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) near a permafrost monitoring borehole that has recorded an increase in permafrost temperatures during the last 22 years. From May 2004 to May 2006, ecosystem C exchange measurements were made with static and automatic chambers in a moist acidic tundra ecosystem. A gradient in degree of permafrost thaw was used to select three sites (Minimal, Moderate and Severe Thaw) that corresponded to an increase in thermokarst occurrence. Between June 1 and August 30, the Severe and Moderate Thaw sites had significantly greater C uptake (GPP) (pproductivity. However, greater winter ER from the Severe Thaw site caused it to be a source (negative NEE, -128 g C m-2) of carbon over three years. The Moderate Thaw site was a carbon sink (52 g C m- 2), while the Minimal Thaw site was near carbon neutral (-7 g C m-2). In the spring and fall, carbon uptake correlated with the occurrence of plant functional groups (sedges, evergreen shrubs) that maintain green foliage and can photosynthesize under cold conditions. Both of these functional groups decreased inside thermokarst. In the winter, the Severe Thaw site lost 34% more C than the other two sites, likely due to warmer deep soil temperatures. As permafrost thaw proceeds, increasing ecosystem C loss may occur during the winter, spring, and fall due to the unique biotic and abiotic characteristics of thermokarst.

  11. Changes in the balance of soil respired CO2 (root vs. soil organic matter) during the Younger Dryas event; evidence from three European cave sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzka, Dominika; McDermott, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to understand better the response of soil carbon to a major climate transition and to examine the influence of variable temperature sensitivity of different carbon sources. New radiocarbon measurements for portions of three speleothems from European cave sites (La Garma and El Pindal caves, N. Spain; Sofular cave, Turkey) deposited during the late-Glacial to early Holocene were used to investigate these processes. These data were used to improve the interpretation of δ13C in stalagmites, which can be influenced not only by the temperature and moisture changes (reflected in major climatic transitions), but also by several different processes (e.g. variable degassing and limestone dissolution, soil evolution, hydrological effects). Pollen data indicate that C3 plants persisted at all three sites since the late-Glacial. There is however a marked increase in δ13C during the Younger Dryas (YD) in all three stalagmites, indicating a climate driven change in carbon cycling dynamics. In principle this change could reflect stronger degassing due to drier conditions or more closed system behaviour (higher 'dead carbon proportion' (dcp) due to greater limestone dissolution). Closed system modeling indicates that greater limestone dissolution should result in higher δ13C and lower initial 14C activity as a result of dilution by 'dead' carbon. In practice, initial 14C activity of stalagmite carbonate during the YD in all three speleothems follows the atmospheric 14C age plateau, indicating open system behaviour, with little evidence for lowering of 14C activity that would be expected to result from enhanced limestone dissolution. This is interpreted as a change in the balance of soil-respired CO2. Soil CO2 is a combination of soil organic matter (SOM) and plant-root respiration. In the latter process, plants cycle only ambient atmospheric CO2 (relatively high 14C activity). By contrast, microbial decomposition of soil organic matter typically

  12. A contemporary carbon balance for the Northeast region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Kicklighter, David W; Melillo, Jerry M; Yang, Ping; Rosenzweig, Bernice; Vörösmarty, Charles J; Gross, Barry; Stewart, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Development of regional policies to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would benefit from the quantification of the major components of the region's carbon balance--fossil fuel CO2 emissions and net fluxes between land ecosystems and the atmosphere. Through spatially detailed inventories of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model, we produce the first estimate of regional carbon balance for the Northeast United States between 2001 and 2005. Our analysis reveals that the region was a net carbon source of 259 Tg C/yr over this period. Carbon sequestration by land ecosystems across the region, mainly forests, compensated for about 6% of the region's fossil fuel emissions. Actions that reduce fossil fuel CO2 emissions are key to improving the region's carbon balance. Careful management of forested lands will be required to protect their role as a net carbon sink and a provider of important ecosystem services such as water purification, erosion control, wildlife habitat and diversity, and scenic landscapes.

  13. Historic simulation of net ecosystem carbon balance for the Great Dismal Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Estimating ecosystem carbon (C) balance relative to natural disturbances and land management strengthens our understanding of the benefits and tradeoffs of carbon sequestration. We conducted a historic model simulation of net ecosystem C balance in the Great Dismal Swamp, VA. for the 30-year time period of 1985-2015. The historic simulation of annual carbon flux was calculated with the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model. The LUCAS model utilizes a state-and-transition simulation model coupled with a carbon stock-flow accounting model to estimate net ecosystem C balance, and long term sequestration rates under various ecological conditions and management strategies. The historic model simulation uses age-structured forest growth curves for four forest species, C stock and flow rates for 8 pools and 14 fluxes, and known data for disturbance and management. The annualized results of C biomass are provided in this data release in the following categories: Growth, Heterotrophic Respiration (Rh), Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), Net Biome Production (NBP), Below-ground Biomass (BGB) Stock, Above-ground Biomass (AGB) Stock, AGB Carbon Loss from Fire, BGB Carbon Loss from Fire, Deadwood Carbon Loss from Management, and Total Carbon Loss. The table also includes the area (annually) of each forest type in hectares: Atlantic white cedar Area (hectares); Cypress-gum Area (hectares); Maple-gum Area (hectares); Pond pine Area (hectares). Net ecosystem production for the Great Dismal Swamp (~ 54,000 ha), from 1985 to 2015 was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When the hurricane and six historic fire events were modeled, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and belowground C loss estimated from the South One in 2008 and Lateral West fire in 2011 totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The C loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C

  14. Modelling soil carbon flows and stocks following a carbon balance approach at regional scale for the EU-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesschen, Jan Peter; Sikirica, Natasa; Bonten, Luc; Dibari, Camilla; Sanchez, Berta; Kuikman, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a key parameter to many soil functions and services. SOC is essential to support water retention and nutrient buffering and mineralization in the soil as well as to enhance soil biodiversity. Consequently, loss of SOC or low SOC levels might threaten soil productivity or even lead to a collapse of a farming system. Identification of areas in Europe with critically low SOC levels or with a negative carbon balance is a challenge in order to apply the appropriate strategies to restore these areas or prevent further SOC losses. The objective of this study is to assess current soil carbon flows and stocks at a regional scale; we follow a carbon balance approach which we developed within the MITERRA-Europe model. MITERRA-Europe is an environmental impact assessment model and calculates nitrogen and greenhouse emission on a deterministic and annual basis using emission and leaching factors at regional level (NUTS2, comparable to province level) in the EU27. The model already contained a soil carbon module based on the IPCC stock change approach. Within the EU FP7 SmartSoil project we developed a SOC balance approach, for which we quantified the input of carbon (manure, crop residues, other organic inputs) and the losses of carbon (decomposition, leaching and erosion). The calculations rules from the Roth-C model were used to estimate SOC decomposition. For the actual soil carbon stocks we used the data from the LUCAS soil sample survey. LUCAS collected soil samples in 2009 at about 22000 locations across the EU, which were analysed for a range of soil properties. Land management practices are accounted for, based on data from the EU wide Survey on Agricultural Production Methods in the 2010 Farm Structure Survey. The survey comprises data on the application of soil tillage, soil cover, crop rotation and irrigation. Based on the simulated soil carbon balance and the actual carbon stocks from LUCAS we now can identify regions within the EU that

  15. An energy balance model of carbon's effect on climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Benney, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the interest of studying our climatic system using mathematical modeling has become tremendous in recent years. One well-known model is Budyko's system, which represents the coupled evolution of two variables, the ice-line and the average earth surface temperature. The system depends on natural parameters, such as the earth albedo, and the amount A of carbon in the atmosphere. We introduce a 3-dimensional extension of this model in which we regard A as the third coupled variable of the system. We analyze the phase space and dependence on parameters, looking for Hopf bifurcations and the birth of cycling behavior. We interpret the cycles as climatic oscillations triggered by the sensitivity in our regulation of carbon emissions at extreme temperatures.

  16. Simulating the carbon balance in reclaimed forest ecosystems with the FORECAST model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welham, C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences, Forest Ecosystem Simulation Group; ForRx Consulting, Belcarra, BC (Canada); 3GreenTree Ecosystem Services Ltd., Belcarra, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large emission sources are beginning to report their carbon footprint on an annual basis as a result of government mandates, shareholder demand for disclosure of a company's risk to climate change, and as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives. Oil sands mining is a carbon intensive activity from the perspective of carbon dioxide emissions. The intensity of carbon emissions can be mitigated through technological and process innovations. However, reclamation is the only mining-related activity that directly removes atmospheric carbon dioxide. This presentation described a modeling exercise that had 3 principal objectives, notably to simulate the carbon balance in a developing reclaimed upland forest ecosystem; to explore the relative change in carbon pools over time; and to compare the carbon balance of the reclaimed ecosystem to its natural analogue. The presentation provided a description of the model and methodology and discussed the simulation protocol. Imperial Oil's Kearl Lake operation, which was used as a test case, showed that approximately 83,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare can be sequestered per year as a result of reclamation. tabs., figs.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Schmidt, Inger K.; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades...

  18. Effects of biomass utilization on the carbon balance of Finnish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievänen, Risto; Salminen, Olli; Kallio, Maarit

    2015-04-01

    The boreal forests cover three fourths of the land area of Finland. About 80 per cent of the total forest area is managed for commercial forestry. The forests produce timber for wood processing and pulp and paper industries and provide also bioenergy. The harvests of timber vary depending on demand of products of forest industry; the harvest level has been on average about 70 per cent of growth in recent years. The utilization of forest biomass is therefore the most important factor affecting the carbon balance of Finnish forests. We made projections of carbon balance of Finnish forests during 2012-2050 based on scenarios of timber and bioenergy demands. To assess the changes in carbon stock of forests, we combined three models: a large-scale forestry model, the soil carbon model Yasso07 for mineral soils, and a method based on emission factors for peatland soils. We considered two harvest scenarios based on the recent projections of plausible levels (min, max) of timber demand. For the bioenergy demand, we compared cases in which the wood energy use was low or high. In the past decades, the Finnish forests have been a steadily growing and substantial carbon sink. Its size has been more than 40% of the national GHG emissions during 1990-2012. The planned use of wood from the forests to forest and energy industry does not threaten the increasing trend of the forest sink; with the lowest use of forest biomass the sink may even match the national GHG emissions until 2050. The stock change of trees is the most important component of carbon balance of forests; it accounts for approximately 80 % of the total stock change. Trees and mineral soils act as carbon sinks and the drained peatland soils as a carbon source. By comparing the scenarios of wood energy use we conclude that the amount of carbon emissions avoided by replacing fossil fuels with stemwood is outweighed by the loss in carbon sequestration.

  19. Updated estimate of carbon balance on Russian territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurganova, I. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.; Gerenyu, V. O. Lopes de (Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, RAS, Pushchino (Russian Federation)), e-mail: ikurg@mail.ru

    2010-11-15

    The land use system in Russia changed considerably after 1990: 30.2 million ha of croplands were abandoned. Based on the own field investigations that were carried out in abandoned lands of different age (Luvic Phaeozems, deciduous forest zone; Moscow region, 54 deg 50' N, 37 deg 37' E), it has been shown that after 4.5 yr of abandonment, the former croplands acted as a stable sink of CO{sub 2}. The net ecosystem production (NEP) in the post-agrogenic ecosystems averaged 245 +- 73gCm-2 yr-1 for the first 15 yr after land use change that corresponds to an estimated 74 +- 22 Tg C yr-1 for the total area of abandoned lands in Russian Federation. Currently, the Russian territory acts as an absolute sink of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at a rate about 0.90 Pg C yr-1. Using three different approaches, it was demonstrated that after 1990, the carbon sequestration in Russian soils (0.20 cm layer) has averaged 34 +- 2.2 Tg C yr-1. This soil C forms net biome production (NBP) where carbon lifetime is much longer than in 'Kyoto forests'. Thus, the post-agrogenic ecosystems in Russia provide with the additional CO{sub 2} sink in NEP and NBP that could annually compensate about 25% of the current fossil fuel emissions in the Russian Federation

  20. A methodological framework to assess the carbon balance of tropical managed forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Piponiot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Managed forests are a major component of tropical landscapes. Production forests as designated by national forest services cover up to 400 million ha, i.e. half of the forested area in the humid tropics. Forest management thus plays a major role in the global carbon budget, but with a lack of unified method to estimate carbon fluxes from tropical managed forests. In this study we propose a new time- and spatially-explicit methodology to estimate the above-ground carbon budget of selective logging at regional scale. Results The yearly balance of a logging unit, i.e. the elementary management unit of a forest estate, is modelled by aggregating three sub-models encompassing (i emissions from extracted wood, (ii emissions from logging damage and deforested areas and (iii carbon storage from post-logging recovery. Models are parametrised and uncertainties are propagated through a MCMC algorithm. As a case study, we used 38 years of National Forest Inventories in French Guiana, northeastern Amazonia, to estimate the above-ground carbon balance (i.e. the net carbon exchange with the atmosphere of selectively logged forests. Over this period, the net carbon balance of selective logging in the French Guianan Permanent Forest Estate is estimated to be comprised between 0.12 and 1.33 Tg C, with a median value of 0.64 Tg C. Uncertainties over the model could be diminished by improving the accuracy of both logging damage and large woody necromass decay submodels. Conclusions We propose an innovating carbon accounting framework relying upon basic logging statistics. This flexible tool allows carbon budget of tropical managed forests to be estimated in a wide range of tropical regions.

  1. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; D. Bryan Dail; John T. Lee; J. William Munger; John O' Keefe

    2009-01-01

    Spring phenology is thought to exert a major influence on the carbon (C) balance of temperate and boreal ecosystems. We investigated this hypothesis using four spring onset phenological indicators in conjunction with surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange data from the conifer-dominated Howland Forest and deciduous-dominated Harvard Forest AmeriFlux...

  2. [Dynamics of blood gases and acid-base balance in patients with carbon monoxide acute poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polozova, E V; Shilov, V V; Bogachova, A S; Davydova, E V

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of blood gases and acid-base balance covered patients with carbon monoxide acute poisoning, in accordance with inhalation trauma presence. Evidence is that thermochemical injury of respiratory tract induced severe acid-base dysbalance remaining decompensated for a long time despite the treatment.

  3. Breath carbon stable isotope ratios identify changes in energy balance and substrate utilization in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection of shifts in substrate utilization and energy balance would provide a compelling biofeedback tool to enable individuals to lose weight. In a pilot study, we tested whether the natural abundance of exhaled carbon stable isotope ratios (breath d13C values) reflects shifts between negat...

  4. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low-carbon

  5. Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  6. What moves the European carbon market? Insights from conditional jump models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronwald, Marc; Ketterer, Janina [Munich Univ. (Germany). Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

    2012-04-15

    This paper is concerned with carbon price volatility and the underlying causes of large price movements in the European emissions trading market. Based on the application of a combined jump-GARCH model the behavior of EUA prices is characterized. The jump- GARCH model explains the unsteady carbon price movement well and, moreover, shows that between 40 and 60 percent of the carbon price variance are triggered by jumps. Information regarding EUA supply and news from international carbon markets are identified as important drivers of these price spikes. These results can lead regulators the way if smoother carbon prices are desired.

  7. Estimating the soil organic carbon content for European NUTS2 regions based on LUCAS data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B

    2013-01-01

    Under the European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, the European Commission Directorate-General for the Environment and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) identified a decline in soil organic carbon and soil losses by erosion as priorities for the collection of policy relevant soil data at European scale. Moreover, the estimation of soil organic carbon content is of crucial importance for soil protection and for climate change mitigation strategies. Soil organic carbon is one of the attributes of the recently developed LUCAS soil database. The request for data on soil organic carbon and other soil attributes arose from an on-going debate about efforts to establish harmonized datasets for all EU countries with data on soil threats in order to support modeling activities and display variations in these soil conditions across Europe. In 2009, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre conducted the LUCAS soil survey, sampling ca. 20,000 points across 23 EU member states. This article describes the results obtained from analyzing the soil organic carbon data in the LUCAS soil database. The collected data were compared with the modeled European topsoil organic carbon content data developed at the JRC. The best fitted comparison was performed at NUTS2 level and showed underestimation of modeled data in southern Europe and overestimation in the new central eastern member states. There is a good correlation in certain regions for countries such as the United Kingdom, Slovenia, Italy, Ireland, and France. Here we assess the feasibility of producing comparable estimates of the soil organic carbon content at NUTS2 regional level for the European Union (EU27) and draw a comparison with existing modeled data. In addition to the data analysis, we suggest how the modeled data can be improved in future updates with better calibration of the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of diurnal temperature range on ecosystem carbon balance: an experimental test in grassland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. L.; Gregg, J. W.; Wilson, J. K.; Pangle, L. A.; Bailey, D.

    2009-12-01

    Although extensive research has determined ecosystem responses to equal increases in day and night temperatures, current temperature increases have generally been asymmetrical, with increases in minimum temperature (Tmin) exceeding increases in maximum temperature (Tmax), or vice versa, depending on location. We conducted an ecosystem warming experiment in a perennial grassland to determine the effects of asymmetrically elevated diel temperature profiles using precision climate-controlled sunlit environmental chambers. Asymmetrically warmed chambers (+5/+2°C, Tmin/Tmax) were compared with symmetrically warmed (+3.5°C continuously) and control chambers (ambient). We tested three alternative hypotheses comparing the carbon balance under symmetric (SYM) and asymmetric (ASYM) warming: H1) SYM ASYM, because warmer nights in the ASYM treatment increase respiration more then photosynthesis, reducing plant growth; H3) SYM = ASYM, due to a combination of effects. Results from the third growing season support H3, that carbon balance is the same under the two elevated diel temperature profiles. During the early part of the growing season, asymmetric warming resulted in higher nighttime respiratory losses than symmetric warming, but these greater loses were compensated by increased early morning photosynthesis. As a result, carbon balance was not different in the two warming treatments at daily time steps. Furthermore, declines in soil moisture over the growing season may have important modulating impacts on the temperature sensitivity of carbon fluxes. As soils dried, carbon fluxes became less sensitive to diel temperature fluctuations, and more similar in the symmetric and asymmetric treatments.

  9. The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) v1.0: implementation and global carbon balance 2001-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Velde, Ivar R.; van der Veen, Emma; Tsuruta, Aki; Stanislawska, Karolina; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Zhang, Hui Fang; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Chen, Huilin; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Krol, Maarten C.; Peters, Wouter

    2017-07-01

    Data assimilation systems are used increasingly to constrain the budgets of reactive and long-lived gases measured in the atmosphere. Each trace gas has its own lifetime, dominant sources and sinks, and observational network (from flask sampling and in situ measurements to space-based remote sensing) and therefore comes with its own optimal configuration of the data assimilation. The CarbonTracker Europe data assimilation system for CO2 estimates global carbon sources and sinks, and updates are released annually and used in carbon cycle studies. CarbonTracker Europe simulations are performed using the new modular implementation of the data assimilation system: the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS). Here, we present and document this redesign of the data assimilation code that forms the heart of CarbonTracker, specifically meant to enable easy extension and modification of the data assimilation system. This paper also presents the setup of the latest version of CarbonTracker Europe (CTE2016), including the use of the gridded state vector, and shows the resulting carbon flux estimates. We present the distribution of the carbon sinks over the hemispheres and between the land biosphere and the oceans. We show that with equal fossil fuel emissions, 2015 has a higher atmospheric CO2 growth rate compared to 2014, due to reduced net land carbon uptake in later year. The European carbon sink is especially present in the forests, and the average net uptake over 2001-2015 was 0. 17 ± 0. 11 PgC yr-1 with reductions to zero during drought years. Finally, we also demonstrate the versatility of CTDAS by presenting an overview of the wide range of applications for which it has been used so far.

  10. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M; Martin, Berdine R; Wastney, Meryl E; McCabe, George P; Moe, Sharon M; Weaver, Connie M; Peacock, Munro

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.

  11. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  12. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Tian, Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Chappelka, Arthur; Xu, Xiaofeng; Ren, Wei; Hui, Dafeng; Liu, Mingliang; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Lockaby, Graeme

    2012-05-01

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945-2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69-1.77) Pg (1P = 10(15)) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945-2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70-100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Incorrectly Interpreting the Carbon Mass Balance Technique Leads to Biased Emissions Estimates from Global Vegetation Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Meyer, M.; Polglase, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation fires are a complex phenomenon and have a range of global impacts including influences on climate. Even though fire is a necessary disturbance for the maintenance of some ecosystems, a range of anthropogenically deleterious consequences are associated with it, such as damage to assets and infrastructure, loss of life, as well as degradation to air quality leading to negative impacts on human health. Estimating carbon emissions from fire relies on a carbon mass balance technique which has evolved with two different interpretations in the fire emissions community. Databases reporting global fire emissions estimates use an approach based on `consumed biomass' which is an approximation to the biogeochemically correct `burnt carbon' approach. Disagreement between the two methods occurs because the `consumed biomass' accounting technique assumes that all burnt carbon is volatilized and emitted. By undertaking a global review of the fraction of burnt carbon emitted to the atmosphere, we show that the `consumed biomass' accounting approach overestimates global carbon emissions by 4.0%, or 100 Teragrams, annually. The required correction is significant and represents 9% of the net global forest carbon sink estimated annually. To correctly partition burnt carbon between that emitted to the atmosphere and that remaining as a post-fire residue requires the post-burn carbon content to be estimated, which is quite often not undertaken in atmospheric emissions studies. To broaden our understanding of ecosystem carbon fluxes, it is recommended that the change in carbon content associated with burnt residues be accounted for. Apart from correctly partitioning burnt carbon between the emitted and residue pools, it enables an accounting approach which can assess the efficacy of fire management operations targeted at sequestering carbon from fire. These findings are particularly relevant for the second commitment period for the Kyoto protocol, since improved landscape fire

  14. A carbon isotope mass balance for an anoxic marine sediment: Isotopic signatures of diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon isotope mass balance was determined for the sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, NC to constrain the carbon budgets published previously. The diffusive, ebullitive and burial fluxes of sigma CO2 and CH4, as well as the carbon isotope signatures of these fluxes, were measured. The flux-weighted isotopic signature of the remineralized carbon (-18.9 plus or minus 2.7 per mil) agreed with the isotopic composition of the remineralized organic carbon determined from the particulate organic carbon (POC) delta(C-13) profiles (-19.2 plus or minus 0.2), verifying the flux and isotopic signature estimates. The measured delta(C-13) values of the sigma CO2 and CH4 diffusive fluxes were significantly different from those calculated from porewater gradients. The differences appear to be influenced by methane oxidation at the sediment-water interface, although other potential processes cannot be excluded. The isotope mass balance provides important information concerning the locations of potential diagenetic isotope effects. Specifically, the absence of downcore change in the delta(C-13) value of the POC fraction and the identical isotopic composition of the POC and the products of remineralization indicate that no isotopic fractionation is expressed during the initial breakdown of the POC, despite its isotopically heterogeneous composition.

  15. Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

  16. The greenhouse gas balance of the oil palm industry in Colombia: a preliminary analysis. I. Carbon sequestration and carbon offsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian E Henson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is currently the world’s fifth largest producer of palm oil and the largest producer in South and Central America. It has substantial areas of land that could be used for additional oil palm production and there is considerable scope for increasing yields of existing planted areas. Much of the vegetation on land suitable for conversion to oil palm has a low biomass, and so establishing oil palm plantations on such land should lead to an increase in carbon stock, thereby counteracting greenhouse gas (GHG emissions responsible for global warming. The first part of this study examines changes in carbon stock in Colombia resulting from expansion of oil palm cultivation together with factors (offsets that act to minimize carbon emissions. The results are subsequently used to construct a net GHG balance

  17. Carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the FR-GRI crop site from 2005 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Chammakhi, Manel; Mascher, Nicolas; Durand, Brigitte; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Lecuyer, Vanessa; Laville, Patricia; Buysse, Pauline; Cellier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the ICOS FR-GRI site from 2005 to 2014 is presented. The site is a wheat-barley-maize rotation with the introduction of oil-seed rape in 2012. The site receives large amounts of organic fertilization, but is shown to be a strong source of carbon to the atmosphere, especially due to the increase in the exportations of residues during the period. The exportations have increased from around 4 to around 8 t C ha-1 year-1 over the period on average except for maize for which it remained constant. In the meantime the carbon importations have increased from around 1 to around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 during the same period. Overall the field was losing around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 over the whole period but largely driven by last years (2012-2014). This would represent 17% loss of the soil carbon content in the 0-60 cm in the 2005-2014 period. The discussion focuses on explanations of these losses and possible drawbacks in the methodology. The effect of the winter intermediate crops on the carbon balance is also discussed.

  18. Accounting conservatism in Europe : Insights in the degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism in financial statements of European companies during the period 1991-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brouwer (Remco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates how the degree of accounting conservatism in the financial statements of European companies evolves over time during period 1996-2005. This study concludes that the financial statement information of European companies shows a certain degree of balance sheet

  19. Large difference in carbon emission : burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, E. J.; J. Klaminder; Bastviken, D; Olid, C.; S. V. Hansson; Karlsson, J

    2015-01-01

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission: burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to su...

  20. European CO{sub 2} prices and carbon capture investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Luis M.; Chamorro, Jose M. [Bilbao Bizkaia Kutxa, Gran Via, 30, 48009 Bilbao (Spain); University of the Basque Country, Dpt. Fundamentos del Analisis Economico I, Av. Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    We assess the option to install a carbon capture and storage (CCS) unit in a coal-fired power plant operating in a carbon-constrained environment. We consider two sources of risk, namely the price of emission allowance and the price of the electricity output. First we analyse the performance of the EU market for CO{sub 2} emission allowances. Specifically, we focus on the contracts maturing in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008 to 2012) and calibrate the underlying parameters of the allowance price process. Then we refer to the Spanish wholesale electricity market and calibrate the parameters of the electricity price process. We use a two-dimensional binomial lattice to derive the optimal investment rule. In particular, we obtain the trigger allowance prices above which it is optimal to install the capture unit immediately. We further analyse the effect of changes in several variables on these critical prices, among them allowance price volatility and a hypothetical government subsidy. We conclude that, at current permit prices, immediate installation does not seem justified from a financial point of view. This need not be the case, though, if carbon market parameters change dramatically, carbon capture technology undergoes significant improvements, and/or a specific governmental policy to promote these units is adopted. (author)

  1. Changes in carbon balance after insect disturbance in Western U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, N. A.; Moore, D. J. P.; Wilkes, P.; Quaife, T.; Desai, A. R.; Negron, J.; Stephens, B. B.; Elder, K.; Brayden, B. H.; Monson, R. K.

    2012-04-01

    Large scale tree mortality changes the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and total ecosystem respiration (TER). Mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested more than 86 million hectares of forest in the U.S.A. since 2000, leading to extensive tree mortality which is predicted to have important carbon, water and energy balance feedbacks on the Earth system. Current projections, based on models linked to changes in live tree stocks, suggest a sharp and prolonged transition of forest ecosystems from carbon sinks to significant carbon sources. We compared 9-year records of GPP and TER fluxes, and parallel disturbance chronosequences in two high elevation lodgepole pine forests in Colorado U.S.A., one impacted by the beetle (Fraser Experimental Forest) and a forest free of the outbreak (Niwot Ridge). We show that on a decadal scale the impact of this tree mortality on the carbon cycle is significantly less pronounced than these predictions because of a sustained suppression of respiration after mortality. We detect no increase in respiration after mortality from scales of several square meters up to an 84 km2 valley; rather we find a decline in both GPP and respiration suggesting a dampening of the carbon cycle. The sharp decline in respiration with GPP reflects the loss of autotrophic respiration and rhizodeposition occurring with tree mortality. We find a partial and transitory recovery of respiration 5-6 years after mortality, de-coupling respiration from concurrent GPP and associated with increased incorporation of C into soil organic matter. At the same time, trees that survive beetle outbreak undergo competitive release, allocating more carbon to growth in response to enhanced resource availability. In contrast to other disturbances like fire or logging, the impact of tree mortality caused by these biotic disturbances in Western North America is likely to have a subtle, long lasting impact on the carbon cycle which will require

  2. Assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Dise, N.B.; Gundersen, P.; Erisman, J.W.; Posch, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the major result of a research project that focused on the assessment of the dynamics in nitrogen and carbon sequestration of European forest soils by estimation of the: (i) retention or release of nitrogen species for selected Intensive Monitoring plots by comparing the input,

  3. European health research and globalisation: is the public-private balance right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The creation and exchange of knowledge between cultures has benefited world development for many years. The European Union now puts research and innovation at the front of its economic strategy. In the health field, biomedical research, which benefits the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, has been well supported, but much less emphasis has been given to public health and health systems research. A similar picture is emerging in European support for globalisation and health Case studies Two case-studies illustrate the links of European support in global health research with industry and biomedicine. The European Commission's directorates for (respectively Health, Development and Research held an international conference in Brussels in June 2010. Two of six thematic sessions related to research: one was solely concerned with drug development and the protection of intellectual property. Two European Union-supported health research projects in India show a similar trend. The Euro-India Research Centre was created to support India's participation in EU research programmes, but almost all of the health research projects have been in biotechnology. New INDIGO, a network led by the French national research agency CNRS, has chosen 'Biotechnology and Health' and funded projects only within three laboratory sciences. Discussion Research for commerce supports only one side of economic development. Innovative technologies can be social as well as physical, and be as likely to benefit society and the economy. Global health research agendas to meet the Millenium goals need to prioritise prevention and service delivery. Public interest can be voiced through civil society organisations, able to support social research and public-health interventions. Money for health research comes from public budgets, or indirectly through healthcare costs. European 'Science in Society' programme contrasts research for 'economy', using technical

  4. European health research and globalisation: is the public-private balance right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark

    2011-03-22

    The creation and exchange of knowledge between cultures has benefited world development for many years. The European Union now puts research and innovation at the front of its economic strategy. In the health field, biomedical research, which benefits the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, has been well supported, but much less emphasis has been given to public health and health systems research. A similar picture is emerging in European support for globalisation and health Two case-studies illustrate the links of European support in global health research with industry and biomedicine. The European Commission's directorates for (respectively) Health, Development and Research held an international conference in Brussels in June 2010. Two of six thematic sessions related to research: one was solely concerned with drug development and the protection of intellectual property. Two European Union-supported health research projects in India show a similar trend. The Euro-India Research Centre was created to support India's participation in EU research programmes, but almost all of the health research projects have been in biotechnology. New INDIGO, a network led by the French national research agency CNRS, has chosen 'Biotechnology and Health' and funded projects only within three laboratory sciences. Research for commerce supports only one side of economic development. Innovative technologies can be social as well as physical, and be as likely to benefit society and the economy. Global health research agendas to meet the Millenium goals need to prioritise prevention and service delivery. Public interest can be voiced through civil society organisations, able to support social research and public-health interventions. Money for health research comes from public budgets, or indirectly through healthcare costs. European 'Science in Society' programme contrasts research for 'economy', using technical solutions, commercialisation and a passive consumer voice for

  5. Policy making, Comitology and the Balance of power in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunenberg, Bernard; Steunenberg, B.; Koboldt, Christian; Schmidtchen, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Using simple game theory, this paper analyzes the working properties of the different procedures laid down in the comitology decision, i.e., the European Council's decision on procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission. Furthermore, it addresses the question of

  6. Serbia amidst competing sovereignty claims : balancing the Westphalian legacy with the political pragmatism of European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jancic, D.

    This paper analyzes the hypothesis that the recent challenges for Serbian statehood – which culminated in Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence – prompted Serbia to redefine its relationship with the European Union and to accelerate the accession process, and thus to depart from

  7. European breast cancer service screening outcomes: a first balance sheet of the benefits and harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paci, E.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Hofvind, S.; Puliti, D.; Duffy, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast

  8. Assessment of the water balance of European forests: a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the UN-ECE Intensive Monitoring Program, data on precipitation, throughfall and soil solution concentrations are measured on a regular basis in approximately 300 forest stands. These data were used to construct element budgets for European forests. To construct such budgets drainage

  9. Toward a consistency cross-check of eddy covariance flux–based and biometric estimates of ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, S.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of an ecosystem's carbon balance and its components is pivotal for understanding both ecosystem functioning and global cycling. Several methods are being applied in parallel to estimate the different components of the CO2 balance. However, different methods are subject to different...

  10. Toward a consistency cross-check of eddy covariance flux-based and biometric estimates of ecosystem carbon balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.D.; Janssens, I.A.; Law, B.E.; Papale, D.; Dragoni, D.; Goulden, M.L.; Granier, A.; Kutch, W.L.; Linder, S.; Matteucci, G.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Saunders, M.; Falge, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of an ecosystem's carbon balance and its components is pivotal for understanding both ecosystem functioning and global cycling. Several methods are being applied in parallel to estimate the different components of the CO2 balance. However, different methods are subject to different

  11. Carbon and energy balances for cellulosic biofuel crops in U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2012-04-01

    Cellulosic biofuels produced on lands not used for food production have the potential to avoid competition for food and associated indirect land use costs. Understanding the carbon and energy balance implications for different cellulosic production systems is important for the development of decision making tools and policies. Here we present carbon and energy balances of alternative agricultural management. We use 20 years of data from KBS LTER experiments to produce farm level CO2 and energy balances for different management practices. Our analyses include four grain and four perrenial systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically-based (organic) practices; (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa); (6) Poplar; and (7,8) Successionnal fields, both fertilized and unfertilized. Measurements include fluxes of N2O and CH4, soil organic carbon change, agricultural yields, and agricultural inputs (e.g. fertilization and farm fuel use). Our results indicate that management decisions such as tillage and plant types have a great influence on the net carbon and energy balances and benefits of cellulosic biofuels production. Specifically, we show that cellulosic biofuels produced from an early successional, minimally managed system have a net C sequestration (i.e., negative C balance) of -841±46 gCO2e m-2 yr-1 vs. -594±93 gCO2e m-2 yr-1 for more productive and management intensive alfalfa, and vs. 232±157 gCO2e m-2 for poplar. The reference agricultural system (a conventionally tilled corn-soybean-wheat rotation) has net sequestration of -149±33 g CO2e m-2 yr-1. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha-1 for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha-1 for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha-1 and the low-chemical input system

  12. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  13. Simulated Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance of Western US Forests Under Contemporary Climate and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Law, B. E.; Jones, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Previous projections of the contemporary forest carbon balance in the western US showed uncertainties associated with impacts of climate extremes and a coarse spatio-temporal resolution implemented over heterogeneous mountain regions. We modified the Community Land Model (CLM) 4.5 to produce 4km resolution forest carbon changes with drought, fire and management in the western US. We parameterized the model with species data using local plant trait observations for 30 species. To quantify uncertainty, we evaluated the model with data from flux sites, inventories and ancillary data in the region. Simulated GPP was lower than the measurements at our AmeriFlux sites by 17-22%. Simulated burned area was generally higher than Landsat observations, suggesting the model overestimates fire emissions with the new fire model. Landsat MTBS data show high severity fire represents only a small portion of the total burnt area (12-14%), and no increasing trend from 1984 to 2011. Moderate severity fire increased ~0.23%/year due to fires in the Sierra Nevada (Law & Waring 2014). Oregon, California, and Washington were a net carbon sink, and net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) declined in California over the past 15 years, partly due to drought impacts. Fire emissions were a small portion of the regional carbon budget compared with the effect of harvest removals. Fossil fuel emissions in CA are more than 3x that of OR and WA combined, but are lower per capita. We also identified forest regions that are most vulnerable to climate-driven transformations and to evaluate the effects of management strategies on forest NECB. Differences in forest NECB among states are strongly influenced by the extent of drought (drier longer in the SW) and management intensity (higher in the PNW).

  14. Leaf day respiration: low CO2 flux but high significance for metabolism and carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Gauthier, Paul; Buckley, Thomas N; Busch, Florian A; Barbour, Margaret M; Bruhn, Dan; Heskel, Mary A; Gong, Xiao Ying; Crous, Kristine Y; Griffin, Kevin; Way, Danielle; Turnbull, Matthew; Adams, Mark A; Atkin, Owen K; Farquhar, Graham D; Cornic, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    Contents 986 I. 987 II. 987 III. 988 IV. 991 V. 992 VI. 995 VII. 997 VIII. 998 References 998 SUMMARY: It has been 75 yr since leaf respiratory metabolism in the light (day respiration) was identified as a low-flux metabolic pathway that accompanies photosynthesis. In principle, it provides carbon backbones for nitrogen assimilation and evolves CO2 and thus impacts on plant carbon and nitrogen balances. However, for a long time, uncertainties have remained as to whether techniques used to measure day respiratory efflux were valid and whether day respiration responded to environmental gaseous conditions. In the past few years, significant advances have been made using carbon isotopes, 'omics' analyses and surveys of respiration rates in mesocosms or ecosystems. There is substantial evidence that day respiration should be viewed as a highly dynamic metabolic pathway that interacts with photosynthesis and photorespiration and responds to atmospheric CO2 mole fraction. The view of leaf day respiration as a constant and/or negligible parameter of net carbon exchange is now outdated and it should now be regarded as a central actor of plant carbon-use efficiency. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Water shortage affects the water and nitrogen balance in Central European beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, A; Keitel, C; Nahm, M; Rennenberg, H

    2004-05-01

    Whilst forest policy promotes cultivation and regeneration of beech dominated forest ecosystems, beech itself is a highly drought sensitive tree species likely to suffer from the climatic conditions prognosticated for the current century. Taking advantage of model ecosystems with cool-moist and warm-dry local climate, the latter assumed to be representative for future climatic conditions, the effects of climate and silvicultural treatment (different thinning regimes) on water status, nitrogen balance and growth parameters of adult beech trees and beech regeneration in the understorey were assessed. In addition, validation experiments with beech seedlings were carried out under controlled conditions, mainly in order to assess the effect of drought on the competitive abilities of beech. As measures of water availability xylem flow, shoot water potential, stomatal conductance as well as delta (13)C and delta (18)O in different tissues (leaves, phloem, wood) were analysed. For the assessment of nitrogen balance we determined the uptake of inorganic nitrogen by the roots as well as total N content and soluble N compounds in different tissues of adult and young trees. Retrospective and current analysis of delta (13)C, growth and meteorological parameters revealed that beech growing under warm-dry climatic conditions were impaired in growth and water balance during periods with low rain-fall. Thinning affected water, N balance and growth mostly of young beech, but in a different way under different local climatic conditions. Under cool, moist conditions, representative for the current climatic and edaphic conditions in beech forests of Central Europe, thinning improves nutrient and water status consistent to published literature and long-term experience of forest practitioners. However, beech regeneration was impaired as a result of thinning at higher temperatures and under reduced water availability, as expected in future climate.

  16. Carbon mass-balance modeling and carbon isotope exchange processes in the Curonian Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Žilius, Mindaugas; Ertürk, Ali; Petkuvienė, Jolita

    2016-04-01

    The Curonian lagoon one of the largest coastal lagoons in Europe is located in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea and lies along the Baltic coast of Lithuania and the Kaliningrad region of Russia. It is influenced by a discharge of the Nemunas and other smaller rivers and saline water of the Baltic Sea. The narrow (width 0.4 km, deep 8-14 m) Klaipėda Strait is the only way for fresh water run-off and brackish water intrusions. This research is focused on carbon isotope fractionations related with air - water exchange, primary production and organic carbon sedimentation, mineralization and uptake from both marine and terrestrial sources.

  17. The ecological stoichiometry of toxins produced by harmful cyanobacteria: an experimental test of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; Lürling, M.; Van Donk, E.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2009-01-01

    The elemental composition of primary producers reflects the availability of light, carbon and nutrients in their environment. According to the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis, this has implications for the production of secondary metabolites. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a family of

  18. The ecological stoichiometry of toxins produced by harmful cyanobacteria: An experimental test of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Waal, D.B.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; Lürling, M.; van Donk, E.; Visser, P.M.; Huisman, J.

    2009-01-01

    The elemental composition of primary producers reflects the availability of light, carbon and nutrients in their environment. According to the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis, this has implications for the production of secondary metabolites. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a family of

  19. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar

  20. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  1. 10Be/9Be Evidence For Stable Quaternary Weathering Fluxes and Carbon Cycle Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Blanckenburg, F.; Bouchez, J.; Ibarra, D. E.; Maher, K.

    2016-12-01

    Removal of atmospheric CO2 by silicate weathering is thought to have balanced the inputs of carbon to within 2% of net CO2 degassing when averaged over the last 600 kyr [1]. Small imbalances, of 0.0-0.5%/Myr (relative to modern inputs) are also thought to characterize the Cenozoic carbon cycle [2]. However, due to the lack of proxies that directly quantify past weathering fluxes, our ability to test these hypotheses has been limited. Moreover, we do not know whether imbalances between CO2 outgassing and withdrawal have prevailed within Quaternary glacial-interglacial oscillations [1]. Relative changes in silicate weathering fluxes can be estimated from the ratio of cosmogenic beryllium-10, produced in the atmosphere, to the stable isotope beryllium-9, introduced into the oceans by the riverine silicate weathering flux. The ratio is preserved by the authigenic phase of well-dated marine sedimentary records [3]. We show that over multiple glacial-interglacial cycles, shifts in global silicate weathering inputs are not detectable beyond the ca. 10% resolution of the proxy, even in areas close to glacial erosion [4]. Hence it is likely that CO2 fluxes were also balanced within a given glacial cycle [1]. Well-dated records also indicate that over the last 2 Myr weathering inputs were constant on average. Because over >10kyr time scales the 10Be/9Be dates the weathering front advance rates, the ratio provides evidence that global weathering rates did not shift during the last 10 Myr [5]. Collectively, the 10Be/9Be supports stable weathering fluxes, and assuming relatively constant degassing rates, balanced CO2 fluxes over these multiple time scales. [1] Zeebe, R.E. and Caldeira, K., 2008. Close mass balance of long-term carbon fluxes from ice-core CO2 and ocean chemistry records. Nat. Geosc., 1. [2] Caves, J.K., et al.., 2016. Cenozoic carbon cycle imbalances and a variable weathering feedback. EPSL, 450. [3] von Blanckenburg, F. and Bouchez, J., 2014. River fluxes to

  2. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    Rewetting of drained peatlands has been recommended to reduce CO2 emissions and to restore the carbon sink function of peatlands. Recently, the combination of rewetting and biomass production (paludiculture) has gained interest as a possible land use option in peatlands for obtaining such benefits...... of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  3. The carbon balance in natural and disturbed forests of the southern taiga in central Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrova, E.F.; Shugalei, L.S.; Stakanov, V.D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kasnoyarsk (Russian Federation) V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest and Wood

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the balance of production and decomposition in natural ecosystems of Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Betula pendula in the southern boreal forests of central Siberia, using the Yenisei transect. We also investigated whether anthropogenic disturbances (logging, fire and recreation pressure) influence the carbon budget. Pinus and Larix stands up to age class VI act as a net sink for atmospheric carbon. Mineralization rates in young Betula forests exceed rates of uptake via photosynthesis assimilation. Old-growth stands of all three forest types are CO{sub 2} sources to the atmosphere. The prevalence of old-growth Larix in the southern taiga suggests that Larix stands are a net source of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere exceeds the uptake of atmospheric carbon via photosynthesis by 0.23 t C/ha/yr (47%). Betula and Pinus forests are net sinks, as photosynthesis exceeds respiration by 13% and 16% respectively. The total carbon flux from Pinus, Larix and Betula ecosystems to the atmosphere is 10,387 thousand tons C/yr. Net Primary Production (0.935 t-C/ha) exceeds carbon release from decomposition of labile and mobile soil organic matter (Rh) by 767 thousand tons C (0.064 t-C/ha), so that these forests are net C-sinks. The emissions due to decomposition of slash (101 thousand tons C; 1.0%) and from fires (0.21%) are very small. The carbon balance of human-disturbed forests is significantly different. A sharp decrease in biomass stored in Pinus and Betula ecosystems leads to decreased production. As a result, the labile organic matter pool decreased by 6-8 times; course plant residues with a low decomposition rate thus dominate this pool. Annual carbon emissions to the atmosphere from these ecosystems are determined primarily by decomposing fresh litterfall. This source comprises 40-79% of the emissions from disturbed forests compared to only 13-28% in undisturbed forests. The ratio of emissions to production (NPP) is 20-30% in disturbed

  4. The European Union balancing between CO{sub 2} reduction commitments and growth policies: decomposition analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivo-oja, Jari; Luukkanen, Jyrki E-mail: jyrki.luukkanen@tukkk.fi

    2004-09-01

    This article is an empirical study of the whole energy system development in the European Union. The analysis covers the years 1960-1998. The decomposition analysis of energy and CO{sub 2} intensities of the different EU countries and Norway reveal large differences between the individual countries. The reasons for the differences in energy intensity changes are explained by the structural changes of the economies. The changes in CO{sub 2} intensities are explained by the energy intensity changes and by the changes is fuel switching. The study verifies the conclusion that there are still big challenges in the harmonisation of energy and climate policy in the EU.

  5. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  6. Effects of simulated drought on the carbon balance of Everglades short-hydroperiod marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Sparkle L; Starr, Gregory; Staudhammer, Christina L; Ryan, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Hydrology drives the carbon balance of wetlands by controlling the uptake and release of CO2 and CH4 . Longer dry periods in between heavier precipitation events predicted for the Everglades region, may alter the stability of large carbon pools in this wetland's ecosystems. To determine the effects of drought on CO2 fluxes and CH4 emissions, we simulated changes in hydroperiod with three scenarios that differed in the onset rate of drought (gradual, intermediate, and rapid transition into drought) on 18 freshwater wetland monoliths collected from an Everglades short-hydroperiod marsh. Simulated drought, regardless of the onset rate, resulted in higher net CO2 losses net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the 22-week manipulation. Drought caused extensive vegetation dieback, increased ecosystem respiration (Reco ), and reduced carbon uptake gross ecosystem exchange (GEE). Photosynthetic potential measured by reflective indices (photochemical reflectance index, water index, normalized phaeophytinization index, and the normalized difference vegetation index) indicated that water stress limited GEE and inhibited Reco . As a result of drought-induced dieback, NEE did not offset methane production during periods of inundation. The average ratio of net CH4 to NEE over the study period was 0.06, surpassing the 100-year greenhouse warming compensation point for CH4 (0.04). Drought-induced diebacks of sawgrass (C3 ) led to the establishment of the invasive species torpedograss (C4 ) when water was resupplied. These changes in the structure and function indicate that freshwater marsh ecosystems can become a net source of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, even following an extended drought. Future changes in precipitation patterns and drought occurrence/duration can change the carbon storage capacity of freshwater marshes from sinks to sources of carbon to the atmosphere. Therefore, climate change will impact the carbon storage capacity of freshwater marshes by influencing water

  7. Global carbon - nitrogen - phosphorus cycle interactions: A key to solving the atmospheric CO2 balance problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. J.; Mellillo, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    If all biotic sinks of atmospheric CO2 reported were added a value of about 0.4 Gt C/yr would be found. For each category, a very high (non-conservative) estimate was used. This still does not provide a sufficient basis for achieving a balance between the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. The bulk of the discrepancy lies in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in the net biotic release and ocean uptake segments, but smaller errors or biases may exist in calculations of the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase and total fossil fuel use as well. The reason why biotic sinks are not capable of balancing the CO2 increase via nutrient-matching in the short-term is apparent from a comparison of the stoichiometry of the sources and sinks. The burning of fossil fuels and forest biomass releases much more CO2-carbon than is sequestered as organic carbon.

  8. The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in European forests and forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Wim; Reinds, Gert Jan; Gundersen, Per

    2006-01-01

    yr(-1)) as the C sequestration in the soil (0.023 Gton yr(-1)). The European average impact of an additional N input on the net C sequestration was estimated at approximately 25 kg C kg(-1) N for both tree wood and soil. The contribution of an average additional N deposition on European forests of 2...... in Central Europe and low in Northern and Southern Europe. The result of this study implies that the impact of forest management on tree growth is most important in explaining the C pool changes in European forests.......An estimate of net carbon (C) pool changes and long-term C sequestration in trees and soils was made at more than 100 intensively monitored forest plots (level II plots) and scaled up to Europe based on data for more than 6000 forested plots in a systematic 16 km x 16 km grid (level I plots). C...

  9. The European Union balancing between CO{sub 2} reduction commitments and growth policies: decomposition analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jari Kaivo-oja; Jyrki Luukkanen [Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku (Finland)

    2004-09-01

    This article is an empirical study of the whole energy system development in the European Union covering the years 1960-1998. The decomposition analysis of energy and CO{sub 2} intensities of the different EU countries and Norway reveal large differences between the individual countries. The reasons for the differences in energy intensity changes are explained by the structural changes of the economies. The changes in CO{sub 2} intensities are explained by the energy intensity changes and by the changes in fuel switching. The study verifies the conclusion that there are still big challenges in the harmonisation of energy and climate policy in the EU. 28 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Increasing fire severity, alternate successional trajectories, and the carbon balance of Alaskan boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, M. C.; Alexander, H. D.; Jean, M.; Melvin, A. M.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Climate-sensitive disturbances, such as wildfire, can feed back positively to climate warming via the carbon (C) cycle if C released by disturbance is not replaced over post-fire succession. In boreal forests, burning of carbon in deep organic soils is not only an important determinate of ecosystem element balance over the disturbance cycle, but also sets the conditions that control plant recruitment, species dominance and successional trajectory. Species dominance, in turn, has the potential to exert strong control over the plant-soil-microbial feedbacks that determine C and nutrient coupling, C storage, and ultimately, replacement of combusted C. We examined the consequences of increasing fire severity for C balance and C and nitrogen (N) coupling in Alaskan boreal forests. We estimated combustion losses in 90 black spruce (conifer) stands that burned in 2004. Over the next decade, we followed natural tree seedling establishment in these stands and used seedling species dominance identify conifer versus deciduous successional trajectories. We assembled data from 120 stands that varied in time after fire and successional trajectory, and estimated C and N dynamics across 150 years of post-fire succession for each trajectory. Conifer stands that burned with high severity transitioned to deciduous tree dominance after fire. These stands had smaller ecosystem pools of C and N before fire, lost a larger proportion of these pools during the fire, and began succession with smaller residual pools than stands that returned to conifer dominance after fire. Over secondary succession, deciduous stands accumulated about 10 times more carbon in aboveground biomass than conifer stands. Belowground biomass and soil carbon accumulation, by contrast, was about three times higher in the black spruce stands than in deciduous stands. As a result, net ecosystem C accumulation over the 100 year inter-fire interval was three times higher in deciduous stands than in coniferous stands

  11. Solar Power in the European Context: Conversion Efficiency and the Issue of Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva Pacini Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is committed to increasing the use of renewable energies across Europe. One of the ways this is to be done is through the promotion of solar photovoltaics (PV, a method with significant environmental benefits. However, the high costs of electricity generated through PV have constrained the market reach of this option. This paper takes the form of a policy discussion, analyzing the fundamental issues concerning this type of energy, and its place in the European alternative energy market. Furthermore, a scenario is drafted to estimate how efficient solar panels should ideally be to make electricity produced by them cost-competitive with conventional, grid-tied energy sources. The study considers both a conventional scenario and another, with carbon capture costs incorporated into the final electricity prices. It is observed that in order to be competitive with conventional fossil-based electricity, photovoltaic conversion efficiencies should be around 34%. Incorporating carbon costs would further help promote solar PV, making it more price-attractive compared to emission-intensive electricity generation based on fossil fuels. The final part of the paper sheds light on the new developments on European PV, mainly in regards to the 2008 European Commission Climate Change Package, its implications and reactions from the industry.

  12. Carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Vassenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Croplands could have equal or even greater net ecosystem production than several natural ecosystems (Hollinger et al., 2004), so agriculture plays a substantial role in mitigation strategies for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In Central Russia, where agricultural soils carbon loses are 9 time higher than natural (forest's) soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in agroecosystems must be the central focus of the scientific efforts. Although the balance of the CO2 mostly attributed to management practices, limited information exists regarding the crop rotation overall as potential of C sequestration. In this study, we present data on carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region followed for 4 years by measuring CO2 fluxes by paired eddy covariance stations (EC). The study was conducted at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Two fields of the four-course rotation were studied in 2013-2016. Crop rotation included winter wheat (Triticum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) and cereal-legume mixture (Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.). Crops sowing occurred during the period from mid-April to mid-May depending on weather conditions. Winter wheat was sown in the very beginning of September and the next year it occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering. White mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure after harvesting winter wheat in mid of July. Barley was harvested in mid of August, potato crop was harvested in September. Cereal-legume mixture on herbage was collected depending on the weather from early July to mid-August. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the fields with winter wheat and white

  13. The response of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the ecosystem carbon balance to experimental drought in a temperate shrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, A.; Emmett, B.A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    emissions of C have been predicted to result in terrestrial ecosystems becoming a net source of C by 2050. Indeed, both forms of C loss have been linked to climate-related changes, such as warming and/or changes in precipitation. In our field-based drought manipulation experiment on an upland moorland...... drainage of water from the drought-treated soils resulted in an overall decrease of 9% in total DOC export. Calculating the carbon (C) balance for the below-ground component of the ecosystem reveals that DOC represents 3% of gross C export. Previous studies at the site have demonstrated large increases....... The repeated drought treatment has thus resulted in the ecosystem switching from a net sink for C into a net source....

  14. Biogas production, sludge accumulation and mass balance of carbon in anaerobic ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, B; Paing, J; Sambuco, J P; Costa, R H R; Rambaud, A

    2003-01-01

    This work concerned the application of anaerobic ponds for the primary treatment of urban wastewater in a Mediterranean climate. It was carried out on anaerobic ponds at large scale in Mèze (France). The anaerobic ponds constitute a good primary treatment with the removal of 55% of SS and 30% of BOD5, with a small surface area. The accumulation rate of sludge was only 0.017 m3/capita.year, due to their intensive anaerobic degradation. The anaerobic digestion reached equilibrium after one year of operation. The accumulation of sludge then showed seasonal variations with a substantial accumulation in winter and the digestion of the stock in summer. This change can be related to the influence of the temperature on methanogenesis. The production of biogas (83% CH4) was measured by gas collectors especially developed for this study and was also strongly dependent on temperature. The mass balance of carbon showed that 74% of the removed organic carbon was converted into CH4, 13% into dissolved inorganic carbon and 15% was stored in sludge. However, the anaerobic ponds presented a risk of creating odor nuisances with the emission of H2S.

  15. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  16. The Copper Balance of Cities: Exploratory Insights into a European and an Asian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-05-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available.

  17. Soil carbon and belowground carbon balance of a short-rotation coppice: assessments from three different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhongaray, Gonzalo; Verlinden, Melanie S; Broeckx, Laura S; Janssens, Ivan A; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-02-01

    Uncertainty in soil carbon (C) fluxes across different land-use transitions is an issue that needs to be addressed for the further deployment of perennial bioenergy crops. A large-scale short-rotation coppice (SRC) site with poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) was established to examine the land-use transitions of arable and pasture to bioenergy. Soil C pools, output fluxes of soil CO 2, CH 4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile organic compounds, as well as input fluxes from litter fall and from roots, were measured over a 4-year period, along with environmental parameters. Three approaches were used to estimate changes in the soil C. The largest C pool in the soil was the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and increased after four years of SRC from 10.9 to 13.9 kg C m-2. The belowground woody biomass (coarse roots) represented the second largest C pool, followed by the fine roots (Fr). The annual leaf fall represented the largest C input to the soil, followed by weeds and Fr. After the first harvest, we observed a very large C input into the soil from high Fr mortality. The weed inputs decreased as trees grew older and bigger. Soil respiration averaged 568.9 g C m-2 yr-1. Leaching of DOC increased over the three years from 7.9 to 14.5 g C m-2. The pool-based approach indicated an increase of 3360 g C m-2 in the SOC pool over the 4-year period, which was high when compared with the -27 g C m-2 estimated by the flux-based approach and the -956 g C m-2 of the combined eddy-covariance + biometric approach. High uncertainties were associated to the pool-based approach. Our results suggest using the C flux approach for the assessment of the short-/medium-term SOC balance at our site, while SOC pool changes can only be used for long-term C balance assessments.

  18. Using Carbon flux network data to investigate the impact of new European greening rules on carbon budgets - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marius; Graf, Alexander; Carsten, Montzka; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    In 2015 the European Commission introduced new greening payments as part of their common agricultural practices to address environmental and sustainability issues. The payment is worth about 30% of the total subsidies for European farmers. Sowing nitrogen fixing catch/cover crops in the off season (generally in fall and winter) is one way to achieve the prerequisite for the greening payments. Therefore it is expected that the proportion of catch/cover crops will increase from 2015 onwards at the expense of bare soil fields. In particular, with regard to more frequently occurring mild weather conditions during fall and winter, we assume that the extensive shift to catch/cover crops will have a significant impact on the carbon cycle of agricultural areas. In this study we aim to evaluate this change in agricultural practice on local and regional CO2 fluxes and carbon budgets of the intensively used northern Rur catchment in Germany. In a preliminary study, we observed the daily courses of net CO2 flux and soil respiration of three different catch/cover crops: greening mix, oil radish, and white mustard (Sinapis alba), by means of a net flux chamber and a soil respiration chamber and compared them against Eddy covariance flux data from fields cultivated with (i) winter barley (Hordeum vulgare), and (ii) without vegetation. In the main study, we compare multi-year measurements of carbon fluxes from a regional network of Eddy Covariance sites, partly included in larger networks like Fluxnet, European Fluxes Database Cluster or ICOS. We especially used site data where comparisons of catch crop seasons and conventional seasons between different sites or years were possible. To allow an assessment of the change in carbon fluxes and budgets on regional scale, a land use comparison based on satellite images for the years 2014 to 2016 was applied. With these results, a first regional evaluation of the impact of the new greening policies on carbon fluxes and budgets for the

  19. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Engström

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate–economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model. We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs. Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road. For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  1. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  2. Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical tree species differing in successional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, G M; Ribeiro, R V; Sato, A M; Oliveira, M S

    2008-11-01

    This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae) and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi) of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi) was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season) under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season), showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality.

  3. Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical tree species differing in successional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Souza

    Full Text Available This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season, showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality.

  4. [Effects of eutrophic nitrogen nutrition on carbon balance capacity of Liquidambar formosana seedlings under low light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan-Hua; Li, Jun-Qing; Yang, Ying

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the seedlings regeneration of Liquidambar formosana, a greenhouse experiment was conducted, in which, the low light- and nitrogen supplies were controlled similar to those in typical L. formosana secondary forests, with the effects of different light- and nitrogen supply on the L. formosana seedlings survival, leaf functional traits, biomass allocation, and gas exchange studied. The whole plant light compensation point (LCP(whoIe-plant)) of the seedlings was estimated with a whole plant carbon balance model, and then compared with the understory photosynthetic active radiance (PAR) of the typical secondary forests. Under 3.0% and 6.0% of full sunlight, eutrophic nitrogen supply led to a decrease of seedlings survival (shade tolerance) and specific leaf area (SLA), but had no obvious effects on the seedlings biomass allocation. At eutrophic nitrogen supply, light intensity had significant effects on the leaf area based maximum assimilation rate, whereas increasing nitrogen supply under low light induced the increase of leaf mass based dark respiration rate. Both light intensity and nitrogen supply had significant effects on the mass based leaf respiration rate, and the interaction of light and nitrogen had significant effects on the mass based stem respiration rate. Increasing nitrogen supply increased the LCP(wholeplant), under 3.0%, 6.0%, and 12.0% of full sunlight, but decreased the LCP(whoIe-plant) under 25.0% of full sunlight. The decrease of the seedlings shade tolerance induced by the increasing nitrogen supply under low light was correlated with the variations of the seedlings carbon balance capacity. Under the background of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the maintenance of L. formosana populations in China would more depend on disturbances and gap regeneration, and the population dynamics would be deeply affected.

  5. Carbon balance modification in Sphagnum-dominated peat mesocosms invaded by Molinia caerulea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Fabien; Gogo, Sébastien; Guimbaud, Christophe; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    Plant communities have a key role in regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in peatland ecosystems and thus on their capacity to act as carbon (C) sink. However, in response to global change, boreal and temperate peatlands may shift from Sphagnum to vascular plant-dominated peatlands that may alter their C-sink function. We set up a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the main GHG fluxes (CO2 and CH4) are affected by plant community modification from Sphagnum mosses to Molinia caerulea dominance. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and CH4 emissions models were used to compare the C balance and global warming potential under both vegetation cover. While the annual CO2 and CH4 emissions modeling estimated an output of respectively 652 and 18 gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum mesocosms, it represented a release of 1473 and 50 gC m-2 y-1 with Molinia caerulea occurrence. Annual modeled GPP was respectively -495 and -1968 gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum and Molinia mesocosms leading to a net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of 175 g gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum mesocosms (i.e., a C-source) and of -445 gC m-2 y-1 for Molinia ones (i.e., a C-sink). Even if CH4 emission accounted for a small part of the gaseous C efflux ( 3%), its global warming potential value to get CO2 equivalent makes both plant communities acting as a warming climate effect. The vegetation shift from Sphagnum mosses to Molinia caerulea seems beneficial for C sequestration regarding the gaseous pool. However, roots and litters of Molinia caerulea could further provide substrates for C emissions and dissolved organic C release.

  6. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity.

  7. Modelling impacts of changes in carbon dioxide concentration, climate and nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration by European forests and forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Wieggers, H.J.J.; Reinds, G.J.; Kros, J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Oijen, van M.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the Earth's atmosphere are expected to influence the growth, and therefore, carbon accumulation of European forests. We identify three major changes: (1) a rise in carbon dioxide concentration, (2) climate change, resulting in higher temperatures and changes in precipitation and (3) a

  8. Balance between carbon gain and loss under long-term drought: impacts on foliar respiration and photosynthesis in Quercus ilex L

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon exchange is a key process of the global carbon cycle consisting of a delicate balance between photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release. We have, however, a limited understanding how long-term decreases in precipitation induced by climate change affect the boundaries and mechanisms of photosynthesis and respiration. We examined the seasonality of photosynthetic and respiratory traits and evaluated the adaptive mechanism of the foliar carbon balance of Quercus ile...

  9. Assessing NEE and Carbon Dynamics Among European Forestecosystems: Development and Validation of a New Phenology and Soil Carbon Routines within the Process Oriented 3D-Cmcc-Forest-Ecosystem Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, S.; Collalti, A.; Santini, M.; Valentini, R.

    2014-12-01

    The two main processes involved in forest ecosystems carbon balance are photosynthesis and respiration. Ecosystem respiration is determined by heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration, the former driven by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), the latter by growth and maintenance of plant tissues. Thus it is extremely important to reliably quantify ecosystem respiration in order to estimate the global carbon budget of a forest ecosystem, namely the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE). For the very same reason we have improved the 6.1 version of the 3D-CMCC-Forest Ecosystem Model (3D-CMCC-FEM) with both a multilayer soil Carbon dynamics routine and several modifications in phenology and littering. Bud burst phenology has been improved with a new "Nonstructural Carbon injection function" representing the quantity of Carbon destined to new leaves and fineroots growth; fall phenology has been improved with a novel physical driven logistic function to simulate leaf falling. Soil carbon dynamics throughout the Residues, Microbial and Humads pools follow a zero order kinetics equation, representing microbial decomposition activity. The sum of CO2 oxidized at each decomposition step form Heterotrophic respiration.The present work focuses on the presentation of the 6.1 version of the 3D-CMCC-FEM and its validation against six FLUXNET sites representing a transect throughout the main European forest Ecosystems. The validation on about 10 years of simulation involved NEE, GPP and Reco: - Seasonal trends; - Daily, monthly and annual fluxes; - Interannual anomalies (annual and MJJ).

  10. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  11. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness changes carbon and water balance of temperate deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Katata, Genki; Deushi, Makoto; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Paoletti, Elena

    2015-05-06

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have increased by 60-100% in the Northern Hemisphere since the 19(th) century. The phytotoxic nature of ozone can impair forest productivity. In addition, ozone affects stomatal functions, by both favoring stomatal closure and impairing stomatal control. Ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness, i.e., a delay in stomatal responses to fluctuating stimuli, has the potential to change the carbon and water balance of forests. This effect has to be included in models for ozone risk assessment. Here we examine the effects of ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness on carbon assimilation and transpiration of temperate deciduous forests in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2009 by combining a detailed multi-layer land surface model and a global atmospheric chemistry model. An analysis of results by ozone FACE (Free-Air Controlled Exposure) experiments suggested that ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness can be incorporated into modelling based on a simple parameter (gmin, minimum stomatal conductance) which is used in the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal model. Our simulation showed that ozone can decrease water use efficiency, i.e., the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to transpiration, of temperate deciduous forests up to 20% when ozone-induced stomatal sluggishness is considered, and up to only 5% when the stomatal sluggishness is neglected.

  12. Use of Raman spectroscopy to identify carbon nanotube contamination at an analytical balance workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Elizabeth I; Huang, An; Tusa, Carolyn A; Yukica, Michael A; Pantano, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical molecules of carbon with diverse commercial applications. CNTs are also lightweight, easily airborne, and have been shown to be released during various phases of production and use. Therefore, as global CNT production increases, so do concerns that CNTs could pose a safety threat to those who are exposed to them. This makes it imperative to fully understand CNT release scenarios to make accurate risk assessments and to implement effective control measures. However, the current suite of direct-reading and off-line instrumentation used to monitor the release of CNTs in workplaces lack high chemical specificity, which complicates risk assessments when the sampling and/or measurements are performed at a single site where multiple CNT types are handled in the presence of naturally occurring background particles, or dust. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of Raman spectroscopy to unequivocally identify whether particulate matter collected from a multi-user analytical balance workstation comprised CNTs, as well as, whether the contamination included CNTs that were synthesized by a Ni/Y-catalyzed electric-arc method or a Co/Mo-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method. Identifying the exact CNT type generated a more accurate risk assessment by knowing the metallic impurities involved, and it also led to the identification of the users who handled these CNTs, a review of their handling techniques, and an improved protocol for safely weighing CNTs.

  13. THE EAP: A FAILURE OF THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY OR SHARING A POWER BALANCE IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona TATIASHVILI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses achievements and challenges of the EaP in the prism of EU-Russia asymmetric energy interdependence, as the major factor affecting the successful implementation of the Eastern partnership. To identify whether energy interdependence is the main sphere of interest in the EaP neighbourhood, where EU-Russia common interests intersect in one point or is it a sharing a power balance in “common neighbourhood”?. The research paper reviews major policy documents of the ENP/EaP, in order to analyze to what extent is policy coherent/incoherent towards partner countries. Moreover, the paper evaluates the European neighbourhood external policy instruments (the ENP/EaP from the perspective of three prioritised countries of the Eastern partnership: Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine, including the analysis of the effectiveness of proposed incentives under the ENP/EaP, as sufficient instruments for successful implementation of the Eastern partnership, in the presence of unpredictable external veto player.

  14. European social model and challenges of globalization: searching the ways of balancing of the needs of the economy and societ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Topishko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of the fundamental models of social policy in the EU and social procection system as one of its mechanisms has been characterized. The changes in the division of responsibility between the subjects of social partnership in providing social protection is analyzed. Special attention paid to the increasing socio-economic contradictions in terms of global transformations and social orientation of stabilization measures by governments. The principles on which reform is carried taxation and social welfare systems is observed. It is also described the change in the tax system in terms of finding ways to fiscal consolidation, including the measures of increasing rate of progressivity of the tax system and fiscal role of indirect taxes, broadening the tax base, increase the tax burden on passive income. Approaches to adopt the European model of social protection to globalization and the rise of the economic crisis has been investigated. The ways to achieve a balance between the social functions of the state and the level of financial supportis outlined.

  15. Multi-year net ecosystem carbon balance at a horticulture-extracted restored peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Kelly; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    small source of CO2, NEE in the Typha plots showed significantly greater CO2 uptake capacity relative to any other restored plant community. High productivity combined with reduced CH4 flux suggests that Typha may be playing a key role in reducing the overall impact of the remnant ditches on the net ecosystem carbon balance. A preliminary footprint analysis suggests that ecosystem-level CH4 flux is being primarily driven by release from hotspots while the majority of the tower source area is a very small source of methane.

  16. Mapping and Measuring European Local Governments’ Priorities for a Sustainable and Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Grafakos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to assess the priorities of local governments (LGs in Europe regarding climate change mitigation technologies evaluation in the electricity sector and to provide important insights for energy policy design. The study applies a hybrid weighting methodology to elicit LGs’ preferences in a constructive and iterative way regarding the evaluation criteria of low-carbon energy technologies. Furthermore, the study employs three data collection and preference elicitation methods, namely: survey, workshop, and webinar. The study was conducted across thirty one (31 European LGs that were categorized according to three variables: population size, geographical region and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. The analysis shows that “CO2 emissions” is the most important criterion among European LGs, followed by “mortality and morbidity” and “ecosystem damages”. The results illustrate the potential synergies of climate and energy policies for addressing both CO2 emissions and air pollution. It was also found, based on a correlation analysis, that LGs with higher GDP per capita tend to provide higher weights to criteria related to security of energy supply and technological innovation. The current study provides insights on the actual LGs’ priorities that are important to consider during low-carbon energy technologies evaluation and energy policy design. Interestingly, the results of the European LGs’ preferences clearly show that the EU climate policy objectives have reached different levels of governance—and at this particular case, the local level. Furthermore, the developed methodology could be applied at different geographical regions to map other regions’ LG priorities, but also at a group decision making context to elicit relevant stakeholders’ preferences regarding low-carbon energy technologies and policy objectives.

  17. Understanding the spatial distribution of factors controlling topsoil organic carbon content in European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, M; Martínez Cortizas, A; Rodríguez-Lado, L

    2017-12-31

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon pool. The understanding of its dynamics and the environmental factors that influence its behaviour as sink or source of atmospheric CO2 is crucial to quantify the carbon budget at the global scale. At the European scale, most of the existing studies to account for SOC stocks are centred in the fitting of predictive model to ascertain the distribution of SOC. However, the development of methodologies for monitoring and identifying the environmental factors that control SOC storage in Europe remains a key research challenge. Here we present a modelling procedure for mapping and monitoring SOC contents that uses Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) spectroscopic measurements and a series of environmental covariates to ascertain the key environmental processes that have a major contribution into SOC sequestration processes. Our results show that it follows a geographically non-stationary process in which the influencing environmental factors have different weights depending on the spatial location. This implies that SOC stock modelling should not rely on a single model but on a combination of different statistical models depending on the environmental characteristics of each area. A cluster classification of European soils in relation to those factors resulted in the determination of four groups for which specific models have been obtained. Differences in climate, soil pH, content of coarse fragments or land cover type are the main factors explaining the differences in SOC in topsoil from Europe. We found that climatic conditions are the main driver of SOC storage at the continental scale, but we also found that parameters like land cover type influence SOC content found at the local scales in certain areas. Our methodology developed at continental scale could be used in future research aimed to improve the predictive performance of SOC assessments at European scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Soil Organic Carbon Losses: The Balance between Respiration and Leaching, and Phosphorus Mobility in Lateritic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadly Hairannoor Yusran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter (OM application may contribute to managing lateritic soils by improving aspects of physical, chemical, and biological fertility. However, the finite persistence of organic carbon (OC, the main component of soil organic matter (SOM, may limit the usefulness of OM addition because decomposition and C leaching promotes C loss from the soil, especially in tropical regions. The main objectives of this study were to determine the balance and dynamics of soil OC (SOC due to mineralisation and leaching processes and the relationship of these processes to P mobility in soil. Two lateritic soils of Western Australia were used. Both soils were packed into plastic columns and water was added to simulate two rainfall regimes: tropical (4,000 mm year 1 and subtropical (900 mm year 1. Three types of OM (peat, wheat straw, and lucerne hay were added at the equivalent of 80Mg ha 1. Soils were watered weekly to supply one year’s rainfall over a period of six months. Carbon loss from leaching contributed 1.4% of the total C, whilst respiration accounted for 10.4%. The Ultisol with a sandy texture had more C loss in leachate than the Oxisol with higher clay content, for the simulated tropical rainfall. The subtropical rainfall regime resulted in more respiration than the tropical rainfall regime. Downward movement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC changed the distribution of non-extractable phosphorus (NP and bicarbonate phosphorus (BP in the leaching column, as well as the dislocation of extractable Al and Fe.

  19. Adaptation of maize source leaf metabolism to stress related disturbances in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Urte; Colmsee, Christian; Scholz, Uwe; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M; Zellerhoff, Nina; Bucher, Marcel; Fahnenstich, Holger; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2013-07-03

    Abiotic stress causes disturbances in the cellular homeostasis. Re-adjustment of balance in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism therefore plays a central role in stress adaptation. However, it is currently unknown which parts of the primary cell metabolism follow common patterns under different stress conditions and which represent specific responses. To address these questions, changes in transcriptome, metabolome and ionome were analyzed in maize source leaves from plants suffering low temperature, low nitrogen (N) and low phosphorus (P) stress. The selection of maize as study object provided data directly from an important crop species and the so far underexplored C4 metabolism. Growth retardation was comparable under all tested stress conditions. The only primary metabolic pathway responding similar to all stresses was nitrate assimilation, which was down-regulated. The largest group of commonly regulated transcripts followed the expression pattern: down under low temperature and low N, but up under low P. Several members of this transcript cluster could be connected to P metabolism and correlated negatively to different phosphate concentration in the leaf tissue. Accumulation of starch under low temperature and low N stress, but decrease in starch levels under low P conditions indicated that only low P treated leaves suffered carbon starvation. Maize employs very different strategies to manage N and P metabolism under stress. While nitrate assimilation was regulated depending on demand by growth processes, phosphate concentrations changed depending on availability, thus building up reserves under excess conditions. Carbon and energy metabolism of the C4 maize leaves were particularly sensitive to P starvation.

  20. Carbon footprints of organic dairying in six European countries—real farm data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietala, Sanna; Smith, Laurence; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2015-01-01

    and United Kingdom. A total of 34 farms were analysed. The assessment was carried out using an attributional approach with system boundaries from cradle to farm gate. In relation to dairy production, a functional unit of 1 kg of energy corrected milk was used. The results gave an average of 1.32 kg CO2......Dairy farming is the largest agricultural contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. In this study, the carbon footprint of organic dairying was evaluated by means of a life cycle assessment, based on real farm data from six European countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Italy...

  1. Results of monitoring large carbon fiber post-tensioning systems in a balanced Cantilever Brdige (Dintelharbour Bridge, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Kaptijn, N.; Hageman, J.G.; Kuilboer, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Steel post-tensioning systems and stay cables are susceptible to corrosion. Carbon fiber systems are not. However, there was no experience on the long term behavior of such post-tensioned elements. Four external tendons (75 m long), stressed to a load of 2650 kN, were applied in a large balanced

  2. Detecting the critical periods that underpin interannual fluctuations in the carbon balance of European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, Le G.; Delpierre, N.; Ciais, P.; Reichstein, M.; Moors, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The interannual variability of CO2 exchange by forest ecosystems in Europe was analyzed at site and regional scales by identifying critical periods that contributed to interannual flux anomalies. Critical periods were defined as periods in which monthly and annual flux anomalies were correlated. The

  3. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  4. Differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture drive the carbon balance across a climatic gradient in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; John P. Delong; Andrew M. Fox; Daniel A. Brese; Marcy E. Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of spatio-temporal...

  5. Costs of defense and a test of the carbon-nutrient balance and growth-differentiation balance hypotheses for two co-occurring classes of plant defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Joy Massad

    Full Text Available One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH. Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation. The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids and flavans (phenolics, in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae, an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions. Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH. Contrary to expectations based on the two

  6. Assessment of European Union transition scenarios with a special focus on the issue of carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alain [MEEDDAT - ASSESSECO (France); Vielle, Marc [Economics and Environmental Management Laboratory - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Toulouse School of Economics (LERNA) (France)

    2009-07-01

    This paper uses the model GEMINI-E3 to simulate and assess the transition scenario to 2020 framed by the European Union in its 'Energy-Climate' Directive, and it raises several issues in this connection. After a brief description of the model, the paper presents the results of the scenarios, mainly the values of the major indicators of carbon price - both in the ETS and in non-ETS sectors - and the welfare cost of the EU policy under the various configurations considered. While it is independent of the scenario in the ETS sector, in the non-ETS sector the value of carbon is very sensitive to the provisions of the Directive and in particular the option of resorting to the flexibility mechanisms. The welfare cost also varies significantly according to scenarios, and its value for the entire EU is more than double in the scenario closest to the Directive as compared to the least-cost one. The paper also addresses the very sensitive issue of carbon leakage and argues in favor of a new concept of ''net leakage.'' The analysis shows that while carbon leakage may affect some specific sectors, at the aggregate level it does not represent a real concern, with a magnitude of at most a few percent of GHG abatement by Annex B countries. (author)

  7. Greenhouse gas balance of mountain dairy farms as affected by grassland carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Sara; Corazzin, Mirco; Romanzin, Alberto; Bovolenta, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies on milk production have often focused on environmental impacts analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. In grassland-based livestock systems, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Nevertheless, there is no commonly shared methodology. In this work, the GHG emissions of small-scale mountain dairy farms were assessed using the LCA approach. Two functional units, kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) and Utilizable Agricultural Land (UAL), and two different emissions allocations methods, no allocation and physical allocation, which accounts for the co-product beef, were considered. Two groups of small-scale dairy farms were identified based on the Livestock Units (LU) reared: 30 LU (HLU). Before considering soil carbon sequestration in LCA, performing no allocation methods, LLU farms tended to have higher GHG emission than HLU farms per kg of FPCM (1.94 vs. 1.59 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.10), whereas the situation was reversed upon considering the m(2) of UAL as a functional unit (0.29 vs. 0.89 kg CO2-eq/m(2), P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, considering physical allocation, the difference between the two groups became less noticeable. When the contribution from soil carbon sequestration was included in the LCA and no allocation method was performed, LLU farms registered higher values of GHG emission per kg of FPCM than HLU farms (1.38 vs. 1.10 kg CO2-eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.05), and the situation was likewise reversed in this case upon considering the m(2) of UAL as a functional unit (0.22 vs. 0.73 kg CO2-eq/m(2), P ≤ 0.05). To highlight how the presence of grasslands is crucial for the carbon footprint of small-scale farms, this study also applied a simulation for increasing the forage self-sufficiency of farms to 100%. In this case, an average reduction of GHG emission per kg of FPCM of farms was estimated both with no allocation and with physical allocation, reaching 27

  8. Influence of the extreme weather events on carbon fluxes in southern European taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, J.; Shalukhina, N.; Tatarinov, F.; Varlagin, A.

    2009-04-01

    The question on an arrangement, scales and the factors determining ground sink of CO2 in a forest zone of Russia is opened and discussed. To estimate of global and regional fluxes of carbon for the different periods of time various methods and modeling calculations are used. For an experimental estimation of carbon fluxes for ecosystem level of averaging the eddy covariance method now is widely used. It allows continuously, all-the-year-round, with the high time sanction to register net ecosystem exchange (NEE), fluxes of a water and heat between forest and an atmosphere. Registration of meteorological parameters of an atmosphere is simultaneously carried out. It allows to find the dependence of deposition or issue of carbon on environmental factors. In territory of Russia the observation of carbon fluxes were begun within the framework of the international projects of EU in 1998. Now there is the eddy covariance complex in a southern European taiga, in territory Central Forest Reserve. The measurements are carried out in uneven-age spruce forest (Sphagnum-Vaccinium myrtillus ). The choice of object of supervision was caused by a wide circulation of similar types of forest in the European taiga. In general the 10-years period of measurements has captured a wide range of changes of climatic conditions. The years with extreme - droughty and damp vegetative seasons and also years approached to average climatic norms for this region were during the observations. The high daily, seasonal and annual variability of deposition and issue of carbon is characteristic for spruce forests. The results of measurements of NEE have shown that southern taiga can function during the vegetative period both as a source, and as a sink of carbon for an atmosphere. The cumulative fluxes of NEE for the period April - October depend first of all on temperature and precipitation in the spring period with temperature in a range 5-10C and from duration of this period, and for the period of

  9. European balancing act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, T.; Abbad, J.R.; Dudurych, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    , the organization of the electricity market as well as the conventional generation pool has a large influence on the needed forecast horizon. The forecast error depends on the number of wind turbines and wind farms and their geographical spread. In Germany, typical forecast errors for representative wind farm...

  10. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:404–416. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points The methodology and testing results of a new European Union-wide, farm-level carbon calculator are presented. The Carbon Calculator reports life cycle assessment-based greenhouse gas emissions at farm and product levels and recommends farm- specific mitigation actions. Based on the results obtained from testing the tool in 54

  11. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviours and parental education in European preschool children: the ToyBox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Berges, María L; Zachari, Konstantina; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Mouratidou, Theodora; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Galcheva, Sonya; De Craemer, Marieke; Cardon, Greet; Koletzko, Berthold; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) are established in childhood and seem to persist through to adulthood. A lower parental educational level was associated with unhealthy behavioural patterns. The aim of the study is to identify clusters of EBRB and examine their association with preschool children's BMI and maternal, paternal and parental education. A subsample of the ToyBox study (n 5387) conducted in six European countries was used. Six behavioural clusters ('healthy diet and low activity', 'active', 'healthy lifestyle', 'high water and screen time; low fruits and vegetables (F&V) and physical activity (PA)', 'unhealthy lifestyle' and 'high F&V consumers') emerged. The healthiest group characterised by high water and F&V consumption and high PA z scores ('healthy lifestyle') was more prevalent among preschool children with at least one medium- or higher-educated parent and showed markedly healthier trends for all the included EBRB. In the opposite, the 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster (characterised by high soft drinks and screen time z scores, and low water, F&V and PA z scores) was more prevalent among children with lower parental, paternal and maternal education levels. OR identified that children with lower maternal, paternal and parental education levels were less likely to be allocated in the 'healthy lifestyle' cluster and more likely to be allocated in the 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster. The 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster was more prevalent among children with parents in lower parental educational levels and children who were obese. Therefore, parental educational level is one of the key factors that should be considered when developing childhood obesity prevention interventions.

  12. The combined influence of the main European circulation patterns on carbon uptake by ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how natural climate variability affects carbon uptake by land and ocean pools is particularly relevant to better characterize human impact on the carbon cycle. Recently, we have contributed to assess the major role played by the El-Niño/Southern Oscillation in driving inter-annual variability (IAV) of carbon uptake by land ecosystems and significantly influencing global CO2 air-borne fraction [1]. Despite the prominent role played by ENSO, other important teleconnections on the hemispheric scale have deserved less attention. On the European scale, the main mode of variability is the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which controls storm tracks position and drives changes in temperature and precipitation over the whole region, affecting vegetation dynamics [2]. Besides NAO, a few additional large scale circulation patterns the Scandinavian (SC) and East-Atlantic (EA) Patterns, are also known to influence significantly the European climate [3]. Different combinations of these teleconnection polarities have been recently shown to modulate the overall role of the NAO impact location and strength, thus affecting winter temperature and precipitation patterns over Europe [4]. This work aims to answer the following questions: (i) how do NAO, EA and SC affect vegetation carbon uptake IAV? (ii) do the interactions between these three modes have a significant impact on land CO2 IAV? (iii) what is the contribution of the different physical variables to ecosystems' response to these modes? (iv) how well do the state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs) from CMIP5 represent these climate variability modes and the corresponding carbon fluxes? We first analyze observational data to assess the relationships between the different combinations of NAO, SC and EA polarities and IAV of gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP, respectively), as well as the most relevant driving factors of ecosystem's response to those variability patterns. Although the winter state

  13. Large difference in carbon emission – burial balances between boreal and arctic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, E J; Klaminder, J; Bastviken, D; Olid, C; Hansson, S V; Karlsson, J

    2015-09-15

    Lakes play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle by burying C in sediments and emitting CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. The strengths and control of these fundamentally different pathways are therefore of interest when assessing the continental C balance and its response to environmental change. In this study, based on new high-resolution estimates in combination with literature data, we show that annual emission:burial ratios are generally ten times higher in boreal compared to subarctic - arctic lakes. These results suggest major differences in lake C cycling between biomes, as lakes in warmer boreal regions emit more and store relatively less C than lakes in colder arctic regions. Such effects are of major importance for understanding climatic feedbacks on the continental C sink - source function at high latitudes. If predictions of global warming and northward expansion of the boreal biome are correct, it is likely that increasing C emissions from high latitude lakes will partly counteract the presumed increasing terrestrial C sink capacity at high latitudes.

  14. Sustainable conversion of agriculture wastes into activated carbons: energy balance and arsenic removal from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieme, M M; Villot, A; Gerente, C; Andres, Y; Diop, S N; Diawara, C K

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the production of activated carbons (AC) from Senegal agricultural wastes such as cashew shells, millet stalks and rice husks and to implement them in adsorption processes devoted to arsenic (V) removal. AC were produced by a direct physical activation with water steam without other chemicals. This production of AC has also led to co-products (gas and bio-oil) which have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and thermodynamical properties for energy recovery. Considering the arsenic adsorption results and the energy balance for the three studied biomasses, the first results have shown that the millet stalks seem to be more interesting for arsenate removal from natural water and an energy recovery with a GEE elec of 18.9%. Cashew shells, which have shown the best energy recovery (34.3%), are not suitable for arsenate removal. This global approach is original and contributes to a recycling of biowastes with a joint recovery of energy and material.

  15. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth.

  16. Effects of cryptogamic covers on the global carbon and nitrogen balance as investigated by different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bettina; Porada, Philipp; Elbert, Wolfgang; Burrows, Susannah; Caesar, Jennifer; Steinkamp, Jörg; Tamm, Alexandra; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Büdel, Burkhard; Kleidon, Axel; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    needed by the organisms to build up biomass. The predicted requirement for nitrogen ranges from 3.5 to 34 Tg a-1, again being in a reasonable range compared to the data analysis approach. In experimental field studies (3rd approach), we analyzed the net primary production of biological soil crusts, i.e. one major group of cryptogamic covers. The microclimatic conditions (water status, temperature, light intensity) of different types of biological soil crusts were monitored at 5-minute intervals over a whole year. Conducting a factorial analysis of CO2 gas exchange of the crusts in the lab, we obtained the net photosynthesis or respiration rate for all microclimatic conditions encountered in the field. The latter results were combined with the microclimate data, assigning CO2 gas exchange values to each microclimate measurement tuple. Integration over the year resulted in an annual carbon fixation of ~5 g m-2 a-1, being nearly identical to the numbers obtained during the data analysis approach. In summary, our three different approaches clearly revealed that cryptogamic covers have a considerable effect on the global terrestrial C and N cycle, which must not be neglected in global carbon and nitrogen balances.

  17. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (sorption data and technical information on the different experimental setups have been used to investigate errors and potential pitfalls in the assessment of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. References Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high

  18. A new baseline of organic carbon stock in European agricultural soils using a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Panagos, Panos; Bampa, Francesca; Jones, Arwyn; Montanarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Proposed European policy in the agricultural sector will place higher emphasis on soil organic carbon (SOC), both as an indicator of soil quality and as a means to offset CO2 emissions through soil carbon (C) sequestration. Despite detailed national SOC data sets in several European Union (EU) Member States, a consistent C stock estimation at EU scale remains problematic. Data are often not directly comparable, different methods have been used to obtain values (e.g. sampling, laboratory analysis) and access may be restricted. Therefore, any evolution of EU policies on C accounting and sequestration may be constrained by a lack of an accurate SOC estimation and the availability of tools to carry out scenario analysis, especially for agricultural soils. In this context, a comprehensive model platform was established at a pan-European scale (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) using the agro-ecosystem SOC model CENTURY. Almost 164 000 combinations of soil-climate-land use were computed, including the main arable crops, orchards and pasture. The model was implemented with the main management practices (e.g. irrigation, mineral and organic fertilization, tillage) derived from official statistics. The model results were tested against inventories from the European Environment and Observation Network (EIONET) and approximately 20 000 soil samples from the 2009 LUCAS survey, a monitoring project aiming at producing the first coherent, comprehensive and harmonized top-soil data set of the EU based on harmonized sampling and analytical methods. The CENTURY model estimation of the current 0-30 cm SOC stock of agricultural soils was 17.63 Gt; the model uncertainty estimation was below 36% in half of the NUTS2 regions considered. The model predicted an overall increase of this pool according to different climate-emission scenarios up to 2100, with C loss in the south and east of the area

  19. Greenhouse gases inventory and carbon balance of two dairy systems obtained from two methane-estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, C S; Lopes, N L; Veloso, C M; Jacovine, L A G; Tomich, T R; Pereira, L G R; Marcondes, M I

    2016-11-15

    The adoption of carbon inventories for dairy farms in tropical countries based on models developed from animals and diets of temperate climates is questionable. Thus, the objectives of this study were to estimate enteric methane (CH4) emissions through the SF6 tracer gas technique and through equations proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 and to calculate the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two dairy systems. In addition, the carbon balance of these properties was estimated using enteric CH4 emissions obtained using both methodologies. In trial 1, the CH4 emissions were estimated from seven Holstein dairy cattle categories based on the SF6 tracer gas technique and on IPCC equations. The categories used in the study were prepubertal heifers (n=6); pubertal heifers (n=4); pregnant heifers (n=5); high-producing (n=6); medium-producing (n=5); low-producing (n=4) and dry cows (n=5). Enteric methane emission was higher for the category comprising prepubertal heifers when estimated by the equations proposed by the IPCC Tier 2. However, higher CH4 emissions were estimated by the SF6 technique in the categories including medium- and high-producing cows and dry cows. Pubertal heifers, pregnant heifers, and low-producing cows had equal CH4 emissions as estimated by both methods. In trial 2, two dairy farms were monitored for one year to identify all activities that contributed in any way to GHG emissions. The total emission from Farm 1 was 3.21t CO2e/animal/yr, of which 1.63t corresponded to enteric CH4. Farm 2 emitted 3.18t CO2e/animal/yr, with 1.70t of enteric CH4. IPCC estimations can underestimate CH4 emissions from some categories while overestimate others. However, considering the whole property, these discrepancies are offset and we would submit that the equations suggested by the IPCC properly estimate the total CH4 emission and carbon balance of the properties. Thus, the IPCC equations should be utilized with

  20. The Impact of a Mild Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Carbonization Pretreatment on Umbila Wood. A Mass and Energy Balance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cuvilas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the pretreatment of biomass as a source of energy has become one of the most important steps of biomass conversion. In this work the effect of a mild subcritical hydrothermal carbonization of a tropical woody biomass was studied. Results indicate considerable change in carbon content from 52.78% to 65.1%, reduction of oxygen content from 41.14% to 28.72% and ash slagging and fouling potential. Even though decarboxylation, decarbonylation and dehydration reactions take place, dehydration is the one that prevails. The mass and energy balance was affected by the treatment conditions than the severity of the treatment.

  1. Influence of oxygen on alcoholic fermentation by a wine strain of Torulaspora delbrueckii: kinetics and carbon mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandam, Cédric; Lai, Quoc Phong; Julien-Ortiz, Anne; Taillandier, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii metabolism was assessed in a synthetic culture medium similar to grape must under various conditions: no aeration and three different oxygen feeds, in order to determine the effect of oxygen on metabolism. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances were calculated to quantify metabolic fluxes. The effect of oxygen was to decrease the flux of carbon going into the fermentation pathway in favor of growth. In the absence of aeration, higher amounts of glycerol were produced, probably to maintain the redox balance. The oxygen requirement of this strain was high, since even for the highest air supply oxygen became limiting after 24 h. Nevertheless, this strain developed well in the absence of oxygen and consumed 220 g/L of sugars (glucose/fructose) in 166 h at 20 °C, giving a good ethanol yield (0.50 g/g).

  2. The impact of Saharan dust and black carbon on albedo and long-term mass balance of an Alpine glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabbi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Light-absorbing impurities in snow and ice control glacier melt as shortwave radiation represents the main component of the surface energy balance. Here, we investigate the long-term effect of snow impurities, i.e., mineral dust and black carbon (BC, on albedo and glacier mass balance. The analysis was performed over the period 1914–2014 for two sites on Claridenfirn, Swiss Alps, where an outstanding 100-year record of seasonal mass balance measurements is available. Information on atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and BC over the last century was retrieved from two firn/ice cores of high-alpine sites. A combined mass balance and snow/firn layer model was employed to assess the effects of melt and accumulation processes on the impurity concentration at the surface and thus on albedo and glacier mass balance. Compared to pure snow conditions, the presence of Saharan dust and BC lowered the mean annual albedo by 0.04–0.06 depending on the location on the glacier. Consequently, annual melt was increased by 15–19 %, and the mean annual mass balance was reduced by about 280–490 mm w.e. BC clearly dominated absorption which is about 3 times higher than that of mineral dust. The upper site has experienced mainly positive mass balances and impurity layers were continuously buried whereas at the lower site, surface albedo was more strongly influenced by re-exposure of dust and BC-enriched layers due to frequent years with negative mass balances.

  3. Who's got the balance? A study of satisfaction with the work-family balance among part-time service sector employees in five western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beham, Barbara; Prag, Patrick; Drobnic, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Working part-time is frequently considered a viable strategy for employees to better combine work and non-work responsibilities. The present study examines differences in satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB) among professional and non-professional part-time service sector employees in five

  4. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and carbon balance for eight temperate organic soils under agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Görres, C.-M.; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first annual estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) of contrasting Danish agricultural peatlands. Studies were done at eight sites representing permanent grasslands (PG) and rotational (RT) arable soils cropped to barley......) sites, NEE (mean ± standard error, SE) was 5.1 ± 0.9 and 8.6 ± 2.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, respectively, but with the overall lowest value observed for potato cropping (3.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1). This was partly attributed to a short-duration vegetation period and drying of the soil especially in potato ridges. NECB...... and temperate climate zones. It was stressed that evaluation of emission factors should explicitly differentiate between data representing net C balance from a soil perspective and CO2-C balance from an atmospheric perspective. Modelling of inter-annual variability in NEE for three selected sites during a 21...

  5. Soil respiration and rates of soil carbon turnover differ among six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Elberling, Bo; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil organic carbon (C) turnover based on rigorous experimental designs is limited for common European deciduous tree species. We assessed soil respiration, and rates of C turnover in six tree species in a more than 30-year-old common garden experiment...... of C turnover were estimated by (i) the ratio of estimated soil heterotrophic respiration (R h) to C stock in forest floor and top mineral soil, (ii) the ratio of litterfall C to forest floor C, (iii) foliar mass loss in litterbags, and (iv) mineral soil C turnover assessed by laboratory incubation....... Soil respiration differed significantly among several species and increased in the order beechSoil respiration was temperature limited with no significant species difference in Q10. Norway spruce soils were significantly driest, and soil respiration was also limited by soil...

  6. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    -Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M.B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R. & Sempere, J.G. 2009. Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain. Soil and Tillage Research 106, 117-123. 10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002 Jacinthe, P.A., R. Lal, L.B. Owens, and D.L. Hothem. (2004) Transport of labile carbon in runoff as affected by land use and rainfall characteristics. Soil and Tillage Research 77: 111-123 Kocyigit, R., Demirci, S. 2012. Long-term changes of aggregate-associated and labile soil organic carbon and nitrogen after conversion from forest to grassland and cropland in northern Turkey. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 475- 482. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1092 Lal, R., 2003. Soil erosion and the global carbon budget. Environment International 29, 437-450 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Bodì, M.B., Cerdà, A. 2011. The impact of fire on redistribution of soil organic matter on a Mediterranean hillslope under maquia vegetation type. Land Degradation and Development, 2: 530 - 536. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.1027 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Kuzyakov, Y., Schillaci, C., Laudicina, V.A., La Mantia, T., 2013. Turnover and availability of soil organic carbon under different Mediterranean land use as estimated by 13C natural abundance. European Journal ofSoil science, 64, 466-475. DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12038 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S., Santoro, A., Cerda, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research 117:140-147. Novara, A., La Mantia, T., Barbera V., Gristina, L. 2012. Paired-site approach for studying soil organic carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. Catena, 89 (1): 1-7, doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.008 Yan-Gui, S., Xin-Rong, L., Ying-Wu, C., Zhi-Shan, Z., and Yan, L. 2013. Carbon fixaton of cyanobacterial-algal crusts after desert fixation and its implication to soil organic matter accumulation in Desert. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 342- 349

  7. Nitrogen and carbon source balance determined longevity, independently of fermentative or respiratory metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Júlia; Correia, Fernanda Leitão; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens have proven to delay aging and age-associated diseases in several eukaryotic model organisms but the input of nutritional balance to longevity regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we present data on the role of single carbon and nitrogen sources and their interplay in yeast longevity. Data demonstrate that ammonium, a rich nitrogen source, decreases chronological life span (CLS) of the prototrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PYCC 4072 in a concentration-dependent...

  8. Carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland in southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Quezada, J. F.; Brito, C. E.; Valdés, A.; Urrutia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have reported the effects of deforestation on carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance in the temperate forests of the southern hemisphere. In some areas of southern Chile, after clear-cut or forest fires occurs a proliferation of Sphagnum moss, generating an anthropogenic type of peatland. We measured the effects of this change on the carbon stocks and the greenhouse gas balance, starting in 2013. Carbon stocks were measured in >30 plots on each site; ecosystem CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using eddy covariance stations; CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured monthly using closed chambers and cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology. Total ecosystem carbon stock was 1,523 Mg ha-1 in the forest and 130 Mg ha-1 in the peatland, representing a 91% difference. Both land use types were found to act as sinks of CO2 (NEE=-1094.2 and -31.9 g CO2 m-2 year-¹ for the forest and peatland, respectively); CH4 was mainly captured in the forest and peatland soils, generating balances of -0.70 and -0.12 g CH₄ m-2 year-¹. N2O fluxes were extremely low, so were considered as null. These results indicate that the greenhouse gas balance moved from -1134.6 to -38.8 g CO2-eq m-2 year-1 when land use changed from forest to anthropogenic peatland. These results provide evidence of the importance of preserving old-growth forests in southern Chile.

  9. Effects of harvest, fire, and pest/pathogen disturbances on the West Cascades ecoregion carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P Turner; William D Ritts; Robert E Kennedy; Andrew N Gray; Zhiqiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disturbance is a key influence on forest carbon dynamics, but the complexity of spatial and temporal patterns in forest disturbance makes it difficult to quantify their impacts on carbon flux over broad spatial domains. Here we used a time series of Landsat remote sensing images and a climate-driven carbon cycle process model to evaluate carbon fluxes at...

  10. Modelling daily to seasonal carbon fluxes and annual net ecosystem carbon balance of cereal grain-cropland using DailyDayCent: A model data comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chabbi, Abad; Smith, Pete

    2018-01-01

    Croplands are important not only for food and fibre, but also for their global climate change mitigation and carbon (C) sequestration potentials. Measurements and modelling of daily C fluxes and annual C balance, which are needed for optimizing such global potentials in croplands, are difficult since many measurements, and the correct simulation of different ecosystem processes are needed. In the present study, a biogeochemical ecosystem model (DailyDayCent) was applied to simulate daily to s...

  11. Effect of simulated monsoon failure on the carbon balance of mountain forests, Bhutan, eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Norbu; Ahmed, Iftekhar; Zangmo, Norbu; Gratzer, Georg; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Extreme climatic events leading to severe disturbances in ecosystems are expected to increase globally. Such events carry strong potentials for severe reductions or whole losses of ecosystem services. This is particularly true for the Himalayas: they are located in a region forming a tipping element in the Earth's climate system. At a millennial time scale, complete breakdowns of the summer monsoon circulation and a resulting failure of the Indian summer monsoon rains have occurred several times during the last 1000 years. Climate change potentially increases the frequency of such monsoon failures and related mega-droughts. Given the significance of the region, the knowledge on the effects of climate change on forest ecosystem C dynamics is strikingly limited. While the effects of droughts are studied experimentally in Europe and North America, no precipitation manipulation experiments have been carried out in the Himalayas yet. We make use of natural forests with coexisting conifer and broadleaf as well as deciduous and evergreen species at slopes of stark environmental gradients for conducting a replicated large-scale five year throughfall exclosure experiment. We study drought response at individual tree and ecosystem levels. We present the effects of the experimental drought on the ecosystem carbon balance, integrating above- and belowground pools and fluxes such as heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration, litter fall and root turnover as well as above- and belowground tree growth. A preliminary assessment indicates that soil microbes were primarily affected during the first three years of simulated drought, whereas trees altered allocation patterns but survived the experimental drought. A detailed analysis will be presented at the conference.

  12. On-line carbon balance of yeast fermentations using miniaturized optical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuermann, Thomas; Egly, Dominik; Geoerg, Daniel; Klug, Kerris Isolde; Storhas, Winfried; Methner, Frank-Juergen

    2012-03-01

    Monitoring of microbiological processes using optical sensors and spectrometers has gained in importance over the past few years due to its advantage in enabling non-invasive on-line analysis. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometer set-ups in combination with multivariate calibrations have already been successfully employed for the simultaneous determination of different metabolites in microbiological processes. Photometric sensors, in addition to their low price compared to spectrometer set-ups, have the advantage of being compact and are easy to calibrate and operate. In this work, the detection of ethanol and CO(2) in the exhaust gas during aerobic yeast fermentation was performed by two photometric gas analyzers, and dry yeast biomass was monitored using a fiber optic backscatter set-up. The optical sensors could be easily fitted to the bioreactor and exhibited high robustness during measuring. The ethanol content of the fermentation broth was monitored on-line by measuring the ethanol concentration in the fermentation exhaust and applying a conversion factor. The vapor/liquid equilibrium and the associated conversion factor strongly depend on the process parameter temperature but not on aeration and stirring rate. Dry yeast biomass was determined in-line by a backscattering signal applying a linear calibration. An on-line balance with a recovery rate of 95-97% for carbon was achieved with the use of three optical sensors (two infrared gas analyzers and one fiber optic backscatter set-up). Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant traits as predictor of ecosystem carbon fluxes - a case study across European grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Katja; Bahn, Michael; Acosta, Manuel; Altimir, Nuria; Gimeno, Cristina; Jongen, Marjan; Merbold, Lutz; Moors, Eddy; Pinter, Kistina; Darsonville, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Predicting ecosystem responses to global change has become a major challenge, particularly as terrestrial ecosystems contribute to the mitigation of global climate change through carbon sequestration. Plant traits are major surrogates of ecosystem physiology may thus help to predict carbon (C) fluxes and their consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services (e.g. C sequestration) across climatic gradients and in changing environments. However, linkages between community abundance-weighted means (CWM) of plant functional traits and ecosystem C fluxes have rarely been tested. It is also not known to what degree traits, which are typically measured at a defined point in time, are suitable for predicting annual C fluxes. We analysed the relationships between ecosystem fluxes and community level plant traits for 13 European grasslands under contrasting climate and management regimes, using multiyear eddy covariance data. Plant traits (specific leaf area SLA, leaf dry matter content LDMC, specific root length SLR) were determined at peak biomass. Analyses showed that GPPmax (at maximum radiation) was related to SLA, SRL and LDMC across sites and management, where GPPmax was an excellent indicator for annual GPP. Similar relations were found between for root density (and -diameter) and ecosystem respiration. Ecosystems respiration at GPPmax was also in line with annual respiration, indicating the strong predictive potential of plant community traits. Our study therefore suggests that above- and belowground community level plant traits are well suited surrogates for predicting ecosystem C fluxes at peak biomass and at annual scale.

  14. Modelling system dynamics and phytoplankton diversity at Ranchi lake using the carbon and nutrient mass balance equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, B; Nivedita, M; Mukherjee, D

    2014-05-01

    Modelling system dynamics in a hyper-eutrophic lake is quite complex especially with a constant influx of detergents and sewage material which continually changes the state variables and interferes with the assessment of the chemical rhythm occurring in polluted conditions as compared to unpolluted systems. In this paper, a carbon and nutrient mass balance model for predicting system dynamics in a complex environment was studied. Studies were conducted at Ranchi lake to understand the altered environmental dynamics in hyper-eutrophic conditions, and its impact on the plankton community. The lake was monitored regularly for five years (2007 - 2011) and the data collected on the carbon flux, nitrates, phosphates and silicates was used to design a mass balance model for evaluating and predicting the system. The model was then used to correlate the chemical rhythm with that of the phytoplankton dynamics and diversity. Nitrates and phosphates were not limiting (mean nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 1.74 and 0.83 mgl⁻¹ respectively). Free carbon dioxide was found to control the system and, interacting with other parameters determined the diversity and dynamics of the plankton community. N/P ratio determined which group of phytoplankton dominated the community, above 5 it favoured the growth of chlorophyceae while below 5 cyanobacteria dominates. TOC/TIC ratio determined the abundance. The overall system was controlled by the availability of free carbon dioxide which served as a limiting factor.

  15. Contrasting and interacting changes in simulated spring and summer carbon cycle extremes in European ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Forkel, Matthias; Rammig, Anja; Thonicke, Kirsten; Flach, Milan; Heimann, Martin; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Reichstein, Markus; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2017-07-01

    Climate extremes have the potential to cause extreme responses of terrestrial ecosystem functioning. However, it is neither straightforward to quantify and predict extreme ecosystem responses, nor to attribute these responses to specific climate drivers. Here, we construct a factorial experiment based on a large ensemble of process-oriented ecosystem model simulations driven by a regional climate model (12 500 model years in 1985-2010) in six European regions. Our aims are to (1) attribute changes in the intensity and frequency of simulated ecosystem productivity extremes (EPEs) to recent changes in climate extremes, CO2 concentration, and land use, and to (2) assess the effect of timing and seasonal interaction on the intensity of EPEs. Evaluating the ensemble simulations reveals that (1) recent trends in EPEs are seasonally contrasting: spring EPEs show consistent trends towards increased carbon uptake, while trends in summer EPEs are predominantly negative in net ecosystem productivity (i.e. higher net carbon release under drought and heat in summer) and close-to-neutral in gross productivity. While changes in climate and its extremes (mainly warming) and changes in CO2 increase spring productivity, changes in climate extremes decrease summer productivity neutralizing positive effects of CO2. Furthermore, we find that (2) drought or heat wave induced carbon losses in summer (i.e. negative EPEs) can be partly compensated by a higher uptake in the preceding spring in temperate regions. Conversely, however, carry-over effects from spring to summer that arise from depleted soil moisture exacerbate the carbon losses caused by climate extremes in summer, and are thus undoing spring compensatory effects. While the spring-compensation effect is increasing over time, the carry-over effect shows no trend between 1985-2010. The ensemble ecosystem model simulations provide a process-based interpretation and generalization for spring-summer interacting carbon cycle effects

  16. Sugarcane straw decomposition and carbon balance as a function of initial biomass and vinasse addition to soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Sayuri Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate sugarcane straw decomposition and the potential of increasing soil carbon as a function of the initial biomass and vinasse addition to soil surface. The experimente consisted of incubation (240 days, in the dark, humidity equivalent to 70% of soil water retention capacity and average temperature of 28 °C of Oxisol soil samples (0-20 cm soil layer with straw added to soil surface at rates of 2; 4; 8; 16 and 24 t∙ha−1 and with or without vinasse addition (200 m3∙ha-1. The following variables were determined: released C-CO2, remaining straw dry matter, carbon straw and soil carbon concentration. The added biomass did not influence straw decomposition rate, but vinasse treatments provided rates between 70 and 94% compared to 68 to 75% for the ones without vinasse. The straw (16 and 24 t∙ha−1 decomposition rate increased between 14 and 35% due to vinasse addition, but the same behavior was not observed for released C-CO2. This result was explained by the twofold increase of soil carbon concentration, estimated by mass balance and confirmed analytically by the carbon concentration of soil samples. It was concluded that sugarcane straw decomposition, under no limiting conditions of humidity and temperature, did not depend on biomass initially added and that vinasse addition accelerated straw decomposition and potentialized carbon input into the soil.

  17. Study plan: Assessing ecosystem services and carbon balance in support of land management at the Great Dismal Swamp, Pocosin Lakes, and Alligator River National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study plan describes a collaborative research project to assess ecosystem services and estimate carbon balance in relation to water management and other...

  18. The role of harvest residue in rotation cycle carbon balance in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. Mcnulty; Jean-Christophe Domec; Michael Gavazzi; Ge Sun; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    Timber harvests remove a significant portion of ecosystem carbon. While some of the wood products moved off-site may last past the harvest cycle of the particular forest crop, the effect of the episodic disturbances on long-term on-site carbon sequestration is unclear. The current study presents a 25 year carbon budget estimate for a typical commercial loblolly pine...

  19. Carbon Balance in an Olive Orchard of SE Spain: Influence of Weed Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Chamizo, S.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Lopez-Ballesteros, A.; Vicente-Vicente, J. L.; Kowalski, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture is largely responsible for greenhouse gas emissions due to deforestation, land use changes and inadequate practices. High carbon (C) losses in agricultural lands caused by inadequate soil management entail a reduction of their C sequestration capacity and make agriculture more vulnerable to climate change impact. However, this trend can be potentially reversed if adequate agricultural practices are applied. Olive trees are one of the most widespread crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Spain. Due to climate characteristics of the Mediterranean region and soils characterized by poor structure and low organic matter content, these crops are subject to environmental problems including erosion, soil compaction, and the loss of soil fertility that, indeed, can be aggravated by conventional practices such as intensive tillage. No-till agriculture and maintenance of the spontaneous resident vegetation cover (hereinafter, "weeds") have been applied in olive orchards in order to reduce erosion and increase soil organic C content. However, the role of these conservation practices in C balance at ecosystem scale has not been assessed so far. In this study, we analyzed the influence of weeds against weed removal via herbicide application on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) in an olive orchard in Jaén (SE Spain), by using two eddy covariance towers during the hydrological year 2014-2015. We found that the presence of weeds increased net C uptake during winter and early spring. However, after weeds were mowed in April and kept on the soil, net C uptake decreased in this treatment due to an increase in soil respiration. Despite the lower net C uptake observed during late spring, the presence of weeds increased C fixation at annual scale. During the year of study, the weed removal practice decreased C uptake by 50% compared to the olive orchard where weeds were kept. We conclude that maintenance of weeds in olive groves has a positive effect on CO2

  20. Effects of Permafrost Thaw on Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance in a Subarctic Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This research is to assess changes in net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) with permafrost thaw in northern peatland: in particular how changes in C biogeochemistry influence NECB. Thawed transects associated with varying stages of permafrost thaw: from palsas with intact permafrost (P), through edge of palsa (EP), dry lawn (DL), wet lawn (WL), edge of thawed pond (ET), pond sedges (PS), to several thawed ponds (TP) in a subarctic peatland in northern Quebec were sampled in the snow free seasons of 2013 and 2014. The exchange of CO2 and CH4, vegetation, dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration and biodegradability, active layer depth, air and peat temperatures, water table depth (WT), pH, and conductivity were measured. Peat temperatures were quite similar among different locations, but the WT decreased significantly along the transect creating varied environmental conditions that supporting different plant communities. From dry to wet area, vegetation abundance and biomass showed reductions of shrubs and lichens, and increases of Sphagnum, grasses and sedges. Pore water pH increased from dry to wet area, and conductivity slightly decreased. Wet thaw area WL, ET and PS had relatively higher season gross ecosystem production (GEP) and higher season ecosystem respiration (ER), but relative similar net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Only TP had a significant higher positive season NEE. Palsa was the only CH4 sink, and quite high CH4 emissions were found after it thawed. CH4-C release significantly increased from dry to wet in thawed area, which even several times bigger than total C exchange in ET and PS. Generally, wet area had higher DOC concentration and higher DOC biodegradability indicated by lower SUVA254 (except PS which received great influence from pond). All components in the NECB (GEP, ER, CH4, DOC) increased significantly in magnitude from palsa to wet thawed area, and ecosystem C sink turned into source as palsa thawed into PS and TP. These results

  1. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package. To build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, E.; Spencer, Th.

    2011-07-01

    As the EU's climate and energy goals defined in its Climate and Energy Package (CEP) are to protect the climate, to protect EU economic competitiveness, and to protect EU energy security, the authors first define these notions (time consistency, competitiveness, energy security) and stress the importance of strengthening the CEP, notably by fostering low carbon technology investment and low carbon products and services innovation. They discuss several policy recommendations for the development of a low carbon, competitive and energy secure EU. These recommendations are notably based on the strengthening of current instruments and on the implementation of new tools to reach the 20% energy efficiency target, on an increase stringency and predictability of the EU ETS, and on the use of direct public financial support to facilitate the transition towards a EU low carbon economy

  2. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalgaard, T; Bienkowski, J. F; Bleeker, A; Dragosits, U; Drouet, J. L; Durand, P; Frumau, A; Hutchings, N. J; Kedziora, A; Magliulo, V; Olesen, J. E; Theobald, M. R; Maury, O; Akkal, N; Cellier, P

    2012-01-01

      Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity...

  3. Chloride mass balance to quantify the wastewater impact on karstified carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Nuseibeh, M.; Geyer, T.; Abdelghafour, D.; Al-Naji, G.; Bsharat, J.; Sawalhi, B.; Guttman, J.; Sauter, M.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater resources are vulnerable to anthropogenic influences, like i.e. wastewater disposal in the environment. This is especially critical in karstified carbonate aquifers, because of the partially high flow velocities, resulting in an insufficient attenuation potential against pollutants. To assess the health risk associated with the pollution of the groundwater and for remediation measures planning, the wastewater impact on groundwater resources needs to be quantified. For this purpose the analysis of conservative tracer substances, abundant in the wastewater, is considered a suitable technique. Among the substances considered as tracers, chloride exhibits superior characteristics, the only drawback being the usually high natural background concentration in groundwater. As the chloride ion is not removed by common wastewater treatment processes, it is indicative of both treated and untreated wastewater. In this study, an example for a semi-arid karstified carbonate aquifer system is presented. The study area is located on the western margin of the Lower Jordan Valley (West Bank). The upper aquifer is discharged via several springs. For the springs in the study area, time series of chloride concentration in spring water from 1967-98 were interpreted. The study area displays a high population growth, which results in a steadily increasing wastewater discharge amount. The wastewater is mostly infiltrating into the karst system. First, the long-term average groundwater recharge rate of the local aquifers that fed the springs was quantified with the chloride mass balance method from groundwater data that are little influenced by anthropogenic impacts. The chloride concentration in the local precipitation is 9-10 mg/l and the average value in groundwater is 31 mg/l. This yields a mean recharge rate of around 30 percent. Second, the fraction of groundwater recharge, resulting from the infiltration of wastewater from leaky sewer systems and from wastewater disposal

  4. Multivariate Curve Resolution and Carbon Balance Constraint to Unravel FTIR Spectra from Fed-Batch Fermentation Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work investigates the capability of a tailored multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares (MCR-ALS algorithm to analyse glucose, phosphate, ammonium and acetate dynamics simultaneously in an E. coli BL21 fed-batch fermentation. The high-cell-density (HCDC process is monitored by ex situ online attenuated total reflection (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and several in situ online process sensors. This approach efficiently utilises automatically generated process data to reduce the time and cost consuming reference measurement effort for multivariate calibration. To determine metabolite concentrations with accuracies between ±0.19 and ±0.96·gL−l, the presented utilisation needs primarily—besides online sensor measurements—single FTIR measurements for each of the components of interest. The ambiguities in alternating least squares solutions for concentration estimation are reduced by the insertion of analytical process knowledge primarily in the form of elementary carbon mass balances. Thus, in this way, the established idea of mass balance constraints in MCR combines with the consistency check of measured data by carbon balances, as commonly applied in bioprocess engineering. The constraints are calculated based on online process data and theoretical assumptions. This increased calculation effort is able to replace, to a large extent, the need for manually conducted quantitative chemical analysis, leads to good estimations of concentration profiles and a better process understanding.

  5. Carbon Mobilization in Oil Palm Plantation and Milling Based on a Carbon-Balanced Model – A Case Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withida Patthanaissaranukool

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to agricultural areas and household properties occurs more frequently all year round from extreme weather, which is believed to be due to climate change caused by the increase of greenhouse gases – particularly, CO2. In order to help reduce its concentration in the atmosphere, palm oil is a renewable energy which can be used for this purpose. In this study, the carbon mobilization of palm oil was investigated, from oil palm plantation process to the milling process, so as to determine the associated Carbon Equivalence (CE and the effects on human and land space. A carbon-balanced model (CBM is proposed herewith to indicate the main paths of carbon emission, fixation, and reduction. The net equivalent carbon emission was found to be 56 kg CE per ton of Crude Palm Oil (CPO produced, resulting in the emission flux of 175 kg CE/ha-y. The plantation activity that emits the highest CO2 levels is fertilizer application, accounting for about 84% of the total. All bio-residues produced from CPO production were found to be utilized for human use, thereby decreasing the carbon emission. Their use ranged from biogas and electricity generation to soil conditioning, and the utilization of the bio-residues resulted in total carbon reduction of 212 kg CE per ton of CPO. Carbon fixation as a main product (CPO was found to be an average of 812 kg CE per ton of CPO, equivalent to 2543 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, as the total fixation is 14 times higher than that of the total emissions, the production of CPO generates and introduces a very small amount of waste into the environment. To satisfy the need for palm oil as renewable energy and other end-user products the expansion of the plantation areas may result in competition of agricultural land with other cash crops.

  6. Dual Tuning of Biomass-Derived Hierarchical Carbon Nanostructures for Supercapacitors: the Role of Balanced Meso/Microporosity and Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengju; Jiang, Hao; Guo, Shaojun; Cheng, Qilin; Hu, Yanjie; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-01-01

    Rational design of advanced carbon nanomaterials with a balanced mesoporosity to microporosity is highly desirable for achieving high energy/power density for supercapacitors because the mesopore can allow better transport pathways for the solvated ions of larger than 1 nm. Inspired by the inherent meso/macroporous architecture and huge absorption ability to aqueous solution of auricularia biomass, we demonstrate a new biomass-derived synthesis process for the three-dimensional (3D) few-layered graphene nanosheets incorporated hierarchical porous carbon (GHPC) nanohybrids. The as-prepared GHPC nanohybrids possess a balanced mesoporosity to microporosity with much improved conductivity, which is highly desirable for achieving high energy/power density for supercapacitors. As we predicted, they delivered a high specific capacitance of 256 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 with excellent rate capability (120 F g−1 at 50 A g−1) and long cycle life (92% capacity retention after 10000 cycles) for symmetric supercapacitors in 1 M H2SO4. Based on the as-obtained carbon materials, a flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor was also assembled, which can be fully recharged within 10 s and able to light an LED even under bended state. Such excellent performance is at least comparable to the best reports in the literature for two-electrode configuration under aqueous systems. PMID:26515442

  7. The European forest sector: past and future carbon budget and fluxes under different management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A.; Fiorese, Giulia; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The comprehensive analysis of carbon stocks and fluxes of managed European forests is a prerequisite to quantify their role in biomass production and climate change mitigation. We applied the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to 26 European countries, parameterized with country information on the historical forest age structure, management practices, harvest regimes and the main natural disturbances. We modeled the C stocks for the five forest pools plus harvested wood products (HWPs) and the fluxes among these pools from 2000 to 2030. The aim is to quantify, using a consistent modeling framework for all 26 countries, the main C fluxes as affected by land-use changes, natural disturbances and forest management and to assess the impact of specific harvest and afforestation scenarios after 2012 on the mitigation potential of the EU forest sector. Substitution effects and the possible impacts of climate are not included in this analysis. Results show that for the historical period from 2000 to 2012 the net primary productivity (NPP) of the forest pools at the EU level is on average equal to 639 Tg C yr-1. The losses are dominated by heterotrophic respiration (409 Tg C yr-1) and removals (110 Tg C yr-1), with direct fire emissions being only 1 Tg C yr-1, leading to a net carbon stock change (i.e., sink) of 110 Tg C yr-1. Fellings also transferred 28 Tg C yr-1 of harvest residues from biomass to dead organic matter pools. The average annual net sector exchange (NSE) of the forest system, i.e., the carbon stock changes in the forest pools including HWP, equals a sink of 122 Tg C yr-1 (i.e., about 19 % of the NPP) for the historical period, and in 2030 it reaches 126, 101 and 151 Tg C yr-1, assuming constant, increasing (+20 %) and decreasing (-20 %) scenarios, respectively, of both harvest and afforestation rates compared to the historical period. Under the constant harvest rate scenario, our findings show an incipient aging process of the forests existing in 1990: although NPP

  8. Modelling the carbon and nitrogen balances of direct land use changes from energy crops in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Jørgensen, Uffe; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2012-01-01

    and perennials), two soil types (sandy loam and sand), two climate types (wet and dry), three initial soil carbon level (high, average, low), two time horizons for soil carbon changes (20 and 100 years), two residues management practices (removal and incorporation into soil) as well as three soil carbon turnover......- and micronutrients are presented. The inventory results highlight Miscanthus as a promising energy crop, indicating it presents the lowest emissions of nitrogen compounds, the highest amount of carbon dioxide sequestrated from the atmosphere, a relatively high carbon turnover efficiency and allows to increase soil...... organic carbon. Results also show that the magnitude of these benefits depends on the harvest season, soil types and climatic conditions. Inventory results further highlight winter wheat as the only annual crop where straw removal for bioenergy may be sustainable, being the only annual crop not involving...

  9. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  10. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study – an elemental mass balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air–sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation, all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon

  11. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J F; Bleeker, A

    2012-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and ......Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N...... ± 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively) when landless poultry farming was included. We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations...

  12. Modeling of the carbon dioxide fluxes in European Russia peat bogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbatova, J; Tatarinov, F; Varlagin, A; Shalukhina, N; Olchev, A [A N Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Leninsky Prospekt 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Li, C, E-mail: kurbatova.j@gmail.co [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    A process-based model (Forest-DNDC) was applied to describe the possible impacts of climate change on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from a peat bog in European Russia. In the first step, Forest-DNDC was tested against CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the eddy covariance method on an oligotrophic bog in a representative region of the southern taiga (56 deg. N 33 deg. E). The results of model validations show that Forest-DNDC is capable of quantifying the CO{sub 2} fluxes from the bog ecosystem. In the second step, the validated model was used to estimate how the expected future changes of the air temperature and water table depth could affect the C dynamics in the bogs. It was shown that a decrease in the water table and an increase in temperature influence significantly the CO{sub 2} exchange between our bog ecosystem and the atmosphere. Under elevated temperature and deepened water table the bog ecosystems could become a significant source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  13. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  14. Drought during canopy development has lasting effect on annual carbon balance in a deciduous temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. McNulty; Jared L. DeForest; Ge Sun; Qinglin Li; Jiquan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Climate change projections predict an intensifying hydrologic cycle and an increasing frequency of droughts, yet quantitative understanding of the effects on ecosystem carbon exchange remains limitedHere, the effect of contrasting precipitation and soil moisture dynamics were evaluated on forest carbon exchange using 2 yr of...

  15. Carbon balance of plastic greenhouse ecosystems : a case study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) has played a vital role in increasing incomes of smallholder farmers. A dramatic expansion in PGVC usage has taken place in the last several decades. However, carbon sequestration potential after conversion from conventional open field vegetable cultivation (CVC) to PGVC has been poorly quantified with regards to carbon emissions that will occur due to the intensification in agricultural practices. A full carbon cycle analysis was used to estimate the net carbon flux from PGVC systems based on the combination of data from both field observations and literatures. Carbon fixation was evaluated at two pre-selected locations in China.Results suggest that: (1) the carbon sink of PGVC is 1.21 and 1.23 Mg C ha -1 yr -1 for temperate and subtropical area, respectively; (2) the conversion from CVC to PGVC could substantially enhance carbon sink potential by 8.6 times in the temperate area and by 1.3 times in the subtropical area; (3) the expansion of PGVC usage could enhance the potential carbon sink of arable land in China overall.

  16. Effects of experimental warming of air, soil and permafrost on carbon balance in Alaskan tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Natali; E.A.G. Schuur; C. Trucco; C.E. Hicks Pries; K.G. Crummer; A.F. Baron Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The carbon (C) storage capacity of northern latitude ecosystems may diminish as warming air temperatures increase permafrost thaw and stimulate decomposition of previously frozen soil organic C. However, warming may also enhance plant growth so that photosynthetic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake may, in part, offset respiratory losses. To determine...

  17. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors and parental education in European children: the ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Singh, A.S.; Vik, F.N.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Brug, J.; Moreno, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research and literature reviews show that, among schoolchildren, some specific energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) are relevant for overweight and obesity prevention. It is also well known that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is considerably higher among

  18. Assessment tools of energy balance-related behaviours used in European obesity prevention strategies: review of studies during preschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouratidou, T.; Mesana, M.I.; Manios, Y.; Koletzko, B.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Socha, P.; Iotova, V.; Moreno, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Valid and reliable measures of energy balance-related behaviours are required when evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions aiming at prevention of childhood obesity. A structured descriptive review was performed to appraise food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour

  19. Mass and energy balance of the carbonization of babassu nutshell as affected by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbonization yield of babassu nutshell as affected by final temperature, as well as the energy losses involved in the process. Three layers constituting the babassu nut, that is, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, were used together. The material was carbonized, considering the following final temperatures: 450, 550, 650, 750, and 850ºC. The following were evaluated: energy and charcoal yields, pyroligneous liquid, non-condensable gases, and fixed carbon. The use of babassu nutshell can be highly feasible for charcoal production. The yield of charcoal from babassu nutshell carbonization was higher than that reported in the literature for Eucalyptus wood carbonization, considering the final temperature of 450ºC. Charcoal and energy yields decreased more sharply at lower temperatures, with a tendency to stabilize at higher temperatures. The energy yields obtained can be considered satisfactory, with losses between 45 and 52% (based on higher heating value and between 43 and 49% (based on lower heating value at temperatures ranging from 450 to 850ºC, respectively. Yields in fixed carbon and pyroligneous liquid are not affected by the final carbonization temperature.

  20. Exploring the mediating role of energy balance-related behaviours in the association between sleep duration and obesity in European adults. The SPOTLIGHT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Myrthe; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Helene; Bárdos, Helga; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Rutter, Harry; McKee, Martin; Lakerveld, Jeroen

    2017-07-01

    Sleep restriction is a risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Few studies have formally investigated the mediating role of energy balance-related behaviours in the sleep - obesity association. The aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits in the association of sleep duration with obesity in adults in five European urban regions. Data on self-reported sleep duration, energy balance-related behaviours, height and weight and other covariates were collected between February and September 2014 from participants to the SPOTLIGHT survey (N=5900, mean age 52years). Participants were recruited from 60 urban neighbourhoods in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of sleep duration, energy balance-related behaviours and obesity and mediating effects were calculated using MacKinnon's product-of-coefficients method. Results indicated that a 1h increase in sleeping time was associated with a 14% lower likelihood of being obese (OR=0.86, 95%CI=0.80; 0.93). Only work-related sedentary behaviour was identified as a statistically significant mediator in the association between sleep duration and obesity for the total sample, and youngest and oldest age group. We did not find evidence for a mediating role of dietary habits and physical activities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon capture and storage: a novel technique for reducing greenhouse gas emissions regulated by the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo Sanz Rubiles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with main aspects of a novel technique for carbon dioxide capture and storage released by large combustion plants. Since this novel technique has become essential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it has been regulated by the European Union through the Directive number 2009/31. Therefore, acknowledging relevant legal aspects for regulation, suchas: mandatory, exploration permits, storage among others, the focus has been pointed out on responsibilities and guarantees regime.

  2. NACP Biome-BGC Modeled Ecosystem Carbon Balance, Pacific Northwest, USA, 1986-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Biome-BGC modeled estimates of carbon stocks and fluxes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for the years 1986-2010. Fluxes include net ecosystem...

  3. Reconstruction of annual carbon dynamics and balance for an oligotrophic pine fen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.; Silvola, J.; Aaltonen, H. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Talanov, A.; Ikkonen, E. [Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biology; Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is bound by mire vegetation in photosynthesis during the growing season, and is re-released by respiration of plants, soil animals and microorganisms consuming dead organic matter. A small proportion of annual primary production may fall below the water table to anoxic conditions and thus escapes the oxidative decomposition. Also from anoxic peat, carbon is released with clear seasonal and spatial variation as methane (CH{sub 4}.). The rate of carbon accumulation in peat depends on the annual inbalance of plant production and litter decomposition. Exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} between peat, vegetation and the atmosphere thus reflects the dynamics of carbon flows in the ecosystem. Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (PN), total CO{sub 2} release (RTOT) and CH{sub 4} release (D) from different treeless surfaces of low-sedge Sphagnum papillosum pine fen was studied in eastern Finland. (8 refs.)

  4. CARBON BALANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING: LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTIVE MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Erland Kolomyts; Gennady Rozenberg; Larisa Sharaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of application of landscape-ecological methods for evaluation of biotic regulation of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. Methods for constructing analytical and cartographic empirical-statistical models for identification of forest associations and zonal/regional types of forest formations capable of stabilizing the continental biosphere under changing climate are described. Possible biotic regulation of the carbon cycle under known scenarios of future gree...

  5. The economic makeup of the European Union and the difficult balance between economic freedoms and social rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines some basic contents of what has come to be known as the European Economic Constitution and the conflict raised between economic freedoms and social rights within the European Union. He also warns that in the latest trends in EU legislation and jurisprudence, the former seem to take excessive priority over the latter. This may jeopardise the consolidation of a genuine social Europe and the increasing indifference of citizens, who see how firm steps are being taken within the Economic and Monetary Union while social Europe is slowly moving forward, and often shows worrying signs of paralysis, or even some backward movement.Received: 16.06.10Accepted: 29.06.10

  6. Persistence of Mineral-Associated Soil Organic Carbon in European Soil Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A.; Schrumpf, M.; Trumbore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is a heterogeneous mixture of components that are not equally biologically available, including light, plant derived material, dissolved organic carbon, and mineral-associated organic matter (MOM). Radiocarbon ages of bulk SOC average across this heterogeneity. Of particular interest is whether there are small amounts of very old OC (the so-called 'passive' pool) that can mask the fact that much of the OM is much younger. MOM has been shown to be older than the light fraction and DOC, but MOM is also a mixture of old and young material. This study seeks to clarify the quantity of C persisting on millennial time scales at different depths in the soil profile, and what factors allow this fraction to be more persistent than other fractions. We studied the fraction and age of C of the most chemically and physically stable fraction we could isolate from five European soils with differing land use, parent material, and soil type. First we isolated the MOM fraction by density, and then oxidized the MOM fraction with H2O2 to remove the labile C. The oxidation resistant residue was analyzed for C content and radiocarbon signature. The oxidation procedure removed 70-95% of the MOM fraction; the residue had a consistently older radiocarbon signature than the initial MOM, indicating that the C removed was younger than the bulk average. This stable fraction ranged from 100 radiocarbon years Before Present (BP) in the top 5 cm, to 10,000 years BP at the 30-40 cm depth. Non-crystalline iron concentrations were correlated with the absolute amount of SOC protected from oxidation, but not its proportion or age. With the exception of a tilled cropland site, all examined profiles exhibited a nearly linear depletion in radiocarbon signature with depth in both the protected and oxidizable MOM, confirming that the most chemically and physically stable C is oldest at the deepest point in a 50 cm profile. Ongoing work on this study will further elucidate how the

  7. Fate of recently fixed carbon in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) saplings during drought and subsequent recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Ulrich; Goisser, Michael; Grams, Thorsten E E; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Matzner, Egbert; Borken, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Drought reduces the carbon (C) assimilation of trees and decouples aboveground from belowground carbon fluxes, but little is known about the response of drought-stressed trees to rewetting. This study aims to assess dynamics and patterns of C allocation in beech saplings under dry and rewetted soil conditions. In October 2010, 5-year-old beech saplings from a forest site were transplanted into 20 l pots. In 2011, the saplings were subjected to different levels of soil drought ranging from non-limiting water supply (control) to severe water limitation with soil water potentials of less than -1.5 MPa. As a physiologically relevant measure of drought, the cumulated soil water potential (i.e., drought stress dose (DSD)) was calculated for the growing season. In late August, the saplings were transferred into a climate chamber and pulse-labeled with (13)C-depleted CO2 (δ(13)C of -47‰). Isotopic signatures in leaf and soil respiration were repeatedly measured. Five days after soil rewetting, a second label was applied using 99 atom% (13)CO2. After another 12 days, the fate of assimilated C in each sapling was assessed by calculating the (13)C mass balance. Photosynthesis decreased by 60% in saplings under severe drought. The mean residence time (MRT) of recent assimilates in leaf respiration was more than three times longer than under non-limited conditions and was positively correlated to DSD. Also, the appearance of the label in soil respiration was delayed. Within 5 days after rewetting, photosynthesis, MRT of recent assimilates in leaf respiration and appearance of the label in soil respiration recovered fully. Despite the fast recovery, less label was recovered in the biomass of the previously drought-stressed plants, which also allocated less C to the root compartment (45 vs 64% in the control). We conclude that beech saplings quickly recover from extreme soil drought, although transitional after-effects prevail in C allocation, possibly due to repair

  8. Benthic biogeochemical cycling, nutrient stoichiometry, and carbon and nitrogen mass balances in a eutrophic freshwater bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.V.; Fitzgerald, S.A.; Waplesa, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Green Bay, while representing only ,7% of the surface area and ??1.4% of the volume of Lake Michigan, contains one-third of the watershed of the lake, and receives approximately one-third of the total nutrient loading to the Lake Michigan basin, largely from the Fox River at the southern end of the bay. With a history of eutrophic conditions dating back nearly a century, the southern portion of the bay behaves as an efficient nutrient and sediment trap, sequestering much of the annual carbon and nitrogen input within sediments accumulating at up to 1 cm per year. Depositional fluxes of organic matter varied from ??0.1 mol C m-2 yr-1 to >10 mol C m-2 yr-1 and were both fairly uniform in stoichiometric composition and relatively labile. Estimates of benthic recycling derived from pore-water concentration gradients, whole-sediment incubation experiments, and deposition-burial models of early diagenesis yielded an estimated 40% of the carbon and 50% of the nitrogen recycled back into the overlying water. Remineralization was relatively rapid with ??50% of the carbon remineralized within <15 yr of deposition, and a mean residence time for metabolizable carbon and nitrogen in the sediments of 20 yr. On average, organic carbon regeneration occurred as 75% CO2, 15% CH4, and 10% dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the southern bay were based upon direct measurements of inputs and burial and upon estimates of export and production derived stoichiometrically from a coupled phosphorus budget. Loadings of organic carbon from rivers were ??3.7 mol m-2 yr-1, 80% in the form of DOC and 20% as particulate organic carbon. These inputs were lost through export to northern Green Bay and Lake Michigan (39%), through sediment burial (26%), and net CO2 release to the atmosphere (35%). Total carbon input, including new production, was 4.54 mol m-2 C yr-1, equivalent to ??10% of the gross annual primary production. Nitrogen budget terms were less well quantified

  9. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita, E-mail: mrobaina@ua.p [GOVCOPP and Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rodriguez, Miguel [Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Facultade Empresariais e Turismo, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Roseta-Palma, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.roseta@iscte.p [Department of Economics and UNIDE, ISCTE-Lisbon University Institute, Av. Forcas Armadas, 1629-026 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Across Europe, CO{sub 2} emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. {yields} EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. {yields} Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. {yields} There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. {yields} Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  10. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-07-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  11. Calculating the balance between atmospheric CO2 drawdown and organic carbon oxidation in subglacial hydrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Drever, James I.; Humphrey, Neil F.

    2017-04-01

    In order to constrain CO2 fluxes from biogeochemical processes in subglacial environments, we model the evolution of pH and alkalinity over a range of subglacial weathering conditions. We show that subglacial waters reach or exceed atmospheric pCO2 levels when atmospheric gases are able to partially access the subglacial environment. Subsequently, closed system oxidation of sulfides is capable of producing pCO2 levels well in excess of atmosphere levels without any input from the decay of organic matter. We compared this model to published pH and alkalinity measurements from 21 glaciers and ice sheets. Most subglacial waters are near atmospheric pCO2 values. The assumption of an initial period of open system weathering requires substantial organic carbon oxidation in only 4 of the 21 analyzed ice bodies. If the subglacial environment is assumed to be closed from any input of atmospheric gas, large organic carbon inputs are required in nearly all cases. These closed system assumptions imply that order of 10 g m-2 y-1 of organic carbon are removed from a typical subglacial environment—a rate too high to represent soil carbon built up over previous interglacial periods and far in excess of fluxes of surface deposited organic carbon. Partial open system input of atmospheric gases is therefore likely in most subglacial environments. The decay of organic carbon is still important to subglacial inorganic chemistry where substantial reserves of ancient organic carbon are found in bedrock. In glaciers and ice sheets on silicate bedrock, substantial long-term drawdown of atmospheric CO2 occurs.

  12. Aerosol deposition (trace elements and black carbon) over the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps during the last centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Ginot, Patrick; Fain, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores are an archive of a wide variety of climatic and environmental information from the past, retaining them for hundreds of thousands of years. Anthropogenic pollutants, trace elements, heavy metals and major ions, are preserved as well providing insights on the past atmospheric circulations and allowing evaluating the human impact on the environment. Several ice cores were drilled in glaciers at mid and low latitudes, as in the European Alps. The first ice cores drilled to bedrock in the Eastern Alps were retrieved during autumn 2011 on the "Alto dell`Ortles glacier", the uppermost glacier of the Ortles massif (3905m, South Tirol, Italy), in the frame of the "Ortles Project". A preliminary dating of the core suggests that it should cover at least 300-400 years. Despite the summer temperature increase of the last decades this glacier still contain cold ice. Indeed, O and H isotopes profiles well describe the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Moreover, this glacier is located close to densely populated and industrialized areas and can be used for reconstructing for the first time past and recent air pollution and the human impact in the Eastern European Alps. The innermost part of the core is under analysis by means of a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system. This kind of analysis offers a high resolution in data profiles. The separation between the internal and the external parts of the core avoid any kind of contamination. An aluminum melting head melts the core at about 2.5 cm min-1. Simultaneous analyses of conductivity, dust concentration and size distribution (from 0.8 to 80 μm), trace elements with Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500) and refractory black carbon (rBC) with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies) are performed. A fraction of the melt water is collected by an auto-sampler for further analysis. The analyzed elements

  13. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Abril, G.; Andres, R.; Bastviken, D.; Bellassen, V.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Corazza, M.; Dechow, R.; Erb, K.H.; Etiope, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Grassi, G.; Hartmann, J.; Jung, M.; Lathière, J.; Lohila, A.; Mayorga, E.; Moosdorf, N.; Njakou, D. S.; Otto, J.; Papale, D.; Peters, W.; Peylin, P.; Raymond, P.; Rödenbeck, Christian; Saarnio, S.; Schulze, E.D.; Szopa, Sophie; Thompson, R.; Verkerk, P.J.; Vuichard, N.; Wang, R.; Wattenbach, M.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO,

  14. Present and Future Carbon Balance of Russia's Northern Ecosystems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, F. Stuart III; Zimov, Sergei A.

    2000-08-28

    Recent increases in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at high latitudes suggest a widespread biospheric response to high-latitude warming. We have shown that the seasonal amplitude of net ecosystem carbon exchange by northern Siberian ecosystems is greater in disturbed than undisturbed sites, due to increased summer influx and increased winter efflux. Net carbon gain in summer and respiration in winter were greater in a cool than in a warm year, especially in disturbed sites and did not differ between high-arctic and treeline sites, suggesting that high-latitude warming, if it occurred, would have little effect or would reduce seasonal amplitude of carbon exchange. We suggest that increased disturbance contributes significantly to the amplified seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at high latitudes.

  15. A large column analog experiment of stable isotope variations during reactive transport: II. Carbon mass balance, microbial community structure and predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhan, Jennifer L.; Bill, Markus; Lim, HsiaoChien; Wu, Cindy; Conrad, Mark E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a combined analysis of carbon mass balance based on isotopic labeling and microbiological characterization during organic carbon stimulated bioreduction of a subsurface sediment in a large laboratory column experimental system. This combination of approaches allows quantification of both the cycling of carbon through multiple redox pathways and the associated spatial and temporal evolution of bacterial communities in response to this nutrient source. Carbon isotope mass balance facilitated by the use of 13C-labeled acetate as the electron donor showed evidence for a net loss of sediment organic carbon over the course of the amendment experiment. Furthermore, these data clearly demonstrated a source of isotopically labeled inorganic carbon that was not attributable to primary metabolism by acetate-oxidizing microorganisms. Fluid samples collected weekly over the duration of the 43-day amendment at course of the experiment. In combination with DNA sequencing data, the anomalous carbon cycling process is shown to occur exclusively during the period of predominant Geobacter species growth. Pyrosequencing indicated, and targeted cloning and sequencing confirmed the presence of several bacteriovorous protozoa, including species of the Breviata, Planococcus and Euplotes genera. Cloning and qPCR analysis demonstrated that Euplotes species were most abundant and displayed a growth trajectory that closely followed that of the Geobacter population. These results suggest a previously undocumented secondary turnover of biomass carbon related to protozoan grazing that was not sufficiently prevalent to be observed in bulk concentrations of carbon species in the system, but was clearly identified in the partitioning of carbon isotopes. This study demonstrates evidence for predator-prey relationships that impact subsurface microbial community dynamics and provides a novel indication of the impact of this relationship on the flux of carbon through a system via the

  16. Instrumentation and analytical methods in carbon balance studies - inorganic components in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvan, I.; Johannessen, T.; Miller, L.; Stoll, M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Substantial amounts of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} enters the atmosphere. The land biota acts as a sink for CO{sub 2}, with uncertain consequences. About 30% of the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} added to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean and how the ocean acts as a sink is central in understanding the carbon cycle. In their project the authors investigate the inorganic carbon in the ocean, especially total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in surface ocean and atmosphere. To determine total dissolved inorganic carbon, coulometric analysis is used in which an exact amount of sea water is acidified and the amount of carbon extracted is determined by a coulometer. Alkalinity is determined by potentiometric titration. In the pCO{sub 2} measurement, a small amount of air is circulated in a large amount of sea water and when after some time the amount of CO{sub 2} in the air reflects the CO{sub 2} concentration in the water, the pCO{sub 2} in the gas phase is determined by infra-red detection. The atmospheric pCO{sub 2} is also determined, and the difference between the two partial pressures gives information about source or sink activities. Total carbon and alkalinity measurements are done on discrete samples taken from all depths in the ocean, but for partial pressure detection an underway system is used, which determines the pCO{sub 2} in the surface ocean continuously

  17. Carbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Wang, H. M.; Chen, J. M.; Machida, T.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates in China using atmospheric inversion method are beset with considerable uncertainties because very few atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements are available. In order to improve these estimates, nested atmospheric CO2 inversion during 2002-2008 is performed in this study using passenger aircraft-based CO2 measurements over Eurasia from the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. The inversion system includes 43 regions with a focus on China, and is based on the Bayesian synthesis approach and the TM5 transport model. The terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux modeled by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model and the ocean exchange simulated by the OPA-PISCES-T model are considered as the prior fluxes. The impacts of CONTRAIL CO2 data on inverted China terrestrial carbon fluxes are quantified, the improvement of the inverted fluxes after adding CONTRAIL CO2 data are rationed against climate factors and evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations with three independent surface CO2 measurements in China. Results show that with the addition of CONTRAIL CO2 data, the inverted carbon sink in China increases while those in South and Southeast Asia decrease. Meanwhile, the posterior uncertainties over these regions are all reduced (2-12%). CONTRAIL CO2 data also have a large effect on the inter-annual variation of carbon sinks in China, leading to a better correlation between the carbon sink and the annual mean climate factors. Evaluations against the CO2 measurements at three sites in China also show that the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements may have improved the inversion results.

  18. Balance of constructive and destructive carbonate processes on mesophotic coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, D. K.; Klaus, J. S.; Smith, T. B.; Helmle, K. P.; Marshall, D.

    2013-12-01

    Net carbonate accumulation of coral reefs is the product of both constructive and destructive processes that can ultimately influence overall reef geomorphology. Differences in these processes with depth may in part explain why the coral growth-light intensity association does no result in the traditionally theorized reef accretion decrease with depth. Until recently, physical sampling limitations had prevented the acquisition of sedimentary data needed to assess in situ carbonate accumulation in mesophotic reefs (30-150 m). Coral framework production, secondary carbonate production (calcareous encrusters), and bioerosion, the three most critical components of net carbonate accumulation, were analyzed in mesophotic reefs more than 10 km south of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands along a very gradual slope that limits sediment transport and sedimentation. Recently dead samples of the massive coral, Orbicella annularis collected from three structurally different upper mesophotic coral reef habitats (30-45 m) were cut parallel to the primary growth axis to identify density banding through standard x-radiographic techniques. Assuming annual banding, mesophotic linear extension rates were calculated on the order of 0.7-1.5 mm/yr. Weight change of experimental coral substrates exposed for 3 years indicate differing rates (1.1-17.2 g/yr) of bioerosion and secondary accretion between mesophotic sites. When correcting bioerosion rates for high mesophotic skeletal density, carbonate accumulation rates were found to vary significantly between neighboring mesophotic reefs with distinctive structures. Results imply variable rates of mesophotic reef net carbonate accretion with the potential to influence overall reef/platform morphology, including localized mesophotic reef structure.

  19. The effect of irradiance on the carbon balance and tissue characteristics of five herbaceous species differing in shade-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Thijs L.; Poorter, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The carbon balance is defined here as the partitioning of daily whole-plant gross CO2 assimilation (A) in C available for growth and C required for respiration (R). A scales positively with growth irradiance and there is evidence for an irradiance dependence of R as well. Here we ask if R as a fraction of A is also irradiance dependent, whether there are systematic differences in C-balance between shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species, and what the causes could be. Growth, gas exchange, chemical composition and leaf structure were analyzed for two shade-tolerant and three shade-intolerant herbaceous species that were hydroponically grown in a growth room at five irradiances from 20 μmol m−2 s−1 (1.2 mol m−2 day−1) to 500 μmol m−2 s−1 (30 mol m−2 day−1). Growth analysis showed little difference between species in unit leaf rate (dry mass increase per unit leaf area) at low irradiance, but lower rates for the shade-tolerant species at high irradiance, mainly as a result of their lower light-saturated rate of photosynthesis. This resulted in lower relative growth rates in these conditions. Daily whole-plant R scaled with A in a very tight manner, giving a remarkably constant R/A ratio of around 0.3 for all but the lowest irradiance. Although some shade-intolerant species showed tendencies toward a higher R/A and inefficiencies in terms of carbon and nitrogen investment in their leaves, no conclusive evidence was found for systematic differences in C-balance between the shade-tolerant and intolerant species at the lowest irradiance. Leaf tissue of the shade-tolerant species was characterized by high dry matter percentages, C-concentration and construction costs, which could be associated with a better defense in shade environments where leaf longevity matters. We conclude that shade-intolerant species have a competitive advantage at high irradiance due to superior potential growth rates, but that shade-tolerance is not necessarily associated

  20. Interactions of changing climate and shifts in forest composition on stand carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Jyh-Min; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim Brown

    2006-01-01

    Given that climate influences forest biogeographic distribution, many researchers have created models predicting shifts in tree species range with future climate change scenarios. The objective of this study is to investigate the forest carbon consequences of shifts in stand species composition with current and future climate scenarios using such a model.

  1. Modeling forest stand dynamics from optimal balances of carbon and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry T. Valentine; Annikki. Makela

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a dynamic evolutionary optimization problem to predict the optimal pattern by which carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are co-allocated to fine-root, leaf, and wood production, with the objective of maximizing height growth rate, year by year, in an even-aged stand. Height growth is maximized with respect to two adaptive traits, leaf N concentration and the ratio...

  2. Size and frequency of natural forest disturbances and the Amazon forest carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.D.B. Espirito-Santo; M. Gloor; M. Keller; Y. Malhi; S. Saatchi; B. Nelson; R.C. Oliveira Junior; C. Pereira; J. Lloyd; S. Frolking; M. Palace; Y.E. Shimabukuro; V. Duarte; A. Monteagudo Mendoza; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; T.R. Baker; T.R. Feldpausch; R.J.W. Brienen; G.P. Asner; D.S. Boyd; O.L. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory studies in the Amazon indicate a large terrestrial carbon sink. However, field plots may fail to represent forest mortality processes at landscape-scales of tropical forests. Here we characterize the frequency distribution of disturbance events in natural forests from 0.01 ha to 2,651 ha size throughout Amazonia using a novel...

  3. Carbon balance of South Asia constrained by passenger aircraft CO2 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsueda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems in all their diversity, across the continents, is important and urgent for implementing effective mitigating policies. Whereas much is known for Europe and North America for instance, in comparison, South Asia, with 1.6 billion inhabitants and considerable CO2 fluxes, remained terra incognita in this respect. We use regional measurements of atmospheric CO2 aboard a Lufthansa passenger aircraft between Frankfurt (Germany and Chennai (India at cruise altitude, in addition to the existing network sites for 2008, to estimate monthly fluxes for 64-regions using Bayesian inversion and transport model simulations. The applicability of the model's transport parameterization is confirmed using SF6, CH4 and N2O simulations for the CARIBIC datasets. The annual amplitude of carbon flux obtained by including the aircraft data is twice as large as the fluxes simulated by a terrestrial ecosystem model that was applied to prescribe the fluxes used in the inversions. It is shown that South Asia sequestered carbon at a rate of 0.37 ± 0.20 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg C = 1015 g of carbon in CO2 for the years 2007 and 2008. The seasonality and the strength of the calculated monthly fluxes are successfully validated using independent measurements of vertical CO2 profiles over Delhi and spatial variations at cruising altitude over Asia aboard Japan Airlines passenger aircraft.

  4. Particle fluxes and organic carbon balance across the Eastern Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Frigola, J.; Fabres, J.

    2005-03-01

    As part of the "Mediterranean Targeted Project II—MAss Transfer and Ecosystem Response" (MTPII-MATER) EU-funded research project, particle flux data was obtained from three instrumented arrays moored along the 1°30' W meridian in the Eastern Alboran Sea. The mooring lines were deployed over 11 months, from July 1997 to May 1998, and were equipped with sediment trap-current metre pairs at 500-700, 1000-1200 and 2000-2200 m of water depth. The settling material was analysed to obtain total mass, lithogenic, calcium carbonate, organic carbon and opal fluxes. Integrated analysis of sediment trap and current meter data with sea-surface satellite images reveals that particle flux distribution is a function of primary production, mid-water lateral advection and near bottom nepheloid input. The spreading to the east and to the south of phytoplankton-rich water from the upwelling off the Spanish coast is controlled by the position and size of the Western and Eastern Alboran gyres, and drives the seasonal arrival of biogenic material down to the sea floor. Discrete lateral advection events unrelated to vertical entries of material can also supply particulate matter at 1000-1200 and 2000-2200 m of water depth as noted at the northern and southern stations. To achieve a better understanding of the carbon cycle in the area we have attempted to constrain the production, transfer and burial of particulate organic carbon, providing the first estimates of particulate organic carbon export in the Alboran Sea. Results suggest that sea surface circulation and associated productivity signal control the efficiency of the biological pump in the area. The export production in the Eastern Alboran Sea is higher than in other Mediterranean sites, with 0.5-0.9% of the carbon fixed during photosynthesis transferred down the water column and buried in the deep sediments. In addition, a large portion is supplied by lateral advection and through a benthic nepheloid layer, which represent a

  5. Understanding the future impacts of rapid ocean warming and acidification on the carbonate balance of coral reefs. ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Dove, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Marine organisms and ecosystems are undergoing fundamental changes as a consequence of ocean warming and acidification, which must be understood if we are to anticipate and respond to the resulting changes to ecosystem services and functions. We have been investigating potential changes to the calcification and bioerosion rates of coral reefs using flow-through mesocosms at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. In these experiments, we have been manipulating the temperature and pCO2 in order to simulate future ocean conditions described by IPCC scenarios (specifically B2, A1FI). We have also created pre-industrial conditions for comparison. Importantly, our system not only provides fine control over experimental conditions but also allows temperature and pCO2 to fluctuate with daily and seasonal changes measured (integrated over 3 h) at specific locations of interest on the Heron Island Reef, which allows a more 'realistic' analysis of the combined influences of ocean warming and acidification. In our first set of experiments, we have examined the impact of IPCC scenarios (year 2100) for a range of ecosystem phenomena relating to the carbonate balance of coral reefs including (1) phototrophic microborers within the dead skeletons of two coral species; (2) calcareous coralline algae, (3) turf algal communities in the presence and absence of grazing damselfish; (4) the calcification, growth, mortality and recruitment of the reef-building corals, and (5) microbial communities associated with corals. The overall conclusion of the studies conducted to date strongly suggests rapid movement to a negative carbonate balance for shallow water tropical coral reefs even under medium (B2) climate scenarios that involve SST increases of approximately +1.5oC and +250 ppm pCO2. Our conclusion is based on observations regarding key organisms that are involved in establishing the carbonate balance of coral reef organisms, and on the observed impacts of these conditions on

  6. Assessing the response of the Australian carbon balance to climate variability by assimilating satellite observations in a distributed ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exbrayat, Jean-François; Bloom, A. Anthony; Smallman, T. Luke; Williams, Mathew

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems offset about 25% of anthropogenic emissions of fossil fuel responsible for the current global warming. This long-term carbon sink exhibits a large inter-annual variability that recent studies have associated to the response of semi-arid ecosystems to variations in climate conditions and especially the occurrence of extreme events. For example, wet conditions during the 2010-2011 La Niña episode led to the strongest annual terrestrial carbon sink ever observed. Satellite observations of plant productivity and modelling experiments indicate that this anomalous sink was mostly located in the southern hemisphere where Australia experienced record-breaking rainfall. However, the durability of this extra-sink has yet to be assessed as dry conditions returned in northern Australia at the end of 2011, causing large-scale fires. In this paper we investigate the influence of climate variability on Australian ecosystems and we particularly focus on the resilience of the La Niña driven 2010-2011 sink to subsequent dry years. Therefore, we use the CARbon Data MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) data-assimilation system to retrieve the 21st century Australian terrestrial carbon cycle simulated by an ecosystem model in agreement with climate data and Earth Observations relevant to the biosphere: burned area, leaf area index and biomass. Accordingly with previous studies results indicate a strong influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation on the inter-annual variability of the Australian carbon balance at the continent-scale. More precisely, in 2010-2011 the La Niña-driven wet conditions led the continent to become a strong sink of atmospheric carbon. Then, dry conditions accompanied by intense fires returned at the end of 2011 and our analyses indicate that the totality of the northern Australian sink (north of 30°S) was re-emitted by late 2011 as fires immediately burnt the extra-fuel produced during the record wet seasons. These results raise concerns on

  7. Land-use strategies to balance livestock production, biodiversity conservation and carbon storage in Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Alvarado, Fredy; Green, Rhys E; Manica, Andrea; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Balancing the production of food, particularly meat, with preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services is a major societal challenge. Research into the contrasting strategies of land sparing and land sharing has suggested that land sparing-combining high-yield agriculture with the protection or restoration of natural habitats on nonfarmed land-will have lower environmental impacts than other strategies. Ecosystems with long histories of habitat disturbance, however, could be resilient to low-yield agriculture and thus fare better under land sharing. Using a wider suite of species (birds, dung beetles and trees) and a wider range of livestock-production systems than previous studies, we investigated the probable impacts of different land-use strategies on biodiversity and aboveground carbon stocks in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico-a region with a long history of habitat disturbance. By modelling the production of multiple products from interdependent land uses, we found that land sparing would allow larger estimated populations of most species and larger carbon stocks to persist than would land sharing or any intermediate strategy. This result held across all agricultural production targets despite the history of disturbance and despite species richness in low- and medium-yielding agriculture being not much lower than that in natural habitats. This highlights the importance, in evaluating the biodiversity impacts of land use, of measuring population densities of individual species, rather than simple species richness. The benefits of land sparing for both biodiversity and carbon storage suggest that safeguarding natural habitats for biodiversity protection and carbon storage alongside promoting areas of high-yield cattle production would be desirable. However, delivering such landscapes will probably require the explicit linkage of livestock yield increases with habitat protection or restoration, as well as a deeper understanding of the long

  8. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.

    1997-12-31

    Release of CO{sub 2} from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO{sub 2} efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2} under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH{sub 4} release was studied. The Holocene history of CO{sub 2} sequestration and CH{sub 4} emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO{sub 2} release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m{sup 2} net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO{sub 2} release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants

  9. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  10. Relation between the EACNmin concept and surfactant HLB. [Extrapolated alkane carbon number (EACN) and hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, M.E.; El-Emary, M.; Schechter, R.S.; Wade, W.H.

    1979-03-01

    The ability of surfactants to generate ultra-low (10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -5/ dynes/cm) interfacial tensions (lift) in oil/water systems has received increasing attention in recents years. To date, however, no one has successfully correlated lift behavior with other surfactant characterization parameters. In this work it is shown that the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) number can be related to the lift behavior of ethoxylated surfactants. The point is made that not only does EACNmin (extrapolated alkane carbon number) vary simply with HLB, but the HBL values at which EACNmin in the range of 5 to 20 are very reasonable ones in that the region where HLB = 11 to 12 corresponds to the HLBs in the transition region between oil- and water-solubility. This may be significant in view of the apparent requirement of near-unity partition coefficients for low interfacial tensions. 16 references.

  11. Salt Marsh Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance: Improving Methods to Quantify the Role of Lateral (Tidal) Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K. D.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal wetlands are prime candidates for greenhouse gas emission offsets as they display extraordinarily high rates of carbon (C) sequestration. However, lack of data about rates of and controls on C sequestration in tidal wetlands, as well as substantial temporal and spatial heterogeneity, complicate development of both models and a methodology for use by C registries. The goals of our field research are to improve understanding of the climatic role of coastal wetlands, quantify potential for GHG emission offsets through restoration or preservation, and quantify impacts of eutrophication and other environmental factors. Among our objectives is to construct C and greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets for salt marshes, based on measurements of GHG exchanges with the atmosphere, C storage in soils, and lateral (tidal) exchanges of gases, C, and sediment. In this presentation, emphasis is on rate and source of tidal exchanges between salt marshes and adjacent estuaries. We measured fluxes by collecting high frequency data on tidal water flows and physical and chemical conditions in wetland channels using acoustic and optical sensors, as well as laser absorption spectrometry. To provide site-specific calibrations of sensors, we collected water samples across tidal cycles and seasons. Source investigations include analysis of stable isotope and lipid compositions. We used multiple regressions to estimate dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations at high frequency over extended time. Carbon flux was calculated as the product of concentration and water flux, corrected for modeled flow outside of the tidal creek. Annual rates of net C flux from wetland to estuary indicate that both DOC and DIC are large terms in the salt marsh carbon budget relative to net exchange with the atmosphere and rate of storage in soil, and that DIC flux may have been underestimated in previous studies.

  12. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Filippou, Christina; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N; te Velde, Saskia J; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children's weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children's breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children's overweight/obesity. Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Children aged 10-12 years and their parents (n 5444). Children's reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children's overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption. The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10-12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption.

  13. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  14. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European

  15. Carbon Balance of No-Till Soybean with Winter Wheat Cover Crop in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, M. T.; Loescher, H.; Tsegaye, T.

    2012-12-01

    The southeast is an important agricultural region in the U.S. and key component of the continental carbon budget. Croplands in the region store a substantial amount of soil organic carbon (C). However, their C sink status may be altered under the projected changes in precipitation pattern for the region. The study was conducted at Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station, Hazel Green, Alabama (2007-2009). We investigated the seasonal and interannual variation in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) of winter wheat (Tricticum aestivum) and soybean (Glycine max) using the eddy covariance method. Annual C balance ranged from the highest source in 2007 (NEE = 100 g C m-2 y-1) to sink (-20 g C m-2 y-1) in 2009. Annual ecosystem respiration (Re) ranged between 750 and 1013 g C m-2 y-1, while gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was 650-1034 g C m-2 y-1. Seasonal NEE for soybean ranged between 42 and -66 g C m-2. Stronger winter wheat NEE (-80.0, -80.4, -40.0 g C m-2 for 2007, 2008 and 2009) than soybean suggested the importance of winter C uptakes offsetting summer C losses. Re was controlled by air temperature, and it varied between 286 and 542 g C m-2 for soybean, and between 160 and 313 g C m-2 for winter wheat. Precipitation was key determinant of C balance implying larger C release during drought periods. During fallow months, the site was C source. If we include removal of grain off site, this system could become a C source under all conditions.

  16. Response of winter chemical defense in Alaska paper birch and green alder to manipulation of plant carbon/nutrient balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J P; Chapin, F S; Reichardt, P B; Clausen, T P

    1987-07-01

    Plant carbon/nutrient balance has been implicated as an important factor in plant defensive chemistry and palatability to herbivores. We tested this hypothesis by fertilizing juvenile growth form Alaska paper birch and green alder with N, P and N-plus-P in a balanced 2x2 factorial experiment. Additionally, we shaded unfertilized plants of both species. Fertilization with N and N-plus-P increased growth of Alaska paper birch, reduced the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased the palatability of birch twigs to snowshoe hares. Shading decreased birch growth, decreased the concentration of papyriferic acid in internodes and increased twig palatability. These results indicate that the defensive chemistry and palatability of winter-dormant juvenile Alaska paper birch are sensitive to soil fertility and shade. Conversely the defensive chemistry and palatability of green alder twigs to snowshoe hares were not significantly affected by soil fertility or shade. The greater sensitivity of Alaska paper birch defensive chemistry and palatability to snowshoe hares in comparison to green alder is in agreement with the hypothesis that early successional woody plants that are adapted to high resource availability are more plastic in their chemical responses to the physical environment than are species from less favorable environments.

  17. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunyi; Cao, Wenbin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Hongqiang

    2016-11-12

    The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP) plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) (IPCC), this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China's HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC) in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

  18. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyi Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013 (IPCC, this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China’s HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

  19. A comparison of soil respiration, carbon balance and root carbon use efficiency in two managed Moso bamboo forests in subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Tang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo forest (Phyllostachys heterocycla [Carr.] Mitford cv. Pubescens is an important forest type in subtropical China and comprises an important pool in the global carbon cycle. Understanding the effects of the stand management, such as understory removal, on soil respiration (RS will help to provide a more accurate estimation of carbon cycling and predict future climate change. The study aimed to compare RS and net ecosystem production (NEP in two Moso bamboo forests managed by the application of herbicide (AH and conventional hand-weeded (HW treatment, and further examine their root carbon use efficiency (RCUE. Trenching and litter removal were used to partition the source components of RS and one-year field measurement was conducted. Maximum-minimum approach was used to estimate fine root production. NEP was determined by the balance between NPP of vegetation and heterotrophic respiration (RH of soil. RCUE was calculated using an indirect method. In both stands, soil temperature and soil moisture at 5 cm depth were the main driving forces to the seasonality of RS. Annual RS was 31.6 t CO2 ha-1 for the stand AH and 33.9 t CO2 ha-1 for the stand HW, while net ecosystem production (NEP were 21.9 and 21.1 t CO2 ha-1, respectively, indicating that the both Moso bamboo stands acted as carbon sinks in the scenarios of current climate change. The RCUE was 30.6% for the stand AH, which was significantly lower than that for the stand HW (58.8%. This result indicates that different stand management practices can alter RCUE and the assumed constant universal carbon use efficiency (CUE of 50% is not appropriate in Moso bamboo forests. This study highlight the importance of partition the source components of RS and accurate estimation of RCUE in modelling carbon cycling in Moso bamboo forests.

  20. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Dragosits, U.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry farming was included. We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N management data collection in the landscapes from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an

  1. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dalgaard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improved management of nitrogen (N in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL, the Netherlands (NL, France (FR, Italy (IT, Scotland (UK and Denmark (DK were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study.

    In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha−1 yr−1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively when landless poultry farming was included.

    We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N

  2. Development of Statistical Accuracy Improvement Methodology for Oil Refinery Sector's Energy and Carbon Balance and Statistical Accuracy on Japanese General Energy Statistics (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAINOU Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Current Japanese General Energy Statistics quantifies energy and carbon balance of oil refinery sector solely by input such as crude oil and output such as gasoline, and regards the discrepancy as a statistical error and does not count energy consumption or energy origin carbon dioxide emission for the discrepancy. But issues are raised by a related committee of Ministry of the Environment that some part of the discrepancy of oil refinery sector might contain energy consumption and energy ori...

  3. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  4. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Robert S [UNR; Smith, Stanley D [UNLV; Evans, Dave [WSU; Ogle, Kiona [ASU; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  5. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Empirical modeling approaches are frequently used to upscale local eddy covariance observations of carbon, water, and energy fluxes to regional and global scales. The predictive capacity of such models largely depends on the data used for parameterization and identification of input......-output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion...

  6. The carbon balance and greenhouse effects of the Finnish forest sector at present, in the past and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the greenhouse impact of the total Finnish forest sector was considered, which means that the estimated emissions and sink effects from exported forest products were also included. The forest biomass is and seems to be in the next decades the most important factor in the carbon balance of the total forest sector. The development alternatives of forest industries and waste management practices has still a remarkable influence on the greenhouse impact of the Finnish forest sector. The waste management practices in the future has an important influence on the emissions but the exact net greenhouse impact of the landfills is still uncertain. However, the methane emissions from existing landfills can be reduced essentially by gas recovery. Increased incineration and energy recovery of wood waste (and replacing fossil fuel use by it) is also a future alternative for reducing the greenhouse effects in the forest sector. The sequestration of carbon by increasing the storages of long-lived wood products in use meets difficulties in practice because of all the material losses in wood using chain and the natural removal of old wood products. An important advantage of mechanical wood processing and the succeeding refinement chain is still their relative low use of energy

  7. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  8. Changes in the net carbon balance following a shelterwood harvest at Howland Forest in central Maine seven years after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N. A.; Hollinger, D.; Davidson, E. A.; Rodrigues, C.; Hughes, H.; Lee, J. T.; Richardson, A. D.; Dail, B.

    2009-12-01

    As CO2 emissions continue to increase, policy-makers are considering various ways to help slow the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Forests exchange significant quantities of carbon with the atmosphere, so any measures that increase carbon storage in forests could help mitigate rising CO2 emissions. Some proposed C trading markets include payments for enhanced C storage due to changes in forest management, but others exclude management of existing forests due to large uncertainties in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage. Ideally, forest management practices could be designed to provide multiple benefits to society, including provision of wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, and sequestering C from the atmosphere. To evaluate the impact of a forest management practice on C storage, it is important to quantify both on-site and off-site C fluxes. We began studying changes in C sequestration following a shelterwood harvest at the Howland Forest in central Maine in 2000. Shelterwood harvesting removed about 30% of live aboveground biomass from the forest (15 Mg C ha-1), reduced leaf area by about 40%, and created detrital carbon pools of about 10.5 Mg C ha-1. Net ecosystem carbon storage (NEE), measured using eddy covariance, went from about 1.9 Mg C ha-1y-1 to almost zero in both 2003 and 2004. Live trees, however, stored about 1.5 Mg C ha-1y-1 in 2003 - this was only slightly lower than C storage in live vegetation in the control (unharvested) stand. In 2005, NEE increased to about 1.5 Mg C ha-1y-1 and tree growth increased to about 2.2 Mg C ha-1y-1 in spite of the fact that leaf-area index (LAI) remained about 25% lower in the harvested stand. Soil respiration was significantly lower in the harvested stand, but only in areas impacted heavily by harvest. This is likely due to decreased root respiration as a result of tree removal. When accounting for both on- and off-site carbon pools, this forest returned to being

  9. Understanding the Capsanthin Tails in Regulating the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance of Carbon Dots for a Rapid Crossing Cell Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Shuya; Wang, Yucai; Hu, Mengyue; Liu, Li; Bi, Hong

    2017-10-03

    Here we use natural Chinese paprika to prepare a new kind of amphiphilic carbon dot (A-Dot) that exhibits bright, multicolored fluorescence and contains hydrophilic groups as well as lipophilic capsanthin tails on the surface. It is found that the capsanthin tails in a phospholipid-like structure can promote cell internalization of the A-Dots via crossing cell membranes rapidly in an energy-independent fashion. Compared to highly hydrophilic carbon dots (H-Dots), a control sample prepared from the microwave thermolysis of citric acid and ethylenediamine, our synthesized A-Dots can be taken up by CHO, HeLa, and HFF cells more easily. More importantly, we develop a method to calibrate the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values of various kinds of carbon dots (C-Dots). HLB values of A-Dots and H-Dots are determined to be 6.4 and 18.4, respectively. Moreover, we discover that the cellular uptake efficiency of C-Dots is closely related to their HLBs, and the C-Dots with an HLB value of around 6.4 cross the cell membrane easier and faster. As we regulate the HLB value of the A-Dots from 6.4 to 15.3 by removing the capsanthin tails from their surfaces via alkali refluxing, it is found that the refluxed A-Dots can hardly cross HeLa cell membranes. Our work is an essential step toward understanding the importance of regulating the HLB values as well as the surface polarity of the C-Dots for their practical use in bioimaging and also provides a simple but effective way to judge whether the C-Dots in hand are appropriate for cell imaging.

  10. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve, while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve. This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium.

  11. On the way to 2050 - Which ingredients for a de-carbonated future? An analysis of the 'Energy Road map 2050' of the European Commission; En route vers 2050 - Quels ingredients pour un avenir decarbone? Une analyse de la 'Feuille de route energie 2050' de la Commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This document presents and discusses the climate objective of the Energy road map, some macro-economic hypotheses (oil price, economic growth), the different trajectories defined in the Energy Road map, the role of electricity in the de-carbonation of the energy system, energy savings (potential and under-exploited), the evolution of the installed electric capacity, the balancing of the electric system, the global costs of the energy system, the EU energy bill in 2050, the evolution of electricity price, and the European carbon trading scheme

  12. The Rhume springs revisited: A multi-tracer approach to one of the largest European carbonate-gypsum karst systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Dellwig, Olaf; Escher, Peter; Weise, Stephan M.

    2014-05-01

    Modern karst ground water systems are at the cutting edge between atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere and are impacted by the biosphere and anthroposphere. The hydrogeochemical processes in karst terrains are sensitive to both climate change and anthropogenic activity, thereby affecting the quality of these ground waters. Therefore, understanding the transport processes and hydrogeochemical interactions between surface and ground waters is of fundamental importance for the prediction of future quality developments of large drinking water resources. The system of the Rhume spring, at the SW border of the Harz Mountains (Germany), one of the largest the largest European karst springs, has been investigated for hydrogeochemical and isotope variations to study the impact of river waters on the Rhume spring system. Rivers from the Harz Mountains are infiltrating Quaternary strata and emerging, after a passage through Permian (Zechstein) carbonate and sulfate rocks at the Rhume springs. By using a hydrogeochemical tracer approach it was found earlier, that an old mineralized ground water that had been modified by subterrestrial water-rock interactions is mixed with less mineralized younger karst waters before emerging in the different Rhume spring pits [1-4]. In the present communication, we present new results from a revisit of the Rhume springs and the rivers and streams in the direct and tributary recharge areas focussing on trace metal concentrations and multi-stable isotope signatures under different hydrological conditions. It was the aim of the investigation to re-analyze the proposed mixing model and provide additional evidence for a relative age estimate (H-3 dating) of the different waters emerging in the Rhume spring area. One focus was set on a high water-impact period. By the application of a multi-tracer approach (e.g., Sr, Ba, Fe, Mn, Mo, PO4, Si), and different isotope systems (S-32/S-34 in sulfate; O-16, O-17, O-18, H-1, H-2, and H-3 in water, C-12/C

  13. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  14. CO2 enrichment and carbon partitioning to phenolics: do plant responses accord better with the protein competition or the growth-differentiation balance models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Mattson; R. Julkunen-Tiitto; D.A. Herms

    2005-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can alter plant growth and partitioning to secondary metabolites. The protein competition model (PCM) and the extended growth/differentiation balance model (GDBe) are similar but alternative models that address ontogenetic and environmental effects on whole-plant carbon partitioning to the...

  15. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro, C.; António, C.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Wilson, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 14 (2011), s. 4965-4974 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Carbon metabolism * hormone balance * LC-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.364, year: 2011

  16. Carbonic anhydrase and acid base balance in relation to thermal stress in buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. N.; Gangwar, P. C.

    1983-03-01

    The blood samples from fifteen normal lactating buffaloes were taken from December 15th 1978 to 31st August, 1979. Depending upon the climatic conditions, the whole period of study was divided into four seasons. The mean values of carbonic anhydrase (moles CO2/l/sec×10-5) were 3.08±0.26, 4.94±0.44, 5.23±0.35, 6.44±0.32 in pregnant and 4.87±0.27, 4.53±0.41, 4.74±0.45, 6.36±0.40 in non-pregnant animals during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid seasons. Mean values of pO2 (mm Hg) were 31.26±1.41, 31.92±0.61, 35.90±0.59, 33.80 ±0.67 in pregnant and 31.89±0.44, 31.53±0.54, 35.52±0.69, 31.65±0.95 in non-pregnant buffaloes during winter, spring, hot and dry and hot and humid periods, respectively. There were highly significant (P< 0.01) differences between seasons with respect to pO2, pCO2, actual HCO3 and heamoglobin. However, PCV changed significantly (P<0.01) with the physiological status of the animal. Different correlation of biochemical parameters with climatic elements were discussed. Thus, the shifts in the levels of carbonic anhydrase, HCO3 and heamoglobin may prove to be a better tool/index for thermal stress in buffaloes.

  17. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  18. Impact of warming and drought on carbon balance related to wood formation in black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslauriers, Annie; Beaulieu, Marilène; Balducci, Lorena; Giovannelli, Alessio; Gagnon, Michel J; Rossi, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    Wood formation in trees represents a carbon sink that can be modified in the case of stress. The way carbon metabolism constrains growth during stress periods (high temperature and water deficit) is now under debate. In this study, the amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) for xylogenesis in black spruce, Picea mariana, saplings were assessed under high temperature and drought in order to determine the role of sugar mobilization for osmotic purposes and its consequences for secondary growth. Four-year-old saplings of black spruce in a greenhouse were subjected to different thermal conditions with respect to the outside air temperature (T0) in 2010 (2 and 5 °C higher than T0) and 2011 (6 °C warmer than T0 during the day or night) with a dry period of about 1 month in June of each year. Wood formation together with starch, NSCs and leaf parameters (water potential and photosynthesis) were monitored from May to September. With the exception of raffinose, the amounts of soluble sugars were not modified in the cambium even if gas exchange and photosynthesis were greatly reduced during drought. Raffinose increased more than pinitol under a pre-dawn water potential of less than -1 Mpa, presumably because this compound is better suited than polyol for replacing water and capturing free radicals, and its degradation into simple sugar is easier. Warming decreased the starch storage in the xylem as well the available hexose pool in the cambium and the xylem, probably because of an increase in respiration. Radial stem growth was reduced during drought due to the mobilization of NSCs for osmotic purposes and due to the lack of cell turgor. Thus plant water status during wood formation can influence the NSCs available for growth in the cambium and xylem. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relationships between net primary productivity and stand age for several forest types and their influence on China's carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jingming; Ju, Weimin; Feng, Xianfeng; Wu, Weixing

    2011-06-01

    and applicability of the fitted NPP-age relationships. These relationships were used to replace the normalized NPP-age relationship used in the original InTEC (Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon) model, to improve the accuracy of estimated carbon balance for China's forest ecosystems. With the revised NPP-age relationship, the InTEC model simulated a larger carbon source from 1950-1980 and a larger carbon sink from 1985-2001 for China's forests than the original InTEC model did because of the modification to the age-related carbon dynamics in forests. This finding confirms the importance of considering the dynamics of NPP related to forest age in estimating regional and global terrestrial carbon budgets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The polity and politics of carbon-dioxide taxation in small European states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    The most recent smaller country to adopt a carbon dioxide tax is Portugal (2014), but also Iceland (2013), Ireland (2010), Switzerland (2008), Croatia (2007), Estonia (2000) and Slovenia (1997) have managed to find ways to put into place taxes on carbon dioxide. France (2014) remains the exception...

  1. The European and global potential of carbon dioxide sequestration in tackling climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimston, M.C.; Karakoussis, V.; Fouquet, R.; Vorst, R. van der; Pearson, P.; Leach, M. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Although, it has received relatively little attention as a potential method of combating climate change in comparison to energy reduction measures and development of carbon-free energy technologies, sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic or biospheric sinks has enormous potential. This paper reviews the potential for sequestration using geological and ocean storage as a means to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Considerable quantities of carbon dioxide separated from natural gas deposits and from hydrogen production from steam reforming of methane are already used in enhanced oil recovery and in extraction of coalbed methane, the carbon dioxide remaining sequestered at the end of the process. A number of barriers lie in the way of its implementation on a large scale. There are concerns about possible environmental effects of large-scale injection of carbon dioxide especially into the oceans. Available technologies, especially of separating and capturing the carbon dioxide from waste stream, have high costs at present, perhaps representing an additional 40-100% onto the costs of generating electricity. In most of the world there are no mechanisms to encourage firms to consider sequestration. Considerable RandD is required to bring down the costs of the process, to elucidate the environmental effects of storage and to ensure that carbon dioxide will not escape from stores in unacceptably short timescales. However, the potential of sequestration should not be underestimated as a contribution to global climate change mitigation measures. (Author)

  2. Towards complete and harmonized assessment of soil carbon stocks and balance in forests: The ability of the Yasso07 model across a wide gradient of climatic and forest conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura; Jandl, Robert; Blujdea, Viorel N B; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kriiska, Kaie; Alberdi, Iciar; Adermann, Veiko; Cañellas, Isabel; Marin, Gheorghe; Moreno-Fernández, Daniel; Ostonen, Ivika; Varik, Mats; Didion, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability. The simulated SOC stocks differed only slightly from measured data, providing realistic, reasonable mean SOC estimations per region or forest type. The change in the soil carbon pool over time, which is the target parameter for SOC reporting, was generally found to be plausible although not in the case of Mediterranean forest soils. As expected under stable forest management conditions, both land cover and climate play major roles in determining the SOC stock in forest soils. Greater mean SOC stocks were observed in northern latitudes (or at higher altitude) than in southern latitudes (or plains) and conifer forests were found to store a notably higher amount of SOC than broadleaf forests. Furthermore, as regards change in SOC, an inter-annual sink effect was identified for most of the European forest types studied. Our findings corroborate the suitability of Yasso07 to assess the impact of forest management and land use change on the SOC balance of forests soils, as well as to accurately simulate SOC in dead organic matter (DOM) and mineral soil pools separately. The obstacles encountered when applying the Yasso07 model reflect a lack of available input data. Future research should focus on improving our knowledge of

  3. Trends in food availability determined by the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheets in Mediterranean Europe in comparison with other European areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanza, Rafael; García-Lorda, Pilar; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Aranceta, Javier; Bonet, Mònica Bulló; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2007-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the changes that have occurred in food patterns in Europe over the last 40 years based on food availability data and to compare the stability of the traditional Mediterranean diet in the south of Europe in this period. An ecological study carried out on the basis of Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets for three geographical areas of Europe (Mediterranean, north and east) over two time periods: 1961-1963 and 1998-2000. The average availability of total energy, energy provided from macronutrients and food groups was calculated for each area and each period studied. Over the last 40 years total energy availability and energy availability from lipids have increased considerably in the three European areas, while the percentage of energy from carbohydrates has fallen. The greatest changes have occurred in Mediterranean Europe, with an increase of 20.1% in total energy availability, an increase of 48.1% in energy availability from lipids and a fall of 20.5% from carbohydrates. Moreover, Mediterranean Europe showed a significant fall in the energy supplied by cereals (29.9%) and wine (55.2%), while the contribution of milk (77.8%) and dairy products (23.6%) increased. The results of this study suggest that European Mediterranean countries should take nutrition policy action to maintain their traditional healthy food pattern, with a cultural added value. This implies actions at all levels, including raising awareness of consumers, collaboration with the food sector and a call to set the agenda of the concerned politicians and stakeholders.

  4. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  5. A Thermodynamic Approach to Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Modeling: From Metabolic Biochemical Processes to Water-Carbon-Nitrogen Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, H. W.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum has been central part of understanding interrelationships among biogeochemical and hydrological processes. Theory behind of couplings Land Surface Models (LSM) and Dynamical Global Vegetation Models (DGVM) are based on physical and physiological processes connected by input-output interactions mainly. This modeling framework could be improved by the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamic basis that could encompass the majority of biophysical processes in a standard fashion. This study presents an alternative model for plant-water-atmosphere based on energy-mass thermodynamics. The system of dynamic equations derived is based on the total entropy, the total energy balance for the plant, the biomass dynamics at metabolic level and the water-carbon-nitrogen fluxes and balances. One advantage of this formulation is the capability to describe adaptation and evolution of dynamics of plant as a bio-system coupled to the environment. Second, it opens a window for applications on specific conditions from individual plant scale, to watershed scale, to global scale. Third, it enhances the possibility of analyzing anthropogenic impacts on the system, benefiting from the mathematical formulation and its non-linearity. This non-linear model formulation is analyzed under the concepts of qualitative system dynamics theory, for different state-space phase portraits. The attractors and sources are pointed out with its stability analysis. Possibility of bifurcations are explored and reported. Simulations for the system dynamics under different conditions are presented. These results show strong consistency and applicability that validates the use of the non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory.

  6. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean - shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, M.; Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Moll, A.; Sein, D.

    2013-06-01

    Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump). Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%). The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25%) due to reduced nutrient imports from the deeper Atlantic

  7. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  8. RUSLE2015, GIS-RWEQ and CENTURY: new modelling integration for soil loss and carbon fluxes at European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Lugato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    subsequently the core message focusing on soil erosion in agricultural lands was published in a recent correspondence in Nature (Nature, 526, 195). Additionally, the soil erosion potential for the European Union's forests was modelled using the high-resolution Global Forest Cover Loss map (2000-2012) and taking into consideration the lodging, forest cuts and forest fires (Ecological Indicators, 60:1208-1220). The first qualitative assessment of wind erosion at European scale has been done using the Index of Land Susceptibility to Wind Erosion (ILSWE) (Sustainability, 7(7): 8823-8836). The wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) is one of the key parameters for estimating the susceptibility of soil to wind erosion (Geoderma, 232-234: 471-478). ILSWE was created by combining spatiotemporal variations of the most influential wind erosion factors such as climatic erosivity, soil erodibility, vegetation cover and landscape roughness) (Land Degradation & Development, 10.1002/ldr.2318). The quantitative assessment of wind erosion has been concluded recently using Revised Wind Erosion Equation (GIS-RWEQ). Modelling the lateral carbon fluxes due to soil erosion both at national scale (Land Use Policy, 50: 408-421) and at European scale (Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.13198) is an important milestone in climate change perspective. We coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km2 resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). In the future, the soil erosion (by water and wind) modelling activities will incorporate temporal variability, sediment transport and economic assessments of land degradation.

  9. Inequalities in energy-balance related behaviours and family environmental determinants in European children: changes and sustainability within the EPHE evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Renders, Carry M; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Radulian, Gabriella; Borys, Jean-Michel; du Plessis, Hugues; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; de Henauw, Stefaan; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C

    2016-09-29

    Increasing social inequalities in health across Europe are widening the gap between low and high socio-economic groups, notably in the prevalence of obesity. Public health interventions may result in differential effects across population groups. Therefore, the EPHE (EPODE for the Promotion of Health Equity) project analysed the added value of community-based programmes, based on the EPODE (Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants-Together Let's Prevent Obesity) model, to reduce socio-economic inequalities in energy balance-related behaviours of children and their family-environmental related determinants in seven European communities. This study presents the changes between baseline and follow-up after the one-year interventions and their sustainability one year after. This is a prospective study with a one school-year intervention, followed by one year of follow-up. In all, 1266 children (age 6-8 years) and their families from different socio-economic backgrounds were recruited at baseline. For 1062 children, information was available after one year (T1) and for 921 children after two years (T2). A self-reported questionnaire was completed by the parents to examine the children's energy balance-related behaviours and family- environmental determinants. Socio-economic status was defined by the educational level of the mother. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data was used to test the differences between baseline and intermediate, and between intermediate and final, measurements for each of the socio-economic status groups. Post-intervention effects in energy-balance related behaviours showed the following improvements among the low socio-economic status groups: increased fruit consumption (Netherlands), decreased fruit juices amount consumed (Romania) and decreased TV time on weekdays (Belgium). Whereas in only the latter case the behavioural change was accompanied with an improvement in a family-environmental determinant (monitoring the time the child

  10. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschia, E.; Beziat, P.; Dejoux, J.F.; Elbers, J.A.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Jans, W.W.P.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal, with or

  11. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  12. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tana E; Cavaleri, Molly A; Reed, Sasha C

    2012-11-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  13. Carbon and nitrogen cycles in European ecosystems respond differently to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beier, C.; Emmett, B.A.; Peñuelas, J.; Schmidt, I.K.; Tietema, A.; Estiarte, M.; Gundersen, P.; Llorens, L.; Riis-Nielsen, T.; Sowerby, A.; Gorissen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The global climate is predicted to become significantly warmer over the next century. This will affect ecosystem processes and the functioning of semi natural and natural ecosystems in many parts of the world. However, as various ecosystem processes may be affected to a different extent, balances

  14. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  15. The Effect of Air/Sea Exchange and Mixing on Organic Carbon Export Calculated from an Oxygen Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamme, R. C.; Emerson, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    The production of organic carbon, and its export from the upper ocean, is a major control on the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and thus an important determinant of the earth's climate. The flux of organic carbon from the euphotic zone can be calculated from an upper ocean oxygen mass balance if the rates of physical processes that influence oxygen can be constrained. We present an intensive one-year dataset of oxygen, nitrogen, argon and neon measurements collected at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from July 2000 to June 2001. Oxygen is supersaturated in the surface waters during the entire year due to a combination of biological and physical effects, such as heating and bubble-mediated gas exchange. We use a one dimensional dynamic mixed layer (PWP) model, driven by local heat flux and wind speed estimates, to examine the processes that control gas concentrations. The observed inert gas measurements are used to constrain the rates of bubble-mediated gas exchange by different bubble mechanisms and vertical mixing within the model. Diffusive gas exchange is calculated from wind speed. The model-derived rates of the physical processes combined with the observed oxygen concentrations yield a net biological oxygen production of 1.6 +/- 0.8 mol O2/m2/yr (1.1 +/- 0.6 mol C/m2/yr). Refinements to this provisional estimate and an analysis of its sensitivity to the rates of air/sea exchange and mixing will be presented at the meeting.

  16. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  17. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopicity and refractory black carbon (rBC properties were characterised during wintertime at a suburban site in Paris, one of the biggest European cities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF frequency distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional origin, revealed an increase of the relative contribution of the local sources compared to the background aerosol with decreasing particle size. BC-containing particles in Paris were mainly originating from fresh traffic emissions, whereas biomass burning only gave a minor contribution. The mass size distribution of the rBC cores peaked on average at an rBC core mass equivalent diameter of DMEV ~ 150 nm. The BC-containing particles were moderately coated (coating thickness Δcoat ~ 33 nm on average for rBC cores with DMEV = 180–280 nm and an average mass absorption coefficient (MAC of ~ 8.6 m2 g−1 at the wavelength λ = 880 nm was observed. Different time periods were selected to investigate the properties of BC-containing particles as a function of source and air mass type. The traffic emissions were found to be non-hygroscopic (GF ≈ 1.0, and essentially all particles with a dry mobility diameter (D0 larger than D0 = 110 nm contained an rBC core. rBC from traffic emissions was further observed to be uncoated within experimental uncertainty (Δcoat ~ 2 nm ± 10 nm, to have the smallest BC core sizes (maximum of the rBC core mass size distribution at DMEV ~ 100 nm and to have the smallest MAC (~ 7.3 m2g−1 at λ = 880 nm. The biomass burning aerosol was slightly more hygroscopic than the traffic emissions (with a distinct slightly-hygroscopic mode peaking at GF ≈ 1.1–1.2. Furthermore, only a minor fraction (≤ 10% of the slightly-hygroscopic particles with 1.1 ≤ GF ≤ 1.2 (and D0 = 265 nm contained a detectable rBC core. The BC-containing particles from biomass burning were

  18. Carbon balance of a subarctic meadow under 3 r{ C warming - unravelling respiration}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Hanna; Bárcena, Téresa G.; Moni, Christophe; Szychowski, Marcin; Rajewicz, Paulina; Höglind, Mats; Rasse, Daniel P.

    2016-04-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, as the warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Northern areas contain large terrestrial carbon (C) stocks further increasing the interest in the C cycle's fate in changing climate. In 2013, we started an ecosystem warming experiment at a meadow in Eastern Finnmark, NE Norway. The meadow was on a clay soil and its vegetation was common meadow grasses and clover. Typical local agronomy was applied. The study site featured ten 4m-wide hexagonal plots, five control and five actively warmed plots in randomized complete block design. Each of the warmed plots was continuously maintained 3 ° C above its associated control plot with infrared heaters controlled by canopy thermal sensors. In 2014-2015, we measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and respiration twice per week during growth seasons from preinstalled collars of each site with dynamic, temperature-controlled chambers combined to an infrared analyzer. Despite warming-induced differences in yield, species composition and root biomass, neither the NEE nor the respiration responded to the warming, all sites remaining equal sinks for C. Following this observation, we carried out an additional experiment in 2015 where we aimed at partitioning the total CO2 flux to microbial and plant respiration as well as at recording the growth season variation of those parameters in situ. Here, we used an approach based on natural abundances of 13C. The δ13C signature of both autotrophic plant respiration and heterotrophic microbial respiration were obtained in targeted incubations (Snell et al. 2014). Then, the δ13C -signature of the total soil respiration was determined in the field by Keeling approach with dynamic dark chambers combined to CRDS. Proportions of autotrophic and heterotrophic components in total soil respiration were then derived based on 13C mixing model. Incubations were repeated at early, mid and

  19. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  20. Nitrogen and carbon source balance determines longevity, independently of fermentative or respiratory metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Júlia; Leitão-Correia, Fernanda; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2016-04-26

    Dietary regimens have proven to delay aging and age-associated diseases in several eukaryotic model organisms but the input of nutritional balance to longevity regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we present data on the role of single carbon and nitrogen sources and their interplay in yeast longevity. Data demonstrate that ammonium, a rich nitrogen source, decreases chronological life span (CLS) of the prototrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PYCC 4072 in a concentration-dependent manner and, accordingly, that CLS can be extended through ammonium restriction, even in conditions of initial glucose abundance. We further show that CLS extension depends on initial ammonium and glucose concentrations in the growth medium, as long as other nutrients are not limiting. Glutamine, another rich nitrogen source, induced CLS shortening similarly to ammonium, but this effect was not observed with the poor nitrogen source urea. Ammonium decreased yeast CLS independently of the metabolic process activated during aging, either respiration or fermentation, and induced replication stress inhibiting a proper cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. The present results shade new light on the nutritional equilibrium as a key factor on cell longevity and may contribute for the definition of interventions to promote life span and healthy aging.

  1. Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfeng Chang; Philippe Ciais; Nicolas Viovy; Jean-François Soussana; Katja Klumpp; Benjamin Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071–2100 is predicted to be 1–5.5 °C higher than that for 1971–2000. Climate change and elevated CO2 concentration are anticipated to affect grassland managemen...

  2. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    , with or without irrigation, etc.) and were cultivated with 15 representative crop species common to Europe. At all sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilisation and seeds), carbon exports (harvest or fire) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were calculated...... were estimated from the literature for the rice crop site only. At the other sites, CH4 emissions/oxidation were assumed to be negligible compared to other contributions to the net GHGB. Finally, we evaluated crop efficiencies (CE) in relation to global warming potential as the ratio of C exported from...

  3. Price determinants of the European carbon market and interactions with energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Cludius, Johanna; Matthes, Felix [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Zaklan, Aleksandar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run.

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  5. Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Blonk, H.; Tyszler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these

  6. Sediment accumulation and carbon burial rates in subpolar fjords of Svalbard, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Dominiczak, A.; Forwick, M.; Apolinarska, K.; Moskalik, M.; Woszczyk, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Svalbard region is particularly sensitive to global climate changes as proved by modern monitoring data and the past records. One of the most evident results is rapid retreat of glaciers during the post-Little Ice Age period (after 1900) observed in many subpolar fjords in Svalbard. The goal of this study is to assess impact of these changes on sediment accumulation rates and carbon burial rate. The study reviews the existing data and provide new high resolution results on 210Pb and 137Cs-based sediment accumulation as well as organic carbon burial rates from a dozen of cores collected in Hornsund fjord, western Spitsbergen. The results prove the sediment accumulation rate to be in order of several mm to several cm/year and large increase in the area of high accumulation rate due to rapid glaciers retreat and formation of new inner fjord bays. In consequence, the total amount of sediment stored in the fjord increases, as well as increase the carbon burial rates. The available data suggest that this kind of fjords may serve as significant sediment and carbon sinks, largely exceeding other polar marine environments. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  7. The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in European forests and forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Gundersen, P.; Sterba, H.

    2006-01-01

    An estimate of net carbon (C) pool changes and long-term C sequestration in trees and soils was made at more than 100 intensively monitored forest plots (level II plots) and scaled up to Europe based on data for more than 6000 forested plots in a systematic 16 km x 16 km grid (level I plots). C pool

  8. Putting a price on carbon. Econometric essays on the European Union emissions trading scheme and its impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of

  9. Balance between carbon gain and loss under long-term drought: impacts on foliar respiration and photosynthesis in Quercus ilex L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, D; Barbeta, A; Ogaya, R; Sabaté, S; Peñuelas, J

    2016-02-01

    Terrestrial carbon exchange is a key process of the global carbon cycle consisting of a delicate balance between photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release. We have, however, a limited understanding how long-term decreases in precipitation induced by climate change affect the boundaries and mechanisms of photosynthesis and respiration. We examined the seasonality of photosynthetic and respiratory traits and evaluated the adaptive mechanism of the foliar carbon balance of Quercus ilex L. experiencing a long-term rainfall-exclusion experiment. Day respiration (Rd) but not night respiration (Rn) was generally higher in the drought treatment leading to an increased Rd/Rn ratio. The limitation of mesophyll conductance (gm) on photosynthesis was generally stronger than stomatal limitation (gs) in the drought treatment, reflected in a lower gm/gs ratio. The peak photosynthetic activity in the drought treatment occurred in an atypical favourable summer in parallel with lower Rd/Rn and higher gm/gs ratios. The plant carbon balance was thus strongly improved through: (i) higher photosynthetic rates induced by gm; and (ii) decreased carbon losses mediated by Rd. Interestingly, photosynthetic potentials (Vc,max, Jmax, and TPU) were not affected by the drought treatment, suggesting a dampening effect on the biochemical level in the long term. In summary, the trees experiencing a 14-year-long drought treatment adapted through higher plasticity in photosynthetic and respiratory traits, so that eventually the atypical favourable growth period was exploited more efficiently. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. How land degradation affects the carbon balance and its component processes: case of study in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ballesteros, Ana; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Rosario Moya, M.; Domingo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The concept of land degradation stems from the loss of an ecosystem's biological productivity, which in turn relies on several degradation processes such as long-term loss of natural vegetation, depletion of soil nutrients, soil compaction or water and wind erosion. In this context, desertification means land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas due to climatic and/or human factors. Currently, drylands occupy more than one third of the global terrestrial surface and will probably expand under future climate change scenarios. Drylands' key role in the global C balance has been demonstrated, but the effects of desertification and/or climate change on C sequestration by these ecosystems needs further research. In the present study, we compare net carbon exchange between two experimental sites representing a "degraded" and "non-degraded" grazed semiarid grasslands, separated by ˜15 km in SE Spain, via eddy covariance measurements over 6 years, with high variability in precipitation magnitude and distribution. Results show a striking difference in the annual C balances with average emissions of 196 ± 40 and -23 ± 20 g C m-2 yr-1 for the "degraded" and "non-degraded" sites, respectively. At the seasonal scale, differing patterns in net CO2 fluxes were detected over both growing and dry seasons. As expected, larger net C uptake over longer periods was observed in the "non-degraded" site, however, much greater net C release was measured in the "degraded" site over drought period. We tested differences in all monitored meteorological, ambient and subsoil variables and found most relevant that CO2 at 1.50 m belowground was around 1000 ppm higher in the "degraded" site. Thus, we believe that subterranean ventilation of this vadose zone CO2, observed at both sites, largely drives the differences in C dynamics between them. Overall, the 12 site-years of data allow direct exploration of the roles of climate and land degradation in the biological and non

  11. Sensitivity of alpine grassland carbon balance to interannual variability in climate and atmospheric CO2 on the Tibetan Plateau during the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaohui; Han, Pengfei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-07-01

    As the Earth's third pole, the Tibetan Plateau ecosystems are extremely sensitive to climate change. However, the interannual climate sensitivity of the carbon balance of the Tibetan Plateau alpine grassland has not been well quantified under changes in the climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here, we used a process-based biogeochemistry model, CENTURY, to evaluate the sensitivity of the carbon balance to climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on the Tibetan Plateau grassland during the period 1901-2010. We show that the magnitude of the increase in net primary production (NPP) (0.31 g C m- 2 yr- 1) was larger than that in heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (0.26 g C m- 2 yr- 1), and thus indicate that the Tibetan Plateau grassland acted as a net carbon sink of 7.45 Tg C yr- 1 from 1901 to 2010. The spatiotemporal dynamics of carbon fluxes in the Tibetan Plateau grassland were primarily controlled by temperature, and positively correlated with precipitation and elevated CO2 concentration. The temperature sensitivities of NPP (γNPPTemp), Rh (γRhTemp), and net ecosystem production (NEP, γNEPTemp) during the period 1961-2010 weakened by 16%, 17%, and 15%, respectively, compared with the period 1901-1960. By contrast, the precipitation sensitivities of these variables, i.e., γNPPPrec, γRhPrec, and γNEPPrec, strengthened by 46%, 67%, and 23%, respectively, from 1961 to 2010 compared with the 1901-1960 period. The continuing increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration tended to enhance the climate sensitivity of the carbon fluxes, by 3% for γTemp and 2%-4% for γPrec, as a result of CO2 fertilization and water use efficiency improvement. The climate sensitivity heterogeneity revealed that interannual variation in Rh is more likely to be amplified than NPP or NEP. The findings imply that climate change exerts a strong influence on the carbon dynamics of the alpine ecosystem in the Tibetan Plateau, and this could further modulate the carbon balance

  12. Organic carbon in topsoil - first time fully harmonised at a European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Baritz, Reiner; Reiman, Clemens; Gemas Project Team

    2013-04-01

    The organic fraction of soils often accounts for an only small but variable proportion of the total soil mass. Nevertheless the organic fraction profoundly influences e.g., soil properties, ecosystem functioning, and the magnitude of various ecosystem processes. In the cooperative project of Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil (GEMAS) a total of 2018 samples of agricultural (ploughed land, 0-20 cm) and 2023 samples of grazing land (0-10 cm) soil were collected at a density of 1 site per 2500 km2 each from 33 European countries, covering an area of 5,600,000 km2. All soil samples were sampled following a jointly agreed field protocol. The contents of TOC show large local differences with the highest concentrations of TOC in Finland, Ireland and Norway but also in other countries like e.g., Sweden, United Kingdom, and Germany distinctively high concentrations were measured. The distribution of TOC can be related to other measured soil properties like CEC, pH (CaCl2) and e.g., 52 chemical elements following an agua regia extraction. The GEMAS project has provided for the first time a fully harmonised data on TOC (and many other parameters) at a European scale.

  13. Seasonal changes of the quantitative importance of protozoans in a large lake : an ecosystem approach using mass-balanced carbon flow diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Gaedke, Ursula; Straile, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Based on comprehensive measurements of plankton abundance and production, quantitative carbon flow diagrams were established for the pelagic community of a large lake (L. Constance) for ten successive time intervals during the seasonal course of 1987. Using reasonable diet compositions and parameters (e.g. trophic transfer efficiencies in the range of l0-35%), mass-balance conditions could be fulfilled for individual compartments and the entire food web, provided that ciliate growth rates use...

  14. The carbon balance of reducing wildfire risk and restoring process: an analysis of 10-year post-treatment carbon dynamics in a mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan L. Wiechmann; Matthew D. Hurteau; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Lucie Jerabkova

    2015-01-01

    Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, helping mitigate climate change. In fire-prone forests, burn events result in direct and indirect emissions of carbon. High fire-induced tree mortality can cause a transition from a carbon sink to source, but thinning and prescribed burning can reduce fire severity and carbon loss when wildfire occurs. However, treatment...

  15. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, D.R.; Oijen, Van M.; Werner, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Grote, R.; Haas, E.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Kiese, R.; Kros, J.; Kuhnert, M.; Leip, A.; Reinds, G.J.; Reuter, H.I.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Vries, de W.; Yeluripati, J.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O

  16. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, D.; Oijen, van M.; Werner, C.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Haas, E.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Grote, R.; Kiese, R.; Kuhnert, M.; Kros, J.; Leip, A.; Reuter, H.I.; Reinds, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Vries, de W.; Yeluripati, J.

    2012-01-01

    Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O

  17. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites

  18. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  19. Tradable Carbon Allowances. The Experience of the European Union and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.

    2012-07-01

    This topical book explores the global experiences of responding to climate change, with perspectives from Australia, China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the United States, as well as the International Energy Agency. The authors discuss the obstacles faced by policymakers, as well as exploring policies and recommendations for achieving goals set in responding to climate change. The work also uses the case of Korea in the initial stage of its policymaking, as an example for developing countries not bound by the provisions of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on climate change. This book assesses current national policies and future options for the global response to climate change. Responding to Climate Change will prove to be insightful for environmental policymakers and researchers for use in assessments of lessons in global and regional experience with climate change and for future policy directions. The purpose of this book chapter (3) is to evaluate the performance of the EU ETS during the first lustrum of its existence (2005-2009) and to draw some lessons from its experiences. These lessons may be useful, in particular for other regions or countries interested in setting up and developing their own emissions trading scheme.

  20. Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination in six European populations of Castanea sativa Mill. originating from contrasting localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauteri, M; Pliura, A; Monteverdi, M C; Brugnoli, E; Villani, F; Eriksson, G

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of physiological performances of Castanea sativa Mill. in relation to drought tolerance, among and within European populations coming from contrasting environmental conditions. Forty-eight open-pollinated families from a stratified sample (temperature/precipitation) of six naturalized populations from Spain, Italy and Greece were grown for one growth period under two temperature regimes (25 and 32 degrees C), in combination with two watering regimes in growth chambers. Complementary to growth traits analysed in a previous study, carbon isotope discrimination (Delta), a complex physiological trait involved in acclimation and adaptive processes, was studied. anova indicated significant Delta variability for C. sativa populations across Europe and, thereby, variation in adaptedness to drought. The European pattern of Delta variability matches the previously reported one for the centre of origin of C. sativa (Ponto-Caucasian region). This suggests that common mechanisms of drought adaptedness, involving both genetic and physiological determinants, give C. sativa the capacity to colonize a wide range of site conditions. The highest Delta values, indicating the lowest water-use efficiency (WUE), were found within each treatment for populations originating from Mediterranean drought-prone sites. These populations also had the highest phenotypic plasticity of Delta. Significant among-family genetic variation in Delta was found. The heritability based on the joint anova was estimated at 0.31 +/- 0.07. The estimates of the coefficients for the additive variance varied in the range 2.6-4.0%, suggesting possibilities for selection on WUE and adaptedness to drought. The genetic correlations between Delta and growth traits were generally strong and negative, especially in the two high temperature treatments.

  1. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon & Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Law; David Turner; Warren Cohen; Mathias Goeckede

    2008-05-22

    The goal is to quantify and explain the carbon (C) budget for Oregon and N. California. The research compares "bottom -up" and "top-down" methods, and develops prototype analytical systems for regional analysis of the carbon balance that are potentially applicable to other continental regions, and that can be used to explore climate, disturbance and land-use effects on the carbon cycle. Objectives are: 1) Improve, test and apply a bottom up approach that synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multispectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the C balance across the region; 2) Improve, test and apply a top down approach for regional and global C flux modeling that uses a model-data fusion scheme (MODIS products, AmeriFlux, atmospheric CO2 concentration network), and a boundary layer model to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP) across the region and partition it among GPP, R(a) and R(h). 3) Provide critical understanding of the controls on regional C balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation). The key science questions are, "What are the magnitudes and distributions of C sources and sinks on seasonal to decadal time scales, and what processes are controlling their dynamics? What are regional spatial and temporal variations of C sources and sinks? What are the errors and uncertainties in the data products and results (i.e., in situ observations, remote sensing, models)?

  3. An assessment of the carbon balance of arctic tundra: comparisons among observations, process models, and atmospheric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A.D.; Christensen, T.R.; Hayes, D.; Heroult, A.; Euskirchen, E.; Yi, Y.; Kimball, J.S.; Koven, C.; Lafleur, P.; Miller, P.A.; Oechel, W.; Peylin, P.; Williams, M.

    2012-01-01

    Although arctic tundra has been estimated to cover only 8% of the global land surface, the large and potentially labile carbon pools currently stored in tundra soils have the potential for large emissions of carbon (C) under a warming climate. These emissions as radiatively active greenhouse gases in the form of both CO2 and CH4 could amplify global warming. Given the potential sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change and the expectation that the Arctic will experience appreciable warming over the next century, it is important to assess whether responses of C exchange in tundra regions are likely to enhance or mitigate warming. In this study we compared analyses of C exchange of Arctic tundra between 1990–1999 and 2000–2006 among observations, regional and global applications of process-based terrestrial biosphere models, and atmospheric inversion models. Syntheses of the compilation of flux observations and of inversion model results indicate that the annual exchange of CO2 between arctic tundra and the atmosphere has large uncertainties that cannot be distinguished from neutral balance. The mean estimate from an ensemble of process-based model simulations suggests that arctic tundra acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 in recent decades, but based on the uncertainty estimates it cannot be determined with confidence whether these ecosystems represent a weak or a strong sink. Tundra was 0.6 °C warmer in the 2000s compared to the 1990s. The central estimates of the observations, process-based models, and inversion models each identify stronger sinks in the 2000s compared with the 1990s. Similarly, the observations and the applications of regional process-based models suggest that CH4 emissions from arctic tundra have increased from the 1990s to 2000s. Based on our analyses of the estimates from observations, process-based models, and inversion models, we estimate that arctic tundra was a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 110 Tg C yr-1 (uncertainty between a

  4. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68 respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle

  5. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  6. First European fuel cell installation with anaerobic digester gas in a molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbeck, M.; Klinge, T.; Döding, B.

    The City of Ahlen in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany and RWE Fuel Cells GmbH, Essen, cooperate in order to install a molten carbonate fuel cell in the municipal sewage works of Ahlen in May/June 2005. The MCFC unit, a so-called HotModule made by MTU CFC Solutions, Ottobrunn operates on anaerobic digester gas and provides power and heat for the sewage works. This is the first project of its kind in Europe. This article outlines the experiences of RWE Fuel Cells with planning, installation and operation of MCFC systems and is focussing on the use of digester gas. The engineering and installation phase is described regarding to the special features of digester gas, for example variation in gas composition and impurities as well as different flow rates. The results of the first months of operation are interpreted and influences to the performance of the fuel cell on digester gas composition are compared. One focus of the recent RWE Fuel Cells projects is the use of MCFC systems using different biofuels. With the results from planning, installation and operation of the MCFC in Ahlen a system design for the application of different fuels can be validated and tested.

  7. Cobenefits of climate and air pollution regulations. The context of the European Commission Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Eerens, H.; Van Velze, K. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Colette, A.; Schucht, S.; Pere, J.C.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Mellios, G. [EMISIA, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-03-15

    In 2011, the European Commission published its roadmap towards a competitive low-carbon economy for 2050. For this roadmap the possibilities of a far-reaching reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe were assessed (a decrease of 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels). This report was written at the request of the European Environment Agency and examines the effects of such a reduction on air quality. Analysis of several existing scenarios indicates that climate policy, in general, leads to a decrease in air pollution in Europe.

  8. 6. Analisis Implementasi Cyber Security Di Uni Eropa: Studi Kasus Carbon Credits Hacking Dalam European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Naila Sukma; Putranti, Ika Riswanti; Wahyudi, Fendy Eko

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades in the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has presented itself as a leader in climate change issues. The leadership manifested in the formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as an effort to fulfill the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions in the region. But the existence of the EU ETS has been challenged by the emergence of carbon credits hacking case in some national registration systems in the EU ETS. This study discuss...

  9. Atmospheric depositions of black carbon, inorganic pollutants and mineral dust from the Ortles, Eastern European Alps ice cores during the last 3000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Stenni, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructions of the atmospheric content of black carbon, heavy metals and mineral dust covering millennial time scales are rare, particularly in the European region. Evaluating the human impact on the environment through mining and industrial activities, road traffic, biomass and coal burning, and the naturally emitted aerosols atmospheric load, is important to know the degree of contaminations and the quality of melting water, the radiative effect on the glacier's radiative balance, the atmospheric aerosols' climatic impacts and the recent decades pollutions emissions policies' efficiencies. Four ice cores were drilled in 2011 from the "Alto dell'Ortles" (3859 m), the highest glacier of the Mt. Ortles massif (South Tirol, Italy). Three 74 m long ice cores were dated by mean of 210Pb, tritium, beta emissions and 14C analyses following also the new dating technique based on filtering the ice for extracting the carbonaceous component of the deposited aerosols. The depth-age curve was obtained by using a Monte Carlo based empirical fitting model (COPRA). The basal ice of core#2 and #3 was dated back to about 7000 years b.p., whereas that of core#1, about one meter shorter, to 3000 years before present. Below the firn-ice transition, at a depth of about 24 m, the borehole temperature revealed the presence of well-preserved cold ice (Gabrielli et al, 2012). The O and H stable isotopes profiles describe well the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The proximity of the "Alto dell'Ortles" to densely industrialized areas (Po Valley) makes these ice cores specifically suited for reconstructing the anthropogenic impacts in the Eastern European Alpine region over the last 3 millennia. The ice core#1 was analyzed with a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system (CFA). The separation between internal and external parts of the core prevents any kind of contamination. The core was melted at about 2.5 cm min-1 and simultaneous

  10. Carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions and water balance of Sudanese savannah woodlands in relation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 deg N; 21-36 deg E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world's major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed

  11. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the understorey carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal Pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D. B.; Eisele, B.; Hasselquist, N. J.

    2013-08-01

    Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate. We quantified the effects of nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests - understorey vegetation - at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots Pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory release, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net ecosystem carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of understorey carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of photosynthetic carbon uptake with data on plant carbon dioxide release from the study site, indicate that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in understorey and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

  12. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  13. Conductive additive content balance in Li-ion battery cathodes: Commercial carbon blacks vs. in situ carbon from LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, Veronica; Goni, Aintzane; Muro, Izaskun Gil de; Rojo, Teofilo [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, P.O. Box. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain); de Meatza, Iratxe; Bengoechea, Miguel [Energy Department, CIDETEC-IK4, P Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009, San Sebastian (Spain); Cantero, Igor [Departamento I+D+i Nuevas Tecnologias, CEGASA, Artapadura, 11, 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Two samples of commercial conducting carbon black and the carbon generated in situ during LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite synthesis from citric acid are studied, with the aim of finding out whether carbon from the composite can fulfil the same function as carbon black in the electrode blend for a Li-ion battery. For this purpose, the carbon samples are analyzed by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, granulometry, BET specific area and conductivity measurements. Different cathode compositions and component proportions are tested for pellet and cast electrodes. Electrochemical results show that a moderate reduction of commercial carbon black content in both kinds of cathodes, by adding more LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite, enhanced the electrochemical behaviour by around 10%. In situ generated carbon can partially replace commercial conducting carbon black because its high specific surface probably enhances electrolyte penetration into the cathode, but it is always necessary to maintain a minimum amount of carbon black that provides better conductivity in order to obtain a good electrochemical response. (author)

  14. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the forest floor carbon balance over the growing season in a boreal pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D. B.; Eisele, B.; Hasselquist, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal forests play a key role in the global carbon cycle and are facing rapid shifts in nitrogen availability with poorly understood consequences for ecosystem function and global climate change. We quantified the effects of increasing nitrogen availability on carbon fluxes from a relatively understudied component of these forests - the forest floor - at three intervals over the summer growing period in a northern Swedish Scots pine stand. Nitrogen addition altered both the uptake and release of carbon dioxide from the forest floor, but the magnitude and direction of this effect depended on the time during the growing season and the amount of nitrogen added. Specifically, nitrogen addition stimulated net forest floor carbon uptake only in the late growing season. We find evidence for species-specific control of forest floor carbon sink strength, as photosynthesis per unit ground area was positively correlated only with the abundance of the vascular plant Vaccinium myrtillus and no others. Comparison of understorey vegetation photosynthesis and respiration from the study site indicates that understorey vegetation photosynthate was mainly supplying respiratory demands for much of the year. Only in the late season with nitrogen addition did understorey vegetation appear to experience a large surplus of carbon in excess of respiratory requirements. Further work, simultaneously comparing all major biomass and respiratory carbon fluxes in forest floor and tree vegetation, is required to resolve the likely impacts of environmental changes on whole-ecosystem carbon sequestration in boreal forests.

  15. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana Wood; Molly A. Cavaleri; Sasha C. Reed

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will...

  16. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, S.J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Manios, Y.; Brug, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less

  17. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  18. Carbon cycling of European croplands: A framework for the assimilation of optical and microwave Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Andrew; Sus, Oliver; Williams, Mathew

    2013-04-01

    Croplands are traditionally managed to maximise the production of food, feed, fibre and bioenergy. Advancements in agricultural technologies, together with land-use change, have approximately doubled World grain harvests over the past 50 years. Cropland ecosystems also play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle and, through changes to C storage in response to management activities, they can provide opportunities for climate change mitigation. However, quantifying and understanding the cropland C cycle is complex, due to variable environmental drivers, varied management practices and often highly heterogeneous landscapes. Efforts to upscale processes using simulation models must resolve these challenges. Here we show how data assimilation (DA) approaches can link C cycle modelling to Earth observation (EO) and reduce uncertainty in upscaling. We evaluate a framework for the assimilation of leaf area index (LAI) time series, empirically derived from EO optical and radar sensors, for state-updating a model of crop development and C fluxes. Sensors are selected with fine spatial resolutions (20-50 m) to resolve variability across field sizes typically used in European agriculture. Sequential DA is used to improve the canopy development simulation, which is validated by comparing time-series LAI and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) predictions to independent ground measurements and eddy covariance observations at multiple European cereal crop sites. Significant empirical relationships were established between the LAI ground measurements and the optical reflectance and radar backscatter, which allowed for single LAI calibrations being valid for all the cropland sites for each sensor. The DA of all EO LAI estimates results indicated clear adjustments in LAI and an enhanced representation of daily CO2 exchanges, particularly around the time of peak C uptake. Compared to the simulation without DA, the assimilation of all EO LAI estimates improved the predicted at

  19. Dynamic Balancing of Isoprene Carbon Sources Reflects Photosynthetic and Photorespiratory Responses to Temperature Stress1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey; Alves, Eliane G.; Teixeira, Andrea; Garcia, Sabrina; Holm, Jennifer; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio; Abrell, Leif; Fuentes, Jose D.; Nielsen, Lars K.; Torn, Margaret S.; Vickers, Claudia E.

    2014-01-01

    The volatile gas isoprene is emitted in teragrams per annum quantities from the terrestrial biosphere and exerts a large effect on atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene is made primarily from recently fixed photosynthate; however, alternate carbon sources play an important role, particularly when photosynthate is limiting. We examined the relative contribution of these alternate carbon sources under changes in light and temperature, the two environmental conditions that have the strongest influence over isoprene emission. Using a novel real-time analytical approach that allowed us to examine dynamic changes in carbon sources, we observed that relative contributions do not change as a function of light intensity. We found that the classical uncoupling of isoprene emission from net photosynthesis at elevated leaf temperatures is associated with an increased contribution of alternate carbon. We also observed a rapid compensatory response where alternate carbon sources compensated for transient decreases in recently fixed carbon during thermal ramping, thereby maintaining overall increases in isoprene production rates at high temperatures. Photorespiration is known to contribute to the decline in net photosynthesis at high leaf temperatures. A reduction in the temperature at which the contribution of alternate carbon sources increased was observed under photorespiratory conditions, while photosynthetic conditions increased this temperature. Feeding [2-13C]glycine (a photorespiratory intermediate) stimulated emissions of [13C1–5]isoprene and 13CO2, supporting the possibility that photorespiration can provide an alternate source of carbon for isoprene synthesis. Our observations have important implications for establishing improved mechanistic predictions of isoprene emissions and primary carbon metabolism, particularly under the predicted increases in future global temperatures. PMID:25318937

  20. Disturbance and the Carbon Balance of US Forests: A Quantitative Review of Impacts from Harvests, Fires, Insects, and Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Gu, Huan; MacLean, Richard; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Collatz, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances are a major determinant of forest carbon stocks and uptake. They generally reduce land carbon stocks but also initiate a regrowth legacy that contributes substantially to the contemporary rate of carbon stock increase in US forestlands. As managers and policy makers increasingly look to forests for climate protection and mitigation, and because of increasing concern about changes in disturbance intensity and frequency, there is a need for synthesis and integration of current understanding about the role of disturbances and other processes in governing forest carbon cycle dynamics, and the likely future of this and other sinks for atmospheric carbon. This paper aims to address that need by providing a quantitative review of the distribution, extent and carbon impacts of the major disturbances active in the US. We also review recent trends in disturbances, climate, and other global environmental changes and consider their individual and collective contributions to the US carbon budget now and in the likely future. Lastly, we identify some key challenges and opportunities for future research needed to improve current understanding, advance predictive capabilities, and inform forest management in the face of these pressures. Harvest is found to be the most extensive disturbance both in terms of area and carbon impacts, followed by fire, windthrow and bark beetles, and lastly droughts. Collectively these lead to the gross loss of about 200 Tg C y(exp -1) in live biomass annually across the conterminous US. At the same time, the net change in forest carbon stocks is positive (190 Tg C y(exp -1)), indicating not only forest resilience but also an apparently large response to growth enhancements such as fertilization by CO2 and nitrogen. Uncertainty about disturbance legacies, disturbance interactions, likely trends, and global change factors make the future of the US forest carbon sink unclear. While there is scope for management to enhance carbon sinks in US

  1. Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: A quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Gu, Huan; MacLean, Richard; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Collatz, G. James

    2016-08-01

    Disturbances are a major determinant of forest carbon stocks and uptake. They generally reduce land carbon stocks but also initiate a regrowth legacy that contributes substantially to the contemporary rate of carbon stock increase in US forestlands. As managers and policy makers increasingly look to forests for climate protection and mitigation, and because of increasing concern about changes in disturbance intensity and frequency, there is a need for synthesis and integration of current understanding about the role of disturbances and other processes in governing forest carbon cycle dynamics, and the likely future of this and other sinks for atmospheric carbon. This paper aims to address that need by providing a quantitative review of the distribution, extent and carbon impacts of the major disturbances active in the US. We also review recent trends in disturbances, climate, and other global environmental changes and consider their individual and collective contributions to the US carbon budget now and in the likely future. Lastly, we identify some key challenges and opportunities for future research needed to improve current understanding, advance predictive capabilities, and inform forest management in the face of these pressures. Harvest is found to be the most extensive disturbance both in terms of area and carbon impacts, followed by fire, windthrow and bark beetles, and lastly droughts. Collectively these lead to the gross loss of about 200 Tg C y- 1 in live biomass annually across the conterminous US. At the same time, the net change in forest carbon stocks is positive (190 Tg C y- 1), indicating not only forest resilience but also an apparently large response to growth enhancements such as fertilization by CO2 and nitrogen. Uncertainty about disturbance legacies, disturbance interactions, likely trends, and global change factors make the future of the US forest carbon sink unclear. While there is scope for management to enhance carbon sinks in US forests

  2. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  3. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Carla; António, Carla; Ortuño, Maria Fernanda; Dobrev, Petre I; Hartung, Wolfram; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Vanková, Radomira; Chaves, M Manuela; Wilson, Julie C

    2011-10-01

    The early (2-4 d) effects of slowly imposed soil water deficit on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance in different organs (leaf blade, stem stele, stem cortex, and root) were evaluated on 23-d-old plants (growth chamber assay). Our work shows that several metabolic adjustments occurred prior to alteration of the plant water status, implying that water deficit is perceived before the change in plant water status. The slow, progressive decline in soil water content started to be visible 3 d after withholding water (3 DAW). The earliest plant changes were associated with organ-specific metabolic responses (particularly in the leaves) and with leaf conductance and only later with plant water status and photosynthetic rate (4 DAW) or photosynthetic capacity (according to the Farquhar model; 6 DAW). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the physiological parameters, the carbohydrate and the hormone levels and their relative values, as well as leaf water-soluble metabolites full scan data (LC-MS/MS), showed separation of the different sampling dates. At 6 DAW classically described stress responses are observed, with plant water status, ABA level, and root hormonal balance contributing to the separation of these samples. Discrimination of earlier stress stages (3 and 4 DAW) is only achieved when the relative levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (Cks), and carbon metabolism (glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and starch levels) are taken into account. Our working hypothesis is that, in addition to single responses (e.g. ABA increase), the combined alterations in hormone and carbohydrate levels play an important role in the stress response mechanism. Response to more advanced stress appears to be associated with a combination of cumulative changes, occurring in several plant organs. The carbohydrate and hormonal balance in the leaf (IAA to bioactive-Cks; soluble sugars to IAA and starch to IAA; relative abundances of the

  4. The influence of broiler activity, growth rate, and litter on carbon dioxide balances for the determination of ventilation flow rates in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, S; Estellés, F; Cambra-López, M; Torres, A G; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon dioxide balances are useful in determining ventilation rates in livestock buildings. These balances need an accurate estimation of the CO(2) produced by animals and their litter to determine the ventilation flows. To estimate the daily variation in ventilation flow, it is necessary to precisely know the daily variation pattern of CO(2) production, which mainly depends on animal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of CO(2) balances for determining ventilation flows in broiler buildings. More specifically, this work aimed to quantify the amount of CO(2) produced by the litter, as well as the amount of CO(2) produced by the broilers, as a function of productive parameters, and to analyze the influence of broiler activity on CO(2) emissions. Gas concentrations and ventilation flows were simultaneously measured in 3 trials, with 1 under experimental conditions and the other 2 in a commercial broiler farm. In the experimental assay, broiler activity was also determined. At the end of the experimental trial, on the day after the removal of the broilers, the litter accounted for 20% of the total CO(2) produced, and the broilers produced 3.71 L/h of CO(2) per kg of metabolic weight. On the commercial farm, CO(2) production was the same for the 2 cycles (2.60 L/h per kg of metabolic weight, P > 0.05). However, substantial differences were found between CO(2) and broiler activity patterns after changes in light status. A regression model was used to explain these differences (R(2) = 0.52). Carbon dioxide increased with bird activity, being on average 3.02 L/h per kg of metabolic weight for inactive birds and 4.73 L/h per kg of metabolic weight when bird activity was highest. Overall, CO(2) balances are robust tools for determining the daily average ventilation flows in broiler farms. These balances could also be applied at more frequent intervals, but in this case, particular care is necessary after light status changes because of

  5. [Global climate change and carbon balance in forest ecosystems of boreal zones: imitating modeling as a forecast tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanin, V N; Mikhaĭlov, A V; Bykhovets, S S; Komarov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The individually oriented system of the EFIMOD models simulating carbon and nitrogen flows in forest ecosystems has been used for forecasting the response of forest ecosystems to various forest exploitation regimes with climate change. As input data the forest management materials for the Manturovskii forestry of the Kostroma region were used. It has been shown that increase of mid-annual temperatures and rainfall influence the redistribution of carbon and nitrogen supply in organic form: supply increase of these elements in phytomass simultaneously with depletion of them in soil occurred. The most carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest ecosystems occurs in the scenario without felling. In addition, in this scenario only the ecosystems of the modeling territory function as a carbon drain; in the other two scenarios (with selective and total felling) they function as a source of carbon. Climate changes greatly influence the decomposition rate of organic matter in soil, which leads to increased emission of carbonic acid. The second consequence of the increase in the destruction rate is nitrogen increase in the soil in a form available for plants that entails production increase of plantations.

  6. Extreme Drought, Fire and Harvest Impacts on Pacific Northwest Forests, and the Effects of Future Climate and Mitigation Measures on the Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B. E.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Luyssaert, S.; Coops, N.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is affecting the odds of extreme weather events, including increased frequency of drought events. Under past and current climate and land management conditions in the Pacific Northwest, natural (drought, fire) and anthropogenic (harvest) disturbances interact across landscapes to affect the carbon balance of forests. Biomass and productivity are high (Hudiburg et al. 2009, 2011), harvest and wildfire are the major disturbances, and harvest removals dominate the net ecosystem carbon balance. We used AmeriFlux observations, inventories, remote sensing data, and models to understand current and future effects on forest distributions and the carbon balance, and the effects of mitigation measures. The region is divided into the mild coastal climate and inland continental conditions with colder winters and drier forests in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains. In semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the East Cascades ecoregion, NEP was reduced by ~44% during a series of extreme drought years compared with a seven year average, consistent with western region average impacts, and there were carry-over effects the following year. Reduction in GPP was proportionately larger than reduction in ecosystem respiration during drought. In the mild climate of the Coast Range, Douglas-fir NEP was reduced ~40% in a single drought year, but recovered quickly in subsequent 'normal' years. Douglas-fir tends to be very plastic and can take up carbon during the winter months when temperature is above freezing, but this isn't seen in ponderosa pine due to colder winter temperatures. Model projections of impacts of future climate on PNW forests suggest larger changes in the eastern dry part of the region, while predicted impacts on Coast Range forests are more variable. Modeling and observations suggest the Pacific Ocean may moderate climate and buffer the coastal forests. With projected increases in extreme drought events, particularly where dry systems are expected to

  7. DRUM: A New Framework for Metabolic Modeling under Non-Balanced Growth. Application to the Carbon Metabolism of Unicellular Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates. PMID:25105494

  8. DRUM: a new framework for metabolic modeling under non-balanced growth. Application to the carbon metabolism of unicellular microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Baroukh

    Full Text Available Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  9. DRUM: a new framework for metabolic modeling under non-balanced growth. Application to the carbon metabolism of unicellular microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  10. Carbon balance impacts of land use changes related to the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil-derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2014-01-01

    to oil palm, in a life cycle perspective.LCA methodology is applied to existing land use change data. The assessment includes the issue of temporary carbon storage in the plantations. Through quantification of emissions from state forest reserve and rubber plantation conversions, the average Malaysian...... palm oil-related land use changes are calculated.The results show that there are high emissions associated with the conversion of Malaysian state forest reserve to oil palm, whereas the conversion of rubber leaves a less significant carbon debt when indirect land use change is not included. Looking...... land use changes, peat soils, and state forest reserve carbon stock.The relatively extensive conversions of the state forest reserve must be reversed and preferably with a shift toward conversion of degraded land in order for the average Malaysian land use changes to have less impact on the production...

  11. The Stable Level of Glutamine synthetase 2 Plays an Important Role in Rice Growth and in Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Aili; Zhao, Zhuqing; Ding, Guangda; Shi, Lei; Xu, Fangsen; Cai, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) is a key enzyme involved in the ammonium metabolism in plant leaves. In our previous study, we obtained GS2-cosuppressed plants, which displayed a normal growth phenotype at the seedling stage, while at the tillering stage they showed a chlorosis phenotype. In this study, to investigate the chlorosis mechanism, we systematically analyzed the plant growth, carbon-nitrogen metabolism and gene expressions between the GS2-cosuppressed rice and wild-type plants. The results revealed that the GS2-cosuppressed plants exhibited a poor plant growth phenotype and a poor nitrogen transport ability, which led to nitrogen accumulation and a decline in the carbon/nitrogen ratio in the stems. Interestingly, there was a higher concentration of soluble proteins and a lower concentration of carbohydrates in the GS2-cosuppressed plants at the seedling stage, while a contrasting result was displayed at the tillering stage. The analysis of the metabolic profile showed a significant increase of sugars and organic acids. Additionally, gene expression patterns were different in root and leaf of GS2-cosuppressed plants between the seedling and tillering stage. These results indicated the important role of a stable level of GS2 transcription during normal rice development and the importance of the carbon-nitrogen metabolic balance in rice growth. PMID:26053400

  12. Effects of climate variability and functional changes on the interannual variation of the carbon balance in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; van der Linden, Leon; Lasslop, G.

    2012-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) between the atmosphere and a temperate beech forest showed a significant interannual variation (IAV) and a decadal trend of increasing carbon uptake (Pilegaard et al., 2011). The objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent and at which temporal...

  13. Nort-South gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Nilsen, R.M.; Midttun, O.; Hustad, S.; IJssenagger, N.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ulvik, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Brennan, P.; Johansson, M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Vineis, P.; Chuang, S.C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Dossus, L.; Perquier, F.; Overvad, K.; Teucher, B.; Grote, V.A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Adarakis, G.; Plada, M.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Santucci de Magistris, M.; Ros, M.M.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Redondo, M.L.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Schneede, J.; Guelpen, B.; Wark, P.A.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Vollset, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and

  14. Distribution and origin of inorganic and organic carbon in the sediments of Kongsfjorden, Northwest Spitsbergen, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziorowska, Katarzyna; Kuliński, Karol; Pempkowiak, Janusz

    2017-11-01

    Sedimentary organic carbon in the Arctic, including the continental shelf and fjords, has been relatively well investigated, whereas much less is known about sedimentary inorganic carbon (carbonates) in fjords. The distribution and provenience of both carbon fractions in a high-Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, 79°N) was the subject of this study. Sediment cores and suspended particulate matter were analyzed for total, organic, and inorganic carbon as well as calcium, magnesium, and strontium. The sediments were dated using the radiolead method. Sedimentation rates ranged from 1.3 mm (fjord mouth, FM) to several cm (close to the glacier front, GF) year-1. Organic carbon contents were higher at the FM ( 20 mg g-1) than at the GF ( 1 mg g-1), while contents of inorganic carbon were lower at the FM (16.8 mg g-1) than at the GF (45 mg g-1). Suspended particulate matter concentrations were highest, and carbonates most abundant close to the GF. The data suggest that organic carbon is mostly produced in situ, with glaciers serving as only a minor source. Calculated dependences indicated that carbonates close to the GF are of terrigenous origin and those at the FM almost exclusively biogenic. Carbonates originating from these two sources differ in their composition.

  15. The OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is a critical modulator of carbon and nitrogen nutrient balance response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between carbon (C and nitrogen (N nutrients must be tightly coordinated so that cells can optimize their opportunity for metabolism, growth and development. However, the C and N nutrient balance perception and signaling mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two allelic oversensitive to sugar 1 mutants (osu1-1, osu1-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the cotyledon anthocyanin accumulation and root growth inhibition assays, we show that the osu1 mutants are more sensitive than wild-type to both of the imbalanced C/N conditions, high C/low N and low C/high N. However, under the balanced C/N conditions (low C/low N or high C/high N, the osu1 mutants have similar anthocyanin levels and root lengths as wild-type. Consistently, the genes encoding two MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and MYB90 and an Asn synthetase isoform (ASN1 are strongly up-regulated by the OSU1 mutation in response to high C/low N and low C/high N, respectively. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity of osu1-1 to high C/low N with respect to anthocyanin accumulation but not root growth inhibition can be suppressed by co-suppression of MYB75, indicating that MYB75 acts downstream of OSU1 in the high C/low N imbalance response. Map-based cloning reveals that OSU1 encodes a member of a large family of putative methyltransferases and is allelic to the recently reported QUA2/TSD2 locus identified in genetic screens for cell-adhesion-defective mutants. Accumulation of OSU1/QUA2/TSD2 transcript was not regulated by C and N balance, but the OSU1 promoter was slightly more active in the vascular system. Taken together, our results show that the OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is required for normal C/N nutrient balance response in plants.

  16. Soil organic matter dynamics and CO2 fluxes in relation to landscape scale processes: linking process understanding to regional scale carbon mass-balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Nadeu, Elisabet; Wiaux, François; Wang, Zhengang; Stevens, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Tran, Anh; Bogaert, Patrick; Doetterl, Sebastian; Lambot, Sébastien; Van wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the main outcomes of a collaborative project (2009-2014) initiated at the UCL (Belgium). The main objective of the project was to increase our understanding of soil organic matter dynamics in complex landscapes and use this to improve predictions of regional scale soil carbon balances. In a first phase, the project characterized the emergent spatial variability in soil organic matter storage and key soil properties at the regional scale. Based on the integration of remote sensing, geomorphological and soil analysis techniques, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of soil carbon stock and pool distribution at the local and regional scales. This work showed a linkage between lateral fluxes of C in relation with sediment transport and the spatial variation in carbon storage at multiple spatial scales. In a second phase, the project focused on characterizing key controlling factors and process interactions at the catena scale. In-situ experiments of soil CO2 respiration showed that the soil carbon response at the catena scale was spatially heterogeneous and was mainly controlled by the catenary variation of soil physical attributes (soil moisture, temperature, C quality). The hillslope scale characterization relied on advanced hydrogeophysical techniques such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), EMI (Electromagnetic induction), ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), and geophysical inversion and data mining tools. Finally, we report on the integration of these insights into a coupled and spatially explicit model and its application. Simulations showed that C stocks and redistribution of mass and energy fluxes are closely coupled, they induce structured spatial and temporal patterns with non negligible attached uncertainties. We discuss the main outcomes of these activities in relation to sink-source behavior and relevance of erosion processes for larger-scale C budgets.

  17. Effect of crop residue harvest on long-term crop yield, soil erosion, and carbon balance: tradeoffs for a sustainable bioenergy feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2010-08-26

    Agricultural residues are a potential feedstock for bioenergy production, if residue harvest can be done sustainably. The relationship between crop residue harvest, soil erosion, crop yield and carbon balance was modeled with the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator/ Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) using a factorial design. Four crop rotations (winter wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – sunflower [Helianthus annuus]; spring wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] – canola [Brassica napus]; corn [Zea mays L.] – soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum] – peanut [Arachis hypogaea]) were simulated at four US locations each, under different topographies (0-10% slope), and management practices [crop residue removal rates (0-75%), conservation practices (no till, contour cropping, strip cropping, terracing)].

  18. Strong magnetism observed in carbon nanoparticles produced by the laser vaporization of a carbon pellet in hydrogen-containing Ar balance gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Hirohito; Muraki, Susumu; Endo, Hiroki; Bandow, Shunji; Iijima, Sumio, E-mail: bandow@meijo-u.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tenpaku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-25

    Nanometer-scale carbon particles driven by the pulsed-laser vaporization of pelletized pure carbon powder at 1000 {sup 0}C in a hydrogen-containing environment show anomalous magnetism like a superparamagnet, while the sample prepared in 100% of Ar does not show such magnetism. The observed magnetism was unchanged over months in the ambient. The structure of this nanomaterial resembles the foam of a laundry detergent and transmission electron microscopy indicates a clear corrugated line contrast. On the other hand, a sample without strong magnetism does not give such an image contrast. The x-ray diffraction pattern coincides with that of graphite and no other peak is detected. Thermogravimetry indicates that all samples completely burn out up to approx. 820 {sup 0}C and no material remains after combustion, indicating that the sample does not contain impurity metals. Magnetization is easily saturated by {approx} 10 000 G at 280 K with no hysteresis, but the hysteresis appears at 4.2 K. This phenomenon is explained by introducing a crystalline anisotropy which restricts the motion of the magnetic moment and stabilizes the remnant magnetization at zero magnetic field. Magnitudes of the saturation magnetization are in the range of 1-5 emu G g{sup -1} at 4.2 K, which correspond to 0.002-0.01 Bohr magneton per carbon atom. This concentration may be increased by ten times or more, because only about 4-10% of particles have a magnetic domain in the present samples.

  19. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  20. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  1. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes – a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J.; Bleeker, A.

    2012-01-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms...... average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1yr−1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm...

  2. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010–2019), mid (2050–2059), and late (2090–2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8–48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink. PMID:28046079

  3. Tropical forest degradation and recovery in fragmented landscapes — Simulating changes in tree community, forest hydrology and carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dantas de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Averages from ten four-hectare simulations show forest biomass degradation lasting around 100 years. If edge effects cease, recovery of biomass lasts around 150 years. Carbon loss is especially intense during the first five years after fragmentation, resulting in a decline of over 5 Mg ha−1y−1 C. Finally, edges of large fragments face an evapotranspiration loss of 43% and total runoff gains of 57% in relation to core areas of large fragments, suggesting that fragmented landscapes can be of significantly lower value in terms of ecosystem services.

  4. The target of rapamycin kinase affects biomass accumulation and cell cycle progression by altering carbon/nitrogen balance in synchronized Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüppner, Jessica; Mubeen, Umarah; Leisse, Andrea; Caldana, Camila; Wiszniewski, Andrew; Steinhauser, Dirk; Giavalisco, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Several metabolic processes tightly regulate growth and biomass accumulation. A highly conserved protein complex containing the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is known to integrate intra- and extracellular stimuli controlling nutrient allocation and hence cellular growth. Although several functions of TOR have been described in various heterotrophic eukaryotes, our understanding lags far behind in photosynthetic organisms. In the present investigation, we used the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to conduct a time-resolved analysis of molecular and physiological features throughout the diurnal cycle after TOR inhibition. Detailed examination of the cell cycle phases revealed that growth is not only repressed by 50%, but also that significant, non-linear delays in the progression can be observed. By using metabolomics analysis, we elucidated that the growth repression was mainly driven by differential carbon partitioning between anabolic and catabolic processes. Accordingly, the time-resolved analysis illustrated that metabolic processes including amino acid-, starch- and triacylglycerol synthesis, as well RNA degradation, were redirected within minutes of TOR inhibition. Here especially the high accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds indicated that an active TOR kinase controls the carbon to nitrogen balance of the cell, which is responsible for biomass accumulation, growth and cell cycle progression. © 2017 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Improved constraints on in situ rates and on quantification of complete chloroethene degradation from stable carbon isotope mass balances in groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Elsner, Martin; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Atteia, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Spills of chloroethenes (CEs) at industrial and urban sites can create groundwater plumes in which tetrachloro- and trichloroethene sequentially degrade to dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene, or ethane under reducing conditions. For detoxification, degradation must go beyond VC. Assessments based on ethene and ethane, however, are difficult because these products are volatile, may stem from alternative sources, can be further transformed and are not always monitored. To alternatively quantify degradation beyond VC, stable carbon isotope mass balances have been proposed where concentration-weighted CE isotope ratios are summed up and compared to the original source isotope ratio. Reported assessments, however, have provided not satisfactorily quantified results entailing greatly differing upper and lower estimates. This work proposes an integrative approach to better constrain the extent of total chloroethene degradation in groundwater samples. It is based on fitting of measured concentration and compound-specific stable carbon isotope data to an analytical reactive transport equation simulating steady-state plumes in two dimensions using an EXCEL spreadsheet. The fitting also yields estimates of degradation rates, of source width and of dispersivities. The approach is validated using two synthetic benchmark cases where the true extent of degradation is well known, and using data from two real field cases from literature.

  6. Sediment Properties as Important Predictors of Carbon Storage in Zostera marina Meadows: A Comparison of Four European Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dahl

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal down to ~35 cm depth. We also tested how sedimentary organic carbon in Z. marina meadows relates to different sediment characteristics, a range of seagrass-associated variables and water depth. The seagrass carbon storage varied greatly among areas, with an average organic carbon content ranging from 2.79 ± 0.50% in the Gullmar Fjord to 0.17 ± 0.02% in the area of Sozopol. We found that a high proportion of fine grain size, high porosity and low density of the sediment is strongly related to high carbon content in Z. marina sediment. We suggest that sediment properties should be included as an important factor when evaluating high priority areas in management of Z. marina generated carbon sinks.

  7. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition...... relationships will contribute to obtain better estimates of the impact of soil erosion on carbon budgets and reduce uncertainties in the linkage between terrestrial and aquatic carbon cycling......., aggregation, C content, etc.). Turnover of SOC was determined for terrestrial and aquatic depositional conditions in a 10-week incubation study. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile carbon inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labelled cellulose. We evaluated potentially important controls...

  8. Weed-cover versus weed-removal management in olive orchards: influence on the carbon balance at the ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the C budget at the global scale. Traditional practices based on soil tillage and applying herbicides to remove weeds have caused damage to soils and led to important losses of soil organic C and increased CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Changing trends from traditional agriculture to conservation agriculture practices may have an important role in both C and water budgets and the transformation of agriculture from C source to C sink. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of two treatments, weed removal by herbicides versus weed cover conservation, on the C balance in an irrigated olive orchard in SE Spain. Measurements of CO2 exchange were made from October 2014 to September 2015 using two eddy covariance towers, one for each olive crop treatment. Results show that CO2 fluxes at the ecosystem scale were similar in the two treatments during initial conditions, prior to weed growth in the soils without herbicide application (October). During the first week, daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was close to zero in both treatments, with values ranging from 1.06 to -0.41 g C m-2 in the weed cover treatment, and from 0.76 to -0.69 g C m-2 in the weed removal treatment. As weed growth increased, higher net CO2 assimilation was found in the treatment with weed cover. In both treatments, maximum net CO2 assimilation was found in March, with a monthly NEE of -72 and -28 g C m-2 in the treatment with and without weed cover, respectively. In May, after the weeds were cut and left on the soil, a strong increase was observed in NEE in the treatment with weed cover due to decreased CO2 assimilation and increased respiration compared to the treatment without weed cover. Therefore, soil chamber measurements showed average respiration rates of 2.57 and 1.57 μmol m-2 s-2 in the weed cover and weed removal treatment, respectively. Finally, the highest monthly NEE was registered during July, with both treatments showing a similar

  9. Targeted enhancement of glutamate-to-γ-aminobutyrate conversion in Arabidopsis seeds affects carbon-nitrogen balance and storage reserves in a development-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Aaron; Nesi, Adriano Nunes; Angelovici, Ruthie; Lehmann, Martin; Pham, Phuong Anh; Song, Luhua; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2011-11-01

    In seeds, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) operates at the metabolic nexus between carbon and nitrogen metabolism by catalyzing the unidirectional decarboxylation of glutamate to form γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To elucidate the regulatory role of GAD in seed development, we generated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants expressing a truncated GAD from Petunia hybrida missing the carboxyl-terminal regulatory Ca(2+)-calmodulin-binding domain under the transcriptional regulation of the seed maturation-specific phaseolin promoter. Dry seeds of the transgenic plants accumulated considerable amounts of GABA, and during desiccation the content of several amino acids increased, although not glutamate or proline. Dry transgenic seeds had higher protein content than wild-type seeds but lower amounts of the intermediates of glycolysis, glycerol and malate. The total fatty acid content of the transgenic seeds was 50% lower than in the wild type, while acyl-coenzyme A accumulated in the transgenic seeds. Labeling experiments revealed altered levels of respiration in the transgenic seeds, and fractionation studies indicated reduced incorporation of label in the sugar and lipid fractions extracted from transgenic seeds. Comparative transcript profiling of the dry seeds supported the metabolic data. Cellular processes up-regulated at the transcript level included the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid elongation, the shikimate pathway, tryptophan metabolism, nitrogen-carbon remobilization, and programmed cell death. Genes involved in the regulation of germination were similarly up-regulated. Taken together, these results indicate that the GAD-mediated conversion of glutamate to GABA during seed development plays an important role in balancing carbon and nitrogen metabolism and in storage reserve accumulation.

  10. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

    2014-11-01

    Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 μm (range 0.03-92.1 μm). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 μatm (range: 400-11 467 μatm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Water, Energy and Carbon Balance Research: Recovery Trajectories For Oil Sands Reclamation and Disturbed Watersheds in the Western Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, R. M.; Carey, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Oil Sand Region (OSR) of North-Central Alberta exists within the sub-humid Boreal Plains (BP) ecozone, with a slight long-term moisture deficit regime. Despite this deficit, the BP is comprised of productive wetland and mixed wood (aspen and conifer dominated) forests. Reclamation activities are now underway at a large number of surface mining operations in the OSR, where target ecosystems are identified, soil prescriptions placed and commercial forest species planted. Some watersheds have been created that now contain wetlands. However, recent work in the BP suggests that over time wetlands supply moisture for the productivity of upland forests. Thus, water use of reclaimed forests is going to be critical in determining the sustainability of these systems and adjacent wetlands, and whether in time, either will achieve some form of equivalent capability that will allow for certification by regulators. A critical component in the success of any reclamation is that sufficient water is available to support target ecosystems through the course of natural climate cycles in the region. Water Use Efficiency (WUE), which links photosynthesis (GEP) with water use (Evapotranspiration (ET)), provides a useful metric to compare ecosystems and evaluate their utilization of resources. In this study, 41 site years of total growing season water and carbon flux data over 8 sites (4 reclamation, 4 regeneration) were evaluated using eddy covariance micrometeorological towers. WUE shows clear discrimination among ecosystem types as aspen stands assimilate more carbon per unit weight of water than conifers. WUEs also change with time as ecosystems become more effective at transpiring water through plant pathways compared with bare-soil evaporation, which allows an assessment of ability to limit water loss without carbon uptake. In addition, clonal rooting systems allow aspen forests to recover quicker after disturbance than reclamation sites in terms of their WUE. For reclamation

  12. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  13. A simplified method for the assessment of carbon balance in agriculture: an application in organic and conventional micro-agroecosystems in a long-term experiment in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lazzerini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research works propose sophisticated methods to analyse the carbon balance, while only a few tools are available for the calculation of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration with simplified methods. This paper describes a carbon balance assessment conducted at farm level with a simplified methodology, which includes calculations of both CO2 emissions and carbon sequestration in crop rotations. This carbon balance was tested in the Montepaldi Long Term Experiment (MOLTE trial in central Italy, where two agroecosystems managed with two different farming practices (organic vs conventional are compared. Both in terms of CO2eq emissions and carbon sequestration, this simplified method applied in our experiment provided comparable results to those yielded by complex methodologies reported in the literature. With regard to the crop rotation scheme applied in the reference period (2003-2007, CO2 emissions from various farm inputs were found to be significantly lower (0.74 Mg ha-1 in the organically managed system than in the conventionally managed system (1.76 Mg ha-1. The same trend was observed in terms of CO2eq per unit of product (0.30 Mg kg-1 in the organic system and 0.78 Mg kg-1 in the conventional system. In the conventional system the sources that contributed most to total emissions were direct and indirect emissions associated with the use of fertilisers and diesel fuel. Also the stock of sequestered carbon was significantly higher in the organic system (27.9 Mg ha-1 of C than in the conventional system (24.5 Mg ha-1 of C. The carbon sequestration rate did not show any significant difference between the two systems. It will be necessary to test further this methodology also in commercial farms and to validate the indicators to monitor carbon fluxes at farm level.

  14. Interaction strengths in balanced carbon cycles and the absence of a relation between ecosystem complexity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutel, Anje-Margriet; Thorne, Michael A S

    2014-06-01

    The strength of interactions is crucial to the stability of ecological networks. However, the patterns of interaction strengths in mathematical models of ecosystems have not yet been based upon independent observations of balanced material fluxes. Here we analyse two Antarctic ecosystems for which the interaction strengths are obtained: (1) directly, from independently measured material fluxes, (2) for the complete ecosystem and (3) with a close match between species and 'trophic groups'. We analyse the role of recycling, predation and competition and find that ecosystem stability can be estimated by the strengths of the shortest positive and negative predator-prey feedbacks in the network. We show the generality of our explanation with another 21 observed food webs, comparing random-type parameterisations of interaction strengths with empirical ones. Our results show how functional relationships dominate over average-network topology. They make clear that the classic complexity-instability paradox is essentially an artificial interaction-strength result. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  15. Combining earth observations, gis data and eco-hydrological modelling for predicting carbon budgets and water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegh, E.; Butts, M.; Hansen, S.; Soegaard, H.; Hasager, C. B.; Pilegaard, K.; Haastrup, M.; Henriksen, H. J.; Jensen, N. O.; Kristensen, M.

    2003-04-01

    Remote sensing data, GIS data and an eco-hydrological model (Daisy) are coupled within the project EO-FLUX-BUDGET for the prediction of CO2 budgets and water balance at Zealand which is the major island of Denmark (covering approximately 7.000 km2). In order to catch the surface heterogeneity shaped by the large variety of small fields, a high-resolution (30 m) land surface map is produced from satellite observations and validated using GIS data and national statistics on agricultural land use. GIS information on the housing density of built-up areas was superimposed on the land use map to facilitate the implementation of engineering methods for assessment of surface runoff in these regions. A geological soil map is combined with soil texture data registered in 5439 locations to construct a 3-layer GIS based soil map. The ground water depth is represented by the 10 year average water head elevation which is simulated by a distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE). The Daisy model is run using grid based meteorological data and the results are evaluated by comparing with eddy covariance atmospheric fluxes recorded in agricultural, forest and urban regions. Temporal maps of vegetation properties are produced using multi-scale remote sensing data (Landsat TM, Terra-MODIS and SPOT-VEGETATION) and used to adjust the simulated leaf area indices. The initial result shows that the model efficiency is improved by the implementation of satellite data.

  16. Potential of forest management to reduce French carbon emissions - regional modelling of the French forest carbon balance from the forest to the wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vallet, P.

    2015-12-01

    In France the low levels of forest harvest (40 Mm3 per year over a volume increment of 89Mm3) is frequently cited to push for a more intensive management of the forest that would help reducing CO2 emissions. This reasoning overlooks the medium-to-long-term effects on the carbon uptake at the national scale that result from changes in the forest's structure and delayed emissions from products decay and bioenergy burning, both determinant for the overall C fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. To address the impacts of an increase in harvest removal on biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes at national scale, we build a consistent regional modeling framework to integrate the forest-carbon system from photosynthesis to wood uses. We aim at bridging the gap between regional ecosystem modeling and land managers' considerations, to assess the synergistic and antagonistic effects of management strategies over C-based forest services: C-sequestration, energy and material provision, fossil fuel substitution. For this, we built on inventory data to develop a spatial forest growth simulator and design a novel method for diagnosing the current level of management based on stand characteristics (density, quadratic mean diameter or exploitability). The growth and harvest simulated are then processed with a life cycle analysis to account for wood transformation and uses. Three scenarii describe increases in biomass removals either driven by energy production target (set based on national prospective with a lock on minimum harvest diameters) or by changes in management practices (shorter or longer rotations, management of currently unmanaged forests) to be compared with business as usual simulations. Our management levels' diagnostics quantifies undermanagement at national scale and evidences the large weight of ownership-based undermanagement with an average of 26% of the national forest (between 10% and 40% per species) and thus represents a huge potential wood resource

  17. Actual and perceived weight status and its association with slimming and energy-balance related behaviours in 10- to 12-year-old European children: the ENERGY-project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, T M; Singh, A S; Te Velde, S; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Lien, N; Bere, E; Molnár, D; Jan, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Manios, Y; Bringolf-Isler, B; Brug, J; Chinapaw, M J

    2017-04-01

    Both parents' and children's perception of children's weight status may be important predictors of slimming and energy-balance related behaviours, independent of children's actual weight status. We examined the cross-sectional association of children's self-reported slimming and energy-balance related behaviours with children's (i) actual, (ii) self-perceived and (iii) parent-perceived weight status. Data of 10- to 12-year-old European children and their parents were used. Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for age, gender, parental weight controlling behaviours, education, marital status and ethnicity. Independent of their actual weight status, a higher proportion of children reported slimming when they or their parents perceived them as too fat. Children's self-perceived weight status was more strongly associated with slimming than their parents' perception or their actual weight status. Moreover, children who perceive themselves as overweight reported less physical activity and more screen time. Children whose parents perceive them as overweight reported less physical activity. Children's own perception of their weight status appears to be more important for their self-reported slimming than their actual or their parent's perceptions of their weight status. Additionally, children's self-perceived weight status seems important in engaging more physical activity and reduces screen time. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Measuring the impact of prescribed fire management on the carbon balance of a flatwoods ecosystem in Kissimmee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Hinkle, C.

    2012-12-01

    It has been well documented that terrestrial ecosystems have a great potential to store and sequester carbon. Therefore, a former ranch land at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Kissimmee, Florida, USA is being restored to native ecosystems and managed to preserve biodiversity and increase carbon storage. Here, we present measurements of C flux from an eddy covariance system located in a longleaf pine flatwoods ecosystem at DWP. C flux measurements were taken at the site before, during, and after a prescribed fire event. C stock measurements were also taken for aboveground biomass immediately before and after the fire, as well as one year post fire. This study indicated that this ecosystem typically serves as a net sink of C. However, the system became a net source of C immediately following the fire event, with a ~40% loss of aboveground C stock, but recovered to a net sink of C within 6 weeks of the fire. Annually this ecosystem was found to serve as a net C sink even with a prescribed fire event, with annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 508 g C/m2 in a non-fire year (2010) and 237 g C/m2 in a fire year (2011). In addition to the fire, it is important to note that the growing season of 2011 was anomalously dry, which likely hindered productivity, and thus the NEP of the fire year would probably be more similar to the non-fire year under more typical hydrologic conditions. Despite the variability of rainfall between years, this study shows that the longleaf pine flatwoods ecosystem provides the service of C sequestration even in the context of frequent prescribed fire management.

  19. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Bere, Elling; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Background: To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors...... and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children's soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods: Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey...... undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing...

  20. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Saskia J; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-07-08

    The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Parental and friends norm and

  1. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  2. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eGatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER was followed throughout the season.Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs 34 in SWP, highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly

  3. The role of canopy hydrological diversity and complexity on water balance and carbon sequestration during dry conditions: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Stewart, A.; Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The importance and influence of forest to catchment hydrology have been well recognized. In the South Eastern U.S., Chapel Hill, NC, evapotranspiration by forest dominates almost 80% of the annual precipitation in long term average. Stomatal conductivity varies by tree species and its response to dry condition differently between evergreen and deciduous, and within their phonology groups. In this study, we simulated the catchment hydrology and forest ecosystem at a local catchment, Cane Creek, in the Chapel Hill triangle area using a spatially distributed, process-based hydro-ecological model, RHESSys. We incorporated characteristics of individual tree species to represent high hydrological diversity (e.g., maple, oak, pine), which has been modeled as either evergreen or deciduous (low hydrological diversity) in many studies. With tree species specifically modeled, we were able to investigate the role of tree species diversity and complexity on catchment hydrology. Local forest plant diversity, size, and density were provided by the U.S. Forest Services FIA, and tree species physiological parameters were obtained through researches at Duke Forest. High hydrological diversity canopy has higher water use and carbon sequestration than low hydrological diversity canopy. This result supports the optimality theory that emergent vegetation pattern in landscape maximizes ecosystem productivity and water use efficiency. Previous study emphasized this emergent pattern in terms of vegetation density along the hillslope gradient, and we further emphasized the emergent pattern in terms of hydrological diversity in this study.

  4. A multi-tiered approach for assessing the forestry and wood products industries' impact on the carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The forestry and wood products industries play a significant role in CO2 emissions reduction by increasing carbon stocks in living forest biomass and wood products. Moreover, wood can substitute for fossil fuels. Different methods can be used to assess the impact of regional forestry and wood products industries on regional CO2 emissions. This article considers three of those methods and combines them into a multi-tiered approach. The multi-tiered approach proposed in this article combines: 1) a Kyoto-Protocol-oriented method focused on changes in CO2 emissions resulting from regional industrial production, 2) a consumer-oriented method focused on changes in CO2 emissions resulting from regional consumption, and 3) a value-creation-oriented method focused on changes in CO2 emissions resulting from forest management and wood usage strategies. North Rhine-Westphalia is both a typical German state and an example of a region where each of these three methods yields different results. It serves as a test case with which to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. This case study argues that the choice of assessment methods is essential when developing and evaluating a strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. Emissions can be reduced through various social and economic processes. Since none of the assessment methods considered above is suitable for all of these processes, only a multi-tiered approach may ensure that strategy development results in an optimal emissions reduction strategy.

  5. Prediction of Soil Organic Carbon at the European Scale by Visible and Near InfraRed Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Antoine; Nocita, Marco; Tóth, Gergely; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic carbon is a key soil property related to soil fertility, aggregate stability and the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Existing soil maps and inventories can rarely be used to monitor the state and evolution in soil organic carbon content due to their poor spatial resolution, lack of consistency and high updating costs. Visible and Near Infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is an alternative method to provide cheap and high-density soil data. However, there are still some uncertainties on its capacity to produce reliable predictions for areas characterized by large soil diversity. Using a large-scale EU soil survey of about 20,000 samples and covering 23 countries, we assessed the performance of reflectance spectroscopy for the prediction of soil organic carbon content. The best calibrations achieved a root mean square error ranging from 4 to 15 g C kg(-1) for mineral soils and a root mean square error of 50 g C kg(-1) for organic soil materials. Model errors are shown to be related to the levels of soil organic carbon and variations in other soil properties such as sand and clay content. Although errors are ∼5 times larger than the reproducibility error of the laboratory method, reflectance spectroscopy provides unbiased predictions of the soil organic carbon content. Such estimates could be used for assessing the mean soil organic carbon content of large geographical entities or countries. This study is a first step towards providing uniform continental-scale spectroscopic estimations of soil organic carbon, meeting an increasing demand for information on the state of the soil that can be used in biogeochemical models and the monitoring of soil degradation.

  6. A 520 year record of summer sunshine for the eastern European Alps based on stable carbon isotopes in larch tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Polona; McCarroll, Danny; Robertson, Iain; Loader, Neil J.; Gagen, Mary; Young, Giles HF; Bale, Roderick J.; Sonninen, Eloni; Levanič, Tom

    2014-08-01

    A 520-year stable carbon isotope chronology from tree ring cellulose in high altitude larch trees ( Larix decidua Mill.), from the eastern European Alps, correlates more strongly with summer temperature than with summer sunshine hours. However, when instrumental records of temperature and sunshine diverge after AD1980, the tree ring time series does not follow warming summer temperatures but more closely tracks summer sunshine trends. When the tree ring stable carbon isotope record is used to reconstruct summer temperature the reconstruction is not robust. Reconstructed temperatures prior to the twentieth century are higher than regional instrumental records, and the evolution of temperature conflicts with other regional temperature reconstructions. It is concluded that sunshine is the dominant control on carbon isotope fractionation in these trees, via the influence of photosynthetic rate on the internal partial pressure of CO2, and that high summer (July-August) sunshine hours is a suitable target for climate reconstruction. We thus present the first reconstruction of summer sunshine for the eastern Alps and compare it with the regional temperature evolution.

  7. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Toma, Yo; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Iwasaki, Shinya; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D; Jones, Edward O; Hatano, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959-2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from -1.26MgCha(-1)yr(-1) in 1959-0.26 Mg Cha(-1)yr(-1) in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959-2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    OpenAIRE

    MENEZES, L. de M.; Houllier, M.; Tamvakis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly in-crease the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynami...

  9. Calculation of carbon emission resulting from poultry production under the conditions of the Central Region in European Russia

    OpenAIRE

    САМАРДЖИЧ МИЛЬЯН; КАСТАЛДИ СИМОНА; ВАЛЕНТИНИ РИККАРДО; ВАСЕНЕВ ИВАН ИВАНОВИЧ

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the development and testing of the integral methods of calculation for greenhouse gas emissions estimation at key stages of the production and consumption of poultry meat under the conditions of the Central Region of European Russia. Five phases of the life cycle analysis are discussed from the feed production up to final consumption and waste disposal. Algorithms and examples of the specific greenhouse gas emissions calculation at all stages of the life cycle of po...

  10. Estimating agro-ecosystem carbon balance of northern Japan, and comparing the change in carbon stock by soil inventory and net biome productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xi, E-mail: icy124@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Toma, Yo [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7, Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Ehime (Japan); Yeluripati, Jagadeesh [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Iwasaki, Shinya [Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D. [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Institute of Land Use Systems (Germany); Jones, Edward O. [Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hatano, Ryusuke [Graduate school of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9 Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Soil C sequestration in croplands is deemed to be one of the most promising greenhouse gas mitigation options for agriculture. We have used crop-level yields, modeled heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and land use data to estimate spatio-temporal changes in regional scale net primary productivity (NPP), plant C inputs, and net biome productivity (NBP) in northern Japan's arable croplands and grasslands for the period of 1959–2011. We compared the changes in C stocks derived from estimated NBP and using repeated inventory datasets for each individual land use type from 2005 to 2011. For the entire study region of 2193 ha, overall annual plant C inputs to the soil constituted 37% of total region NPP. Plant C inputs in upland areas (excluding bush/fallow) could be predicted by climate variables. Overall NBP for all land use types increased from − 1.26 Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} in 1959–0.26 Mg C ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} in 2011. However, upland and paddy fields showed a decreased in NBP over the period of 1959–2011, under the current C input scenario. From 1988, an increase in agricultural abandonment (bush/fallow) and grassland cover caused a slow increase in the regional C pools. The comparison of carbon budgets using the NBP estimation method and the soil inventory method indicated no significant difference between the two methods. Our results showed C loss in upland crops, paddy fields and sites that underwent land use change from paddy field to upland sites. We also show C gain in grassland from 2005 to 2011. An underestimation of NBP or an overestimation of repeated C inventories cannot be excluded, but either method may be suitable for tracking absolute changes in soil C, considering the uncertainty associated with these methods. - Highlights: • We compared C stocks change by two methods: (i) net biome productivity (NBP) and (ii) soil inventory. • Variation in net primary productivity (NPP), plant C input, NBP can be predicted by climate

  11. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the

  12. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Jørgen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419 of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034 of soft drink

  13. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papale, Dario; Black, T.A.; Carvalhais, Nuno; Cescatti, Alessandro; Chen, Jiquan; Jung, Martin; Kiely, Gerard; Lasslop, Gitta; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Margolis, Hank; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy; Olesen, J.E.; Reichstein, Markus; Tramontana, Gianluca; Gorsel, Van Eva; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Ráduly, Botond

    2015-01-01

    Empirical modeling approaches are frequently used to upscale local eddy covariance observations of carbon, water, and energy fluxes to regional and global scales. The predictive capacity of such models largely depends on the data used for parameterization and identification of input-output

  14. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to transforming to a low carbon resource-efficient energy system: Insights for the European Union (EU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Jess, T.; Mahlooji, M.; Ristic, B.

    2015-12-01

    The world's energy sector is experiencing a serious transition from reliance on fossil fuel energy sources to extensive reliance on renewable energies. Europe is leading the way in this transition to a low carbon economy in an attempt to keep climate change below 2oC. Member States have committed themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and increasing the share of renewables in the EU's energy mix to 20% by 2020. The EU has now gone a step further with the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050. Nevertheless, the short-term focus of the European Commission is at "cost-efficient ways" to cut its greenhouse gas emissions which forgoes the unintended impacts of a large expansion of low-carbon energy technologies on major natural resources such as water and land. This study uses the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015) to evaluate the Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources in different European Union (EU) member states. RAF reflects the overall resource-use efficiency of energy sources with respect to four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. Weights are assigned to the four resource use efficiency criteria based on each member state's varying natural and economic resources to examine the changes in the desirability of energy sources based on regional resource availability conditions, and to help evaluating the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio. A longer-term strategy in Europe has been devised under the "Resource Efficient Europe" flagship imitative intended to put the EU on course to using resources in a sustainable way. This study will highlight the resource efficiency of the EU's energy sector in order to assist in a sustainable transition to a low carbon economy in Europe. ReferenceHadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All

  15. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  16. Transformation of organic carbon, trace element, and organo-mineral colloids in the mixing zone of the largest European Arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Viers, J.; Gordeev, V. V.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Chupakov, A. V.; Vorobieva, T. Y.; Candaudap, F.; Casseraund, C.; Lanzanova, A.; Zouiten, C.

    2013-10-01

    The estuarine behavior of organic carbon (OC) and trace elements (TE) was studied for the largest European sub-Arctic river, which is the Severnaya Dvina; this river is a deltaic estuary covered in ice during several hydrological seasons: summer (July 2010, 2012) and winter (March 2009) baseflow, and the November-December 2011 ice-free period. Colloidal forms of OC and TE were assessed using three pore size cutoff (1, 10, and 50 kDa) using an in-situ dialysis procedure. Conventionally dissolved (important result of this study is the elucidation of the behavior of the "truly" dissolved low molecular weight LMWmicronutrients from the land to the ocean may increase.

  17. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    Forests provide different ecosystem functions and services including soil carbon sequestration and nutrient supply to maintain growth and productivity. This PhD thesis explored tree species diversity and tree species identity (conifer proportion of basal area) effects on soil C stock and nutrient...... supply (C/N ratio and pH). The studies were carried out in (1) forest floor and mineral soil to 20 cm depth across six different sites of major European forest types based on samples from one to five tree species mixtures along a latitudinal gradient from Spain to Finland, (2) soil profiles down to 40 cm...... within comparable environmental conditions in a Polish forest area, and (3) a trans-boundary approach in adjacent monoculture stands of Douglas-fir and beech at two common garden sites in Denmark. The thesis also included tree species diversity effects on fine root biomass, production and turnover under...

  18. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  19. Explosive Target Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Potrafke, Niklas; Reischmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Using the new unit root test by Phillips et al. (2011) we show that the Target balances of the German Bundesbank have been exploding from the beginning of 2009 to the beginning of 2013. By implementing a full-allotment policy and reducing the required minimum quality of collaterals in October 2008, the European Central Bank (ECB) refinanced credits in the GIIPS countries to a large extent. Private capital flowed out of the GIIPS countries (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal and Spain), and the ...

  20. Modelling long-term impacts of changes in climate, nitrogen deposition and ozone exposure on carbon sequestration of European forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Posch, Maximilian; Simpson, David; Reinds, Gert Jan

    2017-12-15

    We modelled the effects of past and expected future changes in climate (temperature, precipitation), CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition (N) and ozone (O3) exposure (phytotoxic ozone dose, POD) on carbon (C) sequestration by European forest ecosystems for the period 1900-2050. Tree C sequestration was assessed by using empirical response functions, while soil C sequestration was simulated with the process-based model VSD, combined with the RothC model. We evaluated two empirical growth responses to N deposition (linear and non-linear) and two O3 exposure relationships (linear function with total biomass or net annual increment). We further investigated an 'interactive model' with interactions between drivers and a 'multiplicative model', in which the combined effect is the product of individual drivers. A single deposition and climate scenario was used for the period 1900-2050. Contrary to expectations, growth observations at European level for the period 1950-2010 compared better with predictions by the multiplicative model than with the interactive model. This coincides with the fact that carbon responses in kgCha(-1)yr(-1) per unit change in drivers, i.e. per °C, ppm CO2, kgNha(-1)yr(-1) and mmolm(-2)yr(-1) POD, are more in line with literature data when using the multiplicative model. Compared to 1900, the estimated European average total C sequestration in both forests and forest soils between 1950 and 2000 increased by 21% in the interactive model and by 41% in the multiplicative model, but observed changes were even higher. This growth increase is expected to decline between 2000 and 2050. The simulated changes between 1950 and 2000 were mainly due to the increase in both N deposition and CO2, while the predicted increases between 2000 and 2050 were mainly caused by the increase in CO2 and temperature, and to lesser extent a decrease in POD, counteracted by reduced N deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful implementation of biochar carbon sequestration in European soils requires additional benefits and close collaboration with the bioenergy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten T.

    2014-05-01

    Biochar soil application has been proposed as a measure to mitigate climate change and on the same time improve soil fertility by increased soil carbon sequestration. However, while on tropical soils the beneficial effects of biochar application on crop growth often become immediately apparent, it has been shown to be more difficult to demonstrate these effects on the more fertile soils in temperate regions. Therefore and because of the lack of carbon credits for farmers, it is necessary to link biochar application to additional benefits, both related to agricultural as well as to bioenergy production. Thermal gasification of biomass is an efficient (95% energy efficiency) and flexible way (able to cope with many different and otherwise difficult-to-handle biomass fuels) to generate bioenergy, while producing a valuable by-product - gasification biochar, containing recalcitrant carbon and essential crop nutrients. The use of the residual char product in agricultural soils will add value to the technology as well as result in additional soil benefits such as providing plant nutrients and improving soil water-holding capacity while reducing leaching risks. From a soil column (30 x 130 cm) experiment with gasification straw biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil increased root density of barley at critical depths in the soil profile reducing the mechanical resistance was shown, increasing yields, and the soil's capacity to store plant available water. Incorporation of residuals from a bioenergy technology like gasification show great potentials to reduce subsoil constraints increasing yield potentials on poor soils. Another advantage currently not appropriately utilized is recovery of phosphorus (P). In a recent pot experiments char products originating from low-temperature gasification of various biofuels were evaluated for their suitability as P fertilizers. Wheat straw gasification biochar generally had a low P content but a high P plant availability. To improve

  2. Influences of changing land use and CO 2 concentration on ecosystem and landscape level carbon and water balances in mountainous terrain of the Stubai Valley, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, J.; Geyer, R.; Adiku, S.; Reichstein, M.; Tappeiner, U.; Bahn, M.; Cernusca, A.; Dinh, N. Q.; Kolcun, O.; Lohila, A.; Otieno, D.; Schmidt, M.; Schmitt, M.; Wang, Q.; Wartinger, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2009-05-01

    A process-based spatial simulation model was used to estimate gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem CO 2 exchange and water use by the vegetation in Stubai Valley, Austria at landscape scale. The simulations were run for individual years from early spring to late fall, providing estimates in grasslands for carbon gain, biomass and leaf area development, allocation of photoproducts to the below ground ecosystem compartment, and water use. In the case of evergreen coniferous forests, gas exchange is estimated, but spatial simulation of growth over the single annual cycles is not included. Spatial parameterization of the model is derived for forest LAI based on remote sensing, for soil characteristics by generalization from spatial surveys and for climate drivers from observations at monitoring stations along the elevation gradient and from modelling of incident radiation in complex terrain. Validation of the model was carried out at point scale, and was based on comparison of model output at selected locations with observations along elevation gradients in Stubai Valley and Berchtesgaden National Park, Germany as well as with known trends in ecosystem response documented in the literature. The utility of the model for describing long-term changes in carbon and water balances at landscape scale is demonstrated in the context of land use change that occurred between 1861 and 2002 in Stubai Valley. During this period, coniferous forest increased in extent by ca. 11% of the vegetated area of 1861, primarily in the subalpine zone. Managed grassland decreased by 46%, while abandoned grassland and natural alpine mats increased by 14 and 11%, respectively. At point scale, the formulated model predicts higher canopy conductance in 1861 due to lower atmospheric CO 2 concentration which opens stomata. As a result, water use at point scale decreased by ca. 8% in 2002 in the valley bottoms versus 10% at tree line. At landscape level, the decrease in water

  3. Convergence of the effect of root hydraulic functioning and root hydraulic redistribution on ecosystem water and carbon balance across divergent forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    domec, J.; King, J. S.; Ogée, J.; Noormets, A.; Warren, J.; Meinzer, F. C.; Sun, G.; Jordan-Meille, L.; Martineau, E.; Brooks, R. J.; Laclau, J.; Battie Laclau, P.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    trees to droughts. Under future conditions, T is predicted to stay the same at the Duke mixed hardwood forest, but to decline slightly at the coastal loblolly pine plantation and slightly increase at the old-growth ponderosa pine stand and the eucalyptus plantation. As a consequence, water use efficiency in all sites was predicted to improve dramatically under future climate conditions. Our simulations also showed that the negative effect of drier nights on HR would be greater under future climate conditions. Assuming no increase in stomatal control with increasing drier nights, increased vapor pressure deficit at night under future conditions was sufficient to drive significant nighttime T at all sites , which reduced HR, because the plant and the atmosphere became a sink for hydraulically redistributed water . We concluded that the predicted reductions in HR under future climate conditions are expected to play an important regulatory role in land-atmosphere interactions by affecting whole ecosystem carbon and water balance. We suggest that root distribution should be treated dynamically in response to climate change and that HR and its interactions with rooting depth and soil texture should be implemented in soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models.

  4. Towards better-constrained assessments of the carbon balance of North America in the 21st Century: a comparison of recent model and inventory-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D. J.; McGuire, D.; Post, W. M.; Heath, L. S.; Kurz, W.; Stinson, G.; Thornton, M.; Wei, Y.; West, T. O.

    2009-12-01

    The North American C sink is generally considered to account for a large, but highly uncertain, portion of the northern extra-tropical land based sink, with estimates ranging from 15% to 100%. This uncertainty is owing to a number of sources, including the limitations of the methodologies used to develop estimates of C stocks and flux, the lack of comprehensive and accurate data on key driving forces (particularly disturbance, land management and land-use change), and the incomplete knowledge of long-term ecosystem responses to these driving forces and their interactions. Here, we examine the ability of various modeling approaches to identify sources and sinks of carbon across the North American continent by comparing model estimates with those based on analysis of available national forest and agricultural inventories for Canada, the U.S. and Mexico. For North America, inventory-based estimates of C stocks and flux in the early 21st Century (2000 - 2006) are being collected by either political state units in the case of the United States and Mexico, or the Kyoto Protocol reporting units for Canada. Flux estimates from more than 20 forward- and inverse- based models have been collected for the Regional / Continental Interim Synthesis activity under the North American Carbon Program, and these estimates have been processed to allow comparison at the spatial and temporal scales of the inventories. Preliminary analysis of the inventory data suggest that Canada’s Managed Forest Area acted as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 on the order of 46 TgC yr-1 from 2000 to 2006. This estimate includes the release of 26 TgC yr-1 from forest fires, while an additional 50 TgC yr-1 was removed from the forest as harvested products over this time period. In the U.S., inventory data indicate net C stock gains of 167 TgC yr-1 in the forest sector and 17 TgC yr-1 in croplands from 2000 to 2005. Model estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the continent range from -78 to -645 Tg

  5. Detecting management and fertilization effects on the carbon balance of winter oilseed rape with manual closed chamber measurements: Can we outrange gap-filling uncertainty and spatiotemporal variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Vytas; Moffat, Antje Maria; Calmet, Anna; Andres, Monique; Laufer, Judit; Pehle, Natalia; Rach, Bernd; Gundlach, Laura; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in North-Eastern Germany. However, studies on the effect of rapeseed cropping on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and the soil carbon (SC) balance are scarce. SC balance estimates are usually derived from long-term soil sampling field trials where rapeseed is part of different crop rotations. The estimated annual differences linked to rapeseed cropping are rather small (varying between losses of 40 g C m-2 and gains of up to 100 g C m-2). Testing management effects on the NEE and SC balance of cropping systems is best done by comparing plots with different treatments at the same site under the same climate. The soil sampling approach is in the need of field trials that run over decades, which has the disadvantage that management strategies of practical farming may have already changed when the results are derived. Continuous eddy covariance measurements of NEE would require large fields in flat terrain for each of the treatments, which is especially complicated in the heterogeneous landscapes of glacigenic origin of North-Eastern Germany. The common approach of using the chamber technique to derive NEE, however, is subject to the local soil and plant stand heterogeneities due to its tiny footprint. This technique might also disturb the ecosystem, the measurements are usually discontinuous requiring elaborate gap-filling techniques, and it has mostly been used on organic soils where large respiratory C losses occur. Therefore, our aim was to answer, if a combined approach of the eddy covariance and the chamber technique can detect the relatively small NEE and SC differences of rapeseed cropping on mineral soils within a shorter period of time than conventional soil sampling field trials can. We tested the new experimental design taking the advantages of both techniques into account: The eddy covariance tower measuring the NEE dynamics during the year; the chamber measurements to

  6. Relationships between organic matter, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants in European background soils: Implications for sources and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jae Jak; Gustafsson, Orjan; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of UK and Norwegian background soils were determined and their relationships with persistent organic pollutants (HCB, PAHs, PCBs, co-planar PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs) investigated by correlation and regression analyses, to assess their roles in influencing compound partitioning/retention in soils. The 52 soils used were high in TOC (range 54-460 mg/g (mean 256)), while BC only constituted 0.24-1.8% (0.88%) of the TOC. TOC was strongly correlated (p<0.001) with HCB, PCBs, co-PCBs and PBDEs, but less so with PCDD/Fs (p<0.05) and PAHs. TOC explained variability in soil content, as follows: HCB, 80%; PCBs, 44%; co-PCBs, 40%; PBDEs, 27%. BC also gave statistically significant correlations with PBDEs (p<0.001), co-PCBs (p<0.01) and PCBs, HCB, PCDD/F (p<0.05); TOC and BC were correlated with each other (p<0.01). Inferences are made about possible combustion-derived sources, atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange processes for these compounds.

  7. A Multi-Year Comparison of No-Till Versus Conventional-Till Effects on the Carbon Balance in a Corn/Soybean Agro-Ecosystem Using Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, E.; Slattery, R.; Meyers, T. P.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the industrial revolution are in large part due to the release of carbon previously stored in the soil. No-till strategies have been proposed as a means to mitigate agricultural contributions to atmospheric carbon by decreasing emissions and sequestering carbon in agricultural soils while increasing water use efficiency and soil quality. However, the effects of no-till versus conventional-till practices on carbon sequestration often vary due to difficulty in quantifying soil carbon as soil properties change with management. Eddy covariance (EC) offers a more accurate method of continuously measuring the total carbon budget and does so without relying on physical soil carbon measurements. The majority of agricultural land in the Midwestern United States is farmed using the corn/soybean rotation, making it an ideal agro-ecosystem to examine the potential of adopting no-till practices on carbon and water balances. In this study, we use EC to compare carbon and water fluxes between continuous no-till and conventional-till corn/soybean sites over several years in east central Illinois. This allows the determination and comparison of 1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and net biome production (NEE after accounting for grain usage); 2) water use efficiency; and 3) response to climatic variation, both at short and long time scales, between the two tillage systems. We hypothesize that both carbon uptake and water use efficiency will improve with no-till practices, which in turn will improve crop responses to environmental factors such as drought and heat stress.

  8. Effects of the EU law on the climate protection. On the implementation of the European guideline on carbon capture and storage (CCS) into German legislation; Auswirkungen des EU-Rechts auf den Klimaschutz. Zur Umsetzung der europaeischen Richtlinie zu Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in das deutsche Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greb, Tobias [SammlerUsinger Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution is covering the implementation of the European guideline on climate protection and carbon capture and storage (CCS) into German legislation. The CCS technology and special critical aspects concerning the CCS technology are described. The specific legal frame includes the facilities for carbon dioxide precipitation, carbon dioxide pipelines, and carbon dioxide storage sites. The legal drafts concerning CCD are discussed including commissioning, and conflicts of interest. The long-term responsibility including transfer of responsibilities and follow-up regulations are further problems with respect to the implementation into German legislation.

  9. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  10. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  11. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  12. Early diagenesis driven by widespread meteoric infiltration of a Central European carbonate ramp: A reinterpretation of the Upper Muschelkalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arthur; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric diagenesis of carbonate ramps is often difficult to interpret and can commonly be confused with other coinciding diagenetic processes. The Middle Triassic Upper Muschelkalk of Switzerland provides an insightful case in which the effects of several overprinting diagenetic environments, including matrix dolomitization, can be clearly unravelled. Previous studies suggested that diagenesis took place in connate marine waters, with later meteoric waters being invoked to explain recrystallization of dolomite. In this study, diagenetic analyses (C-O stable isotope ratios, thin-section point counting, cathodoluminescence and UV-fluorescence microscopy) of calcitic bioclastic samples have revealed that early diagenesis (pre-stylolitization) and the accompanying porosity evolution did not occur exclusively in the presence of marine fluids. Five sequential stages of diagenesis have been identified: marine, shallow burial, mixing-zone, meteoric and dolomitization. Marine diagenesis induced precipitation of bladed and inclusion-rich syntaxial cements that fluoresce strongly under UV-light. Both cements account for a mean 7.5 vol% reduction in the porosity of bioclastic beds. Shallow burial diagenesis likely induced mouldic porosity and associated fluorescent dog-tooth cementation. Based on light oxygen isotope and elevated strontium isotope ratios, matrix aragonite-calcite neomorphism is interpreted to have occurred in a mixture of marine and meteoric fluids. The combination of shallow burial and mixing-zone processes reduced porosity on average by 4.8 vol%. Evidence for subsequent meteoric diagenesis is found in abundant dog-tooth and blocky calcite cements that have mean δ18OVPDB of - 9.36‰ and no signs of recrystallization. These meteoric cements reduced porosity by a further 13.4 vol%. Percolation of meteoric water through the ramp was driven by hydraulic gradients on an adjacent basement high, which was exposed by a cycle of early Ladinian regressions

  13. The Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Bones of Domestic Animals from three Cities of the European Part of Russia: First Results and Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskaya Liliya Vyacheslavovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the results of first purposeful research on isotopic composition (carbon 13С and nitrogen 15N in the bones collagen of domestic and wild animals from medieval towns at the European part of Russia. The published information about δ 13С и δ 15N was obtained from 61 samples of osteological collections of Yaroslavl, Rostov and Bolgar. The average values of carbon isotope in cattle bones are almost the same in all three cities. By contrast, these values for horses and pigs from Rostov and Bolgar are higher than for Yaroslavl animals. Unusual similarity for δ13С in the bones of sheep, camels and dogs among themselves from the Bolgar collection were fixed. The comparative analysis of the values δ13С in bones of domestic and wild animals allowed us to propose the hypothesis that sheep, camels and dogs appeared in Bolgar from the southern arid areas. The data on δ15N showed the inexplicably high accumulation of the nitrogen stable isotope in sheep and camel bones from the collection of Bolgar and in beaver bones from Rostov samples. This is probably due to the peculiarities of the diet of these dogs, enriched by the entrails of domestic ungulates or fish. The minimum values of δ15N in the bones of dogs from Bolgar reflect the specific diet of herding dogs with a minimal volume of meat. Simultaneously the data of 15N in sheep and camel bones from Bolgar collection and in beaver bones from Rostov samples howed the inexplicably high level of nitrogen stable isotope accumulation.

  14. Vertical and horizontal variation of carbon pools and fluxes in soil profile of wet southern taiga in European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santruckova, H.; Kastovska, E.; Liveckova, M. (Univ. of South Bohemia, Faculty of science, Branisovska (CZ)); Kozlov, D. (Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Geographical Dept., Moscow (Russian Federation)); Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F. (A.N. Severtson Inst. of ecology and evolution RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Shibistova, O. (V.N.Sukachev Forest Inst., Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)); Lloyd, J. (Earth and Biosphere Inst., Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom))

    2010-10-22

    Vertical and horizontal distributions of soil organic carbon, potential microbial activity and basic soil properties were studied in a boreal mixed forest (Central Forest Reserve, TVER region) to elucidate whether the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux is related to basic soil properties that affect the C pool and activity. Soil cores (0-100 cm depth) were taken from two transects every 50 meters (44 points) immediately after completion of soil CO{sub 2}-efflux measurements. Soil was separated into layers and moisture, bulk density, root density and bacterial counts were determined within one day after soil was taken. Microbial respiration, biomass, CN contents and pH were measured within few months. The variability in the soil CO{sub 2}-efflux and microbial activity was mainly explained by soil bulk density. Results further indicate that laboratory measurements of microbial respiration can represent heterotrophic soil respiration of a distinctive ecosystem in natural conditions, if microbial respiration is measured after the effect of soil handling disappears. (orig.)

  15. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... It was like watching a movie, but every couple of frames were skipping. It was disorienting," the ...

  16. Summary: Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  17. The impact of nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the estimated terrestrial carbon balance and warming of land use change over the last 156 yr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Pitman, A. J.; Wang, Y. P.; Dai, Y. J.; Lawrence, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    We examine the impact of land use and land cover change (LULCC) over the period from 1850 to 2005 using an Earth system model that incorporates nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We compare the estimated CO2 emissions and warming from land use change in a carbon-only version of the model with those from simulations, including nitrogen and phosphorous limitation. If we omit nutrients, our results suggest LULCC cools on the global average by about 0.1 °C. Including nutrients reduces this cooling to ~ 0.05 °C. Our results also suggest LULCC has a major impact on total land carbon over the period 1850-2005. In carbon-only simulations, the inclusion of LULCC decreases the total additional land carbon stored in 2005 from around 210 Pg C to 85 Pg C. Including nitrogen and phosphorous limitation also decreases the scale of the terrestrial carbon sink to 80 Pg C. Shown as corresponding fluxes, adding LULCC on top of the nutrient-limited simulations changes the sign of the terrestrial carbon flux from a sink to a source (12 Pg C). The CO2 emission from LULCC from 1850 to 2005 is estimated to be 130 Pg C for carbon only simulation, or 97 Pg C if nutrient limitation is accounted for in our model. The difference between these two estimates of CO2 emissions from LULCC largely results from the weaker response of photosynthesis to increased CO2 and smaller carbon pool sizes, and therefore lower carbon loss from plant and wood product carbon pools under nutrient limitation. We suggest that nutrient limitation should be accounted for in simulating the effects of LULCC on the past climate and on the past and future carbon budget.

  18. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expected...... naval posture of the Union and the corresponding expected changes in capabilities. These predictions are subsequently held up against post-cold war data on naval acquisitions in the EU. The paper concludes that the observed patterns are best explained not as bandwagoning with the USA, but as a long...

  19. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  20. Carbon balance for different management practices for fast growing tree species planted on former pastureland in southern Europe: a case study using the CO2 Fix model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Crusado, C.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Merino, A.; Rodríguez-Soalleiro, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that forestry mitigates carbon emissions to some degree, there is still a need to investigate the extent to which changes in forest management regimes affect the carbon cycle. In a climate-change scenario, forest management schemes must be optimized to maximize product supply

  1. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  2. The effect of plant water stress approach on the modelled energy-, water and carbon balance for Mediterranean vegetation; implications for (agro)meteorological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Anne; Egea, Gregorio; Garrigues, Sebastien; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Balan Sarojini, Beena

    2017-04-01

    Current land surface schemes in many crop, weather and climate models make use of the coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance (A-gs) models of plant function to determine the transpiration flux and gross primary productivity. Vegetation exchange is controlled by many environmental factors, and soil moisture control on root water uptake and stomatal function is a primary pathway for feedbacks in sub-tropical to temperate ecosystems. Representations of the above process of soil moisture control on plant function (often referred to as a 'beta' factor) vary among models. This matters because the simulated energy, water and carbon balances are very sensitive to the representation of water stress in these models. Building on Egea et al. (2011) and Verhoef and Egea (2014), we tested a range of 'beta' approaches in a leaf-level A-gs model (compatible with models such as JULES, CHTESSEL, ISBA, CLM), as well as some beta-approaches borrowed from the agronomic, and plant physiological communities (a combined soil-plant hydraulic approach, see Verhoef and Egea, 2014). Root zone soil moisture was allowed to limit plant function via individual routes (via CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, or mesophyll conductance) as well as combinations of that. The simulations were conducted for a typical Mediterranean field site (Avignon, France; Garrigues et al., 2015) which provides 14 years of near-continuous measurements of soil moisture and atmospheric driving data. Daytime (8-16 hrs local time) data between April-September were used. This allowed a broad range of atmospheric and soil moisture/vegetation states to be explored. A number of crops and tree types were investigated in this way. We evaluated the effect of choice of beta-function for Mediterranean climates in relation to stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis, and leaf surface temperature. We also studied the implications for a range of widely used agro-/micro-meteorological indicators such as Bowen ratio

  3. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-10-01

    research project addresses the influence of TOA in the framework of the case study that considers policy formulation in the European Union (EU). The EU pursues the ambitious GHG emissions reduction targets and highlights the importance of the technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation. The supra national bodies of the EU identified energy as the important policy sector where GHG reduction can contribute to the achievement of the climate policy goals. The European Commission (Commission) participates in the work of various TOA aimed at supporting the development and deployment of innovative energy technologies. The empirical field of application of the research project presents the development and deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS). CCS is an innovative energy technology. The primary goal of CCS is to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation. The key driving force for the deployment of CCS is the climate policy objective. The EU strategy to achieve GHG reduction targets identifies CCS as an important climate change mitigation option besides the increase in the share of the renewable energy and the growth of energy efficiency. The development of CCS as a climate change mitigation option was accompanied by the activities of TOA at the various levels of decision-making. The research project is comparative in its design. The unit of analysis encompasses four formal organizations that pursue collective action. Following the criteria that were worked out in previous research and further developed in this research project, those organizations are classified as TOA. The unit of analysis includes three organizations that support the development and deployment of CCS as a climate change mitigation option at the international level and a Technology Platform of the European Union. The dependent variable is the influence of TOA; the independent variables are i) the formal status of the organization

  4. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk...

  5. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  6. ESTIMATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION BY RUSSIAN FORESTS: GEOSPATIAL ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Malysheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Сategories of carbon sequestration assessment for Russian forests are identified by GIS toolkit. Those are uniform by bioclimatic and site-specific conditions strata corresponding to modern version of bioclimatic forest district division. Stratification of forests at early stage substantially reduces the ambiguity of the evaluation because phytomass conversion sequestration capacity and expansion factor dependent on site-specific condition for calculating of forest carbon sink are absolutely necessary. Forest management units were linked to strata. Biomass conversion and expansion factor for forest carbon sink assessment linked to the strata were recalculated for forest management units. All operations were carried out with GIS analytical toolkit due to accessible functionalities. Units for forest carbon storage inventory and forest carbon balance calculation were localized. Production capacity parameters and forest carbon sequestration capacity have been visualized on maps complied by ArcGIS. Based on spatially-explicit information, we have found out that the greatest annual rates of forest’s carbon accumulation in Russian forests fall into mixed coniferous-deciduous forests of European-Ural part of Russia to Kaliningrad, Smolensk and Briansk Regions, coniferous-deciduous forests close to the boundary of Khabarovsk Region and Primorskij Kray in the Far East, as well as separate forest management units of Kabardino-Balkariya NorthCaucasian mountain area. The geospatial visualization of carbon sequestration by Russian forests and carbon balance assessment has been given.

  7. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S., Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly E. Law

    2011-10-05

    As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance.

  8. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Warren [USDA Forest Service

    2014-07-03

    As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A CARBON-BASED PHYTOPLANKTON MODEL FOR LAKE MICHIGAN AS PART OF A SEQUENCE OF MODELS USED IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different from earlier Great Lakes models, our objective is to link autochthonous carbon production to the toxic chemical concentration within the lake and ultimately to components of the foodchain, such as Lake Trout and Coho Salmon.

  10. Measuring Urban Carbon Footprint from Carbon Flows in the Global Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanchao; Lin, Jianyi; Cui, Shenghui; Khanna, Nina Zheng

    2016-06-21

    A global multiregional input-output (MRIO) model was built for eight Chinese cities to track their carbon flows. For in-depth understanding of urban carbon footprint from the perspectives of production, consumption, and trade balance, four kinds of footprints and four redefined measurement indicators were calculated. From the global supply chain, urban carbon inflows from Mainland China were larger than outflows, while the carbon outflows to European, principal North American countries and East Asia were much larger than inflows. With the rapid urbanization of China, Construction was the largest consumer and Utilities was the largest producer. Cities with higher consumption (such as Dalian, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Beijing) should change their consumption patterns, while cities with lower production efficiency (such as Dalian, Shanghai, Ningbo, and Chongqing) should improve their technology. The cities of net carbon consumption tended to transfer carbon emissions out of them by trading in carbon-intensive products, while the cities of net carbon production tended to produce carbon-intensive products for nonlocal consumers. Our results indicated that urban carbon abatement requires not only rational consumption and industrial symbiosis at the city level, but also tighter collaboration along all stages of the global supply chain.

  11. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario. PMID:27327870

  12. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  13. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  14. Strength-toughness balance of the Japanese sword and changes in carbon content and as quenched hardness of HAGANE steel with cyclic folding forging; Nihonto no kyodo jinsei balance to haganeyo gyokuko no orikaeshi tanren ni yoru tansoryo, yakiire katasa no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, N.; Fujiwara, M.; Saito, H.; Misawa, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Horii, T. [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Micro-structure, micro-hardness and micro-absorbed impact energy in the Japanese sword have been investigated to clarify excellent mechanical properties of the Japanese sword. The Japanese sword specimen used in the present research has been made by using TSUKURIKOMI process which combines four kinds of steels'. HAGANE (edge), SHINGANE (core), MUNEGANE (back) and KAWAGANE (side) steels, with different carbon contents. By this process, HASAKI (edge) side becomes high carbon steel and MUNE (back) side possesses low carbon steel. The cooling velocity in quenching of the Japanese sword is controlled by TSUCHIOKI treatment which coats the clay thinner in the HASAKI side and thicker in the MUNE side. The HASAKI side is quickly cooled and the MUNE side is slowly cooled. The micro-structure in the HASAKI side shows martensite while the MUNE side shows the coexist structure of ferrite and pearlite. The HASAKI side has a lower Value while the MUNE side shows a higher value in the micro absorbed impact energies obtained with the 1.0 and 0.7mm square miniaturized specimens. It has been shown clearly that the TSUKURIKOMI and the TSUCHIOKI processes give the excellent gradated balance of strength-toughness to the Japanese sword. The ORIKAESHI (folding) forging has an effect both on the carbon content and as quenched hardness in HAGANE steel. The most suitable times of ORIKAESHI cycles which adjust to the carbon content of 0.55 {approx} 0.60mass% and hardness of 800HVl have been determined to be thirteen times. These times of ORIKAESHI cycles correspond to the optimum traditional cycles lying between twelve and fifteen times. The present research from the viewpoint of the metallurgy sheds light on the empirical rule in the traditional Japanese sword processing. (author)

  15. Balancing security and liberty within the European human rights framework. A critical reading of the Court’s case law in the light of surveillance and criminal law enforcement strategies after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J.A. de Hert

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature concerning human rights protection by the European Court on Human Rights after 9/11 is very often coloured by optimism. Some authors hold that judicial control by the European Court on national anti-terrorism measures is very strict, especially compared to U.S. judicial review. Others suggest the existence of a strict privacy test developed by the European Court as a bulwark again anti-terrorism measures that give too much discretion to law enforcement authorities. In this paper we discuss the ‘classical’ European framework with regard to ‘hard’ anti-terrorism measures and the privacy framework that is relevant for new, ‘softer’ anti-terrorism measures. it is argued that this optimistic reading of the European human rights framework in the area of security especially with regard to the latter is flawed and based on a misunderstanding of the case law of the European Court. This analysis leaves little room for optimism about judicial review of the legislator in Europe and urges for an attitude of self-restraint.

  16. Description, calibration and sensitivity analysis of the local ecosystem submodel of a global model of carbon and nitrogen cycling and the water balance in the terrestrial biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercher, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chambers, J.Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-10-01

    We have developed a geographically-distributed ecosystem model for the carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere TERRA. The local ecosystem model of TERRA consists of coupled, modified versions of TEM and DAYTRANS. The ecosystem model in each grid cell calculates water fluxes of evaporation, transpiration, and runoff; carbon fluxes of gross primary productivity, litterfall, and plant and soil respiration; and nitrogen fluxes of vegetation uptake, litterfall, mineralization, immobilization, and system loss. The state variables are soil water content; carbon in live vegetation; carbon in soil; nitrogen in live vegetation; organic nitrogen in soil and fitter; available inorganic nitrogen aggregating nitrites, nitrates, and ammonia; and a variable for allocation. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics are calibrated to specific sites in 17 vegetation types. Eight parameters are determined during calibration for each of the 17 vegetation types. At calibration, the annual average values of carbon in vegetation C, show site differences that derive from the vegetation-type specific parameters and intersite variation in climate and soils. From calibration, we recover the average C{sub v} of forests, woodlands, savannas, grasslands, shrublands, and tundra that were used to develop the model initially. The timing of the phases of the annual variation is driven by temperature and light in the high latitude and moist temperate zones. The dry temperate zones are driven by temperature, precipitation, and light. In the tropics, precipitation is the key variable in annual variation. The seasonal responses are even more clearly demonstrated in net primary production and show the same controlling factors.

  17. Drought impacts on ecosystem functions of the U.S. National Forests and Grasslands: Part I evaluation of a water and carbon balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanlei Sun; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Erika Cohen; Jingfeng Xiao; Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and quantitatively evaluating the regional impacts of climate change and variability (e.g., droughts) on forest ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield, evapotranspiration, and productivity) and services (e.g., fresh water supply and carbon sequestration) is of great importance for developing climate change adaptation strategies for National Forests and...

  18. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  19. Annual balances and extended seasonal modelling of carbon fluxes from a temperate fen cropped to festulolium and tall fescue under two-cut and three-cut harvesting regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    a