WorldWideScience

Sample records for european carbon balance

  1. The impact of lateral carbon fluxes on the European carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Hauglustaine, D.; Borges, A.V.; Abril, G.; Meybeck, M.; Folberth, G.; Janssens, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    To date, little is known about the impact of processes which cause lateral carbon fluxes over continents, and from continents to oceans on the CO 2 - and carbon budgets at local, regional and continental scales. Lateral carbon fluxes contribute to regional carbon budgets as follows: Ecosystem CO 2 sink=Ecosystem carbon accumulation + Lateral carbon fluxes. We estimated the contribution of wood and food product trade, of emission and oxidation of reduced carbon species, and of river erosion and transport as lateral carbon fluxes to the carbon balance of Europe (EU-25). The analysis is completed by new estimates of the carbon fluxes of coastal seas. We estimated that lateral transport (all processes combined) is a flux of 165 Tg C yr -1 at the scale of EU-25. The magnitude of lateral transport is thus comparable to current estimates of carbon accumulation in European forests. The main process contributing to the total lateral flux out of Europe is the flux of reduced carbon compounds, corresponding to the sum of non-CO 2 gaseous species (CH 4 , CO, hydrocarbons,... ) emitted by ecosystems and exported out of the European boundary layer by the large scale atmospheric circulation. (authors)

  2. The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Marland, G.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S.L.; levin, I.; Pregger, T.; Scholz, Y.; Friedrich, R.; Rivier, L.; Houweling, S.; Schulze, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in

  3. Carbon and water balance of European croplands throughout the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervois, SéBastien; Ciais, Philippe; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Brisson, Nadine; Vuichard, Nicolas; Viovy, Nicolas

    2008-06-01

    We assessed the effects of rising atmospheric CO2, changing climate, and farmers' practice on the carbon and water balance of European croplands during the past century (1901-2000). The coupled vegetation-crop model ORCHIDEE-STICS is applied over western Europe for C3 crops (winter wheat) and for maize, with prescribed historical agricultural practice changes. Not surprisingly, the enormous crop yield increase observed in all European regions, 300-400% between 1950 and 2000, is found to be dominantly explained by improved practice and varieties selection, rather than by rising CO2 (explaining a ˜11% uniform increase in yield) and changing climate (no further change in yield on average, but causing a decrease of ˜19% in the southern Iberian Peninsula). Agricultural soil carbon stocks in Europe are modeled to have decreased between 1950 and 1970, and since then to have increased again. Thus, the current stocks only differ by 1 ± 6 tC ha-1 from their 1900 value. Compensating effects of increasing yields on the one hand (increasing stocks) and of higher harvest index values and ploughing on the other hand (decreasing stocks) occur. Each of these processes taken individually has the potential to strongly alter the croplands soil carbon balance in the model. Consequently, large uncertainties are associated to the estimated change in carbon stocks between 1901 and 2001, roughly ±6 tC ha-1 a-1. In our most realistic simulation, the current cropland carbon balance is a net sink of 0.16 ± 0.15 tC ha-1 a-1. The annual water balance of cropland soils is influenced by increasing crop water use efficiency, one third of which is caused by rising CO2. However, increasing water use efficiency occurred mainly in spring and winter, when water is not limiting for plant growth, whereas no strong savings of soil water are achieved in summer through elevated CO2. Overall, trends in cultivation practices have caused a 3 times larger increase of water use efficiency than rising CO2.

  4. Carbon balance of a southern taiga spruce stand in European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukova, I.M.; Varlagin, A.V.; Vygodskaya, N.N.; Kolle, O.; Schulze, E.D.; Lloyd, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from nearly three years of net ecosystem flux measurements above a boreal spruce stand growing in European Russia. Fluxes were measured by eddy covariance using conventional techniques. In all years examined (1998-2000), the forest was a significant source of carbon to the atmosphere. However, the magnitude of this inferred source depended upon assumptions regarding the degree of 'flux loss' under conditions of low turbulence, such as typically occur at night. When corrections were not made, the forest was calculated to be only a modest source of C to the atmosphere (3-5 mol C/m 2 /yr). However, when the corrections were included, the apparent source was much larger (20-30 mol C/m 2 /yr). Using a simple model to describe the temperature dependencies of ecosystem respiration on air and soil temperatures, about 80% of the night-time flux was inferred to be from soil respiration, with the remainder being attributable to foliage, branches and boles. We used reasonable assumptions to estimate the rate of ecosystem respiration during the day, allowing an estimation of canopy photosynthetic rates and hence the annual Gross Primary Productivity of the ecosystem. For the two full years examined (1999 and 2000), this was estimated at 122 and 130 mol C/m 2 /yr, respectively. This value is similar to estimates for boreal forests in Scandinavia, but substantially higher than has been reported for Canadian or Siberian boreal forests. There was a clear tendency for canopy photosynthetic rates to increase with both light and temperature, but the slope of the temperature response of photosynthesis was less steep that that of ecosystem respiration. Thus, on most warm days in summer the forest was a substantial source of carbon to the atmosphere; with the forest usually being a net sink only on high insolation days where the average daily air temperatures were below about 18 deg C. These data, along with other studies on the current balance of boreal ecosystems

  5. Detecting the critical periods that underpin interannual fluctuations in the carbon balance of European forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Maire, Guerric; Delpierre, Nicolas; Jung, Martin

    2010-01-01

    . The analysis was first conducted at seven European forest flux tower sites with contrasting species and climatic conditions. Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), a generic process-based model, represented fairly well most features of the critical period patterns and their climate...

  6. The carbon balance of European croplands: a Trans-European, cross-site, multi model simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenbach, Martin; Sus, Oliver; Vuichard, Nicolas; Lehuger, Simon; Leip, Adrian; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete

    2010-05-01

    Croplands cover approximately 45% of Europe and play a significant role in the overall carbon budget of the continent. However, the estimation of the regional carbon balance is still uncertain. Here, we present a multi-site model comparison for four cropland ecosystem models namely the DNDC, ORCHIDEE-STICS, CERES-EGC and SPA model. We compare the accuracy of the models in predicting net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco) as well as actual evapo-transpiration (ETa) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) derived from eddy covariance measurements on five sites of the CarboEurope IP network. The models are all able to simulate mean daily GPP. The simulation results for mean daily ETa and Reco are, however, less accurate. The resulting simulation of daily NEE is adequate beside some cases where models fail due to a lack in phase and amplitude alignment. ORCHIDEE-STICS and the SPA demonstrate the best performance, nevertheless, they are not able to simulate full crop rotations under consideration of multiple management. CERES-EGC and especially DNDC although exhibiting a lower level of model accuracy are able to simulate such conditions resulting in more accurate annual cumulative NEE.

  7. Carbon balance at represenative agroecosystems of Central European Russia with different crops assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that in Russia cropland's soils carbon loses 9 time higher than forest's soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), agroecosystems were not given sufficient attention and most of the papers are devoted to forestry and natural ecosystems. Carbon balance was calculated at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia, for two agroecosystems with different crops from the same crop rotation studied for 2 years. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured with eddy covariance technique, statistical method to measure and calculate turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers (Burba, 2013). Crop rotation included potato, winter wheat, barley and vetch and oat mix. Two fields of the same crop rotation were studied in 2013-2014. One of the fields (A) was used in 2013 for barley planting (Hordeum vulgare L.). The field B was in 2013 used for planting together vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Inversely oats and vetch grass mixt was sown in 2014 on field A. Winter wheat was sown on field A in the very beginning of September. On the second field (B) in 2014 winter wheat occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering, after harvesting it in mid of July, white mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the field with winter wheat and white mustard; perhaps because the two crops were cultivated on the field within one growing season. Three other cases showed CO2 emission. Great difference in 82 g C m-2 per year in NEE between two fields with vetch and oat mix was related to higher difference in grass yields. NEE for barley field was positive during the whole year; considering only the growing season, NEE for barley was 100 g C m-2 lower and was negative. Closed

  8. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T.J. (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM))

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  9. Balancing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goreau, T J [Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory, Univ. of the West Indies (JM)

    1990-01-01

    Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasing worldwide concern, and pressure towards an international law of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rain forests, and Carribean coral reefs suggest that the biological effects of climate change may be more severe than climate models predict. Efforts to limit emissions from fossil-fuel combustion alone are incapable of stabilizing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide requires coupled measures to balance sources and sinks of the gas, and will only be viable with large-scale investments in increased sustainable productivity on degraded tropical soils, and in long-term research on renewable energy and biomass product development in the developing countries. A mechanism is outlined which directly links fossil-fuel combustion sources of carbon dioxide to removal via increasing biotic productivity and storage. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis suggests that such measures are very affordable, costing far less than inaction. (With 88 refs.).

  10. Very high resolution regional climate simulations on the 4 km scale as a basis for carbon balance assessments in northeast European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna; Rinke, Annette; Matthes, Heidrun; Marchenko, Sergej; Daanen, Ronald; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Simulations with global circulation models (GCMs) clearly indicate that major climate changes in polar regions can be expected during the 21st century. Model studies have shown that the area of the Northern Hemisphere underlain by permafrost could be reduced substantially in a warmer climate. However, thawing of permafrost, in particular if it is ice-rich, is subject to a time lag due to the large latent heat of fusion. State-of-the-art GCMs are unable to adequately model these processes because (a) even the most advanced subsurface schemes rarely treat depths below 5 m explicitly, and (b) soil thawing and freezing processes cannot be dealt with directly due to the coarse resolution of present GCMs. Any attempt to model subsurface processes needs information about soil properties, vegetation and snow cover, which are hardly realistic on a typical GCM grid. Furthermore, simulated GCM precipitation is often underestimated and the proportion of rain and snow is incorrect. One possibility to overcome resolution-related problems is to use regional climate models (RCMs). Such an RCM, HIRHAM, has until now been the only one used for the entire circumpolar domain, and its most recent version, HIRHAM5, has also been used in the high resolution study described here. Instead of the traditional approach via a degree-day based frost index from observations or model data, we use the regional model to create boundary conditions for an advanced permafrost model. This approach offers the advantage that the permafrost model can be run on the grid of the regional model, i.e. in a considerably higher resolution than in previous approaches. We here present results from a new time-slice integration with an unprecedented horizontal resolution of only 4 km, covering northeast European Russia. This model simulation has served as basis for an assessment of the carbon balance for a region in northeast European Russia within the EU-funded Carbo-North project.

  11. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  12. Work-life balance of Eastern European migrants in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Flenova, Vera

    2017-01-01

    his study is devoted to the balance between work and life the Eastern European migrants manage to obtain. Work and life balance is considered as one of the core factors for the quality of life of the individual. Processes of migration and integration of migrants make the attainment of the work-life balance even more complicated and involve more resources. In this work the work and personal life balance of migrants is being analysed from the following perspectives: occupation, f...

  13. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  14. Nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, and contemporary carbon balance of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Zaehle, S.; Hughes, J.; Viovy, N.; Jung, M.; Chen, Y.; Heimann, M.; Roedenbeck, C.; Jones, C.

    2009-04-01

    In Europe, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, forest cover was steadily increasing, and agricultural area was declining over the last 50 years. What effect have these changes had on the European carbon balance? In this study we estimate responses of the European land ecosystems to nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion and climate. We use results from four ecosystem process models such as BIOME-BGC, JULES, ORCHIDEE, and ORCHIDEE-CN to address this question. We discuss to which degree carbon balance of Europe has been altered by nitrogen deposition in comparison to other drivers and identify areas which carbon balance has been most effected by anthropogenic changes.

  15. Forest fuel and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    Forest fuel, i.e., branches and tops that remain after felling, are not considered to give a net surplus of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. In order to, if possible, verify this theory a survey was made of the literature concerning different carbon flows related to forest fuel. Branches and needles that are not utilised as fuel nonetheless eventually become decomposed to carbon dioxide. Branches and stem wood are broken down in occasional cases to 60-80% already within 5-6 years but the decomposition rate varies strongly. A small amount of existing data suggest that branches and stems are broken down almost completely within 60-70 years, and earlier in some cases. Lignin is the component in needles and wood that is the most resistant to decomposition. Decomposition is favoured by optimal temperature and moisture, ground contact and ground animals. Material that is mulched during soil preparation is decomposed considerably faster than material that lies on the soil surface. Felling residues that are left on the soil are a large momentary addition to the soil's reserves of organic material but after a number of years the difference in soil organic material is small between places where fuel has been removed and places where felling residues have been left. High nitrogen deposition, fire control and effective forestry are factors that contribute to the increases in the reserves of soil organic material. It appears to be a good approximation to consider the forest fuel as being a neutral fuel as regards carbon dioxide in a longer perspective. In comparison with other biofuels and fossil fuels, forest fuel appears, together with Salix, to be the fuel that results in very little extra discharge of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases during its production, transport and processing. 70 refs, 5 figs, tabs

  16. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  17. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states

    OpenAIRE

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; van Der Wel, Kjetil A.; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort–reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work–life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work–life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work–life balance between European countries. Methods: D...

  19. Climate change, fire and the carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Flannigan, M.

    2004-01-01

    On average, forest fires have burned 2 to 3 million hectares annually in Canada over the last twenty years. Over the last 40 years, this amounts to 20 per cent of the amount of carbon released through fossil fuel emissions in Canada. This paper analyses the extent to which climate change may contribute to a disturbance in the carbon balance due to increased fire activity. In addition, data from FLUXNET-Canada was examined, indicating that carbon fluxes from younger forests show dramatic changes in diurnal carbon flux patterns, caused by reduced photosynthetic uptake during the day and less root respiration at night. Increases in fire are expected throughout much of the boreal forest towards the end of this century, with a lengthening of the fire season and increases in severity and intensity. It was concluded that there is the possibility of a positive feedback, where climate change could cause more fires, resulting in a greater release of carbon and thereby increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Evidence that smoke promoted positive lightning strikes while reducing precipitation was also presented. It was suggested that certain self-limiting factors may prevent a run-away scenario. Changes to human and lightning ignition patterns, for example, may have an impact. It was also suggested that research efforts should focus on refining climate change estimates that account for landscape change and other aspects that control fire in Canada. 9 refs., 2 figs

  20. Nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, climate, and contemporary carbon balance of Europe (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Zahle, S.; Hughes, J.; Viovy, N.; Chen, Y.; Jung, M.; Ramankutty, N.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.; Jones, C.

    2009-12-01

    In Europe, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, air temperature was rising, forest cover was steadily increasing, while agricultural area was declining over the last 50 years. What effect have these changes had on the European carbon balance? In this study we estimate responses of the European land ecosystems to nitrogen deposition, rising CO2, land cover conversion and climate change. We use results from three ecosystem process models such as BIOME-BGC, JULES, and ORCHIDEE (-CN) to address this question. We discuss to which degree carbon balance of Europe has been altered by nitrogen deposition in comparison to other drivers and identify areas which carbon balance has been affected by anthropogenic changes the most. We also analyze ecosystems carbon pools which were affected by the abovementioned environmental changes.

  1. Market efficiency in the European carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier; Fouilloux, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between futures and spot prices in the European carbon markets from the cost-of-carry hypothesis. The aim is to investigate the extent of efficiency market. The three main European markets (BlueNext, EEX and ECX) are analyzed during Phase II, covering the period from March 13, 2009 to January, 17, 2012. Futures contracts are found to be cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates for several maturities in the three CO 2 markets. Results are similar when structural breaks are taken into account. According to individual and joint tests, the cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and CO 2 markets, implying that neither contract is priced according to the cost-of-carry model. The absence of the cost-of-carry relationship can be interpreted as an indicator of market inefficiency and may bring arbitrage opportunities in the CO 2 market. - Highlights: • We study the cost-of-carry hypothesis in the European carbon markets during Phase 2. • We apply cointegration tests with and without structural breaks on several maturities. • We find that futures contracts are cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates. • The cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and carbon markets

  2. Human footprint affects US carbon balance more than climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelet, Dominique; Ferschweiler, Ken; Sheehan, Tim; Baker, Barry; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The MC2 model projects an overall increase in carbon capture in conterminous United States during the 21st century while also simulating a rise in fire causing much carbon loss. Carbon sequestration in soils is critical to prevent carbon losses from future disturbances, and we show that natural ecosystems store more carbon belowground than managed systems do. Natural and human-caused disturbances affect soil processes that shape ecosystem recovery and competitive interactions between native, exotics, and climate refugees. Tomorrow's carbon budgets will depend on how land use, natural disturbances, and climate variability will interact and affect the balance between carbon capture and release.

  3. On the determination of the carbon balance of continents (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Albertus J. Han

    2013-04-01

    The carbon balance of regions, the size of continents, can be determined, albeit with significant uncertainty, by combining several bottom up and top down methods. The bottom up methods use eddy covariance techniques, biometric inventory measurements and modeling, while the top down methods use atmospheric observations and inverse models. There has been considerable progress in the last few years in determining these balances through more or less standard protocols, as highlighted for instance by studies of the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECAPP) project of the Global Carbon Project. Important areas where uncertainty creeps in are the scaling of point measurements in the bottom up methods, the sparseness of the observation network and the role of model and other errors in the inversion methods. Typically these balances hold for periods of several years. They therefore do not resolve the impact of anomalies in weather and climate directly. The role of management in these balances also differs for different continents. For instance in Europe management plays a strong role in the carbon balance, whereas for the Russian continent this is less important. Management in the European carbon balance may potentially override climatically driven variability. In contrast, for Russia, the importance of the role of forest is paramount, but there the vulnerability of the Arctic regions and permafrost is a key uncertainty for future behaviour. I hope to show the importance of these different aspects of the terrestrial carbon balance by comparing the two continents, and also discuss the significant uncertainty we still face in determining the carbon budgets of large areas. I will argue that we need to get a clearer picture of the role of management in these budgets, but also of the time variability of the budgets to be able to determine the impact of anomalous weather and the vulnerability in a future climate.

  4. Balance and forecasts of french carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This paper strikes the balance of carbon dioxide emissions in France between 1986 and 1991 and gives forecasts till 2010. Since 1986, France has reduced its efforts for energy conservation and air pollution by carbon dioxide begins to growth again in connection with consumption growth in transport area, development of computer and simulation needs

  5. Energy and carbon balances of wood cascade chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    In this study we analyze the energy and carbon balances of various cascade chains for recovered wood lumber. Post-recovery options include reuse as lumber, reprocessing as particleboard, pulping to form paper products, and burning for energy recovery. We compare energy and carbon balances of chains of cascaded products to the balances of products obtained from virgin wood fiber or from non-wood material. We describe and quantify several mechanisms through which cascading can affect the energy and carbon balances: direct cascade effects due to different properties and logistics of virgin and recovered materials, substitution effects due to the reduced demand for non-wood materials when wood is cascaded, and land use effects due to alternative possible land uses when less timber harvest is needed because of wood cascading. In some analyses we assume the forest is a limiting resource, and in others we include a fixed amount of forest land from which biomass can be harvested for use as material or biofuel. Energy and carbon balances take into account manufacturing processes, recovery and transportation energy, material recovery losses, and forest processes. We find that land use effects have the greatest impact on energy and carbon balances, followed by substitution effects, while direct cascade effects are relatively minor. (author)

  6. Absence of a market in the Dutch balancing mechanism: European rules versus specific investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.; Jolink, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European directives for the electricity industry prescribe the creation of a market for balancing electricity supply and demand. In this paper, we demonstrate that a market for balancing has not emerged in the Dutch electricity industry, and that, instead, the balancing transactions are

  7. Biomass energy and the global carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; House, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Studies on climate change and energy production increasingly recognise the crucial role of biological systems. Carbon sinks in forests (above and below ground), CO 2 emissions from deforestation, planting trees for carbon storage, and biomass as a substitute for fossil fuels are some of the key issues which arise. Halting deforestation is of paramount importance, but there is also great potential for reforestation of degraded lands, agroforestry and improved forest management. It is concluded that biomass energy plantations and other types of energy cropping could be a more effective strategy for carbon mitigation than simply growing trees as a carbon store, particularly on higher productivity lands. Use of the biomass produced as an energy source has the added advantage of a wide range of other environmental, social and economic benefits. (author)

  8. Annual carbon balance of a peatland 10 yr following restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Strack

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Undisturbed peatlands represent long-term net sinks of carbon; however, peat extraction converts these systems into large and persistent sources of greenhouse gases. Although rewetting and restoration following peat extraction have taken place over the last several decades, very few studies have investigated the longer term impact of this restoration on peatland carbon balance. We determined the annual carbon balance of a former horticulturally-extracted peatland restored 10 yr prior to the study and compared these values to the carbon balance measured at neighboring unrestored and natural sites. Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes were measured using the chamber technique biweekly during the growing season from May to October 2010 and three times over the winter period. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC export was measured from remnant ditches in the unrestored and restored sites. During the growing season the restored site had greater uptake of CO2 than the natural site when photon flux density was greater than 1000 μmol m−2 s−1, while the unrestored site remained a source of CO2. Ecosystem respiration was similar between natural and restored sites, which were both significantly lower than the unrestored site. Methane flux remained low at the restored site except from open water pools, created as part of restoration, and remnant ditches. Export of DOC during the growing season was 5.0 and 28.8 g m−2 from the restored and unrestored sites, respectively. Due to dry conditions during the study year all sites acted as net carbon sources with annual balance of the natural, restored and unrestored sites of 250.7, 148.0 and 546.6 g C m−2, respectively. Although hydrological conditions and vegetation community at the restored site remained intermediate between natural and unrestored conditions, peatland restoration resulted in a large reduction in annual carbon loss from the system resulting in a carbon balance more similar to a natural

  9. Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Kaiser, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    ecosystem exchange (NEE) plus carbon inputs with fertilization minus carbon removal with harvest. Carbon leaching increased the net losses from cropland soils by 24–105% (median: 25%). For the majority of forest sites, leaching hardly affected actual net ecosystem carbon balances because of the small...... solubility of CO2 in acidic forest soil solutions and large NEE. Leaching of CH4 proved to be insignificant compared with other fluxes of carbon. Overall, our results show that leaching losses are particularly important for the carbon balance of agricultural systems....

  10. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C. S. C.; Borges, V. F.; Freitas, S.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L. O.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48+/-0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (PgCyr-1) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06+/-0.1PgCyr-1) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25+/-0.14PgCyr-1, which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39+/-0.10PgCyr-1 previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  11. The adverse effect of real effective exchange rate change on trade balance in European transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Begović

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most European transition countries have fixed or highly managed flexible exchange rate regimes. This exchange rate rigidity is sometimes argued to worsen the trade balance by keeping the currency overvalued. However, there is no unambiguous evidence that currency depreciation/devaluation positively affects trade balance and leads towards the adjustment, even in the short-run. Therefore, we examine the effect of real effective exchange rate (hereafter REER on trade balance in European transition economies over the period 2000-2015. By using fixed effect model for static and generalised method of moments for dynamic estimation, we find that there is an adverse effect of the REER on trade balance in European transition countries over the period 2000-2015. Namely, depreciation of REER deteriorates trade balance in European transition countries, which could be explained by high import dependence and low export capacity. This implies that policymakers in European transition countries should not use exchange rate policy to improve trade balance. This is important in the light of their accession towards European economic and monetary integration, implying that these countries should focus more on using fiscal, rather than monetary (and exchange rate, policy to adjust trade balance, which is one of the required real convergence towards the EU standards.

  12. The European Small Claims Procedure: Striking the Balance between Simplicity and Fairness in European Litigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the European Small Claims Procedure (ESCP). After the European Order for Payment procedure, this is the second autonomous European procedure that has been established. Attention is paid to the background of harmonization of small claims proceedings in the European

  13. Working time, satisfaction and work life balance: A European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Humpert, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses gender-specific differences in working time mismatches by using three different measures for representing satisfaction and work life balance. Results show that, while male satisfaction with life or work is in general not affected by working for more or less hours, over-time is found to significantly lower male work life balance. Women are more sensitive to the amount of working hours as they prefer part-time employment and they are dissatisfied with changes ...

  14. Testing the performance of a Dynamic Global Ecosystem Model: Water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharik, Christopher J.; Foley, Jonathan A.; Delire, Christine; Fisher, Veronica A.; Coe, Michael T.; Lenters, John D.; Young-Molling, Christine; Ramankutty, Navin; Norman, John M.; Gower, Stith T.

    2000-09-01

    While a new class of Dynamic Global Ecosystem Models (DGEMs) has emerged in the past few years as an important tool for describing global biogeochemical cycles and atmosphere-biosphere interactions, these models are still largely untested. Here we analyze the behavior of a new DGEM and compare the results to global-scale observations of water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. In this study, we use version 2 of the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), which includes several major improvements and additions to the prototype model developed by Foley et al. [1996]. IBIS is designed to be a comprehensive model of the terrestrial biosphere; the model represents a wide range of processes, including land surface physics, canopy physiology, plant phenology, vegetation dynamics and competition, and carbon and nutrient cycling. The model generates global simulations of the surface water balance (e.g., runoff), the terrestrial carbon balance (e.g., net primary production, net ecosystem exchange, soil carbon, aboveground and belowground litter, and soil CO2 fluxes), and vegetation structure (e.g., biomass, leaf area index, and vegetation composition). In order to test the performance of the model, we have assembled a wide range of continental and global-scale data, including measurements of river discharge, net primary production, vegetation structure, root biomass, soil carbon, litter carbon, and soil CO2 flux. Using these field data and model results for the contemporary biosphere (1965-1994), our evaluation shows that simulated patterns of runoff, NPP, biomass, leaf area index, soil carbon, and total soil CO2 flux agree reasonably well with measurements that have been compiled from numerous ecosystems. These results also compare favorably to other global model results.

  15. The organization of European football and the competitive balance within and between nations

    OpenAIRE

    KÉSENNE, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we try to show that, apart from the negative impact of the Champions League, the growing gap between the Big 5 football countries in Europe and the smaller countries is caused by the deregulation of the European player labour market without deregulating the European football product market. Both the growing competitive balance between and within the national leagues can be restored by opening the European football market. A simple 2 country / 4 club model with quadratic revenue...

  16. Hotspots of the European forests carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Thürig, E.; Heidema, N.; Armolaitis, K.; Biber, P.; Cieciala, E.; Kaufmann, E.; Mäkipää, R.; Nilsen, P.; Petritsch, R.; Pristova, T.; Rock, J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Sievanen, R.; Somogyi, Z.; Vallet, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of a group discussion held at the Savonlinna meeting `Management of forest ecosystems and its impact on the GHG budget¿. The aim of this break-out group discussion was to `Characterize forest management impacts on the GHG budget of forest ecosystems in different European

  17. The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A comment is made on a recent letter published on Nature, in which different methodologies are applied to estimate the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China. A global carbon sink of 0.19-0.26 Pg per year is estimated during the 1980s and 1990s, and it is estimated that in 2006 terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 28-37 per cent of global carbon emissions in China. Most of the carbon absorption is attributed to large-scale plantation made since the 1980s and shrub recovery. These results will certainly be valuable in the frame of the so-called “REDD” (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation forest Degradation in developing countries mechanism (UN convention on climate change UNFCCC.

  18. The European carbon tax: an assessment of the European Commission's proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.; Smith, Stephen.

    1991-12-01

    After a lengthy internal debate within the European Commission, the Environment Commissioner announced the broad structure of the Commission's proposals for a European carbon tax towards the end of September. The proposed tax would be a combination of a tax on the carbon content of fossil fuels, and a tax on all non-renewable forms of energy. Thus, fossil fuels such as gas, coal and oil would bear a tax comprising two components, one related to their carbon content, the other related to their energy content. Non-renewable forms of energy other than fossil fuels (mainly nuclear power) would be subject to the energy-related part of the tax, but would not bear the carbon component. Overall, the two components would be combined in equal proportions, in the sense that half of the tax on a typical barrel of oil would be related to the carbon component and half to the energy component. (author)

  19. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Andresen, Gorm Bruun; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of 8 years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only a few percent. - Highlights: ► We model a wind and solar based European power system with storage and balancing. ► We find that storage needs peaks when average renewable generation matches load. ► We find strong synergetic effects when combining storage and balancing. ► We study the effects of a storage capable of storing 6 h average use. ► We find a realisable fully renewable scenario based on wind, solar and hydro power.

  20. Carbon taxation reform in the European Union. The options involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' may be out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place in the EU. In this paper, we detail and discuss the different options available for such European carbon taxation. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 116

  1. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Casimir

    2017-01-01

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  2. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  3. System analytical assessment of the carbon balance in Austria. Final report part 1: carbon balance for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orthofer, R.

    1997-09-01

    The report contains an analysis and quantification of the fluxes in the Austrian carbon system in 1990. Following subsystems were considered: agriculture, forestry, energy transformation and use, production and consumption of goods, and waste treatment. Austrian carbon imports and exports in products and goods were also quantified. The calculations for the forestry and agriculture sectors are based on the results of a dynamic model (cf. final report part 2) and for others on existing data or experts opinions. In total, Austria releases a net of 11,2 Mio t carbon (MTC) - which equals about 41,1 Mio t of CO 2 - into the atmosphere. This is about 1/3 less than the numbers for the 1990 carbon emission inventories which for 1990 were estimated with 17,0 MTC. Reasons for the differences between emission estimates and carbon balancing are the carbon storage in Austria's forests (5,3 MTC) and the mineralization of organic wastes (1,0 MTC) as well as other minor interactions. While the main pathway of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere goes from fossil fuel extraction and imports via the energy system, a considerable portion of carbon is transferred through other systems. This means in order to be able to plan effective greenhouse gas reduction strategies, the overall system must be considered. (author)

  4. Carbon balances during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Chen, J.; Gelfand, I.; Robertson, G. P.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we established a field experiment and deployed seven eddy-covariance towers to quantify the roles of land use change and the subsequent carbon (C) balances of three different bioenergy systems (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie species) that were developed from two historical land use types: monocultural grasslands dominated by smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss) and lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Three CRP fields and three cropland fields were converted to soybean in 2009 (conversion year) before establishing the cellulosic biofuel cropping systems in 2010 (establishment year). A CRP perennial grassland site was kept undisturbed as a reference. Conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year (134 -262 g C m-2 yr-1), while in the same year the net C balance at the CRP grassland reference was -35 g C m-2 yr-1 (i.e., net C sequestration). The establishment of switchgrass and mixed prairie induced a cumulative C balance of -113 g C m-2 (switchgrass from CRP), 250 g C m-2 (switchgrass from cropland), 706 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from CRP), and 59 g C m-2 (mixed prairie from cropland) over the three-year study period. The cumulative three-year C balance of corn converted from CRP and from cropland was -151 g C m-2 and -183 g C m-2, respectively. Eddy flux measurements during cellulosic biofuel crop establishment reveal annual changes in C balance that cannot be detected using conventional mass balance approaches. When end-use of harvested biomass was considered, the C balances for all studied systems, except the reference site, exhibited large C emissions ranging from 150 to 990 g C m-2 over the three-year conversion phase.

  5. European development of carbon armoured plasma facing components for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Vieider, G.; Wu, C.; Schedler, B.; Chappuis, P.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Duwe, R.; Roedig, M.; Febvre, M.; Grattarola, M.; Tahtinen, S.; Vesprini, R.

    2001-01-01

    After a brief description of the rationale of the material and geometry selection for each carbon armoured plasma facing components, this paper describes the European development of the two basic geometries, namely the monoblock and the flat tile. An overview of the non-destructive inspection techniques specifically developed for these components is also presented. (orig.)

  6. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  7. Constructing an Efficient and Balanced European Patent System: “Muddling through”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses ways to construct a more efficient and balanced European patent system. It identifies and describes challenges relating to innovation, to non-economic issues and to governance. In order to improve the patent system, a cautious approach of “Muddling through” is recommended. More...... concretely, the paper puts forward some of the solutions proposed in the STOA Report to the European Parliament on “Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system” and suggest initiatives such as the insertion of a mission statement in the EPC, improvement of patent quality, increasing...... access to patented inventions and enhancement of governance....

  8. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Poulter, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21. Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990's mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990's and early 2000's to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) PgCyear-1 in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP=-0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) PgCyear -1 ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. (authors)

  9. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical

  10. Variability in carbon exchange of European croplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddy J, Moors; Jacobs, Cor; Jans, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    The estimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 based on measurements at 17 flux sites in Europe for 45 cropping periods showed an average loss of -38 gC m-2 per cropping period. The cropping period is defined as the period after sowing or planting until harvest. The variability taken as the st......The estimated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 based on measurements at 17 flux sites in Europe for 45 cropping periods showed an average loss of -38 gC m-2 per cropping period. The cropping period is defined as the period after sowing or planting until harvest. The variability taken...... as the standard deviation of these cropping periods was 251 gC m-2. These numbers do not include lateral inputs such as the carbon content of applied manure, nor the carbon exchange out of the cropping period. Both are expected to have a major effect on the C budget of high energy summer crops such as maize. NEE...... and gross primary production (GPP) can be estimated by crop net primary production based on inventories of biomass at these sites, independent of species and regions. NEE can also be estimated by the product of photosynthetic capacity and the number of days with the average air temperature >5 °C. Yield...

  11. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  12. Balance of emissions and consumptions of carbon dioxide in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, A.; Subiela, V.; Cortes, C.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere increase due to deforestation and anthropogenic emissions. The consumption of this gas in vegetal ecosystems must also be considered to know the net mass of CO 2 that gets into the atmosphere. This article summarizes the methodology, results and conclusions of the carbon dioxide balance in Spain by autonomous communities. The different fossil fuel consumer sectors (Thermal power plants, industry, transport, domestic and agricultural), forest biomass reduction due to fires and wood extractions for firewood are considered as sources. As sinks, natural and reforested forests, and the equivalent sea are noticed. Basically, the article presents a new methodology to estimate carbon dioxide consumption in forest biomass. The average emissions for 1981 to 1990 are presented. A per capita value of 5 t(CO 2 /year is obtained in contrast to the EC average of 8,6 t(CO 2 ) year. The resulting net balance shows that it is only consumed between 20 and 50% of the emitted CO 2 . (Author) 47 refs

  13. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Kimo C. van, E-mail: kimo.vandijk@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lesschen, Jan Peter, E-mail: janpeter.lesschen@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oenema, Oene, E-mail: oene.oenema@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  14. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Kimo C. van; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Oenema, Oene

    2016-01-01

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  15. Managing carbon sinks by changing rotation length in European forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaipainen, Terhi; Liski, Jari; Pussinen, Ari; Karjalainen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    Elongation of rotation length is a forest management activity countries may choose to apply under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol to help them meet their commitments for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We used the CO2FIX model to analyze how the carbon stocks of trees, soil and wood products depend on rotation length in different European forests. Results predicted that the carbon stock of trees increased in each forest when rotation length was increased, but the carbon stock of soil decreased slightly in German and Finnish Scots pine forests; the carbon stock of wood products also decreased slightly in cases other than the Sitka spruce forest in UK. To estimate the efficiency of increasing rotation length as an Article 3.4 activity, we looked at changes in the carbon stock of trees resulting from a 20-year increase in current rotation lengths. To achieve the largest eligible carbon sink mentioned in Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol, the rotation lengths need to be increased on areas varying from 0.3 to 5.1 Mha depending on the forest. This would in some forests cause 1-6% declines in harvesting possibilities. The possible decreases in the carbon stock of soil indicate that reporting the changes in the carbon stocks of forests under Article 3.4 may require measuring soil carbon

  16. Impact of carbon constraint on the European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankeviciute, Loreta

    2010-01-01

    Two sets of factors will be decisive for the future evolution of European electricity sector: on the one hand, the necessity of new wave of investments for the renewal and the expansion of production capacities and, on the other hand, the emergency and the reinforcement of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) constraints imposed by European policies and directives. The general idea of thesis is that European Emissions Trading system (ETS) is the instrument that can facilitate the decarbonization of European electricity system. However, the necessary conditions ought to be brought together in the context of liberalisation in terms of risk management, market architecture and setting up of the complementary public policy instruments, in order for the carbon price signal to be effective. The purpose of the thesis is to provide details on these conditions and to examine the potentials scenarios for the evolution of European electricity production mix under the carbon constraint. The introduction of liberalisation in the electricity industry conditions significantly the investment choice. The analysis of theoretical market model allows demonstrating organisational inadequacy for developing an optimal technological mix and for adapting to long-term issues due to the extreme difficulty of interpreting the price signals. Indeed, the logic of a market and a concurrence disadvantages the investments in capital-intensive technologies, even though some of them less polluting like renewable energies, nuclear, hydraulic and thermal technologies integrating carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In face of numerous uncertainties, the role of long-term risk management becomes therefore crucial. The employment of transaction cost theory allows studying the combinations of vertical arrangements that remain necessary in order to manage the risk and to facilitate the investments (e.g. vertical integration). The introduction of ETS overlaps with the market risks inherent to liberalisation

  17. Energy balance, carbon emissions, and costs of sortyard debris disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC), with funding from Natural Resources Canada, conducted this study to determine the main environmental and energy use issues regarding the landfilling, burning or processing of dryland sortyard debris accumulated in the wood products industry. The wood residues that are generated when logs are processed, sorted and remanufactured, have traditionally been burned or landfilled. This is no longer appropriate. Converting the large woody debris into usable products such as hog fuel or compost requires grinding, smashing or chipping into small pieces to facilitate transportation. In order to make smart decisions about alternative methods of handling sortyard debris, information is needed about the comparative amount of fuel used and carbon dioxide produced. This study compared the treatment alternatives with respect to fuel consumption, net energy balance, carbon dioxide emissions and environmental impact. Recommendations were then presented for the treatment of debris from the point of view of net energy balance and environmental impact. Life cycle techniques were used to determine the environmental impact of alternatives for managing sortyard debris. It was determined that wood wastes are valuable as hog fuel for power generation. Burning hog fuel to recover its energy offsets the need to supply energy from other sources such as natural gas. This reduces the total carbon emissions by the amount of debris that would have been burned as waste. Annual carbon emissions can be reduced by nearly half by switching from a maximize burn strategy to a maximize hog strategy that combines composting of fine materials. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Carbon and energy balances for a range of biofuels options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, M.A.; Matthews, R.; Mortimer, N.D.

    2003-03-01

    This is the final report of a project to produce a set of baseline energy and carbon balances for a range of electricity, heat and transport fuel production systems based on biomass feedstocks. A list of 18 important biofuel technologies in the UK was selected for study of their energy and carbon balances in a consistent approach. Existing studies on these biofuel options were reviewed and their main features identified in terms of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and total), transparency and relevance. Flow charts were produced to represent the key stages of the production of biomass and its conversion to biofuels. Outputs from the study included primary energy input per delivered energy output, carbon dioxide outputs per delivered energy output, methane output per delivered energy output, nitrous oxide output per delivered energy output and total greenhouse gas requirements. The net calorific value of the biofuel is given where relevant. Biofuels studied included: biodiesel from oilseed rape and recycled vegetable oil; combined heat and power (CHP) by combustion of wood chip from forestry residues; CHP by gasification of wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from the combustion of miscanthus, straw, wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity from gasification of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; electricity by pyrolysis of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; ethanol from lignocellulosics, sugar beet and wheat; heat (small scale) from combustion of wood chip from forestry residues and wood chip from short rotation coppice; and rapeseed oil from oilseed rape.

  19. Spatial patterns of North Atlantic Oscillation influence on mass balance variability of European glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and validate a set of minimal models of glacier mass balance variability. The most skillful model is then applied to reconstruct 7735 individual time series of mass balance variability for all glaciers in the European Alps and Scandinavia. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of atmospheric variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO on the glaciers' mass balances.

    We find a spatial coherence in the glaciers' sensitivity to NAO forcing which is caused by regionally similar mechanisms relating the NAO forcing to the mass balance: in southwestern Scandinavia, winter precipitation causes a correlation of mass balances with the NAO. In northern Scandinavia, temperature anomalies outside the core winter season cause an anti-correlation between NAO and mass balances. In the western Alps, both temperature and winter precipitation anomalies lead to a weak anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO, while in the eastern Alps, the influences of winter precipitation and temperature anomalies tend to cancel each other, and only on the southern side a slight anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO prevails.

  20. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey, Katharine C; Barnes, Kallie L; Ryan, Michael G; Neff, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Background Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass ...

  1. Comparison of the Selected Indicators of Work Life Balance in European Union Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Živčicová; Kristína Bulková; Tatiana Masárová

    2017-01-01

    The article elaborates on the characteristics and indicators of work life balance (WLB). The focus is on the selected criteria of WLB as well as social life and time spent off work. The WLB factors chosen and discussed are: the amount of stress, exhaustion and lack of time for family activities and responsibilities in the context of WLB. The results of the European survey conducted by the Eurofond are compared with the authors’ questionnaire survey conducted in Slovakia in 2015. The survey r...

  2. Weight status of European preschool children and associations with family demographics and energy balance-related behaviours: a pooled analysis of six European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, M.M.; te Velde, S.J.; van Nassau, F.; Brug, J.; Grammatikaki, E.; Maes, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Verbestel, V.; Galcheva, S.; Iotova, V.; Koletzko, B.V.; von Kries, R.; Bayer, O.; Kulaga, Z.; Serra-Majem, L.; Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Manios, Y.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) gain insight in the prevalence of overweight indices in European preschoolers (4-7 years); (ii) identify energy balance-related behaviours associated with overweight/obesity; and (iii) identify children at risk for overweight/obesity. Secondary analyses of six European data

  3. Interannual Variability of Carbon Dioxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Subarctic European Russian Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, M. E.; Voigt, C.; Gil, J.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Trubnikova, T.; Virtanen, T.; Kaverin, D.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Southern tundra landscapes are particularly vulnerable to climate warming, permafrost thaw and associated landscape rearrangement due to near-zero permafrost temperatures. The large soil C and N stocks of subarctic tundra may create a positive feedback for warming if released to the atmosphere at increased rates. Subarctic tundra in European Russia is a mosaic of land cover types, which all play different roles in the regional greenhouse gas budget. Peat plateaus - massive upheaved permafrost peatlands - are large storehouses of soil carbon and nitrogen, but include also bare peat surfaces that act as hot-spots for both carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. Tundra wetlands are important for the regional greenhouse gas balance since they show high rates of methane emissions and carbon uptake. The most dominant land-form is upland tundra vegetated by shrubs, lichens and mosses, which displays a close-to-neutral balance with respect to all three greenhouse gases. The study site Seida (67°03'N, 62°56'E), located in the discontinuous permafrost zone of Northeast European Russia, incorporates all these land forms and has been an object for greenhouse gas investigations since 2007. Here, we summarize the growing season fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide measured by chamber techniques over the study years. We analyzed the flux time-series together with the local environmental data in order to understand the drivers of interannual variability. Detailed soil profile measurements of greenhouse gas concentrations, soil moisture and temperature provide insights into soil processes underlying the net emissions to the atmosphere. The multiannual time-series allows us to assess the importance of the different greenhouse gases and landforms to the overall climate forcing of the study region.

  4. Controls on declining carbon balance with leaf age among 10 woody species in Australian woodland: do leaves have zero daily net carbon balances when they die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Falster, Daniel S; Ellsworth, David S; Wright, Ian J; Westoby, Mark; Oleksyn, Jacek; Lee, Tali D

    2009-01-01

    * Here, we evaluated how increased shading and declining net photosynthetic capacity regulate the decline in net carbon balance with increasing leaf age for 10 Australian woodland species. We also asked whether leaves at the age of their mean life-span have carbon balances that are positive, zero or negative. * The net carbon balances of 2307 leaves on 53 branches of the 10 species were estimated. We assessed three-dimensional architecture, canopy openness, photosynthetic light response functions and dark respiration rate across leaf age sequences on all branches. We used YPLANT to estimate light interception and to model carbon balance along the leaf age sequences. * As leaf age increased to the mean life-span, increasing shading and declining photosynthetic capacity each separately reduced daytime carbon gain by approximately 39% on average across species. Together, they reduced daytime carbon gain by 64% on average across species. * At the age of their mean life-span, almost all leaves had positive daytime carbon balances. These per leaf carbon surpluses were of a similar magnitude to the estimated whole-plant respiratory costs per leaf. Thus, the results suggest that a whole-plant economic framework, including respiratory costs, may be useful in assessing controls on leaf longevity.

  5. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine C. Kelsey; Kallie L. Barnes; Michael G. Ryan; Jason C. Neff

    2014-01-01

    Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential...

  6. Interactions between nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, and climate change determine the contemporary carbon balance of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Zaehle, S.; Hughes, J.; Viovy, N.; Chen, Y.; Jung, M.; Heumann, B. W.; Ramankutty, N.; Heimann, M.; Jones, C.

    2010-09-01

    European ecosystems are thought to take up large amounts of carbon, but neither the rate nor the contributions of the underlying processes are well known. In the second half of the 20th century, carbon dioxide concentrations have risen by more that 100 ppm, atmospheric nitrogen deposition has more than doubled, and European mean temperatures were increasing by 0.02 °C yr-1. The extents of forest and grasslands have increased with the respective rates of 5800 km2 yr-1 and 1100 km2 yr-1 as agricultural land has been abandoned at a rate of 7000 km2 yr-1. In this study, we analyze the responses of European land ecosystems to the aforementioned environmental changes using results from four process-based ecosystem models: BIOME-BGC, JULES, ORCHIDEE, and O-CN. The models suggest that European ecosystems sequester carbon at a rate of 56 TgC yr-1 (mean of four models for 1951-2000) with strong interannual variability (±88 TgC yr-1, average across models) and substantial inter-model uncertainty (±39 TgC yr-1). Decadal budgets suggest that there has been a continuous increase in the mean net carbon storage of ecosystems from 85 TgC yr-1 in 1980s to 108 TgC yr-1 in 1990s, and to 114 TgC yr-1 in 2000-2007. The physiological effect of rising CO2 in combination with nitrogen deposition and forest re-growth have been identified as the important explanatory factors for this net carbon storage. Changes in the growth of woody vegetation are suggested as an important contributor to the European carbon sink. Simulated ecosystem responses were more consistent for the two models accounting for terrestrial carbon-nitrogen dynamics than for the two models which only accounted for carbon cycling and the effects of land cover change. Studies of the interactions of carbon-nitrogen dynamics with land use changes are needed to further improve the quantitative understanding of the driving forces of the European land carbon balance.

  7. Interactions between nitrogen deposition, land cover conversion, and climate change determine the contemporary carbon balance of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Churkina

    2010-09-01

    land use changes are needed to further improve the quantitative understanding of the driving forces of the European land carbon balance.

  8. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training

  9. Organic carbon balance and net ecosystem metabolism in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, W.M.; Smith, E.M.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Boynton, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    The major fluxes of organic carbon associated with physical transport and biological metabolism were compiled, analyzed and compared for the mainstem portion of Chesapeake Bay (USA). In addition, 5 independent methods were used to calculate the annual mean net ecosystem metabolism (NEM = production - respiration) for the integrated Bay. These methods, which employed biogeochemical models, nutrient mass-balances anti summation of individual organic carbon fluxes, yielded remarkably similar estimates, with a mean NEM of +50 g C m-2 yr-1 (?? SE = 751, which is approximately 8% of the estimated annual average gross primary production. These calculations suggest a strong cross-sectional pattern in NEM throughout the Bay, wherein net heterotrophic metabolism prevails in the pelagic zones of the main channel, while net autotrophy occurs in the littoral zones which flank the deeper central area. For computational purposes, the estuary was separated into 3 regions along the land-sea gradient: (1) the oligohaline Upper Bay (11% of total area); (2) the mesohaline Mid Bay (36% of area); and (3) the polyhaline Lower Bay (53% of area). A distinct regional trend in NEM was observed along this salinity gradient, with net here(atrophy (NEM = 87 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Upper Bay, balanced metabolism in the Mid Bay and net autotrophy (NEM = +92 g C m-2 yr-1) in the Lower Bay. As a consequence of overall net autotrophy, the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) to total organic nitrogen (TON) changed from DIN:TON = 5.1 for riverine inputs to DIN:TON = 0.04 for water exported to the ocean. A striking feature of this organic C mass-balance was the relative dominance of biologically mediated metabolic fluxes compared to physical transport fluxes. The overall ratio of physical TOC inputs (1) to biotic primary production (P) was 0.08 for the whole estuary, but varied dramatically from 2.3 in the Upper Bay to 0.03 in the Mid and Lower Bay regions. Similarly, ecosystem respiration was

  10. Carbon price signal. Impact Analysis on the European Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries late in December 2015, after COP 21, created a new basis for efficient cooperation between countries in the fight against climate change. The technologies being rolled out by the electricity sector will have very different impacts on climate change and, for the time being, investments other than public aid for renewable energies are being guided primarily by prices. To shed more slight on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, which is closely related to the challenges addressed at COP21, RTE initiated a study in 2015 based on the models used in its Generation Adequacy Report. ADEME wanted to contribute to this effort and offer its support. The present document outlines the approach taken to assessing the impact of the carbon price signal on emissions from the European electric power system, its production costs and its structural evolution over the medium term. This approach was discussed with members of the 'Network Outlook Committee' of the Transmission System Users' Committee which includes environmental NGOs as well as the main economic actors from the power sector. Key findings resulting from the analysis developed in this report include: Simulations conducted with the current generation fleet show that the carbon price would have to be close to euro 30/tonne at the European level to drive a significant reduction in emissions (about 100 million tonnes a year, or 15 %) from the European power sector. A higher price of about euro 100/tonne would help drive an emissions reduction of close to 30%. Over the medium and long terms, beyond an impact on the number of hours fossil fuel power plants would be run, having a high carbon price would send a signal encouraging investment in renewable energies and could incentivise the development of flexible and storage capacity. It would notably guarantee the profitability of gas-fired plants and renewable power development. The following assumptions are factored into the study

  11. Speculative and hedging activities in the European carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucia, Julio J.; Mansanet-Bataller, Maria; Pardo, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of the speculative and hedging activities in European futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. A comparison of the three phases in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) reveals that (i) Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date and (ii) the highest degree of speculative activity for every single phase occurs at the moment of listing the contracts for the first time. A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year, related to the schedule of deadlines of the EU ETS. In addition, a time series analysis confirms that most of the speculative activity each year occurs in the front contract, whereas the hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract. -- Highlights: •This study explores the evolution of speculative and hedging activities in futures carbon markets by using volume and open interest data. •Phase II of the EU ETS seems to be the most speculative phase to date. •A seasonality analysis identifies a higher level of speculation in the first quarter of each year. •Most of the speculative activity occurs in the front contract. •The hedging demand concentrates in the second-to-deliver futures contract

  12. The European Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure (ECCSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Quale

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a non-emitting energy mix for power generation will take decades. This transition will need to be sustainable, e.g. economically affordable. Fossil fuels which are abundant have an important role to play in this respect, provided that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is progressively implemented. CCS is the only way to reduce emissions from energy intensive industries.Thus, the need for upgraded and new CCS research facilities is widely recognised among stakeholders across Europe, as emphasised by the Zero Emissions Platform (ZEP [1] and the European Energy Research Alliance on CCS (EERA-CCS [2].The European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure, ECCSEL, provides funders, operators and researchers with significant benefits by offering access to world-class research facilities that, in many cases, are unlikely for a single nation to support in isolation. This implies creation of synergy and the avoidance of duplication as well as streamlining of funding for research facilities.ECCSEL offers open access to its advanced laboratories for talented scientists and visiting researchers to conduct cutting-edge research.In the planning of ECCSEL, gap analyses were performed and CCS technologies have been reviewed to underpin and envisage the future experimental setup; 1 Making use of readily available facilities, 2 Modifying existing facilities, and 3 Planning and building entirely new advanced facilities.The investments required for the first ten years (2015–2025 are expected to be in the range of €80–120 million. These investments show the current level of ambition, as proposed during the preparatory phase (2011–2014.Entering the implementation phase in 2015, 9 European countries signed Letter of Intent (LoI to join a ECCSEL legal entity: France, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Poland, Greece, Norway and Switzerland (active observer. As the EU ERIC-regulation [3] would offer the most

  13. Towards a Pan-European energy balancing market : exercise on coupling the United Kingdom and continental Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero Concha, C.; Haan, de J.E.S.; Virag, A.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power generation in the coming years will displace conventional generation, impacting the need for balancing reserves. The upcoming integration of pan-European balancing markets seeks to increase collaboration between areas for optimal provision of services. The challenge

  14. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    senior scientist (mensuration) for the Soviet Committee on Forests, now a scholar at the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Vienna, has provided abundant contributions from the data available to him and from his experience. Forest stand carbon is concentrated in the Russian Far East (i.e. Primorski Kray), Central-Southern Siberia and European Russia But, soil carbon can be 10 times forest stand C. Our efforts in mapping the area and changes in area (as well as the internal structure) of forests have made major contributions to our joint understanding of the scale and status of these forests. To realize the importance of this contribution one needs only to recognize that any large scale Soviet-era maps of the area did not include latitude and longitude. Even today, there is great reluctance to provide these data, the basis of any GIS.

  15. Potential reduction of carbon emissions from Crude Palm Oil production based on energy and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patthanaissaranukool, Withida; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy and carbon equivalence from CPO production based on a CBM. ► Energy spent and produced via carbon movement from palm oil mill was determined. ► Scenarios were formulated to evaluate the potential reduction of carbon emission. ► Utilization of biomass from palm oil mill shows the high potential of C-reduction. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate energy and carbon equivalences (CE) associated with palm oil milling and to evaluate sustainability alternatives for energy consumption. Appropriate ways to reduce carbon emissions were also evaluated. A field survey was carried out to quantify the input and output of energy and materials following the conceptual framework of a carbon-balanced model (CBM), which exclude other non-CO 2 greenhouse gases. Survey results indicate that the electrical energy consumption for daily mill start-up averaged 18.7 ± 5.4 kWh/ton Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs). This energy is equivalent to 114.4 ± 33.2 kWh/ton Crude Palm Oil (CPO) which was found to be offset by that generated in the mills using palm fiber as a solid fuel. Currently, organic residues contained in the wastewater are anaerobically converted to methane. The methane is used as fuel to generate electricity and sold to an outside grid network at a generation rate of 8.1 ± 2.1 kWh/ton FFB. Based on the CBM approach, carbon emissions observed from the use of fossil energy in palm oil milling were very small; however, total carbon emission from oil palm plantation and palm oil milling were found to be 12.3 kg CE/ton FFB, resulting in the net carbon reduction in CPO production of 2.8 kg CE/ton FFB or 53.7 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, the sum of C-reduction was found 1.2 times greater than that of C-emission. This figure can be increased up to 5.5, if all biomass by-products are used as fuel to generate electricity only. The full potential for carbon reduction from palm oil milling is estimated at 0.94 kW of electric power for every hectare of

  16. Water balance, nutrient and carbon export from a heath forest catchment in central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F. .B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Tapia, A.P.; Alvarado Barrientos, M.S.; Bolson, M.A.; Luizao, F.J.; Manzi, A.O.; Dolman, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage values in the Amazon basin have been studied through different approaches in the last decades in order to clarify whether the rainforest ecosystem is likely to act as a sink or source for carbon in the near future. This water balance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient export

  17. Comparing carbon to carbon: Organic and inorganic carbon balances across nitrogen fertilization gradients in rainfed vs. irrigated Midwest US cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S. K.; McGill, B.

    2017-12-01

    The top meter of the earth's soil contains about twice the amount of carbon than the atmosphere. Agricultural management practices influence whether a cropland soil is a net carbon source or sink. These practices affect both organic and inorganic carbon cycling although the vast majority of studies examine the former. We will present results from several rarely-compared carbon fluxes: carbon dioxide emissions and sequestration from lime (calcium carbonate) weathering, dissolved gases emitted from groundwater-fed irrigation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching to groundwater, and soil organic matter storage. These were compared in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation under no-till management across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient where half of the replicated blocks are irrigated with groundwater. DOC and liming fluxes are also estimated from a complementary study in neighboring plots comparing a gradient of management practices from conventional to biologically-based annuals and perennials. These studies were conducted at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in Michigan where previous work estimated that carbon dioxide emissions from liming accounted for about one quarter of the total global warming impact (GWI) from no-till systems—our work refines that figure. We will present a first time look at the GWI of gases dissolved in groundwater that are emitted when the water equilibrates with the atmosphere. We will explore whether nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation increase soil organic carbon sequestration by producing greater crop biomass and residues or if they enhance microbial activity, increasing decomposition of organic matter. These results are critical for more accurately estimating how intensive agricultural practices affect the carbon balance of cropping systems.

  18. Stand age and climate drive forest carbon balance recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Simon; Carvalhais, Nuno; Clevers, Jan; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an essential role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the C exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Ecological disturbances and forest management are drivers of forest dynamics and strongly impact the forest C budget. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the exogenous and endogenous factors driving forest C recovery. Our analysis includes 68 forest sites in different climate zones to determine the relative influence of stand age and climate conditions on the forest carbon balance recovery. In this study, we only included forest regrowth after clear-cut stand replacement (e.g. harvest, fire), and afforestation/reforestation processes. We synthesized net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), the photosynthetic respiratory ratio (GPP to Re ratio), the ecosystem carbon use efficiency (CUE), that is NEP to GPP ratio, and CUEclimax, where GPP is derived from the climate conditions. We implemented a non-linear regression analysis in order to identify the best model representing the C flux patterns with stand age. Furthermore, we showed that each C flux have a non-linear relationship with stand age, annual precipitation (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT), therefore, we proposed to use non-linear transformations of the covariates for C fluxes'estimates. Non-linear stand age and climate models were, therefore, used to establish multiple linear regressions for C flux predictions and for determining the contribution of stand age and climate in forest carbon recovery. Our findings depicted that a coupled stand age-climate model explained 33% (44%, average site), 62% (76%, average site), 56% (71%, average site), 41% (59%, average site), 50% (65%, average site) and 36% (50%, average site) of the variance of annual NEP, GPP, Re, photosynthetic respiratory ratio, CUE and CUEclimax across sites, respectively. In addition, we showed that gross fluxes (e.g. GPP and Re) are

  19. Estimation of Regional Carbon Balance from Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.; Uliasz, M.; Skidmore, J.

    2002-12-01

    Variations in the concentration of CO2 and other trace gases in time and space contain information about sources and sinks at regional scales. Several methods have been developed to quantitatively extract this information from atmospheric measurements. Mass-balance techniques depend on the ability to repeatedly sample the same mass of air, which involves careful attention to airmass trajectories. Inverse and adjoint techniques rely on decomposition of the source field into quasi-independent "basis functions" that are propagated through transport models and then used to synthesize optimal linear combinations that best match observations. A recently proposed method for regional flux estimation from continuous measurements at tall towers relies on time-mean vertical gradients, and requires careful trajectory analysis to map the estimates onto regional ecosystems. Each of these techniques is likely to be applied to measurements made during the North American Carbon Program. We have also explored the use of Bayesian synthesis inversion at regional scales, using a Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by mesoscale transport fields. Influence functions were calculated for each hypothetical observation in a realistic diurnally-varying flow. These influence functions were then treated as basis functions for the purpose of separate inversions for daytime photosynthesis and 24-hour mean ecosystem respiration. Our results highlight the importance of estimating CO2 fluxes through the lateral boundaries of the model. Respiration fluxes were well constrained by one or two hypothetical towers, regardless of inflow fluxes. Time-varying assimilation fluxes were less well constrained, and much more dependent on knowledge of inflow fluxes. The small net difference between respiration and photosynthesis was the most difficult to determine, being extremely sensitive to knowledge of inflow fluxes. Finally, we explored the feasibility of directly incorporating mid-day concentration

  20. DIZZYNET--a European network initiative for vertigo and balance research: visions and aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwergal, Andreas; Brandt, Thomas; Magnusson, Mans; Kennard, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo often receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. The most important reasons for this deplorable situation are insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, nonexistent standards in diagnostics and therapy, the relatively rare translations of basic science findings to clinical applications, and the scarcity of prospective controlled multicenter clinical trials. To overcome these problems, the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ) started an initiative to establish a European Network for Vertigo and Balance Research called DIZZYNET. The central aim is to create a platform for collaboration and exchange among scientists, physicians, technicians, and physiotherapists in the fields of basic and translational research, clinical management, clinical trials, rehabilitation, and epidemiology. The network will also promote public awareness and help establish educational standards in the field. The DIZZYNET has the following objectives as regards structure and content: to focus on multidisciplinary translational research in vertigo and balance disorders, to develop interdisciplinary longitudinal and transversal networks for patient care by standardizing and personalizing the management of patients, to increase methodological competence by implementing common standards of practice and quality management, to internationalize the infrastructure for prospective multicenter clinical trials, to increase recruitment capacity for clinical trials, to create a common data base for patients with vertigo and balance disorders, to offer and promote attractive educational and career paths in a network of cooperating institutions. In the long term, the DIZZYNET should serve as an internationally visible network for interdisciplinary and multiprofessional research on vertigo and balance disorders. It ideally should equally attract the afflicted patients and

  1. Carbon and nutrient use efficiencies optimally balance stoichiometric imbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano; Čapek, Petr; Lindahl, Björn; Mooshammer, Maria; Richter, Andreas; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2016-04-01

    Decomposer organisms face large stoichiometric imbalances because their food is generally poor in nutrients compared to the decomposer cellular composition. The presence of excess carbon (C) requires adaptations to utilize nutrients effectively while disposing of or investing excess C. As food composition changes, these adaptations lead to variable C- and nutrient-use efficiencies (defined as the ratios of C and nutrients used for growth over the amounts consumed). For organisms to be ecologically competitive, these changes in efficiencies with resource stoichiometry have to balance advantages and disadvantages in an optimal way. We hypothesize that efficiencies are varied so that community growth rate is optimized along stoichiometric gradients of their resources. Building from previous theories, we predict that maximum growth is achieved when C and nutrients are co-limiting, so that the maximum C-use efficiency is reached, and nutrient release is minimized. This optimality principle is expected to be applicable across terrestrial-aquatic borders, to various elements, and at different trophic levels. While the growth rate maximization hypothesis has been evaluated for consumers and predators, in this contribution we test it for terrestrial and aquatic decomposers degrading resources across wide stoichiometry gradients. The optimality hypothesis predicts constant efficiencies at low substrate C:N and C:P, whereas above a stoichiometric threshold, C-use efficiency declines and nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies increase up to one. Thus, high resource C:N and C:P lead to low C-use efficiency, but effective retention of nitrogen and phosphorus. Predictions are broadly consistent with efficiency trends in decomposer communities across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  3. Balancing Fundamental Rights with Economic Freedoms According to the European Court of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybe A. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of fundamental rights within the EU legal order has come to a climax through the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in December 2009. Article 6 of the EU Treaty now recognizes the binding force of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, embraces the intention to accede to the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and codifies the European Court of Justice's (ECJ case law that fundamental rights shall constitute general principles of Union law. The question is how these changes made by the Lisbon Treaty, which mark a new stage in the shaping of the EU's commitment to the protection of fundamental rights, inform the relationship between fundamental rights and the classic Treaty economic freedoms, which have been vital in building Europe's 'economic constitution'. This contribution addresses the conflict that may arise between the Treaty economic freedoms and fundamental rights and assesses how the ECJ should balance these conflicting interests, considering the changed EU legal framework. In this paper the approach of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR, having to decide in cases where fundamental rights conflict with each other, will also be briefly touched upon and compared with the Court of Justice's approach.

  4. Differences in energy balance-related behaviours in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke De Craemer

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain within the ToyBox cross-sectional study.A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys had valid physical activity data (steps per day, parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play, and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking.The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays, while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively. German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays, while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays. A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays, and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays. Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day.Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours simultaneously, but should

  5. Carbon and nitrogen balances for six shrublands across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus; Emmett, Bridget A.; Tietema, Albert

    2009-01-01

    ,546 g C m−2, and the systems ranged from being net sinks (126 g C m−2 a−1) to being net sources (−536 g C m−2 a−1) of carbon with the largest storage and sink of carbon at wet and cold climatic conditions. The soil carbon store dominates the carbon budget at all sites and in particular at the site...... with a cold and wet climate where soil C constitutes 95% of the total carbon in the ecosystem. Respiration of carbon from the soil organic matter pool dominated the carbon loss at all sites while carbon loss from aboveground litter decomposition appeared less important. Total belowground carbon allocation...... that in the future a climate-driven land cover change between grasslands and shrublands in Europe will likely lead to increased ecosystem C where shrublands are promoted and less where grasses are promoted. However, it also emphasizes that if feedbacks on the global carbon cycle are to be predicted it is critically...

  6. Short and long-term carbon balance of bioenergy electricity production fueled by forest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Katharine C; Barnes, Kallie L; Ryan, Michael G; Neff, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Forests store large amounts of carbon in forest biomass, and this carbon can be released to the atmosphere following forest disturbance or management. In the western US, forest fuel reduction treatments designed to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire can change forest carbon balance by removing carbon in the form of biomass, and by altering future potential wildfire behavior in the treated stand. Forest treatment carbon balance is further affected by the fate of this biomass removed from the forest, and the occurrence and intensity of a future wildfire in this stand. In this study we investigate the carbon balance of a forest treatment with varying fates of harvested biomass, including use for bioenergy electricity production, and under varying scenarios of future disturbance and regeneration. Bioenergy is a carbon intensive energy source; in our study we find that carbon emissions from bioenergy electricity production are nearly twice that of coal for the same amount of electricity. However, some emissions from bioenergy electricity production are offset by avoided fossil fuel electricity emissions. The carbon benefit achieved by using harvested biomass for bioenergy electricity production may be increased through avoided pyrogenic emissions if the forest treatment can effectively reduce severity. Forest treatments with the use of harvested biomass for electricity generation can reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere by offsetting fossil fuel electricity generation emissions, and potentially by avoided pyrogenic emissions due to reduced intensity and severity of a future wildfire in the treated stand. However, changes in future wildfire and regeneration regimes may affect forest carbon balance and these climate-induced changes may influence forest carbon balance as much, or more, than bioenergy production.

  7. Glacier albedo decrease in the European Alps: potential causes and links with mass balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Julitta, Tommaso; Colombo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Both mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets are losing mass all over the Earth. They are highly sensitive to climate variation, and the widespread reduction of glaciers has been ascribed to the atmospheric temperature increase. Beside this driver, also ice albedo plays a fundamental role in defining mass balance of glaciers. In fact, dark ice absorbs more energy causing faster glacier melting, and this can drive to more negative balances. Previous studies showed that the albedo of Himalayan glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet is decreasing with important rates. In this contribution, we tested the hypothesis that also glaciers in the European Alps are getting darker. We analyzed 16-year time series of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) snow albedo from Terra (MOD13A1, 2000-2015) and Aqua (MYD13A1, 2002-2015) satellites. These data feature a spatial resolution of 500m and a daily temporal resolution. We evaluated the existence of a negative linear and nonlinear trend of the summer albedo values both at pixel and at glacier level. We also calculated the correlation between MODIS summer albedo and glacier mass balances (from the World Glaciological Monitoring Service, WGMS database), for all the glaciers with available mass balance during the considered period. In order to estimate the percentage of the summer albedo that can be explained by atmospheric temperature, we correlated MODIS albedo and monthly air temperature extracted from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Results show that decreasing trends exist with a strong spatial variability in the whole Alpine chain. In large glaciers, such as the Aletch (Swiss Alps), the trend varies significantly also within the glacier, showing that the trend is higher in the area across the accumulation and ablation zone. Over the 17 glaciers with mass balance available in the WGMS data set, 11 gave significant relationship with the MODIS summer albedo. Moreover, the comparison between ERA-Interim temperature

  8. Comparison of the Selected Indicators of Work Life Balance in European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Živčicová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates on the characteristics and indicators of work life balance (WLB. The focus is on the selected criteria of WLB as well as social life and time spent off work. The WLB factors chosen and discussed are: the amount of stress, exhaustion and lack of time for family activities and responsibilities in the context of WLB. The results of the European survey conducted by the Eurofond are compared with the authors’ questionnaire survey conducted in Slovakia in 2015. The survey results revealed stress and working hours to be statistically significant factors that can be seen as obstacles in the WLB and fulfilling family duties for many Slovaks. The survey also shows that the given sample of Slovak respondents performed much worse in the criteria of stress and lack of time results than the European average according to the Eurofond survey. The results could be partly influenced by the fact that the survey participants were mostly employed in the social sector.

  9. BALANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, H.

    1953-01-01

    A torsional-type analytical balance designed to arrive at its equilibrium point more quickly than previous balances is described. In order to prevent external heat sources creating air currents inside the balance casing that would reiard the attainment of equilibrium conditions, a relatively thick casing shaped as an inverted U is placed over the load support arms and the balance beam. This casing is of a metal of good thernnal conductivity characteristics, such as copper or aluminum, in order that heat applied to one portion of the balance is quickly conducted to all other sensitive areas, thus effectively preventing the fornnation of air currents caused by unequal heating of the balance.

  10. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  11. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  12. Carbon and nitrogen balances for six shrublands across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beier, C.; Emmett, B.A.; Tietema, A.; Schmidt, I.K.; Penuelas, J.; Lang, E.K.; Duce, P.; Angelis, de P.; Gorissen, A.; Estiarte, M.; Dato, de G.D.; Sowerby, A.; Kroel-Dulay, G.; Lellei-Kovacs, E.; Kull, O.; Mand, P.; Petersen, H.; Gjelstrup, P.; Spano, D.

    2009-01-01

    Shrublands constitute significant and important parts of European landscapes providing a large number of important ecosystem services. Biogeochemical cycles in these ecosystems have gained little attention relative to forests and grassland systems, but data on such cycles are required for developing

  13. Contribution of root to soil respiration and carbon balance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    improves our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle ... considerably lower net ecosystem productivity in Community 2 than in Community 1 .... soil respiration chambers for each time were dried at 31ºC ..... Using existing management.

  14. Quantifying the erosion effect on current carbon budget of European agricultural soils at high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    The idea of offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions by increasing global soil organic carbon (SOC), as recently proposed by French authorities ahead of COP21 in the 'four per mil' initiative, is notable. However, a high uncertainty still exits on land C balance components. In particular, the role of erosion in the global C cycle is not totally disentangled, leading to disagreement whether this process induces lands to be a source or sink of CO2. To investigate this issue, we coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km(2) resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). Based on data-driven assumptions, the simulation took into account also soil deposition within grid cells and the potential C export to riverine systems, in a way to be conservative in a mass balance. We estimated that 143 of 187 Mha have C erosion rates 0.45 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1). In comparison with a baseline without erosion, the model suggested an erosion-induced sink of atmospheric C consistent with previous empirical-based studies. Integrating all C fluxes for the EU agricultural soils, we estimated a net C loss or gain of -2.28 and +0.79 Tg yr(-1) of CO2 eq, respectively, depending on the value for the short-term enhancement of soil C mineralization due to soil disruption and displacement/transport with erosion. We concluded that erosion fluxes were in the same order of current carbon gains from improved management. Even if erosion could potentially induce a sink for atmospheric CO2, strong agricultural policies are needed to prevent or reduce soil erosion, in order to maintain soil health and productivity. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vetter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the year 2003 is associated with one of the largest atmospheric CO2 rises on record. In the same year, Europe experienced an anomalously strong flux of CO2 from the land to the atmosphere associated with an exceptionally dry and hot summer in Western and Central Europe. In this study we analyze the magnitude of this carbon flux anomaly and key driving ecosystem processes using simulations of seven terrestrial ecosystem models of different complexity and types (process-oriented and diagnostic. We address the following questions: (1 how large were deviations in the net European carbon flux in 2003 relative to a short-term baseline (1998–2002 and to longer-term variations in annual fluxes (1980 to 2005, (2 which European regions exhibited the largest changes in carbon fluxes during the growing season 2003, and (3 which ecosystem processes controlled the carbon balance anomaly .

    In most models the prominence of 2003 anomaly in carbon fluxes declined with lengthening of the reference period from one year to 16 years. The 2003 anomaly for annual net carbon fluxes ranged between 0.35 and –0.63 Pg C for a reference period of one year and between 0.17 and –0.37 Pg C for a reference period of 16 years for the whole Europe.

    In Western and Central Europe, the anomaly in simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP over the growing season in 2003 was outside the 1σ variance bound of the carbon flux anomalies for 1980–2005 in all models. The estimated anomaly in net carbon flux ranged between –42 and –158 Tg C for Western Europe and between 24 and –129 Tg C for Central Europe depending on the model used. All models responded to a dipole pattern of the climate anomaly in 2003. In Western and Central Europe NEP was reduced due to heat and drought. In contrast, lower than normal temperatures and higher air humidity decreased NEP over Northeastern Europe. While models agree on the sign of changes in

  16. The impacts of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some European footbal leagues

    OpenAIRE

    HALICIOGLU, Ferda

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.

  17. The impact of football point systems on the competitive balance: evidence from some european football leagues

    OpenAIRE

    Ferda Halicioglu

    2006-01-01

    Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks

  18. Modelling the carbon and nitrogen balances of direct land use changes from energy crops in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Jørgensen, Uffe; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the conversion of Danish agricultural land from food/feed crops to energy crops. To this end, a life cycle inventory, which relates the input and output flows from and to the environment of 528 different crop systems, is built and described. This includes seven crops (annuals...... and perennials), two soil types (sandy loam and sand), two climate types (wet and dry), three initial soil carbon level (high, average, low), two time horizons for soil carbon changes (20 and 100 years), two residues management practices (removal and incorporation into soil) as well as three soil carbon turnover...... rate reductions in response to the absence of tillage for some perennial crops (0%, 25%, 50%). For all crop systems, nutrient balances, balances between above- and below-ground residues, soil carbon changes, biogenic carbon dioxide flows, emissions of nitrogen compounds and losses of macro...

  19. The unknown story of the European carbon market: an archaeology of the electrical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartel, Melodie; Aggeri, Franck; Caneill, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    In economic literature, the creation of the European carbon market is presented as a major institutional innovation that can be viewed as a direct application of economic theory. In this article, we propose another version of how the European carbon market came about that emphasizes the active role played by companies. For a period of three years, these companies designed and tested a prototype carbon market, while being observed by European experts. Drawing on archive documents, we analyze this experimentation process and examine in detail its influence on the European carbon market. We then discuss the role of companies in the processes of institutional innovation, a process that generally remains invisible. Finally it is explained how such experiments, conducted in protected spaces, can facilitate the design and testing of new concepts

  20. The impact of European balancing rules on wind power economics and on short-term bidding strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves-Ávila, J.P.; Hakvoort, R.A.; Ramos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind power represents a significant percentage of the European generation mix and this will increase to fulfill the renewable energy targets. Different balancing rules are applied to wind power among the countries; for instance, to what extent wind power producers (WPPs) are responsible for the energy imbalances and how those imbalances are penalized. This paper discusses those different rules and evaluates their effects on WPP bidding strategies. To do so, a quantitative analysis is presented for an offshore wind farm, considering the differences in the balancing rules and prices of Belgium, Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. The quantitative approach consists of a stochastic optimization model that maximizes the profits of a WPP by trading in different markets (day-ahead and intraday) and computes the final energy delivered. The model considers uncertainties of most important parameters such as wind energy forecasts and prices at different time frames. The results show that the imbalance pricing design and the allocation of balance responsibility significantly affect WPP’ revenues. Additionally, WPPs deviate differently from the expected energy depending on the balancing rules, which can impact the system. Furthermore, these balancing rules should be considered with other market regulations, such as the design of support schemes. - Highlights: • European countries apply different imbalance pricing rules. • The allocation of balance responsibility to wind power varies between the countries. • A stochastic optimization model is used to compare the effect of balancing rules. • Balancing rules have an important impact on wind generators bidding strategies. • Balancing rules have also an effect on the system imbalances

  1. Impact of the 2015 El Niño on the Indonesian carbon balance: implications for carbon mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Bloom, A. A.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Walker, T. W.; Menemenlis, D.; Jiang, Z.; Gierach, M.; Gurney, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    The COP21 or Paris Agreement in Dec. 2015 was a landmark step in a cooperative approach to reduce anthropogenic emissions from both fossil fuel and deforestation. During that same period, one of the strongest El Niños on record led to devastating droughts, fires, and air pollution in Indonesia. We assess the impact of this El Niño on the Indonesia carbon balance using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) pilot project, which assimilates satellite observations across the entire carbon cycle to attribute the CO2 growth rate to spatially resolved surface fluxes. We assimilate new xCO2 observations from the Orbital Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) to quantify net carbon fluxes and validate those fluxes against independent in-situ atmospheric data. The contribution of biomass burning to the carbon balance is independently determined from the assimilation of Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). The impact of the concomitant drought on productively is assessed from the assimilation of new solar induced fluorescence (SIF) measurements. Using these multiple lines of evidence, we investigate the relative role of biomass burning and productivity in the contribution of Indonesia to the global atmospheric growth rate. The exceptionally long turnover rates of peat carbon pools lead to effectively irreversible carbon loss to the atmosphere. The implications of these losses to Indonesian Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) as part of the Paris agreement will be explored.

  2. Balancing carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in a constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Werf, van der A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries wetlands are constructed or restored for removing nutrients from surface water. At the same time vegetated wetlands can act as carbon sinks when CO2 is sequestered in biomass. However, it is well known that wetlands also produce substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses CH4 and N2O.

  3. Carbon balance of CO2-EOR for NCNO classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Gil-Egui, Ramon; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Hovorka, Susan D

    2017-03-18

    The question of whether carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) constitutes a valid alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction has been frequently asked by the general public and environmental sectors. Through this technology, operational since 1972, oil production is enhanced by injecting CO2 into depleted oil reservoirs in order displace the residual oil toward production wells in a solvent/miscible process. For decades, the CO2 utilized for EOR has been most commonly sourced from natural CO2 accumulations. More recently, a few projects have emerged where anthropogenic CO2 (A-CO2) is captured at an industrial facility, transported to a depleted oil field, and utilized for EOR. If carbon geologic storage is one of the project objectives, all the CO2 injected into the oil field for EOR could technically be stored in the formation. Even though the CO2 is being prevented from entering the atmosphere, and permanently stored away in a secured geologic formation, a question arises as to whether the total CO2 volumes stored in order to produce the incremental oil through EOR are larger than the CO2 emitted throughout the entire CO2-EOR process, including the capture facility, the EOR site, and the refining and burning of the end product. We intend to answer some of these questions through a DOE-NETL funded study titled “Carbon Life Cycle Analysis of CO2-EOR for Net Carbon Negative Oil (NCNO) Classification”. NCNO is defined as oil whose carbon emissions to the atmosphere, when burned or otherwise used, are less than the amount of carbon permanently stored in the reservoir in order to produce the oil. In this paper, we focus on the EOR site in what is referred to as a gate-to-gate system, but are inclusive of the burning of the refined product, as this end member is explicitly stated in the definition of NCNO. Finally, we use Cranfield, Mississippi, as a case study and come to the conclusion that the incremental oil produced is net carbon negative.

  4. European breast cancer service screening outcomes: a first balance sheet of the benefits and harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig; Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen William

    2014-07-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer death being avoided by population-based mammography screening of appropriate quality is more than that of overdiagnosis by screening. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. An analysis of the decadal variability of Carbon fluxes in three evergreen European forests through modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, N.; Dufrêne, E.

    2009-04-01

    With several sites measuring mass and energy turbulent fluxes for more than ten years, the CarboEurope database appears as a valuable resource for addressing the question of the determinism of the interannual variability of carbon (C) and water balances in forests ecosystems. Apart from major climate-driven anomalies during the anomalous 2003 summer and 2007 spring, little is known about the factors driving interannual variability (IAV) of the C balance in forest ecosystems. We used the CASTANEA process-based model to simulate the C and W fluxes and balances of three European evergreen forests for the 2000-2007 period (FRPue Quercus ilex, 44°N; DETha Picea abies, 51°N; FIHyy Pinus sylvestris, 62°N). The model fairly reproduced the day-to-day variability of measured fluxes, accounting for 70-81%, 77-91% and 59-90% of the daily variance of measured NEP, GPP and TER, respectively. However, the model was challenged in representing the IAV of fluxes integrated on an annual time scale. It reproduced ca. 80% of the interannual variance of measured GPP, but no significant relationship could be established between annual measured and modelled NEP or TER. Accordingly, CASTANEA appeared as a suitable tool for disentangling the influence of climate and biological processes on GPP at mutiple time scales. We show that climate and biological processes relative influences on the modelled GPP vary from year to year in European evergreen forests. Water-stress related and phenological processes (i.e. release of the winter thermal constraint on photosynthesis in evergreens) appear as primary drivers for the particular 2003 and 2007 years, respectively, but the relative influence of other climatic factors widely varies for less remarkable years at all sites. We discuss shortcomings of the method, as related to the influence of compensating errors in the simulated fluxes, and assess the causes of the model poor ability to represent the IAV of the annual sums of NEP and TER.

  6. Carbon balance and water use efficiency of frequently cut Lolium perenne L. swards at elevated carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Dijkstra, P.; Groenwold, J.; Pot, C.S.; Geijn, van de S.C.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of doubled atmospheric [CO2] on the carbon balance of regularly cut Lolium perenne L. swards was studied for two years under semi-field conditions in the Wageningen Rhizolab. CO2 and H2O vapour exchange rates of the swards were measured continuously for two years in transparent

  7. Simulating the carbon balance in reclaimed forest ecosystems with the FORECAST model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welham, C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences, Forest Ecosystem Simulation Group; ForRx Consulting, Belcarra, BC (Canada); 3GreenTree Ecosystem Services Ltd., Belcarra, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large emission sources are beginning to report their carbon footprint on an annual basis as a result of government mandates, shareholder demand for disclosure of a company's risk to climate change, and as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives. Oil sands mining is a carbon intensive activity from the perspective of carbon dioxide emissions. The intensity of carbon emissions can be mitigated through technological and process innovations. However, reclamation is the only mining-related activity that directly removes atmospheric carbon dioxide. This presentation described a modeling exercise that had 3 principal objectives, notably to simulate the carbon balance in a developing reclaimed upland forest ecosystem; to explore the relative change in carbon pools over time; and to compare the carbon balance of the reclaimed ecosystem to its natural analogue. The presentation provided a description of the model and methodology and discussed the simulation protocol. Imperial Oil's Kearl Lake operation, which was used as a test case, showed that approximately 83,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare can be sequestered per year as a result of reclamation. tabs., figs.

  8. European-wide simulations of present cropland phenology, productivity and carbon fluxes using an improved terrestrial biosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; Ciais, P.; de Noblet, N.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Bondeau, A.

    2009-04-01

    Aiming at producing improved estimates of carbon source/sink spatial and interannual patterns across Europe (35% croplands), this work combines the terrestrial biosphere model ORCHIDEE (for vegetation productivity, water balance, soil carbon dynamics) and the generic crop model STICS (for phenology, irrigation, nitrogen balance, harvest). The ORCHIDEE-STICS model, relying on three plant functional types for the representation of temperate agriculture, is evaluated over the last few decades at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The simulated Leaf Area Index seasonal cycle is largely improved relative to the original ORCHIDEE simulating grasslands, and compares favourably with remote-sensing observations (the Figure of Merit in Time doubles over Europe). Crop yield is derived from annual Net Primary Productivity and compared with wheat and grain maize harvest data for five European countries. Discrepancies between 30-year mean simulated and reported yields remain large in Mediterranean countries. Interannual variability amplitude expressed relative to the mean is reduced towards the observed variability (~10%) when using ORCHIDEE-STICS. The simulated 2003 anomalous carbon source from European ecosystems to the atmosphere due to the 2003 summer heat wave is in good agreement with atmospheric inversions (~0.2 GtC, from May to October). The anomaly is twice as large in the ORCHIDEE alone simulation, owing to the unrealistically high exposure of herbaceous plants to the extreme summer conditions. Overall, this study highlights the importance of accounting for the specific phonologies of crops sown both in winter and in spring and for irrigation applied to summer crops in regional/global models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Limitations suggest accounting for temporal and spatial variability in agricultural practices for further simulation improvement.

  9. Carbon balance of renovated grasslands: input- or output-driven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary

    2015-04-01

    Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. In permanent temperate grasslands, biomass production and sward quality can deteriorate over time and periodic renovation activities, involving soil tillage and reseeding, are commonly carried out to halt this decline. Long-term cultivation of agricultural land has been associated with soil aggregate degradation and reduced soil carbon storage. However, the impact of these single tillage disturbances on C cycling in grasslands is less clear. This study evaluated gaseous and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses following a single tillage event by subjecting grassland lysimeters with contrasting soil drainage characteristics to simulated conventional inversion or minimum tillage. Field-scale CO2 emissions after conventional tillage were also quantified and empirically modelled over short- and medium-term timeframes to delineate the ecosystem response to environmental variables. Soil moisture was the limiting determinant of ecosystem carbon release following conventional tillage. Freshly-tilled soils were associated with reduced water retention and increased sensitivity to soil moisture, which was particularly pronounced following rewetting events. Significantly elevated but ephemeral CO2 effluxes were detected in the hours following inversion ploughing, however tillage disturbance did not generate significantly enhanced C emission rates in the medium term. Equally, DOC losses were not significantly amplified by conventional tillage compared with conservative minimum tillage and were predominantly controlled by soil drainage across tillage regimes. Our results suggest that a net ecosystem source of 120 to 210 g C m-2 over an approximately two-month period was most likely a consequence of reduced productivity and C input rather than enhanced soil CO2

  10. Oral calcium carbonate affects calcium but not phosphorus balance in stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen M.; Martin, Berdine R.; Wastney, Meryl; McCabe, George P.; Moe, Sharon M.; Weaver, Connie M.; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus and reduce phosphorus retention, and to prevent negative calcium balance. Data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance in CKD to support this. The aim of this study was to determine calcium and phosphorus balance and calcium kinetics with and without calcium carbonate in CKD patients. Eight stage 3/4 CKD patients, eGFR 36 mL/min, participated in two 3-week balances in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of calcium carbonate (1500 mg/d calcium). Calcium and phosphorus balance were determined on a controlled diet. Oral and intravenous 45calcium with blood sampling and urine and fecal collections were used for calcium kinetics. Fasting blood and urine were collected at baseline and end of each week of each balance period for biochemical analyses. Results showed that patients were in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on placebo. Calcium carbonate produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance suggesting tissue deposition. Fasting biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. If they can be extrapolated to effects of chronic therapy, these data caution against the use of calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder. PMID:23254903

  11. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Tian Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Chappelka, Arthur; Xu Xiaofeng; Ren Wei; Hui Dafeng; Liu Mingliang; Lu Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Lockaby, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945–2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69–1.77) Pg (1P = 10 15 ) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945–2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70–100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. - Highlights: ► A series of spatial and temporal urban/developed land maps were generated. ► Urbanization effects on regional carbon dynamics were studied with a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). ► Carbon storage of urban/developed land was comparable to that stored in cropland and shrubland in the Southern United States. ► Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. ► Urbanization resulted in carbon emission, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time. - Urbanization has resulted in carbon release to the atmosphere, but established urban areas may gradually accumulate carbon over time.

  12. Updated estimate of carbon balance on Russian territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurganova, I. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.; Gerenyu, V. O. Lopes de (Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, RAS, Pushchino (Russian Federation)), e-mail: ikurg@mail.ru

    2010-11-15

    The land use system in Russia changed considerably after 1990: 30.2 million ha of croplands were abandoned. Based on the own field investigations that were carried out in abandoned lands of different age (Luvic Phaeozems, deciduous forest zone; Moscow region, 54 deg 50' N, 37 deg 37' E), it has been shown that after 4.5 yr of abandonment, the former croplands acted as a stable sink of CO{sub 2}. The net ecosystem production (NEP) in the post-agrogenic ecosystems averaged 245 +- 73gCm-2 yr-1 for the first 15 yr after land use change that corresponds to an estimated 74 +- 22 Tg C yr-1 for the total area of abandoned lands in Russian Federation. Currently, the Russian territory acts as an absolute sink of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at a rate about 0.90 Pg C yr-1. Using three different approaches, it was demonstrated that after 1990, the carbon sequestration in Russian soils (0.20 cm layer) has averaged 34 +- 2.2 Tg C yr-1. This soil C forms net biome production (NBP) where carbon lifetime is much longer than in 'Kyoto forests'. Thus, the post-agrogenic ecosystems in Russia provide with the additional CO{sub 2} sink in NEP and NBP that could annually compensate about 25% of the current fossil fuel emissions in the Russian Federation

  13. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low-carbon

  14. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low-carbon

  15. What moves the European carbon market? Insights from conditional jump models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronwald, Marc; Ketterer, Janina [Munich Univ. (Germany). Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

    2012-04-15

    This paper is concerned with carbon price volatility and the underlying causes of large price movements in the European emissions trading market. Based on the application of a combined jump-GARCH model the behavior of EUA prices is characterized. The jump- GARCH model explains the unsteady carbon price movement well and, moreover, shows that between 40 and 60 percent of the carbon price variance are triggered by jumps. Information regarding EUA supply and news from international carbon markets are identified as important drivers of these price spikes. These results can lead regulators the way if smoother carbon prices are desired.

  16. The role of ecosystem memory in predicting inter-annual variations of the tropical carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. A.; Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Konings, A. G.; Saatchi, S.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Jiang, Z.; Parazoo, N.; Williams, M. D.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the trajectory of the tropical carbon balance remains challenging, in part due to large uncertainties in the integrated response of carbon cycle processes to climate variability. Satellite observations atmospheric CO2 from GOSAT and OCO-2, together with ancillary satellite measurements, provide crucial constraints on continental-scale terrestrial carbon fluxes. However, an integrated understanding of both climate forcings and legacy effects (or "ecosystem memory") on the terrestrial carbon balance is ultimately needed to reduce uncertainty on its future trajectory. Here we use the CARbon DAta-MOdel fraMework (CARDAMOM) diagnostic model-data fusion approach - constrained by an array of C cycle satellite surface observations, including MODIS leaf area, biomass, GOSAT solar-induced fluorescence, as well as "top-down" atmospheric inversion estimates of CO2 and CO surface fluxes from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) - to constrain and predict spatially-explicit tropical carbon state variables during 2010-2015. We find that the combined assimilation of land surface and atmospheric datasets places key constraints on the temperature sensitivity and first order carbon-water feedbacks throughout the tropics and combustion factors within biomass burning regions. By varying the duration of the assimilation period, we find that the prediction skill on inter-annual net biospheric exchange is primarily limited by record length rather than model structure and process representation. We show that across all tropical biomes, quantitative knowledge of memory effects - which account for 30-50% of interannual variations across the tropics - is critical for understanding and ultimately predicting the inter-annual tropical carbon balance.

  17. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show...

  18. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; D. Bryan Dail; John T. Lee; J. William Munger; John O' Keefe

    2009-01-01

    Spring phenology is thought to exert a major influence on the carbon (C) balance of temperate and boreal ecosystems. We investigated this hypothesis using four spring onset phenological indicators in conjunction with surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange data from the conifer-dominated Howland Forest and deciduous-dominated Harvard Forest AmeriFlux...

  19. Effects of harvest, fire, and pest/pathogen disturbances on the West Cascades ecoregion carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David P; Ritts, William D; Kennedy, Robert E; Gray, Andrew N; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Disturbance is a key influence on forest carbon dynamics, but the complexity of spatial and temporal patterns in forest disturbance makes it difficult to quantify their impacts on carbon flux over broad spatial domains. Here we used a time series of Landsat remote sensing images and a climate-driven carbon cycle process model to evaluate carbon fluxes at the ecoregion scale in western Oregon. Thirteen percent of total forest area in the West Cascades ecoregion was disturbed during the reference interval (1991-2010). The disturbance regime was dominated by harvesting (59 % of all area disturbed), with lower levels of fire (23 %), and pest/pathogen mortality (18 %). Ecoregion total Net Ecosystem Production was positive (a carbon sink) in all years, with greater carbon uptake in relatively cool years. Localized carbon source areas were associated with recent harvests and fire. Net Ecosystem Exchange (including direct fire emissions) showed greater interannual variation and became negative (a source) in the highest fire years. Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (i.e. change in carbon stocks) was more positive on public that private forestland, because of a lower disturbance rate, and more positive in the decade of the 1990s than in the warmer and drier 2000s because of lower net ecosystem production and higher direct fire emissions in the 2000s. Despite recurrent disturbances, the West Cascades ecoregion has maintained a positive carbon balance in recent decades. The high degree of spatial and temporal resolution in these simulations permits improved attribution of regional carbon sources and sinks.

  20. On the way to 2050 - Which ingredients for a de-carbonated future? An analysis of the 'Energy Road map 2050' of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This document presents and discusses the climate objective of the Energy road map, some macro-economic hypotheses (oil price, economic growth), the different trajectories defined in the Energy Road map, the role of electricity in the de-carbonation of the energy system, energy savings (potential and under-exploited), the evolution of the installed electric capacity, the balancing of the electric system, the global costs of the energy system, the EU energy bill in 2050, the evolution of electricity price, and the European carbon trading scheme

  1. When growth and photosynthesis don't match: implications for carbon balance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlyn, B.; Mahmud, K.; Duursma, R.; Pfautsch, S.; Campany, C.

    2017-12-01

    Most models of terrestrial plant growth are based on the principle of carbon balance: that growth can be predicted from net uptake of carbon via photosynthesis. A key criticism leveled at these models by plant physiologists is that there are many circumstances in which plant growth appears to be independent of photosynthesis: for example, during the onset of drought, or with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. A crucial problem for terrestrial carbon cycle models is to develop better representations of plant carbon balance when there is a mismatch between growth and photosynthesis. Here we present two studies providing insight into this mismatch. In the first, effects of root restriction on plant growth were examined by comparing Eucalyptus tereticornis seedlings growing in containers of varying sizes with freely-rooted seedlings. Root restriction caused a reduction in photosynthesis, but this reduction was insufficient to explain the even larger reduction observed in growth. We applied data assimilation to a simple carbon balance model to quantify the response of carbon balance as a whole in this experiment. We inferred that, in addition to photosynthesis, there are significant effects of root restriction on growth respiration, carbon allocation, and carbohydrate utilization. The second study was carried out at the EucFACE Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment. At this experiment, photosynthesis of the overstorey trees is increased with enriched CO2, but there is no significant effect on above-ground productivity. These mature trees have reached their maximum height but are at significant risk of canopy loss through disturbance, and we hypothesized that additional carbon taken up through photosynthesis is preferentially allocated to storage rather than growth. We tested this hypothesis by measuring stemwood non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) during a psyllid outbreak that completely defoliated the canopy in 2015. There was a significant drawdown of NSC during

  2. The CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS) v1.0: implementation and global carbon balance 2001-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Velde, Ivar R.; van der Veen, Emma; Tsuruta, Aki; Stanislawska, Karolina; Babenhauserheide, Arne; Zhang, Hui Fang; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Chen, Huilin; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Krol, Maarten C.; Peters, Wouter

    2017-07-01

    Data assimilation systems are used increasingly to constrain the budgets of reactive and long-lived gases measured in the atmosphere. Each trace gas has its own lifetime, dominant sources and sinks, and observational network (from flask sampling and in situ measurements to space-based remote sensing) and therefore comes with its own optimal configuration of the data assimilation. The CarbonTracker Europe data assimilation system for CO2 estimates global carbon sources and sinks, and updates are released annually and used in carbon cycle studies. CarbonTracker Europe simulations are performed using the new modular implementation of the data assimilation system: the CarbonTracker Data Assimilation Shell (CTDAS). Here, we present and document this redesign of the data assimilation code that forms the heart of CarbonTracker, specifically meant to enable easy extension and modification of the data assimilation system. This paper also presents the setup of the latest version of CarbonTracker Europe (CTE2016), including the use of the gridded state vector, and shows the resulting carbon flux estimates. We present the distribution of the carbon sinks over the hemispheres and between the land biosphere and the oceans. We show that with equal fossil fuel emissions, 2015 has a higher atmospheric CO2 growth rate compared to 2014, due to reduced net land carbon uptake in later year. The European carbon sink is especially present in the forests, and the average net uptake over 2001-2015 was 0. 17 ± 0. 11 PgC yr-1 with reductions to zero during drought years. Finally, we also demonstrate the versatility of CTDAS by presenting an overview of the wide range of applications for which it has been used so far.

  3. The importance of age-related decline in forest NPP for modeling regional carbon balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Sitch, Stephen; Prentice, I Colin; Liski, Jari; Cramer, Wolfgang; Erhard, Markus; Hickler, Thomas; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-08-01

    We show the implications of the commonly observed age-related decline in aboveground productivity of forests, and hence forest age structure, on the carbon dynamics of European forests in response to historical changes in environmental conditions. Size-dependent carbon allocation in trees to counteract increasing hydraulic resistance with tree height has been hypothesized to be responsible for this decline. Incorporated into a global terrestrial biosphere model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model, LPJ), this hypothesis improves the simulated increase in biomass with stand age. Application of the advanced model, including a generic representation of forest management in even-aged stands, for 77 European provinces shows that model-based estimates of biomass development with age compare favorably with inventory-based estimates for different tree species. Model estimates of biomass densities on province and country levels, and trends in growth increment along an annual mean temperature gradient are in broad agreement with inventory data. However, the level of agreement between modeled and inventory-based estimates varies markedly between countries and provinces. The model is able to reproduce the present-day age structure of forests and the ratio of biomass removals to increment on a European scale based on observed changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, forest area, and wood demand between 1948 and 2000. Vegetation in European forests is modeled to sequester carbon at a rate of 100 Tg C/yr, which corresponds well to forest inventory-based estimates.

  4. Incorrectly Interpreting the Carbon Mass Balance Technique Leads to Biased Emissions Estimates from Global Vegetation Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Meyer, M.; Polglase, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation fires are a complex phenomenon and have a range of global impacts including influences on climate. Even though fire is a necessary disturbance for the maintenance of some ecosystems, a range of anthropogenically deleterious consequences are associated with it, such as damage to assets and infrastructure, loss of life, as well as degradation to air quality leading to negative impacts on human health. Estimating carbon emissions from fire relies on a carbon mass balance technique which has evolved with two different interpretations in the fire emissions community. Databases reporting global fire emissions estimates use an approach based on `consumed biomass' which is an approximation to the biogeochemically correct `burnt carbon' approach. Disagreement between the two methods occurs because the `consumed biomass' accounting technique assumes that all burnt carbon is volatilized and emitted. By undertaking a global review of the fraction of burnt carbon emitted to the atmosphere, we show that the `consumed biomass' accounting approach overestimates global carbon emissions by 4.0%, or 100 Teragrams, annually. The required correction is significant and represents 9% of the net global forest carbon sink estimated annually. To correctly partition burnt carbon between that emitted to the atmosphere and that remaining as a post-fire residue requires the post-burn carbon content to be estimated, which is quite often not undertaken in atmospheric emissions studies. To broaden our understanding of ecosystem carbon fluxes, it is recommended that the change in carbon content associated with burnt residues be accounted for. Apart from correctly partitioning burnt carbon between the emitted and residue pools, it enables an accounting approach which can assess the efficacy of fire management operations targeted at sequestering carbon from fire. These findings are particularly relevant for the second commitment period for the Kyoto protocol, since improved landscape fire

  5. Effect of Forest Management of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica with Different Types of Felling on Carbon and Economic Balances in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plch, Radek; Pulkrab, Karel; Bukáček, Jan; Sloup, Roman; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The selection of the most sustainable forest management under given site conditions needs suitable criteria and indicators. For this purpose, carbon and economic balance assessment, completed with environmental impact computation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were used. The aim of this study was to compare forestry operations and wood production of selected forest stands with different i) tree species composition (Norway spruce - Picea abies and European beech - Fagus sylvatica) and ii) type of felling (chainsaw and harvester). Carbon and economic balance methods consist in the comparison of quantified inputs (fossil fuels, electricity, used machinery, fertilizers, etc., converted into emission units of carbon in Mg of C- CO2-eq. or EUR) with quantified outputs (biomass production in Mg of carbon or EUR). In this contribution, similar forest stands (“forest site complexes”) in the 4th forest vegetation zone (in the Czech Republic approximately 400-700 m above sea-level) were selected. Forestry operations were divided into 5 main stages: i) seedling production, ii) stand establishment and pruning, iii) thinning and final cutting, iv) skidding, and v) secondary timber transport and modelled for one rotation period of timber production (ca. 100 years). The differences between Norway spruce and European beech forest stands in the carbon efficiency were relatively small while higher differences were achieved in the economic efficiency (forest stands with Norway spruce had a higher economic efficiency). Concerning the comparison of different types of felling in Norway spruce forest stands, the harvester use proved to induce significantly higher environmental impacts (emission of carbon) and lower economic costs. The comparison of forestry operation stages showed that the main part of carbon emissions, originating from fuel production and combustion, is connected with a thinning and final cutting, skidding and secondary timber transport in relations to

  6. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  7. Soils apart from equilibrium – consequences for soil carbon balance modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wutzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projections of the soil carbon sink or source are based on kinetically defined carbon pool models. Para-meters of these models are often determined in a way that the steady state of the model matches observed carbon stocks. The underlying simplifying assumption is that observed carbon stocks are near equilibrium. This assumption is challenged by observations of very old soils that do still accumulate carbon. In this modelling study we explored the consequences of the case where soils are apart from equilibrium. Calculation of equilibrium states of soils that are currently accumulating small amounts of carbon were performed using the Yasso model. It was found that already very small current accumulation rates cause big changes in theoretical equilibrium stocks, which can virtually approach infinity. We conclude that soils that have been disturbed several centuries ago are not in equilibrium but in a transient state because of the slowly ongoing accumulation of the slowest pool. A first consequence is that model calibrations to current carbon stocks that assume equilibrium state, overestimate the decay rate of the slowest pool. A second consequence is that spin-up runs (simulations until equilibrium overestimate stocks of recently disturbed sites. In order to account for these consequences, we propose a transient correction. This correction prescribes a lower decay rate of the slowest pool and accounts for disturbances in the past by decreasing the spin-up-run predicted stocks to match an independent estimate of current soil carbon stocks. Application of this transient correction at a Central European beech forest site with a typical disturbance history resulted in an additional carbon fixation of 5.7±1.5 tC/ha within 100 years. Carbon storage capacity of disturbed forest soils is potentially much higher than currently assumed. Simulations that do not adequately account for the transient state of soil carbon stocks neglect a considerable

  8. Balanced or biased? Interest groups and legislative lobbying in the European news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruycker, I.; Beyers, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the coverage of legislative lobbying in European news media. The starting point thereby is that lobbying in the crowded European Union (EU)-level interest community is not only a struggle for direct access to policymakers, but that in order to realize policy goals many interest

  9. Russia's and the European union's gas interdependence. What balance between the market and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the interdependence relation-ship between Russia and the European Union in the area of gas, by distinguishing the Russian seller's power risk from the issue of short term security, which are often mistaken one for the other The goal is to measure the economic risk associated with the seller's dominant position in the European market to appreciate the relevance of responses that can be made by European countries or the European Union. Firstly, the basically different nature of Russia and of the European Union is described, as well as the role played by its energy resources in the assertion of Russia's political power Secondly there is an analysis of the Russian seller's elements of dependence on the European market, before reviewing, thirdly, the risk of exercising Gazprom's market power in Europe. In closing is a review of the relevance of possible actions by the European Union and member countries to reduce that risk by facilitating the densification of the Pan-european Network, the establishment of entry points and market integration. (author)

  10. Climate change and energy - 2005. European carbon factor 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2004 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows a slight decay (-1%) of cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2003. These 23 companies represent 53% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). (J.S.)

  11. Accounting conservatism in Europe: Insights in the degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism in financial statements of European companies during the period 1991-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Remco

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates how the degree of accounting conservatism in the financial statements of European companies evolves over time during period 1996-2005. This study concludes that the financial statement information of European companies shows a certain degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism during period 1991-2005; this degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism evolves over time. The research findings do not indicate that the intr...

  12. Impacts of Human Induced Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Water Balance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, M.; Yang, D.; Tang, J.; Lei, H.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced plant biomass accumulation in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration could dampen the future rate of increase in CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, many experiments around the world reported that nitrogen availability could limit the sustainability of the ecosystems' response to elevated CO2. In the recent 20 years, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, has increased sharply about 25% in China and meanwhile, China has the highest carbon emission in the world, implying a large opportunity to increase vegetation greenness and ecosystem carbon sequestration. Moreover, the water balance of the ecosystem will also change. However, in the future, the trajectory of increasing nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel use is to be controlled by the government policy that shapes the energy and industrial structure. Therefore, the historical and future trajectories of nitrogen deposition are likely very different, and it is imperative to understand how changes in nitrogen deposition will impact the ecosystem carbon sequestration and water balance in China. We here use the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) to analyze how the change of nitrogen deposition has influenced and will influence the ecosystem carbon and water cycle in China at a high spatial resolution (0.1 degree). We address the following questions: 1) what is the contribution of the nitrogen deposition on historical vegetation greenness? 2) How does the change of nitrogen deposition affect the carbon sequestration? 3) What is its influence to water balance? And 4) how different will be the influence of the nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon and water cycling in the future?

  13. European CO2 prices and carbon capture investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Luis M.; Chamorro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    We assess the option to install a carbon capture and storage (CCS) unit in a coal-fired power plant operating in a carbon-constrained environment. We consider two sources of risk, namely the price of emission allowance and the price of the electricity output. First we analyse the performance of the EU market for CO 2 emission allowances. Specifically, we focus on the contracts maturing in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008 to 2012) and calibrate the underlying parameters of the allowance price process. Then we refer to the Spanish wholesale electricity market and calibrate the parameters of the electricity price process. We use a two-dimensional binomial lattice to derive the optimal investment rule. In particular, we obtain the trigger allowance prices above which it is optimal to install the capture unit immediately. We further analyse the effect of changes in several variables on these critical prices, among them allowance price volatility and a hypothetical government subsidy. We conclude that, at current permit prices, immediate installation does not seem justified from a financial point of view. This need not be the case, though, if carbon market parameters change dramatically, carbon capture technology undergoes significant improvements, and/or a specific governmental policy to promote these units is adopted. (author)

  14. The full annual carbon balance of a subtropical coniferous plantation is highly sensitive to autumn precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingjie; Wang, Huimin; Wen, Xuefa; Zhang, Tao; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Jianlei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Zhang, Wenjiang

    2017-08-30

    Deep understanding of the effects of precipitation on carbon budgets is essential to assess the carbon balance accurately and can help predict potential variation within the global change context. Therefore, we addressed this issue by analyzing twelve years (2003-2014) of observations of carbon fluxes and their corresponding temperature and precipitation data in a subtropical coniferous plantation at the Qianyanzhou (QYZ) site, southern China. During the observation years, this coniferous ecosystem experienced four cold springs whose effects on the carbon budgets were relatively clear based on previous studies. To unravel the effects of temperature and precipitation, the effects of autumn precipitation were examined by grouping the data into two pools based on whether the years experienced cold springs. The results indicated that precipitation in autumn can accelerate the gross primary productivity (GPP) of the following year. Meanwhile, divergent effects of precipitation on ecosystem respiration (Re) were found. Autumn precipitation was found to enhance Re in normal years but the same regulation was not found in the cold-spring years. These results suggested that for long-term predictions of carbon balance in global climate change projections, the effects of precipitation must be considered to better constrain the uncertainties associated with the estimation.

  15. Carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the FR-GRI crop site from 2005 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Chammakhi, Manel; Mascher, Nicolas; Durand, Brigitte; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Lecuyer, Vanessa; Laville, Patricia; Buysse, Pauline; Cellier, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the ICOS FR-GRI site from 2005 to 2014 is presented. The site is a wheat-barley-maize rotation with the introduction of oil-seed rape in 2012. The site receives large amounts of organic fertilization, but is shown to be a strong source of carbon to the atmosphere, especially due to the increase in the exportations of residues during the period. The exportations have increased from around 4 to around 8 t C ha-1 year-1 over the period on average except for maize for which it remained constant. In the meantime the carbon importations have increased from around 1 to around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 during the same period. Overall the field was losing around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 over the whole period but largely driven by last years (2012-2014). This would represent 17% loss of the soil carbon content in the 0-60 cm in the 2005-2014 period. The discussion focuses on explanations of these losses and possible drawbacks in the methodology. The effect of the winter intermediate crops on the carbon balance is also discussed.

  16. Accounting conservatism in Europe : Insights in the degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism in financial statements of European companies during the period 1991-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brouwer (Remco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates how the degree of accounting conservatism in the financial statements of European companies evolves over time during period 1996-2005. This study concludes that the financial statement information of European companies shows a certain degree of balance sheet

  17. Policy Brief - Precarious versus protected care work in the European Union: finding the right balance

    OpenAIRE

    Knijn Trudie; Oomkens Rosanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on research conducted during the project, this policy brief addresses care work for elderly people in European Union countries in the context ofthe right to free movement of labour. Despite a range of guidelines and directives in the past decades, the European Union still faces the intersectional problem of an ageing population, gender inequality, and lack of rights for caregivers, the latter being mainly women and – in some countries – increasingly migrant women. The risks of olde...

  18. Atmospheric CO2 measurements reveal strong drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L.; Gloor, M.; Doughty, C.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C.; Borges, V.; Freitas, S. R.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O.; Lloyd, J.

    2013-12-01

    Potential feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate are one of the largest sources of uncertainty for predicting future global climate, but estimates of their sensitivity to climate anomalies in the tropics and determination of underlying mechanisms are either incomplete or strongly model-based. Amazonia alone stores ~150-200 Pg of labile carbon, and has experienced an increasing trend in temperature and extreme floods and droughts over the last two decades. Here we report the first Amazon Basin-wide seasonal and annual carbon balances based on tropospheric greenhouse gas sampling, during an anomalously dry and a wet year, 2010 and 2011, providing the first whole-system assessment of sensitivity to such conditions. During 2010, the Amazon Basin lost 0.5×0.2 PgCyr-1 while in 2011 it was approximately carbon neutral (0.06×0.1 PgCyr-1). Carbon loss via fire was 0.5×0.1 PgCyr-1 in 2010 and 0.3×0.1 PgCyr-1 in 2011, as derived from Basin-wide carbon monoxide (CO) enhancements. Subtracting fire emissions from total carbon flux to derive Basin net biome exchange (NBE) reveals that in 2010 the non-fire regions of the Basin were carbon neutral; in 2011 they were a net carbon sink of -0.3×0.1 PgC yr-1, roughly consistent with a three-decade long intact-forest biomass sink of ~ -0.5×0.3 PgCyr-1 estimated from forest censuses. Altogether, our results suggest that if the recent trend of precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon region may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and suppression of NBE by drought.

  19. Effects of dissolved carbon dioxide on energy metabolism and stress responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, G.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Capelle, J.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations reduce feed intake and growth in several fish species and induce stress responses. In this study, the effects of moderately elevated CO2 levels on performance, energy partitioning, swimming activity and stress response in European seabass were assessed.

  20. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon dynamics of four European coniferous forests using a biogeochemistry model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churkina, G.; Tenhunen, J.; Thornton, P.; Falge, E.; Elbers, J.A.; Erhard, M.; Grünwald, T.; Kowalski, A.; Rannik, Ü.; Sprinz, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides the first steps toward a regional-scale analysis of carbon (C) budgets. We explore the ability of the ecosystem model BIOME-BGC to estimate the daily and annual C dynamics of four European coniferous forests and shifts in these dynamics in response to changing environmental

  1. Increasing carbon sinks in European forests: effect of afforestation and changes in mean growing stock volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilén, T.; Cienciala, E.; Schelhaas, M.; Verkerk, P.J.; Lindner, M.; Peltola, H.

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, both forest area and growing stock have increased since the 1950s, and European forests have acted as a carbon sink during the last six decades. However, the contribution of different factors affecting the sink is not yet clear. In this study, historical inventory data were combined with

  2. Tendances Carbone no. 81 'The EU ETS as bellwether of a flawed European Internal Energy Market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressand, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: - The EU ETS verified emissions: 1,950 MtCO 2 in 2012, i.e. a 2% fall compared with 2011 and a 13.5% fall compared with 2008. Phase 2 compliance: an excess amount of 1,425 Mt including the use of 1,059 million international credits. - Back-loading: the European Parliament's ENVI Commission will vote again on 19 June. - Competitiveness: the European Commission is launching a consultation process regarding a review of the list of sectors exposed to carbon leakage for the period between 2015 and 2019

  3. Vegetation and carbon gas dynamics under a changed hydrological regime in central European peatlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Z.; Picek, T.; Hájek, Tomáš; Bufková, I.; Tuittila, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2012), 89-103 ISSN 1755-0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : peatland * carbon balance * restoration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2012

  4. The Question Of Balance Work - Family And Reconciliation Regime Work - Family At European Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cimpeanu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of the continuous change of the work patterns and of the alert liferhythm, there is a real challenge to keep a favourable equilibrium between work and family life. Oneof the value orientations manifested on a major scale on the whole European continent, is the humanorientation able to give substance to the European social politics, oriented to permanent improvementof his life quality by the increasing of the life level, the improvement of the work conditions, the workflexibility support qt the European level, national and organizational by the elaboration etimplementation of the politics of the work conciliation with family, or of the family/friendly politics,in order to keep an optimal equilibrium between family life as well as in the professional one.According to the European Commission, the reconciliation politics represent key responses to thelong term economic and demographic challenges. A better family life reconciliation is supported bythe objectives of the European strategy for the economical growth and of the workforce occupation

  5. Carbon balance studies of glucose metabolism in rat cerebral cortical synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, U; Brand, K

    1982-07-01

    Synaptosomes were isolated from rat cerebral cortex and incubated with (U-/sup 14/C)-, (1-/sup 14/C)- or (6-/sup 14/C)glucose. Glucose utilization and the metabolic partitioning of glucose carbon in products were determined by isotopic methods. From the data obtained a carbon balance was constructed, showing lactate to be the main product of glucose metabolism, followed by CO/sup 2/, amino acids and pyruvate. Measuring the release of /sup 14/CO/sup 2/ from glucose labelled in three different positions allowed the construction of a flow diagram of glucose carbon atoms in synaptosomes, which provides information about the contribution of the various pathways of glucose metabolism. Some 2% of glucose utilized was calculated to be degraded via the pentose phosphate pathway. Addition of chlorpromazine, imipramine or haloperidol at concentrations of 10(-5) M reduced glucose utilisation by 30% without changing the distribution pattern of radioactivity in the various products.

  6. European energy balance research to prevent excessive weight gain among youth (ENERGY) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.

    2011-01-01

    . Method: A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations...... as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well...

  7. European health research and globalisation: is the public-private balance right?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The creation and exchange of knowledge between cultures has benefited world development for many years. The European Union now puts research and innovation at the front of its economic strategy. In the health field, biomedical research, which benefits the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, has been well supported, but much less emphasis has been given to public health and health systems research. A similar picture is emerging in European support for globalisation and health Case studies Two case-studies illustrate the links of European support in global health research with industry and biomedicine. The European Commission's directorates for (respectively Health, Development and Research held an international conference in Brussels in June 2010. Two of six thematic sessions related to research: one was solely concerned with drug development and the protection of intellectual property. Two European Union-supported health research projects in India show a similar trend. The Euro-India Research Centre was created to support India's participation in EU research programmes, but almost all of the health research projects have been in biotechnology. New INDIGO, a network led by the French national research agency CNRS, has chosen 'Biotechnology and Health' and funded projects only within three laboratory sciences. Discussion Research for commerce supports only one side of economic development. Innovative technologies can be social as well as physical, and be as likely to benefit society and the economy. Global health research agendas to meet the Millenium goals need to prioritise prevention and service delivery. Public interest can be voiced through civil society organisations, able to support social research and public-health interventions. Money for health research comes from public budgets, or indirectly through healthcare costs. European 'Science in Society' programme contrasts research for 'economy', using technical

  8. European health research and globalisation: is the public-private balance right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark

    2011-03-22

    The creation and exchange of knowledge between cultures has benefited world development for many years. The European Union now puts research and innovation at the front of its economic strategy. In the health field, biomedical research, which benefits the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, has been well supported, but much less emphasis has been given to public health and health systems research. A similar picture is emerging in European support for globalisation and health Two case-studies illustrate the links of European support in global health research with industry and biomedicine. The European Commission's directorates for (respectively) Health, Development and Research held an international conference in Brussels in June 2010. Two of six thematic sessions related to research: one was solely concerned with drug development and the protection of intellectual property. Two European Union-supported health research projects in India show a similar trend. The Euro-India Research Centre was created to support India's participation in EU research programmes, but almost all of the health research projects have been in biotechnology. New INDIGO, a network led by the French national research agency CNRS, has chosen 'Biotechnology and Health' and funded projects only within three laboratory sciences. Research for commerce supports only one side of economic development. Innovative technologies can be social as well as physical, and be as likely to benefit society and the economy. Global health research agendas to meet the Millenium goals need to prioritise prevention and service delivery. Public interest can be voiced through civil society organisations, able to support social research and public-health interventions. Money for health research comes from public budgets, or indirectly through healthcare costs. European 'Science in Society' programme contrasts research for 'economy', using technical solutions, commercialisation and a passive consumer voice for

  9. European health research and globalisation: is the public-private balance right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The creation and exchange of knowledge between cultures has benefited world development for many years. The European Union now puts research and innovation at the front of its economic strategy. In the health field, biomedical research, which benefits the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, has been well supported, but much less emphasis has been given to public health and health systems research. A similar picture is emerging in European support for globalisation and health Case studies Two case-studies illustrate the links of European support in global health research with industry and biomedicine. The European Commission's directorates for (respectively) Health, Development and Research held an international conference in Brussels in June 2010. Two of six thematic sessions related to research: one was solely concerned with drug development and the protection of intellectual property. Two European Union-supported health research projects in India show a similar trend. The Euro-India Research Centre was created to support India's participation in EU research programmes, but almost all of the health research projects have been in biotechnology. New INDIGO, a network led by the French national research agency CNRS, has chosen 'Biotechnology and Health' and funded projects only within three laboratory sciences. Discussion Research for commerce supports only one side of economic development. Innovative technologies can be social as well as physical, and be as likely to benefit society and the economy. Global health research agendas to meet the Millenium goals need to prioritise prevention and service delivery. Public interest can be voiced through civil society organisations, able to support social research and public-health interventions. Money for health research comes from public budgets, or indirectly through healthcare costs. European 'Science in Society' programme contrasts research for 'economy', using technical solutions, commercialisation

  10. Indoor and outdoor urban atmospheric CO2: Stable carbon isotope constraints on mixing and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Yurena; Yapp, Crayton J.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → 13 C of indoor CO 2 indicates proportion of C 4 -derived carbon in occupants' diet. → Flux balance model for ventilated rooms shows rapid approach to CO 2 steady-state. → From extant indoor CO 2 data more dietary C 4 carbon in American than European diets. → Local outdoor urban CO 2 increase of 17 ppm in ten years, no change in average 13 C. - Abstract: From July to November 2009, concentrations of CO 2 in 78 samples of ambient air collected in 18 different interior spaces on a university campus in Dallas, Texas (USA) ranged from 386 to 1980 ppm. Corresponding δ 13 C values varied from -8.9 per mille to -19.4 per mille. The CO 2 from 22 samples of outdoor air (also collected on campus) had a more limited range of concentrations from 385 to 447 ppm (avg. = 408 ppm), while δ 13 C values varied from -10.1 per mille to -8.4 per mille (avg.=-9.0 per mille). In contrast to ambient indoor and outdoor air, the concentrations of CO 2 exhaled by 38 different individuals ranged from 38,300 to 76,200 ppm (avg. = 55,100 ppm), while δ 13 C values ranged from -24.8 per mille to -17.7 per mille (avg. = -21.8 per mille). The residence times of the total air in the interior spaces of this study appear to have been on the order of 10 min with relatively rapid approaches (∼30 min) to steady-state concentrations of ambient CO 2 gas. Collectively, the δ 13 C values of the indoor CO 2 samples were linearly correlated with the reciprocal of CO 2 concentration, exhibiting an intercept of -21.8 per mille, with r 2 = 0.99 and p 2 data representing 18 interior spaces (with varying numbers of occupants), and the coincidence of the intercept (-21.8 per mille) with the average δ 13 C value for human-exhaled CO 2 demonstrates simple mixing between two inputs: (1) outdoor CO 2 introduced to the interior spaces by ventilation systems, and (2) CO 2 exhaled by human occupants of those spaces. If such simple binary mixing is a common feature of interior spaces, it

  11. Tendances Carbone no. 91. Is the European Union in fighting formation on the Paris 2015 front?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguet, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - Verified CO 2 emissions: in 2013, emissions of EU ETS stationary installations, estimated to 1,895 Mt CO 2 , have decreased by at least 3% in comparison of 2012. - State aids for 2020 climate targets: the EU Commission has adopted new guidelines on public support for projects in the field of environmental protection and energy that notably promote a gradual move to market-based support for renewable energy. - Carbon leakage: the EU Commission has sent its draft proposal for a 2015-2019 carbon leakage list to the EU Climate Change Committee and has launched a public consultation on possible post-2020 carbon leakage provisions

  12. The response of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the ecosystem carbon balance to experimental drought in a temperate shrubland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, A.; Emmett, B.A.; Williams, D.

    2010-01-01

    in northeast Wales, we have carried out an annual drought treatment for 8 years, reducing levels of annual rainfall by 23% on average (1999–2007) through the use of automated roofs, which prevent rain falling on experimental plots between June and September annually. Following 5 years of repeated summer...... drainage of water from the drought-treated soils resulted in an overall decrease of 9% in total DOC export. Calculating the carbon (C) balance for the below-ground component of the ecosystem reveals that DOC represents 3% of gross C export. Previous studies at the site have demonstrated large increases...... in soil respiration resulting from the repeated drought treatment. By including data presented here with other C fluxes and pool measurements from the site, we demonstrate that soil carbon is accumulating by 126 g C m−2 year−1 in the control plots, but decreasing by 18 g C m2 year−1 in the drought plots...

  13. Attitudes toward working conditions: are European Union workers satisfied with their working hours and work-life balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; González-Marrón, Adrián; Bunch, Kailey; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Sánchez, José M

    2017-12-23

    To describe the satisfaction with working hours and satisfaction with work-life balance and their association in the European Union (EU-28). This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Flash Eurobarometer 398 among workers of the EU-28 from 2014 (n=13,683). We calculated percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). We also applied a multi-level generalised linear model using the Poisson family, to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of satisfaction with work-life balance based on working hours. All analyses were stratified by individual, employment and welfare regime country classification. The satisfaction with working hours and work-life balance was 80.62% and 74.48%, respectively, and was significantly higher among women. The highest percentages of satisfaction were found in the Nordic welfare regime countries (90.2% and 85.3%, respectively). There was a statistically significant association between satisfaction with working hours and work-life balance (aPR: 2.63; 95%CI: 2.28-3.04), and the magnitude of the association differed in individual, employment and welfare regime country classifications. The main reasons declared for dissatisfaction were "excessive working hours" (48.7%), "shift work" (27.9%), and "inability to influence the work schedule" (28.3%). Differences were observed according to sex and type of welfare regime. The differences found in the association between satisfaction with work-life balance and working hours according to sociodemographic characteristics and welfare regime show that there are inequalities in the working conditions in the EU countries. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Burden sharing in a European framework - carbon reduction strategies for 13 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Schaumann, P.

    1999-01-01

    International negotiations on greenhouse gas reduction targets at Kyoto presented a severe problem to the public: How can the burden of global limitation of greenhouse gases be shared by the countries in a proper way without delaying the indispensable cutting of emissions. The paper presents a critical review of the results of Kyoto, some basic thoughts on equity rules and a model-based analysis on the reduction of CO 2 , the major greenhouse gas, in thirteen EU countries covering 99% of EU CO 2 emissions. Both, reduction targets and economic burden are presented for selected equity rules. The authors used the models and model results elaborated by national teams from 13 European countries. (Author)

  15. Serbia amidst competing sovereignty claims : balancing the Westphalian legacy with the political pragmatism of European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jancic, D.

    This paper analyzes the hypothesis that the recent challenges for Serbian statehood – which culminated in Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence – prompted Serbia to redefine its relationship with the European Union and to accelerate the accession process, and thus to depart from

  16. Policy making, Comitology and the Balance of power in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunenberg, Bernard; Steunenberg, B.; Koboldt, Christian; Schmidtchen, Dieter

    1996-01-01

    Using simple game theory, this paper analyzes the working properties of the different procedures laid down in the comitology decision, i.e., the European Council's decision on procedures for the exercise of implementing powers conferred on the Commission. Furthermore, it addresses the question of

  17. Toward a consistency cross-check of eddy covariance flux-based and biometric estimates of ecosystem carbon balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.D.; Janssens, I.A.; Law, B.E.; Papale, D.; Dragoni, D.; Goulden, M.L.; Granier, A.; Kutch, W.L.; Linder, S.; Matteucci, G.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Saunders, M.; Falge, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of an ecosystem's carbon balance and its components is pivotal for understanding both ecosystem functioning and global cycling. Several methods are being applied in parallel to estimate the different components of the CO2 balance. However, different methods are subject to different

  18. Carbon sequestration capacity in a semiarid ecosystem: A carbon balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro, M.; Lopez, J.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Albaladejo, J.; Martinez-Mena, M.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we used two C balance approaches to estimate total below ground C allocation (TBCA) in three representative land uses in a Mediterranean ecosystem (late-successional forest, abandoned agricultural field, rainfed olive grove). Our objectives were: 1) to asses the response of TBCA and its components to changes in land use; 2) to evaluate how soil water erosion and changes in C stored in roots, soil and litter layer altered our estimates of TBCA; 3) to determine annual net ecosystem productivity, and examine C allocation patterns at each land use. (Author) 4 refs.

  19. Measuring and modeling carbon balance in mountainous Northern Rocky mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Berardi, D.; Stenzel, J.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and wildfire caused by changing precipitation patterns, increased temperatures, increased fuel loads, and decades of fire suppression are reducing forest carbon uptake from local to continental scales. This trend is especially widespread in Idaho and the intermountain west and has important implications for climate change and forest management options. Given the key role of forests in climate regulation, understanding forest response to drought and the feedbacks to the atmosphere is a key research and policy-relevant priority globally. As temperature, fire, and precipitation regimes continue to change and there is increased risk of forest mortality, measurements and modeling at temporal and spatial scales that are conducive to understanding the impacts and underlying mechanisms of carbon and nutrient cycling become critically important. Until recently, sub-daily measurements of ecosystem carbon balance have been limited in remote, mountainous terrain (e.g Northern Rocky mountain forests). Here, we combine new measurement technology and state-of-the-art ecosystem modeling to determine the impact of drought on the total carbon balance of a mature, mixed-conifer forest in Northern Idaho. Our findings indicate that drought had no impact on aboveground NPP, despite early growing season reductions in soil moisture and fine root biomass compared to non-drought years in the past. Modeled estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) suggest that a simultaneous reduction in heterotrophic respiration increased the carbon sink for this forest. This has important implications for forest management, such as thinning where the objectives are to increase forest resilience to fire and drought, but may decrease NEP.

  20. Projecting future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.; Dolan, K.; Flanagan, S.; Rourke, O.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    In U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, hurricanes are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial recent progress has been made to estimate the biomass loss and resulting carbon emissions caused by hurricanes impacting the U.S. Additionally, efforts to evaluate the net effects of hurricanes on the regional carbon balance have demonstrated the importance of viewing large disturbance events in the broader context of recovery from a mosaic of past events. Viewed over sufficiently long time scales and large spatial scales, regrowth from previous storms may largely offset new emissions; however, changes in number, strength or spatial distribution of extreme disturbance events will result in changes to the equilibrium state of the ecosystem and have the potential to result in a lasting carbon source or sink. Many recent studies have linked climate change to changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes. In this study, we use a mechanistic ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, driven by scenarios of future hurricane activity based on historic activity and future climate projections, to evaluate how changes in hurricane frequency, intensity and spatial distribution could affect regional carbon storage and flux over the coming century. We find a non-linear response where increased storm activity reduces standing biomass stocks reducing the impacts of future events. This effect is highly dependent on the spatial pattern and repeat interval of future hurricane activity. Developing this kind of predictive modeling capability that tracks disturbance events and recovery is key to our understanding and ability to predict the carbon balance of forests.

  1. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  2. The full annual carbon balance of Eurasian boreal forests is highly sensitive to precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öquist, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Grelle, Achim; Klemedtsson, Leif; Köhler, Stephan; Laudon, Hjalmar; Lindroth, Anders; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Wallin, Marcus; Nilsson, Mats

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forest biomes are identified as one of the major sinks for anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 and are also predicted to be particularly sensitive to climate change. Recent advances in understanding the carbon balance of these biomes stems mainly from eddy-covariance measurements of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE). However, NEE includes only the vertical CO2 exchange driven by photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration. A full net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) also requires inclusion of lateral carbon export (LCE) through catchment discharge. Currently LCE is often regarded as negligible for the NECB of boreal forest ecosystems of the northern hemisphere, commonly corresponding to ~5% of annual NEE. Here we use long term (13 year) data showing that annual LCE and NEE are strongly correlated (p=0.003); years with low C sequestration by the forest coincide with years when lateral C loss is high. The fraction of NEE lost annually through LCE varied markedly from solar radiation caused by clouds. The dual effect of precipitation implies that both the observed and the predicted increases in annual precipitation at high latitudes may reduce NECB in boreal forest ecosystems. Based on regional scaling of hydrological discharge and observed spatio-temporal variations in forest NEE we conclude that our finding is relevant for large areas of the boreal Eurasian landscape.

  3. Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO{sub 2} balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO{sub 2} emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO{sub 2} balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO{sub 2} balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO{sub 2} balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere. (author)

  4. Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Sathre, Roger

    2006-01-01

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO 2 balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO 2 emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO 2 balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO 2 balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO 2 balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. (author)

  5. Carbon and nitrogen in forest floor and mineral soil under six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Schmidt, Inger K.; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge of tree species effects on soil C and N pools is scarce, particularly for European deciduous tree species. We studied forest floor and mineral soil carbon and nitrogen under six common European tree species in a common garden design replicated at six sites in Denmark. Three decades...... on forest floor C and N content was primarily attributed to large differences in turnover rates as indicated by fractional annual loss of forest floor C and N. The C/N ratio of foliar litterfall was a good indicator of forest floor C and N contents, fractional annual loss of forest floor C and N...

  6. The effect of land use intensity on soil organic carbon stocks of European croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Rene; Gebbert, Sören; Franko, Uwe; Kätterer, Thomas; Kolbe, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Croplands cover about one third of Europe and are assumed to be the biggest source of greenhouse gas emissions of the European biosphere with the degradation of soil organic carbon (SOC) being a major contributor of this source. Soil carbon stocks of croplands are subjected to ranges of natural and anthropogenic influences that control the release or uptake of CO2. The separation of drivers is essential for assessing recent and prospective GHG mitigation potentials by cropland management. Within the last decades the management of European croplands is characterized by an ongoing intensification. The increasing influence of the global market on farmers' decision and the establishment of industrialized farming practise in Europe had significant impact on the shift of crop rotations during the last decades. Due to the high spatial variability and the dominating fraction of slowly degradable carbon it needs at least decades to detect changes while agricultural management is characterized by short term system interventions. Long term observations representing time intervals of decades to hundreds of years are therefore essential to make reliable suggestions about the sensitivity of soil carbon turnover against external impacts because the temporal scale of these experiments corresponds to the temporal scale of soil C turnover. A data set of about 32 European long-term experiments (380 variants) was used to quantify the uncertainty of the RothC soil carbon model. The parameters of the model were adapted to represent the sensitivity of SOC on weather conditions and crop types found in the data set by applying an Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm. Integrated in a GIS environment the modified model was used to run scenarios that vary in terms of climate conditions and crop rotations within the time period 1970-2010 on a European scale. Regionalized sensitivities of SOC on natural drivers and crop rotations will be presented.

  7. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. Models can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most models of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study models that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research model linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also

  8. A comparative assessment of the energy and carbon balance of utilizing straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, R.E.; Mortimer, N.D.; Hetherington, Robert; Grant, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    There has been a recent growth of interest in the potential for using straw as an energy source to generate electricity and/or heat. The energy balance of this process is important as a measure of the sustainability of such an activity, while the CO 2 emitted and that saved by offsetting the need to produce energy by other means are also important, given the U.K.'s obligations to reduce CO 2 emissions. An existing methodology is adopted to calculate estimates of primary energy inputs and CO 2 outputs. Results of calculations are presented and considered in the context of their implications for potential uses of straw represented by four scenarios. Conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions to the energy and carbon balances of using straw as a fuel and recommendations are made for further work. (author)

  9. Calculating carbon mass balance from unsaturated soil columns treated with CaSO₄₋minerals: test of soil carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2014-12-01

    Renewed interest in managing C balance in soils is motivated by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and consequent climate change. Here, experiments were conducted in soil columns to determine C mass balances with and without addition of CaSO4-minerals (anhydrite and gypsum), which were hypothesized to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) precipitation as calcite under slightly alkaline conditions. Changes in C contents in three phases (gas, liquid and solid) were measured in unsaturated soil columns tested for one year and comprehensive C mass balances were determined. The tested soil columns had no C inputs, and only C utilization by microbial activity and C transformations were assumed in the C chemistry. The measurements showed that changes in C inventories occurred through two processes, SOC loss and SIC gain. However, the measured SOC losses in the treated columns were lower than their corresponding control columns, indicating that the amendments promoted SOC retention. The SOC losses resulted mostly from microbial respiration and loss of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than from chemical leaching. Microbial oxidation of SOC appears to have been suppressed by increased Ca(2+) and SO4(2)(-) from dissolution of CaSO4 minerals. For the conditions tested, SIC accumulation per m(2) soil area under CaSO4-treatment ranged from 130 to 260 g C m(-1) infiltrated water (20-120 g C m(-1) infiltrated water as net C benefit). These results demonstrate the potential for increasing C sequestration in slightly alkaline soils via CaSO4-treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CO2 and CH4 fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, J.

    1997-01-01

    Release of CO 2 from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO 2 efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO 2 and CH 4 (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO 2 under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH 4 release was studied. The Holocene history of CO 2 sequestration and CH 4 emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO 2 release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m 2 net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO 2 release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m -2 a -1 in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m -2 a -1 for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants contributed to the total peat CO 2 efflux by 10-40 % as root respiration

  11. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar

  12. Particle balance analysis on carbon sheet pump applied to the GAMMA10 tandem mirror plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Yuki; Nakashima, Yousuke; Ishinuki, Eiichi; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tamano, Teruo; Yatsu, Kiyoshi; Sagara, Akio

    2000-01-01

    Carbon Sheet Pump (CSP) is expected as a tool for reduction of hydrogen recycling. In this paper, particle balance in the CSP is described. The pumping efficiencies estimated from the time evolution of hydrogen pressures during plasma discharges and those estimated from the thermal desorption experiments have no remarkable difference between the cases of 30degC and 200degC within experimental errors. In cases that CSP is used in actual plasma conditions, we established a method which reduces adsorbed gases on the CSP surface with sustaining a sufficient pumping efficiency by continuously heating CSP. (author)

  13. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  14. Tendances Carbone no. 68 'Bringing Poland on Board with European Climate Policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: At the March 2012 Environmental Council, Poland once again unilaterally vetoed the Commission's Road-map for Moving to a Low Carbon Economy in 2050. All actors now need to reflect hard on the way forward. It is time to begin a much deeper political and technical dialogue around a Climate and Energy Package to 2030

  15. Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waterhouse, JS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviews 23 (2004) 803?810 Northern European trees show a progressively diminishing response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations J.S. Waterhousea,*, V.R. Switsura,b, A.C. Barkera, A.H.C. Cartera,b,{, D.L. Hemmingc, N.J. Loaderd, I..., V.R., Waterhouse, J.S., Heaton, T.H.E., Carter, A.H.C., 1998. Climatic variation andthe stable carbon isotope composition of tree ring cellulose: an intercomparison of Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus silvestris. Tellus 50B, 25?33. J.ggi, M...

  16. Carbon leaching from tropical peat soils and consequences for carbon balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rixen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drainage and deforestation turned Southeast (SE Asian peat soils into a globally important CO2 source, because both processes accelerate peat decomposition. Carbon losses through soil leaching have so far not been quantified and the underlying processes have hardly been studied. In this study, we use results derived from nine expeditions to six Sumatran rivers and a mixing model to determine leaching processes in tropical peat soils, which are heavily disturbed by drainage and deforestation. Here we show that a reduced evapotranspiration and the resulting increased freshwater discharge in addition to the supply of labile leaf litter produced by re-growing secondary forests increase leaching of carbon by ~200%. Enhanced freshwater fluxes and leaching of labile leaf litter from secondary vegetation appear to contribute 38% and 62% to the total increase, respectively. Decomposition of leached labile DOC can lead to hypoxic conditions in rivers draining disturbed peatlands. Leaching of the more refractory DOC from peat is an irrecoverable loss of soil that threatens the stability of peat-fringed coasts in SE Asia.

  17. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  18. Paralysis and heart failure precede ion balance disruption in heat-stressed European green crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Lisa B; Overgaard, Johannes; MacMillan, Heath A

    2017-08-01

    Acute exposure of ectotherms to critically high temperatures causes injury and death, and this mortality has been associated with a number of physiological perturbations including impaired oxygen transport, loss of ion and water homeostasis, and neuronal failure. It is difficult to discern which of these factors, if any, is the proximate cause of heat injury because, for example, loss of ion homeostasis can impair neuromuscular function (including cardiac function), and conversely impaired oxygen transport reduces ATP supply and can thus reduce ion transport capacity. In this study we investigated if heat stress causes a loss of ion homeostasis in marine crabs and examined if such loss is related to heart failure. We held crabs (Carcinus maenas) at temperatures just below their critical thermal maximum and measured extracellular (hemolymph) and intracellular (muscle) ion concentrations over time. Analysis of Arrhenius plots for heart rates during heating ramps revealed a breakpoint temperature below which heart rate increased with temperature, and above which heart rate declined until complete cardiac failure. As hypothesised, heat stress reduced the Nernst equilibrium potentials of both K + and Na + , likely causing a depolarization of the membrane potential. To examine whether this loss of ion balance was likely to cause disruption of neuromuscular function, we exposed crabs to the same temperatures, but this time measured ion concentrations at the individual-specific times of complete paralysis (from which the crabs never recovered), and at the time of cardiac failure. Loss of ion balance was observed only after both paralysis and complete heart failure had occurred; indicating that the loss of neuromuscular function is not caused by a loss of ion homeostasis. Instead we suggest that the observed loss of ion balance may be linked to tissue damage related to heat death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  20. Solar Power in the European Context: Conversion Efficiency and the Issue of Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva Pacini Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is committed to increasing the use of renewable energies across Europe. One of the ways this is to be done is through the promotion of solar photovoltaics (PV, a method with significant environmental benefits. However, the high costs of electricity generated through PV have constrained the market reach of this option. This paper takes the form of a policy discussion, analyzing the fundamental issues concerning this type of energy, and its place in the European alternative energy market. Furthermore, a scenario is drafted to estimate how efficient solar panels should ideally be to make electricity produced by them cost-competitive with conventional, grid-tied energy sources. The study considers both a conventional scenario and another, with carbon capture costs incorporated into the final electricity prices. It is observed that in order to be competitive with conventional fossil-based electricity, photovoltaic conversion efficiencies should be around 34%. Incorporating carbon costs would further help promote solar PV, making it more price-attractive compared to emission-intensive electricity generation based on fossil fuels. The final part of the paper sheds light on the new developments on European PV, mainly in regards to the 2008 European Commission Climate Change Package, its implications and reactions from the industry.

  1. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Diurnal Variation in Gas Exchange: The Balance between Carbon Fixation and Water Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jack S A; Vialet-Chabrand, Silvere R M; Lawson, Tracy

    2017-06-01

    Stomatal control of transpiration is critical for maintaining important processes, such as plant water status, leaf temperature, as well as permitting sufficient CO 2 diffusion into the leaf to maintain photosynthetic rates ( A ). Stomatal conductance often closely correlates with A and is thought to control the balance between water loss and carbon gain. It has been suggested that a mesophyll-driven signal coordinates A and stomatal conductance responses to maintain this relationship; however, the signal has yet to be fully elucidated. Despite this correlation under stable environmental conditions, the responses of both parameters vary spatially and temporally and are dependent on species, environment, and plant water status. Most current models neglect these aspects of gas exchange, although it is clear that they play a vital role in the balance of carbon fixation and water loss. Future efforts should consider the dynamic nature of whole-plant gas exchange and how it represents much more than the sum of its individual leaf-level components, and they should take into consideration the long-term effect on gas exchange over time. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Global carbon - nitrogen - phosphorus cycle interactions: A key to solving the atmospheric CO2 balance problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. J.; Mellillo, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    If all biotic sinks of atmospheric CO2 reported were added a value of about 0.4 Gt C/yr would be found. For each category, a very high (non-conservative) estimate was used. This still does not provide a sufficient basis for achieving a balance between the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. The bulk of the discrepancy lies in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in a combination of errors in the major terms, the greatest being in the net biotic release and ocean uptake segments, but smaller errors or biases may exist in calculations of the rate of atmospheric CO2 increase and total fossil fuel use as well. The reason why biotic sinks are not capable of balancing the CO2 increase via nutrient-matching in the short-term is apparent from a comparison of the stoichiometry of the sources and sinks. The burning of fossil fuels and forest biomass releases much more CO2-carbon than is sequestered as organic carbon.

  4. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiricka, Alexandra; Pröbstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a “Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007–13” (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: ► Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. ► Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. ► The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  5. Carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Vassenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Croplands could have equal or even greater net ecosystem production than several natural ecosystems (Hollinger et al., 2004), so agriculture plays a substantial role in mitigation strategies for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In Central Russia, where agricultural soils carbon loses are 9 time higher than natural (forest's) soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in agroecosystems must be the central focus of the scientific efforts. Although the balance of the CO2 mostly attributed to management practices, limited information exists regarding the crop rotation overall as potential of C sequestration. In this study, we present data on carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region followed for 4 years by measuring CO2 fluxes by paired eddy covariance stations (EC). The study was conducted at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Two fields of the four-course rotation were studied in 2013-2016. Crop rotation included winter wheat (Triticum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) and cereal-legume mixture (Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.). Crops sowing occurred during the period from mid-April to mid-May depending on weather conditions. Winter wheat was sown in the very beginning of September and the next year it occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering. White mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure after harvesting winter wheat in mid of July. Barley was harvested in mid of August, potato crop was harvested in September. Cereal-legume mixture on herbage was collected depending on the weather from early July to mid-August. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the fields with winter wheat and white

  6. Gazprom on the European Market: In Search of the Balance between the Principles of Competition and Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the position of Gazprom on the key export market - the market of the European Union. Situation on the EU gas market changed considerably because of an imbalance between supply and demand. Gazprom had to make price concessions for almost all of the main consumers of Russian gas in Europe, and also had to allow European consumers to break one of the key provisions of long-term contracts - "take or pay" clause. Besides disputes at the corporate level significant differences still remain about the well-known Third energy package, which effectively prohibits Gazprom to own and operate gas pipelines on the territory of the EU, as well as binding it to provide a third party access to gas pipelines. The implementation of Third package provisions on function unbundling by some EU Member States in the most rigid version may contradict bilateral international agreements of Russia with the EU Member States, primarily agreements on investment protection. Possible reasons underlying the investigation initiated by the European Commission against Gazprom in connection with a possible violation ofEU competition rules are examined. The paper investigates legal, political and economic aspects of contemporary regime of gas cooperation, particularly restriction of reexport, linkage between gas and oil prices, pricing based on long-term contracts and spot markets. The paper concludes that Russia and the EU need to elaborate a comprehensive document that would ensure the stability of the regulatory environment of energy cooperation and would reflect the balance of interests of producers and consumers. This document should equally ensure highly competitive environment and guarantees of security of supply in the short and long term.

  7. The Role of Stream Water Carbon Dynamics and Export in the Carbon Balance of a Tropical Seasonal Rainforest, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Sha, Li-Qing; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Dai, Kai-Jie

    2013-01-01

    A two-year study (2009 ∼ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha−1 yr−1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest. PMID:23437195

  8. The role of stream water carbon dynamics and export in the carbon balance of a tropical seasonal rainforest, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available A two-year study (2009 ~ 2010 was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN, southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC and dissolved inorganic C (DIC were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC and organic C (POC were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC and dissolved organic C (DOC were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT, only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha(-1 yr(-1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest.

  9. Analysis of low carbon super credit policy efficiency in European Union greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Roberto; Zubelzu, Sergio; Díaz, Guzmán; López, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the current European Union's support policy for BEV (battery electric vehicles) manufacturing under the Super-credit modality, and its actual relationship with the reduction of carbon emissions derived from the use of battery electric vehicles (BEV). Particularly, we have estimated the BEV associated carbon emissions through the method provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In this sense, we have employed a BEV model to investigate the BEV emissions by country in the EU according to the regional electricity mix. We additionally have accounted for the particularities of real-world driving, which further affects the results. We have employed a measure of driving aggressiveness by modifying the standard benchmarking driving cycle fostered by the European Union and of necessary application by vehicle manufacturers—the NEDC—to show that BEV emissions are not negligible when compared with internal combustion vehicles; mainly in urban environments. On the whole, in this paper we provide a revision framework of the Super Credits meant to support the increase of the BEV fleet in the European Union. In its current form, the Super-credits support policy is a constant ratio depending on the manufactured internal combustion vehicles. We claim, however, that they should depend on the BEV recipient country instead. By revising the European electricity mix, we demonstrate for instance that countries such as Poland, though indirectly, largely exceed the allowed limits of CO 2 emissions derived from the upstream generation of electricity required to load the BEV. - Highlights: • Super-credit support policy is aimed at promoting the manufacturing of BEV in the EU. • It does not account for upstream electricity generation in the BEV user country. • We analyze the generation emissions ensuing from the use of the BEV in EU countries. • We show that indirect carbon emissions in some countries exceed proposed targets.

  10. Impact of the carbon price on the integrating European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aatola, Piia; Ollikainen, Markku; Toppinen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of the carbon price on the integrating electricity market in the EU. Our theoretical framework suggests that the price of carbon has a positive but uneven impact on electricity prices depending on the marginal production plant. The carbon price may increase price differences in the short run. We apply time series analysis on daily forward data from 2003 to 2011 and investigate whether we can find empirical evidence for our analytical findings. Our results support the hypotheses that integration in electricity prices has increased over time and that the carbon price has a positive but uneven impact on the integration of prices. - Highlights: • We model the integrating European electricity market under emissions trading scheme. • We examine the impact of carbon price on the electricity market prices. • We test theoretical hypotheses with econometric models. • Results show carbon price has a positive but uneven impact on electricity prices. • Integration among electricity prices has increased during 2003–2011

  11. Whole-system carbon balance for a regional temperate forest in Northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S. D.; Gower, S. T.

    2010-12-01

    The whole-system (biological + industrial) carbon (C) balance was estimated for the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest (CNNF), a temperate forest covering 600,000 ha in Northern Wisconsin, USA. The biological system was modeled using a spatially-explicit version of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC. The industrial system was modeled using life cycle inventory (LCI) models for wood and paper products. Biome-BGC was used to estimate net primary production, net ecosystem production (NEP), and timber harvest (H) over the entire CNNF. The industrial carbon budget (Ci) was estimated by applying LCI models of CO2 emissions resulting from timber harvest and production of specific wood and paper products in the CNNF region. In 2009, simulated NEP of the CNNF averaged 3.0 tC/ha and H averaged 0.1 tC/ha. Despite model uncertainty, the CNNF region is likely a carbon sink (NEP - Ci > 0), even when CO2 emissions from timber harvest and production of wood and paper products are included in the calculation of the entire forest system C budget.

  12. The lending channel and budget balance: empirical evidences from Central and Eastern European economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan-Gabriel MOINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to deepen the analysis on the indirect dependence of government budget balance on private sector credit flow in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The added value of this approach consists of two elements. First, the analysis suggests developing the traditional analytical framework of assessing risks to public finance stability by including second round effects of negative fiscal impulses on credit to private sector during recession periods. Second, the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of economic growth transmission channel for the impact of credit accelerator effects on primary deficit. At the same time, nonperforming loans channel proved to be insignificant, especially in relation to the persistency of last year’s budget deficit and the effects of budget allocations pro-cyclicality. However, loan portfolio quality seems to be more relevant in the case of public debt service, through its influence on the evolution of the yield on long-term government securities that is closely related to sovereign risk premium. Nevertheless, strengthening the financial safety net by the introduction of resolution funds will most probably break the link investors saw between credit portfolio quality and the impending increase in budget spending. This expected development across not only CEE countries, but at the EU level also, will facilitate the isolation of sovereign risk premium from non-performing loans’ dynamics.

  13. The Copper Balance of Cities: Exploratory Insights into a European and an Asian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-05-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available.

  14. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Oocyte donation in France and national balance sheet (GEDO). Different European approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letur-Könirsch, H

    2004-02-01

    Oocyte donation (OD), a technique successfully used in Assisted reproductive techniques (ART), has been effective for 20 years as the palliative treatment of certain exocrine ovarian failures. Its indications have also been extended to cover some genetic diseases and documented occult ovarian insufficiency. In France, after an extensive judicial and ethical deliberation, OD was deemed legal and its practice was proscribed in the Bioethics Laws 94-653 and 94-654 of 29 July 1994. Its essential underlying principles are: voluntary, free, anonymous and confidential OD; according to a French decree to meet safety concerns, OD-derived embryos must be quarantined for six months. In vitro fertilization (IVF) programs using donated oocytes are conducted in authorized centers under the responsibility of physicians authorized to retrieve and manipulate donated oocytes. The managers of these programs are the system's keystone, as their role includes, among other, the verification of indications, legal documents, public health safety, anonymous pairing of donor and recipient, and the collection of outcome data. At present, depending of the year, French programs have achieved 17-22% clinical pregnancy rates from transferred OD-derived frozen-thawed embryos, and follow-up studies reported excellent results concerning family relationships, and the physical and psychological development of the children. However, difficulties encountered in the daily practice of OD have led concerned physicians to form the Study group for OD (GEDO) to explore different topics with the aim of improving the overall management of this form of ART. We discussed these points herein, in comparison with the approaches of other European countries.

  16. The impacts of tropical cyclones on the net carbon balance of eastern US forests (1851-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.; Dolan, K. A.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    In temperate forests of the eastern US, tropical cyclones are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial progress has been made to quantify forest damage and resulting gross carbon emissions from tropical cyclones. However, the net effect of storms on the carbon balance of forests depends not only on the biomass lost in single events, but also on the uptake during recovery from a mosaic of past events. This study estimates the net impacts of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance of US forests over the period 1851-2000. To track both disturbance and recovery and to isolate the effects of storms, a modeling framework is used combining gridded historical estimates of mortality and damage with a mechanistic model using an ensemble approach. The net effect of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance is shown to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. On average, tropical cyclones contribute a net carbon source over latter half of the 19th century. However, throughout much of the 20th century a regional carbon sink is estimated resulting from periods of forest recovery exceeding damage. The large-scale net annual flux resulting from tropical cyclones varies by up to 50 Tg C yr-1, an amount equivalent to 17%-36% of the US forest carbon sink.

  17. The impacts of tropical cyclones on the net carbon balance of eastern US forests (1851–2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, J P; Hurtt, G C; Dolan, K A; Chambers, J Q; Zeng, H; Negrón-Juárez, R I

    2013-01-01

    In temperate forests of the eastern US, tropical cyclones are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial progress has been made to quantify forest damage and resulting gross carbon emissions from tropical cyclones. However, the net effect of storms on the carbon balance of forests depends not only on the biomass lost in single events, but also on the uptake during recovery from a mosaic of past events. This study estimates the net impacts of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance of US forests over the period 1851–2000. To track both disturbance and recovery and to isolate the effects of storms, a modeling framework is used combining gridded historical estimates of mortality and damage with a mechanistic model using an ensemble approach. The net effect of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance is shown to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. On average, tropical cyclones contribute a net carbon source over latter half of the 19th century. However, throughout much of the 20th century a regional carbon sink is estimated resulting from periods of forest recovery exceeding damage. The large-scale net annual flux resulting from tropical cyclones varies by up to 50 Tg C yr −1 , an amount equivalent to 17%–36% of the US forest carbon sink. (letter)

  18. Carbon balance variability in the Amazon Basin with climate change based on regular atmospheric profiling of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L.; Domingues, L. G.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Peters, W.; Silva, M. G.; Correia, C. S. D. C.; Basso, L. S.; Alden, C. B.; Borges, V. F.; Marani, L.; Santos, R. S.; Crispim, S. P.; Sanches, A.; Costa, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Net carbon exchange between tropical land and the atmosphere is potentially important because the vast amounts of carbon in forests and soils can be released on short time-scales e.g. via deforestation or changes in temperature and precipitation. Such changes may thus cause feedbacks on global climate as have been predicted in earth system models. The Amazon is the most significant region in the global carbon cycle, hosting by far the largest carbon vegetation and soil carbon pools ( 200 PgC). From 2010 onwards we have extended an earlier greenhouse gas measurement program to include regular vertical profiles of CO2 from the ground up to 4.5 km height at four sites along the main air-stream over the Amazon Basin. Our measurements demonstrate that surface flux signals are primarily concentrated to the lower 2 km and thus vertical profile measurements are ideally suited to estimate greenhouse gas balances. To understand the role of Amazon in global carbon budget it is important to maintain a long period of measurements that can represent the whole region. Our results already permit a range of insights about the magnitude, seasonality, inter-annual variation of carbon fluxes and their climate controls. Most recent years have been anomalously hot with the southern part of the Basin having warmed the most. Precipitation regimes also seem to have shifted with an increase in extreme floods. For the specific period we will discuss the period of 2010 to 2016, where the years 2010 and 2015/16 were anomalously dry and hot (both El Nino years) and the year 2013 was the wettest and coldest year. This period provides an interesting contrast of climatic conditions in a warming world with increasing human pressures and we will present the carbon balance for the basin during the last 7 years. We will analyze the effect of this climate variability on annual and seasonal carbon balances for these seven years using our atmospheric data. Our data permit us not only to estimate net CO2

  19. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Kerstin; Lindeskog, Mats; Olin, Stefan; Hassler, John; Smith, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate-economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model). We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs). Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road). For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  20. Impacts of climate mitigation strategies in the energy sector on global land use and carbon balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Engström

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit damage to the global economy climate-change-induced and secure the livelihoods of future generations requires ambitious mitigation strategies. The introduction of a global carbon tax on fossil fuels is tested here as a mitigation strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and radiative forcing. Taxation of fossil fuels potentially leads to changed composition of energy sources, including a larger relative contribution from bioenergy. Further, the introduction of a mitigation strategy reduces climate-change-induced damage to the global economy, and thus can indirectly affect consumption patterns and investments in agricultural technologies and yield enhancement. Here we assess the implications of changes in bioenergy demand as well as the indirectly caused changes in consumption and crop yields for global and national cropland area and terrestrial biosphere carbon balance. We apply a novel integrated assessment modelling framework, combining three previously published models (a climate–economy model, a socio-economic land use model and an ecosystem model. We develop reference and mitigation scenarios based on the narratives and key elements of the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs. Taking emissions from the land use sector into account, we find that the introduction of a global carbon tax on the fossil fuel sector is an effective mitigation strategy only for scenarios with low population development and strong sustainability criteria (SSP1 Taking the green road. For scenarios with high population growth, low technological development and bioenergy production the high demand for cropland causes the terrestrial biosphere to switch from being a carbon sink to a source by the end of the 21st century.

  1. Multiyear high-resolution carbon exchange over European croplands from the integration of observed crop yields into CarbonTracker Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Marie; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; de Wit, Allard; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Carbon exchange over croplands plays an important role in the European carbon cycle over daily-to-seasonal time scales. Not only do crops occupy one fourth of the European land area, but their photosynthesis and respiration are large and affect CO2 mole fractions at nearly every atmospheric CO2 monitoring site. A better description of this crop carbon exchange in our CarbonTracker Europe data assimilation system - which currently treats crops as unmanaged grasslands - could strongly improve its ability to constrain terrestrial carbon fluxes. Available long-term observations of crop yield, harvest, and cultivated area allow such improvements, when combined with the new crop-modeling framework we present. This framework can model the carbon fluxes of 10 major European crops at high spatial and temporal resolution, on a 12x12 km grid and 3-hourly time-step. The development of this framework is threefold: firstly, we optimize crop growth using the process-based WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) agricultural crop growth model. Simulated yields are downscaled to match regional crop yield observations from the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT) by estimating a yearly regional parameter for each crop species: the yield gap factor. This step allows us to better represent crop phenology, to reproduce the observed multiannual European crop yields, and to construct realistic time series of the crop carbon fluxes (gross primary production, GPP, and autotrophic respiration, Raut) on a fine spatial and temporal resolution. Secondly, we combine these GPP and Raut fluxes with a simple soil respiration model to obtain the total ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). And thirdly, we represent the horizontal transport of carbon that follows crop harvest and its back-respiration into the atmosphere during harvest consumption. We distribute this carbon using observations of the density of human and ruminant populations from EUROSTAT. We assess the model

  2. Carbon balance of rewetted and drained peat soils used for biomass production: A mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Kandel, Tanka

    2016-01-01

    of lower CO2 emissions without losing agricultural land. The present study quantified the carbon balance (CO2, CH4 and harvested biomass C) of rewetted and drained peat soils under intensively managed reed canary grass (RCG) cultivation. Mesocosms were maintained at five different ground water levels (GWL......), i.e., 0, 10, 20 cm below the soil surface, representing rewetted peat soils, and 30 and 40 cm below the soil surface, representing drained peat soils. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and CH4 emissions were measured during the growing period of RCG (May to September) using transparent and opaque...... closed chamber methods. The average dry biomass yield was significantly lower from rewetted peat soils (12 Mg ha−1) than drained peat soils (15 Mg ha−1). Also, CO2 fluxes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) from rewetted peat soils were significantly lower than drained peat...

  3. Fossil and nonfossil carbon in fine particulate matter: A study of five European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, Marianne; La Cour, Agnete; Lohse, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Fossil carbon in particulate matter comes from anthropogenic use and combustion of fossil fuels, while nonfossil carbon may originate from both biogenic (e.g., pollen, plant debris, fungal spores, and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA)) and anthropogenic sources (e.g., cooking and residential wood combustion). We investigated the relative contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to fine carbonaceous aerosols in five European cities by radiocarbon analysis of aerosol samples collected at four types of sites in 2002-2004. The average fraction of nonfossil carbon was 43 ± 11%, with the lowest fraction, 36 ± 7%, at urban curbside sites and the highest fraction, 54 ± 11%, at rural background sites, farthest away from the impact of man-made emissions. Generally, fossil carbon concentrations at urban curbside sites are elevated in comparison to background sites, which is expected because of their proximity to vehicular emissions. Contrary to what might be expected, the concentration of nonfossil carbon is also higher at curbside than at background sites. This may be attributable to differences between site categories in levels of primary biological aerosols, brake and tire wear in resuspended road dust, biofuels, emissions from cooking and residential wood combustion, or processes such as anthropogenic enhancement of biogenic SOA and increased partitioning of semivolatile compounds into the aerosol phase at urban sites. The exact causes should be investigated by future detailed source analyses.

  4. Comparison of a Mass Balance and an Ecosystem Model Approach when Evaluating the Carbon Cycling in a Lake Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Sobek, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Carbon budgets are frequently used in order to understand the pathways of organic matter in ecosystems, and they also have an important function in the risk assessment of harmful substances. We compared two approaches, mass balance calculations and an ecosystem budget, to describe carbon processing in a shallow, oligotrophic hardwater lake. Both approaches come to the same main conclusion, namely that the lake is a net auto trophic ecosystem, in spite of its high dissolved organic carbon and low total phosphorus concentrations. However, there were several differences between the carbon budgets, e.g. in the rate of sedimentation and the air-water flux of CO 2 . The largest uncertainty in the mass balance is the contribution of emergent macrophytes to the carbon cycling of the lake, while the ecosystem budget is very sensitive towards the choice of conversion factors and literature values. While the mass balance calculations produced more robust results, the ecosystem budget gave valuable insights into the pathways of organic matter transfer in the ecosystem. We recommend that when using an ecosystem budget for the risk assessment of harmful substances, mass balance calculations should be performed in parallel in order to increase the robustness of the conclusions

  5. Carbon balance modification in Sphagnum-dominated peat mesocosms invaded by Molinia caerulea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Fabien; Gogo, Sébastien; Guimbaud, Christophe; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    Plant communities have a key role in regulating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in peatland ecosystems and thus on their capacity to act as carbon (C) sink. However, in response to global change, boreal and temperate peatlands may shift from Sphagnum to vascular plant-dominated peatlands that may alter their C-sink function. We set up a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the main GHG fluxes (CO2 and CH4) are affected by plant community modification from Sphagnum mosses to Molinia caerulea dominance. Gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and CH4 emissions models were used to compare the C balance and global warming potential under both vegetation cover. While the annual CO2 and CH4 emissions modeling estimated an output of respectively 652 and 18 gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum mesocosms, it represented a release of 1473 and 50 gC m-2 y-1 with Molinia caerulea occurrence. Annual modeled GPP was respectively -495 and -1968 gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum and Molinia mesocosms leading to a net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of 175 g gC m-2 y-1 in Sphagnum mesocosms (i.e., a C-source) and of -445 gC m-2 y-1 for Molinia ones (i.e., a C-sink). Even if CH4 emission accounted for a small part of the gaseous C efflux ( 3%), its global warming potential value to get CO2 equivalent makes both plant communities acting as a warming climate effect. The vegetation shift from Sphagnum mosses to Molinia caerulea seems beneficial for C sequestration regarding the gaseous pool. However, roots and litters of Molinia caerulea could further provide substrates for C emissions and dissolved organic C release.

  6. The carbon balance of South America: a review of the status, decadal trends and main determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gloor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarise the contemporary carbon budget of South America and relate it to its dominant controls: population and economic growth, changes in land use practices and a changing atmospheric environment and climate. Component flux estimate methods we consider sufficiently reliable for this purpose encompass fossil fuel emission inventories, biometric analysis of old-growth rainforests, estimation of carbon release associated with deforestation based on remote sensing and inventories, and agricultural export data. Alternative methods for the estimation of the continental-scale net land to atmosphere CO2 flux, such as atmospheric transport inverse modelling and terrestrial biosphere model predictions, are, we find, hampered by the data paucity, and improved parameterisation and validation exercises are required before reliable estimates can be obtained. From our analysis of available data, we suggest that South America was a net source to the atmosphere during the 1980s (~ 0.3–0.4 Pg C a−1 and close to neutral (~ 0.1 Pg C a−1 in the 1990s. During the latter period, carbon uptake in old-growth forests nearly compensated for the carbon release associated with fossil fuel burning and deforestation.

    Annual mean precipitation over tropical South America as inferred from Amazon River discharge shows a long-term upward trend. Although, over the last decade dry seasons have tended to be drier, with the years 2005 and 2010 in particular experiencing strong droughts. On the other hand, precipitation during the wet seasons also shows an increasing trend. Air temperatures have also increased slightly. Also with increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it is currently unclear what effect these climate changes are having on the forest carbon balance of the region. Current indications are that the forests of the Amazon Basin have acted as a substantial long-term carbon sink, but with the most recent

  7. Mapping and Measuring European Local Governments’ Priorities for a Sustainable and Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Grafakos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to assess the priorities of local governments (LGs in Europe regarding climate change mitigation technologies evaluation in the electricity sector and to provide important insights for energy policy design. The study applies a hybrid weighting methodology to elicit LGs’ preferences in a constructive and iterative way regarding the evaluation criteria of low-carbon energy technologies. Furthermore, the study employs three data collection and preference elicitation methods, namely: survey, workshop, and webinar. The study was conducted across thirty one (31 European LGs that were categorized according to three variables: population size, geographical region and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. The analysis shows that “CO2 emissions” is the most important criterion among European LGs, followed by “mortality and morbidity” and “ecosystem damages”. The results illustrate the potential synergies of climate and energy policies for addressing both CO2 emissions and air pollution. It was also found, based on a correlation analysis, that LGs with higher GDP per capita tend to provide higher weights to criteria related to security of energy supply and technological innovation. The current study provides insights on the actual LGs’ priorities that are important to consider during low-carbon energy technologies evaluation and energy policy design. Interestingly, the results of the European LGs’ preferences clearly show that the EU climate policy objectives have reached different levels of governance—and at this particular case, the local level. Furthermore, the developed methodology could be applied at different geographical regions to map other regions’ LG priorities, but also at a group decision making context to elicit relevant stakeholders’ preferences regarding low-carbon energy technologies and policy objectives.

  8. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  9. Current and future impacts of ultraviolet radiation on the terrestrial carbon balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Kolby SMITH; Wei GAO; Heidi STELTZER

    2009-01-01

    One of the most documented effects of human activity on our environment is the reduction of stratospheric ozone resulting in an increase of biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In a less predictable manner, UV radiation incident at the surface of the earth is expected to be further modified in the future as a result of altered cloud condition, atmospheric aerosol concentration, and snow cover. Although UV radiation comprises only a small fraction of the total solar radiation that is incident at the earth's surface, it has the greatest energy per unit wavelength and, thus, the greatest potential to damage the biosphere. Recent investigations have highlighted numerous ways that UV radiation could potentially affect a variety of ecological processes, including nutrient cycling and the terrestrial carbon cycle. The objectives of the following literature review are to summarize and synthesize the available information relevant to the effects of UV radiation and other climate change factors on the terrestrial carbon balance in an effort to highlight current gaps in knowledge and future research directions for UV radiation research.

  10. Carbon Balance at Landscape Level inferred fromTower CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.

    2003-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are considerable in the global carbon budget, but the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very small (~0.2% per year) relative to the total carbon stocks in forests. Currently, eddy-covariance instruments mounted on towers are the only reliable means to measure carbon balance of a land surface, albeit limited to small areas and not free of caveats. In our quest of understanding the collective performance of ecosystems under the changing climate, it is highly desirable to have the ability to acquire carbon cycle information for large areas (landscape) consisting of patches of different ecosystems. For this purpose we explored methodologies of inferring carbon cycle information from tower CO2 concentration measurements affected by large areas (100-10000 km2). An ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is coupled with a carbon-specific Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) in order to decipher temporal variations in CO2 for landscape-level photosynthesis and respiration information. The coupled BEPS-VDS is applied to a unique 9-year (1990-2000 with 1997-8 missing data) 5-minute CO2 record measured on a 40-m tower over boreal forests near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada. Over the period, the mean diurnal amplitude of the measured CO2 at 40 m increased by 5.58 ppmv, or 28% in the growing season. The increase in nighttime ecosystem respiration, causing the increase in the daily maximum CO2 concentration, was responsible for 65% of the increase in the diurnal amplitude, i.e., 3.61 ppmv, corresponding to an increase in the mean daily air temperature by about 2.77 degC and precipitation by 5% over the same period. The rest (35%) is explained by the increase in ecosystem daytime photosynthesis, causing the decrease in the daily minimum CO2 concentration. As the nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) (270-560 m) was much shallower than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) (1000-1600 m), the increase in

  11. The Crc protein inhibits the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida under balanced carbon/nitrogen growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; de la Peña, Fernando; Prieto, María Axiliadora; Rojo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida synthesizes polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) as storage compounds. PHA synthesis is more active when the carbon source is in excess and the nitrogen source is limiting, but can also occur at a lower rate under balanced carbon/nitrogen ratios. This work shows that PHA synthesis is controlled by the Crc global regulator, a protein that optimizes carbon metabolism by inhibiting the expression of genes involved in the use of non-preferred carbon sources. Crc acts post-transcriptionally. The mRNAs of target genes contain characteristic catabolite activity (CA) motifs near the ribosome binding site. Sequences resembling CA motifs can be predicted for the phaC1 gene, which codes for a PHA polymerase, and for phaI and phaF, which encode proteins associated to PHA granules. Our results show that Crc inhibits the translation of phaC1 mRNA, but not that of phaI or phaF, reducing the amount of PHA accumulated in the cell. Crc inhibited PHA synthesis during exponential growth in media containing a balanced carbon/nitrogen ratio. No inhibition was seen when the carbon/nitrogen ratio was imbalanced. This extends the role of Crc beyond that of controlling the hierarchical utilization of carbon sources and provides a link between PHA synthesis and the global regulatory networks controlling carbon flow. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Multi-year net ecosystem carbon balance at a horticulture-extracted restored peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Kelly; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    small source of CO2, NEE in the Typha plots showed significantly greater CO2 uptake capacity relative to any other restored plant community. High productivity combined with reduced CH4 flux suggests that Typha may be playing a key role in reducing the overall impact of the remnant ditches on the net ecosystem carbon balance. A preliminary footprint analysis suggests that ecosystem-level CH4 flux is being primarily driven by release from hotspots while the majority of the tower source area is a very small source of methane.

  13. THE EAP: A FAILURE OF THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY OR SHARING A POWER BALANCE IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona TATIASHVILI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses achievements and challenges of the EaP in the prism of EU-Russia asymmetric energy interdependence, as the major factor affecting the successful implementation of the Eastern partnership. To identify whether energy interdependence is the main sphere of interest in the EaP neighbourhood, where EU-Russia common interests intersect in one point or is it a sharing a power balance in “common neighbourhood”?. The research paper reviews major policy documents of the ENP/EaP, in order to analyze to what extent is policy coherent/incoherent towards partner countries. Moreover, the paper evaluates the European neighbourhood external policy instruments (the ENP/EaP from the perspective of three prioritised countries of the Eastern partnership: Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine, including the analysis of the effectiveness of proposed incentives under the ENP/EaP, as sufficient instruments for successful implementation of the Eastern partnership, in the presence of unpredictable external veto player.

  14. European social model and challenges of globalization: searching the ways of balancing of the needs of the economy and societ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Topishko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of the fundamental models of social policy in the EU and social procection system as one of its mechanisms has been characterized. The changes in the division of responsibility between the subjects of social partnership in providing social protection is analyzed. Special attention paid to the increasing socio-economic contradictions in terms of global transformations and social orientation of stabilization measures by governments. The principles on which reform is carried taxation and social welfare systems is observed. It is also described the change in the tax system in terms of finding ways to fiscal consolidation, including the measures of increasing rate of progressivity of the tax system and fiscal role of indirect taxes, broadening the tax base, increase the tax burden on passive income. Approaches to adopt the European model of social protection to globalization and the rise of the economic crisis has been investigated. The ways to achieve a balance between the social functions of the state and the level of financial supportis outlined.

  15. Gas chromatographic quantitative analysis of the gaseous emissions and carbon balance in the alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chon

    1997-06-01

    ln order to try to answer to this question, methods able to analyse simultaneously and quantitatively the liquid phase, the gaseous emissions and the biomass are needed. Recently, we have shown that under suitable defined conditions 13C NMR spectroscopy allows the quantitative measurement of at least eight components present at a concentration up to 5 x 10-3M (glycerol, glucose, butandiols, tartric, malic, lactic, citric and succinic acids in a short time (one hour with a precision of about 3 p. cent. The measurements of the ethanol concentrations and of the amount of carbon transferred in the biomass are easily achieved using respectively ebullioscopic and standard combustion techniques. We are now able to extend these results and to show that, by using gas chromatography in a continuous dynamic mode and under a sweep of air at the head space of the fermentor, it is possible to measure quantitatively the mixture of volatile substances (composed mainly of air, carbon dioxide, ethanol and water emanating from an alcoholic fermentation. The results obtained, when correlated with quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy on the medium components permits the total balance sheet of the carbon transfers occuring during the fermentation process betwcen the liquid and the gaseous phases to be established. Our results indicate that the losses of ethanol during the fermentation process conducted under an air flow at the head space of the fermentor, may reach about 10 p. cent of the theoretical maximal amount of ethanol produced. The experiments presented here could explain the ethanol losses observed during some vinification processes conducted in open tanks.

  16. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  17. Results of monitoring large carbon fiber post-tensioning systems in a balanced Cantilever Brdige (Dintelharbour Bridge, The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Kaptijn, N.; Hageman, J.G.; Kuilboer, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Steel post-tensioning systems and stay cables are susceptible to corrosion. Carbon fiber systems are not. However, there was no experience on the long term behavior of such post-tensioned elements. Four external tendons (75 m long), stressed to a load of 2650 kN, were applied in a large balanced

  18. Effects of a windthrow disturbance on the carbon balance of a broadleaf deciduous forest in Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yamanoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon balance, with most being in a carbon sequestration stage. The net carbon releases that occur result from forest disturbance, and windthrow is a typical disturbance event affecting the forest carbon balance in eastern Asia. The CO2 flux has been measured using the eddy covariance method in a deciduous broadleaf forest (Japanese white birch, Japanese oak, and castor aralia in Hokkaido, where incidental damage by the strong Typhoon Songda in 2004 occurred. We also used the biometrical method to demonstrate the CO2 flux within the forest in detail. Damaged trees amounted to 40 % of all trees, and they remained on site where they were not extracted by forest management. Gross primary production (GPP, ecosystem respiration (Re, and net ecosystem production were 1350, 975, and 375 g C m−2 yr−1 before the disturbance and 1262, 1359, and −97 g C m−2 yr−1 2 years after the disturbance, respectively. Before the disturbance, the forest was an evident carbon sink, and it subsequently transformed into a net carbon source. Because of increased light intensity at the forest floor, the leaf area index and biomass of the undergrowth (Sasa kurilensis and S. senanensis increased by factors of 2.4 and 1.7, respectively, in 3 years subsequent to the disturbance. The photosynthesis of Sasa increased rapidly and contributed to the total GPP after the disturbance. The annual GPP only decreased by 6 % just after the disturbance. On the other hand, the annual Re increased by 39 % mainly because of the decomposition of residual coarse-wood debris. The carbon balance after the disturbance was controlled by the new growth and the decomposition of residues. The forest management, which resulted in the dead trees remaining at the study site, strongly affected the carbon balance over the years. When comparing the carbon uptake efficiency at the study site with that at others, including those with various kinds

  19. Potential carbon impacts of smart grid development in six European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S. [Lower Carbon Futures, Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Stroembaeck, J. [VaasaETT Global Energy Think Tank, Itaemerenkatu 5, 2nd floor, 00180 Helsinki (Finland); Wilks, M. [Poyry Management Consulting, King Charles House, Park End Street, Oxford, OX1 1JD (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    This paper examines reports on work carried out for the European Commission to devise a methodology for estimating the potential impact of smart grids on carbon emissions. It first identifies functionalities that enable carbon benefits to be realised. Each functionality on the demand side is assumed to be mirrored on the supply side, as when dynamic peak shifting 'replaces' flexible peak generation. Metrics are developed to describe the state of markets and to estimate customer response to demand response initiatives. Quantitative analysis identifies where the greatest scope for emissions reduction lies, while qualitative assessment indicates where to expect more or less impact from smart grid deployment. The impact of smart grid functionalities by 2020 is then modelled for six representative EU markets (Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Portugal and Spain), using a detailed pan-European market model and also a high-level ancillary services model. Three scenarios are developed: baseline, in which no smart grid rollout is assumed; feasible, based on what could be achievable in the light of technology developments and with supportive legislation; and an intermediate expected scenario, in which new technologies are introduced but nothing else changes. The findings indicate the potential for emissions reductions by 2020. They also show that the potential is very unlikely to be reached without regulatory support for user engagement in demand response and demand reduction, along with enabling technology and programmes. Development of regulatory frameworks that allow full advantage to be taken of the new technologies emerges as a challenge for smart grid development.

  20. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006–10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability. (letter)

  1. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Dore, Sabina; Montes-Helu, Mario

    2013-03-01

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006-10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability.

  2. Differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture drive the carbon balance across a climatic gradient in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; John P. Delong; Andrew M. Fox; Daniel A. Brese; Marcy E. Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of spatio-temporal...

  3. Greenhouse gas balance of mountain dairy farms as affected by grassland carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Sara; Corazzin, Mirco; Romanzin, Alberto; Bovolenta, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies on milk production have often focused on environmental impacts analysed using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. In grassland-based livestock systems, soil carbon sequestration might be a potential sink to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) balance. Nevertheless, there is no commonly shared methodology. In this work, the GHG emissions of small-scale mountain dairy farms were assessed using the LCA approach. Two functional units, kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) and Utilizable Agricultural Land (UAL), and two different emissions allocations methods, no allocation and physical allocation, which accounts for the co-product beef, were considered. Two groups of small-scale dairy farms were identified based on the Livestock Units (LU) reared: 30 LU (HLU). Before considering soil carbon sequestration in LCA, performing no allocation methods, LLU farms tended to have higher GHG emission than HLU farms per kg of FPCM (1.94 vs. 1.59 kg CO 2 -eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.10), whereas the situation was reversed upon considering the m 2 of UAL as a functional unit (0.29 vs. 0.89 kg CO 2 -eq/m 2 , P ≤ 0.05). Conversely, considering physical allocation, the difference between the two groups became less noticeable. When the contribution from soil carbon sequestration was included in the LCA and no allocation method was performed, LLU farms registered higher values of GHG emission per kg of FPCM than HLU farms (1.38 vs. 1.10 kg CO 2 -eq/kg FPCM, P ≤ 0.05), and the situation was likewise reversed in this case upon considering the m 2 of UAL as a functional unit (0.22 vs. 0.73 kg CO 2 -eq/m 2 , P ≤ 0.05). To highlight how the presence of grasslands is crucial for the carbon footprint of small-scale farms, this study also applied a simulation for increasing the forage self-sufficiency of farms to 100%. In this case, an average reduction of GHG emission per kg of FPCM of farms was estimated both with no allocation and with physical allocation

  4. Enabling intelligent copernicus services for carbon and water balance modeling of boreal forest ecosystems - North State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häme, Tuomas; Mutanen, Teemu; Rauste, Yrjö; Antropov, Oleg; Molinier, Matthieu; Quegan, Shaun; Kantzas, Euripides; Mäkelä, Annikki; Minunno, Francesco; Atli Benediktsson, Jon; Falco, Nicola; Arnason, Kolbeinn; Storvold, Rune; Haarpaintner, Jörg; Elsakov, Vladimir; Rasinmäki, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    The objective of project North State, funded by Framework Program 7 of the European Union, is to develop innovative data fusion methods that exploit the new generation of multi-source data from Sentinels and other satellites in an intelligent, self-learning framework. The remote sensing outputs are interfaced with state-of-the-art carbon and water flux models for monitoring the fluxes over boreal Europe to reduce current large uncertainties. This will provide a paradigm for the development of products for future Copernicus services. The models to be interfaced are a dynamic vegetation model and a light use efficiency model. We have identified four groups of variables that will be estimated with remote sensed data: land cover variables, forest characteristics, vegetation activity, and hydrological variables. The estimates will be used as model inputs and to validate the model outputs. The earth observation variables are computed as automatically as possible, with an objective to completely automatic estimation. North State has two sites for intensive studies in southern and northern Finland, respectively, one in Iceland and one in state Komi of Russia. Additionally, the model input variables will be estimated and models applied over European boreal and sub-arctic region from Ural Mountains to Iceland. The accuracy assessment of the earth observation variables will follow statistical sampling design. Model output predictions are compared to earth observation variables. Also flux tower measurements are applied in the model assessment. In the paper, results of hyperspectral, Sentinel-1, and Landsat data and their use in the models is presented. Also an example of a completely automatic land cover class prediction is reported.

  5. The European carbon market (2005-2007): banking, pricing and risk hedging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, J.

    2008-11-01

    This thesis investigates the market rules of the European carbon market (EU ETS) during 2005-2007. We provide theoretical and empirical analyses of banking and borrowing provisions, price drivers and risk hedging strategies attached to tradable quotas, which were introduced to cover the CO 2 emissions of around 10,600 installations in Europe. In Chapter 1, we outline the economic and environmental effects of banking and borrowing on tradable permits markets. More specifically, we examine the banking and borrowing provisions adopted in the EU ETS, and the effects of banning banking between Phases I and II on CO 2 price changes. We show statistically that the low levels of CO 2 prices recorded until the end of Phase I may be explained by the restriction on the inter-period transfer of allowances, besides the main explanations that were identified by market observers. In Chapter 2, we identify the carbon price drivers since the launch of the EU ETS on January 1, 2005. We emphasize the central role played by the 2005 yearly compliance event imposed by the European Commission in revealing the net short/long position at the installation level in terms of allowances allocated with respect to verified emissions. The main result of this study features that price drivers of CO 2 allowances linked to energy market prices and unanticipated weather events vary around institutional events. Moreover, we show the influence of the variation of industrial production in three sectors covered by the EU ETS on CO 2 price changes by applying a disentangling analysis, that has also been extended at the country-level. In Chapter 3, we focus on the risk hedging strategies linked to holding CO 2 allowances. By using a methodology applied on stock markets, we recover the changes in investors' average risk aversion. This study shows that, during the time period considered, risk aversion has been higher on the carbon market than on the stock market, and that the risk is linked to an increasing

  6. The combined influence of the main European circulation patterns on carbon uptake by ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how natural climate variability affects carbon uptake by land and ocean pools is particularly relevant to better characterize human impact on the carbon cycle. Recently, we have contributed to assess the major role played by the El-Niño/Southern Oscillation in driving inter-annual variability (IAV) of carbon uptake by land ecosystems and significantly influencing global CO2 air-borne fraction [1]. Despite the prominent role played by ENSO, other important teleconnections on the hemispheric scale have deserved less attention. On the European scale, the main mode of variability is the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which controls storm tracks position and drives changes in temperature and precipitation over the whole region, affecting vegetation dynamics [2]. Besides NAO, a few additional large scale circulation patterns the Scandinavian (SC) and East-Atlantic (EA) Patterns, are also known to influence significantly the European climate [3]. Different combinations of these teleconnection polarities have been recently shown to modulate the overall role of the NAO impact location and strength, thus affecting winter temperature and precipitation patterns over Europe [4]. This work aims to answer the following questions: (i) how do NAO, EA and SC affect vegetation carbon uptake IAV? (ii) do the interactions between these three modes have a significant impact on land CO2 IAV? (iii) what is the contribution of the different physical variables to ecosystems' response to these modes? (iv) how well do the state-of-the-art Earth System Models (ESMs) from CMIP5 represent these climate variability modes and the corresponding carbon fluxes? We first analyze observational data to assess the relationships between the different combinations of NAO, SC and EA polarities and IAV of gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP, respectively), as well as the most relevant driving factors of ecosystem's response to those variability patterns. Although the winter state

  7. Effects of climate variability and functional changes on the interannual variation of the carbon balance in a temperate deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian; van der Linden, Leon; Lasslop, G.

    2012-01-01

    scale, direct climatic variability and changes in ecosystem functional properties regulated the IAV of the carbon balance at this site. Correlation analysis showed that the sensitivity of carbon fluxes to climatic variability was significantly higher at shorter than at longer time scales and changed...... seasonally. Ecosystem response anomalies implied that changes in the distribution of climate anomalies during the vegetation period will have stronger impacts on future ecosystem carbon balances than changes in average climate. We improved a published modelling approach which distinguishes the direct....... At the annual time scale as much as 80% of the IAV in NEE was attributed to the variation in photosynthesis and respiration related model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed decadal NEE trend at the investigated site was dominated by changes in ecosystem functioning. In general this study showed...

  8. Balance of Carbon Embodied in Bilateral Trade between France and China: Transfer of Emission or New Creation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jie; Jacquemin, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the balance of carbon embodied in trade (BCET) between China and France during 1996-2005. Our results confirm China's role as a net carbon exporter and the fast increasing trend of the surplus in BCET since China's adhesion to the World Trade Organization. However, the quasi-totality of the carbon surplus is due to China's low carbon efficiency. The part of carbon emission discharged on China's territory that is directly transferred from France via trade stays very little (1-2 %). The bilateral trade between China and France seems to continue benefiting mainly from their difference in factor endowment; the environmental regulation related comparative advantage plays only a marginal role

  9. Balance of Carbon Embodied in Bilateral Trade between France and China: Transfer of Emission or New Creation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jie; Jacquemin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the balance of carbon embodied in trade (BCET) between China and France during 1996-2005. Our results confirm China's role as a net carbon exporter and the fast increasing trend of the surplus in BCET since China's adhesion to the World Trade Organization. However, the quasi-totality of the carbon surplus is due to China's low carbon efficiency. The part of carbon emission discharged on China's territory that is directly transferred from France via trade stays very little (1-2 %). The bilateral trade between China and France seems to continue benefiting mainly from their difference in factor endowment; the environmental regulation related comparative advantage plays only a marginal role

  10. Direct and indirect effects of fires on the carbon balance of tropical forest ecosystems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Tosca, M. G.; Ward, D. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Hess, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Fires influence the carbon budget of tropical forests directly because they account for a significant component of net emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. They also have indirect effects on nearby intact forests by modifying regional climate, atmospheric composition, and patterns of nutrient deposition. These latter pathways are not well understood and are often ignored in climate mitigation efforts such as the United Nations Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Here we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) to quantify the impacts of fire-emitted aerosols on the productivity of tropical forests. Across the tropical forest biome, fire-emitted aerosols reduced surface temperatures and increased the diffuse solar insolation fraction. These changes in surface meteorology increased gross primary production (GPP) in the Community Land Model. However, these drivers were more than offset in many regions by reductions in soil moisture and total solar radiation. The net effect of fire aerosols caused GPP to decrease by approximately 8% in equatorial Asia and 6% in the central Africa. In the Amazon, decreases in photosynthesis in the western part of the basin were nearly balanced by increases in the south and east. Using additional CAM5 and GEOS-Chem model simulations, we estimated fire contributions to surface concentrations of ozone. Using empirical relationships between ozone exposure and GPP from field studies and models, we estimated how tropical forest GPP was further modified by fire-induced ozone. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the fire component of tropical land use fluxes may have sustainability benefits that extend beyond the balance sheet for greenhouse gases.

  11. European balancing act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackermann, T.; Abbad, J.R.; Dudurych, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    , the organization of the electricity market as well as the conventional generation pool has a large influence on the needed forecast horizon. The forecast error depends on the number of wind turbines and wind farms and their geographical spread. In Germany, typical forecast errors for representative wind farm...

  12. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  13. Carbon balance of a boreal bog during a year with an exceptionally dry summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.; Silvola, J. [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Schulman, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Systematics; Walden, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Lab. of Environmental Microbiology

    1999-01-01

    Northern peatlands are important terrestrial carbon stores, and they show large spatial and temporal variation in the atmospheric exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. Thus, annual carbon balance must be studied in detail in order to predict the climatic responses of these ecosystems. Closed-chamber methods were used to study CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in hollow, Sphagnum angustifolium lawn. S. fuscum lawn, and hummock microsites within an ombrotrophic S. fuscum bog. Micrometeorological tower measurements were used as a reference for the CH{sub 3} efflux from the bog. Low precipitation during May--August in 1994 and a warm July--August period caused the water table to drop by more than 15 cm below the peat surface in the hollows and to 48 cm below the surface in high hummocks. Increased annual total respiration exceeded gross production and resulted in a net C loss of 4--157 g/m{sup 2} in the different microsites. Drought probably caused irreversible desiccation in some lawns of S. angustifolium and S. balticum and in S. fuscum in the hummocks, while S. balticum growing in hollows retained its moisture and even increased its photosynthetic capacity during the July--August period. Seasonal (12 May--4 October) CH{sub 4} emissions ranged from 2 g CH{sub 4}-C/m{sup 2} in drier S. fuscum hummocks and lawns to 7 and 14 g/m{sup 2} in wetter S. angustifolium-S. balticum lawns and hollows, respectively.

  14. Characterizing biospheric carbon balance using CO2 observations from the OCO-2 satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2 satellite launched in summer of 2014. Its observations could allow scientists to constrain CO2 fluxes across regions or continents that were previously difficult to monitor. This study explores an initial step toward that goal; we evaluate the extent to which current OCO-2 observations can detect patterns in biospheric CO2 fluxes and constrain monthly CO2 budgets. Our goal is to guide top-down, inverse modeling studies and identify areas for future improvement. We find that uncertainties and biases in the individual OCO-2 observations are comparable to the atmospheric signal from biospheric fluxes, particularly during Northern Hemisphere winter when biospheric fluxes are small. A series of top-down experiments indicate how these errors affect our ability to constrain monthly biospheric CO2 budgets. We are able to constrain budgets for between two and four global regions using OCO-2 observations, depending on the month, and we can constrain CO2 budgets at the regional level (i.e., smaller than seven global biomes in only a handful of cases (16 % of all regions and months. The potential of the OCO-2 observations, however, is greater than these results might imply. A set of synthetic data experiments suggests that retrieval errors have a salient effect. Advances in retrieval algorithms and to a lesser extent atmospheric transport modeling will improve the results. In the interim, top-down studies that use current satellite observations are best-equipped to constrain the biospheric carbon balance across only continental or hemispheric regions.

  15. Role of embodied energy in the European manufacturing industry: Application to short-term impacts of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu; Hita, Alain; Le Blanc, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Role of energy in the manufacturing industry is a major concern for energy and environmental policy design. Issues like energy prices, security of supply and carbon mitigation are often connected to the industry and its competitiveness. This paper examines the role and consequences of embodied energy in the European industry. To this end, a multi-regional input–output analysis including 59 industrial sectors for all European Union countries and 17 more aggregated industries for other regions of the World is developed. Other segments of the economy are not included. This base is combined with energy consumption, carbon emission as well as bilateral trade data for every sector in all included countries. Our main result is that embodied energy in manufactured products' imports represents a significant aspect of the energy situation in European industries, with quantities close to the direct energy consumption. These flows can further be broken down for detailed analysis at the sector level thanks to the number of distinct industries included. Results demonstrate that an important part of embodied energy inside European products is not concerned with domestic energy price changes. In addition, a European-wide carbon tax would induce an unbalanced burden on industries and countries. - Highlights: ► We calculate embodied energy and carbon flows in the European and World industry. ► A multi-regional input–output analysis is used with a detailed nomenclature. ► National industries' energy prices dependence is a domestic issue. ► With a European carbon tax energy-intensive industries would be penalised. ► Such a tax may also induce competition distortion among EU countries.

  16. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. II: natural coals" IJCG, 2010, 84, 115-124 Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, D. Charriére, D. Li, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter

  17. Crop Management Effects on the Energy and Carbon Balances of Maize Stover-Based Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Woli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the crop management options—the combinations of various cultivars, irrigation amounts, planting dates, and soils—that would maximize the energy sustainability and eco-friendliness of maize (Zea mays L. stover-based ethanol production systems in the Mississippi Delta. Stover yields simulated with CERES-Maize were used to compute net energy value (NEV and carbon credit balance (CCB, the indicators of sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production, respectively, for various scenarios. As the results showed, deeper soils with higher water holding capacities had larger NEV and CCB values. Both NEV and CCB had sigmoid relationships with irrigation amount and planting date and could be maximized by planting the crop during the optimum planting window. Stover yield had positive effects on NEV and CCB, whereas travel distance had negative. The influence of stover yield was larger than that of travel distance, indicating that increasing feedstock yields should be emphasized over reducing travel distance. The NEV and CCB values indicated that stover-based ethanol production in the Mississippi Delta is sustainable and environmentally friendly. The study demonstrated that the energy sustainability and eco-friendliness of maize stover-based ethanol production could be increased with alternative crop management options.

  18. Modelling of the carbon and water balances of olive (Olea europaea, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Olive orchards are the main component of numerous agricultural systems in the Mediterranean region. In this work we present the development of a simulation model of olive orchards, which is used here to illustrate some specific features of the water and carbon balances of olives. The fraction of daily Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR) intercepted by the trees (Qd) changes substantially with solar declination. For a given LAI Qd increases as tree size is smaller. Canopy volume has a much larger effect on Qd than Leaf Area Density (LAD), implying that a submodel for canopy volume will be required. Estimates of Radiation-Use Efficiency for yield are 0.35 g dry matter/(MJ PAR) and 0.16 g oil/(MJ PAR) which are around 80% of those for sunflower under the same environment. Crop evaporation in olive orchards is characterized by a high proportion of evaporation from the soil surface (Es) and by the response of stomata to air humidity. Results from a evapotranspiration corresponds to Es, and that Water-Use Efficiency relative to transpiration is 0.9 kg fruit dry matter m-3, which is equal to that of sunflower. Important gaps in our knowledge of olive ecophysiology (dry matter partitioning and growth) require further research

  19. [Carbon balance of household production system in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao Chao; Gao, Xiao Ye; Hou, Fu Jiang

    2017-10-01

    The transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the regions with most dramatic changes in agricultural production mode and most sensitive response to the carbon balance effect. This paper analyzed the carbon balance of the agriculture system along the altitude gradient in Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe counties. The results showed that with the increase of altitude, the carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon sink capacity of crops per unit area decreased accordingly, while the average carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon source capacity of each household in livestock system increased. The integrated crop-livestock production system changed from carbon sink to carbon source. The average carbon emission of each household rose with altitude, but the carbon fixation was the opposite. The change of percentage ofhousehold in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with carbon balance could be fitted with Logistic equation. In the crop system of Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe with the altitude increase, carbon emission at the inflection point where the household percentage accounted for 50.0% was 1491, 857 and 376 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6187, 3872 and 778 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the livestock system, carbon emission was 2218, 3725 and 49511 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 138, 230 and 2706 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the integrated crop-livestock system, carbon emission was 3615, 4583 and 49918 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6289, 4113 and 3819 kg CE·household -1 , respectively, which could be the key point for the regulation of regional carbon balance.

  20. Toward a consistency cross-check of eddy covariance flux–based and biometric estimates of ecosystem carbon balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luyssaert, S.; Reichstein, M.; Schulze, E.-D.

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of an ecosystem's carbon balance and its components is pivotal for understanding both ecosystem functioning and global cycling. Several methods are being applied in parallel to estimate the different components of the CO2 balance. However, different methods are subject to different...... sources of error. Therefore, it is necessary that site level component estimates are cross-checked against each other before being reported. Here we present a two-step approach for testing the accuracy and consistency of eddy covariance–based gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re...

  1. Soil aggregates, organic matter turnover and carbon balance in a Mediterranean eroded vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Dazzi, Carmelo; Gristina, Luciano; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    dispersion, were isolated by mechanical shaking of 100 g, air-dried fine earth on a column with sieves of 250 and 63 μm using a Shaker AS 200 Sieve (RETSCH analytical, Haan, Germany) (200-mm sieves, amplitude of 2 cm, frequency of 1.6 Hz and a water flux of 2 litres minute-1). After the physical fractionation, we discriminate three main aggregate-size fractions: >250, 63-250 and Schillaci, C., Laudicina, V.A., La Mantia, T., 2013. Turnover and availability of soil organic carbon under different Mediterranean land use as estimated by 13C natural abundance. European Journal ofSoil science, 64, 466-475. DOI: 10.1111/ejss.12038 Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S., Santoro, A., Cerda, A. 2011. Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil & Tillage Research 117:140-147. Novara, A., La Mantia, T., Barbera V., Gristina, L. 2012. Paired-site approach for studying soil organic carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean semiarid environment. Catena, 89 (1): 1-7, doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2011.09.008 Yan-Gui, S., Xin-Rong, L., Ying-Wu, C., Zhi-Shan, Z., and Yan, L. 2013. Carbon fixaton of cyanobacterial-algal crusts after desert fixation and its implication to soil organic matter accumulation in Desert. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 342- 349. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1131

  2. Tendances Carbone no. 89. European Offset Projects: A tool to rally Poland towards the 2030 Energy Climate Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Alberola, Emilie

    2014-03-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - EUA supply: after the approbation of the back-loading regulation, the number of auctioned allowances for 2014 will be reduced by 400 million. National allocations plans of all 28 member states for the free allocation of allowances for 2013 have been approved. - 2030 climate and energy package: the EU Parliament adopted a non-binding resolution on the 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. On 20-21 March the European Council will meet to discuss this framework. - Carbon leakage list for 2015-2019: industrial stakeholders will be informed at the latest by the end of March 2014 if their sectors are included on the first draft of the new carbon leakage list

  3. Management effects on net ecosystem carbon and GHG budgets at European crop sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceschia, Eric; Bêziat, P; Dejoux, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The greenhouse gas budgets of 15 European crop sites covering a large climatic gradient and corresponding to 41 site-years were estimated. The sites included a wide range of management practices (organic and/or mineral fertilisation, tillage or ploughing, with or without straw removal....... The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analysed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions...... caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHG budget (GHGB) for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines, and CH4 emissions...

  4. Potassium deficiency affects the carbon-nitrogen balance in cotton leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Coomer, Taylor D; Loka, Dimitra A; Oosterhuis, Derrick M; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-06-01

    Potassium (K) plays important roles in the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), but studies of K deficiency affecting C-N balance are lacking. This study explored the influence of K deficiency on C-N interaction in cotton leaves by conducting a field experiment with cotton cultivar DP0912 under two K rates (K0: 0 kg K 2 O ha -1 and K67: 67 kg K 2 O ha -1 ) and a controlled environment experiment with K-deficient solution (K1: 0 mM K + ) and K-sufficient solution (K2: 6 mM K + ). The results showed that leaf K content, leaf number, leaf area, boll number, reproductive dry weight and total dry weight were significant lower under K deficiency (K0 or K1). Lower total chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio, and decreased Pn along with lower Gs and higher Ci were measured under K deficiency, suggesting that the decrease in Pn was resulted from non-stomatal limitation. Leaf glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch contents were higher under K deficiency, because lower sucrose export was detected in phloem. Although leaf nitrate and ammonium contents significantly decreased, free amino acid content was increased by 40-63% under K deficiency, since lower amino acid export was also measured in phloem. K deficiency also induced lower soluble protein content in leaves. Leaf ATP level was significantly increased under K deficiency, indicating ATP utilization was lower, so that less energy was supplied to C and N metabolism. The ratio of soluble sugar to free amino acid and the C/N ratio markedly increased under K deficiency, and one reason was that the phloem export reduced more prominent for sucrose (54.6-78.0%) than amino acid (36.7-85.4%) under K deficiency. In addition, lower phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity limited malate and citrate biosynthesis under K deficiency, causing a decrease of C flux into the amino acids, which was not beneficial for maintaining C-N balance. Sucrose phosphate synthase and nitrate reductase activities were lower under K deficiency

  5. The Impact of a Mild Sub-Critical Hydrothermal Carbonization Pretreatment on Umbila Wood. A Mass and Energy Balance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Cuvilas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the pretreatment of biomass as a source of energy has become one of the most important steps of biomass conversion. In this work the effect of a mild subcritical hydrothermal carbonization of a tropical woody biomass was studied. Results indicate considerable change in carbon content from 52.78% to 65.1%, reduction of oxygen content from 41.14% to 28.72% and ash slagging and fouling potential. Even though decarboxylation, decarbonylation and dehydration reactions take place, dehydration is the one that prevails. The mass and energy balance was affected by the treatment conditions than the severity of the treatment.

  6. Who's got the balance? A study of satisfaction with the work-family balance among part-time service sector employees in five western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beham, Barbara; Prag, Patrick; Drobnic, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Working part-time is frequently considered a viable strategy for employees to better combine work and non-work responsibilities. The present study examines differences in satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB) among professional and non-professional part-time service sector employees in five

  7. Evaluating the application of different pricing regimes and low carbon investments in the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oggioni, Giorgia; Smeers, Yves

    2012-01-01

    The EU-ETS is the first measure initiated by the EU to contribute to the decarbonization of the European energy sector. It is a cap and trade system that requires industries participating to the program to procure allowances to cover their emissions. Electricity Intensive Industries (EIIs) have complained that the system put their European plants at disadvantage compared to facilities located outside the EU. They have asked for actions to mitigate this effect; one of them is to have access to long term contracts with electricity suppliers, ideally with those operating carbon free plants. This paper presents and illustrates a method for assessing the impact of this measure on EIIs participating to the EU cap and trade system. We model a power market segmented in two consumer groups EIIs and the rest of the market (N-EIIs). These two groups are subject to different price regimes: EIIs purchase electricity from dedicated base-load power plants at average cost price, while N-EIIs are supplied at marginal cost. The French Exeltium and the Belgian Blue Sky consortia are existing examples of this market organization. The expanse of the territories that can be covered by these systems depends on the organization of transmission organization and on national energy position relative to carbon free generation. We examine two different types of long term average cost based contracts that differ by the organization of transmission and study their impact under different national energy policies. We formulate the problem of operations and investment in this market as a spatial equilibrium model where generators can invest in new capacity subject to different regional constraints. Transmission is organized according to a “flow based” approach as foreseen by Regulatory Authorities and Transmission System Operators in Europe. We also examine the impact of nuclear policies. CO 2 emission allowances are auctioned and tradable. We describe the models and discuss their policy

  8. Carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance of an old-growth forest and an anthropogenic peatland in southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Quezada, J. F.; Brito, C. E.; Valdés, A.; Urrutia, P.

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have reported the effects of deforestation on carbon stocks and greenhouse gas balance in the temperate forests of the southern hemisphere. In some areas of southern Chile, after clear-cut or forest fires occurs a proliferation of Sphagnum moss, generating an anthropogenic type of peatland. We measured the effects of this change on the carbon stocks and the greenhouse gas balance, starting in 2013. Carbon stocks were measured in >30 plots on each site; ecosystem CO2 fluxes were measured continuously using eddy covariance stations; CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured monthly using closed chambers and cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology. Total ecosystem carbon stock was 1,523 Mg ha-1 in the forest and 130 Mg ha-1 in the peatland, representing a 91% difference. Both land use types were found to act as sinks of CO2 (NEE=-1094.2 and -31.9 g CO2 m-2 year-¹ for the forest and peatland, respectively); CH4 was mainly captured in the forest and peatland soils, generating balances of -0.70 and -0.12 g CH₄ m-2 year-¹. N2O fluxes were extremely low, so were considered as null. These results indicate that the greenhouse gas balance moved from -1134.6 to -38.8 g CO2-eq m-2 year-1 when land use changed from forest to anthropogenic peatland. These results provide evidence of the importance of preserving old-growth forests in southern Chile.

  9. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  10. Influence of spring phenology on seasonal and annual carbon balance in two contrasting New England forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Hollinger, David Y; Dail, D Bryan; Lee, John T; Munger, J William; O'keefe, John

    2009-03-01

    Spring phenology is thought to exert a major influence on the carbon (C) balance of temperate and boreal ecosystems. We investigated this hypothesis using four spring onset phenological indicators in conjunction with surface-atmosphere CO(2) exchange data from the conifer-dominated Howland Forest and deciduous-dominated Harvard Forest AmeriFlux sites. All phenological measures, including CO(2) source-sink transition dates, could be well predicted on the basis of a simple two-parameter spring warming model, indicating good potential for improving the representation of phenological transitions and their dynamic responsiveness to climate variability in land surface models. The date at which canopy-scale photosynthetic capacity reached a threshold value of 12 micromol m(-2) s(-1) was better correlated with spring and annual flux integrals than were either deciduous or coniferous bud burst dates. For all phenological indicators, earlier spring onset consistently, but not always significantly, resulted in higher gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) for both seasonal (spring months, April-June) and annual flux integrals. The increase in RE was less than that in GPP; depending on the phenological indicator used, a one-day advance in spring onset increased springtime net ecosystem productivity (NEP) by 2-4 g C m(-2) day(-1). In general, we could not detect significant differences between the two forest types in response to earlier spring, although the response to earlier spring was generally more pronounced for Harvard Forest than for Howland Forest, suggesting that future climate warming may favor deciduous species over coniferous species, at least in this region. The effect of earlier spring tended to be about twice as large when annual rather than springtime flux integrals were considered. This result is suggestive of both immediate and lagged effects of earlier spring onset on ecosystem C cycling, perhaps as a result of accelerated N cycling

  11. Towards operational remote sensing of forest carbon balance across Northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olofsson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averages of ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary production (GPP and net ecosystem exchange (NEE over Scandinavian forest sites were estimated using regression models driven by air temperature (AT, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR and vegetation indices. The models were constructed and evaluated using satellite data from Terra/MODIS and measured data collected at seven flux tower sites in northern Europe. Data used for model construction was excluded from the evaluation. Relationships between ground measured variables and the independent variables were investigated.

    It was found that the enhanced vegetation index (EVI at 250 m resolution was highly noisy for the coniferous sites, and hence, 1 km EVI was used for the analysis. Linear relationships between EVI and the biophysical variables were found: correlation coefficients between EVI and GPP, NEE, and AT ranged from 0.90 to 0.79 for the deciduous data, and from 0.85 to 0.67 for the coniferous data. Due to saturation, there were no linear relationships between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the ground measured parameters found at any site. APAR correlated better with the parameters in question than the vegetation indices. Modeled GPP and ER were in good agreement with measured values, with more than 90% of the variation in measured GPP and ER being explained by the coniferous models. The site-specific respiration rate at 10°C (R10 was needed for describing the ER variation between sites. Even though monthly NEE was modeled with less accuracy than GPP, 61% and 75% (dec. and con., respectively of the variation in the measured time series was explained by the model. These results are important for moving towards operational remote sensing of forest carbon balance across Northern Europe.

  12. TOR Signaling Promotes Accumulation of BZR1 to Balance Growth with Carbon Availability in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Roh, Jeehee; Marchive, Chloé; Kim, Seong-Ki; Meyer, Christian; Sun, Yu; Wang, Wenfei; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-07-25

    For maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the actions of growth-promoting hormones must be attenuated when nutrient and energy become limiting. The molecular mechanisms that coordinate hormone-dependent growth responses with nutrient availability remain poorly understood in plants [1, 2]. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates nutrient and energy signaling to regulate growth and homeostasis in both animals and plants [3-7]. Here, we show that sugar signaling through TOR controls the accumulation of the brassinosteroid (BR)-signaling transcription factor BZR1, which is essential for growth promotion by multiple hormonal and environmental signals [8-11]. Starvation, caused by shifting of light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings into darkness, as well as inhibition of TOR by inducible RNAi, led to plant growth arrest and reduced expression of BR-responsive genes. The growth arrest caused by TOR inactivation was partially recovered by BR treatment and the gain-of-function mutation bzr1-1D, which causes accumulation of active forms of BZR1 [12]. Exogenous sugar promoted BZR1 accumulation and seedling growth, but such sugar effects were largely abolished by inactivation of TOR, whereas the effect of TOR inactivation on BZR1 degradation is abolished by inhibition of autophagy and by the bzr1-1D mutation. These results indicate that cellular starvation leads sequentially to TOR inactivation, autophagy, and BZR1 degradation. Such regulation of BZR1 accumulation by glucose-TOR signaling allows carbon availability to control the growth promotion hormonal programs, ensuring supply-demand balance in plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the physical controls of the carbon dioxide balance at a high arctic site in Svalbard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    Current predictions of the effects of climate change indicate that the Arctic may experience a larger than average increase in temperature with consequent changes to the length of the snow-free active summer period, winter snow depth and amount and frequency of summer precipitation being highly probable. This paper reports on measurements of carbon dioxide flux at a high arctic site at Ny-Aalesund (78 o 56' N, 11 o 55' E), Svalbard and the physical climate variables that largely control this flux. lt is shown that during three important precipitation-free periods of the active summer period, namely post snow melt, high summer, and early autumn, the net balance between CO 2 flux from the soil (due to respiration of roots and soil organisms) and CO 2 assimilation by the vegetation is controlled largely by soil temperature and solar radiation. A simple combined photosynthetic assimilation-soil respiration model is shown to be capable of simulating the net CO 2 flux during mid-summer, but is less proficient in the post snow melt period and in early autumn when the simple models' inability to simulate the effects of emergent growth and ponding during the former and senescence, freezing temperatures and dew during the latter indicates the need for a more complex descriptive model. The net CO 2 flux during the measurement periods progresses from a net CO 2 source of 0.3 gC m -2 d -1 during late snow melt to a mid summer net CO 2 sink of -0.39 gC m -2 d -1 , returning to a net CO 2 source of 0.1 gC m -2 d -1 in the early autumn. Simple extrapolation of the data indicates that, during the active summer season in 1995, this site was a net sink of CO 2 of approximately -9 gC m -2 . (author)

  14. Is an environmentally sustainable future for the European Community compatible with continued growth - carbon dioxide and the management of greed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slesser, M.

    1993-01-01

    The search for sustainability creates moral and economic dilemmas for politicians seeking to match public aspirations with environmental integrity. The paper explores a method for computing the longer term outcome of policies, considering the case of the European Community as a single economy and taking the specific problem of carbon dioxide

  15. The carbon balance pivot point of southwestern U.S. semiarid ecosystems: Insights from the 21st century drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russell L.; Biederman, Joel A.; Hamerlynck, Erik P.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.

    2015-12-01

    Global-scale studies indicate that semiarid regions strongly regulate the terrestrial carbon sink. However, we lack understanding of how climatic shifts, such as decadal drought, impact carbon sequestration across the wide range of structural diversity in semiarid ecosystems. Therefore, we used eddy covariance measurements to quantify how net ecosystem production of carbon dioxide (NEP) differed with relative grass and woody plant abundance over the last decade of drought in four Southwest U.S. ecosystems. We identified a precipitation "pivot point" in the carbon balance for each ecosystem where annual NEP switched from negative to positive. Ecosystems with grass had pivot points closer to the drought period precipitation than the predrought average, making them more likely to be carbon sinks (and a grass-free shrubland, a carbon source) during the current drought. One reason for this is that the grassland located closest to the shrubland supported higher leaf area and photosynthesis at the same water availability. Higher leaf area was associated with a greater proportion of evapotranspiration being transpiration (T/ET), and therefore with higher ecosystem water use efficiency (gross ecosystem photosynthesis/ET). Our findings strongly show that water availability is a primary driver of both gross and net semiarid productivity and illustrate that structural differences may contribute to the speed at which ecosystem carbon cycling adjusts to climatic shifts.

  16. Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, G.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon balance of a plastic mulch and drip irrigated cotton field in an arid oasis of Northwest ChinaGuanghui Ming1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: Agricultural ecosystems have the potential to offset rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere but the potential is often altered by agricultural management. Plastic film mulching and drip irrigation (PMDI) have been widespread for saving water and improving crop yield worldwide. To comprehensively assess the carbon balance and to detect the controlling factors of the carbon flux in a PMDI cotton field, experiments combining eddy covariance (EC) system, chamber method and crop sampling were implemented in an arid oasis of Xinjiang from the year 2012 to 2016. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was -250.18 ± 80.41 g C m-2 in the five years, which indicated that the filed was a much stronger carbon sink. After removal of the harvest of cotton as seed oil (Ch) of 108.81±7.57 g C m-2, the field was still a moderate carbon sink with net biome productivity (NBP) of 141.37±73.7 g C m-2. Soil temperature can explain 82% of seasonal variation of nighttime NEE while PAR can explain 36-81% of daytime NEE varying with crop development and photosynthetic activity. NEE was separated into total ecosystem respiration (Reco, 1214.20±144.42 g C m-2) and gross primary productivity (GPP, 1464.38±122.78 g C m-2). Interannual Reco changed more drastically than GPP and respiration may be the main determinant of carbon balance in the PMDI field. Seasonal NPP measured by cop sampling method (NPPCS) agreed well with NPP calculated with EC (NPPEC), with the annual NPP of 708.86 ± 52.26 g C m-2, which indicated that our carbon flux measurements and separating methods reasonable. The PMDI cotton field induced more GPP and Reco than other croplands with larger light use efficiency (LUE) but relatively

  17. Carbon prices and CCS investment: A comparative study between the European Union and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage is considered as a key option for climate change mitigation; policy makers and investors need to know when CCS becomes economically attractive. Integrating CCS in a power plant adds significant costs which can be offset by a sufficient CO 2 price. However, most markets have failed: currently, the weak carbon price threatens CCS deployment in the European Union (EU). In China, a carbon regulation is appearing and CCS encounters a rising interest. This study investigates two questions: how much is the extra-cost of a CCS plant in the EU in comparison with China? Second, what is the CO 2 price beyond which CCS plants become more profitable than reference plants in the EU and in China? To address these issues, I conducted a literature review on public studies about CCS costs. To objectively assess the profitability of CCS plants, I constructed a net present value model to calculate the Levelised Cost of Electricity and the breakeven CO 2 price. CCS plants become the most profitable plant type beyond 115 €/tCO 2 in the EU vs. 45 €/tCO 2 in China (offshore transport and storage costs). I advise on the optimal plant type choice depending on the CO 2 price in both countries. - Highlights: • I develop a method to objectively update and compare CCS costs in the EU and China. • To represent investment choices, intra and inter CO 2 switching prices are required. • EU CCS plants are profitable for a CO 2 price higher than 115 €/t (offshore storage). • Chinese CCS plants are profitable beyond 45 €/tCO 2 (35 €/tCO 2 with onshore storage). • With 2030 projections, CCS (coal) plants are profitable in China but not in the EU

  18. Modelling system dynamics and phytoplankton diversity at Ranchi lake using the carbon and nutrient mass balance equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, B; Nivedita, M; Mukherjee, D

    2014-05-01

    Modelling system dynamics in a hyper-eutrophic lake is quite complex especially with a constant influx of detergents and sewage material which continually changes the state variables and interferes with the assessment of the chemical rhythm occurring in polluted conditions as compared to unpolluted systems. In this paper, a carbon and nutrient mass balance model for predicting system dynamics in a complex environment was studied. Studies were conducted at Ranchi lake to understand the altered environmental dynamics in hyper-eutrophic conditions, and its impact on the plankton community. The lake was monitored regularly for five years (2007 - 2011) and the data collected on the carbon flux, nitrates, phosphates and silicates was used to design a mass balance model for evaluating and predicting the system. The model was then used to correlate the chemical rhythm with that of the phytoplankton dynamics and diversity. Nitrates and phosphates were not limiting (mean nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 1.74 and 0.83 mgl⁻¹ respectively). Free carbon dioxide was found to control the system and, interacting with other parameters determined the diversity and dynamics of the plankton community. N/P ratio determined which group of phytoplankton dominated the community, above 5 it favoured the growth of chlorophyceae while below 5 cyanobacteria dominates. TOC/TIC ratio determined the abundance. The overall system was controlled by the availability of free carbon dioxide which served as a limiting factor.

  19. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package. To build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, E.; Spencer, Th.

    2011-01-01

    As the EU's climate and energy goals defined in its Climate and Energy Package (CEP) are to protect the climate, to protect EU economic competitiveness, and to protect EU energy security, the authors first define these notions (time consistency, competitiveness, energy security) and stress the importance of strengthening the CEP, notably by fostering low carbon technology investment and low carbon products and services innovation. They discuss several policy recommendations for the development of a low carbon, competitive and energy secure EU. These recommendations are notably based on the strengthening of current instruments and on the implementation of new tools to reach the 20% energy efficiency target, on an increase stringency and predictability of the EU ETS, and on the use of direct public financial support to facilitate the transition towards a EU low carbon economy

  20. [Analysis of carbon balance and study on mechanism in anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic sludge reduction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao-Min; Gao, Xu; Zhang, Man-Man; Jia, Li; Guo, Jin-Song

    2012-07-01

    In order to deeply explore the mechanism of sludge reduction in OSA system, carbon balance was performed in an anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic (A + OSA) system and a reference AO system to investigate effects of inserting a sludge holding tank in sludge cycle line on the sludge reduction process. Meanwhile, carbon mass change in each reaction unit was identified in terms of solid, liquid and gas phases. The causes of excess sludge reduction in A + OSA system were deduced. The carbon balance results show that when the hydraulic retention time in the sludge holding tank is 7.14 h, carbon percent in solid phase of the sludge reduction system is nearly 50% higher than that of the reference system, supporting the consequence that sludge reduction rate of 49.98% had been achieved. The insertion of a sludge holding tank in the sludge return circuit can be effective in sludge reduction. Carbon changes in each unit reveal that the amount of carbon consumed for biosynthesis in the anoxic and oxic tanks (main reaction zone) of the sludge reduction system is higher than in that of the reference system. Sludge decay is observed in the sludge holding tank. Furthermore, CH4 released from the sludge holding tank is significantly higher than that from the main reaction zone. The DGGE profiles show that there are hydrolytic-fermentative bacteria in the sludge holding tank related to sludge decay. The excess sludge reduction in the A + OSA system could be a result of the combination of sludge decay in the sludge holding tank and sludge compensatory growth in the main reaction cell.

  1. Total Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Fast-growing Eucalyptus Plantation Estimated Using a Carbon Balance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Michael G. Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Trees allocate a large portion of gross primary production belowground for the production and maintenance of roots and mycorrhizae. The difficulty of directly measuring total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) has limited our understanding of belowground carbon (C) cycling and the factors that control this important flux. We measured TBCA over 4 years using a...

  2. Historical and projected carbon balance of mature black spruce ecosystems across north america: The role of carbon-nitrogen interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clein, Joy S.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhang, X.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Melillo, J.M.; Wofsy, S.C.; Jarvis, P.G.; Massheder, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) interactions on sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in black spruce ecosystems across North America was evaluated with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) by applying parameterizations of the model in which C-N dynamics were either coupled or uncoupled. First, the performance of the parameterizations, which were developed for the dynamics of black spruce ecosystems at the Bonanza Creek Long-Term Ecological Research site in Alaska, were evaluated by simulating C dynamics at eddy correlation tower sites in the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) for black spruce ecosystems in the northern study area (northern site) and the southern study area (southern site) with local climate data. We compared simulated monthly growing season (May to September) estimates of gross primary production (GPP), total ecosystem respiration (RESP), and net ecosystem production (NEP) from 1994 to 1997 to available field-based estimates at both sites. At the northern site, monthly growing season estimates of GPP and RESP for the coupled and uncoupled simulations were highly correlated with the field-based estimates (coupled: R2= 0.77, 0.88 for GPP and RESP; uncoupled: R2 = 0.67, 0.92 for GPP and RESP). Although the simulated seasonal pattern of NEP generally matched the field-based data, the correlations between field-based and simulated monthly growing season NEP were lower (R2 = 0.40, 0.00 for coupled and uncoupled simulations, respectively) in comparison to the correlations between field-based and simulated GPP and RESP. The annual NEP simulated by the coupled parameterization fell within the uncertainty of field-based estimates in two of three years. On the other hand, annual NEP simulated by the uncoupled parameterization only fell within the field-based uncertainty in one of three years. At the southern site, simulated NEP generally matched field-based NEP estimates, and the correlation between monthly growing season field-based and

  3. The impact of sheep grazing on the carbon balance of a peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Fred, E-mail: Fred.Worrall@durham.ac.uk; Clay, Gareth D.

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes resulting from sheep grazing upon upland peat soils have never been fully quantified. Previous studies have been limited to individual flux pathways or to comparing the presence to the absence of sheep grazing. Therefore, this study combines a model of the physical impact of grazing with models of: biomass production; energy usage in sheep; and peat accumulation. These combined modelling approaches enabled this study to consider the indirect and direct impacts of sheep upon the carbon and greenhouse gas balance of a peatland at different grazing intensities as well as the changes between grazing intensities. The study considered four vegetation scenarios (Calluna sp., Molinia sp.; reseeded grasses, and Agrostis-Festuca grassland) and a mixed vegetation scenario based upon the vegetation typical of upland peat ecosystems in northern England. Each scenario was considered for altitudes between 350 and 900 m above sea level and for grazing intensities between 0.1 and 2 ewes/ha. The study can show that the total GHG flux at the vegetative carrying capacity tended to decline with increasing altitude for all vegetation scenarios considered except for Molinia sp. The average total GHG flux for all scenarios was 1505 kg CO{sub 2}eq/ha/yr/(ewe/ha), and on average 89% of the fluxes were directly from the sheep and not from the soil, and are therefore not unique to a peat soil environment. The study suggests that emission factors for upland sheep have been greatly underestimated. By comparing the total flux due to grazers to the flux to or from the soil that allows the study to define a GHG carry capacity, i.e. the grazing intensity at which the flux due to grazing is equal to the sink represented by the peat soils, this GHG carrying capacity varies between 0.2 and 1.7 ewes/ha with this capacity declining with increasing altitude for all model scenarios. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vegetative carrying capacity was

  4. Towards a higher energy efficiency and lower carbon society the European approach and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Klaus R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural energy sources and their conversion to secondary forms of energy are a crucial base for the development of our society with its continuous change of requirements due to an increase in population and the broadening of the needs in our modern life. As a consequence the consumption of primary energy resources rose drastically worldwide during the last 5 decades in particular in the industrialized regions such as Europe. Parallel in time the increasing awareness of negative effects of fuel dependent pollution on the environment and the introduction of stringent emission control regulations about 3 decades ago initiated extensive development and retrofit activities resulting in the today applied high level state of the art. As an additional challenge the worldwide debate about the potential effects of the emission of the s.c green house gases on the global climate in particular carbon dioxide from the use of predominantly fossil fuels have initiated in the European Union extensive efforts in efficiency improvements of large scale fuel conversion and more recently in the development of processes for CO 2 capture and its subsequent storage. Furthermore the use of the s.c CO 2 neutral fuels such as biomass and organic wastes as well as the non carbonaceous options water wind and solar power are promoted towards a growing role in a future primary energy mix. In addition the majority of the member states of the European Union support the minimization of energetic losses by the provision of incentives for energy savings and for switching to lower energy consuming alternatives. In fact all the above mentioned instruments have to be applied in order to fulfil the long term requirements e. g. a reduction of the greenhouse gas emission by at least 20% by 2020 and further alleviations for the time beyond. The presentation will start with summarizing the development of the demand and supply of energy in Europe during the recent decades. After an outline of the

  5. The European forest sector: past and future carbon budget and fluxes under different management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Grassi, Giacomo; Kurz, Werner A.; Fiorese, Giulia; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The comprehensive analysis of carbon stocks and fluxes of managed European forests is a prerequisite to quantify their role in biomass production and climate change mitigation. We applied the Carbon Budget Model (CBM) to 26 European countries, parameterized with country information on the historical forest age structure, management practices, harvest regimes and the main natural disturbances. We modeled the C stocks for the five forest pools plus harvested wood products (HWPs) and the fluxes among these pools from 2000 to 2030. The aim is to quantify, using a consistent modeling framework for all 26 countries, the main C fluxes as affected by land-use changes, natural disturbances and forest management and to assess the impact of specific harvest and afforestation scenarios after 2012 on the mitigation potential of the EU forest sector. Substitution effects and the possible impacts of climate are not included in this analysis. Results show that for the historical period from 2000 to 2012 the net primary productivity (NPP) of the forest pools at the EU level is on average equal to 639 Tg C yr-1. The losses are dominated by heterotrophic respiration (409 Tg C yr-1) and removals (110 Tg C yr-1), with direct fire emissions being only 1 Tg C yr-1, leading to a net carbon stock change (i.e., sink) of 110 Tg C yr-1. Fellings also transferred 28 Tg C yr-1 of harvest residues from biomass to dead organic matter pools. The average annual net sector exchange (NSE) of the forest system, i.e., the carbon stock changes in the forest pools including HWP, equals a sink of 122 Tg C yr-1 (i.e., about 19 % of the NPP) for the historical period, and in 2030 it reaches 126, 101 and 151 Tg C yr-1, assuming constant, increasing (+20 %) and decreasing (-20 %) scenarios, respectively, of both harvest and afforestation rates compared to the historical period. Under the constant harvest rate scenario, our findings show an incipient aging process of the forests existing in 1990: although NPP

  6. The European system and the Egyptian question 1827-1841 : a study in the theory of balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Sattar El Badri, Mohammed

    1996-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1996. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1996. Includes bibliographical references leaves 289-295. This work aims at explaining the events of the Egyptian Question through the tools of balance of power theory. It is the main hypothesis of this work that the Egyptian Question affected the balance of power in Europe, i.e. Equilibrium, and therefore, was subjecte...

  7. Carbon Mobilization in Oil Palm Plantation and Milling Based on a Carbon-Balanced Model – A Case Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withida Patthanaissaranukool

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to agricultural areas and household properties occurs more frequently all year round from extreme weather, which is believed to be due to climate change caused by the increase of greenhouse gases – particularly, CO2. In order to help reduce its concentration in the atmosphere, palm oil is a renewable energy which can be used for this purpose. In this study, the carbon mobilization of palm oil was investigated, from oil palm plantation process to the milling process, so as to determine the associated Carbon Equivalence (CE and the effects on human and land space. A carbon-balanced model (CBM is proposed herewith to indicate the main paths of carbon emission, fixation, and reduction. The net equivalent carbon emission was found to be 56 kg CE per ton of Crude Palm Oil (CPO produced, resulting in the emission flux of 175 kg CE/ha-y. The plantation activity that emits the highest CO2 levels is fertilizer application, accounting for about 84% of the total. All bio-residues produced from CPO production were found to be utilized for human use, thereby decreasing the carbon emission. Their use ranged from biogas and electricity generation to soil conditioning, and the utilization of the bio-residues resulted in total carbon reduction of 212 kg CE per ton of CPO. Carbon fixation as a main product (CPO was found to be an average of 812 kg CE per ton of CPO, equivalent to 2543 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, as the total fixation is 14 times higher than that of the total emissions, the production of CPO generates and introduces a very small amount of waste into the environment. To satisfy the need for palm oil as renewable energy and other end-user products the expansion of the plantation areas may result in competition of agricultural land with other cash crops.

  8. Modeling of the carbon dioxide fluxes in European Russia peat bogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurbatova, J; Tatarinov, F; Varlagin, A; Shalukhina, N; Olchev, A [A N Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Leninsky Prospekt 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Li, C, E-mail: kurbatova.j@gmail.co [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    A process-based model (Forest-DNDC) was applied to describe the possible impacts of climate change on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fluxes from a peat bog in European Russia. In the first step, Forest-DNDC was tested against CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the eddy covariance method on an oligotrophic bog in a representative region of the southern taiga (56 deg. N 33 deg. E). The results of model validations show that Forest-DNDC is capable of quantifying the CO{sub 2} fluxes from the bog ecosystem. In the second step, the validated model was used to estimate how the expected future changes of the air temperature and water table depth could affect the C dynamics in the bogs. It was shown that a decrease in the water table and an increase in temperature influence significantly the CO{sub 2} exchange between our bog ecosystem and the atmosphere. Under elevated temperature and deepened water table the bog ecosystems could become a significant source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  9. Dual Tuning of Biomass-Derived Hierarchical Carbon Nanostructures for Supercapacitors: the Role of Balanced Meso/Microporosity and Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengju; Jiang, Hao; Guo, Shaojun; Cheng, Qilin; Hu, Yanjie; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-10-01

    Rational design of advanced carbon nanomaterials with a balanced mesoporosity to microporosity is highly desirable for achieving high energy/power density for supercapacitors because the mesopore can allow better transport pathways for the solvated ions of larger than 1 nm. Inspired by the inherent meso/macroporous architecture and huge absorption ability to aqueous solution of auricularia biomass, we demonstrate a new biomass-derived synthesis process for the three-dimensional (3D) few-layered graphene nanosheets incorporated hierarchical porous carbon (GHPC) nanohybrids. The as-prepared GHPC nanohybrids possess a balanced mesoporosity to microporosity with much improved conductivity, which is highly desirable for achieving high energy/power density for supercapacitors. As we predicted, they delivered a high specific capacitance of 256 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 with excellent rate capability (120 F g-1 at 50 A g-1) and long cycle life (92% capacity retention after 10000 cycles) for symmetric supercapacitors in 1 M H2SO4. Based on the as-obtained carbon materials, a flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor was also assembled, which can be fully recharged within 10 s and able to light an LED even under bended state. Such excellent performance is at least comparable to the best reports in the literature for two-electrode configuration under aqueous systems.

  10. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  11. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study – an elemental mass balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air–sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation, all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon

  12. Climate change and energy - 2004. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2003 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 5% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2002. These 23 companies represent 55% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 43% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 2 show stable emissions while 3 have reduced their emissions. (J.S.)

  13. Climate change and electricity - 2008. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2007 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 22 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 3% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2006. These 22 companies represent 59% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (27 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 50% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 show stable emissions while the others have increased their emissions. (J.S.)

  14. Climate change and electricity - 2006. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2005 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 23 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 1.7% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2001. These 23 companies represent 55% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 45% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 show stable emissions while 3 have reduced their emissions. (J.S.)

  15. Climate change and electricity - 2003. European carbon factor. Comparison of CO2 emissions of the main European electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This joint PWC/Enerpresse brochure publishes the 2002 results of a study about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the 21 main European electric power producers. The study shows an increase by 0.8% of the cumulated emissions of power companies with respect to 2001. These 21 companies represent 75% of the emissions of the power/heat sector in Europe (25 countries). The first 10 companies are responsible of 60% of the GHG emissions of this sector in Europe. Among those, 7 have increased their emissions while 3 have reduced them. (J.S.)

  16. Observing the continental-scale carbon balance: assessment of sampling complementarity and redundancy in a terrestrial assimilation system by means of quantitative network design

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Rayner, P. J.; Vossbeck, M.; Scholze, M.; Koffi, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the heterogeneity of the terrestrial carbon cycle and the optimal design of observing networks to constrain it. We combine the methods of quantitative network design and carbon-cycle data assimilation to a hierarchy of increasingly heterogeneous descriptions of the European terrestrial biosphere as indicated by increasing diversity of plant functional types. We employ three types of observat...

  17. Modelling effects of forest disturbance history on carbon balance: a deep learning approach using Landsat-time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, S.; Carvalhais, N.; Clevers, J.; Dutrieux, L.; Gans, F.; Herold, M.; Reichstein, M.; Jung, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forests play a crucial role in the global carbon (C) cycle, covering about 30% of the planet's terrestrial surface, accounting for 50% of plant productivity, and storing 45% of all terrestrial C. As such, forest disturbances affect the balance of terrestrial C dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange, with the potential of releasing large amounts of C into the atmosphere. Understanding and quantifying the effect of forest disturbance on terrestrial C metabolism is critical for improving forest C balance estimates and predictions. Here we combine remote sensing, climate, and eddy-covariance (EC) data to study forest land surface-atmosphere C fluxes at more than 180 sites globally. We aim to enhance understanding of C balance in forest ecosystems by capturing the ecological carry-over effect of disturbance historyon C fluxes. Our objectives are to (1) characterize forest disturbance history through the full temporal depth of the Landsat time series (LTS); and (2) to investigate lag and carry-over effects of forest dynamics and climate on ecosystem C fluxes using a data-driven recurrent neural network(RNN). The resulting data-driven model integrates carry-over effects of the system, using LTS, ecosystem productivity, and several abiotic factors. In this study, we show that our RNN algorithm is able to effectively calculate realistic seasonal, interannual, and across-site C flux variabilities based on EC, LTS, and climate data. In addition, our results demonstrate that a deep learning approach with embedded dynamic memory effects offorest dynamics is able to better capture lag and carry-over effects due to soil-vegetation feedback compared to a classic approach considering only the current condition of the ecosystem. Our study paves the way to produce accurate, high resolution carbon fluxes maps, providing morecomprehensive monitoring, mapping, and reporting of the carbon consequences of forest change globally.

  18. Recycling of carbon/energy taxes and the labor market. A general equilibrium analysis for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, H.

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs

  19. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  20. Effects of experimental warming of air, soil and permafrost on carbon balance in Alaskan tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Natali; E.A.G. Schuur; C. Trucco; C.E. Hicks Pries; K.G. Crummer; A.F. Baron Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The carbon (C) storage capacity of northern latitude ecosystems may diminish as warming air temperatures increase permafrost thaw and stimulate decomposition of previously frozen soil organic C. However, warming may also enhance plant growth so that photosynthetic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake may, in part, offset respiratory losses. To determine...

  1. Drought during canopy development has lasting effect on annual carbon balance in a deciduous temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Steve G. McNulty; Jared L. DeForest; Ge Sun; Qinglin Li; Jiquan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Climate change projections predict an intensifying hydrologic cycle and an increasing frequency of droughts, yet quantitative understanding of the effects on ecosystem carbon exchange remains limitedHere, the effect of contrasting precipitation and soil moisture dynamics were evaluated on forest carbon exchange using 2 yr of...

  2. Balancing Methane Emissions and Carbon Sequestration in Tropical/Subtropical Coastal Wetlands: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsch, W. J.; Schafer, K. V.; Cabezas, A.; Bernal, B.

    2016-02-01

    Wetlands are estimated to emit about 20 to 25 percent of current global CH4 emissions, or about 120 to 180 Tg-CH4 yr-1. Thus, in climate change discussions concerning wetlands, these "natural emissions" often receive the most attention, often overshadowing the more important ecosystem services that wetlands provide, including carbon sequestration. While methane emissions from coastal wetlands have generally been described as small due to competing biogeochemical cycles, disturbance of coastal wetlands, e.g., the introduction of excessive freshwater fluxes or substrate disturbance, can lead to much higher methane emission rates. Carbon sequestration is a more positive carbon story about wetlands and coastal wetlands in particular. The rates of carbon sequestration in tropical/subtropical coastal wetlands, mainly mangroves, are in the range of 100 to 200 g-C m-2 yr-1, two to ten times higher rates than in the more frequently studied northern peatlands. This function of coastal wetlands has significant international support now for mangrove conservation and it is referred to in the literature and popular press as blue carbon. This presentation will summarize what we know about methane emissions and carbon sequestration in tropical/subtropical coastal wetlands, how these rates compare with those in non-tropical and/or inland wetlands, and a demonstration of two or three models that compare methane fluxes with carbon dioxide sequestration to determine if wetlands are net sinks of radiative forcing. The presentation will also present a global model of carbon with an emphasis on wetlands.

  3. Risk aversion and institutional information disclosure on the European carbon market. A case-study of the 2006 compliance event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien; Ielpo, Florian; Mercier, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates the impact of the 2006 compliance event on changes in investors' risk aversion on the European carbon market using the newly available option prices dataset. Thus, we aim at capturing the specific event that occurred on April 2007 as the European Commission disclosed the 2006 verified emissions data. Following the methodology existing for stock indices, we recover empirically risk aversion adjustments on the period 2006-2007 by estimating first the risk-neutral distribution from option prices and second the actual distribution from futures on the European Climate Exchange. Our results show evidence of a dramatic change in the market perception of risk around the 2006 yearly compliance event that has not been assessed yet. (author)

  4. Competitive effect of KOH activation on the electrochemical performances of carbon nanotubes for EDLC: Balance between porosity and conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Wu Feng; Su Yuefeng; Cao Gaoping; Chen Shi; Zhou Zhiming; Yang Yusheng

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on the competitive effects on the performance of the electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) between porosity increase and simultaneous conductivity decrease for KOH-activated carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A series of the CNTs have been activated with KOH to enhance their surface areas for application in EDLCs. The microstructure of the activated carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) is characterized with N 2 adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation and electric conductivity measurement. Their electrochemical performances are evaluated in aqueous KOH electrolyte with galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and ac impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the KOH activation enhances the specific surface area of the CNTs and its specific capacitance but decreases its electric conductivity and the rate performance in EDLC. By controlling the activation of the CNTs to balance the porosity and conductivity, ACNTs with both high capacitance and good rate performance are obtained

  5. Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Don, Axel; Osborne, Bruce; Hastings, Astley

    2012-01-01

    for Miscanthus). However, there was no positive or even negative effects on the C balance if energy crops are established on former grassland. Increased bioenergy production may also result in direct and indirect land-use changes with potential high C losses when native vegetation is converted to annual crops......Bioenergy from crops is expected to make a considerable contribution to climate change mitigation. However, bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 during crop production may reduce or completely counterbalance CO2 savings of the substituted fossil fuels...... of lower fertilizer requirements as well as a higher N-use efficiency, due to effective N-recycling. Perennial energy crops have the potential to sequester additional carbon in soil biomass if established on former cropland (0.44 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1 for poplar and willow and 0.66 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1...

  6. Balancing carbon/nitrogen ratio to improve nutrients removal and algal biomass production in piggery and brewery wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Liu, Mingzhi; Lu, Qian; Wu, Xiaodan; Ma, Yiwei; Cheng, Yanling; Addy, Min; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2018-02-01

    To improve nutrients removal from wastewaters and enhance algal biomass production, piggery wastewater was mixed with brewery wastewaters. The results showed that it was a promising way to cultivate microalga in piggery and brewery wastewaters by balancing the carbon/nitrogen ratio. The optimal treatment condition for the mixed piggery-brewery wastewater using microalga was piggery wastewater mixed with brewery packaging wastewater by 1:5 at pH 7.0, resulting in carbon/nitrogen ratio of 7.9, with the biomass concentration of 2.85 g L -1 , and the removal of 100% ammonia, 96% of total nitrogen, 90% of total phosphorus, and 93% of chemical oxygen demand. The application of the established strategies can enhance nutrient removal efficiency of the wastewaters while reducing microalgal biomass production costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reaping the carbon rent: Abatement and overallocation profits in the European cement industry, insights from an LMDI decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branger, Frédéric; Quirion, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    We analyse variations of carbon emissions in the European cement industry from 1990 to 2012, at the European level (EU 27), and at the national level for six major producers (Germany, France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy and Poland). We apply a Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, cross-referencing data from three databases: the Getting the Numbers Right (GNR) database developed by the Cement Sustainability Initiative, the European Union Transaction Log (EUTL), and the Eurostat International Trade database. Our decomposition method allows seven channels of emission change to be distinguished: activity, clinker trade, clinker share, alternative fuels, thermal and electrical energy efficiency, and electricity decarbonisation. We find that, apart from a slow trend of emission reductions coming from technological improvements (first from a decrease in the clinker share, then from an increase in alternative fuels), most of the emission change can be attributed to the activity effect. Using counterfactual scenarios, we estimate that the introduction of the EU ETS brought small but positive technological abatement (2.2% ± 1.3% between 2005 and 2012). Moreover, we find that the European cement industry has gained 3.5 billion Euros of “overallocation profits”, mostly due to the slowdown of production. - Highlights: • We analyse variations of carbon emissions in the European cement industry. • We apply a Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. • Most of the emission changes can be attributed to the activity effect. • The EU ETS brought small but positive technological abatement. • The European cement industry has gained 3.5 billion Euros of “overallocation profits”

  8. Assessing Historical and Projected Carbon Balance of Alaska: A Synthesis of Results and Policy/Management Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A David; Genet, Hélène; Lyu, Zhou; Pastick, Neal; Stackpoole, Sarah; Birdsey, Richard; D'Amore, David; He, Yujie; Rupp, T Scott; Striegl, Robert; Wylie, Bruce K; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhuang, Qianlai; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2018-06-20

    We summarize the results of a recent interagency assessment of land carbon dynamics in Alaska, in which carbon dynamics were estimated for all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period (1950-2009) and a projection period (2010-2099). Between 1950 and 2009, upland and wetland (i.e., terrestrial) ecosystems of the State gained 0.4 Tg C yr -1 (0.1% of net primary production, NPP), resulting in a cumulative greenhouse gas radiative forcing of 1.68 x 10 -3 W m -2 . The change in carbon storage is spatially variable with the region of the Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) losing carbon because of fire disturbance. The combined carbon transport via various pathways through inland aquatic ecosystems of Alaska was estimated to be 41.3 Tg C yr -1 (17% of terrestrial NPP). During the projection period (2010-2099), carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems of Alaska was projected to increase (22.5 to 70.0 Tg C yr -1 ), primarily because of NPP increases of 10 to 30% associated with responses to rising atmospheric CO 2 , increased nitrogen cycling, and longer growing seasons. Although carbon emissions to the atmosphere from wildfire and wetland CH 4 were projected to increase for all of the climate projections, the increases in NPP more than compensated for those losses at the statewide level. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems continue to warm the climate for four of the six future projections, and cool the climate for only one of the projections. The attribution analyses we conducted indicated that the response of NPP in terrestrial ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO 2 (~5% per 100 ppmv CO 2 ) saturates as CO 2 increases (between approximately +150 and +450 ppmv among projections). This response, along with the expectation that permafrost thaw would be much greater and release large quantities of permafrost carbon after 2100, suggests that projected carbon gains in terrestrial ecosystems of Alaska may not be sustained

  9. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors and parental education in European children: the ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Alvira, J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Singh, A.S.; Vik, F.N.; Manios, Y.; Kovacs, E.; Jan, N.; Brug, J.; Moreno, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research and literature reviews show that, among schoolchildren, some specific energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) are relevant for overweight and obesity prevention. It is also well known that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is considerably higher among

  10. Assessment tools of energy balance-related behaviours used in European obesity prevention strategies: review of studies during preschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouratidou, T.; Mesana, M.I.; Manios, Y.; Koletzko, B.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Socha, P.; Iotova, V.; Moreno, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Valid and reliable measures of energy balance-related behaviours are required when evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions aiming at prevention of childhood obesity. A structured descriptive review was performed to appraise food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour

  11. Mass and energy balance of the carbonization of babassu nutshell as affected by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the carbonization yield of babassu nutshell as affected by final temperature, as well as the energy losses involved in the process. Three layers constituting the babassu nut, that is, the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp, were used together. The material was carbonized, considering the following final temperatures: 450, 550, 650, 750, and 850ºC. The following were evaluated: energy and charcoal yields, pyroligneous liquid, non-condensable gases, and fixed carbon. The use of babassu nutshell can be highly feasible for charcoal production. The yield of charcoal from babassu nutshell carbonization was higher than that reported in the literature for Eucalyptus wood carbonization, considering the final temperature of 450ºC. Charcoal and energy yields decreased more sharply at lower temperatures, with a tendency to stabilize at higher temperatures. The energy yields obtained can be considered satisfactory, with losses between 45 and 52% (based on higher heating value and between 43 and 49% (based on lower heating value at temperatures ranging from 450 to 850ºC, respectively. Yields in fixed carbon and pyroligneous liquid are not affected by the final carbonization temperature.

  12. Seasonal and interannual variability of carbon dioxide and water balances of a grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is great international concern over the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and its effect on vegetation and climate, and vice versa. Many studies on this issue are based on climate model calculations or indirect satellite observations. In contrast we present a 12-year study (1994-2005) on the net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and precipitation surplus (i.e., precipitation-evaporation) of a grassland area in the centre of the Netherlands. On basis of direct flux observations and a process-based model we study and quantify the carbon uptake via assimilation and carbon release via soil and plant respiration. It appears that nearly year-round the assimilation term dominates, which indicates an accumulation of carbon dioxide. The mean net carbon uptake for the 12-year period is about 3 tonnes C per hectare, but with a strong seasonal and interannual variability depending on the weather and water budget. This variability may severely hamper the accurate quantification of carbon storage by vegetation in our present climates and its projection for future climates

  13. How Does Recycling of Livestock Manure in Agroecosystems Affect Crop Productivity, Reactive Nitrogen Losses, and Soil Carbon Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Longlong; Lam, Shu Kee; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Deli

    2017-07-05

    Recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems to partially substitute synthetic fertilizer nitrogen (N) input is recommended to alleviate the environmental degradation associated with synthetic N fertilization, which may also affect food security and soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, how substituting livestock manure for synthetic N fertilizer affects crop productivity (crop yield; crop N uptake; N use efficiency), reactive N (Nr) losses (ammonia (NH 3 ) emission, N leaching and runoff), GHG (methane, CH 4 ; and nitrous oxide, N 2 O; carbon dioxide) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agroecosystems is not well understood. We conducted a global meta-analysis of 141 studies and found that substituting livestock manure for synthetic N fertilizer (with equivalent N rate) significantly increased crop yield by 4.4% and significantly decreased Nr losses via NH 3 emission by 26.8%, N leaching by 28.9% and N runoff by 26.2%. Moreover, annual SOC sequestration was significantly increased by 699.6 and 401.4 kg C ha -1 yr -1 in upland and paddy fields, respectively; CH 4 emission from paddy field was significantly increased by 41.2%, but no significant change of that was observed from upland field; N 2 O emission was not significantly affected by manure substitution in upland or paddy fields. In terms of net soil carbon balance, substituting manure for fertilizer increased carbon sink in upland field, but increased carbon source in paddy field. These results suggest that recycling of livestock manure in agroecosystems improves crop productivity, reduces Nr pollution and increases SOC storage. To attenuate the enhanced carbon source in paddy field, appropriate livestock manure management practices should be adopted.

  14. Development and testing of a European Union-wide farm-level carbon calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; De Camillis, Camillo; Leip, Adrian; Nisini, Luigi; Pelletier, Nathan; Haastrup, Palle

    2015-07-01

    Direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture accounted for approximately 10% of total European Union (EU) emissions in 2010. To reduce farming-related GHG emissions, appropriate policy measures and supporting tools for promoting low-C farming practices may be efficacious. This article presents the methodology and testing results of a new EU-wide, farm-level C footprint calculator. The Carbon Calculator quantifies GHG emissions based on international standards and technical specifications on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and C footprinting. The tool delivers its results both at the farm level and as allocated to up to 5 main products of the farm. In addition to the quantification of GHG emissions, the calculator proposes mitigation options and sequestration actions that may be suitable for individual farms. The results obtained during a survey made on 54 farms from 8 EU Member States are presented. These farms were selected in view of representing the diversity of farm types across different environmental zones in the EU. The results of the C footprint of products in the data set show wide range of variation between minimum and maximum values. The results of the mitigation actions showed that the tool can help identify practices that can lead to substantial emission reductions. To avoid burden-shifting from climate change to other environmental issues, the future improvements of the tool should include incorporation of other environmental impact categories in place of solely focusing on GHG emissions. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  15. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita; Rodriguez, Miguel; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-01-01

    Across Europe, CO 2 emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: → Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. → EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. → Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. → There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. → Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  16. Sectoral and regional impacts of the European carbon market in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaina Alves, Margarita, E-mail: mrobaina@ua.p [GOVCOPP and Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rodriguez, Miguel [Department of Applied Economics, University of Vigo, Facultade Empresariais e Turismo, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Roseta-Palma, Catarina, E-mail: catarina.roseta@iscte.p [Department of Economics and UNIDE, ISCTE-Lisbon University Institute, Av. Forcas Armadas, 1629-026 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Across Europe, CO{sub 2} emission allowances represent one of the main policy instruments to comply with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we use microdata to address two issues regarding the impact of the European Carbon Market (EU ETS). First, we analyze the sectoral effects of the EU ETS in Portugal. The goal is to study the distributive consequences of imbalances, with the novelty of taking into account firm financial data to put values into context. We show that a large majority of installations in most sectors had surpluses and the opportunity to raise remarkable revenues in some cases. We also look at the regional impact, since the pre-existing specialization of different regions in the production of different goods and services might lead to an uneven economic impact of the allowance market. In particular, Portuguese data indicate a distribution of revenue from low income to high income regions, or rather, between installations located in those regions. We focus on the first phase of the EU ETS, using data for each one of the 244 Portuguese installations in the market as well as financial data for 80% of these installations, although we also present data for 2008 and 2009. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of distributional impact of the EU ETS for Portuguese sectors and regions. {yields} EU ETS microdata, economic data and firm financial data used to provide context. {yields} Most installations had surpluses and in some cases may have raised notable revenues. {yields} There seems to be an income distribution effect from low to high-income regions. {yields} Thermoelectric generation most likely to be short, but results vary with rainfall.

  17. Reconstruction of annual carbon dynamics and balance for an oligotrophic pine fen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J; Silvola, J; Aaltonen, H [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Talanov, A; Ikkonen, E [Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biology; Nykaenen, H; Martikainen, P J [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1997-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is bound by mire vegetation in photosynthesis during the growing season, and is re-released by respiration of plants, soil animals and microorganisms consuming dead organic matter. A small proportion of annual primary production may fall below the water table to anoxic conditions and thus escapes the oxidative decomposition. Also from anoxic peat, carbon is released with clear seasonal and spatial variation as methane (CH{sub 4}.). The rate of carbon accumulation in peat depends on the annual inbalance of plant production and litter decomposition. Exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} between peat, vegetation and the atmosphere thus reflects the dynamics of carbon flows in the ecosystem. Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (PN), total CO{sub 2} release (RTOT) and CH{sub 4} release (D) from different treeless surfaces of low-sedge Sphagnum papillosum pine fen was studied in eastern Finland. (8 refs.)

  18. Towards an integrated, multiple constraint approach. Assessing the regional carbon balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruijt, B.; Dolman, A.J.; Lloyd, J.; Ehleringer, J.; Raupach, M.; Finnigan, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full carbon accounting for regions as a whole, considering all fluxes and transports, is ultimately the only real hope if we are to manage global CO2 emissions. Many methods exist to estimate parts of the carbon budget, but none is yet available to measure carbon fluxes directly at regional scales. Atmospheric Boundary-Layer budgeting methods do have this potential. In the winter of 2000, an international workshop was held in Gubbio, Italy, to discuss ways to advance from the pilot experiments that have been carried out on these methods. First, the meeting helped to advance the methodology and clarify its objectives, requirements and merits. But more importantly, the outcome of the meeting was that atmospheric budget methods should be part of an integrative approach, in which data and model results of very different kinds and from very different scales all provide constraints for estimating the net carbon exchange of a region. Several international projects are now operating to achieve this goal

  19. Reconstruction of annual carbon dynamics and balance for an oligotrophic pine fen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.; Silvola, J.; Aaltonen, H. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Talanov, A.; Ikkonen, E. [Karelian Research Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Biology; Nykaenen, H.; Martikainen, P.J. [National Public Health Inst. Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is bound by mire vegetation in photosynthesis during the growing season, and is re-released by respiration of plants, soil animals and microorganisms consuming dead organic matter. A small proportion of annual primary production may fall below the water table to anoxic conditions and thus escapes the oxidative decomposition. Also from anoxic peat, carbon is released with clear seasonal and spatial variation as methane (CH{sub 4}.). The rate of carbon accumulation in peat depends on the annual inbalance of plant production and litter decomposition. Exchange of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} between peat, vegetation and the atmosphere thus reflects the dynamics of carbon flows in the ecosystem. Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} exchange (PN), total CO{sub 2} release (RTOT) and CH{sub 4} release (D) from different treeless surfaces of low-sedge Sphagnum papillosum pine fen was studied in eastern Finland. (8 refs.)

  20. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance of a mire: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Natural mires generally act as sinks for CO 2 and are sources of CH 4 for the atmosphere. However, drainage may transform these ecosystems into net sources of CO 2 , but the increase in growth of the tree stand and consequent fixation of carbon after drainage may be expected to have a compensating effect. The post-drainage change in the peat carbon stores was determined using a method based on the bulk density and carbon content profiles measured along a transect running from the undrained part to the drained part of the mire. The difference between the undrained and drained peat carbon stores, averaged over the 30 yr period after drainage, indicated that the accumulation of carbon had been 35 g C m -2 yr -1 greater in the undrained site. As the long-term accumulation rate of the undrained site had been 21 g C m -2 yr -1 , the drained part had lost 14 g C m -2 yr -1 from the pre-drainage carbon store. Total accumulated biomass in the tree stand was estimated from stem wood development using the growth and yield tables for this site type. The stem wood volumes were transformed into total biomass values using published stem-volume/total-biomass ratios. If no harvesting operations were to occur during the first 300 yrs, the tree stand would produce an average carbon store of approximately 11 kg C m -2 . The application of a standard thinning regime would reduce this storage by ca 50%. Expressed as an average over 300 yrs, drainage increased the total carbon store of the mire if no tree harvesting was done and the store remained unchanged if standard harvesting procedures were used. 24 refs, 3 figs

  1. Aerosol deposition (trace elements and black carbon) over the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps during the last centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Ginot, Patrick; Fain, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores are an archive of a wide variety of climatic and environmental information from the past, retaining them for hundreds of thousands of years. Anthropogenic pollutants, trace elements, heavy metals and major ions, are preserved as well providing insights on the past atmospheric circulations and allowing evaluating the human impact on the environment. Several ice cores were drilled in glaciers at mid and low latitudes, as in the European Alps. The first ice cores drilled to bedrock in the Eastern Alps were retrieved during autumn 2011 on the "Alto dell`Ortles glacier", the uppermost glacier of the Ortles massif (3905m, South Tirol, Italy), in the frame of the "Ortles Project". A preliminary dating of the core suggests that it should cover at least 300-400 years. Despite the summer temperature increase of the last decades this glacier still contain cold ice. Indeed, O and H isotopes profiles well describe the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Moreover, this glacier is located close to densely populated and industrialized areas and can be used for reconstructing for the first time past and recent air pollution and the human impact in the Eastern European Alps. The innermost part of the core is under analysis by means of a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system. This kind of analysis offers a high resolution in data profiles. The separation between the internal and the external parts of the core avoid any kind of contamination. An aluminum melting head melts the core at about 2.5 cm min-1. Simultaneous analyses of conductivity, dust concentration and size distribution (from 0.8 to 80 μm), trace elements with Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500) and refractory black carbon (rBC) with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies) are performed. A fraction of the melt water is collected by an auto-sampler for further analysis. The analyzed elements

  2. Benthic biogeochemical cycling, nutrient stoichiometry, and carbon and nitrogen mass balances in a eutrophic freshwater bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J.V.; Fitzgerald, S.A.; Waplesa, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Green Bay, while representing only ,7% of the surface area and ??1.4% of the volume of Lake Michigan, contains one-third of the watershed of the lake, and receives approximately one-third of the total nutrient loading to the Lake Michigan basin, largely from the Fox River at the southern end of the bay. With a history of eutrophic conditions dating back nearly a century, the southern portion of the bay behaves as an efficient nutrient and sediment trap, sequestering much of the annual carbon and nitrogen input within sediments accumulating at up to 1 cm per year. Depositional fluxes of organic matter varied from ??0.1 mol C m-2 yr-1 to >10 mol C m-2 yr-1 and were both fairly uniform in stoichiometric composition and relatively labile. Estimates of benthic recycling derived from pore-water concentration gradients, whole-sediment incubation experiments, and deposition-burial models of early diagenesis yielded an estimated 40% of the carbon and 50% of the nitrogen recycled back into the overlying water. Remineralization was relatively rapid with ??50% of the carbon remineralized within <15 yr of deposition, and a mean residence time for metabolizable carbon and nitrogen in the sediments of 20 yr. On average, organic carbon regeneration occurred as 75% CO2, 15% CH4, and 10% dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the southern bay were based upon direct measurements of inputs and burial and upon estimates of export and production derived stoichiometrically from a coupled phosphorus budget. Loadings of organic carbon from rivers were ??3.7 mol m-2 yr-1, 80% in the form of DOC and 20% as particulate organic carbon. These inputs were lost through export to northern Green Bay and Lake Michigan (39%), through sediment burial (26%), and net CO2 release to the atmosphere (35%). Total carbon input, including new production, was 4.54 mol m-2 C yr-1, equivalent to ??10% of the gross annual primary production. Nitrogen budget terms were less well quantified

  3. The fate of eroded soil organic carbon along a European transect – controls after deposition in terrestrial and aquatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkels, Frédérique; Cammeraat, Erik; Kalbitz, Karsten

    that the turnover of deposited C is significantly affected by soil and organic matter properties, and whether deposition occurs in terrestrial or aquatic environments. We sampled topsoils from 10 agricultural sites along a European transect, spanning a wide range of SOC and soil characteristics (e.g. texture......The potential fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC) after deposition is key to understand carbon cycling in eroding landscapes. Globally, large quantities of sediments and SOC are redistributed by soil erosion on agricul-tural land, particularly after heavy precipitation events. Deposition......, aggregation, C content, etc.). Turnover of SOC was determined for terrestrial and aquatic depositional conditions in a 10-week incubation study. Moreover, we studied the impact of labile carbon inputs (‘priming’) on SOC stability using 13C labelled cellulose. We evaluated potentially important controls...

  4. Effects of nutrient loading on the carbon balance of coastal wetland sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J.T.; Bradley, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a 12-yr study in an oligotrophic South Carolina salt marsh demonstrate that soil respiration increased by 795 g C m-2 yr-1 and that carbon inventories decreased in sediments fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus. Fertilized plots became net sources of carbon to the atmosphere, and sediment respiration continues in these plots at an accelerated pace. After 12 yr of treatment, soil macroorganic matter in the top 5 cm of sediment was 475 g C m-2 lower in fertilized plots than in controls, which is equivalent to a constant loss rate of 40 g C m-2 yr-1. It is not known whether soil carbon in fertilized plots has reached a new equilibrium or continues to decline. The increase in soil respiration in the fertilized plots was far greater than the loss of sediment organic matter, which indicates that the increase in soil respiration was largely due to an increase in primary production. Sediment respiration in laboratory incubations also demonstrated positive effects of nutrients. Thus, the results indicate that increased nutrient loading of oligotrophic wetlands can lead to an increased rate of sediment carbon turnover and a net loss of carbon from sediments.

  5. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Abril, G.; Andres, R.; Bastviken, D.; Bellassen, V.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Corazza, M.; Dechow, R.; Erb, K.H.; Etiope, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Grassi, G.; Hartmann, J.; Jung, M.; Lathiere, J.; Lohila, A.; Mayorga, E.; Moosdorf, N.; Njakou, D.S.; Otto, J.; Papale, D.; Peters, W.; Peylin, P.; Raymond, P.; Rodenbeck, C.; Saarnio, S.; Schulze, E.D.; Szopa, S.; Thompson, R.; Verkerk, P.J.; Vuichard, N.; Wang, R.; Wattenbach, M.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO2, CO,

  6. Present and Future Carbon Balance of Russia's Northern Ecosystems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, F. Stuart III; Zimov, Sergei A.

    2000-08-28

    Recent increases in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at high latitudes suggest a widespread biospheric response to high-latitude warming. We have shown that the seasonal amplitude of net ecosystem carbon exchange by northern Siberian ecosystems is greater in disturbed than undisturbed sites, due to increased summer influx and increased winter efflux. Net carbon gain in summer and respiration in winter were greater in a cool than in a warm year, especially in disturbed sites and did not differ between high-arctic and treeline sites, suggesting that high-latitude warming, if it occurred, would have little effect or would reduce seasonal amplitude of carbon exchange. We suggest that increased disturbance contributes significantly to the amplified seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at high latitudes.

  7. Balance of constructive and destructive carbonate processes on mesophotic coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, D. K.; Klaus, J. S.; Smith, T. B.; Helmle, K. P.; Marshall, D.

    2013-12-01

    Net carbonate accumulation of coral reefs is the product of both constructive and destructive processes that can ultimately influence overall reef geomorphology. Differences in these processes with depth may in part explain why the coral growth-light intensity association does no result in the traditionally theorized reef accretion decrease with depth. Until recently, physical sampling limitations had prevented the acquisition of sedimentary data needed to assess in situ carbonate accumulation in mesophotic reefs (30-150 m). Coral framework production, secondary carbonate production (calcareous encrusters), and bioerosion, the three most critical components of net carbonate accumulation, were analyzed in mesophotic reefs more than 10 km south of St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands along a very gradual slope that limits sediment transport and sedimentation. Recently dead samples of the massive coral, Orbicella annularis collected from three structurally different upper mesophotic coral reef habitats (30-45 m) were cut parallel to the primary growth axis to identify density banding through standard x-radiographic techniques. Assuming annual banding, mesophotic linear extension rates were calculated on the order of 0.7-1.5 mm/yr. Weight change of experimental coral substrates exposed for 3 years indicate differing rates (1.1-17.2 g/yr) of bioerosion and secondary accretion between mesophotic sites. When correcting bioerosion rates for high mesophotic skeletal density, carbonate accumulation rates were found to vary significantly between neighboring mesophotic reefs with distinctive structures. Results imply variable rates of mesophotic reef net carbonate accretion with the potential to influence overall reef/platform morphology, including localized mesophotic reef structure.

  8. Instrumentation and analytical methods in carbon balance studies - inorganic components in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvan, I.; Johannessen, T.; Miller, L.; Stoll, M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Substantial amounts of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} enters the atmosphere. The land biota acts as a sink for CO{sub 2}, with uncertain consequences. About 30% of the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} added to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean and how the ocean acts as a sink is central in understanding the carbon cycle. In their project the authors investigate the inorganic carbon in the ocean, especially total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in surface ocean and atmosphere. To determine total dissolved inorganic carbon, coulometric analysis is used in which an exact amount of sea water is acidified and the amount of carbon extracted is determined by a coulometer. Alkalinity is determined by potentiometric titration. In the pCO{sub 2} measurement, a small amount of air is circulated in a large amount of sea water and when after some time the amount of CO{sub 2} in the air reflects the CO{sub 2} concentration in the water, the pCO{sub 2} in the gas phase is determined by infra-red detection. The atmospheric pCO{sub 2} is also determined, and the difference between the two partial pressures gives information about source or sink activities. Total carbon and alkalinity measurements are done on discrete samples taken from all depths in the ocean, but for partial pressure detection an underway system is used, which determines the pCO{sub 2} in the surface ocean continuously

  9. Carbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F.; Wang, H. M.; Chen, J. M.; Machida, T.; Zhou, L. X.; Ju, W. M.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates in China using atmospheric inversion method are beset with considerable uncertainties because very few atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements are available. In order to improve these estimates, nested atmospheric CO2 inversion during 2002-2008 is performed in this study using passenger aircraft-based CO2 measurements over Eurasia from the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) project. The inversion system includes 43 regions with a focus on China, and is based on the Bayesian synthesis approach and the TM5 transport model. The terrestrial ecosystem carbon flux modeled by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model and the ocean exchange simulated by the OPA-PISCES-T model are considered as the prior fluxes. The impacts of CONTRAIL CO2 data on inverted China terrestrial carbon fluxes are quantified, the improvement of the inverted fluxes after adding CONTRAIL CO2 data are rationed against climate factors and evaluated by comparing the simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations with three independent surface CO2 measurements in China. Results show that with the addition of CONTRAIL CO2 data, the inverted carbon sink in China increases while those in South and Southeast Asia decrease. Meanwhile, the posterior uncertainties over these regions are all reduced (2-12%). CONTRAIL CO2 data also have a large effect on the inter-annual variation of carbon sinks in China, leading to a better correlation between the carbon sink and the annual mean climate factors. Evaluations against the CO2 measurements at three sites in China also show that the CONTRAIL CO2 measurements may have improved the inversion results.

  10. Balance between climate change mitigation benefits and land use impacts of bioenergy: conservation implications for European birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Laura; Thuiller, Wilfried; Pironon, Samuel; Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Hof, Andries; Cabeza, Mar

    2015-07-01

    Both climate change and habitat modification exert serious pressure on biodiversity. Although climate change mitigation has been identified as an important strategy for biodiversity conservation, bioenergy remains a controversial mitigation action due to its potential negative ecological and socio-economic impacts which arise through habitat modification by land-use change. While the debate continues, the separate or simultaneous impacts of both climate change and bioenergy on biodiversity have not yet been compared. We assess projected range shifts of 156 European bird species by 2050 under two alternative climate change trajectories: a baseline scenario, where the global mean temperature increases by 4°C by the end of the century, and a 2 degrees scenario, where global concerted effort limits the temperature increase to below 2°C. For the latter scenario, we also quantify the pressure exerted by increased cultivation of energy biomass as modelled by IMAGE2.4, an integrated land-use model. The global bioenergy use in this scenario is in the lower end of the range of previously estimated sustainable potential. Under the assumptions of these scenarios, we find that the magnitude of range shifts due to climate change is far greater than the impact of land conversion to woody bioenergy plantations within the European Union, and that mitigation of climate change reduces the exposure experienced by species. However, we identified potential for local conservation conflict between priority areas for conservation and bioenergy production. These conflicts must be addressed by strict bioenergy sustainability criteria that acknowledge biodiversity conservation needs beyond existing protected areas and apply also to biomass imported from outside the European Union.

  11. The development of RFT technique for carbon steel tubes in balance-of-plant heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Han Jong; Moon, Yong Sick; Kim, Jae Dong; Kim, Wang Bae; Nam, Min Woo

    2005-01-01

    The NDT method of carbon steel tubes is applied RFT technique. As other NDT methods, It is surprising that RFT has been rapidly developed over the past decade. These improvements have resulted in multi-frequency system, dual driver probes and development of analysis technique. Also these improvements give some profit to power plants as well as general industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to improve the reliability of RFT technique for carbon steel tubes. To uplift RFT technique, probes, calibration standards and specimen was developed.

  12. Engineered in situ bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer: assessment of mineralization based on alkalinity, inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotope balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkeler, Daniel; Höhener, Patrick; Bernasconi, Stefano; Zeyer, Josef

    1999-04-01

    A concept is proposed to assess in situ petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization by combining data on oxidant consumption, production of reduced species, CH 4, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with measurements of stable isotope ratios. The concept was applied to a diesel fuel contaminated aquifer in Menziken, Switzerland, which was treated by engineered in situ bioremediation. In the contaminated aquifer, added oxidants (O 2 and NO 3-) were consumed, elevated concentrations of Fe(II), Mn(II), CH 4, alkalinity and DIC were detected and the DIC was generally depleted in 13C compared to the background. The DIC production was larger than expected based on the consumption of dissolved oxidants and the production of reduced species. Stable carbon isotope balances revealed that the DIC production in the aquifer originated mainly from microbial petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization, and that geochemical reactions such as carbonate dissolution produced little DIC. This suggests that petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization can be underestimated if it is determined based on concentrations of dissolved oxidants and reduced species.

  13. Size and frequency of natural forest disturbances and the Amazon forest carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.D.B. Espirito-Santo; M. Gloor; M. Keller; Y. Malhi; S. Saatchi; B. Nelson; R.C. Oliveira Junior; C. Pereira; J. Lloyd; S. Frolking; M. Palace; Y.E. Shimabukuro; V. Duarte; A. Monteagudo Mendoza; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; T.R. Baker; T.R. Feldpausch; R.J.W. Brienen; G.P. Asner; D.S. Boyd; O.L. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory studies in the Amazon indicate a large terrestrial carbon sink. However, field plots may fail to represent forest mortality processes at landscape-scales of tropical forests. Here we characterize the frequency distribution of disturbance events in natural forests from 0.01 ha to 2,651 ha size throughout Amazonia using a novel...

  14. Interactions of changing climate and shifts in forest composition on stand carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Jyh-Min; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim Brown

    2006-01-01

    Given that climate influences forest biogeographic distribution, many researchers have created models predicting shifts in tree species range with future climate change scenarios. The objective of this study is to investigate the forest carbon consequences of shifts in stand species composition with current and future climate scenarios using such a model.

  15. Modeling effects of hydrological changes on the carbon and nitrogen balance of oak in floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephan A; Hasenauer, Hubert; Kucera, Jiŕi; Cermák, Jan

    2003-08-01

    We extended the applicability of the ecosystem model BIOME-BGC to floodplain ecosystems to study effects of hydrological changes on Quercus robur L. stands. The extended model assesses floodplain peculiarities, i.e., seasonal flooding and water infiltration from the groundwater table. Our interest was the tradeoff between (a). maintaining regional applicability with respect to available model input information, (b). incorporating the necessary mechanistic detail and (c). keeping the computational effort at an acceptable level. An evaluation based on observed transpiration, timber volume, soil carbon and soil nitrogen content showed that the extended model produced unbiased results. We also investigated the impact of hydrological changes on our oak stands as a result of the completion of an artificial canal network in 1971, which has stopped regular springtime flooding. A comparison of the 11 years before versus the 11 years after 1971 demonstrated that the hydrological changes affected mainly the annual variation across years in leaf area index (LAI) and soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration, leading to stagnation of carbon and nitrogen stocks, but to an increase in the variance across years. However, carbon sequestration to timber was unaffected and exhibited no significant change in cross-year variation. Finally, we investigated how drawdown of the water table, a general problem in the region, affects modeled ecosystem behavior. We found a further amplification of cross-year LAI fluctuations, but the variance in soil carbon and nitrogen stocks decreased. Volume increment was unaffected, suggesting a stabilization of the ecosystem two decades after implementation of water management measures.

  16. The effect of irradiance on the carbon balance and tissue characteristics of five herbaceous species differing in shade-tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Leendert Pons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant photosynthesis scales positively with growth irradiance. The carbon balance, defined here as the daily whole-plant gross CO2 assimilation (A partitioned in C available for growth and C required for respiration (R, is thus irradiance dependent. Here we ask if R as a fraction of A is also irradiance dependent, whether there are systematic differences in C-balance between shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species, and what the causes could be. Growth, gas exchange, chemical composition and leaf structure were analyzed for two shade-tolerant and three shade-intolerant herbaceous species that were hydroponically grown in a growth room at five irradiances from 20 µmol m-2 s-1 (1.2 mol m-2 day-1 to 500 µmol m-2 s-1 (30 mol m-2 day-1. Growth analysis showed little difference between species in unit leaf rate (dry mass increase per unit leaf area at low irradiance, but lower rates for the shade-tolerant species at high irradiance, mainly as a result of their lower light saturated rate of photosynthesis. This resulted in lower relative growth rates in these conditions. Daily whole-plant R scaled with A in a very tight manner, giving a remarkably constant R/A ratio of around 0.3 for all but the lowest irradiance. Although some shade-intolerant species showed tendencies towards a higher R/A and inefficiencies in terms of carbon and nitrogen investment in their leaves, no conclusive evidence was found for systematic differences in C-balance between the shade-tolerant and intolerant species at the lowest irradiance. Leaf tissue of the shade-tolerant species was characterized by high dry matter percentages, C-concentration and construction costs, which could be associated with a better defense in shade environments where leaf longevity matters. We conclude that shade-intolerant species have a competitive advantage at high irradiance due to superior potential growth rates, but that shade-tolerance is not necessarily associated with a superior C-balance

  17. The effect of irradiance on the carbon balance and tissue characteristics of five herbaceous species differing in shade-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Thijs L; Poorter, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The carbon balance is defined here as the partitioning of daily whole-plant gross CO2 assimilation (A) in C available for growth and C required for respiration (R). A scales positively with growth irradiance and there is evidence for an irradiance dependence of R as well. Here we ask if R as a fraction of A is also irradiance dependent, whether there are systematic differences in C-balance between shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species, and what the causes could be. Growth, gas exchange, chemical composition and leaf structure were analyzed for two shade-tolerant and three shade-intolerant herbaceous species that were hydroponically grown in a growth room at five irradiances from 20 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (1.2 mol m(-2) day(-1)) to 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (30 mol m(-2) day(-1)). Growth analysis showed little difference between species in unit leaf rate (dry mass increase per unit leaf area) at low irradiance, but lower rates for the shade-tolerant species at high irradiance, mainly as a result of their lower light-saturated rate of photosynthesis. This resulted in lower relative growth rates in these conditions. Daily whole-plant R scaled with A in a very tight manner, giving a remarkably constant R/A ratio of around 0.3 for all but the lowest irradiance. Although some shade-intolerant species showed tendencies toward a higher R/A and inefficiencies in terms of carbon and nitrogen investment in their leaves, no conclusive evidence was found for systematic differences in C-balance between the shade-tolerant and intolerant species at the lowest irradiance. Leaf tissue of the shade-tolerant species was characterized by high dry matter percentages, C-concentration and construction costs, which could be associated with a better defense in shade environments where leaf longevity matters. We conclude that shade-intolerant species have a competitive advantage at high irradiance due to superior potential growth rates, but that shade-tolerance is not necessarily associated

  18. Exploring the potential impact of implementing carbon capture technologies in fossil fuel power plants on regional European water stress index levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, W.B.; Pfister, Stephan; Ramirez, C.A.

    Equipping power plants with carbon capture technology can affect cooling demand and water use. This study has explored the potential impact of large scale deployment of power plants with carbon capture technologies on future regional water stress in Europe. A database including 458 of European

  19. Biodiversity offsetting and restoration under the European Union Habitats Directive: balancing between no net loss and deathbed conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Schoukens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity offsets have emerged as one of the most prominent policy approaches to align economic development with nature protection across many jurisdictions, including the European Union. Given the increased level of scrutiny that needs to be applied when authorizing economic developments near protected Natura 2000 sites, the incorporation of onsite biodiversity offsets in project design has grown increasingly popular in some member states, such as the Netherlands and Belgium. Under this approach, the negative effects of developments are outbalanced by restoration programs that are functionally linked to the infrastructure projects. However, although taking into consideration that the positive effects of onsite restoration measures leads to more leeway for harmful project development, the EU Court of Justice has recently dismissed the latter approaches for going against the preventative underpinnings of the EU Habitats Directive. Also, the expected beneficial outcomes of the restoration efforts are uncertain and thus cannot be relied upon in an ecological assessment under Article 6(3 of the Habitats Directive. Although biodiversity offsets can still be relied upon whenever application is being made of the derogation clause under Article 6(4 of the Habitats Directive, they cannot be used as mitigation under the generic decision-making process for plans and programs liable to adversely affect Natura 2000 sites. We outline the main arguments pro and contra the stance of the EU Court of Justice with regards to the exact delineation between mitigation and compensation. The analysis is also framed in the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of the EU nature directives. Although ostensibly rigid, it is argued that the recent case-law developments are in line with the main principles underpinning biodiversity offsetting. Opening the door for biodiversity offsetting under the Habitats Directive will certainly not reverse the predicament of the EU

  20. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Bienkowski, J F; Bleeker, A

    2012-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N...... was found with N measured in surface waters, probably because of spatial and temporal variations in groundwater buffering and biogeochemical reactions affecting N flows from farm to surface waters. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998–2008 showed a 22% reduction......-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR...

  1. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  2. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J.

    1997-12-31

    Release of CO{sub 2} from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO{sub 2} efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2} under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH{sub 4} release was studied. The Holocene history of CO{sub 2} sequestration and CH{sub 4} emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO{sub 2} release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m{sup 2} net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO{sub 2} release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants

  3. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes and carbon balance in the atmospheric interaction of boreal peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, J

    1998-12-31

    Release of CO{sub 2} from peat was studied using IR analyzer in a range of boreal peatlands under varying nutrient status and moisture conditions. Root associated CO{sub 2} efflux was separated from the total release by experiments both in the field and in a greenhouse. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (the latter by gas chromatography) were measured during the snow-covered period and their contribution to the annual fluxes of these gases was inspected. Ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2} under varying irradiation, temperature and moisture conditions was measured at different microsites at two peatland sites with different nutrient ecology. One site represented minerotrophic conditions during a wet growing season and the other site ombrotrophic conditions during an exceptionally dry growing season. Annual carbon balances were compiled for the two sites, and the role of the microsites in the annual carbon balance and CH{sub 4} release was studied. The Holocene history of CO{sub 2} sequestration and CH{sub 4} emission dynamics in a raised mire were simulated using lateral and vertical growth rates derived from radiocarbon ages of peat samples from mire bottom and vertical cores. The model was formulated for a geographic information system (GIS). Artificial or natural lowering of water table increased CO{sub 2} release from peat. A drought lasting from late May to July caused a 90 g C m{sup 2} net loss in the annual C balance of a natural ombrotrophic bog. In drained forested sites the increase in peat CO{sub 2} release could be even 100 %, but the development of the tree layer at least partially compensated for these losses. Wet conditions induced a net accumulation of 67 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} in the minerotrophic fen site, while the long term average accumulation rate is estimated to be only 15 g C m{sup -2}a{sup -1} for Finnish fens. Carbon balance in boreal peatlands is thus extremely sensitive to year-to-year climatic variations. Root activity of vascular plants

  4. Modelling and computing the peaks of carbon emission with balanced growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a more practical utility function to quantify the society’s welfare. • A so-called discontinuous Galerkin method is proposed to solve the ordinary differential equation satisfied by the consumption. • The theoretical results of the discontinuous Galerkin method are obtained. • We establish a Markov model to forecast the energy mix and the industrial structure. - Abstract: In this paper, we assume that under the balanced and optimal economic growth path, the economic growth rate is equal to the consumption growth rate, from which we can obtain the ordinary differential equation governing the consumption level by solving an optimal control problem. Then, a novel numerical method, namely a so-called discontinuous Galerkin method, is applied to solve the ordinary differential equation. The error estimation and the superconvergence estimation of this method are also performed. The model’s mechanism, which makes our assumption coherent, is that once the energy intensity is given, the economic growth is determined, followed by the GDP, the energy demand and the emissions. By applying this model to China, we obtain the conclusion that under the balanced and optimal economic growth path the CO_2 emission will reach its peak in 2030 in China, which is consistent with the U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change and with other previous scientific results.

  5. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  6. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J; Minkkinen, K; Laiho, R [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  7. Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and carbon balance for eight temperate organic soils under agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Görres, C.-M.; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first annual estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) of contrasting Danish agricultural peatlands. Studies were done at eight sites representing permanent grasslands (PG) and rotational (RT) arable soils cropped to barley......, potato or forage grasses in three geo-regional settings. Using an advanced flux-chamber technique, NEE was derived from modelling of ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross primary production (GPP) with temperature and photosynthetically active radiation as driving variables. At PG (n = 3) and RT (n = 5......) sites, NEE (mean ± standard error, SE) was 5.1 ± 0.9 and 8.6 ± 2.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, respectively, but with the overall lowest value observed for potato cropping (3.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1). This was partly attributed to a short-duration vegetation period and drying of the soil especially in potato ridges. NECB...

  8. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Filippou, Christina; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N; te Velde, Saskia J; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children's weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children's breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children's overweight/obesity. Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Children aged 10-12 years and their parents (n 5444). Children's reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children's overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption. The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10-12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption.

  9. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  10. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyi Ji

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013 (IPCC, this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China’s HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

  11. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunyi; Cao, Wenbin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Hongqiang

    2016-11-12

    The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP) plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) (IPCC), this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China's HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC) in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

  12. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunyi; Cao, Wenbin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP) plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) (IPCC), this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China’s HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC) in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China. PMID:27845760

  13. Carbon dioxide degassing at the groundwater-stream-atmosphere interface: isotopic equilibration and hydrological mass balance in a sandy watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmendjian, Loris; Abril, Gwenaël

    2018-03-01

    Streams and rivers emit significant amounts of CO2 and constitute a preferential pathway of carbon transport from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, the estimation of CO2 degassing based on the water-air CO2 gradient, gas transfer velocity and stream surface area is subject to large uncertainties. Furthermore, the stable isotope signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) in streams is strongly impacted by gas exchange, which makes it a useful tracer of CO2 degassing under specific conditions. For this study, we characterized the annual transfers of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along the groundwater-stream-river continuum based on DIC concentrations, stable isotope composition and measurements of stream discharges. We selected a homogeneous, forested and sandy lowland watershed as a study site, where the hydrology occurs almost exclusively through drainage of shallow groundwater (no surface runoff). We observed the first general spatial pattern of decreases in pCO2 and DIC and an increase in δ13C-DIC from groundwater to stream orders 1 and 2, which was due to the experimentally verified faster degassing of groundwater 12C-DIC compared to 13C-DIC. This downstream enrichment in 13C-DIC could be modelled by simply considering the isotopic equilibration of groundwater-derived DIC with the atmosphere during CO2 degassing. A second spatial pattern occurred between stream orders 2 and 4, consisting of an increase in the proportion of carbonate alkalinity to the DIC accompanied by the enrichment of 13C in the stream DIC, which was due to the occurrence of carbonate rock weathering downstream. We could separate the contribution of these two processes (gas exchange and carbonate weathering) in the stable isotope budget of the river network. Thereafter, we built a hydrological mass balance based on drainages and the relative contribution of groundwater in streams of increasing order. After combining with the dissolved CO2 concentrations, we

  14. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Dragosits, U.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry farming was included. We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N management data collection in the landscapes from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an

  15. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dalgaard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Improved management of nitrogen (N in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL, the Netherlands (NL, France (FR, Italy (IT, Scotland (UK and Denmark (DK were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study.

    In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha−1 yr−1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively when landless poultry farming was included.

    We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N

  16. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  17. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  18. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Yue, Chao; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Bastos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) carbon fluxes (ELULCC). The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data) and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016) with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999) and Hansis et al. (2015). We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years) vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross), above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  19. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Robert S [UNR; Smith, Stanley D [UNLV; Evans, Dave [WSU; Ogle, Kiona [ASU; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  20. The carbon balance and greenhouse effects of the Finnish forest sector at present, in the past and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the greenhouse impact of the total Finnish forest sector was considered, which means that the estimated emissions and sink effects from exported forest products were also included. The forest biomass is and seems to be in the next decades the most important factor in the carbon balance of the total forest sector. The development alternatives of forest industries and waste management practices has still a remarkable influence on the greenhouse impact of the Finnish forest sector. The waste management practices in the future has an important influence on the emissions but the exact net greenhouse impact of the landfills is still uncertain. However, the methane emissions from existing landfills can be reduced essentially by gas recovery. Increased incineration and energy recovery of wood waste (and replacing fossil fuel use by it) is also a future alternative for reducing the greenhouse effects in the forest sector. The sequestration of carbon by increasing the storages of long-lived wood products in use meets difficulties in practice because of all the material losses in wood using chain and the natural removal of old wood products. An important advantage of mechanical wood processing and the succeeding refinement chain is still their relative low use of energy

  1. The carbon balance and greenhouse effects of the Finnish forest sector at present, in the past and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this study the greenhouse impact of the total Finnish forest sector was considered, which means that the estimated emissions and sink effects from exported forest products were also included. The forest biomass is and seems to be in the next decades the most important factor in the carbon balance of the total forest sector. The development alternatives of forest industries and waste management practices has still a remarkable influence on the greenhouse impact of the Finnish forest sector. The waste management practices in the future has an important influence on the emissions but the exact net greenhouse impact of the landfills is still uncertain. However, the methane emissions from existing landfills can be reduced essentially by gas recovery. Increased incineration and energy recovery of wood waste (and replacing fossil fuel use by it) is also a future alternative for reducing the greenhouse effects in the forest sector. The sequestration of carbon by increasing the storages of long-lived wood products in use meets difficulties in practice because of all the material losses in wood using chain and the natural removal of old wood products. An important advantage of mechanical wood processing and the succeeding refinement chain is still their relative low use of energy

  2. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve, while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve. This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium.

  3. Interactions between biomass energy technologies and nutrient and carbon balances at the farm level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Molt Petersen, B. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    Biomass energy is by far the largest renewable energy source in the world (IEA Renewable information (www.iea.org)). Biomass utilisation is closely linked to management and sustainability issues of forestry and agriculture. Carbon is extracted from forests and agriculture to bioenergy facilities, from where it is partly or fully emitted as CO{sub 2} and thus no longer available for sustaining soil organic matter content. Nutrients are extracted as well and, depending of the conversion technology, they may be recycled to farmland or lost as gaseous emissions. Thus, we must be able to describe these effects, and to suggest strategies to alleviate adverse effects on farm sustainability and on the environment. By choosing intelligent combinations of cropping systems and energy conversion technologies, win-win solutions may be achieved. This paper illustrates, via three cases, some agricultural impacts of choice of biomass technology and describes an intriguing possibility for recycling municipal or industrial wastes through the bioenergy chain. (au)

  4. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  5. A review of carbon and nitrogen balances in switchgrass grown for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bransby, D.I.; McLaughlin, S.B.; Parrish, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Increased atmospheric CO 2 caused partly by burning fossil fuels, is assumed to elevate the risk of global warming, while nitrate contamination of surface runoff and groundwater from fertilizer and agricultural wastes constitutes a serious environmental hazard on a regional scale. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown as an energy crop could reduce atmospheric CO 2 accumulation by replacing fossil fuels and sequestering C. It could also improve soil productivity by C sequestration, and reduce NO 3 -1 contamination of water by absorbing N lost from fertilizer and agricultural waste if planted in filter strips on adjacent land. The objective of this study was to assess potential impacts of switchgrass on C and N balances by reviewing and synthesizing information from current literature, unpublished data and on-going research. Replacing fossil fuels with switchgrass, or any other biomass, will have a much greater effect on atmospheric CO 2 than C sequestration. This is because replacing fossil fuels provides a cumulative effect, while C sequestration offers only a one-time benefit. Furthermore, switchgrass will provide net gains in C sequestration only if it replaces annual row crops, but not if it replaces grazed pasture. Nitrogen recovery by switchgrass in an Alabama study was 65.6%, which compares favorably with the 50% recovery frequently quoted as the norm for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). (Author)

  6. Relationships between net primary productivity and stand age for several forest types and their influence on China's carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jingming; Ju, Weimin; Feng, Xianfeng; Wu, Weixing

    2011-06-01

    and applicability of the fitted NPP-age relationships. These relationships were used to replace the normalized NPP-age relationship used in the original InTEC (Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon) model, to improve the accuracy of estimated carbon balance for China's forest ecosystems. With the revised NPP-age relationship, the InTEC model simulated a larger carbon source from 1950-1980 and a larger carbon sink from 1985-2001 for China's forests than the original InTEC model did because of the modification to the age-related carbon dynamics in forests. This finding confirms the importance of considering the dynamics of NPP related to forest age in estimating regional and global terrestrial carbon budgets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CO2 enrichment and carbon partitioning to phenolics: do plant responses accord better with the protein competition or the growth-differentiation balance models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Mattson; R. Julkunen-Tiitto; D.A. Herms

    2005-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 can alter plant growth and partitioning to secondary metabolites. The protein competition model (PCM) and the extended growth/differentiation balance model (GDBe) are similar but alternative models that address ontogenetic and environmental effects on whole-plant carbon partitioning to the...

  8. Initial water deficit effects on Lupinus albus photosynthetic performance, carbon metabolism, and hormonal balance: metabolic reorganization prior to early stress responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinheiro, C.; António, C.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Wilson, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 14 (2011), s. 4965-4974 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Carbon metabolism * hormone balance * LC-MS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.364, year: 2011

  9. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  10. RUSLE2015, GIS-RWEQ and CENTURY: new modelling integration for soil loss and carbon fluxes at European scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Lugato, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    subsequently the core message focusing on soil erosion in agricultural lands was published in a recent correspondence in Nature (Nature, 526, 195). Additionally, the soil erosion potential for the European Union's forests was modelled using the high-resolution Global Forest Cover Loss map (2000-2012) and taking into consideration the lodging, forest cuts and forest fires (Ecological Indicators, 60:1208-1220). The first qualitative assessment of wind erosion at European scale has been done using the Index of Land Susceptibility to Wind Erosion (ILSWE) (Sustainability, 7(7): 8823-8836). The wind-erodible fraction of soil (EF) is one of the key parameters for estimating the susceptibility of soil to wind erosion (Geoderma, 232-234: 471-478). ILSWE was created by combining spatiotemporal variations of the most influential wind erosion factors such as climatic erosivity, soil erodibility, vegetation cover and landscape roughness) (Land Degradation & Development, 10.1002/ldr.2318). The quantitative assessment of wind erosion has been concluded recently using Revised Wind Erosion Equation (GIS-RWEQ). Modelling the lateral carbon fluxes due to soil erosion both at national scale (Land Use Policy, 50: 408-421) and at European scale (Global Change Biology, 10.1111/gcb.13198) is an important milestone in climate change perspective. We coupled soil erosion into a biogeochemistry model, running at 1 km2 resolution across the agricultural soils of the European Union (EU). In the future, the soil erosion (by water and wind) modelling activities will incorporate temporal variability, sediment transport and economic assessments of land degradation.

  11. e-Highway2050: to prepare the european grid for a low-carbon energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisey, N.; Sanchis, G.; Balea, L.

    2017-01-01

    The European energy policy favors an important development of renewable energies on a medium-term perspective and the managers of the national power networks that compose the european power grid have to anticipate changes and needs in terms of infrastructures. The e-Highway2050 is a European project involving 38 partners whose aim is to determine the adequate investments necessary for adapting the European power grid to a massive and delocalized production of green power. 5 scenarios have been taken into account and simulations have been performed. It appears that whatever the scenario, some infrastructures have to be developed: the axis from Ireland and Great-Britain towards Spain via France, and the axis linking Scandinavian countries to Italy and Greece, via Baltic countries, Poland and Germany. The necessary investments range between 10 and 20 billion euros a year according to the scenario. The expected benefit for Europe is far more important between 14 and 55 billions euros a year in terms of fuel cost savings, less CO 2 release and less industrial-scale power plants. (A.C.)

  12. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further

  13. Towards complete and harmonized assessment of soil carbon stocks and balance in forests: The ability of the Yasso07 model across a wide gradient of climatic and forest conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura; Jandl, Robert; Blujdea, Viorel N B; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kriiska, Kaie; Alberdi, Iciar; Adermann, Veiko; Cañellas, Isabel; Marin, Gheorghe; Moreno-Fernández, Daniel; Ostonen, Ivika; Varik, Mats; Didion, Markus

    2017-12-01

    Accurate carbon-balance accounting in forest soils is necessary for the development of climate change policy. However, changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) occur slowly and these changes may not be captured through repeated soil inventories. Simulation models may be used as alternatives to SOC measurement. The Yasso07 model presents a suitable alternative because most of the data required for the application are readily available in countries with common forest surveys. In this study, we test the suitability of Yasso07 for simulating SOC stocks and stock changes in a variety of European forests affected by different climatic, land use and forest management conditions and we address country-specific cases with differing resources and data availability. The simulated SOC stocks differed only slightly from measured data, providing realistic, reasonable mean SOC estimations per region or forest type. The change in the soil carbon pool over time, which is the target parameter for SOC reporting, was generally found to be plausible although not in the case of Mediterranean forest soils. As expected under stable forest management conditions, both land cover and climate play major roles in determining the SOC stock in forest soils. Greater mean SOC stocks were observed in northern latitudes (or at higher altitude) than in southern latitudes (or plains) and conifer forests were found to store a notably higher amount of SOC than broadleaf forests. Furthermore, as regards change in SOC, an inter-annual sink effect was identified for most of the European forest types studied. Our findings corroborate the suitability of Yasso07 to assess the impact of forest management and land use change on the SOC balance of forests soils, as well as to accurately simulate SOC in dead organic matter (DOM) and mineral soil pools separately. The obstacles encountered when applying the Yasso07 model reflect a lack of available input data. Future research should focus on improving our knowledge of

  14. Temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon in a highly polluted European city: Apportionment of potential sources and the effect of meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucbel, Marek; Corsaro, Agnieszka; Švédová, Barbora; Raclavská, Helena; Raclavský, Konstantin; Juchelková, Dagmar

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon - a primary component of particulate matter emitted from an incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biomass, and biofuels - has been found to have a detrimental effect on human health and the environment. Since black carbon emissions data are not readily available, no measures are implemented to reduce black carbon emissions. The temporal and seasonal variations of black carbon concentrations were evaluated during 2012-2014. The data were collected in the highly polluted European city - Ostrava, Czech Republic, surrounded by major highways and large industries. Significantly higher black carbon concentrations were obtained in Ostrava, relative to other European cities and the magnitude was equivalent to the magnitude of black carbon concentrations measured in Poland and China. The data were categorized to heating and non-heating seasons based on the periodic pattern of daily and monthly average concentrations of black carbon. A higher black carbon concentration was obtained during heating season than non-heating season and was primarily associated with an increase in residential coal burning and meteorological parameters. The concentration of black carbon was found to be negatively correlated with temperature and wind speed, and positively correlated with the relative humidity. Other black carbon sources potentially included emissions from vehicle exhaust and the local steel-producing industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Which carbon derivatives are applicable in practice? A case study of a European steel company

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin; Zapletal, F.; Hančlová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2017), s. 1071-1085 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-01298S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : carbon allowances * carbon derivatives * mean-CVaR * optimization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/smid-0484650.pdf

  16. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  17. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  18. Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tana E.; Cavaleri, Molly A.; Reed, Sasha C.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forests play a major role in regulating global carbon (C) fluxes and stocks, and even small changes to C cycling in this productive biome could dramatically affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. Temperature is expected to increase over all land surfaces in the future, yet we have a surprisingly poor understanding of how tropical forests will respond to this significant climatic change. Here we present a contemporary synthesis of the existing data and what they suggest about how tropical forests will respond to increasing temperatures. Our goals were to: (i) determine whether there is enough evidence to support the conclusion that increased temperature will affect tropical forest C balance; (ii) if there is sufficient evidence, determine what direction this effect will take; and, (iii) establish what steps should to be taken to resolve the uncertainties surrounding tropical forest responses to increasing temperatures. We approach these questions from a mass-balance perspective and therefore focus primarily on the effects of temperature on inputs and outputs of C, spanning microbial- to ecosystem-scale responses. We found that, while there is the strong potential for temperature to affect processes related to C cycling and storage in tropical forests, a notable lack of data combined with the physical, biological and chemical diversity of the forests themselves make it difficult to resolve this issue with certainty. We suggest a variety of experimental approaches that could help elucidate how tropical forests will respond to warming, including large-scale in situ manipulation experiments, longer term field experiments, the incorporation of a range of scales in the investigation of warming effects (both spatial and temporal), as well as the inclusion of a diversity of tropical forest sites. Finally, we highlight areas of tropical forest research where notably few data are available, including temperature effects on: nutrient cycling

  19. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopicity and refractory black carbon (rBC properties were characterised during wintertime at a suburban site in Paris, one of the biggest European cities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF frequency distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional origin, revealed an increase of the relative contribution of the local sources compared to the background aerosol with decreasing particle size. BC-containing particles in Paris were mainly originating from fresh traffic emissions, whereas biomass burning only gave a minor contribution. The mass size distribution of the rBC cores peaked on average at an rBC core mass equivalent diameter of DMEV ~ 150 nm. The BC-containing particles were moderately coated (coating thickness Δcoat ~ 33 nm on average for rBC cores with DMEV = 180–280 nm and an average mass absorption coefficient (MAC of ~ 8.6 m2 g−1 at the wavelength λ = 880 nm was observed. Different time periods were selected to investigate the properties of BC-containing particles as a function of source and air mass type. The traffic emissions were found to be non-hygroscopic (GF ≈ 1.0, and essentially all particles with a dry mobility diameter (D0 larger than D0 = 110 nm contained an rBC core. rBC from traffic emissions was further observed to be uncoated within experimental uncertainty (Δcoat ~ 2 nm ± 10 nm, to have the smallest BC core sizes (maximum of the rBC core mass size distribution at DMEV ~ 100 nm and to have the smallest MAC (~ 7.3 m2g−1 at λ = 880 nm. The biomass burning aerosol was slightly more hygroscopic than the traffic emissions (with a distinct slightly-hygroscopic mode peaking at GF ≈ 1.1–1.2. Furthermore, only a minor fraction (≤ 10% of the slightly-hygroscopic particles with 1.1 ≤ GF ≤ 1.2 (and D0 = 265 nm contained a detectable rBC core. The BC-containing particles from biomass burning were

  20. CARBO-CONTROLE. Quantification of the carbon flux and stocks at the european and national scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.

    2007-01-01

    The CARBO-CONTROLE project aims to evaluate the different methodologies to estimate the CO 2 flux at the european, national and regional scale. The strategy is to combine a crumbling, down scaling, of the flux at a big scale, by inverting the atmospheric CO 2 measures with a aggregation, up scaling, of the national stocks and flux from the climatic parameters of a model of ecosystems.They show that with the monthly data of the global network of CO 2 monitoring stations, it is possible to obtain an estimation of the european flux. Meanwhile the errors bond to the leak of continental stations are of the order of the flux average. (A.L.B.)

  1. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  2. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  3. Price determinants of the European carbon market and interactions with energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Cludius, Johanna; Matthes, Felix [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Zaklan, Aleksandar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    This report explores the determinants of short run price movements in the carbon market and their interaction with energy markets, in particular with the electricity market. Focusing on Phase 2 of the EU ETS we conduct econometric time series analysis based on continental EU and UK market data. Our findings suggest that market fundamentals have a dominant effect on the EUA price, but that non-fundamental factors may also play a role. We further found that the electricity price has a significant positive impact on the carbon price in the short run.

  4. The polity and politics of carbon-dioxide taxation in small European states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    to the adoption of carbon dioxide taxation in only smaller countries in Europe. The research questions addressed by the present paper are how and why is it that small countries that in terms of emissions are virtually irrelevant to climate change and which are more open to forces of international competition...... are more susceptible to introduce carbon dioxide taxes ? It is hypothesized that features of the institutionalized patterns of policy-making, the polity of small states, can provide explanations for their climate politics, and ultimately the outcome policy in question....

  5. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  6. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-13

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  7. Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

    2015-03-01

    We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  8. Nitrogen and carbon source balance determines longevity, independently of fermentative or respiratory metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Júlia; Leitão-Correia, Fernanda; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2016-04-26

    Dietary regimens have proven to delay aging and age-associated diseases in several eukaryotic model organisms but the input of nutritional balance to longevity regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we present data on the role of single carbon and nitrogen sources and their interplay in yeast longevity. Data demonstrate that ammonium, a rich nitrogen source, decreases chronological life span (CLS) of the prototrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PYCC 4072 in a concentration-dependent manner and, accordingly, that CLS can be extended through ammonium restriction, even in conditions of initial glucose abundance. We further show that CLS extension depends on initial ammonium and glucose concentrations in the growth medium, as long as other nutrients are not limiting. Glutamine, another rich nitrogen source, induced CLS shortening similarly to ammonium, but this effect was not observed with the poor nitrogen source urea. Ammonium decreased yeast CLS independently of the metabolic process activated during aging, either respiration or fermentation, and induced replication stress inhibiting a proper cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. The present results shade new light on the nutritional equilibrium as a key factor on cell longevity and may contribute for the definition of interventions to promote life span and healthy aging.

  9. Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-Fran?ois; Klumpp, Katja; Sultan, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Background Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071?2100 is predicted to be 1?5.5??C higher than that for 1971?2000. Climate change and elevated CO2 concentration are anticipated to affect grassland management and liv...

  10. Energy efficiency, carbon emissions, and measures towards their improvement in the food and beverage sector for six European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Steven; Schmitt, Bastian; Chester-Jones, Mae; Sturm, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Basic and detailed audits of small and medium sized food and beverage enterprises were conducted in six European Union countries to determine product specific energy consumption and measures to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Collected results showed that the companies’ products had similar specific energy consumption as prior studies, but due to no standard metrics, the range was rather large. Auditors primarily recommended energy savings measures (process optimization and heat recovery), due to their low payback periods. Lower carbon energy sources were also recommended (solar thermal and combined heat/power), but often at higher costs, supported through government incentive programs. Through these measures, energy savings of up to 45% and carbon to 30% (∼30,000 t CO_2 equivalent in the audited companies) were possible, dependent on the type, size of company, and fuel choice. Typically, very small companies and those using coal showed the greatest margin for improvement, though it varied greatly depending on the type of product produced and the installed heating and cooling equipment. Auditors noted significant barriers toward the implementation of measures, e.g. companies found the costs too high, did not know of efficient technologies and their performance, or did not have managerial support to implement efficiency measures. - Highlights: • The Food and Beverage sector in Europe was assessed for carbon reduction potential. • Significant emission reductions can be achieved by energy efficiency and renewables. • The Bakery and Meat branches can reduce energy consumption by 30–40%. • Small and coal burning companies have the greatest potential for emission reduction. • Financial barriers remain the hardest obstacle to realize reduction potential.

  11. Spherical and ellipsoidal cavities in European sandstones: a product of sinking carbonate dissolution front

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamovič, Jiří; Mikuláš, Radek; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 123-149 ISSN 0372-8854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130806; GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : symmetrical cavities * solutional landforms * cavernous weathering * tafoni * sandstone * concretions * carbonate dissolution front Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  12. Replacement of soybean meal in compound feed by European protein sources : effects on carbon footprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Blonk, H.; Tyszler, M.

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim was to investigate if soybean products from South American can be replaced by protein sources produced in Europe in a sustainable way. Based on data from literature, and based on the systematics of the FeedPrint programme, the nutritional value and the carbon footprint (CFP) of these

  13. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  14. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Vicca, Sara; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Jonard, Mathieu; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Gielen, Bert; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Waldner, Peter; Sawicka, Kasia

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  15. Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camino-Serrano, M.; Graf Pannatier, E.; Vicca, S.; Luyssaert, S.; Jonard, M.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Gielen, B.; Peñuelas, J.; Sardans, J.; Waldner, P.; Etzold, S.; Cecchini, G.; Clarke, N.; Galić, Z.; Gandois, L.; Hansen, K.; Johnson, J.; Klinck, U.; Lachmanová, Z.; Lindroos, A.J.; Meesenburg, H.; Nieminen, T.M.; Sanders, T.G.M.; Sawicka, K.; Seidling, W.; Thimonier, A.; Vanguelova, E.; Verstraeten, A.; Vesterdal, L.; Janssens, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish

  16. A Model for Interpreting High-Tower CO2 Concentration Records for the Surface Carbon Balance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.

    2002-05-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements have been made by scientists of Meteorological Service of Canada on a 40 m tower for the last 10 years at 15 minute intervals over a mostly intact boreal forest near Fraserdale (50N, 81W), Ontario, Canada. The long time records of CO2 as well as basic meteorological variables provide a unique opportunity to investigate any potential changes in the ecosystem in terms of carbon balance. A model is needed to decipher the carbon cycle signals from the diurnal and seasonal variation patterns in the CO2 record. For this purpose, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is expanded to include a one-dimensional CO2 vertical transfer model involving the interaction between plant canopies and the atmosphere in the surface layer and the diurnal dynamics of the mixed layer. An analytical solution of the scalar transfer equation within the surface layer is found using an assumption that the diurnal oscillation of CO2 concentration at a given height is sinusoidal, which is suitable for the investigation of the changes in diurnal variation pattern over the 10 year period. The complex interactions between the daily cycle of the atmosphere and vegetation CO2 exchange and the daily evolution of mixed layer entrainment of CO2 determines the CO2 variation pattern at a given height. The expanded BEPS can simulate within ñ2 ppm the hourly CO2 records at the 40 m measurement height. The annual totals of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP), summed up from the hourly results, agree within 5% of previous estimates of BEPS at daily steps, indicating the internal consistency of the hourly model. The model is therefore ready for exploring changes in the CO2 record as affected by changes in the forest ecosystems upwind of the tower. Preliminary results indicate that the diurnal variation amplitude of CO2 has increased by 10-20% over the 10 years period, and this change can

  17. Putting a price on carbon. Econometric essays on the European Union emissions trading scheme and its impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of

  18. Modeling the effects of anadromous fish nitrogen on the carbon balance of riparian forests in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble Stuen, A. J.; Kavanagh, K.; Wheeler, T.

    2010-12-01

    Wild anadromous fish such as Pacific Chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) were once abundant in Idaho, where they deposited their carcasses, rich in marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the tributaries of the Columbia River. Anadromous fish are believed to have been a historically important nutrient source to the relatively nutrient-poor inland ecosystems of central Idaho, but no longer reach many inland watersheds due to presence of dams. This study investigates the multi-decadal cumulative effect of presence versus absence of anadromous fish nitrogen on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), or net carbon uptake, of riparian forests along historically salmon-bearing streams in the North Fork Boise River watershed, Idaho, in the context of a changing climate. The ecosystem process model BIOME-BGC is used to develop a representative forest ecosystem and predict the impact of decades of addition and continuing absence of MDN on NEE and net primary production (NPP). The study has 2 objectives: 1) to determine whether BIOME-BGC can reasonably simulate the riparian forests of central Idaho. A potentially confounding factor is the complex terrain of the region, particularly regarding soil water: water accumulation in valley bottoms and their riparian zones may lead to discrepancies in soil moisture and productivity of the riparian forest and of the simulations. The model is parameterized using local ecophysiology and site data and validated using field measurements of leaf area and soil moisture. Objective 2): to determine the effects on forest carbon balance and productivity of the presence or ongoing absence of anadromous-fish derived nitrogen. The forest simulation developed in objective 1 is run under two scenarios into the mid-20th century; one continuing without any supplemental nitrogen and one with nitrogen added in levels consistent with estimates of historical deposition by anadromous fish. Both scenarios incorporate warming due to

  19. High resolution modelling of atmosphere-canopy exchange of acidifying and eutrophying components and carbon dioxide for European forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieterse, G.; Bleeker, A.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Erisman, J.W.; Wu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Deposition Model (IDEM) was improved by incorporating a novel multilayer biochemical dry deposition module for gases. The aerosol and base cation deposition module was adopted from IDEM. For evaluation of primary and ecosystem productivity, carbon respiration schemes were included. The resulting Framework for Atmosphere-Canopy Exchange Modelling (FACEM) was then evaluated by the case studies presented here. First, results for deposition of SO x , NO y and NH x were compared with site observations, showing correlations of up to R2 = 0.60. Applicability for grid deposition calculations for these compounds was then evaluated for Europe. The model was clearly able to reproduce the elevated deposition near the important emission areas in Europe. Next, we compared the modelled CO 2 fluxes with measurements from 26 European sites. Correlations of up to R2 = 0.81 indicate good performance. To evaluate grid performance, the 2003 European heat wave was studied in a final case study, resulting in convincing correspondence with the observed productivity anomalies

  20. Inequities in energy-balance related behaviours and family environmental determinants in European children: baseline results of the prospective EPHE evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Radulian, Gabriella; Borys, Jean-Michel; Du Plessis, Hugues; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; De Henauw, Stefaan; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Visscher, Tommy Ls; Seidell, Jacob C

    2015-12-02

    Tackling inequalities in overweight, obesity and related determinants has become a top priority for the European research and policy agendas. Although it has been established that such inequalities accumulate from early childhood onward, they have not been studied extensively in children. The current article discusses the results of an explorative analysis for the identification of inequalities in behaviours and their determinants between groups with high and low socio-economic status. This study is part of the Epode for the Promotion of Health Equity (EPHE) evaluation study, the overall aim of which is to assess the impact and sustainability of EPODE methodology to diminish inequalities in childhood obesity and overweight. Seven community-based programmes from different European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Portugal, Romania, The Netherlands) participate in the EPHE study. In each of the communities, children aged 6-8 years participated, resulting in a total sample of 1266 children and their families. A parental self-administrated questionnaire was disseminated in order to assess the socio-economic status of the household, selected energy balance-related behaviours (1. fruit and vegetable consumption; 2. soft drink/ fruit juices and water consumption; 3. screen time and 4. sleep duration) of the children and associated family environmental determinants. The Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to test differences between the low and high education groups. The country-specific median was chosen as the cut-off point to determine the educational level, given the different average educational level in every country. Children with mothers of relatively high educational level consumed fruits and vegetables more frequently than their peers of low socio-economic status. The latter group of children had a higher intake of fruit juices and/or soft drinks and had higher screen time. Parental rules and home availability were

  1. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  2. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work-home balance and the European working time directive: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-10-13

    To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work-home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Norway. Unbalanced cohort of 1300-1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46-47 h) and junior (45-46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27-35%) than junior (11-20%) doctors reported suboptimal work-home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Long-term nutrient fertilization and the carbon balance of permanent grassland: any evidence for sustainable intensification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Dario A.; Wasson, Elizabeth-Anne; Christie, Peter; Watson, Catherine J.

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable grassland intensification aims to increase plant yields while maintaining the ability of soil to act as a sink rather than sources of atmospheric CO2. High biomass yields from managed grasslands, however, can be only maintained through long-term nutrient fertilization, which can significantly affect soil carbon (C) storage and cycling. Key questions remain about (1) how long-term inorganic vs. organic fertilization influences soil C stocks, and (2) how soil C gains (or losses) contribute to the long-term C balance of managed grasslands. Using 43 years of data from a permanent grassland experiment, we show that soils not only act as significant C sinks but have not yet reached C saturation. Even unfertilized control soils showed C sequestration rates of 0.35 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (i.e. 35 g C m-2 yr-1; 0-15 cm depth) between 1970 and 2013. High application rates of liquid manure (i.e. cattle slurry) further increased soil C sequestration to 0.86 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (i.e. 86 g C m-2 yr-1) and a key cause of this C accrual was greater C inputs from cattle slurry. However, average coefficients of slurry-C retention in soils suggest that 85 % of C added yearly through liquid manure is lost possibly via CO2 fluxes and organic C leaching. Inorganically fertilized soils (i.e. NPK) had the lowest C-gain efficiency (i.e. unit of C gained per unit of N added) and lowest C sequestration (similar to control soils). Soils receiving cattle slurry showed higher C-gain and N-retention efficiencies compared to soils receiving NPK or pig slurry. We estimate that net rates of CO2-sequestration in the top 15 cm of the soil can offset 9-25 % of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from intensive management. However, because of multiple GHG sources associated with livestock farming, the net C balance of these grasslands remains positive (9-12 Mg CO2-equivalent ha-1 yr-1), thus contributing to climate change. Further C-gain efficiencies (e.g. reduced enteric fermentation and use of feed

  4. Carbon dioxide exchange of the Arctic tundra in the northern part of European Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiepe, Isabell; Johansson, Paul Torbjörn; Friborg, Thomas

    Northern Russia has been subject to many speculations in relation to climatic change effects and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange but still little scientific evidence is available for this region. There is low abundance of continuous Arctic GHG exchange measurements deploying eddy covariance technique...... 70 cm in the hummocky areas. The climate is continental with a mean annual air temperature (1995-2007) of about -9.4 °C (Vorkuta). To determine the greenhouse balance of this area the eddy covariance technique was used in the late period of the growing season of 2007. In this study we focus...... on the transition period at the end of the growth season, which is a part of the year when predicted changes in temperature is likely to have the most pronounced effects on the exchange of GHGs. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange reflects two important influences on the opposed fluxes, gross photosynthesis...

  5. The carbon balance of reducing wildfire risk and restoring process: an analysis of 10-year post-treatment carbon dynamics in a mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan L. Wiechmann; Matthew D. Hurteau; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Lucie Jerabkova

    2015-01-01

    Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, helping mitigate climate change. In fire-prone forests, burn events result in direct and indirect emissions of carbon. High fire-induced tree mortality can cause a transition from a carbon sink to source, but thinning and prescribed burning can reduce fire severity and carbon loss when wildfire occurs. However, treatment...

  6. Estimation of Community Land Model parameters for an improved assessment of net carbon fluxes at European sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Fox, Andrew; Vereecken, Harry; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan

    2017-03-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) contains many parameters whose values are uncertain and thus require careful estimation for model application at individual sites. Here we used Bayesian inference with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM(zs)) algorithm to estimate eight CLM v.4.5 ecosystem parameters using 1 year records of half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) observations of four central European sites with different plant functional types (PFTs). The posterior CLM parameter distributions of each site were estimated per individual season and on a yearly basis. These estimates were then evaluated using NEE data from an independent evaluation period and data from "nearby" FLUXNET sites at 600 km distance to the original sites. Latent variables (multipliers) were used to treat explicitly uncertainty in the initial carbon-nitrogen pools. The posterior parameter estimates were superior to their default values in their ability to track and explain the measured NEE data of each site. The seasonal parameter values reduced with more than 50% (averaged over all sites) the bias in the simulated NEE values. The most consistent performance of CLM during the evaluation period was found for the posterior parameter values of the forest PFTs, and contrary to the C3-grass and C3-crop sites, the latent variables of the initial pools further enhanced the quality-of-fit. The carbon sink function of the forest PFTs significantly increased with the posterior parameter estimates. We thus conclude that land surface model predictions of carbon stocks and fluxes require careful consideration of uncertain ecological parameters and initial states.

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions and energy balance closure before, during, and after biomass burning in mid-South rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, B.; Adviento-Borbe, A.; Reba, M. L.; Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning or field burning is a crop management practice that removes rice straw, reduces tillage, controls pests and releases nutrients for the next cropping season. Current field burning emissions are not included in agricultural field annual emissions largely because of the lack of studies, especially on the field scale. Field burning measurements are important for greenhouse gas emission inventories and quantifying the annual carbon footprint of rice. Paired eddy covariance systems were used to measure energy balance, CO2 fluxes, and H2O fluxes in mid-South US rice fields (total area of 25 ha) before, during and after biomass burning for 20 days after harvest. During the biomass burning, air temperatures increased 29°C, while ambient CO2 concentration increased from 402 to 16,567 ppm and H2O concentrations increased from 18.73 to 25.62 ppt. For the burning period, 67-86 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1 was emitted calculated by integrating fluxes over the biomass burning event. However, the estimated emission using aboveground biomass and combustion factors was calculated as 11,733 kg CO2 ha-1 period-1. Part of the difference could be attributed to sensor sensitivity decreasing 80% during burning for two minutes due to smoke. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) increased by a factor of two, 1.14 before burning to 2.44 μmol m-2 s-1 possibly due to greater reduction of plant material and photosynthesis following burning. This study highlights the contribution of rice straw burning to total CO2 emissions from rice production.

  8. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites

  9. Soil respiration and rates of soil carbon turnover differ among six common European tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Elberling, Bo; Christiansen, Jesper Riis

    2012-01-01

    replicated at six sites in Denmark. The studied tree species were the broadleaves beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), lime (Tilia cordata L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and the conifer Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Rates....... Soil respiration differed significantly among several species and increased in the order beechmaple... moisture. Carbon turnover rates based on the ratio between R h and C stock were significantly higher in ash than in all other species except maple, and maple also had higher C turnover than spruce. A similar influence of tree species on C turnover was indicated by the litterfall C to forest floor C ratio...

  10. Incentives for early adoption of carbon capture technology: further considerations from a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal-Estanol, Albert; Eckhause, Jeremy; Massol, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This note details two comments on a recent policy proposal in Comello and Reichelstein (2014) aimed at favoring the early adoption of Carbon Capture (CC) technology in the next generation of thermal-based power plants to be installed in the United States. First, we examine the implications of a worst-case scenario in which no new CC is adopted internationally beyond what is in place in 2014. Second, we show the potential, under the original proposed subsidy, for the emergence of coordination failures capable of hampering the desired early CC deployment. We propose and evaluate modified schedules of tax-credits sufficient to overcome these concerns. These additions strengthen the argument in the original article: namely, though higher incentive levels are necessary, our findings confirm that the cost of the proposed policy is not out of reach. (authors)

  11. Time variation in European carbon pass-through rates in electricity futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Ronald; Kiliç, Mehtap

    2015-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is a means to price emission allowances. Electricity market prices should reflect these market prices of emission allowances as they are a cost factor for power producers. The pass-through rate is the fraction of the emission allowance price that is passed through to electricity market prices. It is often measured and presented as an average or a fixed estimate over some time period. However, we expect that the pass-through rates should actually vary over time as electricity supply curves reflect the marginal costs of different producers that differ in emission intensity. We apply a Kalman Filter approach to observe pass-through rates in Germany and U.K. and find strong support for time varying instead of fixed pass-through rates. Although policy makers are interested in the impact of a policy on average, our results indicate that one needs to be careful with the time-frame over which pass-through rates are measured for policy evaluation, as an incorrect chosen evaluation period could cause an under- or overestimation of the pass-through rate. In addition, our model helps to provide policy makers with insight in the development of pass-through rates when market circumstances change with respect to power production. - Highlights: • We analyse the time-variation of the emission pass-through rate in power prices. • We examine historical futures prices for Germany and the U.K. • We test the hypothesis by using the Kalman Filter methodology. • Strong support is found that pass-through rates vary over time. • The chosen time-frame for pass-through rates is important for policy evaluation.

  12. The effects of land cover and land use change on the contemporary carbon balance of the arctic and boreal terrestrial ecosystems of northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; McGuire, A. David; Kicklighter, David W.; Burnside , Todd J.; Melillo, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent changes in climate, disturbance regimes and land use and management systems in Northern Eurasia have the potential to disrupt the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2 in a way that accelerates global climate change. To determine the recent trends in the carbon balance of the arctic and boreal ecosystems of this region, we performed a retrospective analysis of terrestrial carbon dynamics across northern Eurasia over a recent 10-year period using a terrestrial biogeochemical process model. The results of the simulations suggest a shift in direction of the net flux from the terrestrial sink of earlier decades to a net source on the order of 45 Tg C year−1between 1997 and 2006. The simulation framework and subsequent analyses presented in this study attribute this shift to a large loss of carbon from boreal forest ecosystems, which experienced a trend of decreasing precipitation and a large area burned during this time period.

  13. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  14. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68 respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle

  15. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways. Copyright

  16. Impacts of 2°C global warming on primary production and soil carbon storage capacity at pan-European level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Sakalli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 has been dramatically increasing since beginning of the industrial time (i.e. 1860, being one of the main driver for climate change at regional and global level. The change in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, together with that of temperature, precipitation and/or so radiation, can influence the biogeochemical cycles in all ecosystems. In this study, we investigate the combined effect of CO2 concentration and six climate variables on carbon uptake, i.e., gross primary production (GPP and carbon storage, i.e, soil carbon (SoilC in terrestrial biosphere by using the Community Land Model (CLM vers. 4.5 and evaluate the model’s results against available observation data. We also analysed the change in carbon uptake and storage under a 2°C global mean warming. Results show that the model performed reasonably well for GPP and SoilC at pan-European scale. We also found a positive correlation between GPP, precipitation and surface wind, and a negative correlation between GPP and surface downwelling longwave radiation (rlds. Under a 2°C global warming, GPP and SoilC show an increase, an average, of about 20%, and 5% at pan-European scale, respectively. However, our results indicate that CLM4.5 may need improvements particularly in carbon-nitrogen interaction and carbon accumulation in soil.

  17. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Oulehle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared two adjacent mature forest ecosystem types (spruce vs. beech to unravel the fate of assimilated carbon (C and the cycling of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N without the risk of the confounding influences of climatic and site differences when comparing different sites. The stock of C in biomass was higher (258 t·ha−1 in the older (150 years beech stand compared to the younger (80 years planted spruce stand (192 t·ha−1, whereas N biomass pools were comparable (1450 kg·ha−1. Significantly higher C and N soil pools were measured in the beech stand, both in forest floor and mineral soil. Cumulative annual CO2 soil efflux was similar among stands, i.e., 9.87 t·ha−1·year−1 of C in the spruce stand and 9.01 t·ha−1·year−1 in the beech stand. Soil temperature explained 78% (Q10 = 3.7 and 72% (Q10 = 4.2 of variability in CO2 soil efflux in the spruce and beech stand, respectively. However, the rather tight N cycle in the spruce stand prevented inorganic N losses, whereas losses were higher in the beech stand and were dominated by nitrate in the mineral soil. Our results highlighted the long-term consequences of forest management on C and N cycling.

  18. The impact of nitrogen deposition on carbon sequestration in European forests and forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Wim; Reinds, Gert Jan; Gundersen, Per

    2006-01-01

    for CO2 emissions because of harvest and forest fires, was assumed 33% of the overall C pool changes by growth. C sequestration in the soil were based on calculated nitrogen (N) retention (N deposition minus net N uptake minus N leaching) rates in soils, multiplied by the C/N ratio of the forest soils......An estimate of net carbon (C) pool changes and long-term C sequestration in trees and soils was made at more than 100 intensively monitored forest plots (level II plots) and scaled up to Europe based on data for more than 6000 forested plots in a systematic 16 km x 16 km grid (level I plots). C...... pool changes in trees at the level II plots were based on repeated forest growth surveys At the level I plots, an estimate of the mean annual C pool changes was derived from stand age and available site quality characteristics. C sequestration, being equal to the long-term C pool changes accounting...

  19. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in mesocosms of five different European peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian; Zajac, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition, a key growth limiting nutrient in ombrotrophic peatlands, can cause various shifts in peatland N cycling. Quantification of N transformation rates and fluxes within peatlands that are induced by long-term N deposition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms and robustness of N retention. Using a 15N labeled tracer under steady state conditions at two water table levels, we investigated the fate of N in mesocosms from five European peatlands, which have a history of differing long-term N load. Peat contained the largest N pool, followed by Sphagnum (0 - 5 cm), shrubs, graminoids and the dissolved pool. We found a decline of N recovery from the peat and an increase of N recovery from shrubs and the dissolved pool across the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum mosses not only intercepted large amounts of 15N in the mesocosms (0.2 - 0.35 mg g-1) but they also retained the tracer most effectively relative to their biomass. Polluted sites (Lille Vildmose, Frölichshaier Sattelmoor) contained the largest dissolved nitrogen pools and the highest nitrate concentrations. At the same time the recoveries of their Sphagnum pools were in the range of the recovery recorded for the Sphagnum layer from the 'clean' site (Degerö Stormyr). Our experiment shows that a decline in N retention at levels above ca. 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, as expressed by elevated near-surface peat N content and increased dissolved N concentrations, might not be an evidence for Sphagnum saturation. As long as N is required for the synthesis of biomass Sphagnum species can thrive even at strongly elevated long-term N loads. A change in WT position from -28 to -8 cm influenced CO2 fluxes from mesocosms only to a small degree, which implies that small changes in water table position may be less important in controlling CO2 exchange with the atmosphere than often assumed. Although water table rise was a main driver for increase of methane emissions in all cores, short time lags (3

  20. Production of dissolved organic carbon in forest soils along the north-south European transect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, F.; Paces, T.; Jackova, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the C loss from forest soils due to the production of dissolved organic C (DOC) along a north-south European transect. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from the forest soils incubated at a controlled temperature and water content. Soils were sampled from forest plots from Sweden to Italy. The plots represent monocultures of spruce, pine and beech and three selected chronosequences of spruce and beech spanning a range of mean annual temperature from 2 to 14 deg. C. The DOM was characterized by its DOC/DON ratio and the C isotope composition δ 13 C. The DOC/DON ratio of DOM varied from 25 to 15 after 16 days of incubation and it decreased to between 16 and 10 after 126 days. At the beginning of incubation the δ 13 C values of DOC were 1 per mille or 2 per mille less negative than incubated soils. At the end of the experiment δ 13 C of DOC were the same as soil values. In addition to DOC production heterotrophic respiration and N mineralization were measured on the incubated soils. The DON production rates decreased from 30 to 5 μgN gC -1 d -1 after 16 days of incubation to constant values from 5 to 2 μgN gC -1 d -1 after 126 days at the end of experiment. The DIN production rates were nearly constant during the experiments with values ranging from 20 to 4 μgN gC -1 d -1 . DOC production followed first-order reaction kinetics and heterotrophic respiration followed zero-order reaction kinetics. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data yielded mean annual DOC and respiration productions with respect to sites. Mean annual estimates of DOC flux varied from 3 to 29 g of C m -2 (1-19 mg C g -1 of available C), corresponding to mean DOC concentrations from 2 to 85 mg C L -1 .

  1. 6. Analisis Implementasi Cyber Security Di Uni Eropa: Studi Kasus Carbon Credits Hacking Dalam European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Naila Sukma; Putranti, Ika Riswanti; Wahyudi, Fendy Eko

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades in the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has presented itself as a leader in climate change issues. The leadership manifested in the formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as an effort to fulfill the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions in the region. But the existence of the EU ETS has been challenged by the emergence of carbon credits hacking case in some national registration systems in the EU ETS. This study discuss...

  2. Cobenefits of climate and air pollution regulations. The context of the European Commission Roadmap for moving to a low carbon economy in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelemeijer, R.; Eerens, H.; Van Velze, K. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Colette, A.; Schucht, S.; Pere, J.C.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Mellios, G. [EMISIA, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-03-15

    In 2011, the European Commission published its roadmap towards a competitive low-carbon economy for 2050. For this roadmap the possibilities of a far-reaching reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe were assessed (a decrease of 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels). This report was written at the request of the European Environment Agency and examines the effects of such a reduction on air quality. Analysis of several existing scenarios indicates that climate policy, in general, leads to a decrease in air pollution in Europe.

  3. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Synthesis of Remote Sensing and Field Observations to Model and Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of Oregon & Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Law; David Turner; Warren Cohen; Mathias Goeckede

    2008-05-22

    The goal is to quantify and explain the carbon (C) budget for Oregon and N. California. The research compares "bottom -up" and "top-down" methods, and develops prototype analytical systems for regional analysis of the carbon balance that are potentially applicable to other continental regions, and that can be used to explore climate, disturbance and land-use effects on the carbon cycle. Objectives are: 1) Improve, test and apply a bottom up approach that synthesizes a spatially nested hierarchy of observations (multispectral remote sensing, inventories, flux and extensive sites), and the Biome-BGC model to quantify the C balance across the region; 2) Improve, test and apply a top down approach for regional and global C flux modeling that uses a model-data fusion scheme (MODIS products, AmeriFlux, atmospheric CO2 concentration network), and a boundary layer model to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP) across the region and partition it among GPP, R(a) and R(h). 3) Provide critical understanding of the controls on regional C balance (how NEP and carbon stocks are influenced by disturbance from fire and management, land use, and interannual climate variation). The key science questions are, "What are the magnitudes and distributions of C sources and sinks on seasonal to decadal time scales, and what processes are controlling their dynamics? What are regional spatial and temporal variations of C sources and sinks? What are the errors and uncertainties in the data products and results (i.e., in situ observations, remote sensing, models)?

  5. Predicting bi-decadal organic carbon mineralization in northwestern European soils with Rock-Eval pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Barré, Pierre; Baudin, François; Chenu, Claire; Houot, Sabine; Kätterer, Thomas; Macdonald, Andy; van Oort, Folkert; Plante, Alain F.; Cécillon, Lauric

    2017-04-01

    The organic carbon reservoir of soils is a key component of climate change, calling for an accurate knowledge of the residence time of soil organic carbon (SOC). Existing proxies of the size of SOC labile pool such as SOC fractionation or respiration tests are time consuming and unable to consistently predict SOC mineralization over years to decades. Similarly, models of SOC dynamics often yield unrealistic values of the size of SOC kinetic pools. Thermal analysis of bulk soil samples has recently been shown to provide useful and cost-effective information regarding the long-term in-situ decomposition of SOC. Barré et al. (2016) analyzed soil samples from long-term bare fallow sites in northwestern Europe using Rock-Eval 6 pyrolysis (RE6), and demonstrated that persistent SOC is thermally more stable and has less hydrogen-rich compounds (low RE6 HI parameter) than labile SOC. The objective of this study was to predict SOC loss over a 20-year period (i.e. the size of the SOC pool with a residence time lower than 20 years) using RE6 indicators. Thirty-six archive soil samples coming from 4 long-term bare fallow chronosequences (Grignon, France; Rothamsted, Great Britain; Ultuna, Sweden; Versailles, France) were used in this study. For each sample, the value of bi-decadal SOC mineralization was obtained from the observed SOC dynamics of its long-term bare fallow plot (approximated by a spline function). Those values ranged from 0.8 to 14.3 gC·kg-1 (concentration data), representing 8.6 to 50.6% of total SOC (proportion data). All samples were analyzed using RE6 and simple linear regression models were used to predict bi-decadal SOC loss (concentration and proportion data) from 4 RE6 parameters: HI, OI, PC/SOC and T50 CO2 oxidation. HI (the amount of hydrogen-rich effluents formed during the pyrolysis phase of RE6; mgCH.g-1SOC) and OI (the CO2 yield during the pyrolysis phase of RE6; mgCO2.g-1SOC) parameters describe SOC bulk chemistry. PC/SOC (the amount of organic

  6. Carbon, land, and water footprint accounts for the European Union: consumption, production, and displacements through international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, A Ertug; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2012-10-16

    A nation's consumption of goods and services causes various environmental pressures all over the world due to international trade. We use a multiregional input-output model to assess three kinds of environmental footprints for the member states of the European Union. Footprints are indicators that take the consumer responsibility approach to account for the total direct and indirect effects of a product or consumption activity. We quantify the total environmental pressures (greenhouse gas emissions: carbon footprint; appropriation of biologically productive land and water area: land footprint; and freshwater consumption: water footprint) caused by consumption in the EU. We find that the consumption activities by an average EU citizen in 2004 led to 13.3 tCO(2)e of induced greenhouse gas emissions, appropriation of 2.53 gha (hectares of land with global-average biological productivity), and consumption of 179 m(3) of blue water (ground and surface water). By comparison, the global averages were 5.7 tCO(2)e, 1.23 gha, and 163 m(3) blue water, respectively. Overall, the EU displaced all three types of environmental pressures to the rest of the world, through imports of products with embodied pressures. Looking at intra-EU displacements only, the UK was the most important displacer overall, while the largest net exporters of embodied environmental pressures were Poland (greenhouse gases), France (land), and Spain (freshwater).

  7. Global climate regulation and border adjustment mechanisms: the case of carbon importers inclusion in the european trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    The creation of an inclusion mechanism applied to imports whose production process increases significantly the global climate risk is looked upon as a solution to a collective-action problem. Such a mechanism would provide those States that will sign the next United Nations Convention on Climate Change with a potential remedy if and when gaps between quantified objects, to which all are committed, entail significant competition distortions. Whether this mechanism assumes the form of an external carbon tax or consists in including importers in the European system of CO 2 quota exchanges, it would surely respond to the re-distributive need generated by global warming, provided that the proceeds are used to help bring industrial production in developing countries up to standard. These restrictive measures aimed at preserving the planet are probably compatible with the extraordinary regimes applied by the WTO, which already uses exogenous non-trade norms to arbitrate conflicts. This would validate further the legitimacy of authority transfers onto the WTO, whose scope of legal authority increases constantly, along with that of conflicts that stem from collective preferences. (author)

  8. Projecting the past and future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests (1851-2100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.

    2009-12-01

    In U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, hurricanes are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Estimates of the carbon emissions resulting from single storms range as high as ~100 Tg C, an amount equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink in forest trees. Recent studies have estimated the historic regional carbon emissions from hurricane activity using an empirically based approach. Here, we use a mechanistic ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, driven by maps of mortality and damage based on historic hurricane tracks and future scenarios to predict the past and future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests. Model estimates compare well to previous empirically based estimates, with mean annual biomass loss of 26 Tg C yr-1 (range 0 to ~225 Tg C yr-1) resulting from hurricanes during the period 1851-2000. Using the mechanistic model, we are able to include the effects of both disturbance and recovery on the net carbon flux. We find a regional carbon sink throughout much of the 20th century resulting from forest recovery following a peak in hurricane activity during the late 19th century exceeding biomass loss. Recent increased hurricane activity has resulted in the region becoming a net carbon source. For the future, several recent studies have linked increased sea surface temperatures expected with climate change to increased hurricane activity. Based on these relationships, we investigate a range of scenarios of future hurricane activity and find the potential for substantial increases in emissions from hurricane mortality and reductions in regional carbon stocks. In our scenario with the largest increase in hurricane activity, we find a 35% increase in area disturbed by 2100, but due to the reduction of standing biomass, only a 20% increase in biomass loss per year. Developing this kind of predictive modeling capability that tracks disturbance events and

  9. Carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions and water balance of Sudanese savannah woodlands in relation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 deg N; 21-36 deg E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world's major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed

  10. Elevated CO2-mitigation of high temperature stress associated with maintenance of positive carbon balance and carbohydrate accumulation in Kentucky bluegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Yu, Jingjin; Huang, Bingru

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 concentration may promote plant growth while high temperature is inhibitory for C3 plant species. The interactive effects of elevated CO2 and high temperatures on C3 perennial grass growth and carbon metabolism are not well documented. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) plants were exposed to two CO2 levels (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) and five temperatures (15/12, 20/17, 25/22, 30/27, 35/32°C, day/night) in growth chambers. Increasing temperatures to 25°C and above inhibited leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn) and shoot and root growth, but increased leaf respiration rate (R), leading to a negative carbon balance and a decline in soluble sugar content under ambient CO2. Elevated CO2 did not cause shift of optimal temperatures in Kentucky bluegrass, but promoted Pn, shoot and root growth under all levels of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) and mitigated the adverse effects of severe high temperatures (30 and 35°C). Elevated CO2-mitigation of adverse effects of high temperatures on Kentucky bluegrass growth could be associated with the maintenance of a positive carbon balance and the accumulation of soluble sugars and total nonstructural carbohydrates through stimulation of Pn and suppression of R and respiratory organic acid metabolism.

  11. Carbon balance assessment by eddy covariance method for agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolic soils of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, J. L.; Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Vasenev, I. I.; Andreeva, I. V.; Tihonova, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The carbon balance for the agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolics soils was evaluated using the eddy covariance approach. Absorption of carbon was recorded only during the growing season; maximum values were detected for all crops in July. The number of days during the vegetation period, when the carbon stocked in the fields with potatoes and oats & vetch mixture was about the same and accounted for 53-55 days. During this period, the increase in gross primary production (GPP) is well correlated with the crop yields. The curve of the gross primary productivity is closely linked to the phases of development of plants; for potatoes, this graph differs significantly for all phases. Form of oats & vetch mixture biomass curve shown linear increases. Carbon losses were observed for all the studied agroecosystems: for fields with an oats & vetch mixture they were 254 g C m-2 y-1, while for fields with potato plants they were 307 g C m-2 y-1. Values about 250-300 g C m-2 per year may be considered as estimated values for the total carbon uptake for agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolic soils.

  12. Effects of national energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in a European internal electricity market: Results from a simulation model of the European power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoster, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This article considers the economic and environmental (in terms of CO2) effects of national energy policies in a European Single Market for electricity. It was found that the combined CO2/Energy-tax proposed by the European Commission would be able to stabilise the current volume of CO2-emissions in the electricity sector. A national single handed effort in introducing a CO2-tax to reduce the emissions was found to be ineffective in the long term and would be in addition allocative inefficien...

  13. Conductive additive content balance in Li-ion battery cathodes: Commercial carbon blacks vs. in situ carbon from LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, Veronica; Goni, Aintzane; Muro, Izaskun Gil de; Rojo, Teofilo [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, P.O. Box. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain); de Meatza, Iratxe; Bengoechea, Miguel [Energy Department, CIDETEC-IK4, P Miramon 196, Parque Tecnologico de San Sebastian, 20009, San Sebastian (Spain); Cantero, Igor [Departamento I+D+i Nuevas Tecnologias, CEGASA, Artapadura, 11, 01013 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Two samples of commercial conducting carbon black and the carbon generated in situ during LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite synthesis from citric acid are studied, with the aim of finding out whether carbon from the composite can fulfil the same function as carbon black in the electrode blend for a Li-ion battery. For this purpose, the carbon samples are analyzed by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, granulometry, BET specific area and conductivity measurements. Different cathode compositions and component proportions are tested for pellet and cast electrodes. Electrochemical results show that a moderate reduction of commercial carbon black content in both kinds of cathodes, by adding more LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite, enhanced the electrochemical behaviour by around 10%. In situ generated carbon can partially replace commercial conducting carbon black because its high specific surface probably enhances electrolyte penetration into the cathode, but it is always necessary to maintain a minimum amount of carbon black that provides better conductivity in order to obtain a good electrochemical response. (author)

  14. Effects of contemporary land-use and land-cover change on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Liu, Jinxun; Daniel, Colin; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Sherba, Jason; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Selmants, Paul; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) can have profound effects on terrestrial carbon dynamics, yet their effects on the global carbon budget remain uncertain. While land change impacts on ecosystem carbon dynamics have been the focus of numerous studies, few efforts have been based on observational data incorporating multiple ecosystem types spanning large geographic areas over long time horizons. In this study we use a variety of synoptic-scale remote sensing data to estimate the effect of LULC changes associated with urbanization, agricultural expansion and contraction, forest harvest, and wildfire on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems (forest, grasslands, shrublands, and agriculture) in the conterminous United States (i.e. excluding Alaska and Hawaii) between 1973 and 2010. We estimate large net declines in the area of agriculture and forest, along with relatively small increases in grasslands and shrublands. The largest net change in any class was an estimated gain of 114 865 km2 of developed lands, an average rate of 3282 km2 yr−1. On average, US ecosystems sequestered carbon at an annual rate of 254 Tg C yr−1. In forest lands, the net sink declined by 35% over the study period, largely a result of land-use legacy, increasing disturbances, and reductions in forest area due to land use conversion. Uncertainty in LULC change data contributed to a ~16% margin of error in the annual carbon sink estimate prior to 1985 (approximately ±40 Tg C yr−1). Improvements in LULC and disturbance mapping starting in the mid-1980s reduced this uncertainty by ~50% after 1985. We conclude that changes in LULC are a critical component to understanding ecosystem carbon dynamics, and continued improvements in detection, quantification, and attribution of change have the potential to significantly reduce current uncertainties.

  15. Effects of contemporary land-use and land-cover change on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Liu, Jinxun; Daniel, Colin; Rayfield, Bronwyn; Sherba, Jason; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Selmants, Paul C.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    Changes in land use and land cover (LULC) can have profound effects on terrestrial carbon dynamics, yet their effects on the global carbon budget remain uncertain. While land change impacts on ecosystem carbon dynamics have been the focus of numerous studies, few efforts have been based on observational data incorporating multiple ecosystem types spanning large geographic areas over long time horizons. In this study we use a variety of synoptic-scale remote sensing data to estimate the effect of LULC changes associated with urbanization, agricultural expansion and contraction, forest harvest, and wildfire on the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems (forest, grasslands, shrublands, and agriculture) in the conterminous United States (i.e. excluding Alaska and Hawaii) between 1973 and 2010. We estimate large net declines in the area of agriculture and forest, along with relatively small increases in grasslands and shrublands. The largest net change in any class was an estimated gain of 114 865 km2 of developed lands, an average rate of 3282 km2 yr‑1. On average, US ecosystems sequestered carbon at an annual rate of 254 Tg C yr‑1. In forest lands, the net sink declined by 35% over the study period, largely a result of land-use legacy, increasing disturbances, and reductions in forest area due to land use conversion. Uncertainty in LULC change data contributed to a ~16% margin of error in the annual carbon sink estimate prior to 1985 (approximately ±40 Tg C yr‑1). Improvements in LULC and disturbance mapping starting in the mid-1980s reduced this uncertainty by ~50% after 1985. We conclude that changes in LULC are a critical component to understanding ecosystem carbon dynamics, and continued improvements in detection, quantification, and attribution of change have the potential to significantly reduce current uncertainties.

  16. Carbon cycling of European croplands: A framework for the assimilation of optical and microwave Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Andrew; Sus, Oliver; Williams, Mathew

    2013-04-01

    Croplands are traditionally managed to maximise the production of food, feed, fibre and bioenergy. Advancements in agricultural technologies, together with land-use change, have approximately doubled World grain harvests over the past 50 years. Cropland ecosystems also play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle and, through changes to C storage in response to management activities, they can provide opportunities for climate change mitigation. However, quantifying and understanding the cropland C cycle is complex, due to variable environmental drivers, varied management practices and often highly heterogeneous landscapes. Efforts to upscale processes using simulation models must resolve these challenges. Here we show how data assimilation (DA) approaches can link C cycle modelling to Earth observation (EO) and reduce uncertainty in upscaling. We evaluate a framework for the assimilation of leaf area index (LAI) time series, empirically derived from EO optical and radar sensors, for state-updating a model of crop development and C fluxes. Sensors are selected with fine spatial resolutions (20-50 m) to resolve variability across field sizes typically used in European agriculture. Sequential DA is used to improve the canopy development simulation, which is validated by comparing time-series LAI and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) predictions to independent ground measurements and eddy covariance observations at multiple European cereal crop sites. Significant empirical relationships were established between the LAI ground measurements and the optical reflectance and radar backscatter, which allowed for single LAI calibrations being valid for all the cropland sites for each sensor. The DA of all EO LAI estimates results indicated clear adjustments in LAI and an enhanced representation of daily CO2 exchanges, particularly around the time of peak C uptake. Compared to the simulation without DA, the assimilation of all EO LAI estimates improved the predicted at

  17. Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdieck, Dieter; Ziche, Daniel; Böttcher-Jungclaus, Kerstin

    2007-02-01

    Effects of temperature on growth and wood anatomy were studied in young European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) grown in 7-l pots for 2.5 years in field-phytotron chambers supplied with an ambient (approximately 400 micromol mol-1) or elevated (approximately 700 micromol mol-1) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]). Temperatures in the chambers ranged in increments of 2 degrees C from -4 degrees C to +4 degrees C relative to the long-term mean monthly (day and night) air temperature in Berlin-Dahlem. Soil was not fertilized and soil water and air humidity were kept constant. Data were evaluated by regression analysis. At final harvest, stem diameter was significantly greater at increased temperature (Delta1 degrees C: 2.4%), stems were taller (Delta1 degrees C: 8.5%) and stem mass tree-1 (Delta1 degrees C: 10.9%) and leaf area tree-1(Delta1 degrees C: 6.5%) were greater. Allocation pattern was slightly influenced by temperature: leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio decreased with increasing temperature (Delta1 degrees C: 2.3% and 2.2% respectively), whereas stem mass/total mass increased (Delta1 degrees C: 2.1%). Elevated [CO2] enhanced height growth by 8.8% and decreased coarse root mass/total mass by 10.3% and root/shoot ratio by 11.7%. Additional carbon was mainly invested in aboveground growth. At final harvest a synergistic interaction between elevated [CO2] and temperature yielded trees that were 3.2% taller at -4 degrees C and 12.7% taller at +4 degrees C than trees in ambient [CO2]. After 2.5 seasons, cross-sectional area of the oldest stem part was approximately 32% greater in the +4 degrees C treatment than in the -4 degrees C treatment, and in the last year approximately 67% more leaf area/unit tree ring area was produced in the highest temperature regime compared with the lowest. Elevated [CO2] decreased mean vessel area of the 120 largest vessels per mm2 by 5.8%, causing a decrease in water conducting capacity. There was a positive interaction between

  18. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, S.J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Bere, E.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Manios, Y.; Brug, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less

  19. New considerations for PM, Black Carbon and particle number concentration for air quality monitoring across different European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In many large cities of Europe standard air quality limit values of particulate matter (PM are exceeded. Emissions from road traffic and biomass burning are frequently reported to be the major causes. As a consequence of these exceedances a large number of air quality plans, most of them focusing on traffic emissions reductions, have been implemented in the last decade. In spite of this implementation, a number of cities did not record a decrease of PM levels. Thus, is the efficiency of air quality plans overestimated? Do the road traffic emissions contribute less than expected to ambient air PM levels in urban areas? Or do we need a more specific metric to evaluate the impact of the above emissions on the levels of urban aerosols?

    This study shows the results of the interpretation of the 2009 variability of levels of PM, Black Carbon (BC, aerosol number concentration (N and a number of gaseous pollutants in seven selected urban areas covering road traffic, urban background, urban-industrial, and urban-shipping environments from southern, central and northern Europe.

    The results showed that variations of PM and N levels do not always reflect the variation of the impact of road traffic emissions on urban aerosols. However, BC levels vary proportionally with those of traffic related gaseous pollutants, such as CO, NO2 and NO. Due to this high correlation, one may suppose that monitoring the levels of these gaseous pollutants would be enough to extrapolate exposure to traffic-derived BC levels. However, the BC/CO, BC/NO2 and BC/NO ratios vary widely among the cities studied, as a function of distance to traffic emissions, vehicle fleet composition and the influence of other emission sources such as biomass burning. Thus, levels of BC should be measured at air quality monitoring sites.

    During morning traffic rush hours, a narrow variation in the N/BC ratio was evidenced, but a wide variation of

  20. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.; Tamvakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly increase the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynamics are evolving, and the fuel–electricity price nexus that has been described in the literature is likely to reflect this evolution. This study investigates associations between spot prices from the British, French and Nordpool markets with those in connected electricity markets and fuel input prices, from December 2005 to October 2013. In order to assess the time-varying dynamics of electricity spot price series, localized autocorrelation functions are used. Electricity spot prices in the three markets are found to have stationary and non-stationary periods. When a trend in spot prices is observed, it is likely to reflect the trend in fuel prices. Cointegration analysis is then used to assess co-movement between electricity spot prices and fuel inputs to generation. The results show that British electricity spot prices are associated with fuel prices and not with price developments in connected markets, while the opposite is observed in the French and Nordpool day-ahead markets. - Highlights: • Electricity market integration policies may have altered EU spot electricity prices. • LACF is used to assess the changing nature of electricity spot prices. • EU electricity spot prices show both stationary and non-stationary periods. • Carbon and fuel prices have greater impact on British spot prices. • In continental Europe, electricity prices have decoupled from fuel prices.

  1. National culture, work-life balance and employee well-being in European tourism firms: the moderating effect of uncertainty avoidance values

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia-Casademunt, Ana M.; García-Cabrera, Antonia M.; Cuéllar-Molina, Deybbi G.

    2015-01-01

    The competitive advantage of companies rests upon work attitudes and the behavior of their employees. Work-life balance initiatives are considered to be an important antecedent of employees’ well-being, and thus a factor that highly conditions employees’ work attitudes and behavior. This study explores these relationships in the tourism industry, where hotels and restaurants offer day and night services that could harm work-life balance. Also, in the tourism industry, the national diversity o...

  2. Disturbance and the Carbon Balance of US Forests: A Quantitative Review of Impacts from Harvests, Fires, Insects, and Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Gu, Huan; MacLean, Richard; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Collatz, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances are a major determinant of forest carbon stocks and uptake. They generally reduce land carbon stocks but also initiate a regrowth legacy that contributes substantially to the contemporary rate of carbon stock increase in US forestlands. As managers and policy makers increasingly look to forests for climate protection and mitigation, and because of increasing concern about changes in disturbance intensity and frequency, there is a need for synthesis and integration of current understanding about the role of disturbances and other processes in governing forest carbon cycle dynamics, and the likely future of this and other sinks for atmospheric carbon. This paper aims to address that need by providing a quantitative review of the distribution, extent and carbon impacts of the major disturbances active in the US. We also review recent trends in disturbances, climate, and other global environmental changes and consider their individual and collective contributions to the US carbon budget now and in the likely future. Lastly, we identify some key challenges and opportunities for future research needed to improve current understanding, advance predictive capabilities, and inform forest management in the face of these pressures. Harvest is found to be the most extensive disturbance both in terms of area and carbon impacts, followed by fire, windthrow and bark beetles, and lastly droughts. Collectively these lead to the gross loss of about 200 Tg C y(exp -1) in live biomass annually across the conterminous US. At the same time, the net change in forest carbon stocks is positive (190 Tg C y(exp -1)), indicating not only forest resilience but also an apparently large response to growth enhancements such as fertilization by CO2 and nitrogen. Uncertainty about disturbance legacies, disturbance interactions, likely trends, and global change factors make the future of the US forest carbon sink unclear. While there is scope for management to enhance carbon sinks in US

  3. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  4. The influence of broiler activity, growth rate, and litter on carbon dioxide balances for the determination of ventilation flow rates in broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, S; Estellés, F; Cambra-López, M; Torres, A G; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2011-11-01

    Carbon dioxide balances are useful in determining ventilation rates in livestock buildings. These balances need an accurate estimation of the CO(2) produced by animals and their litter to determine the ventilation flows. To estimate the daily variation in ventilation flow, it is necessary to precisely know the daily variation pattern of CO(2) production, which mainly depends on animal activity. The objective of this study was to explore the applicability of CO(2) balances for determining ventilation flows in broiler buildings. More specifically, this work aimed to quantify the amount of CO(2) produced by the litter, as well as the amount of CO(2) produced by the broilers, as a function of productive parameters, and to analyze the influence of broiler activity on CO(2) emissions. Gas concentrations and ventilation flows were simultaneously measured in 3 trials, with 1 under experimental conditions and the other 2 in a commercial broiler farm. In the experimental assay, broiler activity was also determined. At the end of the experimental trial, on the day after the removal of the broilers, the litter accounted for 20% of the total CO(2) produced, and the broilers produced 3.71 L/h of CO(2) per kg of metabolic weight. On the commercial farm, CO(2) production was the same for the 2 cycles (2.60 L/h per kg of metabolic weight, P > 0.05). However, substantial differences were found between CO(2) and broiler activity patterns after changes in light status. A regression model was used to explain these differences (R(2) = 0.52). Carbon dioxide increased with bird activity, being on average 3.02 L/h per kg of metabolic weight for inactive birds and 4.73 L/h per kg of metabolic weight when bird activity was highest. Overall, CO(2) balances are robust tools for determining the daily average ventilation flows in broiler farms. These balances could also be applied at more frequent intervals, but in this case, particular care is necessary after light status changes because of

  5. Net ecosystem production and organic carbon balance of U.S. East Coast estuaries: A synthesis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Maria; Najjar, Raymond G.; Kemp, W. Michael; Alexander, Richard B.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Griffith, Peter C.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; McCallister, S. Leigh; Smith, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Net ecosystem production (NEP) and the overall organic carbon budget for the estuaries along the East Coast of the United States are estimated. We focus on the open estuarine waters, excluding the fringing wetlands. We developed empirical models relating NEP to loading ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to total organic carbon, and carbon burial in the sediment to estuarine water residence time and total nitrogen input across the landward boundary. Output from a data-constrained water quality model was used to estimate inputs of total nitrogen and organic carbon to the estuaries across the landward boundary, including fluvial and tidal-wetland sources. Organic carbon export from the estuaries to the continental shelf was computed by difference, assuming steady state. Uncertainties in the budget were estimated by allowing uncertainties in the supporting model relations. Collectively, U.S. East Coast estuaries are net heterotrophic, with the area-integrated NEP of −1.5 (−2.8, −1.0) Tg C yr−1 (best estimate and 95% confidence interval) and area-normalized NEP of −3.2 (−6.1, −2.3) mol C m−2 yr−1. East Coast estuaries serve as a source of organic carbon to the shelf, exporting 3.4 (2.0, 4.3) Tg C yr−1 or 7.6 (4.4, 9.5) mol C m−2 yr−1. Organic carbon inputs from fluvial and tidal-wetland sources for the region are estimated at 5.4 (4.6, 6.5) Tg C yr−1 or 12 (10, 14) mol C m−2 yr−1 and carbon burial in the open estuarine waters at 0.50 (0.33, 0.78) Tg C yr−1 or 1.1 (0.73, 1.7) mol C m−2 yr−1. Our results highlight the importance of estuarine systems in the overall coastal budget of organic carbon, suggesting that in the aggregate, U.S. East Coast estuaries assimilate (via respiration and burial) ~40% of organic carbon inputs from fluvial and tidal-wetland sources and allow ~60% to be exported to the shelf.

  6. DRUM: a new framework for metabolic modeling under non-balanced growth. Application to the carbon metabolism of unicellular microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroukh, Caroline; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  7. DRUM: a new framework for metabolic modeling under non-balanced growth. Application to the carbon metabolism of unicellular microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Baroukh

    Full Text Available Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool to understand, predict and optimize bioprocesses, particularly when they imply intracellular molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the use of metabolic models for time varying metabolic fluxes is hampered by the lack of experimental data required to define and calibrate the kinetic reaction rates of the metabolic pathways. For this reason, metabolic models are often used under the balanced growth hypothesis. However, for some processes such as the photoautotrophic metabolism of microalgae, the balanced-growth assumption appears to be unreasonable because of the synchronization of their circadian cycle on the daily light. Yet, understanding microalgae metabolism is necessary to optimize the production yield of bioprocesses based on this microorganism, as for example production of third-generation biofuels. In this paper, we propose DRUM, a new dynamic metabolic modeling framework that handles the non-balanced growth condition and hence accumulation of intracellular metabolites. The first stage of the approach consists in splitting the metabolic network into sub-networks describing reactions which are spatially close, and which are assumed to satisfy balanced growth condition. The left metabolites interconnecting the sub-networks behave dynamically. Then, thanks to Elementary Flux Mode analysis, each sub-network is reduced to macroscopic reactions, for which simple kinetics are assumed. Finally, an Ordinary Differential Equation system is obtained to describe substrate consumption, biomass production, products excretion and accumulation of some internal metabolites. DRUM was applied to the accumulation of lipids and carbohydrates of the microalgae Tisochrysis lutea under day/night cycles. The resulting model describes accurately experimental data obtained in day/night conditions. It efficiently predicts the accumulation and consumption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  8. Inequities in energy-balance related behaviours and family environmental determinants in European children: baseline results of the prospective EPHE evaluation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantziki, Krystallia; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas; Radulian, Gabriella; Borys, Jean-Michel; du Plessis, Hugues; Gregório, Maria João; Graça, Pedro; de Henauw, Stefaan; Handjiev, Svetoslav; Visscher, Tommy Ls; Seidell, Jacob C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tackling inequalities in overweight, obesity and related determinants has become a top priority for the European research and policy agendas. Although it has been established that such inequalities accumulate from early childhood onward, they have not been studied extensively in

  9. Evaluation of refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in heat cascading systems under the carbon dioxide emissions constraint: the proposal of the energy cascade balance table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the refrigerating and air-conditioning technologies in cases of introducing both heat cascading systems and thermal recycling systems in industries located around urban areas. It is necessary to introduce heat cascading systems in the industrial sector in Japan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The concept of heat cascading is the multi-stage use of thermal energy by temperature level. This paper introduces three energy policies for introducing the heat cascading systems. The author develops an energy cascade model based on linear programming so as to minimize the total system costs with carbon taxes. Five cases are investigated. Carbon dioxide emission constraints result in the enhancement of heat cascading, where high temperature heat is supplied for process heating while low temperature heat is shifted to refrigeration. It was found that increasing the amount of garbage combustion waste heat could reduce electric power for the turbo compression refrigerator by promoting waste heat driven ammonia absorption refrigerator. In addition, this study proposes an energy cascade balance table with respect to the temperature level

  10. Nort-South gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Nilsen, R.M.; Midttun, O.; Hustad, S.; IJssenagger, N.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ulvik, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Brennan, P.; Johansson, M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Vineis, P.; Chuang, S.C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Dossus, L.; Perquier, F.; Overvad, K.; Teucher, B.; Grote, V.A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Adarakis, G.; Plada, M.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Santucci de Magistris, M.; Ros, M.M.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Redondo, M.L.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Schneede, J.; Guelpen, B.; Wark, P.A.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Vollset, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and

  11. North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.; Nilsen, R.M.; Midttun, O.; Hustad, S.; N, I.J.; Meyer, K.; Fredriksen, A.; Ulvik, A.; Ueland, P.M.; Brennan, P.; Johansson, M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.; Vineis, P.; Chuang, S.C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Dossus, L.; Perquier, F.; Overvad, K.; Teucher, B.; Grote, V.A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Adarakis, G.; Plada, M.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Magistris, M.S. de; Ros, M.M.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Redondo, M.L.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Schneede, J.; Guelpen, B. van; Wark, P.A.; Gallo, V.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Vollset, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and

  12. The role of Italian agro-forestry system in controlling the carbon dioxide and methane balance in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, G.; La Mantia, T.

    1992-01-01

    After the EEC decision to stabilize the carbon dioxide emissions by year 2000 at the 1990 level, a study has been financed by the Italian Ministry of Environment in order to define what targets could be set by the year 2005 and what strategies could be implemented in Italy in order to achieve consistent carbon dioxide reductions. The results of the research indicate the possibility for Italy to reduce the CO 2 emissions by 25% compared to the 1990 level. In this paper the options to use biomass in order to increase the sink of carbon in Italy are analyzed. The role of forestry, agricultural wastes and residues, urban wastes, energy crops and organic soil matter has been considered. In a climate stabilization scenario, it could be possible to avoid the emissions (or to capture) a yearly quantity of carbon of 18 millions of tons. The potential reduction of methane emissions from the agro-forestry sector on urban wastes disposal is also presented. (author)

  13. Balancing beyond the horizon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Pilegaard, Jess

    2011-01-01

    The present article seeks to make sense of recent European Union (EU) naval capability changes by applying neo-realist theory to the EU as a collective actor in the global balance of power. The paper compares two different strands of neorealist theory by deducing key predictions about the expecte......-term balancing strategy aimed at bolstering the autonomy and international influence of the Union vis-a`-vis other major powers, including the USA....

  14. Origin of elemental carbon in snow from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during winter-spring 2014, 2015 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Espen Yttri, Karl; Eckhardt, Sabine; Sollum, Espen; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Kobelev, Vasily O.; Korobov, Vladimir B.; Lobanov, Andrey A.; Starodymova, Dina P.; Vorobiev, Sergey N.; Thompson, Rona L.; Stohl, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Short-lived climate forcers have been proven important both for the climate and human health. In particular, black carbon (BC) is an important climate forcer both as an aerosol and when deposited on snow and ice surface because of its strong light absorption. This paper presents measurements of elemental carbon (EC; a measurement-based definition of BC) in snow collected from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia during 2014, 2015 and 2016. The Russian Arctic is of great interest to the scientific community due to the large uncertainty of emission sources there. We have determined the major contributing sources of BC in snow in western Siberia and northwestern European Russia using a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model. For the first time, we use a recently developed feature that calculates deposition in backward (so-called retroplume) simulations allowing estimation of the specific locations of sources that contribute to the deposited mass. EC concentrations in snow from western Siberia and northwestern European Russia were highly variable depending on the sampling location. Modelled BC and measured EC were moderately correlated (R = 0.53-0.83) and a systematic region-specific model underestimation was found. The model underestimated observations by 42 % (RMSE = 49 ng g-1) in 2014, 48 % (RMSE = 37 ng g-1) in 2015 and 27 % (RMSE = 43 ng g-1) in 2016. For EC sampled in northwestern European Russia the underestimation by the model was smaller (fractional bias, FB > -100 %). In this region, the major sources were transportation activities and domestic combustion in Finland. When sampling shifted to western Siberia, the model underestimation was more significant (FB < -100 %). There, the sources included emissions from gas flaring as a major contributor to snow BC. The accuracy of the model calculations was also evaluated using two independent datasets of BC measurements in snow covering the entire Arctic. The model underestimated BC concentrations in

  15. Soil organic matter dynamics and CO2 fluxes in relation to landscape scale processes: linking process understanding to regional scale carbon mass-balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oost, Kristof; Nadeu, Elisabet; Wiaux, François; Wang, Zhengang; Stevens, François; Vanclooster, Marnik; Tran, Anh; Bogaert, Patrick; Doetterl, Sebastian; Lambot, Sébastien; Van wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the main outcomes of a collaborative project (2009-2014) initiated at the UCL (Belgium). The main objective of the project was to increase our understanding of soil organic matter dynamics in complex landscapes and use this to improve predictions of regional scale soil carbon balances. In a first phase, the project characterized the emergent spatial variability in soil organic matter storage and key soil properties at the regional scale. Based on the integration of remote sensing, geomorphological and soil analysis techniques, we quantified the temporal and spatial variability of soil carbon stock and pool distribution at the local and regional scales. This work showed a linkage between lateral fluxes of C in relation with sediment transport and the spatial variation in carbon storage at multiple spatial scales. In a second phase, the project focused on characterizing key controlling factors and process interactions at the catena scale. In-situ experiments of soil CO2 respiration showed that the soil carbon response at the catena scale was spatially heterogeneous and was mainly controlled by the catenary variation of soil physical attributes (soil moisture, temperature, C quality). The hillslope scale characterization relied on advanced hydrogeophysical techniques such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), EMI (Electromagnetic induction), ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography), and geophysical inversion and data mining tools. Finally, we report on the integration of these insights into a coupled and spatially explicit model and its application. Simulations showed that C stocks and redistribution of mass and energy fluxes are closely coupled, they induce structured spatial and temporal patterns with non negligible attached uncertainties. We discuss the main outcomes of these activities in relation to sink-source behavior and relevance of erosion processes for larger-scale C budgets.

  16. The OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is a critical modulator of carbon and nitrogen nutrient balance response in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The balance between carbon (C and nitrogen (N nutrients must be tightly coordinated so that cells can optimize their opportunity for metabolism, growth and development. However, the C and N nutrient balance perception and signaling mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of two allelic oversensitive to sugar 1 mutants (osu1-1, osu1-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the cotyledon anthocyanin accumulation and root growth inhibition assays, we show that the osu1 mutants are more sensitive than wild-type to both of the imbalanced C/N conditions, high C/low N and low C/high N. However, under the balanced C/N conditions (low C/low N or high C/high N, the osu1 mutants have similar anthocyanin levels and root lengths as wild-type. Consistently, the genes encoding two MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and MYB90 and an Asn synthetase isoform (ASN1 are strongly up-regulated by the OSU1 mutation in response to high C/low N and low C/high N, respectively. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity of osu1-1 to high C/low N with respect to anthocyanin accumulation but not root growth inhibition can be suppressed by co-suppression of MYB75, indicating that MYB75 acts downstream of OSU1 in the high C/low N imbalance response. Map-based cloning reveals that OSU1 encodes a member of a large family of putative methyltransferases and is allelic to the recently reported QUA2/TSD2 locus identified in genetic screens for cell-adhesion-defective mutants. Accumulation of OSU1/QUA2/TSD2 transcript was not regulated by C and N balance, but the OSU1 promoter was slightly more active in the vascular system. Taken together, our results show that the OSU1/QUA2/TSD2-encoded putative methyltransferase is required for normal C/N nutrient balance response in plants.

  17. Carbon balance impacts of land use changes related to the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil-derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2014-01-01

    to oil palm, in a life cycle perspective.LCA methodology is applied to existing land use change data. The assessment includes the issue of temporary carbon storage in the plantations. Through quantification of emissions from state forest reserve and rubber plantation conversions, the average Malaysian...... palm oil-related land use changes are calculated.The results show that there are high emissions associated with the conversion of Malaysian state forest reserve to oil palm, whereas the conversion of rubber leaves a less significant carbon debt when indirect land use change is not included. Looking...... at the average Malaysian land use changes associated with oil palm shows that land use change emissions are responsible for approximately half of the total conventional biodiesel production emissions. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results could be significantly influenced by data variations in indirect...

  18. Carbon Mobilization in Oil Palm Plantation and Milling Based on a Carbon-Balanced Model – A Case Study in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Withida Patthanaissaranukool; Chongchin Polprasert

    2011-01-01

    Damage to agricultural areas and household properties occurs more frequently all year round from extreme weather, which is believed to be due to climate change caused by the increase of greenhouse gases – particularly, CO2. In order to help reduce its concentration in the atmosphere, palm oil is a renewable energy which can be used for this purpose. In this study, the carbon mobilization of palm oil was investigated, from oil palm plantation process to the milling process, so as to determine ...

  19. What drives the interannual variations in carbon fluxes and balance in a tropical rainforest of French Guiana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilos, M. M.; Burban, B.; Wagner, F. H.; Hérault, B.; Bonal, D.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon rainforest - a major contributor to the global carbon sink, is not on steady state and this affects terrestrial carbon pools. Yet, information on the effect of climatic extremes to long-term carbon fluxes is lacking. Thus, using an 11-year eddy covariance data, we examined the carbon fluxes and net carbon uptake in French Guiana's tropical rainforest to determine the interannual and seasonal variations in gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), so with climatic drivers influencing such changes from 2004 - 2014. GPP varies from 3394.9 g C m‒2 yr‒1 to 4054.5 g C m‒2 yr‒1. RE is more varied than GPP (3057.4 g C m‒2 yr‒1 - 3425.9 g C m‒2 yr‒1. NEE has large interannual variability from ‒68.2 g C m‒2 yr‒1 to ‒596.2 g C m‒2 yr‒1. NEE during wet seasons had higher sink strength than in dry periods. The sudden drop of RE during wet period in 2007 - 2009 may help explain this as it almost doubled the net uptake while GPP had slighter declines. The pattern of NEE appears to be driven by higher rate of increase in RE during dry season with less comparable rise in GPP. This suggests that over 11 years, the ecosystem did not suffer any extreme dry condition strong enough to induce severe decrease in RE. Annually, global radiation (Rg) explains 49% (P<0.0001) for GPP, 42% (P<0.0001) for RE, and 21% (P<0.0001) for NEE. During the wet season, Rg still controls GPP (r2 = 0.45; P <0.0001), RE (r2 = 0.30; P<0.0001;) and NEE (r2 = 0.31; P<0.0001). However, relative extractable water (REW) manifested more strongly during the dry period explaining mainly the variations of GPP (r2 = 0.20; P < 0.0001), RE (r2 = 0.33; P < 0.0001) and NEE (r2 = 0.25; P < 0.0001). Deep rooting system of trees may have caused GPP unsuppressed despite low soil moisture. Therefore, modeling studies must consider incorporating soil water measurements in deeper soils as most tropical trees are dependent on deep soil moisture

  20. Standardisation of a European measurement method for organic carbon and elemental carbon in ambient air: results of the field trial campaign and the determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J C; Beccaceci, Sonya; Butterfield, David M; Quincey, Paul G; Harris, Peter M; Maggos, Thomas; Panteliadis, Pavlos; John, Astrid; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Karanasiou, Angeliki

    2017-10-18

    The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' has recently produced a standard method for the measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon in PM 2.5 within its working group 35 in response to the requirements of European Directive 2008/50/EC. It is expected that this method will be used in future by all Member States making measurements of the carbonaceous content of PM 2.5 . This paper details the results of a laboratory and field measurement campaign and the statistical analysis performed to validate the standard method, assess its uncertainty and define its working range to provide clarity and confidence in the underpinning science for future users of the method. The statistical analysis showed that the expanded combined uncertainty for transmittance protocol measurements of OC, EC and TC is expected to be below 25%, at the 95% level of confidence, above filter loadings of 2 μg cm -2 . An estimation of the detection limit of the method for total carbon was 2 μg cm -2 . As a result of the laboratory and field measurement campaign the EUSAAR2 transmittance measurement protocol was chosen as the basis of the standard method EN 16909:2017.

  1. Sensitivity of water and carbon fluxes to climate changes from 1960 to 2100 in European forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davi, H.; Dufrêne, E.; Francois, C.; Maire, Le G.; Loustau, D.; Bosc, A.; Rambal, S.; Granier, A.; Moors, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of climate changes on carbon and water fluxes are quantified using a physiologically multi-layer, process-based model containing a carbon allocation model and coupled with a soil model (CASTANEA). The model is first evaluated on four EUROFLUX sites using eddy covariance data, which

  2. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D

    2017-01-01

    Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C) sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC), but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019), mid (2050-2059), and late (2090-2099) century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn) and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  3. Quantifying the Carbon Balance of Forest Restoration and Wildfire under Projected Climate in the Fire-Prone Southwestern US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Hurteau

    Full Text Available Climate projections for the southwestern US suggest a warmer, drier future and have the potential to impact forest carbon (C sequestration and post-fire C recovery. Restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes initially decreases total ecosystem carbon (TEC, but can stabilize the remaining C by moderating wildfire behavior. Previous research has demonstrated that fire maintained forests can store more C over time than fire suppressed forests in the presence of wildfire. However, because the climate future is uncertain, I sought to determine the efficacy of forest management to moderate fire behavior and its effect on forest C dynamics under current and projected climate. I used the LANDIS-II model to simulate carbon dynamics under early (2010-2019, mid (2050-2059, and late (2090-2099 century climate projections for a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa dominated landscape in northern Arizona. I ran 100-year simulations with two different treatments (control, thin and burn and a 1 in 50 chance of wildfire occurring. I found that control TEC had a consistent decline throughout the simulation period, regardless of climate. Thin and burn TEC increased following treatment implementation and showed more differentiation than the control in response to climate, with late-century climate having the lowest TEC. Treatment efficacy, as measured by mean fire severity, was not impacted by climate. Fire effects were evident in the cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE for the different treatments. Over the simulation period, 32.8-48.9% of the control landscape was either C neutral or a C source to the atmosphere and greater than 90% of the thin and burn landscape was a moderate C sink. These results suggest that in southwestern ponderosa pine, restoring forest structure and surface fire regimes provides a reasonable hedge against the uncertainty of future climate change for maintaining the forest C sink.

  4. Joint European project on underground coal gasification in Spain; Proyecto europeo conjunto de gasificacion subterranea de carbon en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Obis, A.; Menendez, E.; Albeniz, M.A.; Chandelle, V.; Mostade, M.; Bailey, A.C. [ITGE, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-09-01

    Organizations from Spain, Belgium and the United Kingdom are collaborating in a field test of underground coal gasification which is being implemented in the north of Teruel Province (Spain). The test is first phase of a European development programme on in-situ coal gasification, being carried out with financial help from the Commission of the European Communities. This paper covers a forecast of the future energy demand for Europe, the potential of in-situ coal gasification, and a summary of the recent development of in-situ coal gasification. The circumstances which led to the formation of a European organisation (UEE) which will implement the project are described, and its objectives are presented. The geological characteristics of the proposed region are detailed, together with the test programme, and its successive phases in realising the principle parameters of the operations.

  5. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  6. Improved constraints on in situ rates and on quantification of complete chloroethene degradation from stable carbon isotope mass balances in groundwater plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Elsner, Martin; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Atteia, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Spills of chloroethenes (CEs) at industrial and urban sites can create groundwater plumes in which tetrachloro- and trichloroethene sequentially degrade to dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene, or ethane under reducing conditions. For detoxification, degradation must go beyond VC. Assessments based on ethene and ethane, however, are difficult because these products are volatile, may stem from alternative sources, can be further transformed and are not always monitored. To alternatively quantify degradation beyond VC, stable carbon isotope mass balances have been proposed where concentration-weighted CE isotope ratios are summed up and compared to the original source isotope ratio. Reported assessments, however, have provided not satisfactorily quantified results entailing greatly differing upper and lower estimates. This work proposes an integrative approach to better constrain the extent of total chloroethene degradation in groundwater samples. It is based on fitting of measured concentration and compound-specific stable carbon isotope data to an analytical reactive transport equation simulating steady-state plumes in two dimensions using an EXCEL spreadsheet. The fitting also yields estimates of degradation rates, of source width and of dispersivities. The approach is validated using two synthetic benchmark cases where the true extent of degradation is well known, and using data from two real field cases from literature.

  7. Dedolomitization Potential of Fluids from Gypsum-to-Anhydrite Conversion: Mass Balance Constraints from the Late Permian Zechstein-2-Carbonates in NW Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hallenberger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zechstein-2-Carbonates represent one of the most prolific hydrocarbon systems of Central Europe. Carbonate reservoir quality is primarily controlled by mineralogy, with dolomite representing moderate-to-good porosities and calcite commonly representing low porosities. Current models suggest that this calcite is the result of a basin-wide phase of dedolomitization. The calcium (Ca source for the dedolomites is thought to be derived from the fluids liberated during gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion. We present an easy-to-use and generally applicable template to estimate the dedolomitization potential of these fluids. Depending on reaction stoichiometry, salinity, and temperature, we estimate that between 2.8⁎10−3 m3 and 6.2⁎10−3 m3 of calcite may replace dolomite for each m3 of anhydrite created. Within the constraints dictated by the environment of the late Permian Zechstein basin, we estimate that about 5⁎10−3 m3 of dedolomite is created for each m3 of anhydrite. Mass balance constraints indicate that fluids derived from gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion account for less than 1% of the observed dedolomite in most of the studied industry wells from northern Germany.

  8. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  9. Weed-cover versus weed-removal management in olive orchards: influence on the carbon balance at the ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the C budget at the global scale. Traditional practices based on soil tillage and applying herbicides to remove weeds have caused damage to soils and led to important losses of soil organic C and increased CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Changing trends from traditional agriculture to conservation agriculture practices may have an important role in both C and water budgets and the transformation of agriculture from C source to C sink. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of two treatments, weed removal by herbicides versus weed cover conservation, on the C balance in an irrigated olive orchard in SE Spain. Measurements of CO2 exchange were made from October 2014 to September 2015 using two eddy covariance towers, one for each olive crop treatment. Results show that CO2 fluxes at the ecosystem scale were similar in the two treatments during initial conditions, prior to weed growth in the soils without herbicide application (October). During the first week, daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was close to zero in both treatments, with values ranging from 1.06 to -0.41 g C m-2 in the weed cover treatment, and from 0.76 to -0.69 g C m-2 in the weed removal treatment. As weed growth increased, higher net CO2 assimilation was found in the treatment with weed cover. In both treatments, maximum net CO2 assimilation was found in March, with a monthly NEE of -72 and -28 g C m-2 in the treatment with and without weed cover, respectively. In May, after the weeds were cut and left on the soil, a strong increase was observed in NEE in the treatment with weed cover due to decreased CO2 assimilation and increased respiration compared to the treatment without weed cover. Therefore, soil chamber measurements showed average respiration rates of 2.57 and 1.57 μmol m-2 s-2 in the weed cover and weed removal treatment, respectively. Finally, the highest monthly NEE was registered during July, with both treatments showing a similar

  10. Water, Energy and Carbon Balance Research: Recovery Trajectories For Oil Sands Reclamation and Disturbed Watersheds in the Western Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, R. M.; Carey, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Oil Sand Region (OSR) of North-Central Alberta exists within the sub-humid Boreal Plains (BP) ecozone, with a slight long-term moisture deficit regime. Despite this deficit, the BP is comprised of productive wetland and mixed wood (aspen and conifer dominated) forests. Reclamation activities are now underway at a large number of surface mining operations in the OSR, where target ecosystems are identified, soil prescriptions placed and commercial forest species planted. Some watersheds have been created that now contain wetlands. However, recent work in the BP suggests that over time wetlands supply moisture for the productivity of upland forests. Thus, water use of reclaimed forests is going to be critical in determining the sustainability of these systems and adjacent wetlands, and whether in time, either will achieve some form of equivalent capability that will allow for certification by regulators. A critical component in the success of any reclamation is that sufficient water is available to support target ecosystems through the course of natural climate cycles in the region. Water Use Efficiency (WUE), which links photosynthesis (GEP) with water use (Evapotranspiration (ET)), provides a useful metric to compare ecosystems and evaluate their utilization of resources. In this study, 41 site years of total growing season water and carbon flux data over 8 sites (4 reclamation, 4 regeneration) were evaluated using eddy covariance micrometeorological towers. WUE shows clear discrimination among ecosystem types as aspen stands assimilate more carbon per unit weight of water than conifers. WUEs also change with time as ecosystems become more effective at transpiring water through plant pathways compared with bare-soil evaporation, which allows an assessment of ability to limit water loss without carbon uptake. In addition, clonal rooting systems allow aspen forests to recover quicker after disturbance than reclamation sites in terms of their WUE. For reclamation

  11. Potential of forest management to reduce French carbon emissions - regional modelling of the French forest carbon balance from the forest to the wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vallet, P.

    2015-12-01

    In France the low levels of forest harvest (40 Mm3 per year over a volume increment of 89Mm3) is frequently cited to push for a more intensive management of the forest that would help reducing CO2 emissions. This reasoning overlooks the medium-to-long-term effects on the carbon uptake at the national scale that result from changes in the forest's structure and delayed emissions from products decay and bioenergy burning, both determinant for the overall C fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. To address the impacts of an increase in harvest removal on biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes at national scale, we build a consistent regional modeling framework to integrate the forest-carbon system from photosynthesis to wood uses. We aim at bridging the gap between regional ecosystem modeling and land managers' considerations, to assess the synergistic and antagonistic effects of management strategies over C-based forest services: C-sequestration, energy and material provision, fossil fuel substitution. For this, we built on inventory data to develop a spatial forest growth simulator and design a novel method for diagnosing the current level of management based on stand characteristics (density, quadratic mean diameter or exploitability). The growth and harvest simulated are then processed with a life cycle analysis to account for wood transformation and uses. Three scenarii describe increases in biomass removals either driven by energy production target (set based on national prospective with a lock on minimum harvest diameters) or by changes in management practices (shorter or longer rotations, management of currently unmanaged forests) to be compared with business as usual simulations. Our management levels' diagnostics quantifies undermanagement at national scale and evidences the large weight of ownership-based undermanagement with an average of 26% of the national forest (between 10% and 40% per species) and thus represents a huge potential wood resource

  12. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    -output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion...

  13. Balance of ionization and recombination of carbon ions in high density peripheral plasmas of the JT-60 U tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T.; Kubo, H.; Asakura, N.; Shimizu, K.

    2009-01-01

    In high density and low temperature peripheral plasmas of JT-60 U, i.e. detached divertor plasmas, C III and C IV lines were observed by a visible and VUV spectrometers in order to investigate dominant radiators, radiation power and particle balance between the radiators. An emission peak was found between the inner strike and the X-point. With increasing electron density, the emission peak moved to the X-point with a constant electron temperature of ∼7 eV. In the case the emission peak was located on the X-point, the dominant radiators in the emission peak were C 2+ and C 3+ , which contributed 30% and 60% to the total radiative power. It was found that C 3+ was produced by the ionization of C 2+ and the volume recombination of C 4+ at a similar rates. However, the loss flux of C 3+ was lower by two orders of magnitude than the C 3+ production flux, indicating that another loss mechanism such as transport loss around the X-point was significant.

  14. Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Saskia J; ChinAPaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes

    2014-07-08

    The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Parental and friends norm and

  15. Adapting fire management to future fire regimes: impacts on boreal forest composition and carbon balance in Canadian National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, W. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Cantin, A.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of future fire regimes altered by climate change, and fire management in adaptation to climate change were studied in the boreal forest region of western Canada. Present (1975-90) and future (2080-2100) fire regimes were simulated for several National Parks using data from the Canadian (CGCM1) and Hadley (HadCM3) Global Climate Models (GCM) in separate simulation scenarios. The long-term effects of the different fire regimes on forests were simulated using a stand-level, boreal fire effects model (BORFIRE). Changes in forest composition and biomass storage due to future altered fire regimes were determined by comparing current and future simulation results. This was used to assess the ecological impact of altered fire regimes on boreal forests, and the future role of these forests as carbon sinks or sources. Additional future simulations were run using adapted fire management strategies, including increased fire suppression and the use of prescribed fire to meet fire cycle objectives. Future forest composition, carbon storage and emissions under current and adapted fire management strategies were also compared to determine the impact of various future fire management options. Both of the GCM's showed more severe burning conditions under future fire regimes. This includes fires with higher intensity, greater depth of burn, greater total fuel consumption and shorter fire cycles (or higher rates of annual area burned). The Canadian GCM indicated burning conditions more severe than the Hadley GCM. Shorter fire cycles of future fire regimes generally favoured aspen, birch, and jack pine because it provided more frequent regeneration opportunity for these pioneer species. Black spruce was only minimally influenced by future fire regimes, although white spruce declined sharply. Maintaining representation of pure and mixed white spruce ecosystems in natural areas will be a concern under future fire regimes. Active fire suppression is required in these areas. In

  16. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fully trust your sense of balance. Loss of balance also raises the risk of falls. This is a serious and even life-threatening ... 65. Balance disorders are serious because of the risk of falls. But occasionally balance problems may warn of another health condition, such ...

  17. Carbon balance in bioregenerative life support systems: Some effects of system closure, waste management, and crop harvest index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems with bioregenerative components, plant photosynthesis would be used to produce O2 and food, while removing CO2. Much of the plant biomass would be inedible and hence must be considered in waste management. This waste could be oxidized (e.g., incinerated or aerobically digested) to resupply CO2 to the plants, but this would not be needed unless the system were highly closed with regard to food. For example, in a partially closed system where some of the food is grown and some is imported, CO2 from oxidized waste when combined with crew and microbial respiration could exceed the CO2 removal capability of the plants. Moreover, it would consume some O2 produced from photosynthesis that could have been used by the crew. For partially closed systems it would be more appropriate to store or find other uses for the inedible biomass and excess carbon, such as generating soils or growing woody plants (e.g., dwarf fruit trees). Regardless of system closure, high harvest crops (i.e., crops with a high edible to total biomass ratio) would increase food production per unit area and O2 yields for systems where waste biomass is oxidized to recycle CO2. Such interlinking effects between the plants and waste treatment strategies point out the importance of oxidizing only that amount of waste needed to optimize system performance.

  18. Analysis of Metabolites and Carbon Balance in the Biofilteration of Cumene Using Loofa Sponge as Biofilter Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Amrita; Rai, B N; Singh, R S

    2016-09-01

    A laboratory-scale biofilter study was performed to treat cumene-inoculated mixed culture of bacterial community and loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica) as support media for a period of 120 days in five distinct phases. The removal efficiency was obtained in the range of 40-85 % with maximum elimination capacity of 700 g m(-3) h(-1) at the inlet load of 1167 g m(-3) h(-1). The result demonstrated that loofa sponge is good support media for the removal of cumene at higher loading rates. Loofa sponge was characterized via chemical analysis and analytical techniques such as XRD; FTIR; XPS; and CHN, and the result obtained confirms its suitability as biofilter media. The SEM results of loofa with inoculum shows the formation of a biofilm layer on the surface of loofa. The GC-MS analysis of leachate confirms the presence of different organic compounds such as acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoic acids which are stable metabolites during cumene biodegradation. About 12.69 % of carbon present in inlet cumene was converted to biomass.

  19. A multi-tiered approach for assessing the forestry and wood products industries' impact on the carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The forestry and wood products industries play a significant role in CO 2 emissions reduction by increasing carbon stocks in living forest biomass and wood products. Moreover, wood can substitute for fossil fuels. Different methods can be used to assess the impact of regional forestry and wood products industries on regional CO 2 emissions. This article considers three of those methods and combines them into a multi-tiered approach. The multi-tiered approach proposed in this article combines: 1) a Kyoto-Protocol-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional industrial production, 2) a consumer-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional consumption, and 3) a value-creation-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from forest management and wood usage strategies. North Rhine-Westphalia is both a typical German state and an example of a region where each of these three methods yields different results. It serves as a test case with which to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. This case study argues that the choice of assessment methods is essential when developing and evaluating a strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions. Emissions can be reduced through various social and economic processes. Since none of the assessment methods considered above is suitable for all of these processes, only a multi-tiered approach may ensure that strategy development results in an optimal emissions reduction strategy.

  20. The future of the Europe of energy: towards the domestic energy market; network codes: where are we; the gas infrastructure European grid, which ambitions for 2030?; Action to boost the carbon market; LPG in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    A set of articles first discusses the perspective of creation of a European domestic energy market which appears in the elaboration of the French energy policy, whereas industrial actors are still reluctant. The second article briefly comments the progress in the elaboration of common rules by the European Union for the creation of this European