Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Morrison, Lynn; Brown, Daniel E; Reza, Angela M
The Hilo Women's Health Survey was designed and administered to gather baseline data on women's health in Hilo, HI. This randomized, cross-sectional study allowed for a focus on ethnic differences in symptom reporting. The results presented here focus on hot flash and night sweat experience among Japanese-American and European-American women. Survey packets were mailed to street addresses associated with parcel numbers pulled randomly from Hilo tax maps. Of the 6,401 survey packets delivered to households, 1,824 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results reported here are based on 869 women aged 40 to 60, of whom 249 described themselves to be 100% Japanese and 203 described themselves to be 100% European-American. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the relationship between ethnicity and vasomotor symptoms persisted after controlling for other variables. European-American participants were more likely to have ever experienced a hot flash as compared with Japanese-American participants (72% vs 53%, P<0.01). During the 2 weeks before the survey, European-American participants were more likely to have experienced hot flashes (P<0.05) and night sweats (P<0.01). In logistic regression analyses, after controlling for age, body mass index, menopause status, level of education, financial comfort, smoking habits, alcohol intake, exercise, use of hormone therapy, and soy intake, European-American women were still significantly more likely to have experienced hot flashes (odds ratio=1.858) and night sweats (odds ratio=2.672). The results, based on self-reporting of menopausal symptoms, indicate that Japanese-American women report fewer hot flashes and night sweats than European-American women. Japanese-American women reported a higher intake of soy, but soy intake was not associated with fewer vasomotor symptoms.
Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D
Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.
Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.
African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…
James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A
The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Patrice L. Capers
Full Text Available Background Body mass index (BMI has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. Methods African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years ( n = 552 in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal. Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android-gynoid ratio (AGR and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1. An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3, hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7, and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1. Conclusion Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians.
Oster Robert A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher among African Americans (AA vs European Americans (EA, independent of obesity and other known confounders. Although the reason for this disparity is not known, it is possible that relatively low levels of vitamin D among AA may contribute, as vitamin D has been positively associated with insulin sensitivity in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women. Methods Subjects were 115 African American (AA and 137 European American (EA healthy, premenopausal women. Dietary intake was determined with 4-day food records; the insulin sensitivity index (SI with a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling; the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR with fasting insulin and glucose; and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Vitamin D intake was positively associated with SI (standardized β = 0.18, P = 0.05 and inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = -0.26, P = 0.007 in AA, and the relationships were independent of age, total body fat, energy intake, and % kcal from fat. Vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in EA (standardized β = 0.03, P = 0.74 and standardized β = 0.02, P = 0.85 for SI and HOMA-IR, respectively. Similar to vitamin D, dietary calcium was associated with SI and HOMA-IR among AA but not EA. Conclusions This study provides novel findings that dietary vitamin D and calcium were independently associated with insulin sensitivity in AA, but not EA. Promotion of these nutrients in the diet may reduce health disparities in type 2 diabetes risk among AA, although longitudinal and intervention studies are required.
Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.
The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…
Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220
Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle
Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…
Brown, Daniel E; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Mills, Phoebe S
Many studies have found a significantly lower frequency of reported hot flashes (HFs) in Japanese and Japanese American (JA) populations, leading to speculation about possible dietary, genetic, or cultural differences. These studies have relied on subjective reports of HFs. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare both reported and objective HFs measured by sternal and nuchal skin conductance among JA and European American (EA) women. Two surveys of HF frequencies were carried out among women of either EA or JA ethnicity; aged 45 to 55 years; living in Hilo, Hawaii; and not using exogenous hormones. The first was a postal questionnaire (n = 325); the second was carried out during a clinical study of HFs (n = 134). Women in the second group underwent 24-hour ambulatory and 3-hour laboratory monitoring for objective HFs measured through skin conductance at sternal and nuchal sites. Subjective HFs were recorded on the monitor or in a diary. JAs were significantly less likely to report having had HFs in the previous 2 weeks compared with EAs (postal sample: JAs, 30.9%; EAs, 43.9%; chi(2) = 6.9, P < 0.01; monitored sample: JAs, 26.1%; EAs, 46.6%; chi(2) = 5.3, P < 0.05). JAs were also significantly less likely to report experiencing other symptoms (15 of 30 in the postal sample; 6 of 30 in the monitored sample) than EAs. However, JAs did not significantly differ in likelihood of reporting subjective HFs during the 24-hour ambulatory period (JAs, 51.1%; EAs, 55.8%; chi(2) = 0.3, NS), nor in percentage of individuals displaying one or more objective HFs as measured by the skin conductance monitor (JAs, 77.8%; EAs, 72.1%; chi(2) = 0.5, NS). JAs also did not have a significantly fewer number of objective HFs (t = 0.2, NS) nor of subjective HFs (t = 0.8, NS) during the monitoring period, and these results were unchanged when analyses controlled for menopause status and body mass index. The common finding of fewer reported HFs in people of Japanese ancestry may
Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.
This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…
Manning, Mark; Albrecht, Terrance L; Yilmaz-Saab, Zeynep; Penner, Louis; Norman, Andria; Purrington, Kristen
Prior research shows between-race differences in women's knowledge and emotions related to having dense breasts, thus suggesting that between-race differences in behavioral decision-making following receipt of breast density (BD) notifications are likely. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study examined differences in emotion-related responses (i.e., anxiety, worry, confusion) and behavioral cognition (e.g., intentions, behavioral attitudes) following receipt of BD notifications among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. This study also examined whether race-related perceptions (i.e., discrimination, group-based medical mistrust), relevant knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) explained the between race differences. Michigan women (N = 457) who presented for routine screening mammogram and had dense breasts, no prior breast cancer diagnoses, and had screen-negative mammograms were recruited from July, 2015 to March 2016. MANOVA was used to examine between race differences in psychological responses (i.e., emotional responses and behavioral cognition), and a multi-group structural regression model was used to examine whether race-related constructs, knowledge and SES mediated the effect of race on emotional responses and behavioral cognition. Prior awareness of BD was accounted for in all analyses. AA women generally reported more negative psychological responses to receiving BD notifications regardless of prior BD awareness. AA women had more favorable perceptions related to talking to their physicians about the BD notifications. Generally, race-related perceptions, SES, and related knowledge partially accounted for the effect of race on psychological response. Race-related perceptions and SES partially accounted for the differences in behavioral intentions. Between-race differences in emotional responses to BD notifications did not explain differences in women's intentions to discuss BD notifications with their physicians
Brandon, L Jerome; Proctor, Larry; Cole, Calvin L
African American women (AAW) have increased odds of developing cardiometabolic (CME) risks and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared with European American women (EAW). The influence of obesity on other CME risks and the CVD disparity is unclear. The purpose of our study was to develop a CME index and evaluate the obesity and CME risk index relationships based on race. A comparative research design was employed in our study as 213 women (132 AAW; 81 EAW) from the Louisiana Delta were evaluated for CME risk clustering patterns by race, based on BMI, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry % body fat and waist conference. Fasting glucose, triglyceride (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were the measured CME risks. In summary, when the CME indexes were evaluated by obesity classification categories the ones that were CVD risk or near risk for the AAW were SBP and TG. The trend of CME index risk for the EAW was SBP and glucose. The stepwise regression equations indicate that HDL-C and SBP/DBP were the best indicators of the effects of obesity on CME risks in AAW and that SBP/DBP and glucose were the best indicators of CME risks in EAW. Our results indicate that CME risks as evaluated based on obesity categories are different for AAW than for EAW.
Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.
The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…
Coignet, Marie V; Zirpoli, Gary Robert; Roberts, Michelle R; Khoury, Thaer; Bandera, Elisa V; Zhu, Qianqian; Yao, Song
Reproductive aging phenotypes, including age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM), are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. In recent years, many genetic variants have been identified in association with AM and ANM in genome-wide association studies among European populations. Using data from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS) of 1,307 European-American (EA) and 1,365 African-American (AA) breast cancer cases and controls, we aimed to replicate 53 earlier GWAS variants for AM and ANM in AA and EA groups and to perform analyses on total and net reproductive lifespan (TRLS; NRLS). Breast cancer risk was also examined in relation to a polygenic risk score (PRS) for each of the reproductive aging phenotypes. We replicated a number of variants in EA women, including rs7759938 in LIN28B for AM and rs16991615 in MCM8 for ANM; whereas in the AA group, only one SNP (rs2947411 in TMEM18) for AM was directionally consistent and nominally significant. In analysis of TRLS and NRLS, several SNPs were significant, including rs466639 in RXRG that was associated with both phenotypes in both AA and EA groups. None of the PRS was associated with breast cancer risk. Given the paucity of data available among AA populations, our study contributes to the literature of genetics of reproductive aging in AA women and highlights the importance of cross population replication of GWAS variants.
Sabik, Natalie J
Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801
Full Text Available African American (AA women are more likely than European American (EA women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS. In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers. Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02, while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002 and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01. For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02 and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02 were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001. However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42 except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women, we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961, which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.
Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S
This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.
Pointer, S D; Rickstrew, J; Slaughter, J C; Vaezi, M F; Silver, H J
Although obesity rates are higher in African-American than European-American women, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its comorbidities are more prevalent in European-American women. A common denominator for increased adiposity, and consequent insulin resistance, is excess dietary macronutrient intake - which may promote greater prevalence and severity of GERD in women. To investigate whether GERD is more robustly associated with dietary carbohydrate intake, particularly dietary simple carbohydrate intake, and insulin resistance in European-American women. About 144 obese women were assessed at baseline and 16 weeks after consuming a high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet. GERD diagnosis and medication usage was confirmed in medical records with symptoms and medications assessed weekly. About 33.3% (N = 33) of European-American and 20.0% (N = 9) of African-American women had GERD at baseline. Total carbohydrate (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), sugars (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), glycaemic load (r = 0.34, P = 0.001) and HOMA IR (r = 0.30, P = 0.004) were associated with GERD, but only in European-American women. In response to high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, reduced intake of sugars was associated with reduced insulin resistance. By the end of diet week 10, all GERD symptoms and medication usage had resolved in all women. GERD symptoms and medication usage was more prevalent in European-American women, for whom the relationships between dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and GERD were most significant. Nevertheless, high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet benefited all women with regard to reducing GERD symptoms and frequency of medication use. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chmaj, Betty E.
The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…
Sartor, Carolyn E; Grant, Julia D; Few, Lauren R; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Duncan, Alexis E; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Agrawal, Arpana
The current investigation assessed for moderating effects of childhood trauma on genetic and environmental contributions to timing of alcohol use initiation and alcohol use disorder in African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. Data were drawn from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a longitudinal female twin study. Childhood trauma was defined alternately as child maltreatment and more broadly to include other events (e.g., witnessing violence). Phenotypic associations between childhood trauma and alcohol outcomes were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Twin modeling was conducted to test for moderating effects of childhood trauma on the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to timing of initiation and alcohol use disorder. Under both definitions, childhood trauma was associated with early initiation (relative risk ratios: 1.90, 1.72) and alcohol use disorder (odds ratios: 1.92, 1.76). Yet gene by environment effects were observed only for child maltreatment and timing of initiation in EA women, with heritable influences less prominent in those who had experienced child maltreatment (0.35, 95% CI: 0.05-0.66 vs. 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.73). We found more similarities than differences in the association of childhood trauma with alcohol outcomes across racial/ethnic groups, trauma type, and stages of alcohol use. However, findings suggest that the relative contribution of genetic factors to alcohol outcomes differs by childhood maltreatment history in EA women specifically in the earliest stage of alcohol use.
Gong, Zhihong; Quan, Lei; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Roberts, Michelle; Coignet, Jean-Gabriel; Cabasag, Citadel; Sucheston, Lara; Hwang, Helena; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Hong, Chi-Chen
African American (AA) women are more likely than European American (EA) women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses) have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women’s Circle of Health Study (WCHS). In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women) we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes) differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers). Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02), while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002) and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01). For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02) and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02) were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001). However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42) except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women), we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961), which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women
Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Sartor, Carolyn E
Childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for cannabis initiation and problem use, but the extent to which this association is attributable to shared familial influences is unknown. We estimate the magnitude of associations between childhood maltreatment, timing of cannabis initiation, and cannabis-related problems, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women, and parse the relative influence of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and individual-specific environmental (E) factors on these constructs and their covariation. Data were from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a population-based study of female twins. Logistic regression analyses and twin modeling were used to test for associations, and estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to childhood maltreatment and cannabis outcomes and their covariation. Maltreatment was significantly associated with increased likelihood of cannabis initiation before age 15 among EAs (OR=6.33) and AAs (OR=3.93), but with increased likelihood of later initiation among EAs only (OR=1.68). Maltreatment was associated with cannabis problems among both groups (EA OR=2.32; AA OR=2.03). Among EA women, the covariation between maltreatment and cannabis outcomes was primarily attributable to familial environment (rC=0.67-0.70); among AAs, only individual-specific environment contributed (rE=0.37-0.40). Childhood maltreatment is a major contributor to early initiation of cannabis as well as progression to cannabis problems in both AA and EA women. Distinctions by race/ethnicity are not in the relative contribution of genetic factors, but rather in the type of environmental influences that contribute to stages of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kindratt, Tiffany B; Dallo, Florence J; Roddy, Juliette
Using 15 years (2000-2014) of restricted cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data (n = 276,914), we estimated and compared the age-adjusted and sex-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking between US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans and examined associations between ethnicity and current smoking. Arab Americans were categorized as non-Hispanic Whites born in 15 countries located in the Middle East. Current smoking, average cigarettes per day, and quit attempts were compared. Collectively, we found that current smoking was highest among males compared to females. Prevalence was highest among Arab American males (26%) compared to other US-born (24%) and foreign-born European males (21%). US-born males smoked more cigarettes per day (20.2) yet more Arab American males (61%) tried to quit in the last year compared to European (41%) and US-born (42%) counterparts. Arab American females were least likely to smoke compared to other groups. In crude analyses, Arab American males had greater odds (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.74) of smoking compared to US-born White males. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, health insurance, comorbidity, and acculturation effects, Arab American males had lower odds (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.88) of current smoking compared to US-born males. Arab American females had lower odds (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) of current smoking compared to US-born White females. This is the first national study to examine smoking among Arab Americans. Our study was limited to cigarette smoking behaviors as opposed to other forms of tobacco consumption. More studies are needed to explore smoking among US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans.
Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.
This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…
... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...
Wickline, Virginia B; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen
The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students (15 men, 15 women). The participants determined emotions in African American and European American faces and voices. Results showed an in-group advantage-sometimes by culture, less often by race-in recognizing facial and vocal emotional expressions. African international students were generally less accurate at interpreting American nonverbal stimuli than were European American, African American, and European international peers. Results suggest that, although partly universal, emotional expressions have subtle differences across cultures that persons must learn.
Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned. The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.
Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E
The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes reg...
Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E
The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.
Shawn M. Burn; Patricia L. Winter; Brittany Hori; N Clayton Silver
There are relatively few articles in sociology and psychology on gender, ethnicity, and the environment, yet ethnic and gender neutral approaches to sustainability may be incomplete. We studied gender, ethnicity, and environmental concern with an internet sample of Asian American women (n=157) and men (n=69), and European American women (n=222) and men (n=99)....
Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C
In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.
Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.
The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…
Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…
Dallo, Florence J; Kindratt, Tiffany B
Disparities in vaccinations and cancer screening exist when comparing foreign-born and U.S.-born women collectively and disaggregated by race and ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the age-adjusted prevalence of not receiving a flu or pneumonia vaccine, clinical breast examination, mammogram or Pap smear among U.S.- and foreign-born White women by region of birth and examine associations while controlling for potential confounders. We pooled 12 years of National Health Interview Survey data (n = 117,893). To approximate an "Arab-American" ethnicity, we identified 15 "Arab" countries from the Middle East region that comprise the Arab Nations. Data was requested from the National Center for Health Statistics Research Data Center. We used the χ(2) statistic to compare descriptive statistics and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were used for inferential statistics. Compared to U.S.-born, foreign-born Whites from the Arab Nations had higher estimates of not receiving recommended vaccinations and cancer screenings. In crude and adjusted analyses, foreign-born Arab-American women were less likely to report receiving a flu vaccine (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21-0.58), pneumonia vaccine (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.06-0.32), Pap smear (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.05-0.31), or clinical breast examination (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.07-0.37) compared with U.S.-born White women. There were no differences for mammography. This national study examining uptake of flu and pneumonia vaccines and preventive cancer screenings suggests that estimates are lower for foreign-born Arab-American women compared with U.S.-born White women. Future studies should collect qualitative data that assess the cultural context surrounding prevention and screening behaviors among Arab-American women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suggests an approach to the teaching of European history which emphasizes the role of women. Discusses women's social and political roles during the Renaissance, amid 19th century European liberalism, and as reflected in 20th century visual and literary arts. (AV)
Park, Yong S; Kim, Bryan S K
The present study examined the relationships between adherence to Asian and European cultural values and communication styles among 210 Asian American and 136 European American college students. A principal components analysis revealed that, for both Asian Americans and European Americans, the contentious, dramatic, precise, and open styles loaded onto the first component suggesting low context communication, and interpersonal sensitivity and inferring meaning styles loaded onto the second component suggesting high context communication. Higher adherence to emotional self-control and lower adherence to European American values explained Asian Americans' higher use of the indirect communication, while higher emotional self-control explained why Asian Americans use a less open communication style than their European American counterparts. When differences between sex and race were controlled, adherence to humility was inversely related to contentious and dramatic communication styles but directly related to inferring meaning style, adherence to European American values was positively associated with precise communication and inferring meaning styles, and collectivism was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity style. 2008 APA
Simonton, Deborah Leigh
A new and major contribution to the field, Women in European Culture and Society is a transnational history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century that pushes women’s history beyond national studies to create an integrated view of three hundred years of women in Europe...... as exploring cultural perceptions of women and the ways in which women have been have been represented by these discourses. It explicitly engages with how women contributed as practitioners to shaping the culture and society of western Europe. The geographical range and generational breadth of this study...... provides a cohesive vision of women’s lives up to the present day. Women in European Culture and Society is an invaluable and essential guide to the conditions, circumstances and understandings of how women lived throughout Europe....
Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)
Macha, Hildegard; Bauer, Quirin J.
In this article, the authors show the perspective on women's leadership in Europe. The authors present the European data on the educational status of girls and women at schools and universities and in academic careers. Data from Germany is presented as an example to provide evidence of some details. First, the authors point out four contradictions…
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
Hong, S; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Wolfe, M M
The 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P H. Yang, E C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch,1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European AmericanValues Scale for Asian Americans-Revised.
Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe
This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…
Warner, Linda Sue
This paper discusses American Indian educational policies and implications for educational leadership by Indian women. The paper begins with an overview of federal Indian educational policies from 1802 to the 1970s. As the tribes have moved toward self-determination in recent years, a growing number of American Indian women have assumed leadership…
LaFromboise, Teresa D.
This manual is a resource guide for organizing leadership training workshops for American Indian women at various levels of professional training. The resources and ideas for training were supplied by American Indian women who participated in such workshops. Section 1 of the manual presents an overview of critical issues in the professionalization…
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…
Gao, Shanshan; Corrigan, Patrick W; Qin, Sang; Nieweglowski, Katherine
Shared decision making (SDM) tends to reflect more Western values of individualism and empowerment, values that may be foreign to East Asian healthcare preferences for collectivism and family involvement: family centered decision making (FCDM). To show that Chinese will be more likely to believe FCDM would be more pleasing for them if they were the patient. Conversely, European Americans will respond more favorably to SDM. To examine effects of Western acculturation on FCDM compared to SDM. In this study, preferences for FCDM versus SDM and doctor-led decision making (DrDM) were examined in a vignette study completed online by European Americans (n = 298) and Chinese (n = 327). Research participants read a vignette about Lily (a depression patient) presenting with symptoms of depression. After reading the vignette, participants completed items representing two sets of outcomes: three perceptions of impact on Lily and how participants might respond for themselves in a similar decision making situation. Chinese rated FCDM greater than European and Chinese Americans. Chinese Americans mostly responded similar to European Americans and not Chinese. European Americans prefer SDM more for mental health services. Chinese value FCDM more than European Americans. Preferences of Chinese living in America seem to parallel European Americans.
Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O
The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.
Simonton, Deborah Leigh
and Germany to Estonia, Spain and Russia, organized in a broad chronological spread, the diversity of the sources included in the book is unique. Each section of the volume includes a interpretive essays analyzing the sources and putting them into context. Many of the sources are translated from the original...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe....
Cherlin, A; Furstenberg Ff
The 7 chapters in this journal discuss the European family, including families in Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the German Democratic Republic, Italy, and Sweden. The authors feel that observers in the US sometimes resort to peculiarly American explanations (the budget deficit, changes in welfare benefits) to account for recent trends in marriage and fertility. The articles in this issue demonstrate that the pattern of post-WWII family change has been generally similar in North America, Western Europe, and even part of Eastern Europe, suggesting that more global rather than particular national explanations need to be sought. The post-WWII years can be divided into 2 periods: 1) the period from 1945 to 1965 that brought the unexpected marriage rush and baby boom, and 2) the period from 1965 to the present that brought a reversal of those trends in the form of later marriage, a great increase in nonmarital cohabitation, a large rise in divorce, and a sharp fall in fertility to below the replacement level. The similarity of these large-scale trends in North America and Western Europe is striking. The US is most like Britain and, beyond Europe, Canada, and Australia, suggesting that influence of the common culture of the English-speaking Western world. Yet the US has, and probably always has had, higher rates of fertility, marriage, and divorce than most Western European nations. The proportion of single-parent families is unusually large, even though some nations such as Sweden and East Germany have higher proportions of births to unmarried but cohabiting women. The level of cohabitation in the US, although greatly increased, is still moderate by European standards. Concern over the burden of government support for the elderly already has prompted changes in the Social Security program. The ability to support programs for children and for poor families is being questioned, even though the level of government support for the family is relatively low
Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge. PMID:15191257
The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of mammographic screening in older Mexican- American women, particularly the influence of strong family relationships on promoting screening behavior...
Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela
Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.
Taeuber, C M; Valdisera, V
Striking changes in the economic pursuits and status of women have marked the last 2 decades: 1) more women are in the labor force than ever before, 2) they are more likely to have continuous lifetime work experience, 3) they are better educated, and 4) the law mandates greater opportunity for equal employment. Still, as a group, most women continue to work in traditionally female, low-paying occupations. This report addresses 2 questions: 1) why some economic differences between men and women have narrowed, and 2) why they still continue to narrow. Over the past few years, women have been spending more years prior to marriage supporting themselves; in marriage, they have been contributing more to the household income, and a greater number of divorced women have been rearing children alone, often with little or no financial help. Some of the highlights reported in this study are: 1) in 1985, 31.5 million women held full-time, year-round jobs; 2) younger women are increasingly delaying marriage and childbirth to attend college and establish careers; 3) over 1/2 of all children under 18 had a mother in the labor force in 1985; 4) 48% of women with babies under 1 were in the labor force in 1985 as were over 1/2 the mothers with toddlers under 3; 5) by 1995, 61.4 million women are projected to be in the labor force--a participation rate of 60%; and 6) 13% of women who worked year-round, full-time in 1984 had earnings greater than $25,000 compared with 46% of men.
Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Sand, Jennifer K.
The authors review current literature on issues facing American Indian (AI) women and discuss implications for providing culturally sensitive counseling with these women. A case study of a Dine (Navajo) woman living within mainstream society and holding true to her traditional cultural beliefs illustrates how a culturally responsive approach to…
Lasonen, Lahja Johanna
Although commitment to equal opportunities in employment has been a major component of European Community legislation and although increasing numbers of European women are entering professions, women throughout Europe still face many barriers to advancing in their professions. Since the early 1970s, European governments including Finland have…
Rozado, Jose; Martin, Maria; Pascual, Isaac; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Moris, Cesar
The aortic disease comprises a group of different pathologies of high prevalence, seriousness and ever changing by the medical and surgical investigations. Therefore cardiovascular scientific societies in USA, Europe and Asia have created Task Force on practice guidelines (PG) to develop, update and revise PG for aortic diseases. These documents issue recommendations on the diagnosis and management of different aortic diseases. The three societies agree on the recommendations about diagnostic tests and on the value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance as the main tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic disease. Concerning to acute aortic syndromes (AAS), American and European GPs recognize intramural hematoma (IMH) as a type of AAS with surgery indication; however Asian guidelines consider IMH a pathological process different from AAS and indicate medical treatment. In thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), all express the need for an adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, emphasizing strict control of blood pressure, smoking cessation and recommend the use of beta-blockers and statins. The threshold for asymptomatic repair is 5.5 cm in European and American and 6 cm for Asian PG, with lower thresholds in Marfan and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). As regards the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), the PGs recognize the adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there are differences in class of recommendation on statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or beta-blockers to prevent progression of AAA. For intervention, the threshold diameter in asymptomatic is 5.5 cm but can be reduced to 5 cm in women as recommended by Asian PG. Moreover the specific diseases such as Marfan, BAV, pregnancy or atherosclerosis aortic present specific recommendations with small differences between PGs. In conclusion, PGs are interesting and appropriate documents at present. They issue recommendations based on evidence that help the clinician and
Haddad, Stephen A; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Cozier, Yvette C; Gerlovin, Hanna; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R
Circulating levels of vitamin D are generally lower in African Americans compared to U.S. whites, and one prior analysis in a small number of African Americans suggested that, within this population, vitamin D levels may be related to the degree of genetic admixture. We assessed the association of percent European ancestry with serum vitamin D levels in 2183 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study in 2013-2015, whose DNA had been genotyped for ancestry informative markers. ADMIXMAP software was used to estimate percent European versus African ancestry in each individual. In linear regression analyses with adjustment for genotype batch, age, body mass index, supplemental vitamin D use, UVB flux in state of residence, and season of blood draw, each 10% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 0.672 ng/mL increase in serum vitamin D concentration (95% confidence interval 0.173, 1.170). The association was statistically significant only among women who were not taking vitamin D supplements (beta coefficient for 10% increase in European ancestry 0.855, 95% confidence interval 0.139, 1.571). Among African Americans, use of vitamin D supplementation may help to reduce vitamin D deficiency due to genetic ancestry. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Cheng, Zhen Hadassah
Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.
Full Text Available European interest rates movements are affected by various internal and external factors. This paper studies the link between European and American short- and long-term interest rates. In particular, we consider the forward interest rates coming from euro and dollar IRS term structures. The econometric techniques employed are co-integration, Granger-causality, OLS and GMM. Our results indicate that European remote settlement forward and long-term interest rates are primarily driven by US rates and confirm that the causality acts mainly from the US to the Eurozone. This was true even during the recent periods of European Central Bank quantitative easing. These factors weaken the ECB’s ability to intervene. In fact, we found the impact of American monetary policy on long-term interest rates to be also relevant for European bonds.
Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.
We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…
Full Text Available The author compares the development of university libraries in Europe and in the United States of America. She finds that the university libraries in the United States of America have developed for three centuries under the influence of the European libraries, but now in the last century the European libraries have developed under the influence of the American ones. In times when there were no professional librarians, the American university libraries were managed by university professors, who were educated at European universities. The European management patterns were consequently applied also to the American libraries. The first books were also first brought from Europe. The Humboldt university also had a strong influence on the development of the American university libraries. Not until the second half of the 19th and especially the 20th century did the American university libraries achieve such high levels of cataloguing, classification, co-operation, organisation, computer networks, information holders, education and constructing library buildings that the European libraries started assuming their methods.
Floyd, Michael D; Gervasini, Guillermo; Masica, Andrew L; Mayo, Gail; George, Alfred L; Bhat, Kolari; Kim, Richard B; Wilkinson, Grant R
CYP3A activity in adults varies between individuals and it has been suggested that this has a genetic basis, possibly related to variant alleles in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes. Accordingly, genotype-phenotype associations were investigated under constitutive and induced conditions. Midazolam's systemic and oral clearances, and the erythromycin breath test (ERBT) were determined in 57 healthy subjects: 23 (11 men, 12 women) European- and 34 (14 men, 20 women) African-Americans. Studies were undertaken in the basal state and after 14-15 days pretreatment with rifampin. DNA was characterized for the common polymorphisms CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*6 and CYP3A5*7 by direct sequencing, and for exon 21 and exon 26 variants of MDR1 by allele-specific, real-time polymerase chain reaction. In 95% of subjects, the basal systemic clearance of midazolam was unimodally distributed and variability was less than four-fold whereas, in 98% of the study population, oral clearance varied five-fold. No population or sex-related differences were apparent. Similar findings were observed with the ERBT. Rifampin pretreatment markedly increased the systemic (two-fold) and oral clearance (16-fold) of midazolam, and the ERBT (two-fold) but the variabilities were unchanged. No associations were noted between these phenotypic measures and any of the studied genotypes, except for oral clearance and its fold-increase after rifampin. These were related to the presence of CYP3A4*1B and the inversely linked CYP3A5*3 polymorphism, with the extent of induction being approximately 50% greater in CYP3A5*3 homozygotes compared to wild-type subjects. In most healthy subjects, variability in intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity, using midazolam as an in-vivo probe, is modest and common polymorphisms in CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 do not appear to have important functional significance.
Farkas, George; And Others
Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…
Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.
Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…
Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna
The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T
A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
English, Raymond, Ed.
In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tseng, Vivian; Lam, May
Examined attitudes toward family obligations in American tenth and twelfth graders from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Found that even within a society emphasizing adolescent autonomy and independence, youths from families with collectivistic traditions retain their parents' familial values and…
Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.
This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…
Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.
Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…
Berg, J A; Taylor, D L
The purpose of this study was to describe the perimenopausal symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women with particular emphasis upon estrogen-related menopause symptoms (day sweats, hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness). A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was used to generate symptom experience data for 165 Filipina Americans between the ages of 35 and 56 who self-identified as Filipina American and were English-language proficient. The community-based sample completed questionnaires composed of sample characteristic questions and a 51-item menstrual symptom checklist with menopause-related symptoms embedded in it. Sample characteristics and symptom experience were compared among age groups of 35 to 39 (n = 39), 40 to 44 (n = 40), 45 to 49 (n = 37), and 50 to 56 (n = 49) and by perimenopausal phase, defined as premenopausal (n = 85), transitional (n = 33), and menopausal/postmenopausal (n = 47). The most reported individual symptoms were "felt energetic" (86.1%) and "well-being" (83.6%). Estrogen-related menopause symptoms were reported as "vaginal dryness" (39.4%), "hot flashes" (37.6%), "day sweats" (27.9%), and "night sweats" (24.2%) by the total sample. Distress associated with estrogen-related menopause symptoms was reported by 17% (n = 28) of all women. Subjects' chi 2 tests indicated that 50-to-56-year-old women were more likely to report fatigue/sleep symptoms, physical symptoms, and estrogen-related menopause symptoms than all other age groups. When compared by perimenopausal phase, transitional women were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity for day sweats. Premenopausal women were more likely to report minimal or mild severity and women in the perimenopausal transition were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity on estrogen-related menopause symptoms. Filipino American midlife women appear to consider the perimenopausal transition in a positive light and experience little distress associated with
Kuchner, Joan F.
This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.
Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…
Hughes Halbert, Chanita; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Delmoor, Ernestine; Coyne, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Arocho, Justin; Mahler, Brandon; Malkowicz, S Bruce
Although cultural values are increasingly being recognized as important determinants of psychological and behavioral outcomes following cancer diagnosis and treatment, empirical data are not available on cultural values among men. This study evaluated differences in cultural values related to religiosity, temporal orientation, and collectivism among African American and European American men. Participants were 119 African American and European American men who were newly diagnosed with early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cultural values were evaluated by self-report using standardized instruments during a structured telephone interview. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, African American men reported significantly greater levels of religiosity (Beta = 24.44, P cultural values, clinical experiences with prostate cancer may also be important. This underscores the importance of evaluating the effects of both ethnicity and clinical factors in research on the influence of cultural values on cancer prevention and control.
Killen, M; Kelly, M; Richardson, C; Crystal, D; Ruck, M
No research, to date, has investigated the role of ethnic school composition (and intergroup contact) on European-American youth's use of stereotypes to explain interracial discomfort in the context of peer exclusion. In this study European-American 4 th , 7 th and 10 th grade students ( N = 414), attending low and high ethnically diverse public schools (with low and high self-reports of cross-race/ethnic friendships, respectively) evaluated three contexts of interracial exclusion (at lunch time, at a school dance, and at a sleepover). In addition to age and context effects, participants enrolled in high diversity schools were less likely to use stereotypes to explain racial discomfort, more likely to view racial exclusion as wrong, and more likely to estimate that racial exclusion occurs, than were participants enrolled in low diversity schools. These findings have implications for the role of social experience on racial attitudes and judgments about exclusion.
Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K
Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.
The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depressio...
This article describes the health perceptions of a sample of moderately to highly acculturated Mexican American women. Using an ethnographic design, the author interviewed 13 women to determine their health perceptions. The interviews were guided by the domains of health described in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health. Three broad categories of health perceptions were identified: the physical body, the emotional component, and finding balance. With the addition of a spiritual component, the WHO definition was a useful tool for uncovering health perceptions. The process of in-depth ethnographic interviewing provided a contextual view of health in which the complexity of intrafamilial relationships was revealed, as were the importance of spirituality as a coping mechanism and the perception of health as an integrated, holistic experience.
Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja
The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants' fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers' patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more "American" and less "Japanese" in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence.
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which role conflict, life satisfaction, self-esteem, instrumentality, expressiveness, age and education predicts ambulatory depression among a community based sample of urban American Indian working women. The convenience sample consisted of a total of 148 Midwestern American Indian working women, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years. Participants completed five instruments assessing gender-related traits of instrumentality and expressiveness, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, role conflict, and socio-demographic information. A forced entry stepwise multiple regression was conducted which included all the designated predictor variables. The significant negative Beta in Step 1 indicated that women scoring on the Masculinity (instrumentality) sub-scale were less likely to have a high depression score. The prediction of depression by the Masculinity sub-scale was no longer significant after the life satisfaction and self-esteem variables were added to the equation in Step 2. There was a significant inverse relationship for life satisfaction and self-esteem in predicting the criterion variable, depression. Thirty-two percent of the variance in the prediction of the dependent variable (depression scores) was accounted for by the six variables. In counselling urban American Indian women, supporting instrumentality, enhancing self-esteem and life satisfaction, can positively impact on ambulatory dysphoria.
Kidwell, Clara Sue
A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…
López, Ivette A; Boston, Patricia Q; Dutton, Matthew; Jones, Chauneva Glenn; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Vilme, Helene
To explore causal explanations of obesity among African-American women of diverse weight across the life spectrum. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult African-American women of healthy weight (N = 10), overweight (N = 10), and obese weight (N = 20) to evaluate the relationship between causal explanations of obesity and weight. Generally overlooked dimensions of health definitions were discovered. Differences in weight definitions were detected between women of different weights. Terminology, symptoms, and solutions to obesity were detected between the women of different weights and public health recommendations. Identified causal discrepancies will help bridge the disconnection between public health recommendations and African-American women's perceptions with tailored interventions.
Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E
Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.
Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D
This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents.
Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.
Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636
Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.
The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815
Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K
The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Samson, Marsha E; Adams, Swann Arp; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R
In South Carolina, the co-occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and breast cancer (BrCA) is much more prevalent among African American populations than among European American populations. The underlying relationship between diabetes and breast cancer may influence breast cancer survival. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effect of diabetes on developing breast cancer and to reduce racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Study participants included women of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ethnicity from both the Medicaid ICD-9 designations and the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry (SCCCR). A historical prospective cohort design was used to determine the risk of developing breast cancer among women of different ethnicities with and without DM. The chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the association; the logistic model was used to assess the relationship between breast cancer and other factors among EA and AA women. Menopause may have protective properties for AA compared to EA women. AA women have twice the odds of not surviving from each breast cancer stage compared to EA women with respect to their breast cancer stage. Adherence to diabetes medication may contribute to lower breast cancer death in EA. This study illustrates the discrepancy between EA and AA women in terms of breast cancer survival. AA women bear a higher disease burden than EA women. To create ethnic-appropriate public health policies, it is imperative that we understand the effect of comorbidities on breast cancer and how we can prevent them from occurring.
Chadwick, Heather Riley
Heather Switzer, planning, governance, and globalization doctoral student in the School of Public and International Affairs at Virginia Tech, has been named an American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow.
Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R
This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.
Kim, Janna L.
This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…
Krouse, Susan Applegate
Presents the story of the creation of an undergraduate course on the traditional and contemporary roles of women in North American Indian cultures. Notes that the course was designed around experiential learning precepts and the idea of "giving voice" to American Indian women. Lists texts used and evaluates course strengths. (DSK)
Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe
Examines the sex role attributes of American-Indian women as compared to a predominately White normative group using the short form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Results indicate a significant difference on the masculine subscale between the two groups with American-Indian women having higher scores. Provides implications for mental health…
Gill, Satinder Kaur
This study was conducted in order to understand the factors that contribute to the identity development of Punjabi American women in college. The identified factors are useful for enhancing the educational and psychological development of Punjabi American women in college. A qualitative phenomenological design was implemented to collect data from…
Camras, L A; Oster, H; Campos, J; Campos, R; Ujiie, T; Miyake, K; Wang, L; Meng, Z
European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants. On measures of smiling and crying, Chinese infants scored lower than European American infants, whereas Japanese infants were similar to the European American infants or fell between the two other groups. Results suggest that differences in expressivity between European American and Chinese infants are more robust than those between European American and Japanese infants and that Chinese and Japanese infants can differ significantly. Cross-cultural differences were also found for some specific brow, cheek, and midface facial actions (e.g., brows lowered). These are discussed in terms of current controversies about infant affective facial expressions.
Ripich, Danielle N; Fritsch, Thomas; Ziol, Elaine
In this exploratory study, we compared the performance of 10 African American and 26 European American persons with early- to mid-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) to 20 nondemented elderly (NE), using a shortened version of the Test of Problem Solving (TOPS). The TOPS measures verbal reasoning to solve everyday problems in five areas: explaining inferences, determining causes, answering negative why questions, determining solutions, and avoiding problems. Six linguistic measures were also examined: total utterances, abandoned utterances, length of utterances, maze words, questions, and total words. NE performed better than AD subjects on all but one measure of verbal reasoning ability. AD subjects also showed a trend to use more total utterances and abandoned utterances than NE. For the AD group, no ethnic differences were found for verbal reasoning or linguistic measures. The findings from this preliminary investigation suggest that, compared to European Americans, African American persons with AD demonstrate similar everyday problem solving and linguistic skills. Thus, assessments such as TOPS that examine everyday problem solving may be a useful nonbiased evaluation tool for persons with AD in these two ethnic groups.
Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D
The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.
The author analyzes and compares the trade situation in the European Community (EC) with the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). He finds that "while both the EC and NAFTA are designed to provide trade preferences to the member countries, the two groupings differ markedly in other respects. The Treaty of Rome, establishing what is now the EC, consciously used economic means to foster political cohesion in Western Europe; whereas, the NAFTA negotiations seek free trade rather than more comprehensive economic integration precisely to minimize political content. The EC contains many social provisions absent from the NAFTA discussions, the most important of which is the right of migration from one EC country to another." The effects of NAFTA on the economy of Mexico and on Mexican migration to the United States are also assessed. excerpt
Mitcham, Carl; Li, Bocong; An, Yanming
This inclusive, cross-cultural study rethinks the nexus between engineering, development, and culture. It offers diverse commentary from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how the philosophies of today’s cultural triumvirate—American, European and Chinese—are shaped and given nuance by the cross-fertilization of engineering and development. Scholars from the humanities and social sciences as well as engineers themselves reflect on key questions that arise in this relational context, such as how international development work affects the professional views, identities, practice and ethics of engineers. The first volume to offer a systematic and collaborative study that cuts across continental boundaries, the book delineates the kinds of skills and competences that tomorrow’s engineering success stories will require, and analyzes fascinating aspects of the interplay between engineering and philosophy, such as how traditionally Chinese ways of thinking can influence modern engineering practice in...
Attardo, Jessica L.
The following study was conducted to examine existing research in education regarding the development of stereotypes in children, analyze historical documents and research to acquire an accurate portrayal of American Indian women, and determine if secondary social studies students lack adequate knowledge about the history of American Indian women,…
Full Text Available Europe faces challenges reminiscent of Latin American financial crises, namely unsustainable sovereign spreads, banking system distress, sudden stops in capital flows and growth rate collapse. The failure of recent liquidity support to normalize the situation suggests the need to refocus the policy debate on fundamentals: structural reform for growth and, where needed, restructuring to resolve banking crises and the debt overhang. Latin America’s experience yields relevant policy lessons for Europe on all these fronts, tempered only by the slight exception that sharp real devaluation, which was key to spearheading recovery in Latin America, is unfeasible in the eurozone. Struggling eurozone countries are caught between a rock and a hard place, as the currency union imposes strict policy constraints while the reintroduction of national currencies under conditions of crisis would be catastrophic. Nevertheless, contemporary Europe stands a better chance of recovery because, in contrast with the Latin America experience, the European Union possesses greater avenues for international cooperation. With respect to financial support, a resourceful European Central Bank able to avoid chaotic adjustment by brute force is a decisive advantage of Europe relative to Latin America, which only had access to the weaker and less reliable IMF. Arguably, the limited nature of external support strongly contributed to the depth of Latin America’s great collapses. European cooperation can explore and exhaust alternatives to a euro exit to the benefit of all union members and, if dissolution becomes unavoidable, ensure amicable support to ease the transition. The path to success remains uncharted, however, and implementation of the necessary regional mechanisms will require innovation and political will. If the available means of cooperation are not used effectively, crisis countries in Europe may fare worse than those in Latin America.
Ghazal Read, Jen'nan
Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…
Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)
Gillis, Anne M; Skanes, Allan C
This article compares the important differences in the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF)/American Heart Association (AHA)/Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2010 guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF). All guidelines recommend more lenient targets for ventricular rate control although the CCS guidelines recommend a target heart rate at rest guidelines accept a target heart rate at rest guidelines recommend that the choice of antiarrhythmic drug for maintenance of sinus rhythm be based on the underlying cardiovascular disease state. However, the CCS guidelines do not recommend that the use of Class IC drugs or sotalol be restricted in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy alone. All the guidelines have incorporated dronedarone into their recommendations of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, the CCS guidelines do not make a specific recommendation that the use of dronedarone is reasonable to decrease the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in patients with AF. The ACCF/AHA/HRS update makes a strong recommendation for catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF who have failed a single anti-arrhythmic drug whereas the CCS and ESC guidelines make this a conditional recommendation. The CCS guidelines are the only guidelines at present that recommend dabigitran for prevention of stroke in high risk patients and suggest that dabigatran is preferred to warfarin for stroke prevention in most patient groups. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ko, Celine M.
Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...
Verble, Sedelta, Ed.
The volume presents a collection of 39 conference speeches symbolizing an effort by American Indian and Alaska Native women to speak for themselves, about themselves and to each other. Topics of speeches presented at Tahlequah consist of: past positives and present problems of Indian women; squaw image stereotyping; status of Indian women in…
Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; James, Aimee S; Brown, Travis; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M
Screening, especially screening mammography, is vital for decreasing breast cancer incidence and mortality. Screening rates in American Indian women are low compared to other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, American Indian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages and have lower 5-year survival rate than others. To better address the screening rates of American Indian women, focus groups (N=8) were conducted with American Indian men (N=42) to explore their perceptions of breast cancer screening for American Indian women. Our intent was to understand men's support level toward screening. Using a community-based participatory approach, focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a text analysis approach developed by our team. Topics discussed included breast cancer and screening knowledge, barriers to screening, and suggestions to improve screening rates. These findings can guide strategies to improve knowledge and awareness, communication among families and health care providers, and screening rates in American Indian communities.
Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose
"Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A
Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Weiss, Bahr; Nguyen, Tam; Trung, Lam; Ngo, Victoria; Lau, Anna
Tobacco smoking is one of the most significant modifiable behavioral health risk factors worldwide. Although smoking rates in some high-income countries (HIC) have declined, rates in many low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) remain high. Adolescence is a key developmental risk period for smoking initiation. Research indicates that a major adolescent risk factor for tobacco smoking is antisocial deviance, which includes such behaviors as aggression, risk-taking, and rule-breaking. The linkages between antisocial deviance and smoking suggest that these behaviors and their underlying attitudes can be important targets for smoking prevention programs, but for public health efficiency it is important to target the components of antisocial deviance most closely linked smoking. However, although 80% of smokers live in LMIC, most relevant research has been conducted in HIC and its applicability to LMIC is unclear, given cultural differences between many HIC and LMIC. The purpose of the present study was to assess cross-cultural variations in relations among components of antisocial deviance and self-reported tobacco smoking among 2,724 10th and 11th grade Vietnamese, Vietnamese-American, and European-American students. Within the combined sample the relation between self-reported smoking and overall antisocial deviance was β = 0.33. However, the component of antisocial deviance most strongly related to smoking varied across groups, with Risk-taking most strongly related to smoking for Vietnamese-American (β = 0.37) and Vietnamese (β = 0.36) adolescents, and Rule-breaking Behavior most strongly related to smoking for European-American (β = 0.51) adolescents. These and other findings suggest the possible importance of culturally-tailored foci for smoking prevention programs emphasizing different aspects of antisocial deviance.
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
Bennett, Linda B.; Williams, Frances Janeene
Research on the inclusion of women in textbooks found severe inequalities in the way women were included in text and illustration. The use of carefully and purposefully selected images in the classroom can address both the lack of images of women in textbooks as well as the stereotypical portrayal of woman in textbook images.
A comparison of European and American practices and exposures indicates that greater emphasis has been placed on the reduction of individual and collective personnel radiation exposures in the European nuclear reactors. Several factors which contribute to their lower radiation doses are: (1) a strong management commitment to achieving low exposure; (2) plant design and modifications to reduce exposure; (3) good staffing, training, and work planning; (4) good chemistry control; (5) utilization of innovative technical methods for reducing plant exposures; (6) good regulatory environment. A significant effort has been made to reduce radiological exposures in the US and the past few years indicates good success. These are due to the efforts of Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the nuclear industry, and the culmination of Many Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-initiated multi-plant actions in the period 1979-83 which resulted in many plant modifications and high exposures. Even though the US exposures have been reduced considerably, there is still opportunity for improvement. More consideration needs to be given to materials use (reduction of corrosion activation products), management, chemistry operations, and incorporating a good radiological protection attitude and more responsibility in all nuclear plant personnel. For the future, we as a country need to define our collective exposure goals for our next generation of nuclear reactors so that they can now be incorporated into the design. Other countries have established these goals, but the US has not. These goals should bear a relationship to average individual occupational exposures so that a logical and meaningful relationship between the 2 is developed into future design and operations. The goal should be reasonable from a health effect viewpoint so that monies are not expended without justification
Camras, Linda A.; And Others
European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants, suggesting that differences in expressivity between European…
Chao, Ruth K.
Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…
Bosetti, Cristina; Malvezzi, Matteo; Rosso, Tiziana; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; Chatenoud, Liliane; Levi, Fabio; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo
Female lung cancer mortality increased by 50% between the mid 1960s and the early 2000s in the European Union (EU). To monitor the current lung cancer epidemic in European women, we analyzed mortality trends in 33 European countries between 1970 and 2009 and estimated rates for the year 2015 using data from the World Health Organization. Female lung cancer mortality has been increasing up to recent calendar years in most European countries, with the exceptions of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, with relatively low rates, and the UK, Iceland and Ireland, where high rates were reached in mid/late 1990s to leveled off thereafter. In the EU, female lung cancer mortality rates rose over the last decade from 11.3 to 12.7/100,000 (+2.3% per year) at all ages and from 18.6 to 21.5/100,000 (+3.0% per year) in middle-age. A further increase is predicted, to reach 14/100,000 women in 2015. Lung cancer mortality trends have been more favorable over the last decade in young women (20-44 years), particularly in the UK and other former high-risk countries from northern and central/eastern Europe, but also in France, Italy, and Spain where mortality in young women has been increasing up to the early 2000s. In the EU as a whole, mortality at age 20-44 years decreased from 1.6 to 1.4/100,000 (-2.2% per year). Although the female lung cancer epidemic in Europe is still expanding, the epidemic may be controlled through the implementation of effective anti-tobacco measures, and it will probably never reach the top US rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G
Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.
Ruiz, Sonia Y; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A
Decades of research with European American middle-class families have found significant relations between parenting behavior and child self-esteem. Similar research with minority and low-income families is rare. The present study examined the relation between parenting practices and child self-esteem among 70 Mexican American and 161 European American youths. The analyses consisted of regressing child self-esteem on parenting practices (acceptance, rejection, inconsistent discipline, and hostile control), ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and the interactions between ethnicity, SES, and parenting practices. Several main effects and interactions were significant; for each interaction, behavior of low-income or Mexican American parents had less influence on children's self-esteem than did similar behavior by middle-class or European American parents.
Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B
We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.
Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E
We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith
Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…
The history of the film industry is in many ways a reflection of the thwarted emergence in society of feminism and full equal civil rights for women. Commercial films have traditionally relied upon the charm and sexual allure of actresses to assure economic success at the box office. Victorian mores heavily influenced the way women were treated in…
Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.
Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
This study of 12 introductory American government and politics textbooks shows that their main narratives still focus largely on men's experiences as political actors and pay little attention to women's experiences. While on average just 9% of pages included in-text references to women, 28% of images and 17% of sidebars, tables, figures, and…
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…
Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.
The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.
The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…
Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Abramowitz, Carolyn S.; Lopez, Mabel; Kosson, David S.
The utility of the psychopathy construct in predicting laboratory deficits, criminal behavior, response to intervention, and recidivism has been well documented in European American populations. However, less is known about the manifestation and correlates of psychopathy in Latino and African American populations. The present study examined the…
Schwartz, Robert C.; Feisthamel, Kevin P.
Research generated by the professions of psychiatry and psychology reveals that African Americans are more often diagnosed with specific mental disorders (e.g., psychotic disorders) compared with European Americans. No research to date, however, has investigated whether professional counselors make differential diagnoses according to client race.…
Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez
There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…
Sage, Kara D.; Jegatheesan, Brinda
Background: This study examined typically developing children's perceptions of their siblings with autism and their relationships with them in a European American and an Asian American family. Method: Data were drawn from interviews with the siblings using the "draw-and-tell" technique and participant observation in the homes of the 2 families.…
August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services
Marie N Fongwa
Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors
Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco
The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hamade, Hiam; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Palamisono, Gloria; Zambrana, Ruth E.
Introduction We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Methods Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 20...
Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.
A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899
Tuck, N R
Equal rights for women have been a never ending battle in the professional world. Even though many women influenced the chiropractic profession, these same battles could not be avoided. For this reason, several students from the Lincoln Chiropractic College worked to form the American Council of Women Chiropractors (ACWC), a council of the American Chiropractic Association (ACA). From 1935 to 1960, the organization was represented in the House of Counselors of the NCA, had a monthly section in the Journal of the National Chiropractic Association to publish information about the council along with scholarly work by their members, and formed a Scholarship Foundation for Women Chiropractic Students. Perhaps one of the most important roles the ACWC played was in its support of women chiropractors. Through annual meetings and personal contacts, the members were able to endure many difficulties that existed both inside and outside chiropractic.
Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…
Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E; Chu, Joyce P; Tsai, Jeanne L; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Gross, James J; Gotlib, Ian H
Studies of Western samples (e.g., European Americans [EAs]) suggest that depressed individuals tend to show diminished emotional reactivity (J. G. Gehricke & A. J. Fridlund, 2002; G. E. Schwartz, P. L. Fair, P. Salt, M. R. Mandel, & G. L. Klerman, 1976a, 1976b). Do these findings generalize to individuals oriented to other cultures (e.g., East Asian cultures)? The authors compared the emotional reactions (i.e., reports of emotional experience, facial behavior, and physiological reactivity) of depressed and nondepressed EAs and Asian Americans of East Asian descent (AAs) to sad and amusing films. Their results were consistent with previous findings: Depressed EAs showed a pattern of diminished reactivity to the sad film (less crying, less intense reports of sadness) compared with nondepressed participants. In contrast, depressed AAs showed a pattern of heightened emotional reactivity (greater crying) compared with nondepressed participants. Across cultural groups, depressed and nondepressed participants did not differ in their reports of amusement or facial behavior during the amusing film. Physiological reactivity to the film clips did not differ between depressed and control participants for either cultural group. Thus, although depression may influence particular aspects of emotional reactivity across cultures (e.g., crying), the specific direction of this influence may depend on prevailing cultural norms regarding emotional expression. (c) 2007 APA
Pine, Sharon R.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Enewold, Lindsey; Bowman, Elise D.; Ryan, Bríd M.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Chaturvedi, Anil; Caporaso, Neil E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Harris, Curtis C.
Background African Americans have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than European Americans. Previous studies suggested that certain circulating cytokines were associated with lung cancer. We hypothesized that variations in serum cytokine levels exist between African Americans and European Americans, and increased circulating cytokine levels contribute to lung cancer differently in the two races. Methods Differences in ten serum cytokine levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between 170 African-American and 296 European-American controls from the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study were assessed. Associations of the serum cytokine levels with lung cancer were analyzed. Statistically significant results were replicated in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Wayne State University (WSU) Karmanos Cancer Institute case-control study. Results Six cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα, were significantly higher among European-American as compared to African-American controls. Elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer among both races in all three studies. Elevated IL-1β, IL-10 and TNFα levels were associated with lung cancer only among African Americans. The association between elevated TNFα levels and lung cancer among European Americans was significant after adjustment for additional factors. Conclusions Serum cytokine levels vary by race and might contribute to lung cancer differently between African Americans and European Americans. Impact Future work examining risk prediction models of lung cancer can measure circulating cytokines to accurately characterize risk within racial groups. PMID:26711330
Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I
Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.
Demerath, Ellen W; Lutsey, Pam L; Monda, Keri L; Linda Kao, Wen Hong; Bressler, Jan; Pankow, James S; North, Kari E; Folsom, Aaron R
Physical inactivity accentuates the association of variants in the FTO locus with obesity-related traits but evidence is largely lacking in non-European populations. Here we tested the hypothesis that physical activity (PA) modifies the association of the FTO single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 with adiposity traits in 2,656 African Americans (AA) (1,626 women and 1,030 men) and 9,867 European Americans (EA) (5,286 women and 4,581 men) aged 45-66 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Individuals in the lowest quintile of the sport activity index of the Baecke questionnaire were categorized as low PA. Baseline BMI, waist circumference (WC), and skinfold measures were dependent variables in regression models testing the additive effect of the SNP, low PA, and their interaction, adjusting for age, alcohol use, cigarette use, educational attainment, and percent European ancestry in AA adults, stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. rs9939609 was associated with adiposity in all groups other than AA women. The SNP × PA interaction was significant in AA men (P ≤ 0.002 for all traits) and EA men (P ≤ 0.04 for all traits). For each additional copy of the A (risk) allele, WC in AA men was higher in those with low PA (β(lowPA): 5.1 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6-7.5) than high PA (β(highPA): 0.7 cm, 95% CI: -0.4 to 1.9); P (interaction) = 0.002). The interaction effect was not observed in EA or AA women. FTO SNP × PA interactions on adiposity were observed for AA as well as EA men. Differences by sex require further examination.
Li, Jin; Fung, Heidi; Bakeman, Roger; Rae, Katharine; Wei, Wanchun
Little cross-cultural research exists on parental socialization of children's learning beliefs. The current study compared 218 conversations between European American and Taiwanese mothers and children (6-10 years) about good and poor learning. The findings support well-documented cultural differences in learning beliefs. European Americans…
Lewallen, Lynne Porter; Street, Darlene J
To explore issues related to initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. Qualitative design using focus groups, guided by Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality. Three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. Fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. Three focus groups were conducted with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were fully explored in the group and included as a guiding question for the next group. Categories identified from the data were reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding that was useful or not useful, and cultural issues related to breastfeeding that were perceived to be unique among African Americans. Three overall themes were identified that cut across categories: perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a support system for continued breastfeeding. Women need to be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding and offered continuing support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Peer support groups for breastfeeding African American women should be established. © 2010 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.
With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-eth...
Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar
Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794
Eastman, Charmane I; Suh, Christina; Tomaka, Victoria A; Crowley, Stephanie J
Successful adaptation to modern civilization requires the internal circadian clock to make large phase shifts in response to circumstances (e.g., jet travel and shift work) that were not encountered during most of our evolution. We found that the magnitude and direction of the circadian clock's phase shift after the light/dark and sleep/wake/meal schedule was phase-advanced (made earlier) by 9 hours differed in European-Americans compared to African-Americans. European-Americans had larger phase shifts, but were more likely to phase-delay after the 9-hour advance (to phase shift in the wrong direction). The magnitude and direction of the phase shift was related to the free-running circadian period, and European-Americans had a longer circadian period than African-Americans. Circadian period was related to the percent Sub-Saharan African and European ancestry from DNA samples. We speculate that a short circadian period was advantageous during our evolution in Africa and lengthened with northern migrations out of Africa. The differences in circadian rhythms remaining today are relevant for understanding and treating the modern circadian-rhythm-based disorders which are due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work, school and meals.
Hamm, J V
Variability in adolescent-friend similarity is documented in a diverse sample of African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Similarity was greatest for substance use, modest for academic orientations, and low for ethnic identity. Compared with Asian American and European American adolescents, African American adolescents chose friends who were less similar with respect to academic orientation or substance use but more similar with respect to ethnic identity. For all three ethnic groups, personal endorsement of the dimension in question and selection of cross-ethnic-group friends heightened similarity. Similarity was a relative rather than an absolute selection criterion: Adolescents did not choose friends with identical orientations. These findings call for a comprehensive theory of friendship selection sensitive to diversity in adolescents' experiences. Implications for peer influence and self-development are discussed.
Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Peck, Stephen C; Malanchuk, Oksana; Sameroff, Arnold J; Eccles, Jacquelynne S
In this monograph, we investigate the developmental trajectories of a predominantly middle-class, community-based sample of European American and African American adolescents growing up in urban, suburban, and rural areas in Maryland, United States. Within risk-protection and positive youth development frameworks, we selected developmental measures based on the normative tasks of adolescence and the most widely studied indicators in the three major contexts of development: families, peer groups, and schools. Using hierarchical linear growth models, we estimated adolescents' growth trajectories from ages 12 to 20 with variation accounted for by socioeconomic status (SES), gender, race/ethnicity, and the gender by race/ethnicity interaction. In general, the results indicate that: (a) periods of greatest risk and positive development depended on the time frame and outcome being examined and (b) on average, these adolescents demonstrated much stronger evidence of positive than problematic development, even at their most vulnerable times. Absolute levels of their engagement in healthy behaviors, supportive relationships with parents and friends, and positive self-perceptions and psychological well-being were much higher than their reported angry and depressive feelings, engagement in risky behaviors, and negative relationships with parents and peers. We did not find evidence to support the idea that adolescence is a time of heightened risk. Rather, on average, these adolescents experienced relatively stable and developmentally healthy trajectories for a wide range of characteristics, behaviors, and relationships, with slight increases or decreases at different points in development that varied according to domain. Developmental trajectories differed minimally by SES but in some expected ways by gender and race/ethnicity, although these latter differences were not very marked. Overall, most of the young people navigated through their adolescence and arrived at young
Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC is higher in African Americans (AAs than other ethnic groups in the U. S., but reasons for the disparities are unknown. We performed gene expression profiling of sporadic CRCs from AAs vs. European Americans (EAs to assess the contribution to CRC disparities. We evaluated the gene expression of 43 AA and 43 EA CRC tumors matched by stage and 40 matching normal colorectal tissues using the Agilent human whole genome 4x44K cDNA arrays. Gene and pathway analyses were performed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM, Ten-fold cross validation, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. SAM revealed that 95 genes were differentially expressed between AA and EA patients at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Using IPA we determined that most prominent disease and pathway associations of differentially expressed genes were related to inflammation and immune response. Ten-fold cross validation demonstrated that following 10 genes can predict ethnicity with an accuracy of 94%: CRYBB2, PSPH, ADAL, VSIG10L, C17orf81, ANKRD36B, ZNF835, ARHGAP6, TRNT1 and WDR8. Expression of these 10 genes was validated by qRT-PCR in an independent test set of 28 patients (10 AA, 18 EA. Our results are the first to implicate differential gene expression in CRC racial disparities and indicate prominent difference in CRC inflammation between AA and EA patients. Differences in susceptibility to inflammation support the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments in these two patient populations.
Golden, Richard L
Almost a century ago, William Osler, the foremost physician of his time, was approached by a leading periodical to write a series of articles on the health of the American woman. Osler, then the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, wrote an essay dealing with the psychological stresses affecting the "new woman" of the early 20th century at varying stages of her development and the "nervousness" that ensued. The article was never published as a result of his belated reservations on the propriety of a professional writing for a lay journal. Osler's thinking frequently reflected the spirit of his Victorian-Edwardian era, although at times he demonstrated advanced and prescient ideas about sexuality, not often the subject of discussion, even in circumspect form, in contemporary nonprofessional literature.
Kelly, Matthew Gardner
This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…
Vila, Natalia; Kuster, Ines
This article aims to examine the most widely used teaching media and methods in university education. To achieve this objective, international research has been carried out among 135 marketing teachers from North American and European universities. The study shows that North American teachers use more traditional media and participatory methods…
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to look at the ways in which young European women staying in the city of Varanasi for long periods of time talk about India and how they negotiate their place and role as women there. There is a common travellers’ discourse that sees India as a difficult and dangerous place to a vulnerable traveler, and the encounters of colonial women with “otherness” have been widely analysed. This article brings this discussion to the post colonial era and endeavors to initiate a discussion about how to understand the encounters between visiting Western women and the locals in India today. The article is based on nine interviews which Korpela conducted in Varanasi, and on her participant observation.
Wyatt, G E; Riederle, M
This study examined the relationship between sexual harassment in work, educational, and social settings and sexual abuse in childhood and/or adulthood in a stratified community sample of 248 African-American and white American women. The cumulative impact of sexual victimization on women's sense of general well-being was also examined. Those most likely to be sexually harassed in work and social settings were women with contact sexual abuse histories, regardless of ethnicity. The work status of harassers of women with sexual abuse histories differed significantly by ethnic group. Although women with prior sexual abuse experiences from both ethnic groups most frequently reported a response to sexual harassment at work, they least frequently did so in social settings. A history of childhood sexual abuse was more negatively associated with African- American women's well-being than were repeated experiences of sexual violence. Future research should address the implications of ethnic and cultural issues on the cumulative impact of incidents of sexual violence on women of color.
Survey of 148 college educated, employed American Indian women in urban Wisconsin examined sex role orientation and indicators of mental well-being. Sex-typed respondents had significantly higher depression, higher role conflict, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction than cross-typed or androgynous respondents. Undifferentiated…
Schulz, Constance B.
American stereographs of the late 19th and early 20th centuries are discussed in the context of the Victorian stylized stereotype of women which they so graphically capture. Stereograph cards and early motion pictures from the Library of Congress were the major sources studied. Stereograph cards were as ubiquitous in their time as television is…
Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar
The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…
Tsai, Grace; Gray, James
Assesses the prevalence rate of bulimic disorders among 257 female Asian Americans from 18 to 30 years old. Finds that only two of the 257 women met the classification for bulimia nervosa. Contends that the findings illustrate the need for future research among culturally different populations. (CMK)
James, Delores C. S.; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Harville, Cedric; Sears, Cynthia
The goals of the study were to identify the barriers and motivators for physical activity (PA) and to assess whether these factors vary by weight status. A self-administered survey was completed by 413 African American women. Each woman provided verbal informed consent and was weighed and measured by a research team member. The participants' mean…
Pesavento, Wilma J.
The problem under investigation concerned (1) determining the ball games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) determining the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) determining the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 48 "Annual Reports of the…
Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.
The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…
The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook
In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an
Baldwin, Joseph A.
Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S
Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.
There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.
Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Fontes, Manuel L; Schonberger, Robert B
To evaluate differences in the inclusion of anesthesiologists in mobile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) teams between North American and European centers. A retrospective review of North American versus European mobile ECMO teams. The search terms used to identify relevant articles were the following: "extracorporeal membrane transport," "mobile ECMO," and "interhospital transport." MEDLINE review of articles. None. None. Between 1986 and 2015, 25 articles were published that reported the personnel makeup of mobile ECMO teams in North America and Europe: 6 from North American centers and 19 from European centers. The included articles reported a total of 1,329 cases: 389 (29%) adult-only cohorts and 940 (71%) mixed-age cohorts. Among North American studies, 0 of 6 (0%) reported the presence of an anesthesiologist on the mobile ECMO team in contrast to European studies, in which 10 of 19 (53%) reported the inclusion of an anesthesiologist (Fisher exact p for difference = 0.05). In terms of number of cases, this discrepancy translated to 543 total cases in North America (all without an anesthesiologist) and 499 cases in Europe (37%) including an anesthesiologist on the team (Fisher exact p for difference<0.001). This study demonstrated significant geographic discrepancies in the inclusion of anesthesiologists on mobile ECMO teams, with European centers more likely to incorporate an anesthesiologist into the mobile ECMO process compared with North American centers. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hinson, Tyonne D; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Spatz, Diane L
To examine cultural and socioenvironmental factors that affect breastfeeding initiation among African American women. Qualitative descriptive design and conventional content analysis. A large, inner-city, primary care center affiliated with a 500-bed children's hospital within a large, Northeastern U.S. city. Participants were 34 U.S.-born African American mothers of healthy term infants 0 to 3 months of age. Six focus groups were conducted using a 16-question, scripted interview guide. A number of complex factors that influenced breastfeeding initiation included certain cultural beliefs about sexuality, the influence of family and peer networks, information sources, intentions, and a variety of other barriers and facilitators. Our findings suggest that the decision to initiate breastfeeding is not solely determined by the woman within the African American community. Because this decision is contingent on multiple factors external to the woman, it is important to recognize the role that partners, grandmothers, communities, information sources, and health care providers/organizations play in women's decisions. Implementation of multilevel strategies is critical to increase breastfeeding initiation among African American mothers. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oldenziel, R.; Zachmann, K.
Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev's famous "kitchen debate" in 1958 involved more than the virtues of American appliances. Both Nixon and Khrushchev recognized the political symbolism of the modern kitchen; the kind of technological innovation represented in this everyday context spoke to the
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons
The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.
Brewer, Stacey L; Mongero, Linda B
Perfusion as a career has long been dominated by men (American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion, Booklet of information since 1975). Women represent 33.3% of the present workforce in North America (1187 certified women). In the 1900s, fewer than 20% of women participated in the labor force compared with 75% today and growing (1). In addition women make only 77 cents for every dollar that men earn and the more education a woman has, the greater the disparity in her wages (2). Only 53% of employers provide at least some replacement pay during periods of maternity leave (2). The purpose of this survey was to poll women in perfusion to evaluate concerns and opinions in their careers and to compare this with the female labor force. In October 2011, a 40-question survey (surveymonkey.com) was made available to all female perfusionists in North American by postcard mailing through the American Board of Cardiovascular Perfusion. There were 538 responses to the survey, which is 45% of all female certified perfusionists in North America. A total of 32.6% of the survey participants have been in perfusion for more than 20 years and 75% are staff perfusionists, working for a hospital (59.5%) rather than a contract group (36.7%). A total of 44.7% of women who had children during their employment were out on leave 10 weeks or less. A total of 95.9% feel they miss important family functions as a result of their work schedules and 63% consider themselves under moderate stress. Direct supervision of the participants by men occurred in 76.5% of cases, and 68.2% felt that they were treated with the same respect as male coworkers. Nonetheless, 50.9% felt discriminated against because of gender. This survey suggests that the female perfusionists in North America share the same difficulties as women in the labor force. The role of women in society in general is clearly changing. Female perfusionists will be part of that change. Seventy percent of those surveyed would recommend perfusion
Liddell, Jessica L; Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim
Although American Indian (AI) women continue to experience cancer at higher rates and have not seen the same decline in cancer prevalence as the general U.S. population, little research examines how interactions with health care providers may influence and exacerbate these health disparities. The purpose of the study was to understand the experiences of AI women who receive cancer treatment, which is integral for eradication of AI cancer disparities among women. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used with a sample of 43 AI women with breast, cervical, colon, and other types of cancer from the Northern Plains region of South Dakota. Interviews were conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. Qualitative content analysis revealed that women experienced: (a) health concerns being ignored or overlooked; (b) lack of consistent and qualified providers; (c) inadequate healthcare infrastructure; (d) sub-optimal patient-healthcare provider relationships; (e) positive experiences with healthcare providers; and (f) pressure and misinformation about treatment. Results indicate the types of support AI women may need when accessing healthcare. Culturally informed trainings for healthcare professionals may be needed to provide high-quality and sensitive care for AI women who have cancer, and to support those providers already providing proper care.
Melinda Jászberényi, Ph.D.
Full Text Available River cruising is one of the most attractive and rapidly developing areas of international tourism. Beyond the beautiful natural environment of the rivers, architectural attractions along the riverside enrich the experience, providing historical and cultural background that deepens tourists’ connections to the city. This article provides an overview of Danube river cruise tourism among American tourist experts. It also showcases Budapest, an increasingly important and internationally recognized port of the Danube and capital of Hungary, as a popular tourist destination.
How do the United States and France differ in laws and attitudes concerning discrimination at work? Franco-American scholar Marie Mercat-Bruns interviews prominent legal scholars to demonstrate how these two post-industrial democracies have adopted divergent strategies. Whereas employers in the United States and France rarely discriminate openly, deep systemic discrimination exists in both countries, each with a unique history of dealing with difference. Powerful and incisive, the book examin...
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene
Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…
Moskovitz, Martin J; Baxt, Sherwood A; Jain, Aridaman K; Hausman, Robert E
Recently published case reports and outcome studies support the use of liposuction alone as an effective technique for ameliorating symptoms of breast hypertrophy. This study is the first prospective trial to examine the effectiveness of liposuction breast reduction as a primary modality of breast reduction. In addition, this study examines the role that liposuction breast reduction can play in the treatment of African American women, given the known scarring difficulties that darker skinned patients can encounter with traditional breast reduction surgery. Twenty African American women were recruited through newspaper and Internet advertisements. Patients aged 20 to 60 years were serially accepted to the study. Patients with a chief complaint of breast ptosis were excluded. No other exclusion criteria were used. Previously validated questionnaire instruments were used preoperatively and postoperatively to measure breast-related symptoms, general patient health perception, bodily pain, and self-esteem. Comorbid conditions, demographics, financial status, prior treatments, and smoking history were also documented. Seventeen patients completed the preoperative and postoperative questionnaires. An average of 1075 cc of tissue was removed per breast during liposuction breast reduction surgery. Postoperative assessment showed a significant decrease in breast-related symptoms, a significant decrease in patient pain, and a significant improvement in overall patient health perception. Liposuction breast reduction is a useful breast reduction modality in the properly selected patient. African American women, who may traditionally forego breast reduction surgery because of scarring, are excellent candidates for this type of reduction procedure.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis of stock market returns of American and European stock market for different investment horizon from the view of an American and European investor. The paper also partly resumes, in the part of analysis of USD/EUR exchange rate influence on market returns of mentioned stock market, research paper REJNUŠ, O., ŠOBA, O.: Changes in the USD/EUR exchange rate and their impact on the return of stock indexes from the viewpoint of a European and of an American investor. ACTA UNIVERSITATIS AGRICULTURAE ET SILVICULTURAE MENDELIANAE BRU- NENSIS, Vol. LII, No. 6, 2004, pg. 145–159, ISSN 1211-8516.The development of both American and European stock market is put on the development of two, structure-similar Standard & Poor’s exchange indexes, particularly S&P 500 and S&P Europe 350. According to the USD/EUR exchange rate, there were used the values published by FED, with the oldest data there were accepted the count ECU to EUR. The data were taken both from the weekly closing values of mentioned stock indexes and weekly closing values of USD/EUR exchange rate.The analysis was done with using the methods of quantification of „running market returns“ (recount to the average annual values of indexes from the view of both investors within the set investment horizon. The elemental statistical level characteristic – simple average, median and statistical characteristic of variability – standard deviation and variation coefficient were quantified from this time series of annual running market returns. The analysis, which was purposely oriented to six basic different long investment horizon (1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 5 years, 7 years, 10 years, has approved that in focused term of 1980–2004 the market returns of picked stock market from the view of both investors (American and European was generally higher in longer investment horizon than in the shorter investment horizon. The values of variation coefficient in
Full Text Available The small innovative business state support in economically developed countries is realized through assistance both to the small business on the whole and to organizations immediately dealing with innovative activities. Technology commercialization process runs also with priority participation of the state. Models used in different countries to stimulate the small entrepreneurship development are discussed along with their merits and drawbacks. It would be most appropriate for Russia to use key elements of the highly effective American system based on activities of innovative entrepreneurship supporting institutions and on a set of distinct legislative documents.
This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in
Grabe, Shelly; Jackson, Benita
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) posits that viewing one's body as an object - i.e., self-objectification - increases depressive symptomatology. Though a handful of studies to date have found self-objectification and depressive symptoms correlated among White American women, few studies have examined whether this finding generalizes to other social groups. We examine whether self-objectification and depressive symptoms are associated among Asian Americans and White Americans in a college sample of women and men (N=169). Self-objectification and depressive symptoms were positively associated among White American women but not among White American men or Asian American men or women. These data suggest the parameters of Objectification Theory are circumscribed by both race/ethnicity and gender and self-objectification may put White women, in particular, at risk for depressive symptoms.
Foreman, F E
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.
Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer
Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.
Anderson, Flora McIntyre
This thesis seeks to investigate the influence of American intellectual trends, namely structural functionalism, on the first fifteen years of Europeanization after the end of World War Two. In particular, it examines the role played by German intellectual refugees in the development of neofunctionalist theories of integration that accompanied American policymaking in this era by focusing on the work of Karl Deutsch and Ernst Haas in the 1940s and 1950s. It analyses their account of the condi...
Clark, Ashley E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A
The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women.
Azar, Madona; Stoner, Julie A; Dao, Hanh Dung; Stephens, Lancer; Goodman, Jean R; Maynard, John; Lyons, Timothy J
Minority communities are disproportionately affected by diabetes, and minority women are at an increased risk for glucose intolerance (dysglycemia) during pregnancy. In pregnant American Indian women, the objectives of the study were to use current criteria to estimate the prevalence of first-trimester (Tr1) dysglycemia and second-trimester (Tr2) incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to explore new candidate measures and identify associated clinical factors. This was a prospective cohort study. In Tr1 we performed a 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the following: fasting insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol; noninvasive skin autofluorescence (SCOUT). We defined dysglycemia by American Diabetes Association and Endocrine Society criteria and as HbA1c of 5.7% or greater. In Tr2 in an available subset, we performed a repeat OGTT and SCOUT. Pregnant American Indian women (n = 244 at Tr1; n = 114 at Tr2) participated in the study. The prevalence of dysglycemia at Tr1 and incidence of GDM at Tr2 were measured. At Tr1, one woman had overt diabetes; 36 (15%) had impaired glucose tolerance (American Diabetes Association criteria and/or abnormal HbA1c) and 59 (24%) had GDM-Tr1 (Endocrine Society criteria). Overall, 74 (30%) had some form of dysglycemia. Associated factors were body mass index, hypertension, waist/hip circumferences, SCOUT score, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At Tr2, 114 of the Tr1 cohort underwent a repeat OGTT and SCOUT, and 26 (23%) had GDM. GDM-Tr2 was associated with increased SCOUT scores (P = .029) and Tr1 body mass index, waist/hip circumferences, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels. Overall, dysglycemia at Tr1 and/or Tr2 affected 38% of the women. Dysglycemia at some point during pregnancy was common among American Indian women. It was associated with
Full Text Available We analyzed the 47 matches played at the 9th European Championship in Handball, Women, held in Denmark and Norway in December 2010. Observed were 16 teams participating. Recorded in the technical and tactical elements, the phases of attack and defense, more than 250 players. We analyzed the following technical and tactical elements: the number of shots on goal, the success rates, assists, defensive blocks, steals and penalties. Individual performance was correlated with the final team standings. The results confirmed that the team to achieve successful results especially significant individual efficiency in defense phase. This confirms the fact that among the 10 players that have shown the highest degree of efficiency defense is 7 from the three best teams. In this way, once again exactly confirmed that a solid game in defense phase prerequisite for high placement in major competitions. The teams they finished poorly, such as the National Team of Serbia, in this area have demonstrated a number of shortcomings, which among other shows inadequate method of training. The discussion and conclusions are given suggestions for improving existing training practice
Ciara S. Marley
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although nearly half of American medical school classes are comprised of women, less than 5% of female medical students enter the surgical subspecialties compared to nearly 20% of male students. Many women are concerned that a career in a surgical field will limit their personal choices. In an effort to evaluate if urology is conducive to a satisfying lifestyle, we surveyed all 365 board certified women urologists in the United States in 2007 to find out how satisfied they are with their choice of urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 114 item anonymous survey was mailed to all 365 American Board Certified female urologists in 2007. Results were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 244 women (69% who responded, 86.8% (211 reported being satisfied with their decision to enter urology. Given the choice to repeat the decision, 81% (198 said that they would remain in medicine and 91.4% (222 would choose a surgical subspecialty again. The majority of respondents who stated they would choose a career outside of medicine also stated their family life had been significantly compromised by their career. Those who did not think their family life was compromised reported they would remain in medicine. There was a positive correlation between the level of satisfaction with the work itself and with income level (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small number of women who choose a career in urology, the number of satisfied women indicates urology is a career conducive to having a balanced and fulfilling life; professionally, personally and financially.
Full Text Available Carotid Intima-media thickness (CIMT and plaque are well established markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and are widely used for identifying subclinical atherosclerotic disease. We performed association analyses using Metabochip array to identify genetic variants that influence variation in CIMT and plaque, measured using B-mode ultrasonography, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Data on genetic associations of common variants associated with both CIMT and plaque in RA subjects involving Mexican Americans (MA and European Americans (EA populations are presented in this article. Strong associations were observed after adjusting for covariate effects including baseline clinical characteristics and statin use. Susceptibility loci and genes and/or nearest genes associated with CIMT in MAs and EAs with RA are presented. In addition, common susceptibility loci influencing CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs have been presented. Polygenic Risk Score (PRS plots showing complementary evidence for the observed CIMT and plaque association signals are also shown in this article. For further interpretation and details, please see the research article titled “A Genetic Association Study of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT and Plaque in Mexican Americans and European Americans with Rheumatoid Arthritis” which is being published in Atherosclerosis (Arya et al., 2018 .(Arya et al., in press Thus, common variants in several genes exhibited significant associations with CIMT and plaque in both MAs and EAs as presented in this article. These findings may help understand the genetic architecture of subclinical atherosclerosis in RA populations.
Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F
Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. 'homaria' (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena
This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…
Burkard, Alan W.; Knox, Sarah; Groen, Michael; Perez, Maria; Hess, Shirley A.
Eleven European American psychotherapists' use of self-disclosure in cross-cultural counseling was studied using consensual qualitative research. As reasons for self-disclosing, therapists reported the intent to enhance the counseling relationship, acknowledge the role of racism/oppression in clients' lives, and acknowledge their own…
Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti
College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…
van Bottenburg, Maarten
This article discusses the cultural insignificance of football in Europe despite the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the changing
Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg
This article dilates on the culturally insignificance of football in Europe in spite of the receptiveness of Europeans to American popular culture in general. It is argued that this anomaly can be explained by a sociohistorical perspective on the differential popularization of sports and the
Cinema and society interact. This given becomes fascinating when socio-politically sensitive issues are adapted in films that confront spectators with the frames of reference they use to make sense of society. This thesis studies how North-American and European films depict political torture in the
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…
Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha
We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.
Full Text Available Unlike European Schools of Public Health, whose development was primarily influenced by the medical profession and was linked to the healthcare system, North American Schools of Public Health operate as independent academic institutions engaged in research and education of Public Health specialists. While Public Health has been recognised as a distinctive profession in USA and Canada for almost a century, in many European countries it is not recognized as such and, accordingly, there are no well-defined job positions for graduates. Similarities and differences between the European and American Schools of Public Health are reviewed and the importance of classification of core competences, responsibilities and scope of knowledge required for Public Health practice was pointed out as a prerequisite for accreditation of study curricula. For the professionalization of Public Health in Europe further efforts are needed.
Berg, J A
To describe the biologic, psychological, social, and cultural (biopsychosociocultural) dimensions of the perimenopausal transition of Filipino American midlife women. A community-based sample of 165 women (a) self-identified as Filipino American, (b) ages 35 to 56 years, and (c) English language proficient was recruited from churches and social groups. Women in the study were born in the Philippines (93.3%), had lived in the United States an average of 18.4 +/- 8.7 years, were married or partnered (74.6%), had completed college (62.8%) or a graduate degree (15.9%), worked (full-time, 77.9%; part-time, 12.9%), had household incomes greater than $50,000 (>58%). Menopause ages were calculated from reports of last menstrual periods (natural, 48.9 +/- 4.9 years; surgical, 42.2 +/- 5.7 years). Neither the age at menarche nor the number of pregnancies and children born was significantly related to age at menopause. Calcium from food sources was generally low, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) revealed a 24.8% depression rate. The low prevalence of physical health problems confirms previous research that foreign-born individuals have better health than those born in the United States. The profile of this understudied group identified calcium intake, osteoporosis morbidity, and prevalence of depression as key areas for future study.
Nadeem, Erum; Romo, Laura F.; Sigman, Marian; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Au, Terry K.
This study examined the sensitivity of an observational coding system for assessing positive and negative maternal behaviors of Latino and European American mothers toward their adolescent children. Ninety Latino (54 Spanish speaking and 35 English speaking) and 20 European American mother-adolescent dyads participated in an observational study of…
Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.
Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. This study examined the relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican- and European-American adolescents. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor quality friendships) and problematic friends (i.e., friends who were disconnected from school, delinquent friends) was explored. Participants were 648 community youth. Friends’ school disconnection was related to Mexican-American girls’ suicidal ideation while friends’ delinquency was associated with European-American youth suicidal behavior. Friendship factors were no longer associated with suicidality after controlling for suicidality correlates such as depression. These findings indicate that the relationship between friendships and suicidality varies by gender and ethnicity. They also suggest a dominant role of depression. PMID:21309824
Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
A report on the National Seminar of American Indian Women is presented. This meeting was planned to provide an opportunity for American Indian women to discuss the needs of Indian communities and expand their understanding of what constitutes an adequate community. The delegates were lay people selected from their home communities. Sixty-eight of…
K. B. Holden
Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample. Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted. Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW. Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW. These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.
Hussein Hasan Zeidanin
Full Text Available This paper explores the emancipatory potentials of American women writers of color for victims of gender, class, and the ethnocentric ideologies of racism, colonialism and nationalism. Their struggle against multiple oppressors, on one hand, drive them to form alliances with different oppressed groups such as laborers, homosexuals, the colonized people, immigrants and various ethnic minorities. On the other hand, cultural and ethnic identities are redefined on the basis of heterogeneity rather than homogeneity to cultivate tolerance, interdependence and mutual respect; gender roles are reconsidered in the light of an androgynous ideology, which views men and women as equal partners who should live in harmony but not in conflict; social classes are deconstructed to redress the injustices women and laborers have endured because of their gender, ethnic or racial differences. The plurality and heterogeneity of cultural, ethnic and gendered identities which women writers of color develop are extended to their writing whose language, content, and style are innovated and used as effective strategies to empower and emancipate subaltern groups. Their writing, therefore, assumes an inclusive character in which sexual, cultural and ethnic boundaries disappear, and interracial, intercultural, interethnic and intersexual dialogue is promoted.
Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick
health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN70595832...
Ooi, Chee Y; Dupuis, Annie; Ellis, Lynda; Jarvi, Keith; Martin, Sheelagh; Gonska, Tanja; Dorfman, Ruslan; Kortan, Paul; Solomon, Melinda; Tullis, Elizabeth; Durie, Peter R
The American and European cystic fibrosis (CF) guidelines recommend different diagnostic criteria. This study assessed diagnostic concordance between these recommendations. Subjects with single organ manifestations suggestive of CF (chronic sinopulmonary disease (RESP), chronic/recurrent pancreatitis (PANC) or obstructive azoospermia (AZOOSP)) were prospectively evaluated by sweat test, nasal potential difference and genotyping. Concordance in diagnostic outcomes between the two algorithms was measured using observed agreement and κ statistics. A total of 208 subjects were evaluated. Observed agreement was 84.8% and level of agreement was excellent (κ=0.87) between the American and European recommendations. The RESP phenotype was associated with the highest degree of concordance (observed agreement ≥90%, κ=0.92) compared with the PANC (observed agreement 86%, κ=0.65) and AZOOSP (observed agreement 80%, κ=0.87) phenotypes. Incorporation of nasal potential difference into the American algorithm failed to improve the overall degree of concordance (good agreement level; κ=0.75); the level of agreement was unchanged in RESP and PANC subjects, but reduced in AZOOSP subjects (from excellent to good). Extensive genotyping had limited clinical utility in the diagnosis of CF in both algorithms. Despite inconsistencies between the American and European diagnostic recommendations, concordance in diagnostic outcomes among subjects presenting with single organ manifestations of CF was good to excellent. These diagnostic guidelines provide guidance and promote rigorous evaluation for the diagnosis of CF but neither guideline should be regarded as dogma.
Holden, George W; Hawk, Carol Kozak; Smith, Margaret M; Singh, Jimmy; Ashraf, Rose
Coercive responses to children's behavior are well recognized to be problematic for children's adjustment. Less well understood is how parental social cognition is linked to discipline. In this study we sought to link metaparenting - parents' thoughts about their parenting - to the use of coercive discipline. We predicted that mothers who engaged in more metaparenting, thus reflecting more deliberate parenting, would use corporal punishment less frequently and instead engage in non-coercive discipline. We also expected that mothers who engaged in more metaparenting would report closer relationships with their children. In order to assess a diverse sample, data were collected from approximately equal numbers of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American mothers. Participants included 113 mothers with target children in three age groups, ranging from 2 to 12 years. The results indicated reports of corporal punishment as well as non-coercive discipline did not significantly differ across child sex and child age groups, but did differ significantly across race/ethnicity. Reports of frequency of metaparenting also differed across racial/ethnic groups; African-American mothers reported more metaparenting than European-American mothers on three of four subscales. Metaparenting was significantly related to reports of the mother-child relationship but in the opposite direction than predicted. Based on these results, future research directions linking parental social cognition to discipline are proposed.
This qualitative research aims to investigate the process of how Chinese American women develop their identities while growing up in the United States as daughters of Chinese immigrants. Specifically, the author explores the following questions: How do Chinese American women come to identify themselves as Chinese American, and act this identity in…
Examines the writings of contemporary American Indian women with regard to Euro-American stereotypes and their own concepts of femininity and Indian identity. Relates these writings to the social history of American Indians, traditional beliefs, and the autobiographical experiences of early twentieth century Indian women. Contains 32 references.…
Hill, Brenda; And Others
Presents case studies of five American Indian women teachers, examining how these contemporary Indian women teachers view the importance of their own tribal and/or American Indian culture and how they have balanced it with the pervasive Euro-American society in their own lives and classrooms. (SR)
Edwards, E. Daniel; And Others
Discusses characteristics and behaviors of effective role models for American Indian women, based on surveys of graduates of the American Indian Social Work Career Training Program at the University of Utah. Recruitment and retention of American Indian women students will require an active support system. (JAC)
Brooks Greaux, Lisa
Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…
Jones, Lauren Ila
In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…
Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei
Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…
Ferguson, Gail M; Bornstein, Marc H
Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as "Americanization". This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica ( n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families.
Europeans work much less than Americans. Some studies claim this is due to high taxes in Europe, which would benefit by adopting US tax rates and work time; others find that taxes have little or no impact on work time. I examine the hypothesis that Americans would benefit by reducing work time to Europe’s level. Empirical and experimental studies show utility falls as other people’s income rises. Due to its historical experience, Europe is able to internalize this and other negative externali...
Killen, M.; Kelly, M.; Richardson, C.; Crystal, D.; Ruck, M.
No research, to date, has investigated the role of ethnic school composition (and intergroup contact) on European-American youth’s use of stereotypes to explain interracial discomfort in the context of peer exclusion. In this study European-American 4th, 7th and 10th grade students (N = 414), attending low and high ethnically diverse public schools (with low and high self-reports of cross-race/ethnic friendships, respectively) evaluated three contexts of interracial exclusion (at lunch time, at a school dance, and at a sleepover). In addition to age and context effects, participants enrolled in high diversity schools were less likely to use stereotypes to explain racial discomfort, more likely to view racial exclusion as wrong, and more likely to estimate that racial exclusion occurs, than were participants enrolled in low diversity schools. These findings have implications for the role of social experience on racial attitudes and judgments about exclusion. PMID:25328425
Lobel, H. O.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Brandling-Bennett, A. D.; Steffen, R.; Campbell, C. C.; Huong, A. Y.; Were, J. B.; Moser, R.
A longitudinal survey was conducted among travellers departing from Nairobi airport to determine the use of malaria prevention measures and assess the risk for malaria while travelling in Kenya. Among 5489 European and North American travellers, 68 different drug regimens were used for prophylaxis, and 48% of travellers used both regular chemoprophylaxis and more than 1 antimosquito measure during travel; 52% of 3469 travellers who used chemoprophylaxis did so without interruption during thei...
Full Text Available The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility emerged in the United States and spread to Europe and Asia while being adapted to national/local characteristics. Since borders between markets and societies are blurring and globalization is promoting MNCs which find themselves acting in hybrid societies, international institutions put efforts into the development and moral acceptance of global CSR standards. The scientific interest in CSR focused on the conflicts between company returns and benefits for society. The resulting concepts of performance-oriented, awareness-oriented and welfare-oriented CSR should facilitate the evaluation of CSR strategies implemented by MNCs. In research on the cultural dimensions of economies, it might be possible to allocate geographically the three concepts. Regarding the newly emerging Chinese MNCs, the paper aims to shed light on which concept they follow. On the one hand, CSR concepts of American and/or European MNCs that are present in China might serve as a role model; on the other hand, by learning from Taiwanese/ Hong Kong MNCs, a “greater China CSR approach” might emerge. Empirical studies and own field research suggest that compared to American and European companies, CSR is less deeply rooted in Chinese companies. Furthermore, significant differences between Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwanese companies indicate that a Greater Chinese CSR approach does not yet exist. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that American and European CSR concepts will experience a Chinese influence in the near future.
Tattevin, P; Mainardi, J-L
The optimal management of infective endocarditis requires a broad range of expertise (infectious disease specialists, cardiologists, microbiologists, cardiac surgeons, and intensivists). Given the low level of evidence currently available to support the management of infective endocarditis, international guidelines have always been particularly awaited and rather well implemented. Their cautious analysis of the medical literature and the range of expertise combined within the groups in charge of these guidelines are usually broadly acknowledged and respected. The publications, a few weeks apart, of the 2015 updates of the American and European guidelines, was quite disturbing. Indeed, several discrepancies on major therapeutic propositions were observed, including empirical treatment (penicillin M+penicillin A+gentamicin for Europeans in acutely ill patients; penicillin A+beta-lactamase inhibitor+gentamicin for Americans), or first-line treatment for the most common pathogen responsible for endocarditis in 2016, Staphylococcus aureus (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole+clindamycin as an alternative in the European guidelines, while this regimen is not even mentioned in the American guidelines). Other discrepancies were observed, although less significant: the role of positron emission tomography labelled with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose and administration modalities for aminoglycosides. We aimed to detail the main changes brought upon by these guidelines, their discrepancies, and the 'pros' and 'cons' that may help you select the best treatment regimen for your patients. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Campos-Melady, Marita; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey N; Belon, Katherine E; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Kelton, Katherine
Mexican American women are disproportionately affected by overweight/obesity and the health complications accompanying them, but weight loss treatments are less successful in this ethnic group. High levels of familism, a value reflecting obligation to family that supersedes attention to oneself, interfere with weight loss for Mexican American women. This mixed methods study investigated overweight Mexican American women's beliefs about how familism, and Mexican American culture, might hinder weight loss success, and how treatments might be culturally adapted. Results suggest a need to support women in their commitment to family while also helping them make changes. Recommendations for culturally adapted treatments are made.
Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...
Muhammad, Robin Dearmon
The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.
Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…
Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Skouby, Sven; Serfaty, David
The obesity 'epidemic' continues to increase, mostly but not only in developed countries. As overweight and obese women are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) at baseline and at a much higher risk during pregnancy, it is essential to help these women to plan pregnancies carefully...... and with the Medical Eligibility Criteria of the World Health Organisation....
Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…
Yola Damayanti Gani
Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.
Kao, Christina C; Cope, Julia L; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Luna, Ruth A; Hollister, Emily B; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook
Indian women have slower arginine flux during pregnancy compared with American and Jamaican women. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that becomes essential during periods of rapid lean tissue deposition. It is synthesized only from citrulline, a nondietary amino acid produced mainly in the gut. The gut is therefore a key site of arginine and citrulline metabolism, and gut microbiota may affect their metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiota of nonpregnant American, Indian, and Jamaican women and characterize the relations between the gut microbiota, gut function, and citrulline and arginine metabolism. Thirty healthy American, Indian, and Jamaican women (n = 10/group), aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y, were infused intravenously with [guanidino- 15 N 2 ]arginine, [5,5- 2 H 2 ]citrulline, and [ 15 N 2 ]ornithine and given oral [U- 13 C 6 ]arginine in the fasting and postprandial states. Fecal bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In the fasting state, Indian women had lower citrulline flux than did American and Jamaican women [7.0 ± 0.4 compared with 9.1 ± 0.4 and 8.9 ± 0.2 μmol ⋅ kg fat-free mass (FFM) -1 ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.01] and greater enteral arginine conversion to ornithine than did American women (1.4 ± 0.11 compared with 1.0 ± 0.08 μmol ⋅ kg FFM -1 ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.04). They also had lower mannitol excretion than American and Jamaican women (154 ± 37.1 compared with 372 ± 51.8 and 410 ± 39.6 mg/6 h, P Indian women had increased mean relative abundances of Prevotella (42%) compared to American and Jamaican women (7% and Indian women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Gotay, Carolyn Cook; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Muraoka, Miles; Ishihara, Yoko; Tsuboi, Koji; Ogawa, Hiroshi
Adults living in Japan (N = 357) and the US (N = 223) completed semi-structured interviews assessing health-related attitudes and practices. The US respondents were of Japanese (N = 106) and European (N = 117) ancestry. Results indicated considerable similarity between the two US groups and significant differences between the Japanese and American respondents. The Japanese respondents placed less priority on health, had less belief in the efficacy of health screening tests, lower levels of internal health locus of control (HLOC), and higher levels of chance and powerful-others HLOC. While Japanese and Americans had similar overall levels of healthy behaviors, the Japanese were less likely to have obtained health screening tests (especially gynecologic exams). The findings have implications for adapting health promotion programs in the context of Japanese and American cultures.
Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C
The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the
Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Espinoza, Russ K. E.; Culhane, Scott E.
In two studies, a defendant's ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and crime status were varied for effects on verdict decisions, sentencing recommendations, culpability assignments, and trait assessments. In Study 1, European Americans (N = 221) provided a low SES Mexican American defendant with more guilt verdicts, a lengthier sentence, and…
Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel
This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…
Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.
Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Payakkakom, Anusorn; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Arredondo, Patricia
The authors investigated the psychometric appropriateness of the Valuing/ Commitment to Education scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965), and the Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993) for use with European American, Latina/o, and Native American college freshmen. Strong to moderate…
Kawaguchi, Ai; Matsunaga, Yuta; Chida, Koichi; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Shoichi
This study aimed to estimate breast glandularity in Japanese women using patient exposure conditions and tissue-equivalent materials by a conventional method. Typical glandularities in Japanese women were compared with those in European women to verify the validity of the average glandular dose estimation manual based on the EUREF protocol. Glandularity was estimated from the data of 600 patients and the model breast of the tissue-equivalent materials which had various amounts of glandular contents and thicknesses. The model breasts were measured to examine the relationships between the thickness of the glandular contents and tube loading by using an automatic exposure control system. Then, equations were established to determine glandularity from patient data. The mean glandularity in the highest compressed breast thickness (CBT) group of 36–45 mm was 72%. The mean CBT of the 184 (31%) patients with glandularities exceeding 100% was 31 mm. Glandularities in patients with CBT of 30–70 mm in the present study were higher compared to those in European women by approximately 10–20%. The results suggest that the model breast of European women might not be a suitable reference standard for more than 30% of Japanese women, who have breasts with lower CBT. (author)
Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Austin, Erika L; Mena, Leandro A; Schwebke, Jane R
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a frequent cause of vaginal discharge that may be more common among women reporting sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BV and predictors of infection among a sample of African American WSW. African American WSW aged 18 years or older presenting to the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic between 2009 and 2010 and reporting a history of sexual activity with a female partner during the preceding year were invited to participate. A survey on sexual history and sexual behavior characteristics was completed. Bacterial vaginosis was defined by Amsel criteria. Associations with participant characteristics were determined using logistic regression analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 93 (47.4%) of 196 women. Bisexual identity (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.66; P = 0.04), douching within the past 30 days (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.43; P = 0.02), age 18 years or less at first sexual encounter with a female partner (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.16-8.71; P = 0.02), and report of more than 1 lifetime male sexual partners (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.74; P = 0.04) were significant predictors of BV in bivariate analysis. Bacterial vaginosis was less common among women who reported more than 1 lifetime female sexual partner (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76; P = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, age 18 years or less at first sex with a female partner approached significance, while report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner remained strongly associated with BV. Bacterial vaginosis was common in this sample of African American WSW and significantly associated with report of 1 lifetime female sexual partner.
Schwartz, Kendra; Fakhouri, Monty; Bartoces, Monina; Monsur, Joseph; Younis, Amani
Mammography screening behavior has not been well studied among Middle Eastern immigrant women. We conducted a telephone survey of 365 Arab American women residing in metropolitan Detroit, home to one of the largest populations of Middle Eastern immigrants in the US, to determine prevalence of factors associated with mammography, and attitudes and beliefs regarding mammography screening. Of 365 participants, only five were born in the US. Mean age was 53.2 years (SD 10.8). Two hundred twelve (58.1%) reported having mammogram every 1-2 years; 70% ever had mammogram. Age 50-64 years, having health insurance, married status, being in the US over 10 years, and being Lebanese were associated with mammography every 1-2 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, perceived seriousness of disease, general health motivation, and having fewer barriers were associated with more frequent screening. Appropriate mammography screening is decreased in this group. Targeted outreach regarding screening is appropriate for this population; however, lack of insurance may prevent adequate follow-up.
Nguyen, Tung T; Somkin, Carol P; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa
Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew about trials. Other patient-identified barriers were fear of side effects, language problems, competing needs, and fear of experimentation. Family decision making was a barrier for both oncologists and patients. Compared to non-Asian oncologists, more Asian oncologists have referred Asian-American women to industry trials and identified barriers similar to patients' reports. Our findings indicate that Asian-American women need to be informed about cancer treatment trials, linguistic barriers should be addressed, and future research should evaluate cultural barriers such as family decision making.
Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Duncan, Alexis E
Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE) phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups. Participants included 3,226 European American (EA) and 550 African American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]). Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
M.A. Spruit (Martijn); S.J. Singh (Sally); C. Garvey (Chris); R. Zu Wallack (Richard); L. Nici (Linda); C. Rochester (Carolyn); K. Hill (Kylie); A.E. Holland (Anne); S.C. Lareau (Suzanne); W.D.-C. Man (William); F. Pitta (Fabio); L. Sewell (Louise); J. Raskin (Jonathan); J. Bourbeau (Jean); R. Crouch (Rebecca); F.M.E. Franssen (Frits); R. Casaburi (Richard); J.H. Vercoulen (Jan); I. Vogiatzis (Ioannis); R.A.A.M. Gosselink (Rik); E.M. Clini (Enrico); T.W. Effing (Tanja); F. Maltais (François); J. van der Palen (Job); T. Troosters; D.J.A. Janssen (Daisy); E. Collins (Eileen); J. Garcia-Aymerich (Judith); D. Brooks (Dina); B.F. Fahy (Bonnie); M.A. Puhan (Milo); M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); R. Garrod (Rachel); A.M.W.J. Schols (Annemie); B. Carlin (Brian); R. Benzo (Roberto); P. Meek (Paula); M. Morgan (Mike); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); A.L. Ries (Andrew); B. Make (Barry); R.S. Goldstein (Roger); C.A. Dowson (Claire); J.L. Brozek (Jan); C.F. Donner (Claudio); E.F.M. Wouters (Emiel)
textabstractBackground: Pulmonary rehabilitation is recognized as a core component of themanagement of individuals with chronic respiratory disease. Since the 2006 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation, there has been considerable
Nappi, R E; Krychman, M L
Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a common complaint in postmenopausal women and consists of a variety of symptoms and strong repercussions that negatively affect comfort during sexual activity and ultimately impact quality of life. The EU and US REVIVE surveys have detected significant barriers in health-care professional management and educational programs that prevent correct diagnosis and effective treatment. This was common in both Europe and the US, but differential behaviors and patterns could be detected after reviewing the published results. The frequency of reporting VVA symptoms was lower in European participants. However, a better knowledge that VVA is a consequence of menopause was evident in Europe, probably in relation to more frequent gynecological visits and more frequent specialist visits as a referral health-care professional. Moreover, a trend towards an improved satisfaction with management by the health-care professional was observed in Europe. European participants acknowledged a significantly higher impact of VVA symptoms on sexual intercourse and partner interaction than North American (US) participants, and both cohorts were observed to have differences between their respective VVA symptom profiles. These observations have implications in the overall concerns that participants stated with long-term VVA medication and for the optimal therapeutic approach, providing evidence to support the concept that unexplored methods to improve management of patients with VVA remain.
Cai, Qiuyin; Wen, Wanqing; Qu, Shimian; Li, Guoliang; Egan, Kathleen M; Chen, Kexin; Deming, Sandra L; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Chen-Yang; Gammon, Marilie D; Blot, William J; Matsuo, Keitaro; Haiman, Christopher A; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Santella, Regina M; Zhang, Lina; Fair, Alecia Malin; Hu, Zhibin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Signorello, Lisa B; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Tajima, Kazuo; Henderson, Brian E; Chan, Kelvin Y K; Kasuga, Yoshio; Newcomb, Polly A; Zheng, Hong; Cui, Yong; Wang, Furu; Shieh, Ya-Lan; Iwata, Hiroji; Le Marchand, Loic; Chan, Sum Yin; Shrubsole, Martha J; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Long, Jirong; Li, Chun; Shi, Jiajun; Huang, Bo; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei
We evaluated the generalizability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2046210 (A/G allele), associated with breast cancer risk that was initially identified at 6q25.1 in a genome-wide association study conducted among Chinese women. In a pooled analysis of more than 31,000 women of East-Asian, European, and African ancestry, we found a positive association for rs2046210 and breast cancer risk in Chinese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.30 (1.22-1.38) and 1.64 (1.50-1.80) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 1.54 × 10⁻³⁰], Japanese women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.31 (1.13-1.52) and 1.37 (1.06-1.76), P for trend = 2.51 × 10⁻⁴], and European-ancestry American women [ORs (95% CI) = 1.07 (0.99-1.16) and 1.18 (1.04-1.34), P for trend = 0.0069]. No association with this SNP, however, was observed in African American women [ORs (95% CI) = 0.81 (0.63-1.06) and 0.85 (0.65-1.11) for the AG and AA genotypes, respectively, P for trend = 0.4027]. In vitro functional genomic studies identified a putative functional variant, rs6913578. This SNP is 1,440 bp downstream of rs2046210 and is in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2046210 in Chinese (r(2) = 0.91) and European-ancestry (r² = 0.83) populations, but not in Africans (r² = 0.57). SNP rs6913578 was found to be associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese and European-ancestry American women. After adjusting for rs2046210, the association of rs6913578 with breast cancer risk in African Americans approached borderline significance. Results from this large consortium study confirmed the association of rs2046210 with breast cancer risk among women of Chinese, Japanese, and European ancestry. This association may be explained in part by a putatively functional variant (rs6913578) identified in the region. ©2011 AACR.
Rue, Vincent M; Coleman, Priscilla K; Rue, James J; Reardon, David C
Individual and situational risk factors associated with negative postabortion psychological sequelae have been identified, but the degree of posttraumatic stress reactions and the effects of culture are largely unknown. Retrospective data were collected using the Institute for Pregnancy Loss Questionnaire (IPLQ) and the Traumatic Stress Institute's (TSI) Belief Scale administered at health care facilities to 548 women (331 Russian and 217 American) who had experienced one or more abortions, but no other pregnancy losses. Overall, the findings here indicated that American women were more negatively influenced by their abortion experiences than Russian women. While 65% of American women and 13.1% of Russian women experienced multiple symptoms of increased arousal, re-experiencing and avoidance associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 14.3% of American and 0.9% of Russian women met the full diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Russian women had significantly higher scores on the TSI Belief Scale than American women, indicating more disruption of cognitive schemas. In this sample, American women were considerably more likely to have experienced childhood and adult traumatic experiences than Russian women. Predictors of positive and negative outcomes associated with abortion differed across the two cultures. Posttraumatic stress reactions were found to be associated with abortion. Consistent with previous research, the data here suggest abortion can increase stress and decrease coping abilities, particularly for those women who have a history of adverse childhood events and prior traumata. Study limitations preclude drawing definitive conclusions, but the findings do suggest additional cross-cultural research is warranted.
Lara E Sucheston
Full Text Available Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP.Individual ancestry (IA was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP, a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states.Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03 and EA (p = 0.001. This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78 but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA.Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA research participants: self-reported ethnicity
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to introduce a new research topic and provide information about a European research project focusing on football as a means of European integration. Using the results of available studies of the author and other scholars, it is to be discussed whether and how women can participate in football cultures and contribute to a European identity. Based on theoretical approaches to national identity, gender and socialization, as well as and on the analysis of various intersections between gender, football and fandom, it can be concluded that women are still outsiders in the world of football and that it is doubtful whether female players and fans will contribute decisively to Europeanization processes.
Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R
To describe African American and White women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy and to explore differences in perceptions by race. Qualitative interview study. Two Ob/Gyn clinics in South Carolina, USA. Thirty pregnant women (15 African American, 15 White) between 20 and 30 weeks gestation, equally represented across pre-pregnancy BMI categories (10 normal weight, 10 overweight, and 10 obese). White women more frequently described intentions to meet weight gain, physical activity, and dietary guidelines in pregnancy than African American women. African American women were more concerned with inadequate weight gain while White women more commonly expressed concerns about excessive weight gain. More White women discussed the importance of physical activity for weight management. Regardless of race, few women described risks of excessive weight gain or benefits of physical activity as it relates to the baby's health. The primary cited barrier of healthy eating was the high cost of fresh produce. Several knowledge gaps as well as race differences were identified in women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition during pregnancy. Future interventions should seek to educate women about common misperceptions. It may be necessary to culturally tailor gestational weight gain interventions to optimise health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jans, S. M. P. J.; Daemers, D. O. A.; de Vos, R.; Lagro-Jansen, A. L. M.
to investigate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy according to the cut-off points used in the national clinical guideline 'Anaemia in Primary Care Midwifery Practice', and to investigate a possible difference in prevalence between pregnant women of Northern European descent compared with women
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Liang, Jia; Peters-Hawkins, April L.
Purpose: Little research exists that examines the leadership experiences of Asian American women in public schools. This study sought to understand the meanings Asian American women school administrators have constructed out of their professional lives given the intersection of gender, race-ethnicity, and leadership. Research Method/Approach: Data…
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
Reynolds, Pauline J.
This paper examines the portrayal of women university academics in American films from the 1940s. It applies analytical tools from a critical methodology to access the socio-cultural ideas and values attributed to the female professoriate during what is a period of great change for women in American society. This analysis reveals that the values…
McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy
A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…
Duran, Bonnie; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sanders, Margaret; Waitzkin, Howard; Skipper, Betty; Yager, Joel
Objective: To examine (1) the prevalence, types, and severity of child abuse and neglect (CAN) and (2) the relationship between CAN and lifetime psychiatric disorders among American Indian women using primary care services. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 234 American Indian women, age 18-45 who presented for outpatient…
A phenomenological study examined experiences of eight urban American Indian women participating in a 6-week intervention aimed at reclaiming and adapting Native women's traditional roles as part of bicultural resynthesis. Psychoeducational methods were used to uncover past ethnic shame, facilitate a return to American Indian pride and identity,…
Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.
Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…
Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.
Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L
African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.
Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo
This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.
Brawner, Bridgette M
Disproportionate HIV/AIDS rates among African American women have been examined extensively, primarily from an individual-centered focus. Beyond individual behaviors, factors such as the hyperincarceration of African American men and geographically concentrated disadvantage may better explain inequitable disease burden. In this article I propose a conceptual model of individual, social, and structural factors that influence HIV transmission among African American women. The model can be used to develop comprehensive assessments and guide prevention programs in African American communities. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Saxena, R; Georgopoulos, N A; Braaten, T J; Bjonnes, A C; Koika, V; Panidis, D; Welt, C K
associated with insulin (-0.16 ± 0.05, P = 0.0029) and glucose levels (-0.20 ± 0.05, P = 0.0002) 120 min after an oral glucose test. The study was large and contained replication cohorts, but was limited by a small number of controls in the Greek cohort and a small number of cases in the second Boston cohort. The second Boston group was identified using electronic medical record review, but was validated for the cardinal features of PCOS. This study demonstrates a cross-ethnic PCOS risk locus in FSHR in women of European ancestry with PCOS. The variant may influence FSH receptor responsiveness as suggested by the associated change in FSH levels. The relationship between a variant near RAB5B and SUOX and glucose stimulated insulin and glucose levels suggests an influence of one of these genes on glucose tolerance, but the absence of a relationship with PCOS points to potential differences in the international PCOS patient populations. The project was supported by Award Number R01HD065029 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development, Award Number 1 UL1 RR025758, Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, from the National Center for Research Resources, award 1-10-CT-57 from the American Diabetes Association and the Partners Healthcare Center for Personalized Genetics Project Grant. C.K.W. is a consultant for Takeda Pharmaceuticals. NCT00166569. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne
The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.
Vasvári, Louise O.
In her paper "Emigrée Central European Jewish Women's Holocaust Life Writing," Louise O. Vasvári analyzes voices of women survivors from a gendered perspective in order to provide insights for both Holocaust studies and gender studies. Vasvári considers whether it can be claimed that there is a specifically female style of remembering and of testifying about these traumatic experiences. Vasvári's selection includes the writings of some two dozen Central European emigrée survivors, all native ...
Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.
Calignano, Elisa; Freda, Carmela; Baracchi, Laura
Women are outnumbered by men in geosciences senior research positions, but what is the situation if we consider large pan-European Research Infrastructures? With this contribution we want to show an analysis of the role of women in the implementation of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): a planned research infrastructure for European Solid Earth sciences, integrating national and transnational research infrastructures to enable innovative multidisciplinary research. EPOS involves 256 national research infrastructures, 47 partners (universities and research institutes) from 25 European countries and 4 international organizations. The EPOS integrated platform demands significant coordination between diverse solid Earth disciplinary communities, national research infrastructures and the policies and initiatives they drive, geoscientists and information technologists. The EPOS architecture takes into account governance, legal, financial and technical issues and is designed so that the enterprise works as a single, but distributed, sustainable research infrastructure. A solid management structure is vital for the successful implementation and sustainability of EPOS. The internal organization relies on community-specific Working Packages (WPs), Transversal WPs in charge of the overall EPOS integration and implementation, several governing, executive and advisory bodies, a Project Management Office (PMO) and the Project Coordinator. Driven by the timely debate on gender balance and commitment of the European Commission to promote gender equality in research and innovation, we decided to conduct a mapping exercise on a project that crosses European national borders and that brings together diverse geoscience disciplines under one management structure. We present an analysis of women representation in decision-making positions in each EPOS Working Package (WP Leader, proxy, legal, financial and IT contact persons), in the Boards and Councils and in the PMO
Kulwicki, Anahid; Ballout, Suha; Kilgore, Colleen; Hammad, Adnan; Dervartanian, Hermine
How intimate partner violence (IPV), depression, and barriers to services affect Arab American women in the United States is not very well documented. This cross-sectional exploratory descriptive study examines (a) the relationship between depression and IPV and (b) whether living in the United States 10 or more years decreases barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression in a sample (N = 312) of Arab American women 19 years and older. Findings demonstrate significant relationships between women who were at risk for IPV and depression scores (r = .44, p Arab American women experiencing IPV and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wei, Meifen; Su, Jenny C; Carrera, Stephanie; Lin, Shu-Ping; Yi, Fei
Based on Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory, this study was conducted to examine whether the association between emotional suppression and interpersonal harmony would be moderated by cultural group (i.e., Chinese and European Americans) and an Asian cultural value (i.e., emotional self-control). A total of 451 college students (205 Chinese and 246 European Americans) participated in this study. As expected, results indicated that the association between emotional suppression and interpersonal harmony was significantly positive for Chinese but not significant for European Americans. Similarly, when emotional self-control was examined as a moderator, the results still confirmed our hypotheses. That is, the association between emotional suppression and interpersonal harmony was significantly positive for those with stronger endorsement of emotional self-control but not for those with weaker endorsement of emotional self-control. Furthermore, we examined whether the above results could be replicated when forbearance (a construct similar to suppression) and distress disclosure (a construct opposite to suppression) were examined. The results showed the same pattern for forbearance and distress disclosure when cultural group or emotional self-control served as the moderator. The convergence of findings increased the robustness of our results. Finally, our data suggest that individuals from Eastern, interdependent cultures (e.g., Chinese) tend to value emotional suppression to preserve interpersonal harmony; individuals from Western, independent cultures may or may not necessarily suppress their emotions for this purpose. A comprehensive understanding of the different meanings of a specific strategy (i.e., emotional suppression) in different cultural contexts is important to promote effective cross-cultural counseling.
.... During Year 02, we conducted technical analyses of completed Phase 1 interviews that were obtained from African American women who were eligible to receive, but who chose to decline, free screening mammograms...
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the fundamental variables driving banks’ credit default swaps. Quarterly data from 2004 to 2015 for European and American banks have been used. The analysis has been prepared through static panel data models. The following hypothesis has been put forward: the earnings potential, and economic uncertainty significantly influence credit risk. The independent variables used are CAMELS factors – Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management Quality, Earnings Potential, Liquidity, and Sensitivity to Market Risk. The CDS spreads are most sensitive to the market risk factors whereas capital adequacy, earnings and liquidity indicators have weaker impact.
Fellows, Jane; Forest Lalande, Louise; Martins, Lina; Steen, Anne; Størling, Zenia M
The purpose of this study was to compare experiences and concerns about pouch seal leakage between persons with ostomies residing in North America (Canada and the United States) and Europe (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, France, and Italy). Differences in reported pouch wear time and accessories used between the 2 groups were also examined. Secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study (Ostomy Life Study). Responses from persons residing in European countries (n = 1939) were compared with responses of 1387 individuals residing in North American countries. Persons with an ostomy completed a questionnaire that focused on 4 topics related to the daily use of an ostomy pouching system (pouch seal leakage, ballooning, appearance of pouching system such as color and size of the pouch and whether it is discrete under clothing, and coupling failure of 2-piece pouching systems). Pouch seal leakage was defined as stomal effluent seeping between the skin and the wafer of the ostomy pouching system. Statistical analysis was performed using a proportional odds model including various variable effects. Special attention was given to frequency of pouch seal leakage occurrences. All tests were 2-sided; P values ≤.05 were deemed statistically significant. Participants living in the North American countries indicated they were more likely to experience leakage from the ostomy (odds ratio = 2.610, 95% CI 2.187-3.115; P < .0001). Findings also indicated they were more likely to worry about pouch seal leakage than those in the European countries' data set (odds ratio = 2.722, 95% CI 2.283-3.246; P < .0001). Participants residing in the North American countries had significantly longer wear times than those participants in the European countries (P < .0001, χ test). The use of accessories was associated with a longer pouching system wear time. Study results suggest that participants from the North American countries indicated significantly more
Full Text Available In this article, attention is called on the American attempt to change the international rules of intervention, and the impact this choice has on transatlantic relations. Hegemonic theory of world politics is the theoretical framework of the analysis. At the same time, the evolutionary world politics model is adopted to understand change in world politics. In the first section of the article, a set of concepts for the analysis of the structure of government of the world political system is presented. The second section is about the current phase of hegemonic politics and the state of transatlantic relations. The third section analyzes the issue of external military intervention to change domestic regimes and President Bush’s prevention doctrine. In the last section of the article, the attitudes and policies of the European Union and American governments on prevention are examined and confronted.
Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...
Vasvári, Louise O.
In her "Introduction to and Bibliography of Central European Women's Holocaust Life Writing in English," Louise O. Vasvári discusses aspects and perspectives of women's life writing, including her criteria of selection, the problematics of sourcing, issues of translation, and processes of publication. While the authors listed in the bibliography are overwhelmingly Jewish and from Central and East Europe, there are works listed by others whose experiences also offer important testimony not onl...
Haseltine, F P; Wentz, A C
This article reports survey responses from 71 female members of the American Fertility Society during the Society's 1984 annual meeting. Survey questions concern 1) demographic factors such as rank, degree, title, address, and number of children, 2) field of specialization and research interests, and 3) what the Society can do for its meeting participants. The typical respondent is a physician living in the Eastern United States and employed as an assistant professor in an academic setting. In vitro fertilization is the greatest area of interest, followed by general practice, endocrine and male infertility, contraception, and fertility surgery. Survey responses show that women are interested in 1) networking, 2) increased visibility at professional meetings, 3) information about research possibilities and grants, 4) child care provision at Society meetings, and 5) more basic science and physiology oriented presentions in the program. In response to networking interests, the Society will make available information from the surveyed members. Since 16% of respondents have a PH.D., and 77% are employed in academics, the Society should consider more basic presentations. The need for day care indicates changes in Society membership. The Society plans to conduct similar surveys on a regular basis.
Terryl J. Hartman
Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.
The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…
Ensminger, Margaret E; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Juon, Hee-Soon; Pearson, Jennifer L; Robertson, Judith A
We compare life course characteristics of a cohort of African American women (N=457) by their smoking status at age 42: never smoker (34.1%), former smoker (27.8%), or current smoker (38.1%). The Woodlawn population from which our sample is drawn has been followed from first grade (1966-67) to mid adulthood (2002-3) and is a cohort of children from a disadvantaged Chicago community. Examination of the effects of cumulative disadvantage on smoking behavior showed that nearly half of women who first lived in poverty as children, dropped out of school, became teen mothers, and were poor as young adults currently smoked; less than 22% of women with none of these difficulties were current smokers. Regression analyses focusing on smoking and evidence of social disadvantage in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood showed that women with more education were much less likely to be current smokers. Women reporting low parental supervision in adolescence and less frequent church attendance in young adulthood and those whose mothers' reported regular smoking were significantly more likely to be current smokers. Poverty and marital status in young adulthood varied significantly among smoking categories in bivariate relationships, but not in final multivariate regression models. Few other studies have examined smoking careers with data from age 6-42, comparing social disadvantage characteristics over the life course. While marital status, church involvement and parental supervision are not usually included as measures of socioeconomic status, they represent advantages in terms of social capital and should be considered mechanisms for transmitting disparities.
Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Fox, Kim M; Priori, Silvia G; Collins, Peter; Daly, Caroline; Graham, Ian; Jonsson, Benct; Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin; Tendera, Michal
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality both in men and women. In Europe, about 55% of all females' deaths are caused by CVD, especially coronary heart disease and stroke. Unfortunately, however, the risk of heart disease in women is underestimated because of the perception that women are 'protected' against ischaemic heart disease. What is not fully understood is that women during the fertile age have a lower risk of cardiac events, but this protection fades after menopause thus leaving women with untreated risk factors vulnerable to develop myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease in women may be different from those commonly observed in males and this factor may account for under-recognition of the disease. The European Society of Cardiology has recently initiated an extensive 'Women at heart' program to coordinate research and educational initiatives on CVD in women. A Policy Conference on CVD in Women was one of the first steps in the development of this program. The objective of the conference was to collect the opinion of experts in the field coming from the European Society of Cardiology member countries to: (1) summarize the state-of-the-art from an European perspective; (2) to identify the scientific gaps on CVD in women; and (3) to delineate the strategies for changing the misperception of CVD in women, improving risk stratification, diagnosis, and therapy from a gender perspective and increasing women representation in clinical trials. The Policy Conference has provided the opportunity to review and comment on the current status of knowledge on CVD in women and to prioritize the actions needed to advance this area of knowledge in cardiology. In the preparation of this document we intend to provide the medical community and the stakeholders of this field with an overview of the more critical aspects that have emerged during the discussion. We
Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf
Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…
Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
Ivanova, K.; Kalmijn, M.; Uunk, W.
This work examines what role children play in the re-partnering process in five European countries (Norway, France, Germany, Romania, and the Russian Federation) by addressing the following research questions: (1) To what extent do men and women differ in their re-partnering chances?; (2) Can gender
Harmon, Q E; Baird, D D
Is use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) a risk factor for or a protective factor against prevalent uterine leiomyoma? Ever use of DMPA was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted risk ratio (RR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 0.9) of prevalent leiomyoma in young African American women. Although progesterone is associated with growth of leiomyoma, previous epidemiological studies have shown a protective association for DMPA use. These previous studies may have been biased by studying clinically diagnosed leiomyoma (DMPA may mask symptoms thus delaying diagnoses). Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of 1696 African American women. Community-based recruitment (e.g. letters, flyers, radio and TV announcements) were used to enroll African American women between 23 and 34 years old without a previous diagnosis of leiomyoma in the Metropolitan Detroit area. Extensive questionnaire data were used to determine DMPA use and screening ultrasound detected the presence of leiomyoma ≥0.5 cm in diameter. Relative risks with adjustment for covariates were calculated for the presence of leiomyoma based on ever use of DMPA as well as duration and recency of use. Among the 1696 volunteers who enrolled, 43% had used DMPA. Leiomyoma were detected in 17% of those who had ever used DMPA compared with 26% of those who had never used DMPA. The reduction in prevalence remained after adjustment for potential confounders and was highest among women who had used DMPA for more than 4 years (adjusted RR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8). The reduction in risk was seen for women whose most recent use was up to 8 years prior to study enrollment. The use of cross-sectional data means that the timing of initial fibroid development is not known, so the temporality of the association is uncertain. However in this sample of young women, most fibroids were small, suggesting that DMPA exposure may have occurred before leiomyoma development. Our findings are in
Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V
Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.
Stengaard, Annemarie Rinder; Lazarus, Jeff; Donoghoe, Martin C
Objective. To assess the level of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region. Methods. Analysis of data from three national surveys of 53 WHO European Member States. The comparative level of access to HAART for women and children was a...
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda; Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Demetrovics, Zsolt
To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). High schools in 23 countries. A sample of 77 586 adolescents aged 15 years was analyzed by means of hierarchical linear modeling. The frequency of drunkenness. We observed a significant increase of about 40% in the mean frequency of drunkenness in all 7 participating Eastern European countries. This increase was evident among both genders, but most consistently among girls. Meanwhile, it declined in 13 of 16 Western countries, about 25% on average. Declines in Western countries were particularly notable among boys and in North America, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Despite this gender convergence, with few exceptions (Greenland, Norway, United Kingdom) boys continued to have a higher frequency of drunkenness in 2005/2006 than girls. The confirmed cultural convergence implies that adoption and implementation of evidence-based measures to mitigate the frequency of adolescent drunkenness such as tax increases and restricting alcohol access and advertisement should get the same priority in Eastern European countries as in Western countries. Policy measures that might facilitate decreases in drunkenness such as server training and the promotion of alcohol-free leisure-time activities should be reinforced in Western countries. The gender convergence implies that prevention policy should be less exclusively focused on male adolescents.
Ulloa, Alvaro E; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor M; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu
Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American (AA) population. This study considers 2 CNV data sets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands, and specific losses in CNV regions. Results from the discovery data set showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53 × 10(-3) ). An overlapping CNV region from the validation data set exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid, and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9 × 10(-3) ) in our discovery data set. Although not observed in the validation data set, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Overall, our study provides
Spalluto, Lucy B; Arleo, Elizabeth K; Macura, Katarzyna J; Rumack, Carol M
Women radiologists remain in minority, unchanged for the past several decades. In 1981, the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR) was founded to address the problems that women radiologists were experiencing in being subordinate to male radiologists in the workplace and at the national level in organizations with respect to political power and financial compensation, as well as additional issues unique to women in radiology. The AAWR defined goals to meet the needs of women in radiology: improve the visibility of women radiologists, advance the professional and academic standing of women in radiology, and identify and address issues faced by women in radiology. AAWR efforts have included providing opportunities for career development and award recognition, hosting educational programs at national meetings, and publishing numerous manuscripts on issues faced by women in radiology. The AAWR recognizes that although there has been significant progress in the standing of women in radiology over the past 35 years, there is much room for improvement. The AAWR will continue to advocate for the needs of women in radiology. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Edgar Ramos Vieira,1,2 Ruth Tappen,3 Gabriella Engstrom,3 Bruno R da Costa11Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Neuroscience, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 3Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups.Participants and methods: Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics.Results: Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0, having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013, back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8, feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7, and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6 were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups.Conclusion: Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging.Keywords: ethnicity, falls, risks, community dwelling, older adults
Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia
The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant's case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625
Ephraim Okoro; Peter W. Cardon; Bryan Marshall; Otis Thomas
This article describes research about horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism (HVIC) among African American and European American university students. The survey is based on the work of Harry Triandis (1995), one of the seminal researchers of individualism and collectivism (I-C). The survey of attitude and scenario items, developed by Harry Triandis (1995), was administered to undergraduate management students in three universities in the Eastern and Southeastern United States...
More than 60% of women work in such jobs. ... self-employment and to provide technical and marketing skills to potential women entrepreneurs. ... prepare a comparative analysis of labour market dynamics in El Salvador and Nicaragua; ...
Lackey, N R; Gates, M F; Brown, G
To describe the experiences of African American women living with breast cancer following the primary diagnosis and while undergoing initial treatment. Phenomenologic. 13 African American women (ages 30-66) purposefully selected from two oncology clinics in the mid-South. Phenomenologic interviews (transcribed verbatim) and field notes were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenologic description and analysis. Experience Trajectory, Femininity, and Spirituality were the three major themes. The Experience Trajectory subthemes were finding the lump, getting the diagnosis, undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment. The Femininity subthemes were loss of all or part of the breast, loss of hair, and sexual attractiveness to a man. Spirituality was reflected as a reliance on God. Telling the story of their experience trajectory during their breast cancer experience is valuable in assessing African American women's feelings, emotions, and fears of body changes that occur during surgery and treatment. Their spirituality helps them through this experience. Research involving both African American women and their partners would provide greater insight into specific relationship patterns and communication related to sexuality during this experience. Nurses need to listen to the stories of African American women about the initial experience of discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer so they can be more informed advocates for these women. African American women need more information from healthcare providers regarding the whole experience trajectory.
Galloway, Stephanie Nicole
African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with
Lidell, Evy; Höfer, Stefan; Saner, Hugo; Perk, Joep; Hildingh, Cathrine; Oldridge, Neil
Coronary heart disease is a major contributor to women's health problems. Self-perceived social support, well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQL) were documented in the cross-sectional HeartQoL survey of European women one and six months after a myocardial infarction. European women were recruited in 18 European countries and grouped into four geographical regions (Southern Europe, Northern Europe, Western Europe and Eastern Europe). Continuous socio-demographic variables and categorical variables were compared by age and region with ANOVA and χ(2), respectively; multiple regression models were used to identify predictors of social support, well-being and HRQL. Women living in the Eastern European region rated social support, well-being and HRQL significantly lower than women in the other regions. Older women had lower physical HRQL scores than younger women. Eastern European women rated social support, well-being and HRQL significantly lower than women in the other regions. Prediction of the dependent variables (social support, well-being and HRQL) by socio-demographic factors varied by total group, in the older age group, and by region; body mass index and managerial responsibility were the most consistent significant predictors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.
Full Text Available This paper examines, first, data about perceptions and attitudes in Latin-American immigrants and the Spanish population towards intimate partner violence against women. Secondly, it explores correlates of attitudes towards reporting cases of partner violence against women in a sample of Latin-American immigrants. Three data sources, which include two representative samples of the Spanish population and a sample of Latin-American immigrants, are used. Results show significant differences between Spanish and immigrant perceptions and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women. Analyses also show that positive attitudes among Latin-American immigrants towards reporting cases of partner violence were more frequent among those who were less tolerant, who perceived it as a major problem in society, and tended not to blame the victims. These results underline the importance of public attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women for the understanding and prevention of this social problem.
Wang, Judy H
The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese American women's intentions to obtain mammography...
Wang, Judy H
The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...
The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...
Huei-Yu Wang, Judy
The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...
Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T
African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.
Spruiell, Phyllis R.; Jernigan, Marian
Investigated the clothing preferences and problems of older women, using personal interviews. Presents results of preferred styles in detail. Discusses implications of the research for gerontologists in higher education and for the American clothing industry. (RC)
Research from the last two decades indicates that African-American women have faced extreme mental health challenges in overcoming experiences of isolation, depression and somatization. Unfortunately, the sources of these stressors are largely attributed to racial and gender discrimination and societal expectations and norms associated with African-American women. Additionally, minimal research has been conducted to determine the most effective counseling approaches to aid this population. A ...
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Catherine E. Harnois
Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...
Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L
Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Raglan, Greta B; Lannon, Sophia M; Jones, Katherine M; Schulkin, Jay
Preterm birth disproportionately affects American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. This disparity in birth outcomes may stem from higher levels of exposure to psychosocial, sociodemographic, and medical risk factors. This paper reviews relevant research related to preterm birth in American Indian and Alaska Native women. This narrative review examines disparities in preterm birth rates between AI/AN and other American women, and addresses several maternal risk factors and barriers that contribute to elevated preterm birth rates among this racial minority group. Additionally, this paper focuses on recent evidence that geographical location can significantly impact preterm birth rates among AI/AN women. In particular, access to care among AI/AN women and differences between rural and urban areas are discussed.
Banks, Angela D; Malone, Ruth E
Understand the meaning of delayed treatment seeking in African-American women with unstable angina and myocardial infarction. Phenomenologic analysis of in-depth interview data and field notes on 12 African-American women hospitalized with unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Women's interpretation of and response to symptoms were informed by experiences of marginalization and their self-understanding as people who were strong and who had endured life's hardships. When hospitalized, some women experienced trivialization of their complaints by clinicians and a focus on technological procedures over respectfully attending to their concerns, which provided further disincentives to seeking care. Three major themes emerged: misrecognition and discounting of symptoms, enduring, and influence of faith. Experiences of marginalization shape responses to symptoms, care-seeking behavior, and interpretation of subsequent care experiences for African-American women with cardiac disease, who may experience different symptoms as well as interpret them differently than members of other groups.
Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira
Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report.
Li, P; Tiwari, H K; Lin, W-Y; Allison, D B; Chung, W K; Leibel, R L; Yi, N; Liu, N
Obesity, which is frequently associated with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, is primarily the result of a net excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. Human obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes mediating susceptibility in non-syndromic obesity remain unclear. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with body mass index (BMI). We reanalyzed 355 common genetic variants of 30 candidate genes in seven molecular pathways related to obesity in 1982 unrelated European Americans from the New York Cancer Project. Data were analyzed by using a Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear model. The BMIs were log-transformed and then adjusted for covariates, including age, age(2), gender and diabetes status. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modeled as additive effects. With the stipulated adjustments, nine SNPs in eight genes were significantly associated with BMI: ghrelin (GHRL; rs35683), agouti-related peptide (AGRP; rs5030980), carboxypeptidase E (CPE; rs1946816 and rs4481204), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R; rs2268641), serotonin receptors (HTR2A; rs912127), neuropeptide Y receptor (NPY5R;Y5R1c52), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3; rs4969170) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3; rs4796793). We also found a gender-by-SNP interaction (rs1745837 in HTR2A), which indicated that variants in the gene HTR2A had a stronger association with BMI in males. In addition, NPY1R was detected as having a significant gene effect even though none of the SNPs in this gene was significant. Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3 and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans. The pathways in which these genes participate regulate energy intake, and thus these associations are mechanistically plausible in this context.
Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie
Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…
Full Text Available Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines directly derived from landraces. Among our lines, we discovered 22,294,769 SNPs and between 0.9% to 4.1% residual heterozygosity. Using a segmentation method, we identified 6,978 segments of unexpectedly high rate of heterozygosity. These segments point to genes potentially involved in inbreeding depression, and to a lesser extent to the presence of structural variants. Genetic structuring and inferences of historical splits revealed 5 genetic groups and two independent European introductions, with modest bottleneck signatures. Our results further revealed admixtures between distinct sources that have contributed to the establishment of 3 groups at intermediate latitudes in North America and Europe. We combined differentiation- and diversity-based statistics to identify both genes and gene networks displaying strong signals of selection. These include genes/gene networks involved in flowering time, drought and cold tolerance, plant defense and starch properties. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of European maize and highlight a major role of admixture in environmental adaptation, paralleling recent findings in humans.
Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena
in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care......, physical and sexual abuse. Severe current suffering defined as a Visual Analogue Scale score of ≥6. RESULTS: An overall lifetime prevalence of any abuse was reported by 34.8% of the pregnant women. The ranges across the six countries of lifetime prevalence were 9.7-30.8% for physical abuse, 16...
Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S
Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.
Jans, S.M.; Daemers, D.O.A.; Vos, R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVES: to investigate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy according to the cut-off points used in the national clinical guideline 'Anaemia in Primary Care Midwifery Practice', and to investigate a possible difference in prevalence between pregnant women of Northern European descent compared
Jans, S.M.P.J.; Daemers, D.O.A.; Vos, R. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objectives - to investigate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy according to the cut-off points used in the national clinical guideline ‘Anaemia in Primary Care Midwifery Practice’, and to investigate a possible difference in prevalence between pregnant women of Northern European descent compared
Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans report...
Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel
The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…
Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew
This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…
Shah, Amita Roy
This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…
Tijerina, Mary S.
Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous…
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Hodge, Felicia Schanche
A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…
Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Walker, Lorraine O; Brown, Adama; Lee, Ju-Young
Asian-American subgroups are heterogeneous, but few studies had addressed differences on gestational weight gain (GWG) and perinatal outcomes related to GWG among this growing and diverse population. The purposes of this study were to examine whether Asian-American women are at higher risk of inadequate or excessive GWG and adverse perinatal outcomes than non-Hispanic White (NH-White) women, and to compare those risks among Asian-American subgroups. This retrospective study included all singleton births to NH-Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnam, and NH-White women documented in 2009 Texas birth certificate data (N = 150,674). Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, multinomial logistic regression, and binary logistic regression. Chinese women were the reference group in the comparisons among Asian subgroups. Asian women had a higher risk of inadequate GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than NH-White women. No difference in the odds of excessive GWG was found among Asian subgroups, although Japanese women had the highest risk of inadequate GWG. After adjusting for confounders, Korean women had the lowest risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.49), whereas Filipino women and Asian Indian had the highest risks of gestational hypertension (AOR, 2.01 and 1.61), cesarean birth (AOR, 1.44 and 1.39), and low birth weight (AOR, 1.94 and 2.51) compared with Chinese women. These results support the heterogeneity of GWG and perinatal outcomes among Asian-American subgroups. The risks of adverse perinatal outcomes should be carefully evaluated separately among Asian-American subpopulations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keith, Verna M.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.
We apply structural equation modeling techniques to data from the National Survey of American Life to investigate the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American women ages 18–98 years (N=2,299). In addition, we evaluate whether or not personal mastery accounts for the intensity of African American women’s psychological response to discrimination and whether or not exposure to discrimination varies by skin complexion. Findings reveal that discr...
Welt, Corrine K; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Ehrmann, David A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Arason, Gudmundur; Gudmundsson, Jens A; Ober, Carole; Rosenfield, Robert L; Saxena, Richa; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Crowley, William F; Stefansson, Kari
A genome-wide association study has identified three loci (five independent signals) that confer risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese women. Replication is necessary to determine whether the same variants confer risk for PCOS in women of European ancestry. The objective of the study was to test whether these PCOS risk variants in Han Chinese women confer risk for PCOS in women of European ancestry. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at deCODE Genetics in Iceland and two academic medical centers in the United States. Cases were 376 Icelandic women and 565 and 203 women from Boston, MA, and Chicago, IL, respectively, all diagnosed with PCOS by the National Institutes of Health criteria. Controls were 16,947, 483, and 189 women not known to have PCOS from Iceland, Boston, and Chicago, respectively. There were no interventions. Main outcomes were allele frequencies for seven variants in PCOS cases and controls. Two strongly correlated Han Chinese PCOS risk variants on chromosome 9q33.3, rs10986105[C], and rs10818854[A], were replicated in samples of European ancestry with odds ratio of 1.68 (P = 0.00033) and odds ratio of 1.53 (P = 0.0019), respectively. Other risk variants at 2p16.3 (rs13405728), 2p21 (rs12468394, rs12478601, and rs13429458), and 9q33.3 (rs2479106), or variants correlated with them, did not associate with PCOS. The same allele of rs10986105 that increased the risk of PCOS also increased the risk of hyperandrogenism in women without PCOS from Iceland and demonstrated a stronger risk for PCOS defined by the National Institutes of Health criteria than the Rotterdam criteria. We replicated one of the five Chinese PCOS association signals, represented by rs10986105 and rs10818854 on 9q33, in individuals of European ancestry. Examination of the subjects meeting at least one of the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS suggests that the variant may be involved in the hyperandrogenism and possibly the irregular menses of PCOS.
Bosch Vilarrubias, Marta
Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heter...
Jaimes, Marie Annette
Examines matriarchy, androgyny, and spiritual unity among men and women from a traditional indigenous world view. Parallels this with brain theory from both Indian and non-Indian perspectives. Asserts that Indian women must reclaim their "power" and strength by finding that source in their traditional past and among their spiritual…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…
Andrade, Maureen Snow
American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…
Browne, Irene, Ed.
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
Zane, Polly; Zane, John
Focusing on changing roles of American women in response to social, technological, and historical influences since 1607, the document describes women's participation in home life, sports, professions, business, the labor movement, social reform, and the fight for legal rights. The document comprises six chronologically organized booklets and a…
McDaniel, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…
Angel, Roma B.; Killacky, Jim; Johnson, Patricia R.
Focused on the absence of a viable population of African American women in the superintendency, this study addressed barriers described by 10 credentialed, district-level Southern women who hold advanced education degrees coupled with years of leadership experience. This phenomenological study used interview methodology to uncover the lived…
Black, Angela R; Cook, Jennifer L; Murry, Velma McBride; Cutrona, Carolyn E
Ecological theory was used to explore the pathways through which intimate relationship quality influenced health functioning among rural, partnered African American women. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from 349 women in Georgia and Iowa. Women's intimate relationship quality was positively associated with their psychological and physical health functioning. Support from community residents moderated this link, which was strongest for women who felt most connected with their neighbors and for women who believed their neighborhood to have a sense of communal responsibility. Future research should identify other factors salient to health functioning among members of this population.
Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE...... by multiple logistic regression analyses for women in 3 categories of prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Primiparous women gained more weight during pregnancy than did multiparous women (mean ± SD: 15.9 ± 6.9 compared with 13.5 ± 6.2 kg; P
Arshad, Samia; Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S
Arab-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced staged breast cancer. We analyzed data from 100 women utilizing a breast cancer literacy assessment tool aimed at understanding functional literacy levels about breast-self exams (BSE), clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. The educational program improved women's knowledge of BSE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.50) and CBE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54), more for women with higher education. Consideration of women's educational status is an important factor in planning educational programs to improve knowledge on breast cancer screening and prevention in this minority population.
Vanderlinden, Mary E.
This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…
Piasna, A.; Plagnol, A.
There is little empirical evidence on how working conditions affect women’s employment and fertility choices, despite a number of studies on the impact of individual-level and institutional factors. The article addresses this gap by examining how family life stages are related to particular aspects of job quality among employed women in 27 European countries. The central argument of the analysis is that high-quality jobs are conducive to both transitions to motherhood and employment after chi...
Wadsworth, Pamela; Records, Kathie
To review the research findings for mental and physical health outcomes and health behaviors of African American women and adolescents after sexual assault. Searches of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and PubMed from January 2001 through May 2012 using the terms Blacks, African Americans, sexual abuse, sexual offenses, and rape. Criteria for inclusion included (a) results of primary research conducted in the United States and published in English, (b) African American females age 13 and older, (c) sexual assault or sexual abuse reported as distinct from other types of abuse, and (d) health status as an outcome variable. Twenty-one publications met inclusion criteria. Articles were reviewed for the mental and physical health and health behavior outcomes associated with sexual assault of African American women and adolescents. Sexual assault was associated with increased risk of poor mental and physical health outcomes in the general population of women and adolescents. There was an increased risk of unhealthy behaviors (e.g., drinking, drug use, risky sexual behaviors) for all women and adolescents, with the highest risk reported for African American women and adolescents. Help seeking from family and friends demonstrated conflicting results. Cumulative effects of repeated assaults appear to worsen health outcomes. Sexual assault has significant effects on the physical and mental health and health behaviors of women and adolescents in the general population. Less evidence is available for differences among African American women and adolescents. More research is needed to understand the influence of race on women's and adolescents' responses to assault. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M
The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and canc...
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.
Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye
This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women.
Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia
Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097
Gittner, Lisaann S; Gittner, Kevin B
Assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Scale (F/V scale) in African American women. Midwestern Health Maintenance Organization. 221 African American women age 40-65 with BMI≥30 MEASURES: F/V scale was compared to eating efficacy/availability subscale reported on the WEL and mean micronutrient intake (vitamins A, C, K, folate, potassium, and beta-carotene reported on 3-day food records. F/V scale construct validity and internal consistency were assessed and compared to: 1) the original scale validation in Chinese women, 2) WEL scale, and 3) to micronutrient intake from 3-day food records. Total scale scores differed between African American women (μ=1.87+/-0.87) and Chinese (μ=0.41). In a Chinese population, F/V scale factored into two subscales; the F/V factored into one subscale in African American women. Construct validity was supported with correlation between the F/V scale and the eating efficacy WEL subscale (r 2 =-0.336, p=0.000). There was not a significant correlation between dietary consumption of micronutrients representative of fruit and vegetable intake and the F/V scale. The F/V scale developed for Chinese populations can be reliably used with African American women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Grace J; Sudhakar, Anantha; Le, Mai Nhung; Levine, Ellen G
In recent years, breast cancer rates among young Asian American women have been increasing. Despite increases in breast cancer among young Asian American women, little is known about how this population copes throughout diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. This study was a qualitative exploration of how young Asian American women cope with breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. In-depth interviews with 22 young (under the age of 50) Asian American women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were conducted. Through qualitative data analysis, three major themes emerged including moving from managing the emotions of others to expressing emotional vulnerability, moving from work and productivity to work-life balance, and moving beyond the family and reaching out to breast cancer survivors. At diagnosis, participants worked to maintain normalcy including caring for others and working during treatment. Once treatment was over, women worked to find ways to use their experience as a transformative one and also to develop more positive coping skills including expressing emotional vulnerability and reaching out to others. Further studies are needed to create and test culturally tailored supportive interventions that enhance positive coping tools among young Asian American women diagnosed by breast cancer.
Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys
Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R
Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.
Stewart, Jennifer M
To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Doctor, Jason N.
Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
del Bene, Susan B
More African American grandmothers are becoming caregivers for their grandchildren when the parents are unable or unwilling to provide care. This qualitative study used hermeneutic phenomenology based on in-dept interviews with 15 African American women who have assumed the role of caregivers. The following themes, with subthemes emerged regarding this new role for the grandmothers: Finding a Voice to Match Medical Needs, The Role of the Confidante: The Power of the Group, The Relationship with the Biological Parents, and Legal Issues. These finding provide rich understand. These findings provide rich understanding of the African American women and the challenges they face related to culture, race, lack of political voice and power, and limited resources--in essence, the impact of marginalization in society. The underlying point is the potential impact on this population and the degree to which the health profession can draw on an interdisciplinary model to frame, analyze and dress future health care problems in marginalized African American women.
Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi
This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…
Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae
The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…
The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…
Spruit, Martijn A.; Singh, Sally J.; Garvey, Chris; ZuWallack, Richard; Nici, Linda; Rochester, Carolyn; Hill, Kylie; Holland, Anne E.; Lareau, Suzanne C.; Man, W.D.C.; Pitta, Fabio; Sewell, Louise; Raskin, Jonathan; Bourbeau, Jean; Crouch, Rebecca; Franssen, Frits M.E.; Casaburi, Richard; Vercoulen, Jan H.; Vogiatzit, Ioannis; Gosselink, Rik; Clini, Enrico M.; Effing, T.W.; Maltais, Francois; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Troosters, Thierry; Janssen, Daisy J.A.; Collins, Eileen; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Brooks, Dina; Fahy, Bonnie F.; Puhan, Milo A.; Hoogendoorn, Martine; Garrod, Rachel; Schols, Annemie M.W.J.; Carlin, Brian; Benzo, Roberto; Meek, Paula; Morgan, Mike; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P.M.H.; Ries, Andrew L.; Make, Barry; Goldstein, Roger S.; Dowson, Claire A.; Brozek, Jan L.; Donner, Claudio F.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.
Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation is recognized as a core component of the management of individuals with chronic respiratory disease. Since the 2006 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation, there has been considerable growth in our
Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong
This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…
Kahn, Jeffrey H; Wei, Meifen; Su, Jenny C; Han, Suejung; Strojewska, Agnes
Research using Western samples shows that talking about unpleasant emotions-distress disclosure-is associated with fewer psychological symptoms and higher well-being. These benefits of distress disclosure may or may not be observed in East Asia where emotional control is valued. Instead, mindfulness may be more relevant to emotion regulation in East Asia (e.g., Taiwan). In the present study, cultural context (Taiwanese nationals vs. European Americans) and mindfulness were examined as moderators of the relation between distress disclosure and both depression symptoms and life satisfaction. A sample of 256 Taiwanese college students and a sample of 209 European American college students completed self-report measures in their native language. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed significant interaction effects of mindfulness and distress disclosure on both depression symptoms and life satisfaction for Taiwanese participants but not for European Americans. Specifically, distress disclosure was negatively associated with depression symptoms and positively associated with life satisfaction for Taiwanese low in mindfulness but not for Taiwanese high in mindfulness. For European Americans, distress disclosure was not associated with depression symptoms but was associated with higher life satisfaction, regardless of one's level of mindfulness. These findings suggest that the potential benefits of disclosing distress are a function of one's cultural context as well as, for those from Taiwan, one's mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Neogi, Tuhina; Aletaha, Daniel; Silman, Alan J.; Naden, Raymond L.; Felson, David T.; Aggarwal, Rohit; Bingham, Clifton O.; Birnbaum, Neal S.; Burmester, Gerd R.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Cohen, Marc D.; Combe, Bernard; Costenbader, Karen H.; Dougados, Maxime; Emery, Paul; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Hazes, Johanna M. W.; Hobbs, Kathryn; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Kay, Jonathan; Khanna, Dinesh; Kvien, Tore K.; Laing, Timothy; Liao, Katherine; Mease, Philip; Ménard, Henri A.; Moreland, Larry W.; Nair, Raj; Pincus, Theodore; Ringold, Sarah; Smolen, Josef S.; Stanislawska-Biernat, Ewa; Symmons, Deborah; Tak, Paul P.; Upchurch, Katherine S.; Vencovský, Jiří; Wolfe, Frederick; Hawker, Gillian
Objective. The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that should
T. Neogi (Tuhina); D. Aletaha (Daniel); A.J. Silman (Alan); R.L. Naden (Raymond); D. Felson; R. Aggarwal (Rohit); C.O. Bingham (Clifton); N.S. Birnbaum (Neal); G.R. Burmester (Gerd); V.P. Bykerk (Vivian); M.D. Cohen (Marc); B. Combe (Bernard); K.H. Costenbader (Karen); M. Dougados (Maxime); P. Emery (Paul); G. Ferraccioli (Gianfranco); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); K. Hobbs (Kathryn); T.W.J. Huizinga (Tom); A. Kavanaugh (Arthur); J. Kay (Jonathan); D. Khanna (Dinesh); T.K. Kvien (Tore); T. Laing (Timothy); K. Liao (Katherine); P. Mease (Philip); H.A. Ménard (Henri); L.W. Moreland (Larry); R. Nair (Raj); T. Pincus (Theodore); S. Ringold (Sarah); J.S. Smolen (Josef); E. Stanislawska-Biernat (Ewa); D. Symmons (Deborah); P.P. Tak (Paul); K.S. Upchurch (Katherine); J. Vencovský (Jiří); F. Wolfe (Frederick); G. Hawker (Gillian)
textabstractObjective. The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that
This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…
Cooper, Catherine R.; And Others
Total of 393 American college students of Chinese, Filipino, European, Mexican, and Vietnamese descent rated their families' familistic values and their relationship with their families. Mexican, Vietnamese, and Filipino descent students endorsed most strongly values regarding mutual support among siblings, whereas all groups reported more formal…
Timmermann, Arnd; Russo, Sebastian G.; Hollmann, Markus W.
Purpose of review Much controversy exists about who can provide the best medical care for critically ill patients in the prehospital setting. The Anglo-American concept is on the whole to provide well trained paramedics to fulfil this task, whereas in some European countries emergency medical
Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Shen, Yuh-Ling; Lee, Sun-A
Self-esteem and depression are fundamental psychological adjustment constructs in the study of adolescent well-being. Most measures of these constructs have been developed and validated using European American samples, and while the correlates and predictors of psychological adjustment have been examined in multiple cultural settings, no existing…
Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober
Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.
Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.
.... At the outset of the war, more women were forced into working in factories or for the government, not only to support the war effort but also to provide for the family when the husband was at war...
Marta Bosch Vilarrubias
Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.
Sun, Yiyuan; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Moyer, Anne; Messina, Catherine R
This study examined the role of women's perceptions about the relative pros versus cons (decisional balance) of mammography in moderating Chinese American women's responses to gain- and loss-framed messages that promote mammography. One hundred and forty-three Chinese American women who were currently nonadherent to guidelines for receiving annual screening mammograms were randomly assigned to read either a gain- or loss-framed culturally appropriate print brochure about mammography screening. Mammography screening was self-reported at a 2-month follow-up. Although there was not a main effect for message frame, the hypothesized interaction between message frame and decisional balance was significant, indicating that women who received a framed message that matched their decisional balance were significantly more likely to have obtained a mammogram by the follow-up than women who received a mismatched message. Results suggest that decisional balance, and more generally, perceptions about mammography, may be an important moderator of framing effects for mammography among Chinese American women. The match between message frame and decisional balance should be considered when attempting to encourage Chinese American women to receive mammography screening, as a match between the two may be most persuasive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S.
Background California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. Methods The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (≤ high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Results Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. Conclusions The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments. PMID:19591754
Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S
California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.
Denman-Vitale, S; Murillo, E K
Across the United States, advance practice nurses (APNs) are increasingly encountering recently immigrated Latin American populations. This article provides an overview of the situation of Latin Americans in the United States and discusses aspects of Latin American culture such as, respeto (respect), confianza (confidence), the importance of family, and the value of a personal connection. Strategies that will assist practitioners to incorporate culturally holistic principles in the promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women who are new arrivals in the United States are described. If practitioners are to respond to the increasing numbers of Latin American women who need health care services, and also provide thorough, holistic health care then health care activities must be integrated with cultural competence.
Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…
Rutledge, I.; Wright, Ph. [Sheffield Univ., Energy Studies Programme (United Kingdom); Wright, Ph. [Montpellier-1 Univ., CREDEN-LASER, 34 (France)
This paper seeks to explore the extent to which the corporate realignments which have occurred in the North American Natural Gas Industry during a now relatively lengthy experience with liberalization involving a large number of players, will be imitated in the future by European Union countries other than the UK (which is of course already long-embarked along the path of Anglo-Saxon liberalization). The paper first of all catalogues the North American experience, drawing on company performance data assembled by the authors over the last decade (Rutledge and Wright, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000). Secondly, this empirical exploration gives way to theoretical speculation: are there elements of the North American experience for which explanatory generalizations are possible? Thirdly, these empirical and theoretical insights are employed to identify and explore actual and potential differences in the corporate evolution of the European Union natural gas industry. (authors)
Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick
BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental...... health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. RESULTS: A total of 735 pregnant women were...
Bonawitz, Mary; Andel, Nicole
The focus of this research is to survey the literature in American higher education on the tenure and promotion of women and to suggest future problems that women may encounter as the American population grays. Anecdotally, women are not tenured and promoted in the same percentages of men in similar fields. In the social and natural sciences,…
Kingsberry, Francemise St. Pierre
An underrepresentation of African American women in the superintendency exists in K-12 public schools. There is also a lack of research on their leadership and experiences in education. Although the number of women superintendents has increased over the years, the superintendency remains a male-dominated field and African American women remain in…
Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Campo, Sebastiano; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Tondi, Paolo; Campo, Vincenzo; Flex, Andrea; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Santoliquido, Angelo
Atherosclerosis is a chronic and degenerative disease developing typically in the elderly; nonetheless, a condition of accelerated atherosclerosis can be observed precociously in the presence of some diseases. Endometriosis, a chronic benign gynecological disorder, shows some characteristics, such as oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, which could increase the risk of developing accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in young European women with endometriosis. This cross-sectional study included 37 women with endometriosis and 31 control subjects. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was investigated by ultrasound evaluation of common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD); in addition, serum levels of lipids, inflammatory and coagulation parameters, as well as markers of endothelial inflammation and activation, were determined. Women with endometriosis showed significantly lower values of FMD compared with controls [mean difference: -4.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): -6.52, -2.73; P women with endometriosis had significantly higher values of inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (P women with endometriosis have more subclinical atherosclerosis, resulting in a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction can occur in the absence of structural atherosclerotic changes; its evaluation might be helpful in young women with endometriosis.
Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen
To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p women reporting female sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M
African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M
Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. A total of 735 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5.55], self-efficacy, OR = .95, 95% CI [.92, .98], social support, OR = .94, 95% CI [.90, .99], and pregnancy-related worries (socioeconomic: OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.15]; health: OR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; relationship: OR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.05, 1.31]). Mental health problems are common in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. ISRCTN70595832 , 02.12.2011.
Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.
Gibson, Lynette M
The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.
Rosenberg, Lynn; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen L; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R
Obesity occurs more commonly among African-American women than among other racial/ethnic groups, and most weight gain occurs before middle age. The study prospectively investigated the relationship of vigorous exercise and brisk walking to the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among African-American women aged American women who were aged obese at baseline. BMI, exercise, and walking were assessed at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Data for BMI were collected through 2009. Data for exercise and walking were collected through 2007. Validation and reproducibility data indicated that reporting was more accurate for vigorous exercise than for brisk walking. Cox proportional hazards models estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of incident obesity for hours/week of vigorous exercise and walking relative to "little or no exercise" (obesity decreased with increasing vigorous exercise; the IRR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.69, 0.85) for ≥ 7 hours/week relative to little or no exercise; the IRRs were reduced both among women with a healthy weight (BMI obesity among young African-American women. Results for brisk walking were inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa
This study estimates the prevalence of heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women and examines the association between Arab and Chaldean ethnicity and heart disease among a sample of women. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women aged > or = 18 years who completed a survey that was distributed at churches, mosques, and small businesses in southeast Michigans. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and self-reported heart disease before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. A sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women 18 years of age and older. The overall prevalence of heart disease was 5.1%. Estimates were higher for Arabs (7.1%), lower for Chaldeans (6.6%), and lowest among African Americans (1.8%). In the unadjusted model, Chaldeans and Arabs were four times more likely to have heart disease than were African Americans. However, in the fully adjusted model, the association between Chaldean or Arab ethnicity and heart disease was no longer statistically significant. Arab or Chaldean ethnicity was not significantly associated with self-reported heart disease among women, which suggests that other factors account for this relationship. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health behavior information.
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Misra, Dawn P.
Background Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing healthcare. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income African American women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Methods Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 African American women (prenatally: n=484; postpartum: n=388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. Findings PNC entry was not significantly associated with personal experiences of racism (p=0.33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (pracism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income African American women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of African American women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. PMID:24041828
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Lo, Yun-Jia; Penner, Louis A.
Researchers have traditionally combined aging women (aged ≥50 years) when reporting their mammography use. This may inadvertently mask important cohort effects in mammography use, which are likely to result from distinct personal life experiences and generational differences. Using the Health and Retirement Study samples of 1998, 2000, and 2004, we examined cohort differences in mammography use between African American women born before 1946 (non–baby boomers) and those born in 1946 to 1953 (baby boomers). Between 1998 and 2004, screening rates for non–baby boomers declined, while those for baby boomers remained relatively steady. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses suggest that while screening rates decreased with age (OR, 0.957; 95% CI, 0.947–0.968) cohort effects may have partially reversed the age effect, with non–baby boomers having an increased likelihood of receiving a mammogram compared to baby boomers (OR, 1.697; 95% CI, 1.278–2.254). Because African American women are diagnosed at later stages of breast cancer, documentation of cohort differences in mammography use among older African American women is important as health care professionals design intervention programs that are maximally effective for women from different cohorts. This is particularly critical as more African American women in the baby boomer cohort become part of the aging population. PMID:20575209
Traditionally, women's leadership has been overlooked and underappreciated by researchers and policymakers although this leadership has been vital to America's ultimate success and infrastructure. Simply stated, contributions of female leadership have been overshadowed by a system that primarily values patriarchal forms of leadership and oppresses…
Full Text Available Friction joints are used in steel structures submitted to cyclic loading such as, for example, in steel and composite bridges, in overhead cranes, and in equipment subjected to fatigue. Slip-critical steel joints with preloaded bolts are characterized by high rigidity and good performance against fatigue and vibrational phenomena. The most important parameter for the calculation of the bolt number in a friction connection is the slip factor, depending on the treatment of the plane surfaces inside the joint package. The paper focuses on the slip factor values reported in European and North American Specifications, and in literature references. The differences in experimental methods of slip test and evaluation of them for the mentioned standards are discussed. The results from laboratory tests regarding the assessment of the slip factor related to only sandblasted and sandblasted and coated surfaces are reported. Experimental data are compared with other results from the literature review to find the most influent parameters that control the slip factor in friction joint and differences between the slip tests procedures
Bartolome R. Celli
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and resource use worldwide. The goal of this official American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society (ERS Research Statement is to describe evidence related to diagnosis, assessment, and management; identify gaps in knowledge; and make recommendations for future research. It is not intended to provide clinical practice recommendations on COPD diagnosis and management. Clinicians, researchers and patient advocates with expertise in COPD were invited to participate. A literature search of Medline was performed, and studies deemed relevant were selected. The search was not a systematic review of the evidence. Existing evidence was appraised and summarised, and then salient knowledge gaps were identified. Recommendations for research that addresses important gaps in the evidence in all areas of COPD were formulated via discussion and consensus. Great strides have been made in the diagnosis, assessment and management of COPD, as well as understanding its pathogenesis. Despite this, many important questions remain unanswered. This ATS/ERS research statement highlights the types of research that leading clinicians, researchers and patient advocates believe will have the greatest impact on patient-centred outcomes.
Pignotti, Giselle A P; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen; Belyea, Michael; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Coonrod, Dean; Permana, Paska
To compare and evaluate the dietary quality of young and older sedentary Mexican-American women. Understanding key dietary concerns, while considering developmental transition periods and cultural relevance, can provide insight for developing appropriate nutrition interventions. Cross-sectional dietary data were collected using unannounced 24 h diet recalls to assess nutrient intake adequacy (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method) and dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010). Mujeres en Acción and Madres para la Salud, two community-based physical activity interventions. Participants were 139 young (28 (sd 6) years) and 124 older (55 (sd 7) years) overweight/obese sedentary Mexican-American women (BMI=25·0-35·0 kg/m2) of low socio-economic status. Older women consumed less Ca, Fe, folate, empty calories and energy from carbohydrate, but more fruit, vegetables, greens and beans, and fibre than younger women (all P<0·05). Over 60 % of all participants had an intake below recommendations for fibre, Ca, vitamin E, vitamin C and folate. Both groups had low total HEI-2010 scores (62 for older and 63 for younger women; NS), with 57 % of older and 48 % of younger women classified as having a poor diet. Despite differences in nutrient requirements according to developmental transition periods (childbearing v. perimenopausal), overall, older and younger Mexican-American women generally had low-quality diets and may benefit from dietary quality improvement.
Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S
The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A
The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention protocols.
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell
The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Soto, José A; Lee, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Nicole A
Much empirical work documents the downsides of suppressing emotions. Emerging research points to the need for a more sophisticated and culturally informed approach to understanding the consequences of emotion regulation. To that end, we employed behavioral, self-report, and psychophysiological measures to examine the consequences of two types of emotion regulation (suppression and amplification) in a sample of 28 Asian Americans and 31 European Americans. Participants were shown a neutral film and then a series of disgust-eliciting films during which they were asked to regulate their response by suppressing or amplifying their emotional behavior (counterbalanced). Despite self-reporting equal levels of disgust, European Americans showed greater skin conductance reactivity than Asian Americans in both regulation conditions, but not in response to a neutral film. These findings extend work on divergence in the consequences of emotion regulation across different cultural groups, which could help identify optimal emotion regulation strategies for health and well-being. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target's race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes.
Neff, Kristin D; Brabeck, Kalina M; Kearney, Lisa K
The author examined relationship styles of self-focused autonomy (SFA), other-focused connection (OFC), and mutuality among 415 European and Mexican American young adults in 2 U.S. colleges. Mutuality was the most commonly reported style for both ethnic groups, although Mexican American men were more likely than the others to indicate that they had the SFA style. Mexican American participants perceived their fathers' styles as SFA more often than did the others regarding either of their parents' styles. Mutuality was associated with the best mental-health outcomes regardless of gender or ethnicity. The present results indicate that the cultural influences on autonomy and connection are complex and that collectivistic cultural contexts may sometimes promote autonomy concerns in men.
Garmon, Sandra C
The theory presented in this article proposes an alternative view of access to care on the basis of an African American woman's perception of the necessity, availability, and appropriateness of breast health care. The theory of perceived access to breast health care in African American women may also be useful in framing future research studies exploring the relationship between access to care and utilization of primary, secondary, and tertiary clinical preventive services related to breast health care.
Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S.
The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, know...
Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A
African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R.; Marshall, Khiya J.; Jeffries, William L.
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women’s sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533
Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S
Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a telephone interview. Regular mammography was defined as having two mammograms at age-appropriate recommended intervals. Cultural views were assessed by 30 items, and language ability measured women's ability in reading, writing, speaking, and listening to English. After controlling for risk perception, worry, physician recommendation, family encouragement, and access barriers, women holding a more Chinese/Eastern cultural view were significantly less likely to have had regular mammograms than those having a Western cultural view. English ability was positively associated with mammography adherence. The authors' results imply that culturally sensitive and language-appropriate educational interventions are likely to improve mammography adherence in this population.
Catherine E. Harnois
Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.
Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.
Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (pIndian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767
Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas
We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (-25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.
Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas
Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650
Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia; Todem, David; Templin, Thomas N
Functional breast cancer literacy was assessed among African-American women and measured at the domain level over time. We used the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention to educate 161 African-American women on three domains of breast cancer literacy: (i) cancer awareness, (ii) knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and (iii) cancer prevention and control. A breast cancer literacy assessment was administered pre- and post-educational intervention at two time points followed by another assessment 12 months after the second intervention. Generalized estimating equations were specified to predict the probability of correctly answering questions in each domain over time. Domain-level literacy differentials exist; at baseline, women had higher test scores in the breast cancer prevention and control domain than the cancer awareness domain (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.34). After Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, African-American women consistently improved their breast cancer literacy in all domains over the five time stages (P < 0.001) though at different rates for each domain. Differences in domain-level breast cancer literacy highlight the importance of assessing literacy at the domain level. Interventions to improve African-American women's breast cancer literacy should focus on knowledge of breast cancer screening modalities and cancer awareness domains.
Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S
African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.
Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine
Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.
Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine
Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L; Forbes, Digna S
In this case-control study, the authors aimed to examine whether use of an electric bedding device increased breast cancer risk in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American patients diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-1998 who were aged 20-64 years and lived in one of three Tennessee counties. Controls were 305 African-American women without breast cancer who were selected through random digit dialing and frequency-matched to cases by age and county. Information on the use of an electric blanket or heated water bed and other risk factors was collected through telephone interviews. Breast cancer risk associated with use of an electric bedding device increased with the number of years of use, the number of seasons of use, and the length of time of use during sleep. When women who used an electric bedding device for more than 6 months per year (and therefore were more likely to have used a heated water bed, which generates lower magnetic fields) were excluded, the corresponding dose-response relations were more striking. Similar trends in dose response were shown in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and for both estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors. The use of electric bedding devices may increase breast cancer risk in African-American women aged 20-64 years. Such an association might not vary substantially by menopausal status or estrogen receptor status.
Spieß, Christa Katharina; Schneider, A. Ulrike
This paper uses data from the European Community Household Panel surveys of 1994 and 1996 to study the association between changes in care-giving and changes in weekly work hours. Our sample comprises women aged 45-59 years who participated in the labour force in at least one of the two years studied. Controlling for country variation, we find significant relationships between starting or increasing informal care-giving and changes in weekly work hours. No such association is found however am...
Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Joseph, Rodney P.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E
A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systemati...
Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088
Williams, Robert C; Elston, Robert C; Kumar, Pankaj; Knowler, William C; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Bowden, Donald W; Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Kohn, Orly; Langefeld, Carl D; Leehey, David J; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Guo, Xiuqing; Zager, Phillip; Hanson, Robert L
The presence of population structure in a sample may confound the search for important genetic loci associated with disease. Our four samples in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND), European Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and American Indians are part of a genome- wide association study in which population structure might be particularly important. We therefore decided to study in detail one component of this, individual genetic ancestry (IGA). From SNPs present on the Affymetrix 6.0 Human SNP array, we identified 3 sets of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), each maximized for the information in one the three contrasts among ancestral populations: Europeans (HAPMAP, CEU), Africans (HAPMAP, YRI and LWK), and Native Americans (full heritage Pima Indians). We estimate IGA and present an algorithm for their standard errors, compare IGA to principal components, emphasize the importance of balancing information in the ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and test the association of IGA with diabetic nephropathy in the combined sample. A fixed parental allele maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to the FIND to estimate IGA in four samples: 869 American Indians; 1385 African Americans; 1451 Mexican Americans; and 826 European Americans. When the information in the AIMs is unbalanced, the estimates are incorrect with large error. Individual genetic admixture is highly correlated with principle components for capturing population structure. It takes ~700 SNPs to reduce the average standard error of individual admixture below 0.01. When the samples are combined, the resulting population structure creates associations between IGA and diabetic nephropathy. The identified set of AIMs, which include American Indian parental allele frequencies, may be particularly useful for estimating genetic admixture in populations from the Americas. Failure to balance information in maximum likelihood, poly-ancestry models creates biased
Gerald V Denis
Full Text Available Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. The analyses revealed six distinct signatures of sixteen cytokines/chemokines (P = 0.05 that differed significantly by prevalence of T2D (P = 0.004, obesity (P = 0.0231 and overall inflammation score (P < E-12. Signatures were validated in two independent cohorts of African American women with obesity: thirty nine subjects with no metabolic complications or with T2D and hypertension; and thirteen breast reduction surgical patients. The signatures in the validation cohorts closely resembled the distributions in the discovery cohort. We find that blood-based cytokine profiles usefully associate inflammation with T2D risks in vulnerable subjects, and should be combined with metabolism and obesity counselling for personalized risk assessment.
Ancheta, Irma B; Battie, Cynthia A; Tuason, Teresa; Ancheta, Christine V
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women of Filipino ethnicity. The objective of our work was to determine if metabolic syndrome (MetS), a modifiable CVD risk factor, differs in women as a function of country of residency and to determine if, CVD prevention strategies need to differ for these groups of Filipino women. Data were collected in community-based health screenings for this cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS were recruited at places of worship in southeast United States (n=60) and Central Visayas, Philippines (n=56). Prevalence of MetS and its component factors as defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The prevalence of MetS in Filipino women (FW) and Filipino American women (FAW) groups was similar (52% vs 55%, P=.08) although the prevalence of elevated waist circumference was greater for FAW (78% vs 59%, P=.03). Conversely, the percentage of FW women with risk-associated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels was higher than the FAW group (84% vs 42%, PFilipino women regardless of the country of residency although the FAW tended to have higher rates of central obesity while the FW tended to have higher rates of risk-associated HDL levels. Further research should examine the cause of these differences in order to develop better cardiovascular screening and intervention strategies.
Doan, Stacey N; Wang, Qi
This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the United States. Mothers and children read a storybook together at home, and children's ESK was assessed. Results showed that European American mothers made more references to thoughts and emotions during storytelling than did Chinese mothers, who commented more frequently on behaviors. Regardless of culture, mothers' use of mental states language predicted children's ESK, whereas their references to behaviors were negatively related to children's ESK. Finally, mothers' emphasis on mental states over behaviors partially mediated cultural effects on children's ESK. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810
Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell
The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.
Gusev, Alexander; Shi, Huwenbo; Kichaev, Gleb
Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined...... with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell...... lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic...
Oh, Debora L
Abstract Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look
Oh, Debora L
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and\\/or beliefs about smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. RESULTS: Being older, being divorced, having friends\\/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to
In European and American nations, competitive principle was also recently introduced to electric industry allowed its local exclusion as a public business before today by liberalization of electric power market due to regulative relaxation, and then the existing electric power companies are now under serious competition with the other companies, of course with IPP which is its new comer. And, as nuclear power generation has already established there its position for an important source essential for electric power supply, by liberalization of electric power economy has also been severely required to the nuclear power generation. Then, the electric power companies intend to carry out cost-down by various means such as contraction of periodical inspection, and so on. Especially, in U.S.A., not only rationalization effort at a pace of every company but also various cost-down procedures ranging to reorganization of business such as purchase of other company power station, establishment of operation company integrally carrying out operation management of some companies, and so on, As a result, the nuclear power generation has come to obtain an evaluation to be an electric source sufficiently capable of competing with the other sources even at competitive market. On the other hand, its new construction continues at difficult condition. By adding to traditional objection against nuclear energy, in general, by recently entering of environmental protection party to the regime in some nations of western Europe, political environment around nuclear energy becomes unstable. And, liberalization of electric power also forms an investment environment advantageous for natural gas burning thermal power plants capable of carrying out short term capital recovery, in general. Therefore, the electric companies tend strongly to correspond to rather life elongation of the present plant than new plan construction. (G.K.)
Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra
Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons
Neogi, Tuhina; Jansen, Tim L Th A; Dalbeth, Nicola; Fransen, Jaap; Schumacher, H Ralph; Berendsen, Dianne; Brown, Melanie; Choi, Hyon; Edwards, N Lawrence; Janssens, Hein J E M; Lioté, Frédéric; Naden, Raymond P; Nuki, George; Ogdie, Alexis; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Saag, Kenneth; Singh, Jasvinder A; Sundy, John S; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Vaquez-Mellado, Janitzia; Yarows, Steven A; Taylor, William J
Objective Existing criteria for the classification of gout have suboptimal sensitivity and/or specificity, and were developed at a time when advanced imaging was not available. The current effort was undertaken to develop new classification criteria for gout. Methods An international group of investigators, supported by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, conducted a systematic review of the literature on advanced imaging of gout, a diagnostic study in which the presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in synovial fluid or tophus was the gold standard, a ranking exercise of paper patient cases, and a multi-criterion decision analysis exercise. These data formed the basis for developing the classification criteria, which were tested in an independent data set. Results The entry criterion for the new classification criteria requires the occurrence of at least one episode of peripheral joint or bursal swelling, pain, or tenderness. The presence of MSU crystals in a symptomatic joint/bursa (ie, synovial fluid) or in a tophus is a sufficient criterion for classification of the subject as having gout, and does not require further scoring. The domains of the new classification criteria include clinical (pattern of joint/bursa involvement, characteristics and time course of symptomatic episodes), laboratory (serum urate, MSU-negative synovial fluid aspirate), and imaging (double-contour sign on ultrasound or urate on dual-energy CT, radiographic gout-related erosion). The sensitivity and specificity of the criteria are high (92% and 89%, respectively). Conclusions The new classification criteria, developed using a data-driven and decision-analytic approach, have excellent performance characteristics and incorporate current state-of-the-art evidence regarding gout. PMID:26359487
Full Text Available This paper claims that, since many of the concepts relevant to our analysis of systemic change were coined in and about the core, the potential with which solutions to world-systemic crisis are credited in the long run should be assessed differently depending on the structural location of their origin. In the periphery, such concepts as conservatism, socialism and even liberalism took forms that often retained nothing of the original model but the name, such that strategies of applying them to (semiperipheral situations ranged from stretching the ideology to discarding the (liberal myth altogether. In a first step, the hypothesis of semiperipheral development (Chase-Dunn and Hall, according to which the semiperiphery represents the most likely locus of political, economical, and institutional change, is amended to say that, at least for the late modern world-system, the strength of the semiperiphery resides primarily in the cultural and epistemic sphere. In a second step, this contention is illustrated with the help of major challenges that the Eastern European and Latin American (semiperipheries have posed to the world-systems political fields and institutional settings both in the past and to datewith different degrees of success corresponding to their respective structural position. In light of these examples, it is argued that a comparative analysis of continuities among political epistemologies developed in the semiperiphery can help us understand the ways in which similar attempts can become antisystemic today.
Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun
African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218
Nguyen, Hong V; Schacht, Rebecca L; Yang, Joyce P; George, William H; Pantalone, David W
Between 20% and 50% of Asian American women report experiencing partner violence (PV). Furthermore, nearly half of PV victims experience their first assault between the age of 18 and 24 years, suggesting that Asian American college women may be particularly at risk of PV. Experiencing childhood abuse (CA) may impair women's capacity to perceive risk during a potential PV situation, increasing their risk for revictimization. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences among Asian American college women's ( N = 324) in-the-moment behavioral intention, risk perception, and likelihood to stay in an abusive relationship during a progressively threatening PV scenario, based on victimization history and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We tested three path models, each assessing the relations among CA, PV, PTSD, current and future risk perception, likelihood of staying in the relationship, and one of three behavioral intentions (soothe the perpetrator, escape, and escalation/resistance). As hypothesized, CA history positively predicted PV history and PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, CA and PV predicted more in-the-moment soothe behavioral intentions and fewer escape behavioral intentions which, in turn, predicted diminished current and future risk perception. CA and PV also predicted stronger escalation/resistance behavioral intentions, such that escalation/resistance intentions were associated with higher risk perception during a more violent part of the scenario but lower risk perception during a less violent part of the scenario. Finally, higher risk perception predicted lower likelihood of staying in the relationship. Findings indicate that victimization history is associated with increased risky behavioral intentions among Asian American college women and suggest that targeted interventions to improve assault-exposed Asian American women's awareness of risk cues may be warranted.
Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Liddell, Jessica; Lee, Yeon-Shim
Cancer (the focus of this inquiry) is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native women. The purpose of this study was to identify American Indian women cancer survivors' needs and preferences related to community supports for their cancer experience. This qualitative study examined female American Indian cancer survivors' needs and preferences about community support. The sample included 43 American Indian women cancer survivors (the types of cancer survivors included cervical cancer: n = 14; breast cancer: n = 14; and colon and other types: n = 15) residing in the Northern Plains region, in the state of South Dakota. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and were collected between June of 2014 and February of 2015. When asked about their needs and preferences, 82% of participants (n = 35) of female American Indian cancer survivors reported at least one of the following most commonly reported themes: cancer support groups (n = 31, 72%), infrastructure for community support (n = 17, 40%), and cancer education (n = 11, 26%). In addition to the aforementioned themes, 33% of participants (n = 14) indicated the need for an improved healthcare system, with 11% (n = 5) of participants expressly desiring the integration of spirituality and holistic healing options. The majority of American Indian women cancer survivor participants of this study identified a need for more community-based support systems and infrastructures to aid with the cancer survivor experience. Results warrant a community approach to raise awareness, education, and support for American Indian cancer survivors.
Peters Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and
Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Frumkin, Amara; Zhang, Yawei; Sancilio, Amelia; Bribiescas, Richard G
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade-off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women. Serum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (mean age 53.4 years), controls in the Connecticut Thyroid Health Study, between May 2010 and December 2013. Samples were analyzed for levels of 8-OHdG and Cu/Zn-SOD using immunoassay method. Levels of oxidative damage (8-OHdG) but not oxidative defense (Cu/Zn-SOD) were negatively associated with parity and number of sons in premenopausal women (r = -0.52 for parity, r = -0.52 for number of sons, P reproductive effort, women's BMI, age, and menopausal status explained around 15% of variance in level of 8-OHdG. No association between reproductive effort characteristics and oxidative damage was found for postmenopausal women. We found no evidence of a trade-off between somatic maintenance as measured by 8-OHdG and reproductive effort in women from this American population. On the contrary, higher gravidity and parity in premenopausal women was associated with lower damage to cellular DNA caused by oxidative stress. These results highlight the importance of population variation and environmental conditions when testing the occurrence of life-history trade-offs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
It is well documented that racism in the US healthcare system, including the objectification and disparagement of women of color, contributes to disparities in health status. However, it is a mistaken notion to characterize women of color as unknowing victims. In this study, black feminist standpoint epistemology is used in methodological approach and analysis to understand how a small group of African American church-going women use religious beliefs to help them cope with and resist the racism and discriminatory objectification they encounter in healthcare encounters.
Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Full Text Available This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in depth interviews with eighty Central American women who used migrant smugglers to reach the United States, examines her point of view about migrant smuggling. This paper concludes that one-sixth of respondents were deceived by migrant smugglers, and seven women suffered some form of sexual abuse from them, however more than two-thirds of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion towards migrant smugglers. This does not mean that women always trust migrant smugglers, they generally only trust those who were recommended for relatives or friends.
Full Text Available This essay presents violence against women as a social problem of high magnitude as well as based on gender inequality. The author summarizes both the main discussion issues and the last decades´ Latin American feminist fight. She highlights the conception of violence against women as a public problem, a negation of citizenship rights and as a law matter. Despite the withdrawals and the contradictory character of the relations between the feminist movement and social institutions, there is no doubt that the configuration of a new social practice related to violence perpetrated against women is taking place.
Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C
Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.
Full Text Available After establishing the parallel between the kitchen and the alchemist's laboratory, this article shows that traditionally, the kitchen has come to symbolize the space associated with the marginalization of women. However, the recent explosion of the novels dedicated to the resemantization and reevaluation of the realm of the kitchen is the best evidence that it is also a space from which much creativity emanates. A close reading of two such cookbook/novels, Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel and Like Potatoes for Varenike by Sylvia Plager, points toward a quite parodic and critical gender perspective. Furthermore, it calls for a reinterpretation of stereotypical power relations and of male and female identity symbols.
Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah
Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.
Yancy-Tooks, Barbara J.
The purpose of this qualitative ethnographic study was to explore the experiences of African American women about their perceptions of factors (i.e. senior administrator selection practices, institutional practices, barriers, and coping strategies) that hinder or facilitate advancement in community college administration. The following questions…
Kidwell, Clara Sue
In traditional American Indian cultures, sex roles were clearly defined and women were the keepers of the home, child bearers, and food gathers. Sometimes, however, stereotypes and preconceptions become barriers to cross-cultural communication. For instance, feminists who see themselves as victims of a male-dominated society cannot assume that…
Berendsen, A.M.; Kang, Jae H.; Rest, van de O.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.
ObjectivesTo examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US
Clay, LaTasha K.
Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…
Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…
Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Garrett, Michael Tlanusta
American Indian women have been consistently involved in leadership throughout indigenous history. Their leadership provides a strong, nurturing influence passed down from generation to generation. In the U.S. society, this type of leadership style is recognized among contemporary authors of leadership manuals as relational and is attributed to…
Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J
The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.
Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…
The purpose of this ethnonursing research was to systematically discover, describe, and analyze the beliefs, practices, and values of African American women related to prenatal care. The domain of inquiry was prenatal care of African American women within their familiar cultural contexts. The study was conceptualized within Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality which enabled the researcher to study professional and generic care as influenced by the worldview, social structural factors, cultural values and beliefs, ethnohistory, and environmental context. The goal of the study was to discover knowledge that could be used by health professionals to provide culturally congruent prenatal care that would increase the health and well being of the people. The rationale for the study was based on studies that showed the lack of prenatal care in the African American cultural group leads to low birth weights and high infant mortality rates. Four major themes that focused on the domain of inquiry were identified: 1) Cultural care meant protection, presence, and sharing; 2) social structural factors that greatly influenced the health and well being were spirituality, kinship, and economics; 3) professional prenatal care was seen by the women as necessary and essential but there was distrust of noncaring professionals, and barriers to such care; and 4) folk health beliefs, practices, and indigenous health care providers were widely used by women in the African American community.
Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel
Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…
Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan
Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…
Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Okunoren, Oladoyin; LoParo, Devon; Hunter, Carla D
The current study used the Health Belief Model to develop a measure that assessed the emotional benefits and barriers of professional psychological services in an African American women sample. Data from 251 African American women recruited from online organizations from across the United States (n = 164) and a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 87) were used for exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 2-factor structure of the Emotional Benefits and Barriers of Psychological Services (EBBPS) Scale: Life Enhancement and Concerns about Distress, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed with data from 208 African American women who were recruited from a Midwestern university psychology subject pool (n = 81), Mturk (n = 104), and online organizations across the United States (n = 23). Results confirmed the EFA 2-factor model and demonstrated superior fit compared with a unidimensional model as well as a 3 factor model. Both factors exhibited excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was supported given that EBBPS factors were correlated with theoretically related constructs, like psychological help-seeking attitudes, intentions to seek counseling, and cultural identity, as well as uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated constructs, like psychological distress. These findings support the utility and cultural relevance of the EBBPS with African American women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Barrera, Magdalena L.
Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…
This study examined how Mexican American women made meaning of their undergraduate activism and its potential implications on their development toward self-authorship. The developing political consciousness model emerged from their interviews to demonstrate the process of developing increasingly complex social knowledge, the shift of motivation to…
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Davis, Deanna Rachelle
The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…
This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…
Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Hastrup, Janice L; Green, B Lee; Kohler, Connie L
A major challenge facing contemporary cancer educators is how to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer prevention and control information to African American women in the Deep South who are believed to be cancer free. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the breast cancer information-acquisition experiences of African American women in Alabama and Mississippi and to make recommendations on ways to better reach members of this high-risk, underserved population. Focus group methodology was used in a repeated, cross-sectional research design with 64 African American women, 35 years old or older who lived in one of four urban or rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Axial-coded themes emerged around sources of cancer information, patterns of information acquisition, characteristics of preferred sources, and characteristics of least-preferred sources. It is important to invest in lay health educators to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer information to African American women who are believed to be cancer free in the Deep South.
Evans, Stephanie Y.
EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…
African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…
Pesavento, Wilma J.; Pesavento, Lisa C.
This study was designed to determine (1) the arrow, dart, javelin, and pin games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American…
Brown, Cynthia Williams; Alexander, Dayna S.; Cummins, Kayla; Price, Amanda Alise; Anderson-Booker, Marian
Background: African American women have the highest risk of death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups due to sedentary behaviors. Purpose: This article describes an intervention among 2 groups--a program group and an information group (intervention and comparison)--that assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge among…
Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S
The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women's perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community.
Herbert Harris, Eboni T; Hillfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Timmons, Shirley M; Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson
Effective health promotion among African American women requires knowledge and understanding of cultural influences and practices. This scoping review focused on rest, related concepts, and cultural perspectives and practices. We found a lack of conceptual distinction between fatigue and sleep and limited research on cultural meanings and practices of rest.
Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.
The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…
Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole
African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…
Mostafa, Samiul A; Davies, Melanie J; Morris, Danielle H; Yates, Tom; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian Thiagarajan; Webb, David; Brady, Emer; Khunti, Kamlesh
There is recent interest surrounding the use of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance in clinical practice, as it may identify people at high risk of developing diabetes or its complications. However, it has been suggested using this lipid ratio may not be appropriate for measuring insulin resistance in African-Americans, particularly women. We investigated if this inconsistency extended to South Asian women in a UK multi-ethnic cohort of White Europeans and South Asians. Cross-sectional analysis was done of 729 participants from the ADDITION-Leicester study from 2005 to 2009. The association between tertiles of triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio to fasting insulin, homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA1-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and glucose: insulin ratio was examined with adjustment for confounding variables. Incremental tertiles of the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio demonstrated a significant positive association with levels of fasting insulin, HOMA1-IR, glucose: insulin ratio and a negative association with QUICKI in White European men (n = 255) and women (n = 250) and South Asian men (n = 124) (all pAsian women (n = 100). A significant interaction was demonstrated between sex and triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio tertiles in South Asians only (pwomen, South Asian men and women respectively. The optimal cut-points for detecting insulin resistance were 0.9-1.7 in mmol/l (2.0-3.8 in mg/dl) for the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio. In South Asian women the triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was not associated with insulin resistance; therefore there may be limitations in its use as a surrogate marker in this group.