WorldWideScience

Sample records for europe puts health

  1. Putting women's health in the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    An Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) Workshop for the Production of Video Script on Women's Health was organized by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and JOICFP and held in Japan from November 29, through December 4, 1993. It produced 4 different prototypes for use in Asia that reflected the range of women's health issues and cultural differences involved. Representatives of family planning (FP) associations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), IEC experts, and health officials from both government and NGOs attended. Dr. Shizuko Sasaki spoke about various legal issues of women's health in Japan, while Colleen Cording spoke concerning the impact of social and policy changes on women's lives and health in New Zealand. Participants were then divided into 4 groups for discussion of target populations and their needs. 4 sets of illustrations were designed to stimulate discussion by instructors and were presented with 10-15 min scripts. The 4 videos included Christie and Me, Proud to Be a Girl, One Day at the Beach, and Happy to Be Me. The 1st film features a uterus as narrator who explains menstruation, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and contraception; the 2nd focuses on positive self images for girls; the 3rd, on a range of sexual topics discussed during a couple's seaside stroll; and the 4th, on a woman's love of self and cycle of life from puberty to old age. Participants are expected to produce similar material with adaptations to their specific countries from these prototypes. Participants also discussed their experiences in women's health education and methods of distributing and marketing educational materials.

  2. Re-energising Europe. Putting the EU on track for 100% renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.; Anderson, J. [WWF European Policy Office, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    The report shows where Europe needs to be by 2030 in order to reach a fully renewable energy system by 2050. The key findings are that Europe has significant untapped potential for cutting energy use and maximising indigenous power sources that could deliver cheaper and more secure energy. However, this potential is at risk because of a lack of political ambition. There is a particular need for greater clarity on policy frameworks for renewable energy and energy efficiency after 2020 just one investment cycle away. Based on recent research by ECOFYS for WWF, by 2030, the EU: (a) could be using at least 38% less energy (compared to a business as usual projection; (b) could be generating more than 40% of its energy from renewable sources, and (c), by doing both, could reduce its energy related greenhouse emissions by 50% compared to 1990 levels. Achieving such levels would put the EU on track to delivering a 100% renewably powered energy system by 2050 at the latest. It should be noted that while biomass use has been assessed based on the global model, a more detailed sustainability vision for biomass use in Europe is needed.

  3. Health literacy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Sørensen, Kristine; Röthlin, Florian; Pelikan, Jürgen; Rademakers, Jany; Boshuizen, Hendriek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is an important determinant of health, but national health literacy levels are known for only some European countries. This study aims to examine to what extent national health literacy levels can be estimated based on publicly available census data. Method:

  4. Religiousness and health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Möller, Sören; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    .87). Conversely, people who only prayed had higher odds of depressive symptoms than non-religious people 1.46 (95% CI 1.15, 1.86). Our findings suggest two types of religiousness: 1. Restful religiousness (praying, taking part in a religious organization and being religiously educated), which is associated......Recent research suggests that epidemiological forces in religion and health can have opposed effects. Using longitudinal data of people aged 50+ included in wave 1 (2004-2005) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), and followed up through waves 2 (2006-2007), 4 (2011......) and 5 (2013), we examined two forms of religious internalization and their association with health. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine all associations. Taking part in a religious organization was associated with lower odds of GALI (global activity limitation index) (OR = 0.86, 95...

  5. Human resources for health in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee, Martin; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Nolte, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    ... systems in the field of personnel. The authors also identify which strategies are most likely to lead to the optimal management of health professionals in the future. Human Resources for Health in Europe is key reading for health policymakers and postgraduates taking courses in health services management, health policy and health economics. It is also ...

  6. Accelerating the health literacy agenda in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Sørensen, Kristine; Rübig, Paul; Bertinato, Luigi; Brand, Helmut; Karapiperis, Theodoros; Dinca, Irina; Peetso, Terje; Kadenbach, Karin; Dario, Claudio

    2017-12-01

    Health literacy can be defined as the knowledge, motivation and competence to access, understand, appraise and apply information to make decisions in terms of healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion. Health literacy is a European public health challenge that has to be taken seriously by policy-makers. It constitutes an emerging field for policy, research and practice. However, recent research has shown that health literacy advancement is still at its infancy in Europe, as reflected in the scarce scientific health literacy literature published by European authors. From a total of 569 articles published until 2011 on this subject, the first author of only 15% of them is from Europe. This article conveys recommendations of different European stakeholders on how to accelerate the health literacy agenda in Europe. A general introduction on the current status of health literacy is provided, followed by two cases applying health literacy in the areas of prevention of communicable diseases and promotion of digital health. The current EU strategies integrating health literacy are listed, followed by examples of challenges threatening the further development of health literacy in Europe. Recommendations as to how European stakeholders involved in research, policy, practice and education can promote health literacy are given. It is vital that the European Commission as well as European Union Member States take the necessary steps to increase health literacy at individual, organizational, community, regional and national levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikolos, Marina; Mladovsky, Philipa; Cylus, Jonathan; Thomson, Sarah; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-13

    The financial crisis in Europe has posed major threats and opportunities to health. We trace the origins of the economic crisis in Europe and the responses of governments, examine the effect on health systems, and review the effects of previous economic downturns on health to predict the likely consequences for the present. We then compare our predictions with available evidence for the effects of the crisis on health. Whereas immediate rises in suicides and falls in road traffic deaths were anticipated, other consequences, such as HIV outbreaks, were not, and are better understood as products of state retrenchment. Greece, Spain, and Portugal adopted strict fiscal austerity; their economies continue to recede and strain on their health-care systems is growing. Suicides and outbreaks of infectious diseases are becoming more common in these countries, and budget cuts have restricted access to health care. By contrast, Iceland rejected austerity through a popular vote, and the financial crisis seems to have had few or no discernible effects on health. Although there are many potentially confounding differences between countries, our analysis suggests that, although recessions pose risks to health, the interaction of fiscal austerity with economic shocks and weak social protection is what ultimately seems to escalate health and social crises in Europe. Policy decisions about how to respond to economic crises have pronounced and unintended effects on public health, yet public health voices have remained largely silent during the economic crisis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Open source and healthcare in Europe - time to put leading edge ideas into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter J; Wright, Graham; Karopka, Thomas; Betts, Helen; Orel, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) is a process of software development, a method of licensing and a philosophy. Although FLOSS plays a significant role in several market areas, the impact in the health care arena is still limited. FLOSS is promoted as one of the most effective means for overcoming fragmentation in the health care sector and providing a basis for more efficient, timely and cost effective health care provision. The 2008 European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) Special Topic Conference (STC) explored a range of current and future issues related to FLOSS in healthcare (FLOSS-HC). In particular, there was a focus on health records, ubiquitous computing, knowledge sharing, and current and future applications. Discussions resulted in a list of main barriers and challenges for use of FLOSS-HC. Based on the outputs of this event, the 2004 Open Steps events and subsequent workshops at OSEHC2009 and Med-e-Tel 2009, a four-step strategy has been proposed for FLOSS-HC: 1) a FLOSS-HC inventory; 2) a FLOSS-HC collaboration platform, use case database and knowledge base; 3) a worldwide FLOSS-HC network; and 4) FLOSS-HC dissemination activities. The workshop will further refine this strategy and elaborate avenues for FLOSS-HC from scientific, business and end-user perspectives. To gain acceptance by different stakeholders in the health care industry, different activities have to be conducted in collaboration. The workshop will focus on the scientific challenges in developing methodologies and criteria to support FLOSS-HC in becoming a viable alternative to commercial and proprietary software development and deployment.

  9. New times for migrants' health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Reyes-Uruena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  10. New times for migrants' health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Uruena, J M; Noori, T; Pharris, A; Jansà, J M

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of migration can change greatly over time, with the size and composition of migrant populations reflecting both, current and historical patterns of migration flows. The recent economic crisis has caused a decrease on migration flows towards the most affected areas, as well as cut offs in health interventions addressed to migrants. The objective of this paper is to review available data about interventions on migrants' health in Europe, and to describe changes in migrant health policies across Europe after the economic crisis, that can have a negative effect in their health status. Although migrants have the right to health care under legal settlements issued by the EU, there is no a standard European approach to offer health care to migrants, since; policies in each EU Member State are developed according to specific migrant experience, political climate, and attitudes towards migration. Migrants use to face greater health problems and major health care access barriers, compared with their counterparts from the EU. Therefore, migrant health policies should focus in protects this vulnerable group, especially during economic hardship, taking into account economic and socio-demographic risk factors. There is an especial need for research in the cost-effectiveness of investing in the health care of the migrant population, demonstrating the benefit of such, even in the health of the European native population, and the need for constant intervention despite of resource constraints.

  11. Physics for Health in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    Medicine increasingly relies on cutting-edge techniques for the early diagnosis and treatment of tumours and other serious diseases. The first “Physics for health in Europe” workshop will be held at CERN on 2-4 February 2010. It will aim to open the way to a European roadmap for using physics tools in the development of diagnostic techniques and new cancer therapies. Physics is not new to producing applications for life sciences. Several detection techniques are currently used in diagnosis instruments and hadron therapy is one of the most promising ways of treating tumours which cannot be treated with conventional irradiation techniques since they are either radio-resistant or located very close to critical organs.. However, despite this potential synergy, the two communities – physicists and medical doctors – do not often meet to plan common actions. The “Physics for Health in Europe” workshop is one of the first attempts to get both communities to...

  12. Putting Public Health Ethics into Practice: A Systematic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckmann, Georg; Schmidt, Harald; Sofaer, Neema; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that public health practice raises ethical issues that require a different approach than traditional biomedical ethics. Several frameworks for public health ethics (PHE) have been proposed; however, none of them provides a practice-oriented combination of the two necessary components: (1) a set of normative criteria based on an explicit ethical justification and (2) a structured methodological approach for applying the resulting normative criteria to concrete public health (PH) issues. Building on prior work in the field and integrating valuable elements of other approaches to PHE, we present a systematic ethical framework that shall guide professionals in planning, conducting, and evaluating PH interventions. Based on a coherentist model of ethical justification, the proposed framework contains (1) an explicit normative foundation with five substantive criteria and seven procedural conditions to guarantee a fair decision process, and (2) a six-step methodological approach for applying the criteria and conditions to the practice of PH and health policy. The framework explicitly ties together ethical analysis and empirical evidence, thus striving for evidence-based PHE. It can provide normative guidance to those who analyze the ethical implications of PH practice including academic ethicists, health policy makers, health technology assessment bodies, and PH professionals. It will enable those who implement a PH intervention and those affected by it (i.e., the target population) to critically assess whether and how the required ethical considerations have been taken into account. Thereby, the framework can contribute to assuring the quality of ethical analysis in PH. Whether the presented framework will be able to achieve its goals has to be determined by evaluating its practical application. PMID:25705615

  13. Put it all together, it spells 'centralized health education'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, E W

    1979-01-01

    The centralized health education department at Lexington County Hospital, a 250-bed community hospital in West Columbia, S.C. started with one full-time and two part-time employees. Today, there are 14 employees, two volunteers, and usually five graduate students from the University of South Carolina who are successfully carrying out the program design presented here.

  14. Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T

    2001-01-01

    To describe the background in general culture, public and professional discourse against which mental health care reform initiatives in Eastern Europe need to be seen. An account of some key aspects of sociopolitical and cultural transition in Eastern European countries is given, and core results of a research project on attitudes and needs assessment in psychiatry in six Eastern European countries are reported. In post-totalitarian cultures mental health reforms impinge on imagination in ways which are not easy to predict. Some of the reasons for this are traced to the psychiatric practices under the system of total control, e.g. dispensary care, political abuse, reification of classificatory terms. Data on a study of attitudes suggest that institutions had replaced community life in those parts of Europe. It is predicted that with time trust in the capacity of community to contain mental illness will be regained.

  15. 'FIFA 11 for Health' for Europe. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Colin W; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To modify the 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme to the European situation, and to assess its effects on health knowledge and well-being in Danish school children. METHOD: A two-cohort study with seven intervention and two control schools. Of the 546 Danish children (boys 269; girls 277) of mean...... age 11.1 (±0.4) years from five city and four country-side schools, 402 undertook the 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme and 144 acted as controls. As part of each school's PE curriculum, seven intervention schools received a 45 min Play Football period (football skills and 3 vs 3 games) and a 45 min Play...... negatively. CONCLUSIONS: The 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme modified for Europe demonstrated positive effects on children's health knowledge and social dimension of well-being, thereby providing evidence that the football-based health education programme can be used effectively within a European school...

  16. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  17. Exploring Health Impact Assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wismar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.

    Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.

    Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.

  18. Health care and general practice across Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Jong, F.A.J.M. de; Mulder, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains an overview of general practice and primary care medicine in Europe. It includes a clear description of the rapidly changing situation in Eastern Europe, as far as this situation is clear at all. The book is meant for those who require a systematic general briefing on the

  19. Forecasting extreme temperature health hazards in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hot temperatures, such as those experienced during a heat wave, represent a dangerous meteorological hazard to human health. Heat disorders such as sunstroke are harmful to people of all ages and responsible for excess mortality in the affected areas. In 2003 more than 50,000 people died in western and southern Europe because of a severe and sustained episode of summer heat [1]. Furthermore, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change heat waves are expected to get more frequent in the future thus posing an increasing threat to human lives. Developing appropriate tools for extreme hot temperatures prediction is therefore mandatory to increase public preparedness and mitigate heat-induced impacts. A recent study has shown that forecasts of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) provide a valid overview of extreme temperature health hazards on a global scale [2]. UTCI is a parameter related to the temperature of the human body and its regulatory responses to the surrounding atmospheric environment. UTCI is calculated using an advanced thermo-physiological model that includes the human heat budget, physiology and clothing. To forecast UTCI the model uses meteorological inputs, such as 2m air temperature, 2m water vapour pressure and wind velocity at body height derived from 10m wind speed, from NWP models. Here we examine the potential of UTCI as an extreme hot temperature prediction tool for the European area. UTCI forecasts calculated using above-mentioned parameters from ECMWF models are presented. The skill in predicting UTCI for medium lead times is also analysed and discussed for implementation to international health-hazard warning systems. This research is supported by the ANYWHERE project (EnhANcing emergencY management and response to extreme WeatHER and climate Events) which is funded by the European Commission's HORIZON2020 programme. [1] Koppe C. et al., Heat waves: risks and responses. World Health Organization. Health and

  20. Being closely connected to health care providers experiencing burnout: putting one's life on hold to help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2010-02-01

    Being closely connected to a person experiencing illness may be a trying experience.This study aimed to illuminate meanings of being closely connected to health care providers experiencing burnout. Ten interviews were conducted with five people closely connected (i.e., family members or supportive friends) to health care providers recovering from burnout. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and the resulting text was interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method. One consequence of being closely connected to health care providers experiencing burnout is putting one's life on hold to help. In facing an almost unmanageable burden, those closely connected revealed their own suffering, emphasizing their need for support. Health care professionals need to be aware that those who are closely connected to a person experiencing burnout may lack knowledge about burnout and its related challenges. It is to be hoped such knowledge would allow significant others to better support the person experiencing burnout and promote their own health.

  1. Move Europe: a campaign for the improvement of lifestyle-related workplace health promotion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breucker, G.; Sochert, R.; Kiesewetter, E.; Broek, K. van den; Gründemann, R.; Dijkman, A.; Haratau, T.; Leitgöb, H.; Sebinger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since its formal founding in 1996, the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) has become one of leading European institutions in the field of Workplace Health Promotion (WHP) in Europe and can be characterised as an informal network consisting of national occupational health and

  2. Migration and health in an increasingly diverse Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechel, Bernd; Mladovsky, Philipa; Ingleby, David; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-06

    The share of migrants in European populations is substantial and growing, despite a slowdown in immigration after the global economic crisis. This paper describes key aspects of migration and health in Europe, including the scale of international migration, available data for migrant health, barriers to accessing health services, ways of improving health service provision to migrants, and migrant health policies that have been adopted across Europe. Improvement of migrant health and provision of access for migrants to appropriate health services is not without challenges, but knowledge about what steps need to be taken to achieve these aims is increasing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  4. Mapping research on health systems in Europe: a bibliometric assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velasco Garrido, M.; Hansen, J.; Busse, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Europe's health care decision-makers are facing an increasingly complex and rapidly changing landscape. It is crucial that health care problems are addressed with evidence-informed policy and that evidence finding is aimed at those topics most urgent on policy agendas. Research on health

  5. Putting Health Education on the Public Health Map in Canada--The Role of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Sandra; Hayos, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The health education profession has developed over recent years garnering national and international attention. Canada's evolving health education perspective emphasizing the concept of health literacy within the broader public health system reflects the need for trained, competent and skilled health educators designing, implementing and…

  6. One Health training and research activities in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Sikkema

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK, with a focus on infectious diseases. It can serve as a starting point for future initiatives and collaborations. Material and methods: A literature search for ‘One Health’ was performed using National Center for Biotechnology Information and Google. Moreover, information from global and European policy documents was collected and a questionnaire was designed to gather current One Health research and training activities in Western Europe. Results: This overview shows that there is considerable recognition for One Health in Europe, although most educational initiatives are recent. In Europe, the One Health approach is currently mainly advocated in relation to antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Many countries have incorporated the One Health approach in their policy to fight AMR, and funding possibilities for AMR research increased significantly. The number of national and international multidisciplinary research networks in the area of zoonotic diseases and One Health is increasing. Discussion: Although One Health has gained recognition in Europe, often a One Health approach to research and education in the area of zoonotic diseases and AMR is not implemented. In many countries, collaboration between sectors is still lacking, and One Health activities are predominantly initiated by the veterinary

  7. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice.

  8. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice.

  9. Migration and health in an increasingly diverse Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rechel, B.; Mladovsky, P.; Ingleby, D.; Mackenbach, J.P.; McKee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The share of migrants in European populations is substantial and growing, despite a slowdown in immigration after the global economic crisis. This paper describes key aspects of migration and health in Europe, including the scale of international migration, available data for migrant health,

  10. Public health research literatures their coverage and gaps in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, A.; Gatineau, M.; Grimaud, O.; Lebis, I.; Devaux, S.; Thorogood, M.; Durando, P.; Tarkowski, S.; Adany, R.; Hunter, D.; Delnoij, D.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To review Public Health (PH) literature from Europe over 10 years, 1995–2005; to make recommendations for future research policy and funding. Background: Two PH overviews and six topic area reviews were undertaken. Areas, identified through EUPHA, included health promotion, infectious disease,

  11. Public health nutrition in Europe : workforce development and policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Kugelberg, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Public health nutrition workforce development is an important prerequisite for developing a nation’s capacity to achieve public health nutrition objectives. Presently, there is a lack of knowledge about public health nutrition workforce development in Europe, in particular, about how governments have developed strategies for promoting a skilled and adaptable public health nutrition workforce and about the current workforce in terms of roles, competencies and functions. The aim of this t...

  12. Impact of air pollution on health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzyzanowski, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of health risks due to air pollution should be an important indicator for setting the priorities for the environmental policies and for the abatement of the pollution. The scale of such assessment depends on the level, and scope, of the policy decisions relying on the evaluation. The analysis may range from an estimate of the health impact of a single pollution source, through the risk assessment in a community or a region of a country, to an international, or pan-continental approach. Such assessment, addressing population of all Europe, was one of the aims of the project `Concern for Europe`s Tomorrow` (CET). The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health completed this project, and the corresponding report, as a contribution to the Second European Conference on Environment and Health which gathered ministries of health and of environment from all European countries in Helsinki in June 1994. Using the report as the background information, the ministries have endorsed the `Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe`, the document formulating common environmental health policy of the Region. In this article, the summary of the evaluation will be presented and the main constraints of the pan-European approach will be addressed. (author)

  13. eHealth in Europe - Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, A; Hackl, W O; Hofdijk, J; Van Gemert-Pijnen, L; Ammenwerth, E; Nykänen, P; Hoerbst, A

    2013-01-01

    To present European reflections on the concept of eHealth and emerging challenges related to further development of eHealth in Europe. A survey with 10 questions was distributed to representatives of the national member associations of the European Federation of Medical Informatics (EFMI). The results document a shift from a constricting ICT-orientation to development of the entire health system where eHealth strategies, organizational change, and appropriate technological infrastructure are singled out as important aspects. There are urgent needs to ensure that eHealth strategies and policies for further design and deployment of eHealth applications support sociable services and innovations in health care.

  14. Health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena

    2017-07-01

    The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe. In addition to communicable diseases, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic infections, non-communicable diseases, including chronic conditions, mental and social problems, account for a significant morbidity burden in newly arrived migrants and refugees. Vaccine-preventable diseases are also of outmost importance. The appropriate management of newly arrived refugees and migrants' health problems is affected by barriers to access to health care including legal, communication, cultural and bureaucratic difficulties. There is diversity and lack of integration regarding health care provision across Europe due to policy differences between health care systems and social services. There is a notable burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases among newly arrived migrants and refugees. Provision of health care at reception and temporary centres should be integrated and provided by a multidisciplinary team Appropriate health care of migrants and refugees could greatly enhance their health and social status which will benefit also the host countries at large.

  15. Exploring the biomedical and health informatics educational programs in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifava, Eirini; Kolokathi, Aikaterini; Mantas, John

    2014-01-01

    The Health Information Technology can improve public health, quality of health care etc. Thus, it is important for professionals to be well educated by training programs. The aim of this paper is to record all the educational programs with specializations in Health Informatics, Medical Informatics, Bioinformatics, Biomedical Informatics and Biomedical Engineering in European Universities and Institutions. An on-line research was conducted on Scopus, PubMed, Scholar Google, and Google. More than 150 universities and colleges in Europe conduct educational programs for these domains. The majority them, expertise in Biomedical Engineering (31%), 22% of the educational programs correspond to Bioinformatics, while Health Informatics studies have 18%. On the last few years, a growth of Health informatics professionals has been observed in Europe.

  16. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health...... reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...... and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation....

  17. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 2--Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfuss, Helmut; Bauer, Bruno; Declève, Ghislaine; Verhaaren, Henri; Utard-Wlerick, Guillemette; Bakker, Suzanne; Leclerq, Edith; Murphy, Jeannette

    2012-06-01

    This is the third in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors were asked to reflect on developments in their country--viz. Austria, Belgium, France and the Netherlands. Future issues will track trends in the Nordic countries, Southern Europe and Latin America. JM. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Public Health in Europe: Power, Politics, and Where Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuckler David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Health policy in Europe is at a crossroads. Longstanding challenges, such as persisting social and geographical inequalities, ageing populations, and rising burdens of chronic diseases, are being compounded by new, global threats, such as pandemic influenza and crises in the world’s financial markets. Significant improvement in the health of Europe’s population has been driven by factors both inside and outside the health sector. Key obstacles to improving population health in Europe result from underlying failures to overcome political and economic issues, including those shaping healthcare financing and delivery systems. How can the public health community respond to these challenges? This paper discusses three examples of how power and politics have shaped the world in which public health works. The focus on individual risk factors diverts attention from underlying determinants, such as the dominance of the market in healthcare, and the political decision to favour a rapid transition from communism in the 1990s. Effective public health policy requires addressing these political forces, seeking to understand the dominant paradigms, how they have been defined and shaped, and how they might be changed. Their effects are often subtle but powerful, shaping the language that is used, the assumptions that are made, and the rules that are implied. We can formulate key policy options to help improve health outcomes by reshaping the critical forces that affect public health risk factors among those populations currently most burdened by significant disease in Europe today.

  19. Health care systems in Western Europe: an analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gooijer, Winfried J

    2002-01-01

    Health care in the countries of Western Europe can be defined as a complex process of continuous innovation, i.e. of constantly implementing new combinations of science, technology, organisation, economics, politics, philosophy, opinions and fashion. Any element of this definition can influence the course of the health care process, whether or not combined with one or more of the other elements. This definition implies that health care systems as well as health care policy of the countries of Western Europe differ considerably. If we define a health care system as the legal and organisational framework, directed at producing, distributing, managing, regulating, supervising, co-ordinating and controlling health care activities in order to realise defined social health care values, no country can narrowly be compared to any other country. Such a comparison produces a huge basket of facts from which one can draw one conclusion only: each country acts to its own liking. The same applies for the concept of health care policy, i.e. a chosen course to achieve pre-set strategic objectives. Here too, every country acts to its own liking, where nobody is right and nobody is wrong. Consequently, the universal health care system does not exist. Consequently also, the analyst who takes a closer look at the health care systems of the countries of Western Europe, trying to map the differences, will discover a rather messy picture. All this being said, how do we deal with two burning questions? The first is: how can it be that, relatively speaking, the people of Western Europe are so healthy? Secondly: how do we clean up the mess or, in other words, how do we reform health care?

  20. Mental health research priorities for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wykes, T.; Haro, J.M.; Belli, S.R.; Obradors-Tarragó, C.; Arango, C.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Bitter, I.; Brunn, M.; Chevreul, K.; Demotes-Mainard, J.; Elfeddali, I.; Evans-Lacko, S.; Fiorillo, A.; Forsman, A.K.; Hazo, J.-B.; Kuepper, R.; Knappe, S.; Leboyer, M.; McDaid, D.; Miret, M.; Papp, S.; Park, A. -L.; Schumann, G.; Thornicroft, G.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; van Os, J.; Wahlbeck, K.; Walker-Tilley, T.; Wittchen, H.-U.

    2015-01-01

    Mental and brain disorders represent the greatest health burden to Europe—not only for directly affected individuals, but also for their caregivers and the wider society. They incur substantial economic costs through direct (and indirect) health-care and welfare spending, and via productivity

  1. Health and the environment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN

    1992-01-01

    In this report the relation between the environment and human health is considered in a broad perspective. The starting point is a concept of "health" as an entity determined by endogenous and exogenous factors. Four categories of exogenous factors can be identified: (1) the physical

  2. Procedures for health risk assessment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeley, M.R.; Tonner-Navarro, L.E.; Beck, B.D.; Deskin, R.; Feron, V.J.; Johanson, G.; Bolt, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This report compares cancer classification systems, health risk assessment approaches, and procedures used for establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs), in various European countries and scientific organizations. The objectives were to highlight and compare key aspects of these processes and

  3. Health Categorisation of Fish Farms in Europe In 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Nicolajsen, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The Questionnaire on Surveillance and Diagnosis (S&D) included questions on how fish farms are health categorised according to Council Directive 2006/88/EC in the respective countries. More than half of the authorised farms in Europe are in category III for VHS and IHN and the remaining in category...... I or II. According to these official data almost no farms are infected with either of these diseases. This might be more due to a significant underreporting than of the de facto situation. For KHV most carp farms are in category III, unknown status. Many farms in Europe are not categorised yet...

  4. 'FIFA 11 for Health' for Europe. II:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen; Fuller, Colin W; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether a modified ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ programme for non-communicable diseases had effects on body composition, blood pressure and physical fitness of Danish schoolchildren aged 10–12 years. Design A cluster-randomised controlled study with 7 intervention and 2 control...... carried out 2 weekly 45 min ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ sessions focusing on health issues, football skills and 3v3 games. CG continued regular school PE activities. Measurements of body composition, blood pressure at rest, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children’s test (YYIR1C), balance, jump and sprint...... The modified ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ programme has beneficial effects on body composition and blood pressure for Danish schoolchildren aged 10–12 years, thereby providing evidence that this football-based health education programme can directly impact participants’ cardiovascular health profile....

  5. Education for public health in Europe and its global outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjegovic-Mikanovic, Vesna; Jovic-Vranes, Aleksandra; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Otok, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction At the present time, higher education institutions dealing with education for public health in Europe and beyond are faced with a complex and comprehensive task of responding to global health challenges. Review Literature reviews in public health and global health and exploration of internet presentations of regional and global organisations dealing with education for public health were the main methods employed in the work presented in this paper. Higher academic institutions are searching for appropriate strategies in competences-based education, which will increase the global attractiveness of their academic programmes and courses for continuous professional development. Academic professionals are taking advantage of blended learning and new web technologies. In Europe and beyond they are opening up debates about the scope of public health and global health. Nevertheless, global health is bringing revitalisation of public health education, which is recognised as one of the core components by many other academic institutions involved in global health work. More than ever, higher academic institutions for public health are recognising the importance of institutional partnerships with various organisations and efficient modes of cooperation in regional and global networks. Networking in a global setting is bringing new opportunities, but also opening debates about global harmonisation of competence-based education to achieve functional knowledge, increase mobility of public health professionals, better employability and affordable performance. Conclusions As public health opportunities and threats are increasingly global, higher education institutions in Europe and in other regions have to look beyond national boundaries and participate in networks for education, research and practice. PMID:24560263

  6. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  7. Health promotion research literature in Europe 1995-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A; Gatineau, M; Thorogood, M; Wyn-Roberts, N

    2007-01-01

    To undertake an overview of health promotion research in the EEA to inform the collaborative study-SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe). A 'filter' (search strategy) was used to search Medline and Embase for a 10-year period from 1995 to 2005. A 32% (6000) sample of the filter output was assessed for proportion constituting health promotion. Output was analysed by country, population, gross domestic product (GDP) and health need (disability-adjusted life years, DALYs). Disease prevention (screening and immunization) and health improvement papers were separately identified. The latter were classified by methodology, level of intervention and topic area. 18,862 papers were identified. One-third was identified as health promotion (2206/6000, 36.7%) equivalent to 6935 (CI 6651-7230). Production varied: Nordic countries were highest producers per million population; the UK the largest net producer. There was a weak relationship between health promotion publication and population size (r(2) = 0.38); a weak inverse relationship with relative health (DALYs per million population) (r(2) = 0.07) and a slightly stronger relationship with GDP (r(2) = 0.45). Twenty-eight percent (626/2206) of the papers identified were disease prevention (screening and immunization). The largest topic areas of the remainder (1580) were diet and exercise, smoking and tobacco, and cardiovascular disease reduction. Accidents and violence, alcohol and mental health each accounted for Health promotion research production varies across Europe. Research commissioning should stress interventional and policy level research.

  8. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurgel Jr., Garibaldi D.; Carvalho de Sousa, Islâandia M.; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles...... of universality, equity, and integrality. While the reform in Brazil aimed at improving equity and effectiveness, reforms in Europe aimed at improving efficiency in order to contain costs. The European reforms increased supply and utilization but never provided the large increase in efficiency that was hoped for......, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having...

  9. Guidelines For Health-Based Ventilation In Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Carrer, Paolo; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The burden of disease (BoD) associated with major air exposures indoors in 26 European countries was recently accounted for loss of two million healthy life years annually expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) (Jantunen et al., 2011). The development of health-based ventilation...... guidelines has been recommended as one of the strategic priorities to reduce this BoD (de Oliveira-Fernandes et al., 2009), also because the current ventilation standards in Europe provide different categories of comfort, not health, as the main criteria for designing ventilation requirements (EN 13779, 2007...

  10. CLIMATE CHANGE – A CHALLENGE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Jarosińska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change represents a major global challenge, with a range of potential impacts on human health linked to the changing weather patterns, temperatures, more intense and frequent extreme weather events, changes in ecosystems, agriculture, and infrastructure. Climate change can multiply risks and existing health problems; it sets conditions under which health effects may occur, depending on population vulnerability and ability to adapt. In response to this global challenge, both mitigation and adaptation measures are needed. Europe is already experiencing impacts of the changing climate, and some regions are particularly vulnerable. From the public health perspective, adaptation to climate change means protection of a population from adverse health impacts, including effects of extreme temperatures (e.g. heat waves, emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases, as well as allergic diseases linked to the changing pollination seasons.

  11. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU)

    OpenAIRE

    S?rensen, Kristine; Pelikan, J?rgen M.; R?thlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. Methods: The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted i...

  12. Austerity and health: the impact in the UK and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Reeves, Aaron; Loopstra, Rachel; Karanikolos, Marina; McKee, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Austerity measures-reducing social spending and increasing taxation-hurts deprived groups the most. Less is known about the impact on health. In this short review, we evaluate the evidence of austerity's impact on health, through two main mechanisms: a 'social risk effect' of increasing unemployment, poverty, homelessness and other socio-economic risk factors (indirect), and a 'healthcare effect' through cuts to healthcare services, as well as reductions in health coverage and restricting access to care (direct). We distinguish those impacts of economic crises from those of austerity as a response to it. Where possible, data from across Europe will be drawn upon, as well as more extensive analysis of the UK's austerity measures performed by the authors of this review. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Impact of innovations in national public health markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Alexanderson, Kristina; Voss, Margaretha; Conceição, Claudia; Grimaud, Olivier; Narkauskaité, Laura; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Saliba, Amanda; Sammut, Marvic

    2013-11-01

    Social innovations can contribute to health and wellbeing. PHIRE (Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe) investigated the impacts at national level of innovation projects funded by the European Union Public Health Programme. Through the European Public Health Association, experts assessed the uptake of the eight public health projects, for 30 European countries. Their reports were assembled by country and, thereafter, national public health associations reviewed the reports. Following stakeholder workshops, or internal and external consultations, 11 national reports were produced which included discussion on the impacts of the public health innovations in national product markets. In 11 countries, there were reports on the eight innovations for 45 (51%) of the possible public health markets. The innovations contributed positively to policy, practice and research, across different levels and in different ways, in 35 (39%) market, while competing innovation activities were recorded in 10 (11%) markets. The workshops also discussed contributing factors and limitations in dissemination and timing for policy cycles. The impacts of European Union social innovations in public health markets can be identified through national discussions. Further attention should be given to understanding drivers and incentives for successful public health innovations.

  14. A call to action on women's health: putting corporate CSR standards for workplace health on the global health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, David; MacDonald, Shawn; Rodehau, Carolyn

    2016-11-04

    Business operates within a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) system that the global health community should harness to advance women's health and related sustainable development goals for workers and communities in low- and middle-income countries. Corporations and their vast networks of supplier companies, particularly in manufacturing and agribusiness, employ millions of workers, increasingly comprised of young women, who lack access to health information, products and services. However, occupational safety and health practices focus primarily on safety issues and fail to address the health needs, including reproductive health, of women workers. CSR policy has focused on shaping corporate policies and practices related to the environment, labor, and human rights, but has also ignored the health needs of women workers. The authors present a new way for global health to understand CSR - as a set of regulatory processes governed by civil society, international institutions, business, and government that set, monitor, and enforce emerging standards related to the role of business in society. They call this the CSR system. They argue that the global health community needs to think differently about the role of corporations in public health, which has been as "partners," and that the global health practitioners should play the same advocacy role in the CSR system for corporate health policies as it does for government and international health policies.

  15. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Anna K; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2015-01-01

    field. METHODS: Experts were invited to compile and discuss research priorities in a series of topic-based scientific workshops. In addition, a Delphi process was carried out to reach consensus on the list of research priorities and their rank order. Three web-based surveys were conducted. Nearly 60...... in Europe-and thematic research priorities, including area-specific top priorities on research topics and methods. The priorities represent three overarching goals mirroring societal challenges, that is, to identify causes, risk and protective factors for mental health across the lifespan; to advance...

  16. Loneliness and health in Eastern Europe: findings from Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, A; Koyanagi, A; Leinsalu, M; Ferlander, S; Sabawoon, W; McKee, M

    2015-04-01

    To examine which factors are associated with feeling lonely in Moscow, Russia, and to determine whether loneliness is associated with worse health. Cross-sectional study. Data from 1190 participants were drawn from the Moscow Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine which factors were associated with feeling lonely and whether loneliness was linked to poor health. Almost 10% of the participants reported that they often felt lonely. Divorced and widowed individuals were significantly more likely to feel lonely, while not living alone and having greater social support reduced the risk of loneliness. Participants who felt lonely were more likely to have poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.76), and have suffered from insomnia (OR: 2.43; CI: 1.56-3.77) and mental ill health (OR: 2.93; CI: 1.88-4.56). Feeling lonely is linked to poorer health in Moscow. More research is now needed on loneliness and the way it affects health in Eastern Europe, so that appropriate interventions can be designed and implemented to reduce loneliness and its harmful impact on population well-being in this setting. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe : Recommendations of the ROAMER project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsman, A.K.; Wahlbeck, K.; Aarø, L.E.; Alonso, J.; Barry, M. M.; Brunn, M.; Cardoso, G.; Cattan, M.; De Girolamo, G.; Eberhard-Gran, M.; Evans-Lacko, S.; Fiorillo, A.; Hansson, L.; Haro, J.M.; Hazo, J.-B.; Hegerl, U.; Katschnig, H.; Knappe, S.; Luciano, M.; Miret, M.; Nordentoft, M.; Obradors-Tarragó, C.; Pilgrim, D.; Ruud, T.; Salize, H.J.; Stewart-Brown, S.L.; Tómasson, K.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; Ventus, D.B.J.; Vuori, J.; Värnik, A.; ROAMER, Consortium

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe project aimed to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research. Leading mental health research experts across Europe have formulated consensus-based recommendations for future research within the public mental health

  18. Health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic transition of the 1990s in the countries of central and eastern Europe has been accompanied by wide ranging health care reform. The initial Soviet model has given way to a variety of forms of health insurance. Yet, as this paper argues, reform has too often been preoccupied with ideological imperatives, such as provider autonomy and the creation of funds separate from government, and has given much less thought to the contribution that health care can make to population health. The paper begins by examining the changing nature of health care. It recalls how the Soviet model was able to provide basic care to dispersed populations at low cost but notes how this is no longer sufficient in the face of an increasingly complex health care environment. This complexity reflects several factors, such as the growth in chronic disease, the emergence of new forms of infectious disease, and the introduction of new treatments requiring integrated delivery systems. It reviews evidence on how the former communist countries failed to keep up with developments in the west from the 1970s onwards, at a time when the complexity of health care was becoming apparent. It continues by setting out a framework for the organisation of health care based on the goal of health gain. This involves a series of activities that can be summarised as active purchasing, and which include assessment of health needs, designing effective packages of care, and monitoring outcomes. It concludes by arguing that a new relationship is needed between the state and the organisations involved in funding and delivering health care, to design a system that will tackle the considerable health needs of the people who live in this region.

  19. Civil society organisations, social innovation and health research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.

  20. Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1992-01-01

    This article grew out of a keynote address prepared for the conference, "From Abortion to Contraception: Public Health Approaches to Reducing Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion Through Improved Family Planning Services," held in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR in October 1990. The article reviews the legal, religious, and medical situation of induced abortion in Europe in historical perspective, and considers access to abortion services, attitudes of health professionals, abortion incidence, morbidity and mortality, the new antiprogestins, the characteristics of abortion seekers, late abortions, postabortion psychological reactions, effects of denied abortion, and repeat abortion. Special attention is focused on the changes occurring in Romania, Albania, and the former Soviet Union, plus the effects of the new conservatism elsewhere in the formerly socialist countries of central and eastern Europe, particularly Poland. Abortion is a social reality that can no more be legislated out of existence than the controversy surrounding it can be stilled. No matter how effective family planning services and practices become, there will always be a need for access to safe abortion services.

  1. Common ragweed: a threat to environmental health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Cecchi, L; Skjøth, C A; Karrer, G; Šikoparija, B

    2013-11-01

    Common or short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an annual herb belonging to the Asteraceae family that was described by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. It is a noxious invasive species that is an important weed in agriculture and a source of highly allergenic pollen. The importance placed on A. artemisiifolia is reflected by the number of international projects that have now been launched by the European Commission and the increasing number of publications being produced on this topic. This review paper examines existing knowledge about ragweed ecology, distribution and flowering phenology and the environmental health risk that this noxious plant poses in Europe. The paper also examines control measures used in the fight against it and state of the art methods for modelling atmospheric concentrations of this important aeroallergen. Common ragweed is an environmental health threat, not only in its native North America but also in many parts of the world where it has been introduced. In Europe, where the plant has now become naturalised and frequently forms part of the flora, the threat posed by ragweed has been identified and steps are being taken to reduce further geographical expansion and limit increases in population densities of the plant in order to protect the allergic population. This is particularly important when one considers possible range shifts, changes in flowering phenology and increases in the amount of pollen and allergenic potency that could be brought about by changes in climate. © 2013.

  2. Utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graetz, V.; Rechel, B.; Groot, W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries. Sources of data: A systematic literature review was performed......, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. Areas of agreement: Utilization of accident and emergency services and hospitalizations were higher among migrants compared with non-migrants in most...... countries for which evidence was available. In contrast, screening and outpatient visits for specialized care were generally used less often by migrants. Areas of controversy: Utilization of general practitioner services among migrants compared with non-migrants presents a diverging picture. Growing points...

  3. Putting the Assessment into Practice: Applications of Climate and Health Data and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Morris, J.; Luber, G.

    2016-12-01

    The USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment represents the most up to date synthesis of the scientific literature on the health impacts of climate change in the United States. One of its key messages is that climate change is already affecting the health of people in the United States and around the world, and these impacts are likely to become more extensive over time. Another key message is that all Americans have some degree of vulnerability to the health impacts of climate change at some point in their lives. Conclusions as significant as those call for measures to translate current knowledge into specific actions to protect populations and enhance resilience to the health impacts of climate change. This presentation will summarize efforts underway across the federal government to apply research results and climate and health data to enhancing the resilience of populations. These efforts include the development of early warning systems and other applications of predictive models of weather and climate-related health hazards; partnerships with health professional societies to help translate the assessment's findings into specific recommendations for health professionals; and the development of educational materials to help enhance the resilience of students and their families by enhancing their understanding of the connections between climate, climate change and health.

  4. Unmet need for specialty mental health services among children across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, V.; Engelen, J. van; Stone, L.L.; Otten, R.; Carta, M.G.; Bitfoi, A.; Koc, C.; Goelitz, D.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Fermanian, C.; Pez, O.; Husky, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of use of mental health services for children across Europe, with a specific focus on differences in the availability of mental health resources. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe Project. Parent-

  5. Public mental health research in Europe : A systematic mapping for the ROAMER project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsman, A.K.; Ventus, D.B.J.; van der Feltz, C.M.; Wahlbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases

  6. PHIRE (Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe): methods, structures and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnboorn, F; McCarthy, M.; Devillé, W.; Alexanderson, K.; Voss, M.; Conceição, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe (PHIRE), building on previous European collaborative projects, was developed to assess national uptake and impacts of European public health innovations, to describe national public health research programmes, strategies and structures

  7. Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric PAHs in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Adrián; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ratola, Nuno

    2014-12-01

    Changes in climate can affect the concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by altering the dispersion (wind speed, mixing layer height, convective fronts), deposition by precipitation, dry deposition, photochemistry, natural emissions and background concentrations. This means the evolution trends of these pollutants have to be studied under a multi-scale perspective, allowing the establishment of transport patterns and distribution of PAHs. In this sense, this work tries to unveil the atmospheric behaviour of these pollutants using temporal data series collected in different stations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. These sites are thought to avoid the direct influence of emitting areas (background stations), allowing the study of long-range transport effects, intra- and trans-annual variability, relationships between concentrations patterns and meteorological variables and latitudinal gradients of PAH levels in Europe. Overall, a typical high concentration pattern was found for the colder months (and an opposite behaviour is found for summertime). Negative trends were detected over high latitudes, for instance, in Svalbard (Norway), whereas for the United Kingdom the pattern is the inverse. Also, negative latitudinal gradients were observed in 4 of the 15 PAHs studied. Finally, air quality parameters revealed concern over human health issues, given the recent increase of BaP levels in Europe.

  8. Putting your money where your mouth is: parents' valuation of good oral health of their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaire, J.H.; van Exel, N.J.A.; van Loveren, C.; Brouwer, W.B.F.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parental willingness to invest in good oral health for their child in terms of money and time and to relate this to oral health related knowledge and behavioral aspects. 290 parents of 6-year-old children, participating in a RCT on caries preventive

  9. Putting the Focus Back on the Patient: How Privacy Concerns Affect Personal Health Information Sharing Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed; Gaia, Joana; Sanders, G Lawrence

    2017-09-13

    Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. This study investigated the factors that influence individuals' intentions to share their PHI electronically with health care providers, creating an understanding of how we can represent a patient's interests more accurately in sharing settings, instead of treating patients like predetermined subjects. Unlike privacy concern and trust, patient activation is a stable trait that is not subject to change in the short term and, thus, is a useful factor in predicting sharing behavior. We apply the extended privacy model in the health information sharing context and adapt this model to include patient activation and issue involvement to predict individuals' intentions. This was a survey-based study with 1600+ participants using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data to validate a model through various statistical techniques. The research method included an assessment of both the measurement and structural models with post hoc analysis. We find that privacy concern has the most influence on individuals' intentions to share. Patient activation, issue involvement, and patient-physician relationship are significant predictors of sharing intention. We contribute to theory by introducing patient activation and issue involvement as proxies for personal interest factors in the health care context. Overall, this study found that although patients are open to sharing their PHI, they still have concerns over the privacy of their PHI

  10. Putting your money where your mouth is: parents' valuation of good oral health of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, J H; van Exel, N J A; van Loveren, C; Brouwer, W B F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parental willingness to invest in good oral health for their child in terms of money and time and to relate this to oral health related knowledge and behavioral aspects. 290 parents of 6-year-old children, participating in a RCT on caries preventive strategies in The Netherlands were asked to provide information on education, oral health habits, dietary habits, knowledge on dental topics, willingness to pay and perceived resistance against investing in preventive oral health actions for their children. Despite the fact that parents overall valued oral health for their child highly, still 12% of the parents were unwilling to spend any money, nor to invest any time by brushing their children's teeth to maintain good oral health for their child. Additionally, they indicated that they were unwilling to visit the dentist for preventive measures more than once a year. These children may certainly be considered at higher risk of developing oral diseases because worse oral hygiene habits and dietary habits were found in this group. Given the results, it may be necessary to differentiate in allocating caries prevention programmes to target parents or (school-based) children directly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of health and disability in ageing population: the COURAGE in Europe Project (collaborative research on ageing in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Chatterji, Somnath; Koskinen, Seppo; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni; Frattura, Lucilla; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gmurek, Michal; Serrano, Ramon; Finocchiaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    COURAGE in Europe was a 3-year project involving 12 partners from four European countries and the World Health Organization. It was inspired by the pressing need to integrate international studies on disability and ageing in light of an innovative perspective based on a validated data-collection protocol. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of the built environment and social networks on health, disability, quality of life and well-being. The main survey was conducted by partners in Finland, Poland and Spain where the survey has been administered to a sample of 10,800 persons, which was completed in March 2012. The newly developed and validated COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in ageing population, and the COURAGE in Europe Project has created valid and reliable scientific evidence, demonstrating cross-country comparability, for disability and ageing research and policy development. It is therefore recommended that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use the COURAGE-derived methodology. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of built environment and social networks on health, disability quality of life and well-being. The COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in the ageing population. The COURAGE in Europe Consortium recommends that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use COURAGE-derived methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Commentary: Change we must: putting patients first with the institute model of academic health center organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James B; Cosgrove, Delos M

    2012-05-01

    In the traditional department-based organizational structure of an academic health center, patients can be neglected as a result of fragmented systems of care. Specialty-driven, provider-oriented, economically influenced organizations dominated by research and education missions might, paradoxically, promote too little concern for the patient. All three components (education, research, and patient care) of academic health centers' tripartite mission are sacred, but times have changed. Academic health centers must rethink their traditional approach to achieving their mission. The authors describe the evolution at the Cleveland Clinic of a unique, institute-based reorganization that is focused on integrated disease- and organ-system-based patient care, research, and education. The authors argue that this model better focuses on the patient as well as on the institution's academic charge. It is a concept that should be more widely adopted with deference to individual institutional culture and history.

  14. Driving a more effective health care market by putting consumers behind the wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, T R

    2001-01-01

    In any other rational market, the consumer drives demand, and the provider responds with products and services aimed at meeting individual needs. This rational market does not exist in today's group health care system. The ramifications are significant: declining consumer and provider satisfaction, out-of-control costs, a rising uninsured population, and growing employer burdens. Turning this chaotic world around requires a more active and informed consumer. Transformation is under way with solutions like Sageo, a new e-business from Hewitt Associates that is revolutionizing the way health care benefits are offered, selected, and administered. For companies that offer Sageo's services, their employees and retirees gain direct access to health care coverage and content, enabling them to research, select, and enroll in the appropriate package based on their individual needs.

  15. Put the Family Back in Family Health History: A Multiple-Informant Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jielu; Marcum, Christopher S; Myers, Melanie F; Koehly, Laura M

    2017-05-01

    An accurate family health history is essential for individual risk assessment. This study uses a multiple-informant approach to examine whether family members have consistent perceptions of shared familial risk for four common chronic conditions (heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, and hypertension) and whether accounting for inconsistency in family health history reports leads to more accurate risk assessment. In 2012-2013, individual and family health histories were collected from 127 adult informants of 45 families in the Greater Cincinnati Area. Pedigrees were linked within each family to assess inter-informant (in)consistency regarding common biological family member's health history. An adjusted risk assessment based on pooled pedigrees of multiple informants was evaluated to determine whether it could more accurately identify individuals affected by common chronic conditions, using self-reported disease diagnoses as a validation criterion. Analysis was completed in 2015-2016. Inter-informant consistency in family health history reports was 54% for heart disease, 61% for Type 2 diabetes, 43% for high cholesterol, and 41% for hypertension. Compared with the unadjusted risk assessment, the adjusted risk assessment correctly identified an additional 7%-13% of the individuals who had been diagnosed, with a ≤2% increase in cases that were predicted to be at risk but had not been diagnosed. Considerable inconsistency exists in individual knowledge of their family health history. Accounting for such inconsistency can, nevertheless, lead to a more accurate genetic risk assessment tool. A multiple-informant approach is potentially powerful when coupled with technology to support clinical decisions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Public mental health research in Europe: A systematic mapping for the ROAMER project

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, A.K.; Ventus, D.B.J.; van der Feltz, C.M.; Wahlbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases (CINAHL, Health Management, Medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts) were used for identifying public mental health research articles published between January 2007 and April 2012. The number of pu...

  17. Putting health metrics into practice: using the disability-adjusted life year for strategic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Kim; Smith, Brian; Gray, Rob; Ngamkitpaiboon, Lek; Vielot, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Implementing organizations are pressured to be accountable for performance. Many health impact metrics present limitations for priority setting; they do not permit comparisons across different interventions or health areas. In response, Population Services International (PSI) adopted the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted as its bottom-line performance metric. While international standards exist for calculating DALYs to determine burden of disease (BOD), PSI's use of DALYs averted is novel. It uses DALYs averted to assess and compare the health impact of its country programs, and to understand the effectiveness of a portfolio of interventions. This paper describes how the adoption of DALYs averted influenced organizational strategy and presents the advantages and constraints of using the metric. Health impact data from 2001-2011 were analyzed by program area and geographic region to measure PSI's performance against its goal of doubling health impact between 2007-2011. Analyzing 10 years of data permitted comparison with previous years' performance. A case study of PSI's Asia and Eastern European (A/EE) region, and PSI/Laos, is presented to illustrate how the adoption of DALYs averted affected strategic decision making. Between 2007-2011, PSI's programs doubled the total number of DALYs averted from 2002-2006. Most DALYs averted were within malaria, followed by HIV/AIDS and family planning (FP). The performance of PSI's A/EE region relative to other regions declined with the switch to DALYs averted. As a result, the region made a strategic shift to align its work with countries' BOD. In PSI/Laos, this redirection led to better-targeted programs and an approximate 50% gain in DALYs averted from 2009-2011. PSI's adoption of DALYs averted shifted the organization's strategic direction away from product sales and toward BOD. Now, many strategic decisions are based on "BOD-relevance," the share of the BOD that interventions can potentially address. This switch

  18. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, Jürgen M.; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. Methods: The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. Results: The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29–62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Discussion: Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. PMID:25843827

  19. Health workforce governance and oral health: Diversity and challenges in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the life course, oral diseases are some of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, and in Europe. Human resources for oral health are fundamental to healthcare systems in general and dentistry is no exception. As political and healthcare systems change, so do forms of governance. The aim of this paper is to examine human resources for oral health in Europe, against a workforce governance framework, using England as a case study. The findings suggest that neo-liberalist philosophies are leading to multiple forms of soft governance at professional, system, organisational and individual levels, most notably in England, where there is no longer professional self-regulation. Benefits include professional regulation of a wider cadre of human resources for oral health, reorientation of care towards evidence-informed practice including prevention, and consideration of care pathways for patients. Across Europe there has been significant professional collaboration in relation to quality standards in the education of dentists, following transnational policies permitting freedom of movement of health professionals; however, the distribution of dentists is inequitable. Challenges include facilitating employment of graduates to serve the needs and demands of the population in certain countries, together with governance of workforce production and migration across Europe. Integrated trans-European approaches to monitoring mobility and governance are urgently required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  1. Impact of financial crisis on selected health outcomes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Anja; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-06-01

    A number of health outcomes were affected by previous financial crises, e.g. suicides, homicides and transport accident mortality. Aim of this study was to analyse the effects of the current financial crisis on selected health outcomes at population level in Europe. A mixed approach of ecologic and time trend design was applied, including correlation analysis. For eight countries, data on the economic situation (unemployment rate and economic growth) and health indicators (overall mortality, suicide and transport accident mortality) was drawn from EUROSTAT database for 2000-10. Spearman's rank correlation was applied to analyse the influence of social protection on the association between exposure and outcome variables. The financial crisis had no visible effect on overall mortality in any of the eight countries until 2010. Transport accident mortality decreased in all eight countries, in the range of 18% in Portugal to 52% in Slovenia. In contrast, suicide mortality increased in Germany (+5.3%), Portugal (+5.2%), Czech Republic (+7.6%), Slovakia (+22.7%) and Poland (+19.3%). The effect of unemployment on suicide is higher in countries with lower social spending (Spearman's r = -0.83). Clear cause-effect relations could not be established owing to the ecological study design and issues concerning data availability. However, there are clear changes in suicide and transport accident mortality after onset of the crisis, and findings are consistent with previous work. As part of this work, a comprehensive framework was developed, which can be applied to analyse health effects of financial crises in more detail. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Getting out what we put in: productivity of the English National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Adriana; Laudicella, Mauro; Street, Andrew; Ward, Padraic

    2011-07-01

    Many countries are incorporating direct measures of non-market outputs in the national accounts. For any particular output to be included there has to be data about it for two adjacent periods. This is problematic because the classification of non-market outputs is often subject to wholesale revision. We outline the challenges associated with classification changes and propose a solution. To illustrate we construct output and input indices and estimate productivity growth of the English National Health Service (NHS) for the period 2003-2004 to 2007-2008. Our index of output growth incorporates all care provided to NHS patients and captures improvements in survival rates, waiting times and disease management. We find that more patients are being treated and the quality of the care they receive has been improving. We implement our approach to dealing with changes as to how health services are defined and show what effect this has on estimates of output growth. Our index of input growth captures all labour, intermediate and capital inputs into health service production and we improve on how capital has been measured in the past. Inputs have increased over time but there has also been a slowdown since 2005-2006, primarily the result of a levelling off in staff recruitment and less reliance on the use of agency staff. Productivity is assessed by comparing output growth with growth in inputs, the net effect being constant productivity growth between 2003-2004 and 2007-2008.

  3. 'You put it all together' - families' evaluation of participating in Family Health Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzein, Eva; Olin, Cecilia; Persson, Carina

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the Family Health Conversations from the perspective of families living with chronic illness. This study has a descriptive qualitative design using semi-structured evaluative family interviews and conventional content analysis. The study was approved by a Regional Ethical Review Board. Family Health Conversations were used as an intervention with 14 families living with chronic illness. The outcome measures consisted of evaluative family interviews. Families' experiences of the conversations embraced their structure and the interactions with the conversation leaders. All families were satisfied with the conversations, pointing to the importance of having them early in the illness process. The opportunity to talk with someone outside the family was strongly emphasised as promoting well-being. The experienced significance of the conversations was captured in four categories: creating a whole picture, that is, being given the opportunity to listen to other family members' experiences and fill in potential memory gaps; making the situation manageable, that is, receiving support from other participants in order to handle problems and gain control; facilitating healing, that is, being able to tell their story about what had previously been 'the unspeakable'; and strengthened family cohesion, that is, increased understanding for each other's experiences, thus bringing family members closer together. Most families were partners, which could possibly limit transferability of the findings to families constituted by couples. Family Health Conversations should be offered as a part of standard care shortly after diagnosis and at various transitions in life. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Young people in Europe. Adolescent health -- sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Young people in Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States have either witnessed, participated in, or been victims of abrupt changes which led to the collapse of the value systems by which they and their parents had learned to live. Their parents' position in society changed, with many struggling to support their families in conditions of widespread resource scarcity, including shortages of food, electricity, heating, and water supplies. Increased family tension has driven many parents to drink more alcohol, thereby increasing the risk of violence in the family. Almost everywhere in the region, young people expressed their desire to be better informed about reproductive health issues. A survey found that the overwhelming majority of more than 700 sampled youths had learned what they knew about reproductive health from friends, television, newspapers, and magazines. In Romania, lack of proper education and social discrimination mean that many people infected with STDs seek medical care only when their diseases have reached an advanced stage, while studies in Bulgaria show a declining mean age at first intercourse and a low level of condom use. In Turkey, an IEC (information, education, and communication) project was launched in 26 cities and towns to improve and extend family planning services. Elsewhere, the Orthodox Church in the Russian Federation has called abortion murder, young people can get good quality counseling in a range of institutions in Estonia, and abortion has become the main means of birth control in Ukraine.

  5. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination harms immigrants' health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe...

  6. Putting child mortality on a map: towards an understanding of inequity in health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, C; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Lindeboom, W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To map and analyse geographical (spatial) variations of child mortality trends in mainland Tanzania. METHODS: We used a geographic information system to integrate data on child mortality and associated risk factors. We then applied spatial statistics to quantify the spatial component...... of child mortality trends, and employed multivariate analysis to break mortality down into a spatial and a local component. RESULTS: The results support our hypothesis that child mortality trends have a spatial component that can be attributed to broad-scale environmental and social-economic factors....... However, the multivariate analysis showed that the spatial component only explained one-third of the variation in child mortality trends. The results thus point towards the presence of local (non-spatial) causative factors, including variations in the access to and quality of child health care...

  7. Putting words into action: A simple focused education improves prescription label comprehension and functional health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Bik-Wai Bilvick; Bae, Yuna H; LaRue, Charles E; Law, Anandi V

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on prescription (Rx) label comprehension and functional health literacy (FHL) in older adults. Outcomes were compared between current and redesigned Rx labels. Additional objectives were to examine the correlation between 2 outcome measures and to determine the characterizing variables that are predictors for the outcome measures. Southern California, January 2013 to March 2015. Older adults (>55 y) taking 2 or more Rx medications daily were recruited at senior and community centers by a trained data collection team. The validated Modified LaRue Tool (MLT) tested Rx label comprehension before and after a short, focused educational intervention and correlated it with FHL. A simple one-on-one education provided by student pharmacists that was focused on critical elements of an Rx label. Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA) and MLT scores of all current and redesigned label participants at baseline and follow-up. Participants using redesigned Rx labels (n = 90) showed significantly higher MLT scores than with current Rx labels (n = 28) both before (23.0 ± 2.3 vs. 21.0 ± 2.4; P educational intervention (23.8 ± 1.7 vs. 22.1 ± 3.1; P education level were common significant predictors for both outcomes. Older adults using redesigned Rx labels showed improved Rx label comprehension and FHL after educational intervention, as well as higher comprehension compared with those using current Rx labels. Use of a redesigned Rx label and a simple educational intervention should be encouraged to improve Rx label comprehension and FHL. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using health technology assessment to put pharmaceutical care on the political agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Klinke, Bjørn Ove

    2004-04-01

    Pharmaceutical care is a widely accepted strategy in the world of pharmacy, as well as a topic of interest in pharmacy practice research. Most people in the field would agree that it is unfortunate that so little is known about pharmaceutical care outside the world of pharmacy. There is also wide agreement that the further development of pharmaceutical care requires that policymakers become aware of, accept and ultimately support it. Although attempts have been made, we have not yet managed to capture the attention and support of policymakers, including politicians. In this article we argue that the way to get the attention of policymakers/politicians is by changing the way we communicate with them, as a means of overcoming some of the barriers we normally meet when introducing pharmaceutical care. We suggest that one possible way of getting their attention and subsequent support is by gaining a better understanding of the way policymakers work in general and then adjusting our argumentation for pharmaceutical care to better fit into their rationality and work habits. In this article, we elaborate on this idea and discuss how proponents of pharmaceutical care can use 'health technology assessment' to argue their case.

  9. Protecting human health and security in digital Europe: how to deal with the "privacy paradox"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschel, Isabell; Mehdi, Rostane; Cammilleri, Anne; Marzouki, Yousri; Elger, Bernice

    2014-09-01

    This article is the result of an international research between law and ethics scholars from Universities in France and Switzerland, who have been closely collaborating with technical experts on the design and use of information and communication technologies in the fields of human health and security. The interdisciplinary approach is a unique feature and guarantees important new insights in the social, ethical and legal implications of these technologies for the individual and society as a whole. Its aim is to shed light on the tension between secrecy and transparency in the digital era. A special focus is put from the perspectives of psychology, medical ethics and European law on the contradiction between individuals' motivations for consented processing of personal data and their fears about unknown disclosure, transferal and sharing of personal data via information and communication technologies (named the "privacy paradox"). Potential benefits and harms for the individual and society resulting from the use of computers, mobile phones, the Internet and social media are being discussed. Furthermore, the authors point out the ethical and legal limitations inherent to the processing of personal data in a democratic society governed by the rule of law. Finally, they seek to demonstrate that the impact of information and communication technology use on the individuals' well-being, the latter being closely correlated with a high level of fundamental rights protection in Europe, is a promising feature of the socalled "e-democracy" as a new way to collectively attribute meaning to large-scale online actions, motivations and ideas.

  10. eEurope 2002: Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A number of organisations have begun to provide specific tools for searching, rating, and grading this information, while others have set up codes of conduct by which site providers can attest to their high quality services. The aim of such tools is to assist individuals to sift through the mountains of information available so as to be better able to discern valid and reliable messages from those which are misleading or inaccurate. Recognising that European citizens are avid consumers of health related information on the internet and recognising that they are already using the types of rating system described above, the European Council at Feira on June 19-20 2000 supported an initiative within eEurope 2002 to develop a core set of Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. The specific aim was to draw up a commonly agreed set of simple quality criteria on which Member States, as well as public and private bodies, may draw in the development of quality initiatives for health related websites. These criteria should be applied in addition to relevant Community law. A meeting was held during 2001 which drew together key players from Government departments, International Organisations, non-governmental organisations and industry, to explore current practices and experiments in this field. Some sixty invited participants from all the Member States, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States of America took part in the meeting of June 7-8, 2001: they included delegates from industrial, medical, and patient interest groups, delegates from Member States' governments, and key invited speakers from the field of health information ethics. These individuals, and many others, also took part in the web-based consultation which was open from august to November 2001. The broad headings for quality criteria identified include Transparency and Honesty, Authority, Privacy and data protection, Updating of information, Accountability, Responsible partnering, Editorial policy

  11. The South Eastern Europe Health Network: A model for regional collaboration in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ruseva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inter-country alliances, articulated through regional approaches, have increasingly been used to drive economic development and social progress in the past several decades. The South Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN stands out among these types of initiatives for the tangible improvements it has achieved in regional governance for health, with several important lessons for public health leaders worldwide. This review paper, written by several key participants in SEEHN operation, follows the main milestones in network development, including its foundation under the Stability Pact’s Initiative for Social Cohesion and the three ministerial forums that have shaped its evolution, in order to show how it can constitute a model for regional collaboration in public health. Herewith we summarise the main accomplishments of the network and highlight the keys to its success, drawing lessons that both international bodies and other regions may use in their own design of collaborative initiatives in health and in other areas of public policy.

  12. Health Care Performance and Health Financing Systems in Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of all health systems from emerging economies is the shortage of financial resources. This fact is currently exacerbated by the economic crisis that has led many governments to reconsider the level of public spending in the health sector. Starting from the Romanian experience, the paper aims to highlight the linkage between the performance of the health system and the total health spending for selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe. Romania has the lowest level of health expenditure as percentage of GDP in Europe, even if its growth rate for 2003-2008 was the highest. In addition, empirical evidence shows that these resources are used inefficiently. Despite the increasing resources allocated to the health sector, statistical analysis shows that health system efficiency, as measured by under-5 (child mortality rate, is still low. We use regression analysis based on crosssection data in order to explain the differences in health expenditure and their implication on the system efficiency. Health data have been provided by international organizations. Crosssection regression results suggest that totalhealth spending and GDP per capita are the most important factors explaining differences in health status across Central and Eastern European countries, though other lifestyle factors could play important roles.

  13. NADA Protocol for Behavioral Health. Putting Tools in the Hands of Behavioral Health Providers: The Case for Auricular Detoxification Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuyt, Elizabeth B; Voyles, Claudia A; Bursac, Sara

    2018-02-07

    Background: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol, a simple standardized auricular treatment has the potential to provide vast public health relief on issues currently challenging our world. This includes but is not limited to addiction, such as the opioid epidemic, but also encompasses mental health, trauma, PTSD, chronic stress, and the symptoms associated with these conditions. Simple accessible tools that improve outcomes can make profound differences. We assert that the NADA protocol can have greatest impact when broadly applied by behavioral health professionals, Auricular Detoxification Specialists (ADSes). Methods: The concept of ADS is described and how current laws vary from state to state. Using available national data, a survey of practitioners in three selected states with vastly different laws regarding ADSes, and interviews of publicly funded programs which are successfully incorporating the NADA protocol, we consider possible effects of ADS-friendly conditions. Results: Data presented supports the idea that conditions conducive to ADS practice lead to greater implementation. Program interviews reflect settings in which adding ADSes can in turn lead to improved outcomes. Discussion: The primary purpose of non-acupuncturist ADSes is to expand the access of this simple but effective treatment to all who are suffering from addictions, stress, or trauma and to allow programs to incorporate acupuncture in the form of the NADA protocol at minimal cost, when and where it is needed. States that have changed laws to allow ADS practice for this standardized ear acupuncture protocol have seen increased access to this treatment, benefiting both patients and the programs.

  14. The associations between early life circum-stances and later life health and employment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, M.; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages

  15. A comprehensive evaluation of health effects in Europe-two decades after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Maringer, F.J. [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science Vienna, Low-Level Counting Lab. Arsenal, Wien (Austria); Maringer, F.J. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Wien (Austria); Bossew, P. [BEV-Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV), Mathematics and analytics, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    This report sums up radioactive environmental contamination due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in various regions all over Europe (Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Sweden, Austria and Greece). Most of the radionuclides released with the reactor accident possess short-lives (e.g. 131 I) of a few hours or several days and weeks or were deposed in low quantities (e.g. 90 Sr). So the main focus was put on 137 Cs, because this radionuclide has a long half-life (30 years), is measurable till this day and gives a presentable view of radiation exposure in contaminated regions. The decrease of 137 Cs activity concentrations in soil, surface water, foodstuffs and air was shown in the course of time. The comparison of radioactive environmental contamination shows, that the 137 Cs-activity concentration in nearly all media has decreased faster than the physical half-life. Part of this elaboration was also to describe the contribution of the reactor accident to the radiation exposure of selected population groups in the last 20 years. The second part of the report follows a valuation of European studies, which are linked to late health effects of the Chernobyl accident specially thyroid cancer, leukaemia and other solid tumours. These studies has been discussed and evaluated. Only in countries with the highest impact like Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, an increased number of infant thyroid cancer has been observed but up to now no increases in leukaemia or malignant deceases in this or other European countries can be detected. (authors)

  16. Public mental health research in Europe: a systematic mapping for the ROAMER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Ventus, Daniel B J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2014-12-01

    As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Five electronic databases (CINAHL, Health Management, Medline, PsycINFO, Social Services Abstracts) were used for identifying public mental health research articles published between January 2007 and April 2012. The number of publications for each European country in five research domains (i.e. mental health epidemiology, mental health promotion, mental disorder prevention, mental health policy and mental health services) was analysed by population size and gross domestic product (GDP), and mean impact factors were compared. In all, 8143 unique publications were identified. Epidemiology research dominates public mental health research, while promotion, prevention and policy research are scarce. Mental health promotion is the fastest growing research area. Research targeting older adults is under-represented. Publications per capita were highest in northwestern Europe, and similar trends were found also when adjusting the number of publications by GDP per capita. The most widely cited research origins from Italy, Switzerland, the UK, the Nordic countries, the Netherlands, Greece and France. In Europe, public mental health research is currently a matter of the affluent northern and western European countries, and major efforts will be needed to promote public mental health research in south and east Europe. In spite of a smaller public mental health research output, some Mediterranean countries produce highly cited public mental health research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Public Health Indicators for Europe: Context, Selection, Definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers PGN; ECHI (European Community Health Indicators); ECHI team; VTV

    2006-01-01

    This ECHI-2 report (ECHI = European Community Health Indicators) presents a list of indicators in the field of public health. The indicators range from health status (e.g. cancer incidence) through health determinants (e.g. nutrition, air pollution) to preventive actions and health care systems. The

  18. Oceans and human health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, L.E.; McDonough, N.; Austen, M.; Mee, L.; Moore, M.; Hess, P.; Depledge, M.H.; White, M.; Philippart, K.; Bradbrook, P.; Smalley, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders,

  19. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  20. Mental health-care provision for marginalized groups across Europe: findings from the PROMO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Stefan; Matanov, Aleksandra; Barros, Henrique; Canavan, Reamonn; Gabor, Edina; Greacen, Tim; Holcnerová, Petra; Kluge, Ulrike; Nicaise, Pablo; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel; Strassmayr, Christa; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Tulloch, Simon; Gaddini, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Providing mental health care to socially marginalized groups is a challenge. There is limited evidence on what form of mental health-care generic (i.e. not targeting a specific social group) and group-specific services provide to socially marginalized groups in Europe. To describe the

  1. Health literacy--a strategic asset for corporate social responsibility in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Brand, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission (EU) has launched the strategy "Europe 2020" aimed to turn the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. A prerequisite for the success of Europe 2020 is the availability of a healthy population and a healthy work force. An action worth highlighting is raising corporate social responsibility (CSR). The aim of this paper is to present how health literacy can become a strategic asset in CSR through the introduction of the Collaborative Venture on Health Literacy and the development of a business case on health literacy meeting targets of Europe 2020. A scope study revealed that a majority of companies within the network of CSR Europe already show health-related employee programs on their corporate websites, but only a few are focused specifically on advancing health literacy. The gap leaves potential opportunities for interventions based on research and good practices, where businesses through CSR can create a health-friendly environment and stimulate the workforce to manage their own health, seek information, and make decisions in terms of promoting health and well-being, thereby transforming information into knowledge and increased awareness among employees.

  2. Recruitment and retention of health professionals across Europe : A literature review and multiple case study research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, Marieke; Dussault, Gilles; Craveiro, Isabel; Dieleman, Marjolein; Jansen, Christel; Buchan, James; Barriball, Louise; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bremner, Jeni; Sermeus, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Many European countries are faced with health workforce shortages and the need to develop effective recruitment and retention (R&R) strategies. Yet comparative studies on R&R in Europe are scarce. This paper provides an overview of the measures in place to improve the R&R of health professionals

  3. Health democracy in Europe: Cancer patient organization participation in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Peppou, Lily E; Agapidaki, Eirini; Tzavara, Chara; Debiais, Dominique; Hasurdjiev, Stanimir; Sarkozy, Francois

    2017-11-01

    Patient organization participation in health policy decision making is an understudied area of inquiry. A handful of qualitative studies have suggested that the growing number of patient organizations in Europe and their increasing involvement in policy issues do not result in high political effectiveness. However, existing research is largely country-specific. To examine the degree and impact of cancer patient organization (CPO) participation in health policy decision making in EU-28 and to identify their correlates. A total of 1266 members of CPOs participated in this study, recruited from a diversity of sources. CPO participation in health policy was assessed with the Health Democracy Index, a previously developed instrument measuring the degree and impact of patient organization participation in various realms of health policy. Additional questions collected information about participants' and the CPO's characteristics. Data were gleaned in the form of an online self-reported instrument. The highest degree of CPO participation was observed with respect to hospital boards, reforms in health policy and ethics committees for clinical trials. On the contrary, the lowest was discerned with regard to panels in other important health-related organizations and in the Ministry of Health. The reverse pattern of results was observed concerning the Impact subscale. As regards the correlates of CPO participation, legislation bore the strongest association with the Degree subscale, while organizational factors emerged as the most important variables with regard to the Impact subscale. Research findings indicate that a high degree of CPO participation does not necessarily ensure a high impact. Efforts to promote high and effective CPO participation should be geared towards the establishment of a health-care law based on patient rights as well as to the formation of coalitions among CPOs and the provision of training to its members. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations

  4. Food and Health in Europe: a new basis for action. WHO Regional Office for Europe. 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    Poor nutrition, foodborne disease and lack of secure access to good food make an important contribution to the burden of disease and death in the WHO European Region. Better diets, food safety and food security will not only reduce or prevent suffering to individuals and societies but also help cut...... sector to include sectors ranging from agriculture and food processing, manufacturing and trade to transport, retailing, catering and advertising. Food and nutrition policies should be coordinated so that public health is given due priority in the making of food policies by non-health sectors....... This publication discusses in depth the components of food and nutrition policies and the evidence supporting them. It describes food- and nutrition-related ill health and its costs, shows the need for action and describes the steps for decision-makers to take. This book highlights the urgent need for integrated...

  5. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  6. Health effects of unemployment in Europe during the Great Recession: The impact of unemployment generosity

    OpenAIRE

    Tøge, Anne Grete

    2016-01-01

    Social and economic security could be particularly important for health among the unemployed. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking as to whether and how different policy contexts affect health when people move into unemployment. This article investigates whether and to what degree the unemployment generosity explains why individual health effects of unemployment vary across Europe. The 2008–2011 longitudinal panel of the European Union statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) ...

  7. International trends in health science librarianship: Part 6 Central Europe series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viragos, Marta

    2013-06-01

    This is the 6th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on Central Europe in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Hungry, Poland and Czech Republic. Future issues will track trends the Middle East and then the Far East. JM. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Global payment for health services as a solution in the financial crisis in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijvers, Guus

    2012-01-01

    In these financial difficult years many European governments used global ceilings to control costs of health services. Two scenarios are thinkable. The first is that all individual providers get a budget for their own costs: general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, nursing homes and mental health institutes. The second scenario is to work with global budgets for health care providers servicing a total population. Scientists and policy makers in Europe, North America and Asia need time t...

  9. Health outcomes during the 2008 financial crisis in Europe: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Divya; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-09-06

     To systematically identify, critically appraise, and synthesise empirical studies about the impact of the 2008 financial crisis in Europe on health outcomes.  Systematic literature review.  Structural searches of key databases, healthcare journals, and organisation based websites.  Empirical studies reporting on the impact of the financial crisis on health outcomes in Europe, published from January 2008 to December 2015, were included. All selected studies were assessed for risk of bias. Owing to the heterogeneity of studies in terms of study design and analysis and the use of overlapping datasets across studies, studies were analysed thematically per outcome, and the evidence was synthesised on different health outcomes without formal meta-analysis.  41 studies met the inclusion criteria, and focused on suicide, mental health, self rated health, mortality, and other health outcomes. Of those studies, 30 (73%) were deemed to be at high risk of bias, nine (22%) at moderate risk of bias, and only two (5%) at low risk of bias, limiting the conclusions that can be drawn. Although there were differences across countries and groups, there was some indication that suicides increased and mental health deteriorated during the crisis. The crisis did not seem to reverse the trend of decreasing overall mortality. Evidence on self rated health and other indicators was mixed.  Most published studies on the impact of financial crisis on health in Europe had a substantial risk of bias; therefore, results need to be cautiously interpreted. Overall, the financial crisis in Europe seemed to have had heterogeneous effects on health outcomes, with the evidence being most consistent for suicides and mental health. There is a need for better empirical studies, especially those focused on identifying mechanisms that can mitigate the adverse effects of the crisis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  10. Restricted health care entitlements for child migrants in Europe and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Liv Stubbe; Norredam, Marie; Mock-Munoz de Luna, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Background: More than 300 000 asylum seeking children were registered in Europe alone during 2015. In this study, we examined entitlements for health care for these and other migrant children in Europe and Australia in a framework based on United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC......). Methods: Survey to child health professionals, NGO's and European Ombudspersons for Children in 30 EU/EEA countries and Australia, supplemented by desktop research of official documents. Migrant children were categorised as asylum seekers and irregular/undocumented migrants. Results: Five countries....... Twelve European countries have limited entitlements to health care for asylum seeking children, including Germany that stands out as the country with the most restrictive health care policy for migrant children. In Australia entitlements for health care are restricted for asylum seeking children...

  11. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France,

  12. Health and happiness among homosexual couples in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, H.M. van den; Blaauw, J.; Lubbers, M.; Ploeg, R. van der; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Data from five waves (2002–10) of the European Social Survey were examined to see the extent to which heterosexual and homosexual couples differ in their health and happiness. Homosexual people had lower levels of selfrated health and happiness. We suggest that those who experience discrimination

  13. Perinatal health monitoring in europe: Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gissler, M.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Blondel, B.; Chalmers, J.; MacFarlane, A.; Gaizauskiene, A.; Gatt, M.; Lack, N.; Sakkeus, L.; Zeitlin, J.

    2010-01-01

    Data about deliveries, births, mothers and newborn babies are collected extensively to monitor the health and care of mothers and babies during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period, but there is no common approach in Europe. We analysed the problems related to using the European data for

  14. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented. ...

  15. Social and economic aspects of childhood health : Evidence from Western-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, V.; Mierau, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    We study how social and economic conditions relate to the health status of children using a retrospective survey for Western-Europe. We use the state of the business cycle and the level of Gross Domestic Product as indicators of the macroeconomic conditions. In order to differentiate between fetal

  16. Unmet Need for Specialty Mental Health Services Among Children Across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Van Engelen, Julia; Stone, Lisanne; Otten, Roy; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Bitfoi, Adina; Koc, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine; Husky, Mathilde

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of use of mental health services for children across Europe, with a specific focus on differences in the availability of mental health resources. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe Project. Parent- and teacher-reported child mental health status was based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics of parents and children, as well as academic performance and use of mental health services in the previous 12 months, were collected. Countries were categorized as having high versus low mental health resources. The sample comprised 4,894 schoolchildren in seven countries. Across Europe, only 25.6% of children with a mental disorder had received mental health services in the previous 12 months, including 31.5% in high-resources countries and 18.9% in low-resources countries (p=.001) (N=4,867). The presence of any mental disorder, maternal psychological distress, gender, living in a single-parent home, and low academic performance were determinants of service use. The effect of resources group on the likelihood of receiving services remained significant when the analyses controlled for all predictors (odds ratio=1.41, pmental disorders, especially in low-resources countries.

  17. Health Challenges in Refugee Reception: Dateline Europe 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad K. Blitz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of more than one million migrants, many of them refugees, has proved a major test for the European Union. Although international relief and monitoring agencies have been critical of makeshift camps in Calais and Eidomeni where infectious disease and overcrowding present major health risks, few have examined the nature of the official reception system and its impact on health delivery. Drawing upon research findings from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC funded project, this article considers the physical and mental health of asylum–seekers in transit and analyses how the closure of borders has engendered health risks for populations in recognised reception centres in Sicily and in Greece. Data gathered by means of a survey administered in Greece (300 and in Sicily (400, and complemented by in-depth interviews with migrants (45 and key informants (50 including representatives of government offices, humanitarian and relief agencies, NGOs and activist organisations, are presented to offer an analysis of the reception systems in the two frontline states. We note that medical provision varies significantly from one centre to another and that centre managers play a critical role in the transmission of vital information. A key finding is that, given such disparity, the criteria used by the UNHCR to grade health services reception do not address the substantive issue that prevent refugees from accessing health services, even when provided on site. Health provision is not as recorded in UNHCR reporting but rather there are critical gaps between provision, awareness, and access for refugees in reception systems in Sicily and in Greece. This article concludes that there is a great need for more information campaigns to direct refugees to essential services.

  18. Changing views of the interconnections between the oceans and human health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depledge, M H; Harvey, A J; Brownlee, C; Frost, M; Moore, M N; Fleming, L E

    2013-05-01

    Early steps in the emergence of the discipline of "Oceans and Human Health" are charted in the USA and discussed in relation to past and present marine environment and human health research activities in Europe. Differences in terminology are considered, as well as differences in circumstances related to the various seas of Europe and the intensity of human coastal activity and impact. Opportunities to progress interdisciplinary research are described, and the value of horizon scanning for the early identification of emerging issues is highlighted. The challenges facing researchers and policymakers addressing oceans and human health issues are outlined and some suggestions offered regarding how further progress in research and training into both the risks and benefits of Oceans and Human Health might be made on both sides of the Atlantic.

  19. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  20. ROAMER : Roadmap for mental health research in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haro, J.M.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Bitter, I.; Demotes-Mainard, J.; Leboyer, M.; Lewis, S.W.; Linszen, D.; Maj, M.; McDaid, D.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Robbins, T.W.; Schumann, G.; Thornicroft, G.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.; van Os, J.; Wahlbeck, K.; Wittchen, H.-U.; Wykes, T.; Arango, C.; Bickenbach, J.; Brunn, M.; Cammarata, P.; Chevreul, K.; Evans-Lacko, S.; Finocchiaro, C.; Fiorillo, A.; Forsman, A.K.; Hazo, J.-B.; Knappe, S.; Kuepper, R.; Luciano, M.; Miret, M.; Obradors-Tarragó, C.; Pagano, G.; Papp, S.; Walker-Tilley, T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high impact of mental disorders in society, European mental health research is at a critical situation with a relatively low level of funding, and few advances been achieved during the last decade. The development of coordinated research policies and integrated research networks in

  1. Health-reception of newly arrived documented migrants in Europe-why, whom, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne W; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Agyemang, Charles

    2013-01-01

    address the existing health inequities, nor determining factors of migrant health, including barriers to access health services’.1 Two recent Danish documents highlight these aspects in relation to the health-reception of migrants. A report from the Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration concludes...... that present health initiatives offered to newly arrived long-term documented migrants are not systematically harmonized and updated and do not cover all relevant migrant groups.2 This is likely to be the case in many other settings across Europe. Subsequently, a new Danish bill sets out to reform the current...... Danish health-reception model, using a more systematic approach based on a close cooperation between social and health sectors.3 With this development, we wish to initiate a European public health debate about how to assess and meet the health needs of newly arrived long-term documented migrants...

  2. Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke A H Hendriksen

    Full Text Available Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom. Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9% in France, and 191,300 (2.3% in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries.

  3. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  4. Health gain by salt reduction in europe: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A H; van Raaij, Joop M A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Breda, Joao; Boshuizen, Hendriek C

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The population health modeling tool DYNAMO-HIA including country-specific disease data was used to predict the changes in prevalence of ischemic heart disease and stroke for each country estimating the effect of salt reduction through its effect on blood pressure levels. A 30% salt reduction would reduce the prevalence of stroke by 6.4% in Finland to 13.5% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would be decreased by 4.1% in Finland to 8.9% in Poland. When salt intake is reduced to the WHO population nutrient goal, it would reduce the prevalence of stroke from 10.1% in Finland to 23.1% in Poland. Ischemic heart disease would decrease by 6.6% in Finland to 15.5% in Poland. The number of postponed deaths would be 102,100 (0.9%) in France, and 191,300 (2.3%) in Poland. A reduction of salt intake to 5 grams per day is expected to substantially reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and mortality in several European countries.

  5. Putting Management Capacity Building at the Forefront of Health Systems Strengthening: Comment on "Management Matters: A Leverage Point for Health Systems Strengthening in Global Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Bertrand, Jane

    2015-10-26

    The current limited focus on management in global health activities is highly problematic given the amounts of financial and human resources that are pouring into health system strengthening interventions and the complexity of clinical operations across settings. By ensuring that public health and healthcare practitioners in domestic and international settings receive management training in their educational programs and that we build management capacity among individuals already in the health workforce, we can begin to prepare for more effective health systems strengthening efforts. Rigorous evaluation of health systems strengthening and the impact of management capacity building is crucial to building evidence for the field. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  6. Restricted health care entitlements for child migrants in Europe and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe Østergaard, Liv; Norredam, Marie; Mock-Munoz de Luna, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Background: More than 300 000 asylum seeking children were registered in Europe alone during 2015. In this study, we examined entitlements for health care for these and other migrant children in Europe and Australia in a framework based on United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC......). Methods: Survey to child health professionals, NGO's and European Ombudspersons for Children in 30 EU/EEA countries and Australia, supplemented by desktop research of official documents. Migrant children were categorised as asylum seekers and irregular/undocumented migrants. Results: Five countries...... (France, Italy, Norway, Portugal and Spain) explicitly entitle all migrant children, irrespective of legal status, to receive equal health care to that of its nationals. Sweden and Belgium entitle equal care to asylum seekers and irregular non-EU migrants, while entitlements for EU migrants are unclear...

  7. Intercultural education of nurses and health professionals in Europe (IENE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G; Papadopoulos, I; Dudau, V; Maerten, M; Peltegova, A; Ziegler, M

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to explore the perceived learning and teaching needs of students and practitioners of health-care professions in relation to preparation for working in another European country and/or in a multicultural environment. The participating countries were: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Romania and the UK. Questionnaires, consisting of open questions, were completed by a total of 118 participants. Data analysis adopted both a priori and inductive approaches. The predetermined constructs of cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural sensitivity and cultural competence were used to structure suggestions for theoretical input and practical activities and experiences. Inductive analysis revealed other emergent themes that underpin all four of these constructs. Practical experiences form a fundamental part of preparation for labour mobility and/or for practice within a multicultural environment. However, health-care practitioners need to be adequately prepared for such experiences and value the opportunity to learn about culture, to explore values and beliefs, and to practise intercultural skills within the safe environment of an educational establishment, facilitated by skilled teachers. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Monitoring reproductive health in Europe: what are the best indicators of reproductive health? A need for evidence-based quality indicators of reproductive health care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hermens, R.P.M.G.; Mourad, S.M.; Haagen, E.C.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring reproductive health by the Reprostat indicators in Europe will facilitate the transparency of reproductive health as well as comparisons over time and between countries. However, for the monitoring and improvement of reproductive health care, we suggest the systematic development of

  9. Economic evidence on the health impacts of climate change in europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy; Menne, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In responding to the health impacts of climate change, economic evidence and tools inform decision makers of the efficiency of alternative health policies and interventions. In a time when sweeping budget cuts are affecting all tiers of government, economic evidence on health protection from climate change spending enables comparison with other public spending. The review included 53 countries of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Literature was obtained using a Medline and Internet search of key terms in published reports and peer-reviewed literature, and from institutions working on health and climate change. Articles were included if they provided economic estimation of the health impacts of climate change or adaptation measures to protect health from climate change in the WHO European Region. Economic studies are classified under health impact cost, health adaptation cost, and health economic evaluation (comparing both costs and impacts). A total of 40 relevant studies from Europe were identified, covering the health damage or adaptation costs related to the health effects of climate change and response measures to climate-sensitive diseases. No economic evaluation studies were identified of response measures specific to the impacts of climate change. Existing studies vary in terms of the economic outcomes measured and the methods for evaluation of health benefits. The lack of robust health impact data underlying economic studies significantly affects the availability and precision of economic studies. Economic evidence in European countries on the costs of and response to climate-sensitive diseases is extremely limited and fragmented. Further studies are urgently needed that examine health impacts and the costs and efficiency of alternative responses to climate-sensitive health conditions, in particular extreme weather events (other than heat) and potential emerging diseases and other conditions threatening Europe.

  10. Reporting health communication activities for the prevention and control of communicable diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, Jane; Doyle, Priscilla; Barry, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Health communication is part of the public health response to the significant continuing threat of communicable diseases in Europe. However, the nature and extent of health communication activities in the context of Europe aimed at the prevention and control of communicable diseases is currently unknown. This severely restricts capacity development as neither strengths nor gaps in knowledge and practice are evident and therefore cannot be addressed. This article reports on the initial phase of a research project aimed at supporting the optimal use and development of health communication activities in the European Union and the European Economic Area. The study used a mixed-methods design-an e-survey and telephone interviews-with participants from 30 countries to identify activities, followed by an opportunistic group interview with 15 key stakeholders to identify perceived needs of public health bodies in relation to identified gaps. Results indicate that health communication activities are not clearly delineated in national public health structures and policies, there is an emphasis on crisis communication, and limited evaluation of activities and education and training opportunities for health communication are required. The facilitation of partnership working with a forum for knowledge exchange between Member States would enhance efficacious health communication.

  11. Primary health care teams put to the test a cross-sectional study from Austria within the QUALICOPC project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, K.; George, A.; Dorner, T.E.; Süß, K.; Schäfer, W.L.A.; Maier, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multidisciplinary Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT) provide a comprehensive approach to address the social and health needs of communities. It was the aim of this analysis to assess the number of PHCT in Austria, a country with a weak PHC system, and to compare preventive activities,

  12. Research inventory of child health: A report on roadmaps for the future of child health research in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ottova, Veronika; Alexander, Denise; Rigby, Michael; Staines, Anthony; Hjern, Anders; Leonardi, Matilde; Blair, Mitch; Tamburlini, Giorgio; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Bourek, Ales; Köhler, Lennart; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Tomé,Gina; Ramiro, Lucia; Santos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    RICHE was the response to a call under HEALTH-2009-3.3-5, with the title of 'European child health research platform'. The call text asked us to “address the diversity and fragmentation in child health research in Europe in an inclusive multidisciplinary way, identifying existing research programmes in Member States, recent advances and identification of gaps to explore road maps for the future of child health research in Europe”. Project structure A consortium, with a final total of 23 pa...

  13. Global payment for health services as a solution in the financial crisis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Schrijvers

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In these financial difficult years many European governments used global ceilings to control costs of health services. Two scenarios are thinkable. The first is that all individual providers get a budget for their own costs: general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, nursing homes and mental health institutes. The second scenario is to work with global budgets for health care providers servicing a total population. Scientists and policy makers in Europe, North America and Asia need time to design new payment systems based on the idea of global budgeting, bundled payment and shared savings.

  14. Global payment for health services as a solution in the financial crisis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijvers, Guus

    2012-10-01

    In these financial difficult years many European governments used global ceilings to control costs of health services. Two scenarios are thinkable. The first is that all individual providers get a budget for their own costs: general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, nursing homes and mental health institutes. The second scenario is to work with global budgets for health care providers servicing a total population. Scientists and policy makers in Europe, North America and Asia need time to design new payment systems based on the idea of global budgeting, bundled payment and shared savings.

  15. "Whose data is it anyway?" The implications of putting small area-level health and social data online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exeter, Daniel John; Rodgers, Sarah; Sabel, Clive Eric

    2013-01-01

    Data from electronic patient management systems, routine national health databases, and social administrative systems have increased significantly over the past decade. These data are increasingly used to create maps and analyses communicating the geography of health and illness. The results...... for invaluable social science and medical research. We believe that exploitation of such data is needed to further our understanding of the determinants of health and inequalities. Therefore, we propose a geographical privacy-access continuum framework, which could guide data custodians in the efficient...

  16. Putting the world as classroom: an application of the inequalities imagination model in nursing and health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Louise; Proctor, Peggy; Jewell, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of an educational initiative, the Interdisciplinary Population Health Project (IPHP) conducted in the academic year of 2006-2007 with a group of nursing and health care students. Inspired by population health, community development, critical pedagogy, and the inequalities imagination model, students participated in diverse educational activities to become immersed in the everyday life of an underserved urban neighborhood. A sample of convenience composed of 158 students was recruited from 4 health disciplines in a Western Canadian university. Data were collected using a modified version of the Parsell and Bligh's Readiness of Health Care Students for Interprofessional Learning Scale. A one group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the outcomes of the IPHP. Paired t tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to compare the responses of students from different academic programs to determine if there were differences across disciplines. Findings suggest that students' readiness to work in interprofessional teams did not significantly change over the course of their participation in the IPHP. However, the inequalities imagination model may be useful to enhance the quality and the effectiveness of fieldwork learning activities as a means of educating culturally and socially conscious nurses and other health care professionals of the future.

  17. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Luc; Fernandez, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. Material and Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual...

  18. Health Technology Assessment in the Context of Adaptive Pathways for Medicines in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvy, J C; Jonsson, P; Longson, C; Crabb, N; Garner, S

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive pathways for medicines have gained momentum and, in Europe, adaptive pathways have recently been introduced into the European Medicines Agency (EMA) processes after a successful 2-year pilot. Although the concept, as initially proposed, contained several elements that would have required regulatory reforms, the adaptive pathways program has developed a more pragmatic scope (Box 1). In this article, we explore the main challenges and opportunities adaptive pathways pose from a European health technology assessment (HTA) perspective. © 2016 ASCPT.

  19. Fieldwork monitoring in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)

    OpenAIRE

    Malter, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    "The article summarizes how monitoring of fieldwork was conducted in the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) by using the conceptual framework of total survey error as a guiding principle. I describe the technological and governance-related background of monitoring and managing fieldwork in a tiered principal-agent environment of a cross-national, longitudinal survey operation. Findings on selected indicators are presented as they were utilized in f...

  20. Gender Policies and Gender Inequalities in Health in Europe: Results of the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palència, Laia; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Salvador-Piedrafita, María; Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Hagqvist, Emma; Pérez, Glòria; Ruiz, Marisol E; Trujillo-Alemán, Sara; Vanroelen, Christophe; Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explain the results of the SOPHIE project regarding the effect of gender policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe. We start with the results of a systematic review on how gender regimes and gender equality policies at the country level impact women's health and gender inequalities in health. Then, we report on three empirical analyses on the relationship between different family policy models existing in Europe and gender inequalities in health. Finally we present four case studies on specific examples of gender policies or determinants of gender inequalities in health. The results show that policies that support women's participation in the labor force and decrease their burden of care, such as public services and support for families and entitlements for fathers, are related to lower levels of gender inequality in terms of health. In addition, public services and benefits for disabled and dependent people can reduce the burden placed on family caregivers and hence improve their health. In the context of the current economic crisis, gender equality policies should be maintained or improved. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. "Visions" for Children's Health and Wellbeing: Exploring the Complex and Arbitrary Processes of Putting Theory into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Ian; Secker, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    It could be claimed that the priority of any Government should be to look after the interests of the public it serves. Much of this role includes attempting to actively develop and implement policies and programmes that best contribute to or enhance general standards of living. Addressing health and wellbeing, it follows, is a reasonable vision…

  3. Putting the pieces together: private-duty home healthcare and geriatric care management: one home health agency's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lisa M; Sharkey, Candace

    2007-03-01

    This article examines how one home health agency successfully launched a geriatric care management program. The methods of market assessment, the necessary staff to implement the program, and an overview of geriatric care management in general are presented together with an actual case study.

  4. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-05-31

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty-which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home-the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  5. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Mark

    2011-09-29

    Abstract Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission\\'s research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as \\'nutrio-genomics\\

  6. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  7. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  8. "It puts a human face on the researched"--A qualitative evaluation of an Indigenous health research governance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Chelsea; Foley, Wendy; Askew, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Inala Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Jury for Health Research, and evaluate its usefulness as a model of Indigenous research governance within an urban Indigenous primary health care service from the perspectives of jury members and researchers. Informed by a phenomenological approach and using narrative inquiry, a focus group was conducted with jury members and key informant interviews were undertaken with researchers who had presented to the Community Jury in its first year of operation. The jury was a site of identity work for researchers and jury members, providing an opportunity to observe and affirm community cultural protocols. Although researchers and jury members had differing levels of research literacy, the jury processes enabled respectful communication and relationships to form, which positively influenced research practice, community aspirations and clinical care. The jury processes facilitated transformative research practice among researchers and resulted in transference of power from researchers to the jury members, to the mutual benefit of both. Ethical Indigenous health research practice requires an engagement with Indigenous peoples and knowledge at the research governance level, not simply as subjects or objects of research. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Choices Behind Numbers: a Review of the Major Air Pollution Health Impact Assessments in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, E; Oudin, A; Pascal, M; Medina, S

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this review is to identify the key contextual and methodological differences in health impact assessments (HIA) of ambient air pollution performed for Europe. We limited our review to multi-country reviews. An additional aim is to quantify some of these differences by applying them in a HIA template in three European cities. Several HIAs of ambient air pollution have been performed for Europe, and their key results have been largely disseminated. Different studies have, however, come up with substantial differences in attributed health effects. It is of importance to review the background contributing to these differences and to quantify their importance for decision makers who will use them. We identified several methodological differences that could explain the discrepancy behind the number of attributable deaths or years of life lost. The main differences are due to the exposure-response functions chosen, the ways of assessing air pollution levels, the air pollution scenarios and the study population. In the quantification part, we found that using risk estimates from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) instead of the American Cancer Society (ACS) study could nearly double the attributable burden of ambient air pollution. This study provides some insights into the differential results in previously published HIAs on air pollution in Europe. These results are important for stakeholders in order to make informed decisions.

  10. The effects of news stories that put crime and violence into context: testing the public health model of reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita; Thorson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether changing the way newspaper stories report crime and violence can induce shifts in readers' perceptions of the problem. Using an experiment that manipulates the framing and graphic presentation of newspaper stories on crime and violence, we seek to discover whether the public health model that calls for news stories to incorporate information on context, risk factors, and prevention strategies will help readers learn more about the context in which crime and violence occurs, endorse prevention strategies in addition to punishment, and become more attuned to societal risk factors and causes of crime and violence.

  11. Unravelling the impact of ethnicity on health in Europe: the HELIUS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations in Europe are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse, and health risks differ between ethnic groups. The aim of the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study is to unravel the mechanisms underlying the impact of ethnicity on communicable and non-communicable diseases. Methods/design HELIUS is a large-scale prospective cohort study being carried out in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample is made up of Amsterdam residents of Surinamese (with Afro-Caribbean Surinamese and South Asian-Surinamese as the main ethnic groups), Turkish, Moroccan, Ghanaian, and ethnic Dutch origin. HELIUS focuses on three disease categories: cardiovascular disease (including diabetes), mental health (depressive disorders and substance use disorders), and infectious diseases. The explanatory mechanisms being studied include genetic profile, culture, migration history, ethnic identity, socio-economic factors and discrimination. These might affect disease risks through specific risk factors including health-related behaviour and living and working conditions. Every five years, participants complete a standardized questionnaire and undergo a medical examination. Biological samples are obtained for diagnostic tests and storage. Participants’ data are linked to morbidity and mortality registries. The aim is to recruit a minimum of 5,000 respondents per ethnic group, to a total of 30,000 participants. Discussion This paper describes the rationale, conceptual framework, and design and methods of the HELIUS study. HELIUS will contribute to an understanding of inequalities in health between ethnic groups and the mechanisms that link ethnicity to health in Europe. PMID:23621920

  12. Unravelling the impact of ethnicity on health in Europe: the HELIUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Prins, Maria; Schene, Aart H; Zwinderman, Aeilko H

    2013-04-27

    Populations in Europe are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse, and health risks differ between ethnic groups. The aim of the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study is to unravel the mechanisms underlying the impact of ethnicity on communicable and non-communicable diseases. HELIUS is a large-scale prospective cohort study being carried out in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample is made up of Amsterdam residents of Surinamese (with Afro-Caribbean Surinamese and South Asian-Surinamese as the main ethnic groups), Turkish, Moroccan, Ghanaian, and ethnic Dutch origin. HELIUS focuses on three disease categories: cardiovascular disease (including diabetes), mental health (depressive disorders and substance use disorders), and infectious diseases. The explanatory mechanisms being studied include genetic profile, culture, migration history, ethnic identity, socio-economic factors and discrimination. These might affect disease risks through specific risk factors including health-related behaviour and living and working conditions. Every five years, participants complete a standardized questionnaire and undergo a medical examination. Biological samples are obtained for diagnostic tests and storage. Participants' data are linked to morbidity and mortality registries. The aim is to recruit a minimum of 5,000 respondents per ethnic group, to a total of 30,000 participants. This paper describes the rationale, conceptual framework, and design and methods of the HELIUS study. HELIUS will contribute to an understanding of inequalities in health between ethnic groups and the mechanisms that link ethnicity to health in Europe.

  13. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Radovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  14. Oceans and Human Health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L E; McDonough, N; Austen, M; Mee, L; Moore, M; Hess, P; Depledge, M H; White, M; Philippart, K; Bradbrook, P; Smalley, A

    2014-08-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders, business, and non governmental organisations from Europe and the US to review the recent interdisciplinary and cutting edge research in oceans and human health specifically the growing evidence of the impacts of oceans and seas on human health and wellbeing (and the effects of humans on the oceans). These impacts are a complex mixture of negative influences (e.g. from climate change and extreme weather to harmful algal blooms and chemical pollution) and beneficial factors (e.g. from natural products including seafood to marine renewable energy and wellbeing from interactions with coastal environments). Integrated approaches across disciplines, institutions, and nations in science and policy are needed to protect both the oceans and human health and wellbeing now and in the future. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Selection Threatens Quality Of Care For Certain Patients: Lessons From Europe's Health Insurance Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Kleef, Richard C; van Vliet, Rene C J A

    2015-10-01

    Experience in European health insurance exchanges indicates that even with the best risk-adjustment formulas, insurers have substantial incentives to engage in risk selection. The potentially most worrisome form of risk selection is skimping on the quality of care for underpriced high-cost patients--that is, patients for whom insurers are compensated at a rate lower than the predicted health care expenses of these patients. In this article we draw lessons for the United States from twenty years of experience with health insurance exchanges in Europe, where risk selection is a serious problem. Mistakes by European legislators and inadequate evaluation criteria for risk selection incentives are discussed, as well as strategies to reduce risk selection and the complex trade-off among selection (through quality skimping), efficiency, and affordability. Recommended improvements to the risk-adjustment process in the United States include considering the adoption of risk adjusters used in Europe, investing in the collection of data, using a permanent form of risk sharing, and replacing the current premium "band" restrictions with more flexible restrictions. Policy makers need to understand the complexities of regulating competitive health insurance markets and to prevent risk selection that threatens the provision of good-quality care for underpriced high-cost patients. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Health facilities safety in natural disasters: experiences and challenges from South East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Vesela; Vitale, Ksenija; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2012-05-01

    The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  17. Putting the Community back into Community Health Needs Assessments: Maximizing Partnerships Via Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Chris Michael; Johnson-Hakim, Sharon; Anglin, Ashley; Connelly, Catherine

    The community health needs assessment (CHNA) mandate of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has the potential to make significant and sustainable change in the health of communities. However, to date many hospital-led assessments have used traditional, top-down data collection approaches that overemphasize individualized community member deficits and underutilize collaboration across sectors. The purpose of this paper is to present the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) as a framework for conducting CHNAs in a way that mitigates the potential for harm, waste, and misrepresentation of community assets and needs that characterizes many existing CHNA processes, illustrating the power of applying CBPR partnerships to this process. CBPR is a framework to engage community members directly in research design, the collection and analysis of data, and the creation of action plans that address research findings. Key principles include collaborative involvement, establishment of empowering processes, and long-term commitment. A case example of an innovative community partnership demonstrates the power and challenges of taking a CBPR approach to the CHNA process. CBPR has incredible potential to be incorporated into ACA-mandated hospital CHNAs, leading to increased impact and shared power with community members.

  18. Primary health care teams put to the test a cross-sectional study from Austria within the QUALICOPC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; George, Aaron; Dorner, Thomas E; Süß, Katharina; Schäfer, Willemijn L A; Maier, Manfred

    2015-11-16

    Multidisciplinary Primary Health Care Teams (PHCT) provide a comprehensive approach to address the social and health needs of communities. It was the aim of this analysis to assess the number of PHCT in Austria, a country with a weak PHC system, and to compare preventive activities, psychosocial care, and work satisfaction between GPs who work and those who do not work in PHCT. Within the QUALICOPC study, data collection was performed between November 2011 and May 2012, utilizing a standardized questionnaire for GPs. A stratified sample of GPs from across Austria was invited. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and tests. Data from 171 GPs questionnaires were used for this analysis. Of these, 61.1 % (n = 113) had a mono-disciplinary office, 26.3 % (n = 45) worked in an office consisting of GP, receptionist and one additional primary care profession, and 7.6 % (n = 13) worked in a larger PHCT. GPs that worked in larger PHCT were younger and more involved in psychosocial and preventive care. No differences were found with regard to work satisfaction or workload. This study gives insight into the structures of PHC in Austria. The results indicate a low number of PHCT; however, the overall return rate in our sample was low with more male GPs, more GPs from urban areas and more GPs working in offices together with other physicians than the national average. Younger GPs demonstrate a greater tendency to implement this primary care practice model in their practices, which seems to be associated with an emphasis in psychosocial and preventive care. If Austria is to increase the number of PHC teams, the country should embrace the work of young GPs and should offer relevant support for PHCT. Future developments could be guided by considering effective models of good practice and governmental support as in other countries.

  19. The role of income inequality and social policies on income-related health inequalities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutz, Regina

    2015-10-31

    The aim of the paper is to examine the role of income inequality and redistribution for income-related health inequalities in Europe. This paper contributes in two ways to the literature on macro determinants of socio-economic inequalities in health. First, it widens the distinctive focus of the research field on welfare state regimes to quantifiable measures such as social policy indicators. Second, looking at income differences completes studies on socio-economic health inequalities, which often analyse health inequalities based on educational differences. Using data from the European Values Study (2008/2009), 42 European countries are available for analysis. Country characteristics are derived from SWIID, Eurostat, and ILO and include indicators for income inequality, social policies, and economic performance. The data is analysed by using a two-step hierarchical estimation approach: At the first step-the individual level-the effect of household income on self-assessed health is extracted and introduced as an indicator measuring income-related health inequalities at the second step, the country-level. Individual-level analyses reveal that income-related health inequalities exist all across Europe. Results from country-level analyses show that higher income inequality is significantly positively related to higher health inequalities while social policies do not show significant relations. Nevertheless, the results show the expected negative association between social policies and health inequalities. Economic performance also has a reducing influence on health inequalities. In all models, income inequality was the dominating explanatory effect for health inequalities. The analyses indicate that income inequality has more impact on health inequalities than social policies. On the contrary, social policies seemed to matter to all individuals regardless of socio-economic position since it is significantly positively linked to overall population health. Even though

  20. Selecting an indicator set for monitoring and evaluating perinatal health in Europe: Criteria, methods and results from the PERISTAT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Wildman, K.; Bréart, G.; Alexander, S.; Barros, H.; Blondel, B.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Gissler, M.; Macfarlane, A.

    2003-01-01

    The PERISTAT project was charged with developing an indicator set for monitoring and describing perinatal health in Europe as part of the European Commission's Health Monitoring Programme, run by the Directorate General for Health and Consumer Protection (DG-SANCO), which is working towards the

  1. Bidirectional Exchanges of Medical Students Between Institutional Partners in Global Health Clinical Education Programs: Putting Ethical Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Robert; Kellett, Anne; Peluso, Michael J

    One-third of US medical students participate in global health (GH) education, and approximately one-quarter of US medical schools have structured programs that offer special recognition in GH. GH clinical electives (GHCEs) are opportunities for students to experience a medical system and culture different from their own. GHCEs are administered through institutional affiliation agreements, often between an institution in a high-income country (HIC) and one in a low- or middle-income country (LMIC). Although these agreements suggest the exchange of students in both directions, GHCEs are traditionally characterized by students from HICs traveling to LMICs. The goal of this study was to investigate the availability of opportunities for students from LMICs participating in GHCEs at partner institutions in HICs and to describe the costs of these opportunities for students from LMICs. We conducted a web-based search of 30 US institutions previously identified as having structured programs in GH. We determined which of these schools have programs that accept medical students from international schools for GHCEs, as well as the administrative requirements, types of fees, and other costs to the international student based on information available on the web. Descriptive statistics were employed for the quantitative analysis of costs. We found that, although the majority of US institutions with structured GH programs sending students to sites abroad accept international students at their sites in the United States, nearly one-fifth of programs do not offer such opportunities for bidirectional exchange. We also characterized the substantial costs of such experiences, because this can represent a significant barrier for students from LMICs. Access to GHCEs in US partner institutions should be an important underlying ethical principle in the establishment of institutional partnerships. The opportunities available to and experiences of students from LMIC partner institutions are

  2. Putting culture in the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sairanen, Raija; Richardson, Eileen; Kelly, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    for such a project. The project group emerged from the European organisation known as COHEHRE (Consortium of Higher Education Institutes in Health and Rehabilitation in Europe). Composed of a group of nurse educators from 5 European countries it charts the process which led them to create a curriculum framework......The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and the method of designing a framework for a European curriculum to promote intercultural competence in health care students. The background relating to the migration of people into and across Europe is cited as the factor driving the need...... the need to discover how effective the framework is in achieving the aims of the group. In conclusion it articulates the hope that this work will improve the care which is shown to all recipients of health care whatever their cultural background....

  3. E-health development policies in new member states in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    The paper brings insights on the process of e-health development in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which joined European Union in 2004 years. The main part of the activities resulting in this review were carried out within the eHealth European Research Area (eHealth ERA) project established under the EU 6. Framework Programme. The research team involved in the project activities in the Centre of Innovation, Technology Transfer and University Development, Jagiellonian University focused the inquiries on the six countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia. The tool for data collection elaborated by the STAKES, Finland was applied. The main areas covered within the analysis included: health system characteristics, e-health policies definition process and deployment, specific activities in e-health subdomain as well as research and development programmes held in European countries. It seems that general background and intensive process of system and economy transformation was key factor influencing greatly the perception and status of the e-health domain in these countries. The opportunities related to the inclusion in the European Union was another essential factor bringing additional important impact on the e-health formation. All these countries started painful reform in early 90s after the fall of the communist governments. The health care system in general was not the prime benefactors of these changes.

  4. Social-democratic government and health policy in Europe: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Although health policy ultimately depends on political decision making, empirical evidence of the impact of politics on implementation of health policies and their population health outcomes is scarce. In this study, we assess the effects of social-democratic government participation on indicators of preventive health policy (tobacco, alcohol, food, mother and child health, infectious diseases, hypertension, cancer screening, road traffic safety, air pollution) in Europe. Cumulative years of social-democratic government differed widely between European countries, as did indicators of current health policy performance, but the latter are not associated with recent social-democratic government. However, there is a positive association with social-democratic government cumulated over five decades. Positive effects of social-democratic government are mainly seen on indicators of tobacco and alcohol control. We conclude that long-term social-democratic government participation may have had a positive impact on some areas of preventive health policy, perhaps through the creation of strong public health institutions or a strong public health workforce.

  5. Exploring health care reform in a changing Europe: lessons from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Angelopoulou, Konstantina-Eleni; Lionis, Christos

    2013-09-01

    The economic crisis is the major theme in the Eurozone and its impact on public health and outcomes is largely discussed. Under this pressure, concerns of further inequalities exist that may have an impact on the burden of several diseases in certain European countries. In this context, Greece is currently an issue of top interest in any international economic discussion. Although the background of the recession has been largely discussed as a political crisis, its health effects on the population, as well as the key role of primary care and general practice/family medicine in health care reform remain to be explored. Serving both the worldwide trend of orienting health care systems towards strengthened primary care and the inner need for minimizing the demand and lessening the burden from the dysfunctional and costly hospital-care system, the economic crisis sets the perfect timing for prioritizing primary health care. In this article a unique window of opportunity for health care reform in Greece is examined, attempting to establish the axes of an example of how health care system can be reshaped amidst the economic crisis. Equity, quality, value framework, medical professionalism, information technology and decentralization emerge as topics of central interest. There is no doubt that Europe is transitioning under challenging social, economic and public health perspectives. However, taking Greece as an example, the current economic situation sets a good timing for health care reform and the key messages of this paper could be used by other countries facing similar problems.

  6. Health management education in Europe and in the United States: a comparative review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Thomas P

    2013-08-01

    In Europe and in the United States, health management education and the role of health managers are patterned and consistent with how the country's healthcare system is organized, managed, and financed. In the United States, the fee-for-service, entrepreneurial dominated approach, resulting in health being one of the few remaining growth industries, has created a huge demand for additional health management education programs and managers. Therefore, universities finding themselves in an economic slump are attracted to establish health services administration programs (a North American term) since they require limited capital, continue to attract enrollment, and contribute to the "social good." In contrast, the European countries' healthcare systems provide universal access to care and strict, governmental fiscal control on healthcare expenditures. As a result, the American masters-level health manager model has not thrived there--although not willingly conceded is the fact that in Europe physicians continue to dominate the management ranks. After outlining a number of the current problems facing US health management education, this article focuses on: (1) a projected shuttering of the weaker American health management programs and the market for health managers being overly saturated (such as for lawyers now), because the US gross domestic product expenditures for health will decrease over the next two decades from the current level of 17.6% to be somewhat comparable to the 11.5% in Canada, France, and Germany; and (2) a projected increase in the enrollment among European health management programs for several reasons: (a) a huge spike in the demand for additional clinically oriented, health managers who can trade off concerns of cost versus quality; and (b) the constraints of most countries' statutory health insurance plans will become increasingly more evident so that privatization of healthcare services will become an option for those with above average incomes

  7. Postponement of Senescence: Results From the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rizzi, Silvia

    Old age mortality has been postponed to higher ages. However, the consequences of longer lives will depend on whether poor health is also being postponed. The objective of this study was to investigate secular changes in different health measures using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing...... and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), representing nine European countries. SHARE is an ongoing multi-national longitudinal survey of persons aged 50 and older. SHARE started in 2004-2005 and the latest wave was collected in 2013. Comparing individuals from countries who participated in the first wave (n=24......,192) and the latest wave (n=46,762), we found a significant improvement in cognitive function over the 8-9 year period. However, there was no difference in the proportion of limitations with activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). This study confirms improvements...

  8. Health status of children with cerebral palsy living in Europe: a multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckung, E; White-Koning, M; Marcelli, M

    2008-01-01

    for children with bilateral spastic and dyskinetic CP type. Fine motor function severity significantly affected both the PHY and PSY scales. The severity of intellectual impairment was significantly associated with CHQ scores in most dimensions with higher scores for higher IQ level in PHY and PSY. Children......, parental education and employment revealed gross motor function, cognitive level and type of school attended were significant prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: This report is based on the largest sample to date of children with CP. Health status as measured using the CHQ was affected in all children......AIM: The aim of this report is to describe the health status of 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy (CP) of all severities in Europe using the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). METHOD: A total of 818 children with CP from nine centres in defined geographical areas participated. CP type...

  9. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenna Brian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. Methods A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Results Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. Discussion National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions

  10. Research for food and health in Europe: themes, needs and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bánáti, Diána; Frewer, Lynn; Hirani, Vasant; Lobstein, Tim; McKenna, Brian; Mulla, Zenab; Rabozzi, Giulia; Sfetcu, Raluca; Newton, Rachel

    2011-09-29

    Diet, in addition to tobacco, alcohol and physical exercise, is a major factor contributing to chronic diseases in Europe. There is a pressing need for multidisciplinary research to promote healthier food choices and better diets. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) is a collaborative project commissioned by the European Union. Among its tasks is the description of national research systems for food and health and, in work reported here, the identification of strengths and gaps in the European research base. A typology of nine research themes was developed, spanning food, society, health and research structures. Experts were selected through the FAHRE partners, with balance for individual characteristics, and reported using a standardised template. Countries usually commission research on food, and on health, separately: few countries have combined research strategies or programmes. Food and health are also strongly independent fields within the European Commission's research programmes. Research programmes have supported food and bio-technology, food safety, epidemiological research, and nutritional surveillance; but there has been less research into personal behaviour and very little on environmental influences on food choices - in the retail and marketing industries, policy, and regulation. The research is mainly sited within universities and research institutes: there is relatively little published research contribution from industry. National food policies, based on epidemiological evidence and endorsed by the World Health Organisation, recommend major changes in food intake to meet the challenge of chronic diseases. Biomedical and biotechnology research, in areas such as 'nutrio-genomics', 'individualised' diets, 'functional' foods and 'nutri-pharmaceuticals' appear likely to yield less health benefit, and less return on public investment, than research on population-level interventions to influence dietary patterns: for example policies to reduce

  11. Health care utilisation amongst older adults with sensory and cognitive impairments in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Gannon, Brenda

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, the high prevalence of multiple chronic conditions amongst older population has led to increased utilisation of health care and rising associated costs, becoming a major public health concern. Hearing, vision and cognitive disorders are common chronic conditions amongst older Europeans and recent studies have documented its high co-occurrence. While it has been shown separately that suffering either mental disorders or sensory (hearing and vision) impairments is associated with higher health care utilisation, the association between health care utilisation and the interaction of these conditions has received little attention in the literature. Therefore, using four waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), this study applies the correlated random effects method to the negative binomial and finite mixture models to analyse the extent to which the interaction of cognitive and sensory impairments is associated with health care use. We found that individuals with cognitive impairment tend to have more hospitalisations. The finite mixture approach indicates a positive association between sensory impairment and the number of hospitalisations amongst low users of health care. Additionally, our findings suggest a positive association between suffering both impairments at the same time and the number of doctor and GP visits.

  12. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  13. Essential to increase the use of generics in Europe to maintain comprehensive health care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Godman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reforms have been introduced across Europe to increase prescribing efficiency with existing drugs. These include measures to lower prices of generics as well as increase their prescribing versus originators and patented products in a class or related class. This is essential to maintain comprehensive health care in Europe given continued pressures. The alternative is insufficient funds for new innovative drugs and increasing drug volumes with ageing populations. OBJECTIVE: To review the influence of measures and initiatives to increase the prescribing and dispensing of generics at low prices on ambulatory care prescribing efficiency. In view of this, provide guidance as authorities strive to introduce further reforms to meet their goals. METHODOLOGY: A narrative review of published papers combined with case histories. RESULTS: The different supply- and demand-side measures have reduced generic prices to as low as 2% to 3% of pre-patent loss prices in some cases as well as appreciably enhanced their utilisation. As a result, prescribing efficiency has increased without compromising care. In some cases, the reforms have led to expenditure actually falling despite appreciably increased volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing use of generics at low prices will help maintain the European ideals of comprehensive and equitable health care. However, countries will continually need to learn from each other.

  14. The importance of father's and own education for self-assessed health across Europe: an East-West divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; de Graaf, Nan Dirk

    2013-09-01

    How are one's own education, father's education, and especially the combination of the two, related to self-assessed health across European societies? In this study, we test hypotheses about differences in self-assessed health between 16 post-socialist countries in Central and Eastern Europe and 17 Western European countries. We find substantial cross-national variation in the (relative) importance of own and father's education for self-assessed health. Over 65 per cent of this cross-national variation is accounted for by the East-West divide. This simple dichotomy explains cross-national differences better than gross domestic product or income inequality. An individual's father's education is more important, both in absolute and relative terms, for self-assessed heath in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe. Intergenerational mobility moderates the relative effects of one's own and one's father's education. In Eastern Europe the relative importance of one's father's education is greater than it is in Western Europe--particularly for those who are downwardly mobile and have a father with tertiary education. The results are sometimes contradictory to initial expectations; the theoretical implications are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/JohnWiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Unemployment transitions and self-rated health in Europe: A longitudinal analysis of EU-SILC from 2008 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Blekesaune, Morten

    2015-10-01

    The Great Recession of 2008 has led to elevated unemployment in Europe and thereby revitalised the question of causal health effects of unemployment. This article applies fixed effects regression models to longitudinal panel data drawn from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions for 28 European countries from 2008 to 2011, in order to investigate changes in self-rated health around the event of becoming unemployed. The results show that the correlation between unemployment and health is partly due to a decrease in self-rated health as people enter unemployment. Such health changes vary by country of domicile, and by individual age; older workers have a steeper decline than younger workers. Health changes after the unemployment spell reveal no indication of adverse health effects of unemployment duration. Overall, this study indicates some adverse health effects of unemployment in Europe--predominantly among older workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion. Early effects on our health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovats, S.; Menne, B.; McMichael, A.; Bertollini, R.; Soskolne, C. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    People are concerned about the impact on their health of the climate warming and stratosperic ozone depletion that Europe has been experiencing for the last century. This publication attempts to clarify what early effects these environmental changes are having on our health, and what further effects they may have in the future. What is certain is that more frequent thermal stress, associated or not with air pollution, causes illness and death, especially among the elderly; extreme weather events such as floods cause death, illness and material damage; some water- and foodborne diseases increase during extreme weather conditions, such as heavy rainfall and heatwaves; malaria could increase with climate warming; and ozone depletion increases skin cancer and weakens the immune system. While much is still uncertain about the precise relationship between changes in the climate and changes in disease patterns, the need for action is clear; action either to reduce the climate change itself, or to reduce its harmful effects. (au)

  17. How a multidisciplinary 'One Health' approach can combat the tick-borne pathogen threat in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cosson, Jean François; Degeilh, Brigitte; Eloit, Marc; Fontanet, Arnaud; Moutailler, Sara; Raoult, Didier; Sellal, Eric; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noelle; Zylbermann, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, ticks are the major arthropod vectors of disease agents to humans and domestic animals. They are capable of transmitting many pathogens most of which have been discovered or identified as tick-borne pathogens in the last 20 years. In recent years, unexplained syndromes occurring after a tick bite have become an increasingly important issue in public and animal health. Ticks and wildlife (the main reservoir of tick-borne pathogens) are highly susceptible to global environmental and socio-economic changes, which in turn may lead to an increased burden of tick-borne diseases. In this review, we explain the importance of a 'One Health' approach to better combat tick-borne diseases.

  18. [Nurses' working conditions, health and well being in Europe (Nurses' Early Exit Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Donatella; Mansano Sarquis, Leila Maria

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' shortage and a high turnover cause concern in Europe. The Nurses' Early Exit Study (NEXT) is a cross-cultural and longitudinal project funded by the European Union to ascertain the reasons of these trends. Ten European countries and 56.406 nurses were involved. The goal was to analyze the relationship between working conditions and nursing workers' health. Data from 19.099 nurses were analyzed by means of descriptive and linear regression analyses. The nurses' perception of working conditions, classified by cluster analysis, resulted a good predictor of workers' health and well being and adequately reflected their real working and life conditions. The differences among countries are likely justified by cultural, socioeconomic and organizational variety. Interventions to reduce nurses' turnover must consider obstacles and facilitations in the professional development. Nurses' engagement in processes that impact on political, organizational and ergonomic choices is worthwhile.

  19. An analysis of perceived access to health care in Europe: How universal is universal coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Papanicolas, Irene

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine variations in perceptions of access to health care across and within 29 European countries. Using data from the 2008 round of the European Social Survey, we investigate the likelihood of an individual perceiving that they will experience difficulties accessing health care in the next 12 months, should they need it (N=51,835). We find that despite most European countries having mandates for universal health coverage, individuals who are low income, in poor health, lack citizenship in the country where they reside, 20-30 years old, unemployed and/or female have systematically greater odds of feeling unable to access care. Focusing on the role of income, we find that while there is a strong association between low income and perceived access barriers across countries, within many countries, perceptions of difficulties accessing care are not concentrated uniquely among low-income groups. This implies that factors that affect all income groups, such as poor quality care and long waiting times may serve as important barriers to access in these countries. Despite commitments to move towards universal health coverage in Europe, our results suggest that there is still significant heterogeneity among individuals' perceptions of access and important barriers to accessing health care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in Europe: evidence from the European Social Survey (2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alvarez-Galvez

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown that perceived discrimination has an impact on our physical and mental health. A relevant part of literature has highlighted the influence of discrimination based on race or ethnicity on mental and physical health outcomes. However, the influence of other types of discrimination on health has been understudied. This study is aimed to explore how different types of discrimination are related to our subjective state of health, and so to compare the intensity of these relationships in the European context. METHODS: We have performed a multilevel ordered analysis on the fifth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS 2010. This dataset has 52,458 units at individual level that are grouped in 26 European countries. In this study, the dependent variable is self-rated health (SRH that is analyzed in relationship to ten explanatory variables of perceived discrimination: color or race, nationality, religion, language, ethnic group, age, gender, sexuality, disability and others. RESULTS: The model identifies statistically significant differences in the effect that diverse types of perceived discrimination can generate on the self-rated health of Europeans. Specifically, this study identifies three well-defined types of perceived discrimination that can be related to poor health outcomes: (1 age discrimination; (2 disability discrimination; and (3 sexuality discrimination. In this sense, the effect on self-rated health of perceived discrimination related to aging and disabilities seems to be more relevant than other types of discrimination in the European context with a longer tradition in literature (e.g. ethnic and/or race-based. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that the relationship between perceived discrimination and health inequities in Europe are not random, but systematically distributed depending on factors such as age, sexuality and disabilities. Therefore the future orientation of EU social policies should aim

  1. Health Literacy in Europe: the development and validation of health literacy prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Boshuizen, H.; Rademakers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health literacy is considered an important determinant of health disparities. It is therefore important to have insight into health literacy skills of the general population within countries. Little is known on the health literacy skills of the general population in EU member states.

  2. Health literacy in Europe: the development and validation of health literacy prediction models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Sorensen, K.; Rothlin, F.; Pelikan, J.; Rademakers, J.; Boshuizen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health literacy is an important determinant of health, but national health literacy levels are known for only some European countries. This study aims to examine to what extent national health literacy levels can be estimated based on publicly available census data. Method: Multivariate

  3. Public health aspects of the family medicine concepts in South eastern europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-08-01

    Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward family medicine and primary

  4. Health 2020 – Achieving Health and Development in Today’s Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Jakab

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: This article presents the development process of Health 2020 and its main strategic goals, objectives and content. Further, it describes what is needed to successfully implement Health 2020 in countries and how WHO can provide technical assistance to countries that embark on developing health policy aligned with the Health 2020 policy framework. The development and implementation of Health 2020 is a powerful vehicle for concerted inter-sectoral action across the WHO European Region for improving health and well-being of present and future generations. Successful implementation of Health 2020 needs providing technical assistance by WHO to the countries to embark on developing health policy aligned with the Health 2020 policy framework.

  5. Statutory health insurance competition in Europe: a four-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sarah; Busse, Reinhard; Crivelli, Luca; van de Ven, Wynand; Van de Voorde, Carine

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores the goals and implementation of reforms introducing choice of and competition among insurers providing statutory health coverage in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In theory, health insurance competition can enhance efficiency in health care administration and delivery only if people have free choice of insurer (consumer mobility), if insurers do not have incentives to select risks, and if insurers are able to influence health service quality and costs. In practice, reforms in the four countries have not always prioritised efficiency and implementation has varied. Differences in policy goals explain some but not all of the differences in implementation. Despite significant investment in risk adjustment, incentives for risk selection remain and consumer mobility is not evenly distributed across the population. Better risk adjustment might make it easier for older and less healthy people to change insurer. Policy makers could also do more to prevent insurers from linking the sale of statutory and voluntary health insurance, particularly where take-up of voluntary coverage is widespread. Collective negotiation between insurers and providers in Belgium, Germany and Switzerland curbs insurers' ability to influence health care quality and costs. Nevertheless, while insurers in the Netherlands have good access to efficiency-enhancing tools, data and capacity constraints and resistance from stakeholders limit the extent to which tools are used. The experience of these countries offers an important lesson to other countries: it is not straightforward to put in place the conditions under which health insurance competition can enhance efficiency. Policy makers should not, therefore, underestimate the challenges involved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Luc; Fernandez, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. The level of significance was predetermined at a p value < 0.05. A total of 7,754 athletes presented with gingival signs (48.64%). There were no significant differences (p= 0,095) in mean gingival signs between age groups, however the association between mouth cleaning and age, was statistically significant. The data suggests that there is a high prevalence of gingival signs among individuals with special needs; over 50% in more than 20 countries. Therefore, there is a serious need for education and preventive programs for the patients, their parents and caregivers.

  7. Climate change impacts on human health over Europe through its effect on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M; Heal, Mathew R; O'Connor, Fiona M

    2017-12-05

    This review examines the current literature on the effects of future emissions and climate change on particulate matter (PM) and O 3 air quality and on the consequent health impacts, with a focus on Europe. There is considerable literature on the effects of climate change on O 3 but fewer studies on the effects of climate change on PM concentrations. Under the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th assessment report (AR5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), background O 3 entering Europe is expected to decrease under most scenarios due to higher water vapour concentrations in a warmer climate. However, under the extreme pathway RCP8.5 higher (more than double) methane (CH 4 ) abundances lead to increases in background O 3 that offset the O 3 decrease due to climate change especially for the 2100 period. Regionally, in polluted areas with high levels of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), elevated surface temperatures and humidities yield increases in surface O 3 - termed the O 3 climate penalty - especially in southern Europe. The O 3 response is larger for metrics that represent the higher end of the O 3 distribution, such as daily maximum O 3 . Future changes in PM concentrations due to climate change are much less certain, although several recent studies also suggest a PM climate penalty due to high temperatures and humidity and reduced precipitation in northern mid-latitude land regions in 2100.A larger number of studies have examined both future climate and emissions changes under the RCP scenarios. Under these pathways the impact of emission changes on air quality out to the 2050s will be larger than that due to climate change, because of large reductions in emissions of O 3 and PM pollutant precursor emissions and the more limited climate change response itself. Climate change will also affect climate extreme events such as heatwaves. Air pollution episodes are associated with stagnation events and sometimes heat waves. Air quality during

  8. Perinatal health monitoring in Europe: results from the EURO-PERISTAT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Mohangoo, Ashna D; Blondel, Beatrice; Chalmers, Jim; Macfarlane, Alison; Gaizauskiene, Aldona; Gatt, Miriam; Lack, Nicholas; Sakkeus, Luule; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Data about deliveries, births, mothers and newborn babies are collected extensively to monitor the health and care of mothers and babies during pregnancy, delivery and the post-partum period, but there is no common approach in Europe. We analysed the problems related to using the European data for international comparisons of perinatal health. We made an inventory of relevant data sources in 25 European Union (EU) member states and Norway, and collected perinatal data using a previously defined indicator list. The main sources were civil registration based on birth and death certificates, medical birth registers, hospital discharge systems, congenital anomaly registers, confidential enquiries and audits. A few countries provided data from routine perinatal surveys or from aggregated data collection systems. The main methodological problems were related to differences in registration criteria and definitions, coverage of data collection, problems in combining information from different sources, missing data and random variation for rare events. Collection of European perinatal health information is feasible, but the national health information systems need improvements to fill gaps. To improve international comparisons, stillbirth definitions should be standardised and a short list of causes of fetal and infant deaths should be developed.

  9. Country differences of psychosocial working conditions in Europe: the role of health and safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2017-04-21

    In times of demographic change, maintaining health and employability of older employees is important. In this context, studies show that stressful working conditions differ by countries. Yet, it is unclear if specific national management practices to deal with these conditions contribute towards explaining country differences. This study combines two different data sources. The first one provides detailed information on psychosocial working conditions in 17 European countries, based on 12,284 employees from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We link this information to the second data source that provides information on health and safety management practices in each of the countries under study (collected among 17,477 managers at the level of companies in the Enterprise survey on new and emerging risks (ESENER)). We distinguish six different types of risk management procedures in the analysis. Results show that levels of psychosocial risks are generally lower in countries with more developed management practices, in particular if national management practices are marked by (1) procedures to deal with work stress, (2) information about whom to address in case of work-related psychosocial problems, and (3) health and safety services provided by psychologists. The findings underline the importance of a comprehensive psychosocial risk management approach in reducing work-related stress, as lower levels of psychosocial risks are linked to specific psychosocial risk management practices within companies, in particular those pointing to clear responsibilities and coordinated procedures in dealing with psychosocial risks.

  10. Architecture and functioning of child and adolescent mental health services: a 28-country survey in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Giulia; Singh, Swaran P; Boricevic-Marsanic, Vlatka; Dieleman, Gwen; Dodig-Ćurković, Katarina; Franic, Tomislav; Gerritsen, Suzanne E; Griffin, James; Maras, Athanasios; McNicholas, Fiona; O'Hara, Lesley; Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Paul, Moli; Schulze, Ulrike; Street, Cathy; Tremmery, Sabine; Tuomainen, Helena; Verhulst, Frank; Warwick, Jane; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Santosh, Paramala

    2017-09-01

    The WHO Child and Adolescent Mental Health Atlas, published in 2005, reported that child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Europe differed substantially in their architecture and functioning. We assessed the characteristics of national CAMHS across the European Union (EU), including legal aspects of adolescent care. Using an online mapping survey aimed at expert(s) in each country, we obtained data for all 28 countries in the EU. The characteristics and activities of CAMHS (ie, availability of services, inpatient beds, and clinicians and organisations, and delivery of specific CAMHS services and treatments) varied considerably between countries, as did funding sources and user access. Neurodevelopmental disorders were the most frequent diagnostic group (up to 81%) for people seen at CAMHS (data available from only 13 [46%] countries). 20 (70%) countries reported having an official national child and adolescent mental health policy, covering young people until their official age of transition to adulthood. The heterogeneity in resource allocation did not seem to match epidemiological burden. Substantial improvements in the planning, monitoring, and delivery of mental health services for children and adolescents are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Europe: Health-related and sociodemographic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Laura M; Kemppainen, Teemu T; Reippainen, Jutta A; Salmenniemi, Suvi T; Vuolanto, Pia H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this research was to study health-related and sociodemographic determinants of the use of different complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments in Europe and differences in CAM use in various European countries. The study was based on a design-based logistic regression analysis of the European Social Survey (ESS), Round 7. We distinguished four CAM modalities: manual therapies, alternative medicinal systems, traditional Asian medical systems and mind-body therapies. In total, 25.9% of the general population had used CAM during the last 12 months. Typically, only one CAM treatment had been used, and it was used more often as complementary rather than alternative treatment. The use of CAM varied greatly by country, from 10% in Hungary to almost 40% in Germany. Compared to those in good health, the use of CAM was two to fourfold greater among those with health problems. The health profiles of users of different CAM modalities varied. For example, back or neck pain was associated with all types of CAM, whereas depression was associated only with the use of mind-body therapies. Individuals with difficult to diagnose health conditions were more inclined to utilize CAM, and CAM use was more common among women and those with a higher education. Lower income was associated with the use of mind-body therapies, whereas the other three CAM modalities were associated with higher income. Help-seeking differed according to the health problem, something that should be acknowledged by clinical professionals to ensure safe care. The findings also point towards possible socioeconomic inequalities in health service use.

  12. Taking care of our health: research tackling Europe's grand challenge of future health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivot, E.; Gehem, M.; Lingemann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Europeans have never been healthier than they are today. Yet although European countries have experienced a continuous improvement of their overall health situation, our increasing wealth has paradoxically become a driving force of new health problems. Aging and unhealthy lifestyles are leading to

  13. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    The use of genetics and genomics within a wide range of health-care settings requires health professionals to develop expertise to practise appropriately. There is a need for a common minimum standard of competence in genetics for health professionals in Europe but because of differences...... in professional education and regulation between European countries, setting curricula may not be practical. Core competences are used as a basis for health professional education in many fields and settings. An Expert Group working under the auspices of the EuroGentest project and European Society of Human...... Genetics Education Committee agreed that a pragmatic solution to the need to establish common standards for education and practice in genetic health care was to agree to a set of core competences that could apply across Europe. These were agreed through an exhaustive process of consultation with relevant...

  14. Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ian

    2007-08-01

    The glycopeptide avoparcin, bacitracin, the macrolides spiramycin and tylosin, and the streptogramin virginiamycin were withdrawn as growth promoters in the European Union between 1995 and 1999 on the basis of the Precautionary Principle. Relevant resistance thereupon diminished among enterococci (the indicator organisms) isolated from animal and human faeces. However, animal enterococci were shown to differ from those that caused human infections, although their resistance genes were sometimes indistinguishable and thus probably have a common origin. Before the ban, human clinical isolates of enterococci resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin were uncommon in many, but not all, parts of Europe and resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin in the case of Enterococcus faecium was very rare. After the ban, these resistances increased in prevalence almost universally, to the detriment of human health. Campylobacters, normally susceptible to macrolides, increased in prevalence before and after the ban. Analyses suggest that the added risk to human health from resistance among enterococci and campylobacters selected by growth promoter use is small, whilst the benefit to human health from their use, hitherto largely ignored, might more than counterbalance this.

  15. Life expectancy and health expenditure evolution in Eastern Europe-DiD and DEA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Vukovic, Mira; Fontanesi, John

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of long-term health expenditure and longevity trends across three major sub-regions of Eastern Europe since 1989. 24 countries were classified as EU 2004, CIS, or SEE. European Health for All Database (HFA-DB) 1989-2012 data were processed using difference-in-difference (DiD) and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The strongest expenditure growth was recorded in EU 2004 followed by SEE and the CIS. A surprisingly similar longevity increase was present in SEE and EU 2004. In 1989, countries that joined EU in 2004 were relatively inefficient in the number of life-years gained yet had a lower life expectancy than the SEE region and was only slightly higher than the CIS region (DEA). By 2012 the revenue spent was roughly linear to additional life-year expectancies. EU 2004 members were the best performers in terms of balanced longevity increase followed by health expenditure growth. The SEE economies' longevity gains were lagging slightly behind at a far lower cost. An extrapolated CIS expenditure to longevity increase ratio has the fastest-growing long-term promise.

  16. Health in Africa: what can France and Europe do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Kerouedan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa is the continent where the social and health situation is of greatest concern, and where progress on the Millennium Development Goals is the slowest. Access to global assistance for health is complex, as it is channeled through new funding mechanisms: global public-private partnerships or “innovative” financing. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the effectiveness of this aid, which is growing in volume, depends on a more equitable distribution between different countries on the same continent, or among patients with different pathologies, on financial resources as well as technical expertise, and on a evidence-based allocation of funding, using objective criteria such as epidemiological data, the efficacy of the chosen treatments, the population profile, the effectiveness and efficiency of selected interventions, etc. It is our opinion that food insecurity, including in urban areas, and unequal access to global health aid – combined with Africa’s unprecedented demographic growth and with the global financial and economic crisis effects– threaten the African continent political stability, particularly in the French-speaking Africa. To avoid the situation deteriorating still further, France and Europe, who have a historic responsibility towards this part of the world, must ensure that the human and financial resources allocated to global initiatives – channels these institutions favour to the detriment of bilateral aid – also benefit the most deprived populations living in French-speaking African countries.

  17. Climate change, extreme weather events, air pollution and respiratory health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sario, M; Katsouyanni, K; Michelozzi, P

    2013-09-01

    Due to climate change and other factors, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanised areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health both independently and synergistically with weather conditions; climate scenarios show Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions. European studies on heatwave episodes have consistently shown a synergistic effect of air pollution and high temperatures, while the potential weather-air pollution interaction during wildfires and dust storms is unknown. Allergen patterns are also changing in response to climate change, and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens, especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known; the health consequences vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases, and premature death. These multidimensional climate-pollution-allergen effects need to be taken into account in estimating both climate and air pollution-related respiratory effects, in order to set up adequate policy and public health actions to face both the current and future climate and pollution challenges.

  18. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality

  19. Immigrants' health in Europe: A cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (20022008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified

  20. Hispano-Americans in Europe: what do we know about their health status and determinants?: A scoping review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, M.; Domingo, A.; Leyva-Moral, J.M.; Pool, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Policy makers and health practitioners are in need of guidance to respond to the growing geographic mobility of Hispano-American migrants in Europe. Drawing from contributions from epidemiology, social sciences, demography, psychology, psychiatry and economy, this scoping review provides

  1. A Transnational Survey of Mental Health Professionals in the United States and Europe on the Etiology of Infantile Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanua, Victor D.

    The paper first reviews previous studies made of the causes of schizophrenia as seen by mental health professionals in Western countries and in the Third World. The study at hand focuses on infantile autism and how it is viewed by professionals in the United States and Europe. Questionnaires addressed issues, characteristics and etiology,…

  2. Methodology for measuring environmental health within Europe. Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zscheppang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Commission funds a European research project titled “Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems” (HEREPLUS that focuses on environmental health within Europe. The HEREPLUS project was presented at the 16th EUPHA conference in Lisbon in November 2008 within a workshop named “The assessment of the effect of air pollution on population and environmental health: the integration of epidemiology and geographical information system (GIS”.

    Methods: The HEREPLUS project aims to measure the correlation between air pollution (especially ozone and particulate matter, meteorology, vegetation and human health in four European cities (Rome, Madrid, Athens and Dresden by using a Geoinformation System to develop risk maps and subsequently guidelines to reduce air pollution and number of diseases.

    Results: The project started in September 2008 and a large, structured, relational database has been developed and completed. A literature review including national as well as international scientific literature goes on and will be completed in April 2009. Final results will be presented and published in 2011.

    Conclusions: Detailed scientific knowledge is important and needed to implement environmental programmes with the overall aim to protect human population against environmental related diseases.

  3. Ageing prisoners' health care: analysing the legal settings in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the current health care situation and the legal rights of ageing prisoners worldwide. To date, only a few studies have investigated their rights to health care. However, elderly prisoners need special attention. The aim of this article is to critically review the health care situation of older prisoners by analysing the relevant national and international legal frameworks with a particular focus on Switzerland, England and Wales, and the United States (U.S.). Publications on legal frameworks were searched using Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, HeinOnline, and the National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Searches utilizing combinations of keywords relating to ageing prisoners were performed. Relevant reports and policy documents were obtained in order to understand the legal settings in Switzerland, England and Wales, and the U.S. All articles, reports, and policy documents published in English and German between 1774 to June 2012 were included for analysis. Using a comparative approach, an outline was completed to distinguish positive policies in this area. Regulatory approaches were investigated through evaluations of soft laws applicable in Europe and U.S. Supreme Court judgements. Even though several documents could be interpreted as guaranteeing adequate health care for ageing prisoners, there is no specific regulation that addresses this issue completely. The Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing contributes the most by providing an in-depth analysis of the health care needs of older persons. Still, critical analysis of retrieved documents reveals the lack of specific legislation regarding the health care for ageing prisoners. No consistent regulation delineates the provision of health care for ageing prisoners. Neither national nor international institutions have enforceable laws that secure the precarious situation of older adults in prisons. To initiate a change, this work presents critical issues that must be

  4. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes", "no", or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited.Conclusion: Centralized reimbursement systems have become an important policy tool in many European countries. Nevertheless, there remains a lack of transparency around critical elements, such as how multiple factors or criteria are weighed during committee deliberations.Keywords: reimbursement, centralized review, health technologies, Europe

  5. The fiscal crisis in the health sector: Patterns of cutback management across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongaro, Edoardo; Ferré, Francesca; Fattore, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The article investigates trends in health sector cutback management strategies occurred during the ongoing financial and fiscal crisis across Europe. A European-wide survey to top public healthcare managers was conducted in ten different countries to understand their perception about public sector policy reactions to the financial and economic crisis; answers from 760 respondents from the healthcare sector (30.7% response rate) were analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the characteristics of respondents, countries' institutional healthcare models and the trend in public health resources availability during the crisis associated to the decision to introduce unselective cuts, targeted cuts or efficiency savings measures. Differentiated responses to the fiscal crisis that buffeted public finances were reported both across and within countries. Organizational position of respondents is significant in explaining the perceived cutback management approach introduced, where decentralized positions detect a higher use of linear cuts compared to their colleagues working in central level organizations. Compared to Bismark-like systems Beveridge-like ones favour the introduction of targeted cuts. Postponing the implementation of new programmes and containing expenses through instruments like pay freezes are some of the most popular responses adopted, while outright staff layoffs or reduction of frontline services have been more selectively employed. To cope with the effects of the fiscal crisis healthcare systems are undergoing important changes, possibly also affecting the scope of universal coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe in general and in Norway in particular. Literature review and ecological study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Health costs of Chernobyl disaster are still not clear.Main goal of this paper therefore is to investigate health consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Europe (outside the former Soviet Union) as a whole and in Norway in particular as one of the second high contaminated areas after those in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. To do that literature review and ecological study with the Incidence rate ratios analysis are conducted. As a result hypothesis about increased...

  7. Put order picking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the warehouse is very important logistic component of the supply chain, where order-picking systems have important role. Due to the significant impact on logistics performance permanent goals are to increase efficiency and reduce the cost of these systems. To achieve these goals, there are different researches, and their success is determined by the achieved performances. Performances order picking process are dependent on the applied technology concepts of order-picking system, as well as the ways in which it is organized and managed. In addition to the standard conceptions (the man to good and good to the man is one of the newer, so-called. 'put' system - the inverse order-picking. The aim of this paper is to describe this concept, point out its core strengths and weaknesses and provide a basis that may be of importance in the development of warehouse technological solutions and application of this order-picking systems concept.

  8. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    , particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should...... be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health...

  9. The Future Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Europe: A Claim for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethgen, O; Beaudart, C; Buckinx, F; Bruyère, O; Reginster, J Y

    2017-03-01

    Sarcopenia is a major public health issue. To convince health policy makers of the emergency to invest in the sarcopenia field, it is of critical importance to produce reliable figures of the expected burden of sarcopenia in the coming years. Age- and gender-specific population projections were retrieved until 2045 from the Eurostat online database (28 European countries). Age- and gender-specific prevalences of sarcopenia were interpolated from a study that compared prevalence estimates according to the different diagnostic cutoffs of the EWGSOP proposed definition. The reported prevalence estimates were interpolated between 65 and 100 years. Interpolated age- and gender-specific estimates of sarcopenia prevalence were then applied to population projections until 2045. Using the definition providing the lowest prevalence estimates, the number of individuals with sarcopenia would rise in Europe from 10,869,527 in 2016 to 18,735,173 in 2045 (a 72.4% increase). This corresponds to an overall prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly rising from 11.1% in 2016 to 12.9% in 2045. With the definition providing the highest prevalence estimates, the number of individuals with sarcopenia would rise from 19,740,527 in 2016 to 32,338,990 in 2045 (a 63.8% increase), corresponding to overall prevalence rates in the elderly of 20.2% and 22.3% for 2016 and 2045, respectively. We showed that the number of sarcopenic patients will dramatically increase in the next 30 years, making consequences of muscle wasting a major public health issue.

  10. Occupational health and safety policy and psychosocial risks in Europe: the role of stakeholders' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Sergio; Natali, Elena; Deitinger, Patrizia; Maria Rondinone, Bruna; Ertel, Michael; Jain, Aditya; Leka, Stavroula

    2011-06-01

    Psychosocial risks are now largely acknowledged throughout Europe as important challenges in occupational health and safety. However, there appear to be wide gaps in perception between experts and the general population on the nature and the relevance of psychosocial risks that have a potential impact on policy development and implementation in this area. This study investigated the level of knowledge among European stakeholders, of legislation on occupational safety and health, focusing particularly on psychosocial risk factors. 75 members of employers' associations, trade unions and government institutions from 21 countries in the European Union (EU) participated in the study. In addition, to further elaborate the findings of the survey, focus groups were organised during a 2-day stakeholder workshop. The level of application of European Directive 89/391 for the assessment and management of psychosocial risks and work-related stress was largely reported by the stakeholders as inadequate. This opinion was more marked in the new EU27 countries than the older EU15, and the difference was significant as regards the impact of the Directive on the assessment and management of psychosocial risks. Overall, psychosocial risks and work-related stress were reported to be important occupational health and safety concerns; however there were important differences among stakeholders in different countries. Despite the development of knowledge and activities on both the policy and practice levels in recent years, further work is still needed to harmonize stakeholder perceptions in this area in the various EU member states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk-behaviour screening for identifying adolescents with mental health problems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Coman, Horia G; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Durkee, Tony; Farkas, Luca; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Podlogar, Tina; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Sáiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Värnik, Peeter; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-07-01

    Indicated prevention of mental illness is an important public health concern among youth. The aim of this study was to establish a European school-based professional screening among adolescents, which included variables on both a broad range of risk-behaviours and psychopathology; and to investigate the indicative value of adolescent risk-behaviour and self-reported psychopathology on help-seeking and psychological problems that required subsequent mental healthcare. A two-stage professional screening approach was developed and performed within the multi-centre study "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE). The first stage of screening comprised a self-report questionnaire on a representative sample of 3,070 adolescents from 11 European countries. In the second stage, students deemed at-risk for mental health problems were evaluated using a semi-structured clinical interview performed by healthcare professionals. 61 % of participants (n = 1,865) were identified as being at-risk in stage one. In stage two, 384 participants (12.5 % of the original sample) were found to require subsequent mental healthcare during semi-structured, clinical assessment. Among those, 18.5 % of pupils were identified due to screening for psychopathology alone; 29.4 % due to screening for risk-behaviours alone; and 52.1 % by a combination of both. Young age and peer victimization increased help-seeking, while very low body mass index, depression, suicidal behaviour and substance abuse were the best predictors of referral to mental healthcare. Screening of risk-behaviours significantly increased the number of detected students requiring subsequent mental healthcare. Screening of risk-behaviours added significant value in identifying the significant amount of European pupils with mental health problems. Therefore, attention to adolescent risk-behaviours in addition to psychopathology is critical in facilitating prevention and early intervention. Identifying factors that increase

  12. Modeled effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution, health and societal costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Holst, Gitte Juel; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Europe a substantial share of the energy supply is used for domestic heating and cooling. The quality of building insulation thus significantly impacts air pollution. Objectives: To model the effects of an improved building insulation scenario in Europe on air pollution levels...... and the resulting effects on health and economy. Methods: Projected energy savings between 2005 and 2020 were calculated for an improved building insulation scenario and a business as usual scenario. The resulting changes in emissions (e.g. from power plants) were used in the Comprehensive Air-Quality Model...... with extensions. Mean annual changes in the main air pollutants were derived for each country. World Health Organization (WHO) and European Union (EU) data on populations and on impacts of pollutants were used to derive health effects and costs. Effects on indoor air quality were not assessed. Results: Projected...

  13. Socio-economic position and subjective health and well-being among older people in Europe: a systematic narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of older European populations have established that disability and morbidity vary with indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). We undertook a systematic narrative review of the literature to ascertain to what extent there is evidence of similar inequalities in the subjective health and well-being of older people in Europe. Method: Relevant original research articles were searched for using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy and Practice, Cinahl, Web of Science and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). We included studies of SEP and indicators of subjective health and well-being (self-rated health; life satisfaction; quality of life) conducted since 1991 using population-based samples of older people in Europe and published 1995–2013. Results: A total of 71 studies were identified. Poorer SEP was associated with poorer subjective health and well-being. Associations varied somewhat depending on the SEP measure and subjective health and well-being outcome used. Associations were weaker when social support and health-related behaviours were adjusted for suggesting that these factors mediate the relationship between SEP and subjective health and well-being. Associations tended to be weaker in the oldest age groups. The patterns of associations by gender were not consistent and tended to diminish after adjusting for indicators of health and life circumstances. Conclusion: The results of this systematic narrative review of the literature demonstrate the importance of social influences on later life subjective health and well-being and indicate areas which need further investigation, such as more studies from Eastern Europe, more longitudinal studies and more research on the role of mediating factors. PMID:25806655

  14. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Holmboe-Ottesen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants from low-income countries comprise an increasing proportion of the population in Europe. Higher prevalence of obesity and nutrition related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD is found in some immigrant groups, especially in South Asians. Aim: To review dietary changes after migration and discuss the implication for health and prevention among immigrants from low-income countries to Europe, with a special focus on South Asians. Method: Systematic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant high quality review articles and primary research papers. The searches were limited to major immigrant groups in Europe, including those from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. Articles in English from 1990 and onwards from Europe were included. For health implications, recent review articles and studies of particular relevance to dietary changes among South Asian migrants in Europe were chosen. Results: Most studies report on dietary changes and health consequences in South Asians. The picture of dietary change is complex, depending on a variety of factors related to country of origin, urban/rural residence, socio-economic and cultural factors and situation in host country. However, the main dietary trend after migration is a substantial increase in energy and fat intake, a reduction in carbohydrates and a switch from whole grains and pulses to more refined sources of carbohydrates, resulting in a low intake of fiber. The data also indicate an increase in intake of meat and dairy foods. Some groups have also reduced their vegetable intake. The findings suggest that these dietary changes may all have contributed to higher risk of obesity, T2D and CVD. Implications for prevention: A first priority in prevention should be adoption of a low-energy density – high fiber diet, rich in whole grains and grain products, as well as fruits, vegetables and pulses. Furthermore

  15. Changes in dietary habits after migration and consequences for health: a focus on South Asians in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants from low-income countries comprise an increasing proportion of the population in Europe. Higher prevalence of obesity and nutrition related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is found in some immigrant groups, especially in South Asians. To review dietary changes after migration and discuss the implication for health and prevention among immigrants from low-income countries to Europe, with a special focus on South Asians. Systematic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant high quality review articles and primary research papers. The searches were limited to major immigrant groups in Europe, including those from South Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka). Articles in English from 1990 and onwards from Europe were included. For health implications, recent review articles and studies of particular relevance to dietary changes among South Asian migrants in Europe were chosen. Most studies report on dietary changes and health consequences in South Asians. The picture of dietary change is complex, depending on a variety of factors related to country of origin, urban/rural residence, socio-economic and cultural factors and situation in host country. However, the main dietary trend after migration is a substantial increase in energy and fat intake, a reduction in carbohydrates and a switch from whole grains and pulses to more refined sources of carbohydrates, resulting in a low intake of fiber. The data also indicate an increase in intake of meat and dairy foods. Some groups have also reduced their vegetable intake. The findings suggest that these dietary changes may all have contributed to higher risk of obesity, T2D and CVD. IMPLICATIONS FOR PREVENTION: A first priority in prevention should be adoption of a low-energy density - high fiber diet, rich in whole grains and grain products, as well as fruits, vegetables and pulses. Furthermore, avoidance of energy dense and hyperprocessed foods is an

  16. Policy options for obesity in Europe: a comparison of public health specialists with other stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zapata, Laura I; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio; Clemente, Vicente; Millstone, Erik; Holdsworth, Michelle; Sarri, Katerina; Tarlao, Giulio; Horvath, Zoltanne; Lobstein, Tim; Savva, Savvas

    2009-07-01

    To explore policy options that public health specialists (PHS) consider appropriate for combating obesity in Europe, and compare their preferences with those of other stakeholders (non-PHS). Structured interviews using multicriteria mapping, a computer-based, decision-support tool. Nine European countries. A total of 189 stakeholders. Twenty-seven interviewees were PHS and non-PHS included food, sports and health sectors. A four-step approach was taken, i.e. selecting options, defining criteria, scoring options quantitatively and weighting the criteria to provide overall rankings of options. Interviews were recorded and transcribed to yield qualitative data. The PHS concur with other stakeholders interviewed, as all emphasised the importance of educational initiatives in combating obesity, followed by policies to improve community sports facilities, introduce mandatory food labelling and controlling food and drink advertising. Further analyses revealed several significant differences. The non-PHS from the private sector ranked institutional reforms favourably; the PHS from non-Mediterranean countries supported the option of medicines to prevent obesity; and those PHS from Mediterranean countries endorsed the use of activity monitoring devices such as pedometers. As far as appraisal criteria were concerned, PHS considered efficacy and the economic impact on the public sector to be the most important. There is clear consensus among PHS and other stakeholders concerning the need for a package of policy options, which suggests that European-wide implementation could be successful. However, it would be advisable to avoid more contentious policy options such as taxation until future changes in public opinion.

  17. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grellier, James; White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-01-01

    Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with

  18. Multi-model assessment of health impacts of air pollution in Europe and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ulas; Brandt, Jørgen; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Solazzo, Efisio; Hogrefe, Christian; Galmarini, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), air pollution is now the world's largest single environmental health risk. Assessments of health impacts and the associated external costs related to air pollution are estimated based on observed and/or modelled air pollutant levels. Chemistry and transport models (CTMs) are useful tools to calculate the concentrations of health-related pollutants taking into account the non-linearities in the chemistry and the complex interactions between meteorology and chemistry. However, the CTMs include different chemical and aerosol schemes that introduce differences in the representation of the processes. Likewise, will differences in the emissions and boundary conditions used in the models add to the overall uncertainties. These uncertainties are introduced also into the health impact estimates using output from the CTMs. Multi-model (MM) ensembles can be useful to minimize these uncertainties introduced by the individual CTMs. In the present study, the simulated surface concentrations of health related air pollutants for the year 2010 from fifteen modelling groups participating in the AQMEII exercise, serve as input to the Economic Valuation of Air Pollution model (EVA), in order to calculate the impacts of these pollutants on human health and the associated external costs in Europe and U.S. In addition, the impacts of a 20% global emission reduction scenario on the human health and associated costs have been calculated. Preliminary results show that in Europe and U.S., the MM mean number of premature deaths due to air pollution is calculated to be 400 000 and 160 000, respectively. Estimated health impacts among different models can vary up to a factor of 3 and 1.2 in Europe and U.S., respectively. PM is calculated to be the major pollutant affecting the health impacts and the differences in models regarding the treatment of aerosol composition, physics and dynamics is a key factor. The total MM mean costs due to health

  19. Strategic challenges in upgrading the population’s health in the transition countries of South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the devastating nineties of the last century a slow but steady improvement of the living conditions in the region of South Eastern Europe (SEE has be observed. However, so far only three countries, i.e. Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia, have managed to ascent to the European Union and only Slovenia has joined the European currency. All others are still struggling with a difficult heritage of inappropriate vertical management structures, overstaffing and outmigration of the well educated young. This résumé applies also to the field of public health where, for example, the old hygienic tradition remained dominant, often maintaining huge laboratory facilities in the institutes of public health and very small numbers of staff being allocated to health promotion and modern participative management. This situation cannot be overcome easily nor in short term. Supported by funds from the German contribution to the European Stability Pact, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fphsee has established a permanent collaboration between the public health institutions in the region, including foremost the Schools of Public Health (SPH, the National Public Health Associations (PHA and some national Institutes of Public Health (IPH.

  20. The financial crisis, health and health inequities in Europe: the need for regulations, redistribution and social protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vogli, Roberto

    2014-07-25

    In 2009, Europe was hit by one of the worst debt crises in history. Although the Eurozone crisis is often depicted as an effect of government mismanagement and corruption, it was a consequence of the 2008 U.S. banking crisis which was caused by more than three decades of neoliberal policies, financial deregulation and widening economic inequities.Evidence indicates that the Eurozone crisis disproportionately affected vulnerable populations in society and caused sharp increases of suicides and deaths due to mental and behavioral disorders especially among those who lost their jobs, houses and economic activities because of the crisis. Although little research has, so far, studied the effects of the crisis on health inequities, evidence showed that the 2009 economic downturn increased the number of people living in poverty and widened income inequality especially in European countries severely hit by the debt crisis. Data, however, also suggest favorable health trends and a reduction of traffic deaths fatalities in the general population during the economic recession. Moreover, egalitarian policies protecting the most disadvantaged populations with strong social protections proved to be effective in decoupling the link between job losses and suicides.Unfortunately, policy responses after the crisis in most European countries have mainly consisted in bank bailouts and austerity programs. These reforms have not only exacerbated the debt crisis and widened inequities in wealth but also failed to address the root causes of the crisis. In order to prevent a future financial downturn and promote a more equitable and sustainable society, European governments and international institutions need to adopt new regulations of banking and finance as well as policies of economic redistribution and investment in social protection. These policy changes, however, require the abandonment of the neoliberal ideology to craft a new global political economy where markets and gross

  1. Borrelia miyamotoi: A human tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete in Europe and its potential impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siński, Edward; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a tick-borne bacterium which has only recently been identified in Europe as a human pathogen causing relapsing fever and little is known about its local impact on human health. There are three types of B. miyamotoi: Asian (Siberian), European, and American. B. miyamotoi is transmitted by the same Ixodes ricinus-persulcatus species complex, which also transmits B. burgdorferi s.l., the Lyme borreliosis group. Both Borrelia groups are mostly maintained in natural rodent populations. The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature on B. miyamotoi, with the focus of attention falling on Europe, as well as to describe its presence in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans and discuss its potential impact on public health. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. A frailty instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2010-01-01

    A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http:\\/\\/www.share-project.org), a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries.

  3. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Cash-Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field.Methodology: To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has

  4. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Rosenmoller, Magdalene

    2014-10-01

    The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing) and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness). Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach) to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field. To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has been adopted with the creation of a common

  5. Policy processes and health technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmhøj Nielsen, Camilla; Sarriá Santamera, Antonio; Vondeling, Hindrik

    2008-01-01

    Decision-makers throughout Europe have a common goal of raising health standards in order to improve the health status of the European population. Health service delivery is carried out under conditions of growing political and economic complexity – rapid technological change puts pressure on

  6. Putting research to work

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... expand access, the Public Health Foundation of India was appointed as the secretariat of the country's .... the national agency in charge of promoting investments implemented an electronic business regis- ..... developing-country researchers and builds relationships with Canadian academic, research, and ...

  7. Put on My Shoes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast encourages increased physical activity to the tune of original music.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/29/2007.

  8. Putting strategy into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The outcome of the Women's Workshop in Oaxaca, Mexico in February 1992 is presented. 76 participants discussed strategies for promoting women's health and development in Latin America and the Caribbean and reviewed progress on last year's Plan of Action. In Colombia many points in the Plan were adopted by government policy and the Council for Women, Youth and Family. The information, education and communication (IEC) materials were helpful to a Brazilian participant in producing IEC materials and another workshop would help her support training for community leaders. The flip charts on Women's Rights to Health with topics on maternal and child health, reproductive health, and family planning (FP) were highly evaluated. Other successful materials were a video promoting breast feeding and women's rights which was produced by the Guatemala FP Association (APROFAM) and an AIDS prevention video for women made by the Center for Mothers, Children, Infants and FP of Brazil. Not only did participants evaluate materials but they also had to participate in discussions and present their ideas for a film promoting women's health at the sub-regional level. A field trip was conducted to Integrated Project (IP) villages in Oaxaca, and participants observed field workers using "Now, a New Wind Blows," a photo made by the UNFPA and JOICFP, to mobilize women. This booklet reputedly helped to mobilize a group of 70 women in the village of San Lucas Cuilapan. A comparison was made to the 1st workshop which provided an overview of the status of women in the region and the 4th which manifested concrete results and active participation of all involved.

  9. Raising Awareness on Health Impact of the Chemicals Used in Consumer Products: Empirical Evidence from East-Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Alexandru Luca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and guidance provided by regulatory authorities address the growing concerns on the control of chemicals used in consumer products. In this context, this study responds to literature alerts emphasizing the need for promoting risk reduction by decreasing the use of damaging chemicals and raising public awareness on this issue. It focuses on East-Central Europe and investigates whether consumers are worried about the impact on health of chemicals, and whether they think there is enough information available in this sense. The study uses logistic regression in order to analyze the secondary data from Special Eurobarometer No. 416 (part of Eurobarometer Wave EB 81.3, European Commission, 2014, namely 27,998 interviews collected in all 28 EU countries, of which 11,460 are from East-Central Europe. The research reveals a profile of East-Central Europeans, who consider that they lack information on the topic, and identifies the most effective way of reaching these people according to their perceptions and habits. Reporting results on a representative sample in East-Central Europe, the study indicates the channels, sources of information, and trusted institutions in order to support a campaign for raising public awareness on the health impact of chemicals used in consumer products.

  10. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  11. Creating a coherent set of indicators to monitor health across Europe: the Euro-REVES 2 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Jagger, Carol

    2003-09-01

    The Euro-REVES 2 project, 'Setting up of a coherent set of health expectancies for the European Union', was begun in 1998 under the European Health Monitoring Programme with the aim of selecting a concise set of instruments to simultaneously monitor mortality and the different facets of health. An in-depth analysis of the current health survey instruments in Europe together with a review of past research, found that, although harmonization in instruments appeared to exist superficially, major differences existed. Four instruments have been recommended (where necessary using existing instruments with modifications suggested by the research literature) covering physical and sensory functional limitations, activity restriction, self-perceived health and mental health. Additionally a new global activity limitation indicator (GALI) has been developed. These instruments are firmly anchored to past research and the health concepts behind the indicators and their relevance to policy and guidelines for implementation are explicitly made. The second phase of the project will recommend further instruments, leading to health expectancies that cover all the conceptual framework of population health measurement. This will allow assessment of health inequalities between the European Union countries, an appreciation of the causes and the production of profiles for each country in terms of the various facets of health.

  12. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Genetics Education Committee agreed that a pragmatic solution to the need to establish common standards for education and practice in genetic health care was to agree to a set of core competences that could apply across Europe. These were agreed through an exhaustive process of consultation with relevant...... health professionals and patient groups. Sets of competences for practitioners working in primary, secondary and tertiary care have been agreed and were approved by the European Society of Human Genetics. The competences provide an appropriate framework for genetics education of health professionals...... and professions has resulted in an adaptable framework for both pre-registration and continuing professional education. This competence framework has the potential to improve the quality of genetic health care for patients globally....

  13. Legacy and alternative halogenated flame retardants in human milk in Europe : Implications for children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čechová, Eliška; Vojta, Šimon; Kukučka, Petr; Kočan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomáš; Murínová, Ľubica Palkovičová; de Cock, Marijke; van de Bor, Margot; Askevold, Joakim; Eggesbø, Merete; Scheringer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 alternative halogenated flame retardants (AFRs) were determined in > 450 human milk samples across three European countries, representing northern, western and eastern Europe. This study provides first insights into the occurrence of

  14. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakoya, Ibidun; Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J.; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective: We present the

  15. Effects of genotype, environment, and their interactions on honey bee Health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D; Kryger, Per; Costa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    There are several reports of honey bee populations in Europe which survive without treatment for Varroa. However, when evaluated outside their native area, higher survival and resistance traits were not observed in colonies of a survivor population. Varroa infestation is strongly influenced...

  16. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent

  17. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood. In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and

  18. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  19. Depressed during the depression: has the economic crisis affected mental health inequalities in Europe? Findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibling, Nadine; Beckfield, Jason; Huijts, Tim; Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Thomson, Katie H; Wendt, Claus

    2017-02-01

    Economic crises constitute a shock to societies with potentially harmful effects to the mental health status of the population, including depressive symptoms, and existing health inequalities. With recent data from the European Social Survey (2006–14), this study investigates how the economic recession in Europe starting in 2007 has affected health inequalities in 21 European nations. Depressive feelings were measured with the CES-D eight-item depression scale. We tested for measurement invariance across different socio-economic groups. Overall, depressive feelings have decreased between 2006 and 2014 except for Cyprus and Spain. Inequalities between persons whose household income depends mainly on public benefits and those who do not have decreased, while the development of depressive feelings was less favorable among the precariously employed and the inactive than among the persons employed with an unlimited work contract. There are no robust effects of the crisis measure on health inequalities. Negative implications for mental health (in terms of depressive feelings) have been limited to some of the most strongly affected countries, while in the majority of Europe persons have felt less depressed over the course of the recession. Health inequalities have persisted in most countries during this time with little influence of the recession. Particular attention should be paid to the mental health of the inactive and the precariously employed.

  20. Comment on: withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Heuer, Ole E; Lester, Camilla H; Agersø, Yvonne; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Monnet, Dominique L

    2007-11-01

    In response to a review titled 'Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health', published in this Journal by Ian Phillips, we hereby comment on the review. Phillips makes use of data from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) reports and studies on Campylobacter and enterococci. Unfortunately, we find these data frequently misinterpreted by Phillips, leading to false conclusions such as inferences that the ban of antibiotic growth promoters should cause an increased prevalence of resistant enterococci and Campylobacter.

  1. Comment on: withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Lester, Camilla H.

    2007-01-01

    In response to a review titled 'Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health', published in this Journal by Ian Phillips, we hereby comment on the review. Phillips makes use of data from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring...... and Research Programme (DANMAP) reports and studies on Campylobacter and enterococci. Unfortunately, we find these data frequently misinterpreted by Phillips, leading to false conclusions such as inferences that the ban of antibiotic growth promoters should cause an increased prevalence of resistant...

  2. Noise and children′s health: Research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Paunovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children′s health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, South-East Europe (SEE, and Newly Independent States (NIS. The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children′s health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children′s health in relation to noise exposure.

  3. Convergent Validity of the PUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Severity of premonitory urges can be assessed with the Premonitory Urge for Tic Disorders Scale (PUTS. However, convergent validity of the measure has been difficult to assess due to the lack of other urge measures.We investigated the relationship between average real-time urge intensity assessed by an in-house developed real-time urge monitor, measuring urge intensity continuously for 5mins on a visual analogue scale, and general urge intensity assessed by the PUTS in 22 adult Tourette patients (mean age 29.8+/- 10.3; 19 male. Additionally, underlying factors of premonitory urges assessed by the PUTS were investigated in the adult sample using factor analysis and were replicated in 40 children and adolescents diagnosed with Tourette syndrome (mean age 12.05 +/- 2.83 SD, 31 male.Cronbach’s alpha for the PUTS10 was acceptable (α = .79 in the adult sample. Convergent validity between average real-time urge intensity scores (as assessed with the real-time urge monitor and the 10-item version of the PUTS (r = .64 and the 9-item version of the PUTS (r = .66 was good. A factor analysis including the 10 items of the PUTS and average real-time urge intensity scores revealed three factors. One factor included the average real-time urge intensity score and appeared to measure urge intensity, while the other two factors can be assumed to reflect the (sensory quality of urges and subjective control, respectively. The factor structure of the 10 PUTS items alone was replicated in a sample of children and adolescents.The results indicate that convergent validity between the PUTS and the real-time urge assessment monitor is good. Furthermore, the results suggest that the PUTS might assess more than one dimension of urges and it may be worthwhile developing different sub-scales of the PUTS assessing premonitory urges in terms of intensity and quality, as well as subjectively

  4. Major differences in organization and availability of health care and medicines for HIV/TB coinfected patients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansfeld, M; Skrahina, A; Shepherd, L

    2015-01-01

    ), Denmark (1), France (1), Italy (7), Spain (2), Switzerland (1) and UK (8). Compared with WE, treatment of HIV and TB in EE are less often located at the same site (47% in EE versus 100% in WE; P ...OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the organization and delivery of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) health care and to analyse potential differences between treatment centres in Eastern (EE) and Western Europe (WE). METHODS: Thirty-eight European HIV and TB treatment centres...... participating in the TB:HIV study within EuroCoord completed a survey on health care management for coinfected patients in 2013 (EE: 17 respondents; WE:21; 76% of all TB:HIV centres). Descriptive statistics were obtained for regional comparisons. The reported data on health care strategies were compared...

  5. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model

    OpenAIRE

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. Me...

  6. Consensus on the competencies required for public health nutrition workforce development in Europe - the JobNut project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis; Hughes, Roger; Thorsdottir, Inga; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-08-01

    To assess and develop consensus among a European panel of public health nutrition stakeholders regarding the competencies required for effective public health nutrition practice and the level of proficiency required in different practice contexts. A modified Delphi study involving three rounds of questionnaires. European Union. Public health nutrition workforce development stakeholders, including academics, practitioners and employers, from twenty European countries. A total of fifty-two expert panellists (84 % of an initial panel of sixty-two Delphi participants) completed all three rounds of the Delphi study. The panellists rated the importance of fifty-seven competency units possibly required of a public health nutritionist to effectively practice (Essential competencies). Twenty-nine of the fifty-seven competency units (51 %) met the consensus criteria (≥66·7 % agreement) at the second round of the Delphi survey, with the highest agreement for competencies clustered within the Nutrition science, Professional, Analytical and Public health services competency domains. Ratings of the level of competencies required for different levels in the workforce indicated that for a public health nutrition specialist, advanced-level competency was required across almost all the twenty-nine competencies rated as essential. There were limited differences in rating responses between academics and employer panellists throughout the Delphi study. Competencies identified as essential can be used to review current public health nutrition practices and provide the basis for curriculum design and re-development, continuing education and workforce quality assurance systems in Europe. These are all important tools for systematic and strategic workforce development.

  7. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J; Fleith, Mathilde; van Lieshout, Lilou; Mejborn, Heddie; Burley, Victoria J

    2017-12-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.

  8. Quality of care and its determinants in longer term mental health facilities across Europe; a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; Cardoso, Graça; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Turton, Penny; Taylor, Tatiana L; Schützwohl, Matthias; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Adamowski, Tomasz; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; King, Michael

    2016-02-11

    The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is an international, standardised quality tool for the evaluation of mental health facilities that provide longer term care. Completed by the service manager, it comprises 145 items that assess seven domains of care: living environment; treatments and interventions; therapeutic environment; self-management and autonomy; social interface; human rights; and recovery based practice. We used the QuIRC to investigate associations between characteristics of longer term mental health facilities across Europe and the quality of care they delivered to service patients. QuIRC assessments were completed for 213 longer term mental health units in ten countries that were at various stages of deinstitutionalisation of their mental health services. Associations between QuIRC domain scores and unit descriptive variables were explored using simple and multiple linear regression that took into account clustering at the unit and country level. We found wide variation in QuIRC domain scores between individual units, but across countries, fewer than a quarter scored below 50 % on any domains. The quality of care was higher in units that were smaller, of mixed sex, that had a defined expected maximum length of stay and in which not all patients were severely disabled. This is the first time longer term mental health units across a number of European countries have been compared using a standardised measure. Further use of the QuIRC will allow greater understanding of the quality of care in these units across Europe and provide an opportunity to monitor pan-European quality standards of care for this vulnerable patient group.

  9. Regular workshop: Health literacy in Europe: from measurement to targeted interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maindal, H.T.; Rademakers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Health literacy is increasingly being recognised as a crucial `determinant of health and health inequality all over the world. Health literacy enables people to make judgements and take decisions in everyday life concerning healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion to maintain or improve

  10. Political regimes, political ideology, and self-rated health in Europe : a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.; Perkins, J.M; Subramanian, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined

  11. HIV/AIDS in eastern Europe: more than a sexual health crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bollerup, Annemarie; Matic, Srdan

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is often described as a sexually transmitted disease. In the former USSR, however, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is being driven by injecting drug use among men. This article addresses several widely circulated assumptions about HIV in eastern Europe: that sexual contact is the primary mode...... of transmission, that women form a major increasing proportion of those infected, and that the disease threatens young people in particular. Because the rate of injecting drug use is extremely high in many eastern European countries, HIV control there cannot just target sexual transmission but must embrace other...

  12. Implementing and up-scaling evidence-based eMental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vis, Christiaan; Kleiboer, Annet; Prior, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depressive disorder is a major societal challenge. Despite the availability of clinically and cost-effective treatments including Internet interventions, the number of patients receiving treatment is limited. Evidence-based Internet interventions promise wide availability and high...... efficiency of treatments. However, these interventions often do not enter routine mental healthcare delivery at a large scale. The MasterMind project aims to provide insight into the factors that promote or hinder the uptake and implementation of evidence-based Internet interventions by mental healthcare...... by evaluating the implementation of evidence-based Internet interventions for depressive disorders in routine mental healthcare settings in Europe....

  13. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  14. Family Ties and Health Cross-Nationally: The Contextualizing Role of Familistic Culture and Public Pension Spending in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Although previous research theorizes that cross-national variation in the relationship between family ties and health is due to nation-level differences in culture and policy/economics, no study has examined this theorization empirically. Method. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), this study uses multilevel modeling to analyze individual-, nation-, and cross-level effects for 30,291 older adults in 14 nations. Results. Family ties to spouses/partners and parents are associated with better health, but ties to coresident children are associated with poorer health in certain contexts. Familistic culture and public pension spending have a weak but statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between intergenerational family ties and health. Discussion. This article underscores the complexity of family and highlights the need for continued theorization and measurement at the nation level to promote older adults’ health in diverse contexts. PMID:24043356

  15. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  16. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe: Universality, Equity, and Integrality-Time Has Come for the Latter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Garibaldi D; de Sousa, Islândia M Carvalho; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana; de Assis da Silva Santos, Francisco; Diderichsen, Finn

    2017-10-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles of universality, equity, and integrality. While the reform in Brazil aimed at improving equity and effectiveness, reforms in Europe aimed at improving efficiency in order to contain costs. The European reforms increased supply and utilization but never provided the large increase in efficiency that was hoped for, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having chronic disorders and very unequal comorbidities, bring the issue of integrality in the forefront in all 3 countries, and neither the public purchaser provider markets nor the 2-tier system in Brazil delivers on that front. It will demand political leadership and strategic planning with population responsibility to deal with such challenges.

  17. Climate changes, environment and infection: facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Christos; Dekas, Konstantinos; Charvalos, Ekatherina

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is a current global concern and, despite continuing controversy about the extent and importance of causes and of its effects, it seems likely that it will affect the incidence and prevalence of both residual and imported infections in Europe. Climate affects mainly the range of infectious diseases, whereas weather affects the timing and intensity of outbreaks. Climate change scenarios include a change distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extremes. The largest health impact from climate change for Europe doesn't come from vector borne infectious diseases. This does not mean that these types of health impacts will not arise in Europe. The ranges of several vector-borne diseases or their vectors are already changing in altitude due to warming. In addition, more intense weather events create conditions conductive to outbreaks of infectious diseases: Heavy rains leave insect breeding sites, drive rodents from burrows, and contaminate clean water systems. The incidence of mosquito-borne parasitic and viral diseases, are among those diseases most sensitive to climate. Climate change affect disease transmission by shifting the vector's geographic range and by shortening the pathogen incubation period. climate-related increases in temperature in sea surface and level would lead to higher incidence of waterborne infectious and toxin-related illnesses, such as cholera and seafood intoxication. Climate changes all around the world with impact in Europe are demonstrated by the fact that recent cases of cholera have been imported to Europe from Kenya, where spreading epidemic has been linked to the El Niño phenomenon, originated from the Pacific Ocean. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from aberrant climate changes could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. Human susceptibility to infections might be further compounded by alterations in the human immune system caused by

  18. 'FIFA 11 for Health' for Europe. 1: effect on health knowledge and well-being of 10- to 12-year-old Danish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Ørntoft, Christina; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Ottesen, Laila; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-10-01

    To modify the 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme to the European situation, and to assess its effects on health knowledge and well-being in Danish school children. A two-cohort study with seven intervention and two control schools. Of the 546 Danish children (boys 269; girls 277) of mean age 11.1 (±0.4) years from five city and four country-side schools, 402 undertook the 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme and 144 acted as controls. As part of each school's PE curriculum, seven intervention schools received a 45 min Play Football period (football skills and 3 vs 3 games) and a 45 min Play Fair period (health issues and football drills) on a weekly-basis for 11 weeks. Control participants continued with their regular school PE activities. Participants completed preintervention and postintervention health knowledge and well-being questionnaires. Overall, health knowledge increase was significantly (pFIFA 11 for Health' programme modified for Europe demonstrated positive effects on children's health knowledge and social dimension of well-being, thereby providing evidence that the football-based health education programme can be used effectively within a European school's curriculum to increase physical activity, well-being and health knowledge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Monitoring migrant health in Europe: a narrative review of data collection practices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rechel, B.; Mladovsky, P.; Devillé, W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the health of migrants, including on health determinants and access to health services, are an essential pre-condition for providing appropriate and accessible health services to this population group. This article reviews how far current data collection systems in the European

  20. Monitoring migrant health in Europe: a narrative review of data collection practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rechel, B.; Mladovsky, P.; Devillé, W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on the health of migrants, including on health determinants and access to health services, are an essential pre-condition for providing appropriate and accessible health services to this population group. This article reviews how far current data collection systems in the European

  1. Putting PUT to Use: Prototype and Metaphorical Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between prototype meanings and frequency of use is investigated with a view to establishing a foundation for the problem of "prototype acquisition." One polysemous basic verb, "put," is used in this study of native speaker discourse, and implications for both prototype theory and the acquisition of polysemy are…

  2. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  3. Putting Emotional Intelligence To Work

    CERN Document Server

    Ryback, David

    2012-01-01

    Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work offers a new paradigm of communication for the 21st-century workplace. Beginning with the thoughts of communication pioneer Carl Rogers, this book covers the origins and history of emotional intelligence, why it is essential at this point in the changing marketplace, how to delegate and negotiate more effectively, and how to change yourself to become a more effective player. An EQ (Emotional Quotient) survey helps you determine where you are on the scale of executive intelligence. Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work leaves you with a greater understand

  4. Putting women at the center: a review of Indian policy to address person-centered care in maternal and newborn health, family planning and abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana Srivastava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Person-centered care is a critical component of quality care, essential to enable treatment adherence, and maximize health outcomes. Improving the quality of health services is a key strategy to achieve the new global target of zero preventable maternal deaths by 2030. Recognizing this, the Government of India has in the last decade initiated a number of strategies to address quality of care in health and family welfare services. Methods We conducted a policy review of quality improvement strategies in India from 2005 to 15, covering three critical areas– maternal and newborn health, family planning, and abortion (MNHFP + A. Based on Walt and Gilson’s policy triangle framework, we analyzed the extent to which policies incorporated person-centered care, while identifying unaddressed issues. Data was sourced from Government of India websites, scientific and grey literature databases. Results Twenty-two national policy documents, comprising two policy statements and 20 implementation guidelines of specific schemes were included in the review. Quality improvement strategies span infrastructure, commodities, human resources, competencies, and accountability that are driving quality assurance in MNHFP + A services. However, several implementation challenges have affected compliance with person-centered care, thereby affecting utilization and outcomes. Conclusion Focus on person-centered care in Indian MNHFP + A policy has increased in recent years. Nevertheless, some aspects must still be strengthened, such as positive interpersonal behavior, information sharing and promptness of care. Implementation can be improved through better provider training, patient feedback and monitoring mechanisms. Moreover, unless persisting structural challenges are addressed implementation of person-centered care in facilities will not be effective.

  5. Access to health care for Roma children in Central and Eastern Europe: findings from a qualitative study in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Nick J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the attention the situation of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has received in the context of European Union enlargement, research on their access to health services is very limited, in particular with regard to child health services. Methods 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with users, providers and policy-makers concerned with child health services in Bulgaria, conducted in two villages, one town of 70,000 inhabitants, and the capital Sofia. Results Our findings provide important empirical evidence on the range of barriers Roma children face when accessing health services. Among the most important barriers are poverty, administrative and geographical obstacles, low levels of parental education, and lack of ways to accommodate the cultural, linguistic and religious specifics of this population group. Conclusion Our research illustrates the complexity of the problems the Roma face. Access to health care cannot be discussed in isolation from other problems this population group experiences, such as poverty, restricted access to education, and social exclusion.

  6. Education is a key determinant of health in Europe: a comparative analysis of 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A

    2011-06-01

    This paper has contributed to confirming the link between education and health in developed countries. The analysis is based on 11 European Union countries. We estimate country-specific health functions, where the dependent variable is self-reported health status and the education attainment is one of the main inputs. All eight waves (1994-2001) of the European Community Household Panel are deployed. A random effects ordered probit is estimated in order to control, to a given extent, for unobserved heterogeneity. Explanatory variables are both time invariant (education attainment and gender) and time varying (gross wages, hours of work, age and living alone). Results confirm the positive impact of secondary education on health in most cases and tertiary education in all cases, even after controlling for other inputs in the health function and taking unobserved heterogeneity into account. Secondary education has an impact on health in all countries in the sample except for The Netherlands and UK. The effect does not differ between secondary and tertiary education in France, Ireland and Greece. The correlation between education and health is interpreted in different but complementary ways by diverse approaches and we may not disentangle the precise mechanism that connects health with education from our results. Anyway, it seems clear that better coordination is needed between education and health policies to effectively improve health literacy. Other relevant results from our study are that women register poorer health than men, age contributes to worsening health status and wages contribute positively to health.

  7. Is the digital divide an obstacle to e-health? An analysis of the situation in Europe and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Francesca; Sardella, Maria Vittoria; Alboni, Fabrizio; Russo, Luana; Mariotti, Rita; Nicastro, Irene; Barletta, Valentina; Di Bello, Vitantonio

    2015-01-01

    The digital divide affecting elderly patients may compromise the diffusion of telemedicine systems for this age segment. It might be that the difficulties in the passage from trials to the effective distribution of telemedicine systems are also due to the awareness of a personal digital divide in the target population. The analysis aims to estimate the number of people over the age of 50 years with potential cardiovascular problems able to access the Web. It made use of data from several sources (the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica Multiscopo Survey). Furthermore, with regard to Italy, the estimates obtained from official data were compared with those obtained in a survey investigating heart failure patients in Tuscany. In 2011, the percentage of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and with Web access was 24% in Europe, with significant differences by country (ranging from 53% in Switzerland to below 20% in Italy, Spain, and Portugal). In Italy, however, the proportion of people with Web access increased from 2007 to 2011, and the survey in Tuscany showed that elderly people with limited information and communications technology skills overcame challenges and learned how to connect to the Web because they started to appreciate new technologies. The opportunity to use the Internet to monitor patients with chronic disease can serve as a challenge to reduce the digital divide gap and, furthermore, to increase their social and technological inclusion.

  8. E-prescription across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The use of electronic prescription has been designated as an important strategic policy to improve health care in Europe. The aim of the European Union is to have a cross-border electronic healthcare system in Europe which will enable EU citizens to obtain e-Prescriptions anywhere in Europe. Cross...

  9. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a

  10. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing pu...

  11. Putting Interpersonal Communication to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Educators are continuously faced with a wide range of communication challenges. Only by self-examining one's own approaches to interpersonal communication and being willing to improve can one put better communication to work in meeting those challenges--whether they are part of one's personal or professional life. Four principles are addressed…

  12. Putting Pow into Art Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd

    2004-01-01

    How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…

  13. Heating being put into service

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    The SMB-SE group would like to inform you that, the central heating will start this year, on Monday 3 October 2016, and will be progressively and depending on the weather forecast put into service throughout. All buildings will have heating within the following few days. Thank you for your understanding. The CERN heating team SMB-SE

  14. eHealth Trends in Europe 2005-2007: A Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kummervold, Per Egil; Chronaki, Catherine E.; Lausen, Berthold; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Rasmussen, Janne; Santana, Silvina; Staniszewski, Andrzej; Wangberg, Silje Camilla

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of Internet users worldwide has dramatically increased. People are using the Internet for various health-related purposes. It is important to monitor such use as it may have an impact on the individual?s health and behavior, patient-practitioner roles, and on general health care provision. Objectives This study investigates trends and patterns of European health-related Internet use over a period of 18 months. The main study objective was to estimate ...

  15. Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straßmayr, Christa; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan; Barros, Henrique; Canavan, Reamonn; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel; Gabor, Edina; Gaddini, Andrea; Greacen, Tim; Holcnerová, Petra; Kluge, Ulrike; Welbel, Marta; Nicaise, Pablo; Schene, Aart H.; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Katschnig, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Irregular migrants (IMs) are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1) to identify barriers to mental health care

  16. Socioeconomic hierarchy and health gradient in Europe: the role of income inequality and of social origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis; Leist, Anja K

    2015-11-14

    Health inequalities reflect multidimensional inequality (income, education, and other indicators of socioeconomic position) and vary across countries and welfare regimes. To which extent there is intergenerational transmission of health via parental socioeconomic status has rarely been investigated in comparative perspective. The study sought to explore if different measures of stratification produce the same health gradient and to which extent health gradients of income and of social origins vary with level of living and income inequality. A total of 299,770 observations were available from 18 countries assessed in EU-SILC 2005 and 2011 data, which contain information on social origins. Income inequality (Gini) and level of living were calculated from EU-SILC. Logit rank transformation provided normalized inequalities and distributions of income and social origins up to the extremes of the distribution and was used to investigate net comparable health gradients in detail. Multilevel random-slope models were run to post-estimate best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) and related standard deviations of residual intercepts (median health) and slopes (income-health gradients) per country and survey year. Health gradients varied across different measures of stratification, with origins and income producing significant slopes after controls. Income inequality was associated with worse average health, but income inequality and steepness of the health gradient were only marginally associated. Linear health gradients suggest gains in health per rank of income and of origins even at the very extremes of the distribution. Intergenerational transmission of status gains in importance in countries with higher income inequality. Countries differ in the association of income inequality and income-related health gradient, and low income inequality may mask health problems of vulnerable individuals with low status. Not only income inequality, but other country characteristics such

  17. Putting Integrated Systems Health Management Capabilities to Work: Development of an Advanced Caution and Warning System for Next-Generation Crewed Spacecraft Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Smith, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) technologies have advanced to the point where they can provide significant automated assistance with real-time fault detection, diagnosis, guided troubleshooting, and failure consequence assessment. To exploit these capabilities in actual operational environments, however, ISHM information must be integrated into operational concepts and associated information displays in ways that enable human operators to process and understand the ISHM system information rapidly and effectively. In this paper, we explore these design issues in the context of an advanced caution and warning system (ACAWS) for next-generation crewed spacecraft missions. User interface concepts for depicting failure diagnoses, failure effects, redundancy loss, "what-if" failure analysis scenarios, and resolution of ambiguity groups are discussed and illustrated.

  18. The state of occupational health in community Europe: from top-down reform to a renewal of trade union action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Working conditions in Europe are getting worse, due to changes in work organization, including intensification and increasing insecurity. A critical assessment of the state of prevention in Europe remains essential. Trade union organizations on the Luxembourg Advisory Committee on Safety, Hygiene and Health Protection at Work drafted a document on what Community occupational health policy should seek to achieve. In June 2001, the ETUC Executive Committee adopted a resolution based on the document. This article discusses the trade union strategy. The first step is to critique the few existing indicators. To a considerable extent, they actually conceal the health problems of work. The statistics on occupational disease reflect, above all, characteristics of the various national systems of benefits but say little about the real state of workers' health. "Traditional" risks still cause tens of thousands of deaths and injuries every year. Risks associated with work organization are increasing steadily. The intensification of work is an important aspect of the reorganization of production processes and is associated with major changes in work management and organization. At the same time, the spread of Taylorized work procedures in certain sectors (probably correlating strongly with work performed by women in both services and some branches of industry) and the introduction of management methods may be summarized in the phrase "controlled autonomy." It involves shifting some of the supervisory burden to the level of the team, which destroys collective solidarity and detracts from the conditions under which work can contribute to mental health. Labor insecurity has been facilitated by the reappearance of mass unemployment and technological changes. Work has become increasingly less "sustainable" and companies are swamping society with the real social costs of their appetite for profit. In seeking harmonization, we must ensure consistent legislation based on the

  19. Regular-Fat Dairy and Human Health: A Synopsis of Symposia Presented in Europe and North America (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Brenna, J Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises

    2016-07-29

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted.

  20. Regular-Fat Dairy and Human Health: A Synopsis of Symposia Presented in Europe and North America (2014–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Rice Bradley, Beth H.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Delplanque, Bernadette; Ferry, Monique; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014) in Canada, The American Society for Nutrition Annual Meeting held in conjunction with Experimental Biology (2015) in the United States, and The Federation of European Nutrition Societies (2015) in Germany. This synopsis of these symposia describes the complexity of dairy fat and the effects regular-fat dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted. PMID:27483308

  1. Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe 2016--Health Network Communications' Tenth Annual Conference (February 23-25, 2016--London, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P

    2016-03-01

    Tighter national budgets and escalating drug prices continue to present challenges for pharmaceutical market access strategies and societal cost of care. As pharmaceutical companies and medical governmental advisory organizations enter tougher negotiations, hospital trusts and other dispensary firms face barriers to receiving the best medical treatment, and as a result patient access is limited. The 2016 HealthNetwork Communications' Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe meeting brought together pharmaceutical, medical governmental advisory and stakeholders and market access/pricing consultants, to encourage discussions and negotiations into how to improve the drug pricing system and consequential market access strategies while achieving the respective reimbursement and affordability objectives. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. [Opportunity for the integration of the gender perspective in health research and innovation in Europe: COST Network genderSTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission supports several routes for incorporating the gender perspective. The Commission currently supports the new Horizon 2020 program, and also funds projects such as "gendered innovations", which show how gender innovations increase the quality of research and professional practice for health and welfare. One of the policy instruments is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation. Against this background, the international European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment) was created, which seeks to: 1) promote structural changes in institutions to increase the number of women researchers; 2) identify the gender dimensions relevant to the environment; and 3) improve the integration of a gender perspective in research and technology. COST GenderSTE supports networking and the dissemination of knowledge with a gender perspective. All these tools provide an opportunity to incorporate a gender perspective in research in Europe. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Health, migration and border management: analysis and capacity-building at Europe's borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Jennifer; Samuilova, Mariya; Petrova-Benedict, Roumyana

    2012-04-01

    Three key elements were analysed in Hungary, Poland and Slovakia as a basis for strengthening the capacity of staff and structures related to health, migration and border management: public health concerns linked to migration, health needs and rights of migrants and the occupational health of staff. This IOM project was implemented through an in-depth situation analysis as well as the development of training modules and public health guidelines. Findings indicate a paucity of existing data, gaps in the health care for migrants and few existing tools for border officials and health professionals. Sets of training modules were developed for each of these groups, including common modules on migration and the right to health and intercultural communication, as well as targeted health modules. The guidelines promote good practices in the context of border management and detention. The EU is working towards a common immigration policy and integrated border management; however, a harmonized approach to migration and health is still lacking. Further research and piloting of the developed materials is needed to fully establish an adaptable, common toolkit.

  4. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce......Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution...... will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed...

  5. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  6. Body sensor networks for Mobile Health Monitoring: Experience in Europe and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Gay, V.C.J.; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Remote ambulatory monitoring is widely seen as playing a key part in addressing the impending crisis in health care provision. We describe two mobile health solutions, one developed in the Netherlands and one in Australia. In both cases patients’ biosignals are measured by means of body worn sensors

  7. Body sensor networks for Mobile Health Monitoring: Experience in Europe and Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Gay, Valerie; Leijdekkers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Remote ambulatory monitoring is widely seen as playing a key part in addressing the impending crisis in health care provision. We describe two mobile health solutions, one developed in the Netherlands and one in Australia. In both cases a patient’s biosignals are measured by means of a body sensor

  8. Dietary patterns and health in the elderly : a north - south comparison in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, P.P.C.W.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the role of dietary intake as a determinant of different aspects of health, e.g. cognitive function, functional status, self-rated health and mortality. Dietary patterns, obtained from cluster analysis or a healthy diet indicator (HDI),

  9. What we need to improve the Public Health Workforce in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bjegovic-Mikanovic

    2015-12-01

    multidisciplinary public health workforce is needed, supported by new skills and expertise. It has been demonstrated that public health education needs to include a wider range of health related professionals including: managers, health promotion specialists, health economists, lawyers and pharmacists. In the future, public health professionals will increasingly require enhanced communication and leadership skills, as well as a broad, interdisciplinary focus, if they are to truly impact upon the health of the population and compete successfully in today‘s job market. New developments comprise flexible academic programmes, lifelong learning, employability, and accreditation. In Europe‘s current climate of extreme funding constraints, the need for upgrading public health training and education is more important than ever. The broad supportive environment and context for change are in place. By focusing on assessment and evaluation of the current context, coordination and joint efforts to promote competency-based education, and support and growth of new developments, a stronger, more versatile and much needed workforce will be developed.

  10. Round table: the silent revolution towards sustainable health care systems in Europe. (workshop)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    Under the subsidiarity principles of the EU Member States have always had great autonomy in organising their health care systems, contributing to the patchwork of different health care systems across the EU. However, due to the continuing economic and political crisis, an unprecedented - and

  11. Health services research related to performance indicators and benchmarking in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazinga, Niek; Fischer, Claudia; ten Asbroek, Augustinus

    2011-01-01

    Measuring quality of care through performance indicators and subsequently using these to compare, learn, and improve (benchmarking) has become a central component of health care policy. This paper aims to identify the main themes of health services research in this area and focuses on opportunities

  12. Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straßmayr Christa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregular migrants (IMs are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1 to identify barriers to mental health care for IMs, and (2 to explore ways by which these barriers are overcome in practice. Methods Data from semi-structured interviews with 25 experts in the field of mental health care for IMs in the capital cities of 14 European countries were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Experts reported a range of barriers to mental health care for IMs. These include the absence of legal entitlements to health care in some countries or a lack of awareness of such entitlements, administrative obstacles, a shortage of culturally sensitive care, the complexity of the social needs of IMs, and their fear of being reported and deported. These barriers can be partly overcome by networks of committed professionals and supportive services. NGOs have become important initial points of contact for IMs, providing mental health care themselves or referring IMs to other suitable services. However, these services are often confronted with the ethical dilemma of either acting according to the legislation and institutional rules or providing care for humanitarian reasons, which involves the risk of acting illegally and providing care without authorisation. Conclusions Even in countries where access to health care is legally possible for IMs, various other barriers remain. Some of these are common to all migrants, whilst others are specific for IMs. Attempts at improving mental health care for IMs should consider barriers beyond legal entitlement, including communicating information about entitlement to mental health care professionals and patients, providing culturally sensitive care and ensuring sufficient resources.

  13. Postcolonial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How has European identity been shaped through its colonial empires? Does this history of imperialism influence the conceptualisation of Europe in the contemporary globalised world? How has coloniality shaped geopolitical differences within Europe? What does this mean for the future of Europe......? Postcolonial Europe: Comparative Reflections after the Empires brings together scholars from across disciplines to rethink European colonialism in the light of its vanishing empires and the rise of new global power structures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the postcolonial European legacy the book...... argues that the commonly used nation-centric approach does not effectively capture the overlap between different colonial and postcolonial experiences across Europe....

  14. BlueHealth: a study programme protocol for mapping and quantifying the potential benefits to public health and well-being from Europe's blue spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, James; White, Mathew P; Albin, Maria; Bell, Simon; Elliott, Lewis R; Gascón, Mireia; Gualdi, Silvio; Mancini, Laura; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Sarigiannis, Denis A; van den Bosch, Matilda; Wolf, Tanja; Wuijts, Susanne; Fleming, Lora E

    2017-06-14

    Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with 'blue space' (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and health and well-being, to map and quantify the public health impacts of changes to both natural blue spaces and associated urban infrastructure in Europe, and to provide evidence-based information to policymakers on how to maximise health benefits associated with interventions in and around aquatic environments. To achieve these aims, an evidence base will be created through systematic reviews, analyses of secondary data sets and analyses of new data collected through a bespoke international survey and a wide range of community-level interventions. We will also explore how to deliver the benefits associated with blue spaces to those without direct access through the use of virtual reality. Scenarios will be developed that allow the evaluation of health impacts in plausible future societal contexts and changing environments. BlueHealth will develop key inputs into policymaking and land/water-use planning towards more salutogenic and sustainable uses of blue space, particularly in urban areas. Throughout the BlueHealth project, ethics review and approval are obtained for all relevant aspects of the study by the local ethics committees prior to any work being initiated and an ethics expert has been appointed to the project advisory board. So far, ethical approval has been obtained for the BlueHealth International Survey and

  15. Examining Mental Health and Well-being Provision in Schools in Europe: Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveetha Patalay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schools are considered an ideal setting for community-based mental health and well-being interventions for young people. However, in spite of extensive literature examining the effectiveness of such interventions, very few studies have investigated existing mental health and well-being provision in schools. The current study aims to extend such previous research by surveying primary and secondary schools to investigate the nature of available provision in nine European countries (Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, the UK and Ukraine. Furthermore, the study aims to investigate potential barriers to mental health and well-being provision and compare provision within and between countries.

  16. Video News release (A-roll) International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Visual Media Office; Paola Catapano

    2012-01-01

    Video News Release (A-roll) accompanying the Press Release announcing the International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe, organized by CERN at the International Conference Centre Geneva from February 27 to March 2.

  17. Health care for immigrants in Europe: is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devillé, W.; Greacen, T.; Bogic, M.; Dauvrin, M.; Dias, S.; Gaddini, A.; Koitzsch Jensen, N.; Karamanidou, C.; Kluge, U.; Mertaniemi, R.; Puigpinósi Riera, R.; Sarvary, A.; Soares, J.J.F.; Stankunas, M.; Straßmayr, C.; Welbel, M.; Priebe, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: European Member States are facing a challenge to provide accessible and effective health care services for immigrants. It remains unclear how best to achieve this and what characterises good practice in increasingly multicultural societies across Europe. This study assessed the views and

  18. Health care for immigrants in Europe: is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devillé, W.; Greacen, T.; Bogic, M.; Dauvrin, M.; Dias, S.; Gaddini, A.; Koitzsch Jensen, N.; Karamanidou, C.; Kluge, U.; Mertaniemi, R.; Puigpinós i Riera, R.; Sárváry, A.; Soares, J.J.F.; Stankunas, M.; Straßmayr, C.; Welbel, M.; Priebe, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background European Member States are facing a challenge to provide accessible and effective health care services for immigrants. It remains unclear how best to achieve this and what characterises good practice in increasingly multicultural societies across Europe. This study assessed the views and

  19. Precarious Employment and Quality of Employment in Relation to Health and Well-being in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Mireia; Vanroelen, Christophe; Bosmans, Kim; Van Aerden, Karen; Benach, Joan

    2017-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the recent work on precarious employment and employment quality in relation to workers' health and well-being. More specifically, the article mainly reviews the work performed in the E.U. 7th Framework project, SOPHIE. First, we present our overarching conceptual framework. Then, we provide a compiled overview of the evidence on the sociodemographic and European cross-country distribution of employment quality and employment precariousness. Subsequently, we provide the current evidence regarding the relations with health and broader worker well-being indicators. A final section summarizes current insights on the pathways relating precarious employment and health and well-being. The article concludes with a plea for further data collection and research into the longitudinal effects of employment precariousness among emerging groups of workers. Based on the evidence compiled in this article, policymakers should be convinced of the harmful health and well-being effects of employment precariousness and (further) labor market flexibilization.

  20. Preventing mobility disability in Europe: a health economics perspective from the SPRINTT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, Nicolas; Rapp, Thomas; Coretti, Silvia; Ruggeri, Matteo; Cicchetti, Americo

    2017-02-01

    In a global context of population aging, gaining better knowledge of the mechanisms leading to loss of autonomy has become a major objective, notably with the aim of implementing effective preventive health policies. The concept of frailty, originally introduced in gerontology and geriatrics as a precursor state to functional dependency, appears as a useful tool in this specific context. The "Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies" (SPRINTT) project will provide a unique opportunity to explore health economics issues associated with frailty. In terms of health economics, the loss of autonomy approach retained here focuses on the economic and social causes and consequences of the onset of frailty in older adults, and examines the challenges not only in terms of health system efficiency but also in terms of social protection.

  1. Reconfiguring health workforce: a case-based comparative study explaining the increasingly diverse professional roles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Bont

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade the healthcare workforce has diversified in several directions with formalised roles for health care assistants, specialised roles for nurses and technicians, advanced roles for physician associates and nurse practitioners and new professions for new services, such as case managers. Hence the composition of health care teams has become increasingly diverse. The exact extent of this diversity is unknown across the different countries of Europe, as are the drivers of this change. The research questions guiding this study were: What extended professional roles are emerging on health care teams? How are extended professional roles created? What main drivers explain the observed differences, if any, in extended roles in and between countries? Methods We performed a case-based comparison of the extended roles in care pathways for breast cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We conducted 16 case studies in eight European countries, including in total 160 interviews with physicians, nurses and other health care professionals in new roles and 600+ hours of observation in health care clinics. Results The results show a relatively diverse composition of roles in the three care pathways. We identified specialised roles for physicians, extended roles for nurses and technicians, and independent roles for advanced nurse practitioners and physician associates. The development of extended roles depends upon the willingness of physicians to delegate tasks, developments in medical technology and service (redesign. Academic training and setting a formal scope of practice for new roles have less impact upon the development of new roles. While specialised roles focus particularly on a well-specified technical or clinical domain, the generic roles concentrate on organising and integrating care and cure. Conclusion There are considerable differences in the number and kind of extended roles between both countries and care

  2. Media exposure and health in Europe: Mediators and moderators of media systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, N.; Zanden, R. van der; Buijzen, M.A.; P. L.H. Scheepers

    2016-01-01

    This study examined media exposure as an explanatory factor for individual and cross-national differences in self-assessed general health. In studying media exposure, traditional media (television, radio, and newspapers) and contemporary media (internet) were separately considered. Aside from hypotheses about the relation between media exposure and general health, we also tested hypotheses regarding the mediating role of social isolation and mean world syndrome as well as the moderating role ...

  3. Reducing the health care burden for marginalised migrants: The potential role for primary care in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Catherine Agnes; Burns, Nicola; Mair, Frances Susanne; Dowrick, Christopher; Clissmann, Ciaran; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Papadakaki, Maria; Saridaki, Aristoula; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-05-01

    There is a growing interest in the health of migrants worldwide. Migrants, particularly those in marginalised situations, face significant barriers and inequities in entitlement and access to high quality health care. This study aimed to explore the potential role of primary care in mitigating such barriers and identify ways in which health care policies and systems can influence the ability of primary care to meet the needs of vulnerable and marginalised migrants. The study compared routinely available country-level data on health system structure and financing, policy support for language and communication, and barriers and facilitators to health care access reported in the published literature. These were then mapped to a framework of primary care systems to identify where the key features mitigating or amplifying barriers to access lay. Reflecting on the data generated, we argue that culturally-sensitive primary care can play a key role in delivering accessible, high-quality care to migrants in vulnerable situations. Policymakers and practitioners need to appreciate that both individual patient capacity, and the way health care systems are configured and funded, can constrain access to care and have a negative impact on the quality of care that practitioners can provide to such populations. Strategies to address these issues, from the level of policy through to practice, are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A Multicriteria Risk Analysis to Evaluate Impacts of Forest Management Alternatives on Forest Health in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Jactel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate change, forests are likely to face new hazards, which may require adaptation of our existing silvicultural practices. However, it is difficult to imagine a forest management approach that can simultaneously minimize all risks of damage. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA has been developed to help decision makers choose between actions that require reaching a compromise among criteria of different weights. We adapted this method and produced a multicriteria risk analysis (MCRA to compare the risk of damage associated with various forest management systems with a range of management intensity. The objective was to evaluate the effect of four forest management alternatives (FMAs (i.e., close to nature, extensive management with combined objectives, intensive even-aged plantations, and short-rotation forestry for biomass production on biotic and abiotic risks of damage in eight regional case studies combining three forest biomes (Boreal, Continental, Atlantic and five tree species (Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris, Picea sitchensis, and Picea abies relevant to wood production in Europe. Specific forest susceptibility to a series of abiotic (wind, fire, and snow and biotic (insect pests, pathogenic fungi, and mammal herbivores hazards were defined by expert panels and subsequently weighted by corresponding likelihood. The PROMETHEE ranking method was applied to rank the FMAs from the most to the least at risk. Overall, risk was lower in short-rotation forests designed to produce wood biomass, because of the reduced stand susceptibility to the most damaging hazards. At the opposite end of the management intensity gradient, close-to-nature systems also had low overall risk, due to lower stand value exposed to damage. Intensive even-aged forestry appeared to be subject to the greatest risk, irrespective of tree species and bioclimatic zone. These results seem to be robust as no significant differences in relative

  5. Foreclosure and Health in Southern Europe: Results from the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2016-04-01

    Housing instability has been shown to be related to poorer health outcomes in various studies, mainly in the USA and UK. Affected individuals are more prone to psychiatric (e.g., major depression, anxiety) and physical disorders (e.g., hypertension). This situation has deteriorated with the onset of the economic crisis. One of the most affected countries is Spain, which has high rates of foreclosure and eviction that continue to rise. In response, a civil movement, The Platform for People Affected by Mortgages (PAH), works to provide solutions to its members affected by foreclosure and advocates for the right to decent housing. The aims of this study ware to describe and compare the health status of PAH members from Catalonia to a sample of the general population and to analyze the association between health status and mortgage status, foreclosure stage, and other socioeconomic variables, among members of the PAH. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire (2014) administered to 905 PAH members in Catalonia (>18 years; 559 women and 346 men). Results were compared with health indicators from The Health Survey of Catalonia 2013 (n = 4830). The dependent variables were poor mental health (GHQ 12 ≥ 3), and poor self-reported health (fair or poor). All analyses were stratified by sex. We computed age-standardized prevalence and prevalence ratios of poor mental and self-reported health in both samples. We also analyzed health outcomes among PAH members according to mortgage status (mortgage holders or guarantors), stage of foreclosure, and other socioeconomic variables by computing prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of poor mental health among PAH members was 90.6 % in women and 84.4 % in men, and 15.5 and 10.2 % in the general population, respectively. The prevalence of poor self-reported health was 55.6 % in women and 39.4 % in men from the PAH, and 19.2 and 16.1 % in the general

  6. The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palència, Laia; Malmusi, Davide; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Backhans, Mona; Vanroelen, Christophe; Borrell, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi's typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21 in Traditional-Central and PR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.19-1.35 in Traditional-Southern) and in Contradictory countries (PR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.05-1.11). In multilevel models, only gender inequalities in Traditional-Southern countries were significantly higher than those in Dual-earner countries. Gender inequalities in self-perceived health were higher, women reporting worse self-perceived health than men, in countries with family policies that were less oriented to gender equality

  7. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L. in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rasmussen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp. in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5. We quantify the extent of the increase in ‘high allergy risk’ (HAR areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25% of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27–100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  8. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Karen; Thyrring, Jakob; Muscarella, Robert; Borchsenius, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). We quantify the extent of the increase in 'high allergy risk' (HAR) areas, i.e., parts of Europe with climatic conditions corresponding to the highest quartile (25%) of present day habitat suitability for each of the three species. We estimate that by year 2100, the distribution range of all three ragweed species increases towards Northern and Eastern Europe under all climate scenarios. HAR areas will expand in Europe by 27-100%, depending on species and climate scenario. Novel HAR areas will occur mostly in Denmark, France, Germany, Russia and the Baltic countries, and overlap with densely populated cities such as Paris and St. Petersburg. We conclude that areas in Europe affected by severe ragweed associated allergy problems are likely to increase substantially by year 2100, affecting millions of people. To avoid this, management strategies must be developed that restrict ragweed dispersal and establishment of new populations. Precautionary efforts should limit the spread of ragweed seeds and reduce existing populations. Only by applying cross-countries management plans can managers mitigate future health risks and economical consequences of a ragweed expansion in Europe.

  9. Health Data for Public Health: Towards New Ways of Combining Data Sources to Support Research Efforts in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgun, A; Bernal-Delgado, E; Kuchinke, W; van Staa, T; Cunningham, J; Lettieri, E; Mazzali, C; Oksen, D; Estupiñan, F; Barone, A; Chène, G

    2017-08-01

    Objectives: To present the European landscape regarding the re-use of health administrative data for research. Methods: We present some collaborative projects and solutions that have been developed by Nordic countries, Italy, Spain, France, Germany, and the UK, to facilitate access to their health data for research purposes. Results: Research in public health is transitioning from siloed systems to more accessible and re-usable data resources. Following the example of the Nordic countries, several European countries aim at facilitating the re-use of their health administrative databases for research purposes. However, the ecosystem is still a complex patchwork, with different rules, policies, and processes for data provision. Conclusion: The challenges are such that with the abundance of health administrative data, only a European, overarching public health research infrastructure, is able to efficiently facilitate access to this data and accelerate research based on these highly valuable resources. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  10. Combining employment and family in Europe: the role of family policies in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Cortès, Imma; Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Benavides, Fernando G; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Borrell, Carme

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to analyse the relationship between health status and paid working hours and household composition in the EU-27, and (ii) to examine whether patterns of association differ as a function of family policy typologies and gender. Cross-sectional study based on data from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey of 2010. The sample included married or cohabiting employees aged 25-64 years from the EU-27 (10,482 men and 8,882 women). The dependent variables were self-perceived health status and psychological well-being. Irrespective of differences in family policy typologies between countries, working long hours was more common among men, and part-time work was more common among women. In Continental and Southern European countries, employment and family demands were associated with poor health status in both sexes, but more consistently among women. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the association was mainly limited to men. Finally, in Nordic and Eastern European countries, employment and family demands were largely unassociated with poor health outcomes in both sexes. The combination of employment and family demands is largely unassociated with health status in countries with dual-earner family policy models, but is associated with poorer health outcomes in countries with market-oriented models, mainly among men. This association is more consistent among women in countries with traditional models, where males are the breadwinners and females are responsible for domestic and care work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. The annual Hajj pilgrimage-minimizing the risk of ill health in pilgrims from Europe and opportunity for driving the best prevention and health promotion guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shuja; Dar, Osman; Khan, Mishal; Khan, Minal; Azhar, Esam I; McCloskey, Brian; Zumla, Alimuddin; Petersen, Eskild

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings at religious events can pose major public health challenges, particularly the transmission of infectious diseases. Every year the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) hosts the Hajj pilgrimage, the largest gathering held on an annual basis where over 2 million people come to KSA from over 180 countries. Living together in crowded conditions exposes the pilgrims and the local population to a range infectious diseases. Respiratory and gastrointestinal tract bacterial and viral infections can spread rapidly and affect attendees of mass gatherings. Lethal infectious disease outbreaks were common during Hajj in the 19th and 20th centuries although they have now been controlled to a great extent by the huge investments made by the KSA into public health prevention and surveillance programs. The KSA provides regular updated Hajj travel advice and health regulations through international public health agencies such as the WHO, Public Health England, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Hajj travel agencies. During the Hajj, an additional 25 000 health workers are deployed; there are eight hospitals in Makkah and Mina complete with state-of-the-art surgical wards and intensive care units made specifically available for pilgrims. All medical facilities offer high quality of care, and services are offered free to Hajj pilgrims to ensure the risks of ill health to all pilgrims and KSA residents are minimal. A summary of the key health issues that arise in pilgrims from Europe during Hajj and of the KSA Hajj guidelines, together with other factors that may play a role in reducing the risks to pilgrims and to wider global health security, is provided herein. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Health care for immigrants in Europe: is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devillé, Walter; Greacen, Tim; Bogic, Marija

    2011-01-01

    different fields: academia, Non-Governmental Organisations, policy-making and health care practice. For each country, the process aimed to produce a national consensus list of the most important factors characterising good practice in health care for migrants. Results: The scoring procedures resulted in 10...... influenced the selection and rating of factors within each country, there was a broad European consensus on most factors. Yet, discordance remained both within countries, e.g. on the need for prioritising cultural differences, and between countries, e.g. on the need for more consistent governance of health...... care services for immigrants. Conclusions: Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a broad consensus among experts about the major principles of good practice that need to be implemented across Europe. However, there also is some...

  13. Pharmaceutical Pricing and Market Access Outlook Europe 2010-HealthNetwork Communications' fourth annual conference. 24-25 March 2010, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbighele, Erhimuvi

    2010-05-01

    The HealthNetwork Communications' Fourth Annual Conference on Pharmaceutical Pricing and Market Access Outlook Europe 2010, held in London, included topics covering the challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry, specifically related to pricing and reimbursement, and demonstrating the value of a pharmaceutical. This conference report highlights selected presentations on a global perspective on pricing and reimbursement, with an analysis of the specific, unique challenges in the six major markets, Europe, the US, Canada, Germany, the UK and Japan, and a discussion of the benefits of risk-sharing schemes.

  14. Care Preferences Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Chronic Disease in Europe: Individual Health Care Needs and National Health Care Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Christine A; Quiñones, Ana R; Pasha, Maha A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand knowledge of care options for aging populations cross-nationally by examining key individual-level and nation-level predictors of European middle-aged and older adults' preferences for care. Drawing on data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, we analyze old age care preferences of a sample of 6,469 adults aged 50 and older with chronic disease in 14 nations. Using multilevel modeling, we analyze associations between individual-level health care needs and nation-level health care infrastructure and preference for family-based (vs. state-based) personal care. We find that middle-aged and older adults with chronic disease whose health limits their ability to perform paid work, who did not receive personal care from informal sources, and who live in nations with generous long-term care funding are less likely to prefer family-based care and more likely to prefer state-based care. We discuss these findings in light of financial risks in later life and the future role of specialized health support programs, such as long-term care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sample selection, recruitment and participation rates in health examination surveys in Europe--experience from seven national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Giampaoli, Simona; Goesswald, Antje; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Mann, Charlotte; Männistö, Satu; Morgan, Karen; Shelton, Nicola J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-10-05

    Health examination surveys (HESs), carried out in Europe since the 1950's, provide valuable information about the general population's health for health monitoring, policy making, and research. Survey participation rates, important for representativeness, have been falling. International comparisons are hampered by differing exclusion criteria and definitions for non-response. Information was collected about seven national HESs in Europe conducted in 2007-2012. These surveys can be classified into household and individual-based surveys, depending on the sampling frames used. Participation rates of randomly selected adult samples were calculated for four survey modules using standardised definitions and compared by sex, age-group, geographical areas within countries, and over time, where possible. All surveys covered residents not just citizens; three countries excluded those in institutions. In two surveys, physical examinations and blood sample collection were conducted at the participants' home; the others occurred at examination clinics. Recruitment processes varied considerably between surveys. Monetary incentives were used in four surveys. Initial participation rates aged 35-64 were 45% in the Netherlands (phase II), 54% in Germany (new and previous participants combined), 55% in Italy, and 65% in Finland. In Ireland, England and Scotland, household participation rates were 66%, 66% and 63% respectively. Participation rates were generally higher in women and increased with age. Almost all participants attending an examination centre agreed to all modules but surveys conducted in the participants' home had falling responses to each stage. Participation rates in most primate cities were substantially lower than the national average. Age-standardized response rates to blood pressure measurement among those aged 35-64 in Finland, Germany and England fell by 0.7-1.5 percentage points p.a. between 1998-2002 and 2010-2012. Longer trends in some countries show a more

  16. Europe's strong primary care systems are linked to better population health but also to higher health spending.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.; Zee, J. van der; Groenewegen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health

  17. Europe's strong primary care systems are linked to better population health but also to higher health spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke; van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Strong primary care systems are often viewed as the bedrock of health care systems that provide high-quality care, but the evidence supporting this view is somewhat limited. We analyzed comparative primary care data collected in 2009-10 as part of a European Union-funded project, the Primary Health

  18. Climate-change-induced range shifts of three allergenic ragweeds (Ambrosia L.) in Europe and their potential impact on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Rasmussen; Jakob Thyrring; Robert Muscarella; Finn Borchsenius

    2017-01-01

    Invasive allergenic plant species may have severe health-related impacts. In this study we aim to predict the effects of climate change on the distribution of three allergenic ragweed species (Ambrosia spp.) in Europe and discuss the potential associated health impact. We built species distribution models based on presence-only data for three ragweed species, using MAXENT software. Future climatic habitat suitability was modeled under two IPCC climate change scenarios (RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5). W...

  19. Introduction to "Diversity of Child Health Care in Europe: A Study of the European Paediatric Association/Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Jochen; Namazova-Baranova, Leyla; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    The field of pediatrics in Europe is characterized by the diversities, variations, and heterogeneities of child health care services provided in 53 European countries with more than 200 million children below 18 years of age. Managing the health care of infants, children, and adolescents in Europe requires balancing clinical aims, research findings, and socioeconomic goals within a typical environment characterized by cultural and economic complexity and large disparity in availability, affordability, and accessibility of pediatric care. Since its foundation in 1976, the European Paediatric Association-Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations has worked to improve both medical care of all children and cooperation of their caretakers in Europe. Such a report has been conceived in the strong belief that broadening of the intellectual basis of the European Paediatric Association-Union of National European Paediatric Societies and Associations and creating a multidisciplinary society will be necessary to reduce fragmentation of pediatrics and tackle the legal, economic, and organizational challenges of child health care in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Global payment for health services as a solution in the financial crisis in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, Guus J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In these financial difficult years many European governments used global ceilings to control costs of health services. Two scenarios are thinkable. The first is that all individual providers get a budget for their own costs: general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, nursing homes and mental

  1. Health related social exclusion in Europe: a multilevel study of the role of welfare generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Dahl, Espen; van der Wel, Kjetil A

    2013-09-28

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25-59 years, within 21 European welfare states. The analyses were conducted by means of multilevel logistic regression analysis in STATA 12. The results demonstrated that the risk of non-participation in social networks decreased as welfare generosity increased. The risk of social exclusion, i.e. non-participation in social networks among disadvantaged groups, seldom differed from the overall association, and in absolute terms it was invariably smaller in more generous welfare state contexts. The results showed that there were no indications of higher levels of non-participation among disadvantaged groups in more generous welfare states. On the contrary, resources made available by the welfare state seemed to matter to all individuals in terms of overall lower levels of non-participation. As such, these results demonstrate the importance of linking health related social exclusion to the social policy context.

  2. Change in the control of health care systems in Europe: implications for professional autonomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Calnan, M.

    1995-01-01

    Major changes are taking place in European health care systems, especially those in the former communist countries. However, in Western European countries reorganization is also on its way, guided by the rhetoric of deregulation and competition. This might lead to a convergence in the institutional

  3. Genetic education and nongenetic health professionals: educational providers and curricula in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challen, K.; Harris, H.J.; Julian-Reynier, C.; ten Kate, L.P.; Kristoffersson, U.; Nippert, I.; Schmidtke, J.; Benjamin, C.; Harris, R

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Advances in and diffusion of genetic technology mean that nongeneticist health professionals have an increasing need to develop and maintain genetic competencies. This has been recognized by patient support groups and the European Commission. As the first phase of the GenEd (Genetic

  4. Genetic education and nongenetic health professionals: educational providers and curricula in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challen, K.; Harris, H.J.; Julian-Reynier, C.; Kate, L.P. ten; Kristoffersson, U.; Nippert, I.; Schmidtke, J.; Benjamin, C.; Harris, R

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Advances in and diffusion of genetic technology mean that nongeneticist health professionals have an increasing need to develop and maintain genetic competencies. This has been recognized by patient support groups and the European Commission. As the first phase of the GenEd (Genetic

  5. Health services for asylum seekers and refugees in Europe: consequences for policymaking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devillé, W.; Goosen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Reception and integration of asylum seekers and refugees are high on the political agenda in most European countries. Reception conditions, including the provision of health care, differ considerably between countries. The European Commission tries to harmonise the reception standards in the

  6. Media exposure and health in Europe: Mediators and moderators of media systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, N.; Zanden, R. van der; Buijzen, M.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined media exposure as an explanatory factor for individual and cross-national differences in self-assessed general health. In studying media exposure, traditional media (television, radio, and newspapers) and contemporary media (internet) were separately considered. Aside from

  7. Farming for Health. Green-care farming across Europe and the United States of America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.; Dijk, van M.

    2006-01-01

    The utilization of agricultural farms as a base for promoting human mental and physical health and social well-being is a new promising development. On farms, the animals, the plants, the garden, the forest and the landscape are used in recreational or work-related activities for psychiatric

  8. Health related social exclusion in Europe: a multilevel study of the role of welfare generosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between health, social position, social participation and the welfare state. Extending recent research on the social consequences of poor health, we asked whether and how welfare generosity is related to the risk of social exclusion associated with combinations of poor health, low education and economic inactivity. Methods Our analyses are based on data from the European Social Survey, round 3 (2006/7), comprising between 21,205 and 21,397 individuals, aged 25–59 years, within 21 European welfare states. The analyses were conducted by means of multilevel logistic regression analysis in STATA 12. Results The results demonstrated that the risk of non-participation in social networks decreased as welfare generosity increased. The risk of social exclusion, i.e. non-participation in social networks among disadvantaged groups, seldom differed from the overall association, and in absolute terms it was invariably smaller in more generous welfare state contexts. Conclusions The results showed that there were no indications of higher levels of non-participation among disadvantaged groups in more generous welfare states. On the contrary, resources made available by the welfare state seemed to matter to all individuals in terms of overall lower levels of non-participation. As such, these results demonstrate the importance of linking health related social exclusion to the social policy context. PMID:24073744

  9. Comparing the prevalence of mental health problems in children 6-11 across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, V.; Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Pez, O.; Bitfoi, A.; Carta, M.G.; Goelitz, D.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Otten, R.; Koç, C.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffer from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the cross-national prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6-11 across seven European countries including Italy, Germany, the

  10. Workshop: Out-of-pocket costs in Europe and their effects on health-care use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J. de

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, health care expenditures increased in most OECD countries and are expected to increase even more. A wide ranges of policies are implemented to try to limit this development. Several governments (e.g. of Denmark, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Romania, Russian Federation,

  11. Religious involvement, religious context, and self-assessed health in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examine the extent to which effects of individual religious involvement on self-assessed health are influenced by the religious context (i.e., religious involvement at the country level). The authors test their expectations using individual level data (N = 127,257)

  12. Prioritising action on occupational carcinogens in Europe: a socioeconomic and health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrie, J W; Hutchings, S; Gorman Ng, M; Mistry, R; Corden, C; Lamb, J; Sánchez Jiménez, A; Shafrir, A; Sobey, M; van Tongeren, M; Rushton, L

    2017-07-11

    Work-related cancer is an important public health issue with a large financial impact on society. The key European legislative instrument is the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). In preparation for updating the Directive, the European Commission commissioned a study to provide a socioeconomic, health and environmental impact assessment. The evaluation was undertaken for 25 preselected hazardous substances or mixtures. Estimates were made of the number of cases of cancer attributable to workplace exposure, both currently and in the future, with and without any regulatory interventions, and these data were used to estimate the financial health costs and benefits. It was estimated that if no action is taken there will be >700 000 attributable cancer deaths over the next 60 years for the substances assessed. However, there are only seven substances where the data suggest a clear benefit in terms of avoided cancer cases from introducing a binding limit at the levels considered. Overall, the costs of the proposed interventions were very high (up to [euro ]34 000 million) and the associated monetised health benefits were mostly less than the compliance costs. The strongest cases for the introduction of a limit value are for: respirable crystalline silica, hexavalent chromium, and hardwood dust.

  13. Health library partnership programmes between resource-poor countries and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J G

    2001-12-01

    A survey of health library partnerships between the UK and northern European countries and African or eastern European countries was undertaken to complement a similar survey of 24 North American health libraries. Out of 11 partnerships described, six provided sufficient data to be included in a quantitative analysis. These results give some baseline data about such partnerships and their activities, reasons for success and problems encountered. Some libraries have little involvement other than sending duplicate books and journals; others are more deeply involved in all aspects of library activity including professional development. Good communications, both human and technological, are important for maintaining partnership momentum. Staff commitment on both sides and institutional support for the partnership are essential, especially when programmes have costs which must be met either by the institution or outside funders. The financial consequences of partnership may inhibit their initiation, but successful partnerships with demand driven programmes bring benefits to both sides.

  14. Age at First Birth and Later Life Health in Western and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    MUCH OF THE research on life-course determinants of later life health has focused on cumulated effects of socioeconomic disadvantage (Ben-Shlomoand Kuh 2002; Luo and Waite 2005). Family life courses also involve differential exposures to stresses and supports and interact with other health relevant...... pattern of earlier female marriage and fertility in the East, which implies less selection into early motherhood (Hajnal 1965; Frejka and Sardon 2004). Additionally, in the state socialist regimes of the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries, female education and employment were encouraged...... to the mean for the relevant country and birth cohort. We examine effects for both women and men to shed light on the extent to which associations may be biologically or socially influenced....

  15. The Health of Trafficked Women: A Survey of Women Entering Posttrafficking Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Yun, Katherine; Gajdadziev, Vasil; Guzun, Natalia; Tchomarova, Maria; Ciarrocchi, Rosa Angela; Johansson, Anna; Kefurtova, Anna; Scodanibbio, Stefania; Motus, Maria Nenette; Roche, Brenda; Morison, Linda; Watts, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Trained counselors interviewed 192 women who had been trafficked and sexually exploited about abuse and evaluated their physical and mental health status within 14 days of entry into posttrafficking services. Most reported physical or sexual violence while trafficked (95%), pre-trafficking abuse (59%), and multiple posttrafficking physical and psychological problems. Newly identified trafficked women require immediate attention to address posttrauma symptoms and adequate recovery time before making decisions about participating in prosecutorial or immigration proceedings or returning home. PMID:18048781

  16. Foods, health claims, and the law: comparisons of the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H L; Prior, T; Frier, H I

    2001-11-01

    Government, academia, and the food industry can play a significant role in the identification of healthy foods and ingredients important for weight management and health. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration developed regulations that define specific food categories for weight management and health. These categories include foods for special dietary uses and medical foods. Medical foods are classified for use in specific disease states and require a physician's recommendation and continuous monitoring. The European regulations specify energy-restricted foods as a subcategory of food for particular nutritional uses, which includes infant formula, medical foods, and foods for sports. European standards for energy-restricted diets have been established, leaving little flexibility for change. Three categories exist (i.e., very-low-calorie diets [450 to 800 kcal], low-calorie diets [800 to 1200 kcal], and meal replacements [200 to 400 kcal]). No claims on anticipated weight loss can be made even where significant clinical research has demonstrated long-term efficacy, thereby preventing informed choice management. Dramatic changes in lifestyle (e.g., disruption of the family unit, altered eating occasions, fast foods, and food grazing) have resulted in an epidemic of obesity and chronic disease. Regulating food selection or dietary patterns to limit the epidemic is not realistic. However, stimulating government health agencies and the food industry to increase public awareness through educational programs and regulating the definition of acceptable methods and products can provide an environment for change. A consensus is needed among academia, government, and industry for appropriate food labeling and claims. These actions are needed to help individuals make healthy food selections and maintain a healthy weight. Public health initiatives should change consumer attitudes with programs that are simple, affordable, effective, and accessible.

  17. Developing integrated health and social care services for older persons in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Leichsenring

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is to distribute first results of the EU Fifth Framework Project ‘Providing integrated health and social care for older persons—issues, problems and solutions’ (PROCARE—http://www.euro.centre.org/procare/). The project's first phase was to identify different approaches to integration as well as structural, organisational, economic and social-cultural factors and actors that constitute integrated and sustainable care systems. It also served to retrieve a number of experienc...

  18. General practice based teaching exchanges in Europe. Experiences from the EU Socrates programme 'primary health care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weel, Chris; Mattsson, Bengt; Freeman, George K; de Meyere, Marc; von Fragstein, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of international exchange of medical students for general practice. The experience is based on the EU Socrates programme 'Primary Health Care' that offers, since 1992, clinical attachments and research electives in primary care. This programme involves 11 university departments of general practice/primary care in eight countries: Austria - Vienna; Belgium - Gent; Germany Düsseldorf; Italy - Monza, Udine; Netherlands Nijmegen; Slovenia - Ljubljana; Sweden - Göteborg; and the UK - Edinburgh, Imperial College London and Nottingham. More than 150 students have taken part in the programme, most in the last four years. For clinical attachment communication to patients is essential, and students should be able to speak the language of the host university. A research elective in primary care is less demanding and requires students' ability to communicate in English. Despite marked differences in health care structure in the countries involved, it is quite possible to provide a valuable teaching environment in general practice, and the experience gained by students in the exchanges more than equals that what they would gain at home. The added value is in experiencing the influence of another health care system and of working in another academic primary care centre. A substantial number of research electives have been published in international peer reviewed scientific journals with the student as first (occasionally second) author and staff members of the student's host and home university as co-authors. A further benefit of the exchange programme lies in the transfer teaching innovations between universities.

  19. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  20. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe : The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries.

  1. Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenz-Niedbała Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10t-14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th-15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th-17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki, with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable

  2. Obesity in Europe: the strategy of the European Union from a public health law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    In 2007 the European Commission published a White Paper on a "Strategy on nutrition, overweight and obesity", proposing measures to impede the current trend towards a steady gain in weight by Union citizens. In this article, these ideas are discussed critically in the light of the competences of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese.

  3. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution using the EVA Model System - an integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy D.; Christensen, Jesper H.; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob H.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Hansen, Ayoe B.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hedegaard, Gitte B.; Kaas, Eigil; Frohn, Lise M.

    2013-04-01

    We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system. The conclusions in the paper are sensitive to the toxicity of the different types of atmospheric particles, and therefore the existing knowledge of health impacts from particles is reviewed. We conclude that with our present knowledge we are not able to distinguish between the impacts from different particle types and therefore the toxicity of the particles is handled equally in the overall results. The main conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. The major power plants in Europe contribute with around 25% of the total health related external costs relative to all sources in Europe, while the Danish power plants only contribute with less than 10% relative to all Danish sources. Our results suggest that the agricultural sector contributes with 25% to health impacts and related external costs. We conclude

  4. Artificial Turf: Contested Terrains for Precautionary Public Health with Particular Reference to Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watterson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Millions of adults, children and teenagers use artificial sports pitches and playgrounds globally. Pitches are artificial grass and bases may be made up of crumb rubber from recycled tires or new rubber and sand. Player injury on pitches was a major concern. Now, debates about health focus on possible exposure and uptake of chemicals within pitch and base materials. Research has looked at potential risks to users from hazardous substances such as metals, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including benzo (a (e pyrenes and phthalates: some are carcinogens and others may be endocrine disruptors and have developmental reproductive effects. Small environmental monitoring and modelling studies, often with significant data gaps about exposure, range of substances monitored, occupational exposures, types of surfaces monitored and study length across seasons, indicated little risk to sports people and children but some risk to installation workers. A few, again often small, studies indicated potentially harmful human effects relating to skin, respiration and cancers. Only one widely cited biomonitoring study has been done and no rigorous cancer epidemiological studies exist. Unravelling exposures and uptake over decades may prove complex. European regulators have strengthened controls over crumb rubber chemicals, set different standards for toys and crumb rubber pitches. Bigger US studies now underway attempting to fill some of the data gaps will report between 2017 and 2019. Public health professionals in the meantime may draw on established principles to support greater caution in setting crumb rubber exposure limits and controls.

  5. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 2. Results: Primary care management and community orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-03-01

    At the WONCA Europe conference 2009 the recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' was presented. It is a background paper and reference manual, providing advocacy of general practice/family medicine (GP/FM) in Europe. The Research Agenda summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the WONCA Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In this second article, the results for the core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' are presented. Though there is a large body of research on various aspects of 'primary care management', it represents a very scattered rather than a meta view. Many studies focus on care for specific diseases, the primary/secondary care interface, or the implications of electronic patient records. Cost efficiency or process indicators of quality are current outcomes. Current literature on community orientation is mainly descriptive, and focuses on either care for specific diseases, or specific patient populations, or on the uptake of preventive services. Most papers correspond poorly to the WONCA concept. For both core competencies, there is a lack of research with a longitudinal perspective and/or relevant health or quality of life outcomes as well as research on patients' preferences and education for organizational aspects of GP/FM.

  6. Developing integrated health and social care services for older persons in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Kai

    2004-01-01

    This paper is to distribute first results of the EU Fifth Framework Project 'Providing integrated health and social care for older persons-issues, problems and solutions' (PROCARE-http://www.euro.centre.org/procare/). The project's first phase was to identify different approaches to integration as well as structural, organisational, economic and social-cultural factors and actors that constitute integrated and sustainable care systems. It also served to retrieve a number of experiences, model ways of working and demonstration projects in the participating countries which are currently being analysed in order to learn from success-or failure-and to develop policy recommendations for the local, national and European level. The paper draws on existing definitions of integrated care in various countries and by various scholars. Given the context of an international comparative study it tries to avoid providing a single, ready-made definition but underlines the role of social care as part and parcel of this type of integrated care in the participating countries. The paper is based on national reports from researchers representing ten organisations (university institutes, consultancy firms, research institutes, the public and the NGO sector) from 9 European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. Literature reviews made intensive use of grey literature and evaluation studies in the context of at least five model ways of working in each country. As a result of the cross-national overview an attempt to classify different approaches and definitions is made and indicators of relative importance of the different instruments used in integrating health and social care services are provided. The cross-national overview shows that issues concerning co-ordination and integration of services are high on the agenda in most countries. Depending on the state of service development, various approaches and instruments can be

  7. Advice concerning pregnancy and health in late medieval Europe: peasant women's wisdom in The Distaff Gospels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Kathleen; Jeay, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores an area which has proven difficult for scholars to penetrate: women's popular wisdom concerning medical matters in the later medieval period. Contextualized within an examination of medieval medical texts both by and about women, our discussion focuses on a later 15th-century French work, The Distaff Gospels. This text, published recently in English for the first time since 1510, consists of more than 200 pieces of advice or "gospels," ostensibly conveyed to one another by a group of women who met together during the long winter evenings to spin. A significant portion of the advice might be considered "medical" in nature; it is grouped into two broad categories: pregnancy and health. We conclude that although our text is male mediated, it provides a reliable and valuable guide to peasant women's medical lore during this period.

  8. Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents living in nursing homes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentayeb, Malek; Norback, Dan; Bednarek, Micha

    2015-01-01

    cough. Elderly subjects aged ≥80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were......Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven...... European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards...

  9. [Legislation concerning reproductive health in Central and Eastern Europe: new facts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluss, S S

    1994-05-01

    In this article, WHO reports on certain laws promulgated in different central and eastern European countries in the early 1990s. Russia has passed a law creating a Coordinating Committee on Problems of the Family, Motherhood, and Childhood. It brings together governmental agencies, public organizations, and citizens to identify ways to improve women's status and protection of maternal and child health. Russia has also adopted Legislative Orientations of the Russian Federation concerning the Sanitary Protection of Citizens. For example, this law guarantees pregnant women the right to work under conditions adapted to their physiological and sanitary state. A whole chapter is dedicated to family planning and regulation of human procreation. Only women have the right to decide whether to terminate or continue their pregnancy. A law in Kyrgyzstan states that every woman has the right to make her own decisions concerning motherhood. With their consent, women also have the right to modern contraceptive methods. Sterilization can only be done with the consent of the woman or for medical reasons. The Counsel of Ministers in the Ukraine adopted a program aiming to improve the condition of women and the family and to protect mothers and children. A Hungarian law does not consider abortion to be a family planning method or a means of fertility control. At the same time, it considers family planning to be a right and a duty of parents. It calls for considerable education on the value of health and life, the healthy life, responsibilities accompanying relations between partners, a family life compatible with human dignity, and contraceptive methods. Albania first approved family planning activities in May 1992. Romania approved technical norms relative to hormonal contraceptives and to IUDs. In January 1993, Poland passed a law restricting abortion to cases of medical indications, fetal death, a grave abnormality, and illicit acts.

  10. Social health insurance and labor market outcomes: evidence from central and eastern Europe, and central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam; Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    The implications of social health insurance (SHI) for labor markets have featured prominently in recent debates over the merits of SHI and general revenue financing. It has been argued that by raising the nonwage component of labor costs, SHI reduces firms' demand for labor, lowers employment levels and net wages, and encourages self-employment and informal working arrangements. At the national level, SHI has been claimed to reduce a country's competitiveness in international markets and to discourage foreign direct investment (FDI). The transition from general revenue finance to SHI that occurred during the 1990s in many of the central and eastern European and central Asian countries provides a unique opportunity to investigate empirically these claims. We employ regression-based generalizations of difference-in-differences (DID) and instrumental variables (IV) on country-level panel data from 28 countries for the period 1990-2004. We find that, controlling for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, SHI increases (gross) wages by 20%, reduces employment (as a share of the population) by 10%, and increases self-employment by 17%. However, we find no significant effects of SHI on unemployment (registered or self-reported), agricultural employment, a widely used measure of the size of the informal economy, or FDI. We do not claim that our results imply that SHI adoption everywhere must necessarily reduce employment and increase self-employment. Nonetheless, our results ought to serve as a warning to those contemplating shifting the financing of health care from general revenues to a SHI system.

  11. The Association of Gum Bleeding with Respiratory Health in a Population Based Study from Northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gómez Real

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge about how oral and respiratory health is interrelated even though the mucosa of the oral cavity and airways constitutes a continuum and the exposures to these are partly similar.To investigate whether gum bleeding is related to asthma, respiratory symptoms and self-reported COPD.A postal questionnaire including questions about respiratory and oral health was sent to general population samples in seven Northern European centres. In 13,409 responders, gum bleeding when brushing teeth was reported always/often by 4% and sometimes by 20%. Logistic regressions accounted for age, smoking, educational level, centre and gender. Effects of BMI, cardio-metabolic diseases, early life factors, gastro-oesophageal reflux, dental hygiene, nasal congestion, and asthma medication were addressed.Gum bleeding always/often was significantly associated with ≥ 3 asthma symptoms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.10-3.18, asthma (1.62 [1.23-2.14] and self-reported COPD (2.02 [1.28-3.18]. There was a dose-response relationship between respiratory outcomes and gum bleeding frequency (≥ 3 symptoms: gum bleeding sometimes 1.42 [1.25-1.60], often/always 2.58 [2.10-3.18], and there was no heterogeneity between centres (p(heterogeneity = 0.49. None of the investigated risk factors explained the associations. The observed associations were significantly stronger among current smokers (p(interaction = 0.004.A consistent link between gum bleeding and obstructive airways disease was observed, not explained by common risk factors or metabolic factors. We speculate that oral pathogens might have unfavourable impact on the airways, and that the direct continuity of the mucosa of the oral cavity and the airways reflects a pathway that might provide novel opportunities for interventions.

  12. Developing integrated health and social care services for older persons in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Leichsenring

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is to distribute first results of the EU Fifth Framework Project ‘Providing integrated health and social care for older persons—issues, problems and solutions’ (PROCARE—http://www.euro.centre.org/procare/. The project's first phase was to identify different approaches to integration as well as structural, organisational, economic and social-cultural factors and actors that constitute integrated and sustainable care systems. It also served to retrieve a number of experiences, model ways of working and demonstration projects in the participating countries which are currently being analysed in order to learn from success—or failure—and to develop policy recommendations for the local, national and European level. Theory: The paper draws on existing definitions of integrated care in various countries and by various scholars. Given the context of an international comparative study it tries to avoid providing a single, ready-made definition but underlines the role of social care as part and parcel of this type of integrated care in the participating countries. Methods: The paper is based on national reports from researchers representing ten organisations (university institutes, consultancy firms, research institutes, the public and the NGO sector from 9 European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. Literature reviews made intensive use of grey literature and evaluation studies in the context of at least five model ways of working in each country. Results: As a result of the cross-national overview an attempt to classify different approaches and definitions is made and indicators of relative importance of the different instruments used in integrating health and social care services are provided. Conclusions: The cross-national overview shows that issues concerning co-ordination and integration of services are high on the agenda in most countries. Depending on

  13. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little...... is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine...... cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps...

  14. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina; Madsen, Mads; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dvorak, Jiri; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have shown promising effects of physical activity on cognitive function, but there is a need to investigate this link in real-life settings such as schools. Hence, the objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, s x -  = 22 ms, p FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt to disentangle the effects of "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe on cognitive performance by investigating the characteristics of the programme's physical activity.

  15. Promoting health-enhancing physical activity in Europe: Current state of surveillance, policy development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, João; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Rathmes, Giulia; Mendes, Romeu; Fontaine, Olivier; Hollmann, Susanne; Rütten, Alfred; Gelius, Peter; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Galea, Gauden

    2018-02-03

    This study aims to present information on the surveillance, policy developments, and implementation of physical activity policies in the 28 European Union (EU) countries. Data was collected on the implementation of the EU Recommendation on health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) across sectors. In line with the monitoring framework proposed in the Recommendation, a questionnaire was designed to capture information on 23 physical activity indicators. Of the 27 EU countries that responded to the survey, 22 have implemented actions on more than 10 indicators, four countries have implemented more than 20 indicators, and one country has fully addressed and implemented all of the 23 indicators of the monitoring framework. The data collected under this HEPA monitoring framework provided, for the first time, an overview of the implementation of HEPA-related policies and actions at the national level throughout the EU. Areas that need more investment are the "Senior Citizens" sector followed by the "Work Environment", and the "Environment, Urban Planning, and Public Safety" sectors. This information also enabled comparison of the state of play of HEPA policy implementation between EU Member States and facilitated the exchange of good practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Support to the identification of potential risks for the environment and human health arising from hydrocarbons operations involving hydraulic fracturing in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broomfield, L.; Lelland, A.

    2012-09-15

    The potential risks for the environment and human health arising from shale gas production (hydraulic fracturing) in Europe are assessed. As readily accessible oil and gas reserves are becoming progressively limited, the energy supply industry is turning more to unconventional reserves, which were previously too complex or too expensive to extract, like shale gas. There are significant shale gas reserves in Europe. Permission is being sought in many EU Member States for exploratory works and to bring forward projects for hydraulic fracturing and extraction of shale gas. As with any drilling and extraction process, shale gas extraction brings environmental and health risks which need to be understood and addressed. CE Delft conducted the legal assessment on shale gas related EU legislation. Gaps and uncertainties have been addressed, but no real risks within the legislation have been discovered. A large part of the shale gas related legislation is part of the individual member states legislation and not directly addressed by EU legislation.

  17. Old health risks in new places? An ecological niche model for I. ricinus tick distribution in Europe under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Joyner, T Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Climate change will likely have impacts on disease vector distribution. Posing a significant health threat in the 21st century, risk of tick-borne diseases may increase with higher annual mean temperatures and changes in precipitation. We modeled the current and future potential distribution of the Ixodes ricinus tick species in Europe. The Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP) was utilized to predict potential distributions of I. ricinus based on current (1990-2010 averages) and future (2040-2060 averages) environmental variables. A ten model best subset was created out of a possible 200 models based on omission and commission criteria. Our results show that under the A2 climate change scenario the potential habitat range for the I. ricinus tick in Europe will expand into higher elevations and latitudes (e.g., Scandinavia, the Baltics, and Belarus), while contracting in other areas (e.g., Alps, Pyrenees, interior Italy, and northwestern Poland). Overall, a potential habitat expansion of 3.8% in all of Europe is possible. Our results may be used to inform climate change adaptation efforts in Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe - A cluster-randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina

    2018-01-01

    programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. METHODS: The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0.......2 years), which performed the obligatory daily school-based physical activity (5 × 45 minutes per week); or an intervention group (IG) (n = 838 children, age = 11.9, s = 0.4 years), which substituted 2 × 45 minutes per week of the daily school physical activity with the "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe......, p = .012) and working memory (79, sx- = 35 ms, p = .020). CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...

  19. Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M.; Eijssen, Lars M.T.; Geurts, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants......Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges...... of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi...

  20. Putting science on the agenda

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The job of CERN Director-General comes with a lot of responsibility, and that’s particularly true today. We’re living through a period of unique circumstances for science. Positive indicators, such as a renewal of interest in physical sciences at the University level and unprecedented public interest in the LHC, are aligning with storm clouds in the form of a prolonged economic crisis that will put downward pressure on everyone’s budgets.   That means that science has to make its voice heard if it’s to preserve support, and if it wants to be in a position to play the role it must in navigating the major societal challenges of our time. For that reason, I have been a fairly rare sight at CERN of late. Last week, I was in Davos for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum. It was my second time at Davos, and I used the opportunity to argue that science should be more closely linked to the political thread of the meeting. I think my argument was he...

  1. What about the mothers? An analysis of maternal mortality and morbidity in perinatal health surveillance systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Colle, M-H; Mohangoo, AD; Gissler, M; Novak-Antolic, Z; Vutuc, C; Szamotulska, K; Zeitlin, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess capacity to develop routine monitoring of maternal health in the European Union using indicators of maternal mortality and severe morbidity. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine statistical systems compiled by the EURO-PERISTAT project and comparison with data from national enquiries. Setting Twenty-five countries in the European Union and Norway. Population Women giving birth in participating countries in 2003 and 2004. Methods Application of a common collection of data by selecting specific International Classification of Disease codes from the ‘Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium’ chapter. External validity was assessed by reviewing the results of national confidential enquiries and linkage studies. Main outcome measures Maternal mortality ratio, with distribution of specific obstetric causes, and severe acute maternal morbidity, which included: eclampsia, surgery and blood transfusion for obstetric haemorrhage, and intensive-care unit admission. Results In 22 countries that provided data, the maternal mortality ratio was 6.3 per 100 000 live births overall and ranged from 0 to 29.6. Under-ascertainment was evident from comparisons with studies that use enhanced identification of deaths. Furthermore, routine cause of death registration systems in countries with specific systems for audit reported higher maternal mortality ratio than those in countries without audits. For severe acute maternal morbidity, 16 countries provided data about at least one category of morbidity, and only three provided data for all categories. Reported values ranged widely (from 0.2 to 1.6 women with eclampsia per 1000 women giving birth and from 0.2 to 1.0 hysterectomies per 1000 women). Conclusions Currently available data on maternal mortality and morbidity are insufficient for monitoring trends over time in Europe and for comparison between countries. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths are recommended. PMID:22571748

  2. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  3. Health care for immigrants in Europe: Is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background European Member States are facing a challenge to provide accessible and effective health care services for immigrants. It remains unclear how best to achieve this and what characterises good practice in increasingly multicultural societies across Europe. This study assessed the views and values of professionals working in different health care contexts and in different European countries as to what constitutes good practice in health care for immigrants. Methods A total of 134 experts in 16 EU Member States participated in a three-round Delphi process. The experts represented four different fields: academia, Non-Governmental Organisations, policy-making and health care practice. For each country, the process aimed to produce a national consensus list of the most important factors characterising good practice in health care for migrants. Results The scoring procedures resulted in 10 to 16 factors being identified as the most important for each participating country. All 186 factors were aggregated into 9 themes: (1) easy and equal access to health care, (2) empowerment of migrants, (3) culturally sensitive health care services, (4) quality of care, (5) patient/health care provider communication, (6) respect towards migrants, (7) networking in and outside health services, (8) targeted outreach activities, and (9) availability of data about specificities in migrant health care and prevention. Although local political debate, level of immigration and the nature of local health care systems influenced the selection and rating of factors within each country, there was a broad European consensus on most factors. Yet, discordance remained both within countries, e.g. on the need for prioritising cultural differences, and between countries, e.g. on the need for more consistent governance of health care services for immigrants. Conclusions Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a broad consensus

  4. Health care for immigrants in Europe: is there still consensus among country experts about principles of good practice? A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillé, Walter; Greacen, Tim; Bogic, Marija; Dauvrin, Marie; Dias, Sónia; Gaddini, Andrea; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Karamanidou, Christina; Kluge, Ulrike; Mertaniemi, Ritva; Riera, Rosa P i; Sárváry, Attila; Soares, Joaquim J F; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Strassmayr, Christa; Welbel, Marta; Priebe, Stefan

    2011-09-13

    European Member States are facing a challenge to provide accessible and effective health care services for immigrants. It remains unclear how best to achieve this and what characterises good practice in increasingly multicultural societies across Europe. This study assessed the views and values of professionals working in different health care contexts and in different European countries as to what constitutes good practice in health care for immigrants. A total of 134 experts in 16 EU Member States participated in a three-round Delphi process. The experts represented four different fields: academia, Non-Governmental Organisations, policy-making and health care practice. For each country, the process aimed to produce a national consensus list of the most important factors characterising good practice in health care for migrants. The scoring procedures resulted in 10 to 16 factors being identified as the most important for each participating country. All 186 factors were aggregated into 9 themes: (1) easy and equal access to health care, (2) empowerment of migrants, (3) culturally sensitive health care services, (4) quality of care, (5) patient/health care provider communication, (6) respect towards migrants, (7) networking in and outside health services, (8) targeted outreach activities, and (9) availability of data about specificities in migrant health care and prevention. Although local political debate, level of immigration and the nature of local health care systems influenced the selection and rating of factors within each country, there was a broad European consensus on most factors. Yet, discordance remained both within countries, e.g. on the need for prioritising cultural differences, and between countries, e.g. on the need for more consistent governance of health care services for immigrants. Experts across Europe asserted the right to culturally sensitive health care for all immigrants. There is a broad consensus among experts about the major principles

  5. The value of innovation in decision-making in health care in Central Eastern Europe - The Sixth International Conference, 2 June 2017, Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Tanja; Martin, Antony P; Parker, Mark; Ferrario, Alessandra; Vukovic, Simo; Łanda, Krzysztof; Duba, Jaroslav; Dankó, Dávid; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Godman, Brian; Ristic, Jelena; Stefanovic, Danka; Tesic, Danka

    2017-12-01

    The Pharmacoeconomics Section of the Pharmaceutical Association of Serbia organised a one day international conference on the value of innovation in decision-making in health care in Central and Eastern Europe. The focus of the conference was on reimbursement decisions for medicines using health technology assessment and the use of managed entry agreements (MEAs). The objectives of this conference were firstly to discuss the challenges and opportunities with the use of MEAs in Central and Eastern European countries; secondly the role of patient registries especially with outcome based schemes, and finally new approaches to improve accessibility to new medicines including better managing their entry.

  6. Is there health inequity in Europe today? The ‘strange case’ of the application of an European regulation to cartilage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beretta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An important regulation, issued by the European Community in 2008, regulates the authorisation and supervision of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP and subsequent follow up in Europe. This law contains a Hospital Exemption clause, under which some hospitals in some countries can be exempted from the regulations governing ATMPs. The application of this regulation in Europe has resulted in differences in the costs of cell therapy for cartilage injuries in Germany compared with the costs in other European countries and in the U.S. The present paper argues on the real impact of political decisions on the health of citizens, on economy of healthcare systems, and highlights a possible case of inequality among European citizens with respect to cartilage repair procedures.

  7. Are There Differences in the Health Outcomes of Mothers in Europe and East-Asia? A Cross-Cultural Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mautner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate differences in quality of life outcomes and depression of mothers in East-Asia and Central Europe. 170 women in Japan and 226 women in Austria with children between 3 and 5 answered the same cross-culturally validated questionnaires. The Quality of Life Questionnaire from the WHO (WHOQOL-Bref, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2, the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13, a Social Support Scale (MSPSS, and questions on gender orientation were used. In all dimensions of QOL (physical, psychological, social, and environmental Japanese women had lower QOL scores compared to Austrian mothers (P<001. Seven percent of women in both countries experienced major depression. In both countries sense of coherence, experienced stress level, satisfaction with income, social support, and gender roles had an influence on QOL and depressive symptoms. Mothers in Japan consider life events less comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful and experience less support. Consequently, creating an environment where fathers could be more involved in child rearing and mothers have more opportunities to choose between life styles and working and social environments would improve QOL not only in Japanese mothers but also in other countries all over the world.

  8. A Frailty Instrument for primary care: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Ortuno Roman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frailty paradigm would be useful in primary care to identify older people at risk, but appropriate metrics at that level are lacking. We created and validated a simple instrument for frailty screening in Europeans aged ≥50. Our study is based on the first wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, http://www.share-project.org, a large population-based survey conducted in 2004-2005 in twelve European countries. Methods Subjects: SHARE Wave 1 respondents (17,304 females and 13,811 males. Measures: five SHARE variables approximating Fried's frailty definition. Analyses (for each gender: 1 estimation of a discreet factor (DFactor model based on the frailty variables using LatentGOLD®. A single DFactor with three ordered levels or latent classes (i.e. non-frail, pre-frail and frail was modelled; 2 the latent classes were characterised against a biopsychosocial range of Wave 1 variables; 3 the prospective mortality risk (unadjusted and age-adjusted for each frailty class was established on those subjects with known mortality status at Wave 2 (2007-2008 (11,384 females and 9,163 males; 4 two web-based calculators were created for easy retrieval of a subject's frailty class given any five measurements. Results Females: the DFactor model included 15,578 cases (standard R2 = 0.61. All five frailty indicators discriminated well (p N = 10,420; 66.9%, pre-frail (N = 4,025; 25.8%, and frail (N = 1,133; 7.3%. Relative to the non-frail class, the age-adjusted Odds Ratio (with 95% Confidence Interval for mortality at Wave 2 was 2.1 (1.4 - 3.0 in the pre-frail and 4.8 (3.1 - 7.4 in the frail. Males: 12,783 cases (standard R2 = 0.61, all frailty indicators had p N = 10,517; 82.3%, pre-frail (N = 1,871; 14.6%, and frail (N = 395; 3.1%; age-adjusted OR (95% CI for mortality: 3.0 (2.3 - 4.0 in the pre-frail, 6.9 (4.7 - 10.2 in the frail. Conclusions The SHARE Frailty Instrument has sufficient construct and

  9. Disparities in multimorbidity across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Riis; Halling, Anders; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2017-01-01

    education in Central and Eastern Europe compared to Northern Europe. Conclusion: Multimorbidity is highly prevalent among older Europeans, but more so among Europeans in the Eastern and Central regions. Societal initiatives to improve health care for older adults are warranted in order to decrease old age......Introduction: Europe is the continent with the highest share of older adults, many of which suffer from multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) and the associated negative outcomes. Health inequalities across European regions exist, but little is known about regional differences...... multimorbidity prevalence was 31.4% [30.7; 32.2]. Northern Europe had the lowest multimorbidity prevalence of 26.2% [25.2; 27.1], while Eastern and Central Europe had the highest, 35.2% [33.8; 36.5] and 34.8% [33.8; 35.9], respectively. In all regions female gender, increasing age, lower education, and lower...

  10. NOTES in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meining, A; Spaun, G; Fernández-Esparrach, G

    2013-01-01

    The sixth EURO-NOTES workshop (4 - 6 October 2012, Prague, Czech Republic) focused on enabling intensive scientific dialogue and interaction between surgeons, gastroenterologists, and engineers/industry representatives and discussion of the state of the practice and development of natural orifice...... transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in Europe. In accordance with previous meetings, five working groups were formed. In 2012, emphasis was put on specific indications for NOTES and interventional endoscopy. Each group was assigned an important indication related to ongoing research in NOTES...... and interventional endoscopy: cholecystectomy and appendectomy, therapy of colorectal diseases, therapy of adenocarcinoma and neoplasia in the upper gastrointestinal tract, treating obesity, and new therapeutic approaches for achalasia. This review summarizes consensus statements of the working groups....

  11. Ocular Dominance and Handedness in Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Guillon, Michel; Naroo, Shehzad A

    2015-10-01

    In golf, the impact of eye-hand dominance on putting performance has long been debated. Eye-hand dominance is thought to impact how golfers judge the alignment of the ball with the target and the club with the ball, as well as how golfers visualize the line of the putt when making decisions about the force needed to hit the ball. Previous studies have all measured ocular dominance in primary gaze only, despite golfers spending a significant amount of their time in a putting stance (bent at the hips, head tilted down). Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess ocular dominance in both primary gaze (aligning the ball with the target) and putting gaze (addressing the ball and aligning the club). This study investigated measuring pointing ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions on 31 golfers (14 amateur, 7 club professionals, and 10 top professionals). All players were right-handed golfers, although one reported having no hand dominance and one reported being strongly left hand dominant. The results showed that (1) primary and putting gaze ocular dominances are not equal, nor are they predictive of each other; (2) the magnitude of putting ocular dominance is significantly less than the magnitude of primary gaze ocular dominance; (3) ocular dominance is not correlated with handedness in either primary or putting gaze; and (4) eye-hand dominance is not associated with increased putting skill, although ocular dominance may be associated with increased putting success. It is important that coaches assess golfers' ocular dominance in both primary and putting gaze positions to ensure they have the most accurate information upon which to base their vision strategy decisions.

  12. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer

  13. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  14. Policy health impact assessment of the EU Health Strategy (2008-2013). Fostering good health in an aging Europe – tackling tobacco consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Molnár, Ágnes; Ádány, Róza

    2012-01-01

    smoking by incorporating the issue into its 1st objective “Fostering good health in an aging Europe”. The aim of the study was to assess the health impact of the most effective tobacco control policy, taxation, on the EU level. Methods: The assessment was based on the mapping of the whole impact scheme......Background: The public health importance of smoking necessitates effective actions to tackle tobacco epidemic and minimize its health consequences. The white paper of the European Commission “Together for Health: A Strategic Approach for the EU 2008-2013” acknowledged the significance of tobacco...... from which one priority causal pathway was selected for detailed quantitative evaluation. The analysis was carried out on each impact level using the top-down risk assessment tool developed in the Risk Assessment from Policy to Impact Dimension EU project. Health outcome was quantified as the change...

  15. Ixodes ricinus and Its Transmitted Pathogens in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Europe: New Hazards and Relevance for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, Gábor; Plantard, Olivier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Spitalská, Eva; Kazimírová, Mária

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium-sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs and cats), and larger mammals (roe deer and wild boar) play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," Rickettsia helvetica, and R. monacensis), Borrelia miyamotoi, and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum, and B. microti) have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases.

  16. Ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in Europe: new hazards and relevance for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapaola eRizzoli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs, cats and larger mammals (roe deer, wild boar play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis', Rickettsia helvetica, R. monacensis, Borrelia miyamatoi and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum and B. microti have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases.

  17. Ixodes ricinus and Its Transmitted Pathogens in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas in Europe: New Hazards and Relevance for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, Gábor; Plantard, Olivier; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Špitalská, Eva; Kazimírová, Mária

    2014-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases represent major public and animal health issues worldwide. Ixodes ricinus, primarily associated with deciduous and mixed forests, is the principal vector of causative agents of viral, bacterial, and protozoan zoonotic diseases in Europe. Recently, abundant tick populations have been observed in European urban green areas, which are of public health relevance due to the exposure of humans and domesticated animals to potentially infected ticks. In urban habitats, small and medium-sized mammals, birds, companion animals (dogs and cats), and larger mammals (roe deer and wild boar) play a role in maintenance of tick populations and as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Presence of ticks infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus and high prevalence of ticks infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., causing Lyme borreliosis, have been reported from urbanized areas in Europe. Emerging pathogens, including bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” Rickettsia helvetica, and R. monacensis), Borrelia miyamotoi, and protozoans (Babesia divergens, B. venatorum, and B. microti) have also been detected in urban tick populations. Understanding the ecology of ticks and their associations with hosts in a European urbanized environment is crucial to quantify parameters necessary for risk pre-assessment and identification of public health strategies for control and prevention of tick-borne diseases. PMID:25520947

  18. Addressing HCV infection in Europe: reported, estimated and undiagnosed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkinaite, Simona; Lazarus, Jeff; Gore, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem due to its high prevalence, high rate of onward transmission and health complications. As many as 85% of people infected with HCV may go on to become chronic carriers of the disease with the risk of developing liver cancer or cirrhosis....... At present, it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation in a number of countries, with an estimated 250,000 people dying annually from HCV-related causes. Despite the magnitude of the problem, the virus does not receive adequate attention from either the general public...... cirrhosis and liver cancer. Additionally, as previous studies in central and eastern Europe show, evidence-based measures to prevent and manage HCV among IDUs, where most current transmission is concentrated, remain limited. Therefore, there is a strong need for intensified advocacy to put HCV higher...

  19. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  20. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  1. Putting HR outsourcing into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the time-consuming responsibility of human resources (HR) management, a growing number of medical practices are outsourcing their HR to professional employer organizations (PEOs) so they can concentrate on their core business. A PEO functions as an HR department-minus the high overhead-managing daily administrative tasks such as payroll processing and related tax filings, employee benefits, and workers' compensation coverage and claims resolution. PEOs help physicians' offices keep up with the piles of paperwork that never seem to shrink, freeing doctors to focus on patient care and building their practice. Because of their volume buying power, PEOs are able to offer employees of small medical practices big-company benefits-everything from health, dental, and vision coverage to long-term disability insurance and tuition assistance. A fledgling industry only a decade ago, HR outsourcing has morphed into a blossoming industry. Enlisting the services of a PEO is now considered de rigueur in many small business circles.

  2. Why has the health promoting prison concept failed to translate to the US?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, JR

    2016-01-01

    Two decades since the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe published a report on health promotion in prison that stimulated further debate on the concept of the “health-promoting prison,” this article discusses the extent to which the concept has translated to the United States. One predicted indicator of success for the health-promoting prison movement was the expansion of activity beyond European borders; yet 2 decades since the European model was put forward, there has been...

  3. Transnational Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2016-01-01

    in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute......This article deals with the social and cultural dimensions of globalization and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the effects of stronger European integration on media production and reception. It combines theories and methods from sociology, anthropology and media studies......-productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation...

  4. Menthol: putting the pieces together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok

    2011-01-01

    Objective To integrate information on cigarette companies' understanding and use of menthol as summarised in published research based on previously internal tobacco industry documents with results from large population-based surveys of tobacco use and other independent sources. Data sources Papers published in this supplement of Tobacco Control, together with papers identified using PubMed searches. Results Tobacco companies shaped consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. Menthol is not just a flavouring agent. Cigarette companies use menthol's ability to mask irritation and provide sensory effects to make menthol cigarettes appeal to youth and health-concerned smokers, in part because menthol makes low-tar cigarettes more palatable. Consistent with targeted marketing, youths, women and African Americans disproportionately smoke menthols. There appear to be complex interactions with addictive effects of nicotine. The ubiquitous addition of menthol by tobacco companies to over 90% of all tobacco products, whether labelled ‘menthol’ or not, demonstrates that menthol is not simply a flavour or brand. Menthol imparts sensory characteristics to cigarettes and has a complex interaction with nicotine that affects smoking behaviour whether it is perceived or not, or whether cigarettes containing menthol are marketed as ‘menthol’ or not. Adding menthol increases fine particles in cigarette smoke, which have immediate adverse effects on the risk of heart attack. Conclusion Information from industry documents, confirmed by independent scientific literature, consistently demonstrates that menthol increases population harm from smoking by increasing initiation and reducing cessation in some groups. Menthol facilitates and increases smoking, which causes disease and death. PMID:21504926

  5. ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ for Europe. 1: effect on health knowledge and well-being of 10- to 12-year-old Danish school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Ørntoft, Christina; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Ottesen, Laila; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aim To modify the ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ programme to the European situation, and to assess its effects on health knowledge and well-being in Danish school children. Method A two-cohort study with seven intervention and two control schools. Of the 546 Danish children (boys 269; girls 277) of mean age 11.1 (±0.4) years from five city and four country-side schools, 402 undertook the ‘FIFA 11 for Health’ programme and 144 acted as controls. As part of each school's PE curriculum, seven intervention schools received a 45 min Play Football period (football skills and 3 vs 3 games) and a 45 min Play Fair period (health issues and football drills) on a weekly-basis for 11 weeks. Control participants continued with their regular school PE activities. Participants completed preintervention and postintervention health knowledge and well-being questionnaires. Results Overall, health knowledge increase was significantly (pFIFA 11 for Health’ programme modified for Europe demonstrated positive effects on children's health knowledge and social dimension of well-being, thereby providing evidence that the football-based health education programme can be used effectively within a European school's curriculum to increase physical activity, well-being and health knowledge. PMID:27130925

  6. Teen Safety: Putting an End to Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Teen Safety: Putting An End to Bullying Page Content Article Body The outbreak of school ... that has been allowed to go virtually unchecked: bullying. It turns out that many of these adolescent ...

  7. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaddeo, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R.; Salazzari, Damiano; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan Luis; Montagni, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Federico; Cetrano, Gaia; Chevreul, Karine; Kalseth, Jorid; Hagmair, Gisela; Straßmayr, Christa; Park, A-La; Sfetcu, Raluca; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. Method The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool) combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS) to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a) Population Data; (b) the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES) Index; (c) the Mental Health System Checklist; (d) the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e) Geographical Data. Expected results The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. Discussion The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care. PMID:27118959

  8. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salvador-Carulla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe.Method: The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a Population Data; (b the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES Index; (c the Mental Health System Checklist; (d the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e Geographical Data.Expected results: The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain.Discussion: The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.

  9. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salvador-Carulla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. Method: The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a Population Data; (b the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES Index; (c the Mental Health System Checklist; (d the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e Geographical Data. Expected results: The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. Discussion: The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.

  10. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Amaddeo, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R; Salazzari, Damiano; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan Luis; Montagni, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Federico; Cetrano, Gaia; Chevreul, Karine; Kalseth, Jorid; Hagmair, Gisela; Straßmayr, Christa; Park, A-La; Sfetcu, Raluca; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool) combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS) to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a) Population Data; (b) the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES) Index; (c) the Mental Health System Checklist; (d) the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e) Geographical Data. The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.

  11. Failures in risk assessment and risk management for cosmetic preservatives in Europe and the impact on public health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; White, Ian R; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In view of the current and unprecedented increase in contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone (MI), we characterized and evaluated two recent epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives used in cosmetic products to address failures in risk assessment and risk management. OBJECTIVE...... the proportion of patients with current clinical disease attributable to methyldibromo glutaronitrile contact allergy decreased significantly following the ban on its use in cosmetic products (p ....001). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of new preservatives in Europe with inadequate pre-market risk assessment has rapidly increased the overall burden of cutaneous disease caused by preservatives. We suggest that the cosmetic industry has a responsibility to react faster and replace troublesome preservatives when...

  12. Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priebe Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socially marginalised groups tend to have higher rates of mental disorders than the general population and can be difficult to engage in health care. Providing mental health care for these groups represents a particular challenge, and evidence on good practice is required. This study explored the experiences and views of experts in 14 European countries regarding mental health care for six socially marginalised groups: long-term unemployed; street sex workers; homeless; refugees/asylum seekers; irregular migrants and members of the travelling communities. Methods Two highly deprived areas were selected in the capital cities of 14 countries, and experts were interviewed for each of the six marginalised groups. Semi-structured interviews with case vignettes were conducted to explore experiences of good practice and analysed using thematic analysis. Results In a total of 154 interviews, four components of good practice were identified across all six groups: a establishing outreach programmes to identify and engage with individuals with mental disorders; b facilitating access to services that provide different aspects of health care, including mental health care, and thus reducing the need for further referrals; c strengthening the collaboration and co-ordination between different services; and d disseminating information on services both to marginalised groups and to practitioners in the area. Conclusions Experts across Europe hold similar views on what constitutes good practice in mental health care for marginalised groups. Care may be improved through better service organisation, coordination and information.

  13. Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: integrating scalable psychological interventions in eight countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S.; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria’s neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees. PMID:29163867

  14. Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: integrating scalable psychological interventions in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.

  15. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  16. Fortress Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish coastal-enclaves located in Northern Africa that constitute the only territories in mainland Africa belonging to an EU member state and, as a result, the only land border between the two continents. This book aims to study the role of these enclaves as EU border...... lookouts, as they are on the front line of the migration route between Europe and Africa. In effect, one of the most relevant contributions that this book aims to bring is to connect the study of the border in Ceuta and Melilla with the European dimension, that is, with the European policies that affect...

  17. The Economics of Health Damage and Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe: A Review of the Conventional and Grey Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic evidence is a key component of public policy responses to complex societal and health problems, including climate change. Activities to protect human health from climate change should routinely be evaluated not only in terms of their effectiveness or unintended consequences, but also in terms of the health damage cost of inaction, the cost of health adaptation, and the monetized benefits of different alternatives. In this paper we reviewed the economic evidence on the health impacts of climate change and health-relevant adaptation within the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO European Region, including grey literature and conventional scientific literature. We found that the evidence base on the health economics of climate change is scarce, incomplete and inconsistent. Despite these shortcomings, the existing evidence clearly indicates that adaptation to avert the health impacts of climate change could provide substantial economic benefits, particularly in the poorer areas of the Region.

  18. Preoperative fasting: will the evidence ever be put into practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Jeannette T

    2011-10-01

    Decades of research support the safety and health benefits of consuming clear liquids, including those that are carbohydrate rich, until a few hours before elective surgery or other procedures requiring sedation or anesthesia. Still, U.S. clinicians routinely instruct patients to fast for excessively long preoperative periods. Evidence-based guidelines, published over the past 25 years in the United States, Canada, and throughout Europe, recommend liberalizing preoperative fasting policies. To improve patient safety and health care quality, it's essential that health care professionals abandon outdated preoperative fasting policies and allow available evidence to guide preanesthetic practices.

  19. The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 3. Results: person centred care, comprehensive and holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-06-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In a second article, the results for the two core competencies 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' were presented. This article reflects on the three core competencies, which deal with person related aspects of GP/FM, i.e. 'person centred care', 'comprehensive approach' and 'holistic approach'. Though there is an important body of opinion papers and (non-systematic) reviews, all person related aspects remain poorly defined and researched. Validated instruments to measure these competencies are lacking. Concerning patient-centredness, most research examined patient and doctor preferences and experiences. Studies on comprehensiveness mostly focus on prevention/care of specific diseases. For all domains, there has been limited research conducted on its implications or outcomes.

  20. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 5: Needs and implications for future research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Royen, Paul; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri E J H; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-12-01

    The recently published 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and highlights related needs and implications for future research and policy. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. In a first article, background, objectives, and methodology were discussed. In three subsequent, articles the results for the six core competencies of the European Definition of GP/FM were presented. This article formulates the common aims for further research and appropriate research methodologies, based on the missing evidence and research gaps identified form the comprehensive literature review. In addition, implications of this research agenda for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers, research organizations, patients and policy makers are presented. The concept of six core competencies should be abandoned in favour of a model with four dimensions, including clinical, person related, community oriented and management aspects. Future research and policy should consider more the involvement and rights of patients; more attention should be given to how new treatments or technologies are effectively translated into routine patient care, in particular primary care. There is a need for a European ethics board. The promotion of GP/FM research demands a good infrastructure in each country, including access to literature and databases, appropriate funding and training possibilities.

  1. Positive health effects of the natural outdoor environment in typical populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE): a study programme protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Antó, Josep Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Cirach, Marta; Dadvand, Payam; Danileviciute, Asta; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Garcia, Judith; Jerrett, Michael; Jones, Marc; Julvez, Jordi; van Kempen, Elise; van Kamp, Irene; Maas, Jolanda; Seto, Edmund; Smith, Graham; Triguero, Margarita; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Wright, John; Zufferey, Joris; van den Hazel, Peter Jan; Lawrence, Roderick; Grazuleviciene, Regina

    2014-04-16

    Growing evidence suggests that close contact with nature brings benefits to human health and well-being, but the proposed mechanisms are still not well understood and the associations with health remain uncertain. The Positive Health Effects of the Natural Outdoor environment in Typical Populations in different regions in Europe (PHENOTYPE) project investigates the interconnections between natural outdoor environments and better human health and well-being. The PHENOTYPE project explores the proposed underlying mechanisms at work (stress reduction/restorative function, physical activity, social interaction, exposure to environmental hazards) and examines the associations with health outcomes for different population groups. It implements conventional and new innovative high-tech methods to characterise the natural environment in terms of quality and quantity. Preventive as well as therapeutic effects of contact with the natural environment are being covered. PHENOTYPE further addresses implications for land-use planning and green space management. The main innovative part of the study is the evaluation of possible short-term and long-term associations of green space and health and the possible underlying mechanisms in four different countries (each with quite a different type of green space and a different use), using the same methodology, in one research programme. This type of holistic approach has not been undertaken before. Furthermore there are technological innovations such as the use of remote sensing and smartphones in the assessment of green space. The project will produce a more robust evidence base on links between exposure to natural outdoor environment and human health and well-being, in addition to a better integration of human health needs into land-use planning and green space management in rural as well as urban areas.

  2. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : A patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for

  3. EUROCOURSE lessons learned from and for population-based cancer registries in Europe and their programme owners: Improving performance by research programming for public health and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coebergh, Jan Willem; van den Hurk, Corina; Rosso, Stefano; Comber, Harry; Storm, Hans; Zanetti, Roberto; Sacchetto, Lidia; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska; Thong, Melissa; Siesling, Sabine; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, Janny

    2015-06-01

    Population-based cancer registries (CRs) in Europe have played a supportive, sometimes guiding, role in describing geographic variation of cancer epidemics and comparisons of oncological practice and preventive interventions since the 1950s for all types of cancer, separate and simultaneously. This paper deals with historical and longitudinal developments of the roughly 160 CRs and their programme owners (POs) that emerged since 1927 and accelerating since the late 70s especially in southern and continental Europe. About 40 million newly diagnosed patients were recorded since the 1950s out of a total of 100 million of whom almost 20 million are still alive and about 10% annually dying from cancer. The perception of unity in diversity and suboptimal comparability in performance and governance of CRs was confirmed in the EUROCOURSE (EUROpe against cancer: Optimisation of the Use of Registries for Scientific Excellence in research) European Research Area (ERA)-net coordination FP7 project of the European Commission (EU) which explored best practices, bottlenecks and future challenges of CRs. Regional oncologic and public health changes but also academic embedding of CRs varied considerably, although Anno 2012 optimal cancer surveillance indeed demanded intensive collaboration with professional and institutional stakeholders in two major areas (public health and clinical research) and five minor overlapping cancer research domains: aetiologic research, mass screening evaluation, quality of care, translational prognostics and survivorship. Each of these domains address specific study questions, mixes of disciplines, methodologies, additional data-sources and funding mechanisms. POs tended to become more and more public health institutes, Health ministries, but also comprehensive cancer centres and cancer societies through more and more funding at project or programme basis. POs were not easy to pin down because of their multiple, sometimes competitive (funding

  4. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  5. Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; van de Straat, Vera; Bracke, Piet

    2015-03-11

    Framed within the recent economic crisis, in this study we investigate the medical mental health care use of the unemployed compared with that of the employed in Europe, and whether the relationship between employment status and mental health care use varies across macro-economic conditions. We examine whether the macro-economic context and changes therein are related to mental health care use, via their impact on mental health, or more directly, irrespective of mental health. We use data from three waves of the Eurobarometer (2002, 2005/2006, and 2010), which has a repeated cross-sectional and cross-national design. Linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses are performed with mental health, contacting a general practitioner, and contacting a psychiatrist for mental health problems as dependent variables. The multilevel design has three levels (the individual, the period-country, and the country), which allows us to estimate both longitudinal and cross-sectional macro-effects. The macro-economic context and changes therein are assessed using national unemployment rates and growth rates in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The mean unemployment rate is negatively related to mental health, although for women, this effect only applies to the employed. Among women, no relationship is found between changes in the macro-economic context and mental health. The unemployment rate, and changes in both the unemployment rate and the real GDP growth rate, are associated with men's care use, regardless of their mental health, whereas this does not hold for women. In countries with an increase in the unemployment rate, both unemployed and employed men tend to medicalize their problems more by contacting a general practitioner, irrespective of their mental health, while the likelihood of contacting a psychiatrist is lower among employed men. Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health

  6. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have shown promising effects of physical activity on cognitive function, but there is a need to investigate this link in real-life settings such as schools. Hence, the objective of the present pilot study was to investigate whether the school-based physical activity...... programme. The programme combines small-sided football games, drills and health education. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Results: The IG improved their cognitive performance compared to the CG for psychomotor function (56, sx– = 22 ms, p ... programme “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe could improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children. Methods: The pilot study used an 11-week cluster-randomised intervention study design. School classes were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) (n = 93 children, age = 11.8, s = 0...

  7. Business analysis for a sustainable, multi-stakeholder ecosystem for leveraging the Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) platform in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Danielle; Beresniak, Ariel; Sundgren, Mats; Schmidt, Andreas; Ainsworth, John; Coorevits, Pascal; Kalra, Dipak; Dewispelaere, Marc; De Moor, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) technological platform has been developed to enable the trustworthy reuse of hospital electronic health records data for clinical research. The EHR4CR platform can enhance and speed up clinical research scenarios: protocol feasibility assessment, patient identification for recruitment in clinical trials, and clinical data exchange, including for reporting serious adverse events. Our objective was to seed a multi-stakeholder ecosystem to enable the scalable exploitation of the EHR4CR platform in Europe, and to assess its economic sustainability. Market analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary task force to define an EHR4CR emerging ecosystem and multi-stakeholder value chain. This involved mapping stakeholder groups and defining their unmet needs, incentives, potential barriers for adopting innovative solutions, roles and interdependencies. A comprehensive business model, value propositions, and sustainability strategies were developed accordingly. Using simulation modelling (including Monte Carlo simulations) and a 5-year horizon, the potential financial outcomes of the business model were forecasted from the perspective of an EHR4CR service provider. A business ecosystem was defined to leverage the EHR4CR multi-stakeholder value chain. Value propositions were developed describing the expected benefits of EHR4CR solutions for all stakeholders. From an EHR4CR service provider's viewpoint, the business model simulation estimated that a profitability ratio of up to 1.8 could be achieved at year 1, with potential for growth in subsequent years depending on projected market uptake. By enhancing and speeding up existing processes, EHR4CR solutions promise to transform the clinical research landscape. The ecosystem defined provides the organisational framework for optimising the value and benefits for all stakeholders involved, in a sustainable manner. Our study suggests that the exploitation of EHR4CR

  8. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  10. Utilization of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and fecal occult blood test in 11 European countries: evidence from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Brenner, H

    2010-07-01

    Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy (sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy) and the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) are thought to impact on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. We aimed to estimate prevalences and to investigate potential determinants of utilization of these procedures in the general population across Europe. Data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were used. Prevalences of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and FOBT utilization among adults aged >or= 50 years in 11 countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland) were estimated. Potential determinants of utilization of the tests were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 18 139 individuals were included. The proportion of respondents reporting lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and FOBT utilization within the previous 10 years ranged from 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 4.7 - 6.9; Greece) to 25.1 % (95 %CI 22.1 - 27.2; France) and from 4.1 % (95 %CI 3.2 - 4.9; The Netherlands) to 61.1 % (95 %CI 58.6 - 63.6; Austria), respectively. Observed sex differences were highest in France and Germany; however results were only partly statistically significant. Country, age, education, income, marital status (FOBT only), location of main residence (FOBT only), smoking history, and self-perceived health status were statistically significant predictors of test utilization. Prevalences of lower gastrointestinal endoscopy and FOBT utilization vary widely across European countries. They need to be considered in the interpretation of cross-national differences and time trends in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, and in the design and evaluation of colorectal cancer screening programs.

  11. Poorer self-perceived health among migrants and ethnic minorities versus the majority population in Europe: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge about self-perceived health can help us understand the health status and needs among migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU) which is essential to improve equity and integration. The objective was to examine and compare self-perceived health among migrant.......   Results Publications were identified in 5 out of the 27 EU-countries. In all aspects of self-perceived health, most migrants and ethnic minority groups appeared to be disadvantaged as compared to the majority population even after controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors. Only limited cross...

  12. Multicultural Education Course Put into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which two teachers who have previously taken a multicultural education course put into practice multicultural teaching in a first grade afterschool program. Banks' five dimensions of multicultural education are used as the theoretical framework for analyzing past research on multicultural education courses and for…

  13. Putting the Civil War on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Joyce

    1995-01-01

    Describes how student involvement and participation in American history is increased by a class project of putting John Wilkes Booth on trial. Students write and explain what role(s) they want to play, roles are assigned, participants rehearse their roles, the trial is enacted before parents, and finally, students write an overview of what they…

  14. Putting the World into World History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, William A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews whether textbook publishers have put the "world" in world history textbooks by comparing the editions of four different world history textbooks over 25 years. Evaluates 10 current editions of world history textbooks. Offers questions to consider and discusses additional content concerns. Includes charts and references of the reviewed…

  15. Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Spanoudakis, Elpiniki; Holmes, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    Public involvement in efforts to control the current Ebola virus disease epidemic requires understandable information. We reviewed the readability of Ebola information from public health agencies in non-Ebola-affected areas. A substantial proportion of citizens would have difficulty understanding existing information, which would potentially hinder effective health-seeking behaviors.

  16. Tackling the social determinants of inequalities in health during Phase V of the Healthy Cities Project in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsatakis, Anna; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Webster, Premila

    2015-06-01

    The WHO European Healthy Cities Network has from its inception aimed at tackling inequalities in health. In carrying out an evaluation of Phase V of the project (2009-13), an attempt was made to examine how far the concept of equity in health is understood and accepted; whether cities had moved further from a disease/medical model to looking at the social determinants of inequalities in health; how far the HC project contributed to cities determining the extent and causes of inequalities in health; what efforts were made to tackle such inequalities and how far inequalities in health may have increased or decreased during Phase V. A broader range of resources was utilized for this evaluation than in previous phases of the project. These indicated that most cities were definitely looking at the broader determinants. Equality in health was better understood and had been included as a value in a range of city policies. This was facilitated by stronger involvement of the HC project in city planning processes. Although almost half the cities participating had prepared a City Health Profile, only few cities had the necessary local level data to monitor changes in inequalities in health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition table...... advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits....

  18. The Access to Mental Health Care in Children: Portuguese Speaking Families Living in a Multicultural Context in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrant and ethnic minorities youth find themselves in a situation of greater difficulty in terms of access to mental health care. The main objective of this study was therefore to explore possible barriers to access to professional assistance in mental health from the perspective of immigrant families. The methodology included both a qualitative study in which semi-structured interviews (N = 170 people from 62 families and focus groups with health and education professionals (N = 31 were conducted as well as a quantitative survey (N = 887 youths, 417 mothers and 310 fathers. This paper presents a case study based on the qualitative phase and selected results of the quantitative phase of the project. The results indicate the involvement of the patient's perspective as one of the most valuable sources of information for improving access to mental health care. Overall, the results suggest several trends for intervention projects in order to improve access to mental health care.

  19. Non-infectious events under the International Health Regulations (2005) in Europe--a case for syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, Nicole; Ziemann, Alexandra; Krafft, Thomas; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo; Vergeiner, Gernot; Brand, Helmut

    2014-08-01

    The scope of the International Health Regulations of 2005 (IHR (2005)) has been expanded. The IHR (2005) are no longer limited to a specific set of infectious diseases, instead they prescribe detection and assessment of any event of potential public health concern regardless of its source or origin. We examine events of non-infectious origin that might fulfill the criteria of a potential public health emergency of international concern under the IHR (2005). These comprise predominately events related to food safety, but also events related to drug safety or of chemical or industrial origin. We argue that to identify these events and assess health effects related to them, existing disease surveillance systems should be augmented with less specific indicator-based syndromic surveillance strategies that use available routine health-related service data for monitoring purposes.

  20. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe : Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); I. Bourdeaudhuij, de (Ilse); K.I. Klepp (Knut-Inge); N. Lien (Nanna); L. Moore (Laurence); F. Faggiano (Fabrizio); A.E. Kunst (Anton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to

  1. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lenthe, Frank J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle

  2. The impact of living arrangements and deinstitutionalisation in the health status of persons with intellectual disability in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Leal, R.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Linehan, C.; Walsh, P.; Weber, G.; Van Hove, G.; Määttä, T.; Azema, B.; Haveman, M.; Buono, S.; Germanavicius, A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Tossebro, J.; Carmen-Câra, A.; Moravec Berger, D.; Perry, J.; Kerr, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite progress in the process of deinstitutionalisation, very little is known about the health conditions of people with intellectual disability (PWID) who live in large institutions and PWID living in small residential services, family homes or independent living within the community. Furthermore, there are no international comparison studies at European level of the health status and health risk factors of PWID living in fully staffed residential services with formal support and care compared with those living in unstaffed family homes or independent houses with no formal support. Methods A total of 1269 persons with ID and/or their proxy respondents were recruited and face-to-face interviewed in 14 EU countries with the P15, a multinational assessment battery for collecting data on health indicators relevant to PWID. Participants were grouped according to their living arrangements, availability of formal support and stage of deinstitutionalisation. Results Obesity and sedentary lifestyle along with a number of illnesses such as epilepsy, mental disorders, allergies or constipation were highly prevalent among PWID. A significantly higher presence of myocardial infarctions, chronic bronchitis, osteoporosis and gastric or duodenal ulcers was found among participants in countries considered to be at the early stage of deinstitutionalisation. Regardless of deinstitutionalisation stage, important deficits in variables related to such medical health promotion measures as vaccinations, cancer screenings and medical checks were found in family homes and independent living arrangements. Age, number of people living in the same home or number of places in residential services, presence of affective symptoms and obesity require further attention as they seem to be related to an increase in the number of illnesses suffered by PWID. Discussion Particular illnesses were found to be highly prevalent in PWID. There were important differences between different living

  3. Lifestyle Course as an Investment in Perceived Improved Health among Newly Arrived Women from Countries outside Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvig Ekblad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Family reunification was the most common reason (34% for resettlement in Sweden in 2013. About one-fifth of the population is foreign-born. This study used mixed methods to evaluate a culturally tailored clinical health-promotion intervention. The intervention was conducted by licensed clinicians and a local coordinator. Sessions were five-weeks long, two hours a week. The quantitative data cover results from 54 participants, mainly Arabic and Somali-speaking, who participated in 10 groups. The participants’ perceived health improved significantly over the three measures. They also shared that their health significantly improved according to moderate effect size. The qualitative data, analyzed using revised content analysis, reflected one general theme: “the intervention is an investment in perceived improved health”, and four categories: “perceived increased health literacy”, “strength, empowerment and security”, “finding a new lifestyle”, and “the key to entry into Swedish society is language”. An intervention focusing on the prevention of ill-health, on health as a human right, and on empowerment, and aimed at female newcomers, has practical implications.

  4. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hieke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”. The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9% of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%, followed by health claims (29% and health-related ingredient claims (6%. The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims, followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%. Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1% of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim. The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging.

  5. Prevalence of Nutrition and Health-Related Claims on Pre-Packaged Foods: A Five-Country Study in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Kuljanic, Nera; Pravst, Igor; Miklavec, Krista; Kaur, Asha; Brown, Kerry A.; Egan, Bernadette M.; Pfeifer, Katja; Gracia, Azucena; Rayner, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study is part of the research undertaken in the EU funded project CLYMBOL (“Role of health-related CLaims and sYMBOLs in consumer behaviour”). The first phase of this project consisted of mapping the prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic nutrition and health-related claims (NHC) on foods and non-alcoholic beverages in five European countries. Pre-packaged foods and drinks were sampled based on a standardized sampling protocol, using store lists or a store floor plan. Data collection took place across five countries, in three types of stores. A total of 2034 foods and drinks were sampled and packaging information was analyzed. At least one claim was identified for 26% (95% CI (24.0%–27.9%)) of all foods and drinks sampled. Six percent of these claims were symbolic. The majority of the claims were nutrition claims (64%), followed by health claims (29%) and health-related ingredient claims (6%). The most common health claims were nutrient and other function claims (47% of all claims), followed by disease risk reduction claims (5%). Eight percent of the health claims were children’s development and health claims but these were only observed on less than 1% (0.4%–1.1%) of the foods. The category of foods for specific dietary use had the highest proportion of NHC (70% of foods carried a claim). The prevalence of symbolic and non-symbolic NHC varies across European countries and between different food categories. This study provides baseline data for policy makers and the food industry to monitor and evaluate the use of claims on food packaging. PMID:26950149

  6. putés antiparlementaires

    OpenAIRE

    Patin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Sous la République de Weimar, l’antiparlementarisme qui existait sous l’Empire connaît une forte croissance. Le Reichstag étant devenu la clef de voûte du régime, l’antiparlementarisme est d’autant plus radical. Il est au centre de l’idéologie des deux nouvelles formations politiques que sont le parti communiste et le parti nazi. Pourtant, l’un comme l’autre comptent un très grand nombre de députés. Comment ces derniers concilient-ils leur discours antiparlementaire et leur statut de député ?...

  7. The impact of the financial crisis on human resources for health policies in three southern-Europe countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Tiago; Dussault, Gilles; Pontes, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The public health sector has been the target of austerity measures since the global financial crisis started in 2008, while health workforce costs have been a source of rapid savings in most European Union countries. This article aims to explore how health workforce policies have evolved in three southern European countries under external constraints imposed by emergency financial programmes agreed with the International Monetary Fund, Central European Bank and European Commission. The selected countries, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus, show similarities with regard to corporatist systems of social protection and comprehensive welfare mechanisms only recently institutionalized. Based on document analysis of the Memoranda of Understanding agreed with the Troika, our results reveal broadly similar policy responses to the crisis but also important differences. In Cyprus, General Practitioners have a key position in reducing public expenditure through gatekeeping and control of users' access, while Portugal and Greece seeks to achieve cost containment by constraining the decision-making powers of professionals. All three countries lack innovation as well as monitoring and assessment of the effects of the financial crisis in relation to the health workforce. Consequently, there is a need for health policy development to use human resources more efficiently in healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments...... on the lack of correspondence between the new regulation and the marketing experiences and research as regard consumer reactions to health claims....

  9. Putting Opportunism in the Back Seat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Weber, Libby

    2013-01-01

    TCE and its applications in management research put more emphasis on opportunism than on bounded rationality. By augmenting the bounded rationality assumption to include interpretive limitations, we show that there are sources of costly conflict that are not rooted in opportunism. Moreover, we sh...... that bounded rationality may drive opportunism. All hierarchal forms are inherently subject to specific bounded-rationality-based conflicts, thus have different capacities to mitigate bounded-rationality-based transaction costs....

  10. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe: an analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnoij, Diana M J; Klazinga, Niek S; van der Velden, Koos

    2003-09-01

    Two questions are addressed. i) What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? ii) To what extent will compliance of CEEC and NIS with the WHO and WB recommendations result in health systems that produce maximum health for all by adequately addressing the needs of their populations? The reports prepared by the World Bank and the World Health Organization were assessed against the theoretical framework of a needs-based public health approach. It is observed that the WHO and WB approaches are currently converging, although there remain differences in their respective focuses. The main merit of the WHO approach is its focus on performance and the systems approach towards health (care). The merit of the WB view is the integrated approach to health, education and poverty. It is argued that CEEC and NIS need to anticipate an ageing population and growing numbers of chronically ill. This calls for integrated health care systems and more integrated funding and payment systems. The recommendations provided in the WHR and the WDR with regard to integrated care and integrated financing remain rather abstract. Advisors of CEEC and NIS on health care reform and Western assistance projects should focus more on future needs, in order to avoid building health systems that consistently lag behind the needs of their populations.

  11. The Impact of Migrations on the Health Services for Rare Diseases in Europe: The Example of Haemoglobin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Angastiniotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration from different parts of the world to several European countries leads to the introduction of haemoglobinopathy genes into the population, which creates several demanding needs for prevention and treatment services for Hb disorders. In this paper we examined the degree to which European health services have responded to such challenges and in particular to health services necessary to address the needs of patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease (SCD. Information on available services was obtained from international organizations, collaborated European project, and the Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF Databases, which include information from published surveys, registries, field trips, and delegation visits to countries and regions by expert advisors, local associations, and other collaborators’ reports. Results show that countries with traditional strong prevention and treatment programs are well prepared to face the above challenges, while others are urgently needed to address these problems in a systematic way. The Thalassaemia International Federation (TIF is committed to monitor the progress, raise awareness, and support the promotion of more immigrant-oriented health policies to ensure their integration in society and their access to appropriate, adequate, and timely health services.

  12. The Impact of Living Arrangements and Deinstitutionalisation in the Health Status of Persons with Intellectual Disability in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Leal, R.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Linehan, C.; Walsh, P.; Weber, G.; Van Hove, G.; Maata, T.; Azema, B.; Haveman, M.; Buono, S.; Germanavicius, A.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.; Tossebro, J.; Carmen-Cara, A.; Berger, D. Moravec; Perry, J.; Kerr, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite progress in the process of deinstitutionalisation, very little is known about the health conditions of people with intellectual disability (PWID) who live in large institutions and PWID living in small residential services, family homes or independent living within the community. Furthermore, there are no international…

  13. Quality of care and its determinants in longer term mental health facilities across Europe; a cross-sectional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killaspy, Helen; Cardoso, Graca; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; Turton, Penny; Taylor, Tatiana L.; Schuetzwohl, Matthias; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A.; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Adamowski, Tomasz; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; King, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) is an international, standardised quality tool for the evaluation of mental health facilities that provide longer term care. Completed by the service manager, it comprises 145 items that assess seven domains of care: living

  14. The impact of living arrangements and deinstitutionalisation in the health status of persons with intellectual disability in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Leal, R.; Salvador-Carulla, L.; Linehan, C.; Walsh, P.; Weber, G.; Hove, G. van; Maatta, T.; Azema, B.; Haveman, M.; Buono, S.; Germanavicius, A.; Schrojenstein Lantman, H.M.J. van; Tossebro, J.; Carmen-Cara, A.; Moravec Berger, D.; Perry, J.; Kerr, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite progress in the process of deinstitutionalisation, very little is known about the health conditions of people with intellectual disability (PWID) who live in large institutions and PWID living in small residential services, family homes or independent living within the community.

  15. How to strengthen patientcentredness in caring for people with multimorbidity in Europe? Policy Brief 22 Health systems and policy analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Snoeijs, S.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Schellevis, F.; Rijken, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Making care focus on patients is a way of overcoming the fragmentation that results from the “disease orientation” of Europe’s health systems, which still tend to organize around single medical specialities. Patient-centredness increases patient satisfaction and counters the problems associated with

  16. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  17. Travelers to Europe Need Measles Protection: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been reported in Europe. And 35 people across Europe have died from the highly contagious infection in the past year, the World Health Organization says. "Most measles cases in the United States are the result of international travel," said Dr. Gary Brunette, chief of the CDC's ...

  18. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent.

  19. Replication of the OMOP experiment in Europe: evaluating methods for risk identification in electronic health record databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuemie, Martijn J; Gini, Rosa; Coloma, Preciosa M; Straatman, Huub; Herings, Ron M C; Pedersen, Lars; Innocenti, Francesco; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Picelli, Gino; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M

    2013-10-01

    The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) has just completed a large scale empirical evaluation of statistical methods and analysis choices for risks identification in longitudinal observational healthcare data. This experiment drew data from four large US health insurance claims databases and one US electronic health record (EHR) database, but it is unclear to what extend the findings of this study apply to other data sources. To replicate the OMOP experiment in six European EHR databases. Six databases of the EU-ADR (Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions) database network participated in this study: Aarhus (Denmark), ARS (Italy), HealthSearch (Italy), IPCI (the Netherlands), Pedianet (Italy), and Pharmo (the Netherlands). All methods in the OMOP experiment were applied to a collection of 165 positive and 234 negative control drug-outcome pairs across four outcomes: acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) was computed per database and for a combination of all six databases using meta-analysis for random effects. We provide expected values of estimation error as well, based on negative controls. Similarly to the US experiment, high predictive accuracy was found (AUC >0.8) for some analyses. Self-controlled designs, such as self-controlled case series, IC temporal pattern discovery and self-controlled cohort achieved higher performance than other methods, both in terms of predictive accuracy and observed bias. The major findings of the recent OMOP experiment were also observed in the European databases.

  20. Mortality after surgery in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearse, Rupert M; Moreno, Rui P; Bauer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international...... study designed to assess outcomes after non-cardiac surgery in Europe....

  1. Allergology in Europe, the blueprint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Monchy, J. G.; Demoly, P.; Akdis, C. A.; Cardona, V.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Gayraud, J.

    2013-01-01

    The number of patients with allergic diseases in Europe, and thus relevant demand for health care, is continuously increasing. In this EAACI-UEMS position paper, a rationale is given for the medical specialty of allergology. General practitioners and general paediatricians usually cannot elucidate

  2. Children's dental health in Europe. An epidemiological investigation of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, A K

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is based on a cross-sectional comparative study of dental health, treatment needs and attitudes to dental care in groups of 5- and 12-year-old children from the following eight cities in respective EU countries: Athens-Greece, Berlin-Germany, Cork-Ireland, Dundee-Scotland, Gent-Belgium, Sassari-Italy, Stockholm-Sweden and Valencia-Spain. A total of 3,200 children, 200 in each age group, were clinically examined by well-calibrated dentists, the parents completing a questionnaire on dental habits, parental and children's attitudes to dental care, smoking habits and parental occupations. The results disclosed pronounced differences in dental health and treatment need among the children from the different countries. The Scottish, Italian and German 5-year-olds exhibited the highest values for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft). The m component dominated for the Scottish sample, the d component in the Italian and d and f in the German sample. The highest values for DMFT in the 12-year-olds were found in the German, Greek and Italian samples followed by the Swedish sample. The F component dominated in the German and Swedish samples, while D dominated in the Greek and Italian samples. Analyses of the influence of socio-demographic and behavioural factors on the dental health, expressed as dmft/DMFT, showed that the most important factors explaining differences in caries experience were toothache, social class of the family and dental fear in the children. The frequency of similar attitudes (dental fear) in subjects and parents was 50% or higher in all the samples, and the frequency of similar dental attendance patterns in child and parent was 42% or higher in all the samples. For both age groups the proportion of subjects with regular dental attendance habits was highest in the Swedish, Belgian, German and Scottish samples. These findings, together with the high frequency of regular attenders without treatment need in the Swedish 5-year-olds indicate

  3. Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson, J. E.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Simpson, D.; Nyíri, A.; Posch, M.; Heyes, C.

    2017-09-01

    Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These ‘excess emissions’ are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle’s after-treatment system, as investigations during the ‘Dieselgate’ scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants and employ the EMEP MSC-W Chemistry Transport Model and the GAINS Integrated Assessment Model to determine atmospheric concentrations and resulting impacts. We compare with impacts from hypothetical emissions where light duty diesel vehicles are assumed to emit only as much as their respective type approval limit value or as little as petrol cars of the same age. Excess NO2 concentrations can also have direct health impacts, but these overlap with the impacts from particulate matter (PM) and are not included here. We estimate that almost 10 000 premature deaths from PM2.5 and ozone in the adult population (age >30 years) can be attributed to the NOx emissions from diesel cars and light commercial vehicles in EU28 plus Norway and Switzerland in 2013. About 50% of these could have been avoided if diesel limits had been achieved also in on-road driving; and had diesel cars emitted as little NOx as petrol cars, 80% of these premature deaths could have been avoided. Ecosystem eutrophication impacts (critical load exceedances) from the same diesel vehicles would also have been reduced at similar rates as for the health effects.

  4. Impact of excess NOx emissions from diesel cars on air quality, public health and eutrophication in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Jonson; J. Borken-Kleefeld; Simpson, D.; Nyiri, A.; Posch, M.; Heyes, C.

    2017-01-01

    Diesel cars have been emitting four to seven times more NOx in on-road driving than in type approval tests. These ‘excess emissions’ are a consequence of deliberate design of the vehicle’s after-treatment system, as investigations during the ‘Dieselgate’ scandal have revealed. Here we calculate health and environmental impacts of these excess NOx emissions in all European countries for the year 2013. We use national emissions reported officially under the UNECE Convention for Long-range Trans...

  5. Children's dental health in Europe : An epidemiological investigation of 5- and 12-year-old children from eight EU countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Ann-Kristin

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is based on a cross-sectional comparative study of dental health treatment needs and attitudes to dental care in groups of 5- and 12-year-old children from the following eight cities in respective EU countries: Athens-Greece, Berlin-Germany, Cork-lreland, Dundee-Scotland, Gent Belgium, Sassari-Italy, Stockholm-Sweden and Valencia-Spain. A total of 3,200 children, 200 in each age group, were clinically examined by well-calibrated dentists, the parents completing a...

  6. Professional care seeking for mental health problems among women and men in Europe: the role of socioeconomic, family-related and mental health status factors in explaining gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, V; Van de Velde, S; Bracke, P

    2014-10-01

    This comparative study examines cross-national variation in gender differences in primary and specialized mental health care use in Europe. We investigate to what extent socioeconomic, family-related, and mental health factors explain the gender difference, and how the impact of these groups of determinants on gender differences in mental health care use varies between countries. Data from the Eurobarometer 248 (2005-2006) for 29 European countries is used and country-specific logistic regression analyses are performed. Gender differences in professional care seeking are largely need based. In almost one-third of the countries examined, the gender difference is mainly attributable to women's poorer mental health status. However, in some countries, family and socioeconomic characteristics also have an independent contribution to the gender difference in mental health care use. Women's higher likelihood of a lower socioeconomic position, might partly explain their higher primary care use, while in some countries, it restricts their specialized care use. In addition, some social conditions, as having children and being widowed, seem to function in a few countries as suppressors of women's care use. Our study has shown that the gender difference in mental health care use, with women having a higher care use, is not a consistent European phenomenon and is dependent on the type of care provider, with greater gender inequity in the use of primary health care. The social roles adopted by men and women have in some countries on top of the mental health status a relevant influence on the greater tendency among women to contact a care provider. How the socioeconomic and family characteristics moderate the relation between gender and mental health care use is not straightforward and country dependent.

  7. The interaction between individualism and wellbeing in predicting mortality: Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Judith A; Weiss, Alexander; Gale, Catharine R

    2017-07-15

    The link between greater wellbeing and longevity is well documented. The aim of the current study was to test whether this association is consistent across individualistic and collectivistic cultures. The sample consisted of 13,596 participants from 11 European countries, each of which was assigned an individualism score according to Hofstede et al.'s (Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, McGraw Hill, New York, 2010) cultural dimension of individualism. We tested whether individualism moderated the cross-sectional association between wellbeing and self-rated health or the longitudinal association between wellbeing and mortality risk. Our analysis revealed a significant interaction between individualism and wellbeing such that the association between wellbeing and self-rated health or risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease was stronger in more individualistic countries. However, the interaction between wellbeing and individualism was not significant in analysis predicting all-cause mortality. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our finding and to explore the factors responsible for this culturally dependent effect.

  8. Employment Condition, Economic Deprivation and Self-Evaluated Health in Europe: Evidence from EU-SILC 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Silvia; Pigini, Claudia; Seracini, Marco; Minelli, Liliana

    2017-02-03

    Background: The mixed empirical evidence about employment conditions (i.e., permanent vs. temporary job, full-time vs. part-time job) as well as unemployment has motivated the development of conceptual models with the aim of assessing the pathways leading to effects of employment status on health. Alongside physically and psychologically riskier working conditions, one channel stems in the possibly severe economic deprivation faced by temporary workers. We investigate whether economic deprivation is able to partly capture the effect of employment status on Self-evaluated Health Status (SHS). Methods: Our analysis is based on the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey, for a balanced sample from 26 countries from 2009 to 2012. We estimate a correlated random-effects logit model for the SHS that accounts for the ordered nature of the dependent variable and the longitudinal structure of the data. Results and Discussion: Material deprivation and economic strain are able to partly account for the negative effects on SHS from precarious and part-time employment as well as from unemployment that, however, exhibits a significant independent negative association with SHS. Conclusions: Some of the indicators used to proxy economic deprivation are significant predictors of SHS and their correlation with the employment condition is such that it should not be neglected in empirical analysis, when available and further to the monetary income.

  9. Animal health aspects of adaptation to climate change: beating the heat and parasites in a warming Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, P J; Morgan, E R; van Dijk, J; Mitchell, M

    2013-06-01

    Weather patterns in northern European regions have changed noticeably over the past several decades, featuring warmer, wetter weather with more extreme events. The climate is projected to continue on this trajectory for the foreseeable future, even under the most modest warming scenarios. Such changes will have a significant impact on livestock farming, both directly through effects on the animals themselves, and indirectly through changing exposure to pests and pathogens. Adaptation options aimed at taking advantage of new opportunities and/or minimising the risks of negative impacts will, in themselves, have implications for animal health and welfare. In this review, we consider the potential consequences of future intensification of animal production, challenges associated with indoor and outdoor rearing of animals and aspects of animal transportation as key examples. We investigate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the epidemiology of important livestock pathogens, with a particular focus on parasitic infections, and the likely animal health consequences associated with selected adaptation options. Finally, we attempt to identify key gaps in our knowledge and suggest future research priorities.

  10. A cross-sectional assessment of the burden of COPD symptoms in the US and Europe using the National Health and Wellness Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ding,1 Marco DiBonaventura,2 Niklas Karlsson,1 Gina Bergström,1 Ulf Holmgren1 1AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; 2Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA Introduction: Past research has suggested significant relationships between symptoms and health outcomes among patients with COPD. However, these studies have generally focused on a broad COPD sample and may have included those not receiving proper treatment. As a result, the aim of this study was to document the burden of COPD symptoms among those who are currently treated with the standard-of-care (SOC medications in both the US and Western Europe. Methods: Data from the 2013 US (N=75,000 and 2011 (N=57,512/2013 (N=62,000 European (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK; 5EU National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS were used. The NHWS is a health survey administered to a demographically representative sample of the adult population in each country. A total of 1,666 and 2,006 patients with self-reported physician diagnosis of COPD in the 5EU and US, respectively, were being treated with the appropriate SOC (based on self-reported medication use and were included in the analyses. Symptoms (eg, dyspnea, coughing, wheezing were reported descriptively and summed to create a symptom score (with higher score indicating more frequent symptoms. The relationships between the symptom score and patient outcomes (eg, health status using the Short Form-36 version 2 [SF-36v2], work productivity and activity impairment [WPAI], and self-reported health care resource use were explored using regression modeling. Results: Nearly all patients (99.7% and 99.8% in the 5EU and US, respectively reported experiencing symptoms and >80% reported experiencing at least one symptom “often”. Increasing symptom scores were associated with poorer health status (unstandardized beta [b] =-0.87 and -0.78 for mental component summary and physical component summary, respectively, in the US and b =-0.67 and -0.79 in the 5

  11. The regulatory and Health Technology processes in Europe and drug market access. The case of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Latorre Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the European market, a new drug needs to receive a positive evaluation regarding its quality, safety and efficacy by regulatory health authorities and also obtain a positive HTA appraisal regarding its cost-effectiveness by HTA bodies. Regulators and HTA bodies are collaborating in several projects at European level in order to harmonize the scientific requirements of both evaluations to the maximum extent possible. The comparison of the regulatory evaluation performed by EMA for Kalydeco and the HTA appraisals issued by several EU bodies exemplifies the dilemma between scientific evidence and local economic considerations and the difficulties in the achievement of harmonization and therefore equity in the access to drugs.

  12. VET Teachers in Europe: Policies, Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The objective of making vocational education and training (VET) globally competitive and attractive by the European Union has put vocational teachers in the spotlight. As a result, the VET teacher profession in Europe is facing many challenges and demands expressed constantly by the general public, representatives from the world of work, public…

  13. Status of Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan F. Webber

    2008-01-01

    Following the recognition that Phytophthora ramorum (the cause of sudden oak death in the U.S.) was present in Europe as well as America, emergency European Community (EC) phytosanitary measures were put in place in September 2002 to prevent spread of P. ramorum, and also to stop introductions of the pathogen from elsewhere. A 3...

  14. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has......, farmers take responsibility for health and welfare planning by identifying issues, setting goals, and acting to improve the health situation based on farm-specific data, e.g. milk production. This paper reviews the results from intervention studies that used a modified ‘farmer field school’ approach...

  15. Whole-Genome Sequencing for Routine Pathogen Surveillance in Public Health: a Population Snapshot of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Aanensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS promises to transform our ability to monitor the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. Here we combined WGS data from 308 invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates corresponding to a pan-European population snapshot, with epidemiological and resistance data. Geospatial visualization of the data is made possible by a generic software tool designed for public health purposes that is available at the project URL (http://www.microreact.org/project/EkUvg9uY?tt=rc. Our analysis demonstrates that high-risk clones can be identified on the basis of population level properties such as clonal relatedness, abundance, and spatial structuring and by inferring virulence and resistance properties on the basis of gene content. We also show that in silico predictions of antibiotic resistance profiles are at least as reliable as phenotypic testing. We argue that this work provides a comprehensive road map illustrating the three vital components for future molecular epidemiological surveillance: (i large-scale structured surveys, (ii WGS, and (iii community-oriented database infrastructure and analysis tools.

  16. Health impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Europe: HIWATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Smith, Rachel; Golfinopoulos, Spyros; Best, Nicky; Bennett, James; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Righi, Elena; Fantuzzi, Guglielmina; Bucchini, Luca; Cordier, Sylvaine; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bosetti, Cristina; Vartiainen, Terttu; Rautiu, Radu; Toledano, Mireille; Iszatt, Nina; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2009-06-01

    There appears to be very good epidemiological evidence for a relationship between chlorination by-products, as measured by trihalomethanes (THMs), in drinking water and bladder cancer, but the evidence for other cancers, including colorectal cancer appears to be inconclusive and inconsistent. There appears to be some evidence for a relationship between chlorination by-products, as measured by THMs, and small for gestational age (SGA)/intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preterm delivery, but evidence for other outcomes such as low birth weight (LBW), stillbirth, congenital anomalies and semen quality appears to be inconclusive and inconsistent.The overall aim of the HIWATE study is to investigate potential human health risks (e.g. bladder and colorectal cancer, premature births, SGA, semen quality, stillbirth, congenital anomalies) associated with long-term exposure to low levels of disinfectants (such as chlorine) and DBPs occurring in water for human consumption and use in the food industry. The study will comprise risk-benefit analyses including quantitative assessments of risk associated with microbial contamination of drinking water versus chemical risk and will compare alternative treatment options. The outcome will be improved risk assessment and better information for risk management. The work is divided into different topics (exposure assessment, epidemiology, risk assessment and management) and studies.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of Chagas disease screening in Latin American migrants at primary health-care centres in Europe: a Markov model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; Bussion, Sheila; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Jackson, Yves; Angheben, Andrea; Moore, David; Pinazo, Maria-Jesús; Gascón, Joaquim; Muñoz, Jose; Sicuri, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    -effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €6840·75 (95% CI 2545-2759) per QALY gained for a treatment efficacy of 20% and €4243 per QALY gained for treatment efficacy of 50%. Even with a reduction in Chagas disease prevalence to 0·05% and with large variations in all the parameters, the test option would still be more cost-effective than the no-test option (less than €30000 per QALY). Screening for Chagas disease in asymptomatic Latin American adults living in Europe is a cost-effective strategy. Findings of our model provide an important element to support the implementation of T cruzi screening programmes at primary health centres in European countries hosting Latin American migrants. European Commission 7th Framework Program. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost of depression in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Patrik; Jönsson, Bengt; Angst, Jules; Rehnberg, Clas

    2006-06-01

    there is no earlier cost-of-illness study conducted on depression in Europe, it is, however, difficult to evaluate the validity of our results for individual countries and thus further research is needed. The cost of depression poses a significant economic burden to European society. The simulation model employed shows good predictability of the cost of depression in Europe and is a novel approach to estimate the cost-of-illness in Europe. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND POLICIES: Health and social care policy and commissioning must be evidence-based. The empirical results from this study confirm previous findings, that depression is a major concern to the economic welfare in Europe which has consequences to both healthcare providers and policy makers. One important way to stop this explosion in cost is through increased research efforts in the field. Moreover, better detection, prevention, treatment and patient management are imperatives to reduce the burden of depression and its costs. Mental healthcare policies and better access to healthcare for mentally ill are other challenges to improve for Europe. This study has identified several research gaps which are of interest for future research. In order to better understand the impact of depression to European society long-term prospective epidemiology and cost-of-illness studies are needed. In particular data is lacking for Central European countries. On the basis of our findings, further economic evaluations of treatments for depression are necessary in order to ensure a cost-effective use of European healthcare budgets.

  19. Insufficient access to harm reduction measures in prisons in 5 countries (PRIDE Europe): a shared European public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Laurent; Lions, Caroline; Van Malderen, Sara; Schiltz, Julie; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Holm, Karina; Kolind, Torsten; Nava, Felice; Weltzien, Nadja; Moser, Andrea; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Maguet, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia M; Brentari, Cinzia; Stöver, Heino

    2015-10-27

    Prisoners constitute a high-risk population, particularly for infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of infectious risk in the prisons of five different European countries by measuring to what extent the prison system adheres to WHO/UNODC recommendations. Following the methodology used in a previous French survey, a postal/electronic questionnaire was sent to all prisons in Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Italy to collect data on the availability of several recommended HIV-HCV prevention interventions and HBV vaccination for prisoners. A score was built to compare adherence to WHO/UNODC recommendations (considered a proxy of environmental infectious risk) in those 4 countries. It ranged from 0 (no adherence) to 12 (full adherence). A second score (0 to 9) was built to include data from a previous French survey, thereby creating a 5-country comparison. A majority of prisons answered in Austria (100 %), France (66 %) and Denmark (58 %), half in Belgium (50 %) and few in Italy (17 %), representing 100, 74, 89, 47 and 23 % coverage of the prison populations, respectively. Availability of prevention measures was low, with median adherence scores ranging from 3.5 to 4.5 at the national level. These results were confirmed when using the second score which included France in the inter-country comparison. Overall, the adherence score was inversely associated with prison overpopulation rates (p = 0.08). Using a score of adherence to WHO/UNODC recommendations, the estimated environmental infectious risk remains extremely high in the prisons of the 5 European countries assessed. Public health strategies should be adjusted to comply with the principle of equivalence of care and prevention with the general community.

  20. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part II: How are configurations of crisis and austerity related to changes in population health across Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Holm Ingelsrud, Mari; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2017-08-01

    Based on the ideal type classification of European countries done in Part I of this paper, Part II explores whether the real 'danger' to public health is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than recession itself. We constructed two fuzzy sets of changes in population health based on a pooled file of European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data (2008 and 2013) including 29 European countries. The linear probability analyses of 'limiting long-standing illness' and 'less than good' health were restricted to the age group 20-64 years. We performed fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) and studied whether configurations of 'severe crisis' and 'austerity' were linked to changes in population health. Overall, the results of this fsQCA do not support the 'crisis-austerity' thesis. Results on 'less than good' health were highly inconsistent, while results on 'limiting long-standing illness', contrary to the thesis, showed a two-path model. Countries with either no severe crisis or no austerity were subsets of the set of countries that experienced deteriorated health. Results also show that several countries combined both paths. This fuzzy set analysis does not support Stuckler and Basu's 'crisis-austerity' thesis, as those European countries that experienced recession and austerity were not consistently the countries with deteriorating health. There may be multiple reasons for this result, including analytical approach and operationalization of key concepts, but also resilient forces such as family support. We suggest more research on the topic based on more recent data and possibly other, or more, dimensions of austerity.

  1. Adult Asylum Seekers from the Middle East Including Syria in Central Europe: What Are Their Health Care Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    Full Text Available Forced displacement related to persecution and violent conflict has reached a new peak in recent years. The primary aim of this study is to provide an initial overview of the acute and chronic health care problems of asylum seekers from the Middle East, with special emphasis on asylum seekers from Syria.Our retrospective data analysis comprised adult patients presenting to our emergency department between 01.11.2011 and 30.06.2014 with the official resident status of an "asylum seeker" or "refugee" from the Middle East.In total, 880 patients were included in the study. Of these, 625 (71.0% were male and 255 (29.0% female. The median age was 34 (range 16-84. 222 (25.2% of our patients were from Syria. The most common reason for presentation was surgical (381, 43.3%, followed by medical (321, 36.5% and psychiatric (137, 15.6%. In patients with surgical presentations, trauma-related problems were most common (n = 196, 50.6%. Within the group of patients with medical presentation, acute infectious diseases were most common (n = 141, 43.9%, followed by neurological problems (n = 70, 21.8% and gastrointestinal problems (n = 47, 14.6%. There were no differences between Syrian and non-Syrian refugees concerning surgical or medical admissions. The most common chronic disorder of unclear significance was chronic gastrointestinal problems (n = 132, 15%, followed by chronic musculoskeletal problems (n = 108, 12.3% and chronic headaches (n = 78, 8.9%. Patients from Syria were significantly younger and more often suffered from a post-traumatic stress disorder than patients of other nationalities (p<0.0001, and p = 0.05, respectively.Overall a remarkable number of our very young group of patients suffered from psychiatric disorders and unspecified somatic symptoms. Asylum seekers should be carefully evaluated when presenting to a medical facility and physicians should be aware of the high incidence of unspecified somatic symptoms in this patient population

  2. Health and vitality assessment of two common pine species in the context of climate change in southern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-st.fr [ACRI-ST, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d’Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes) – 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France)

    2015-02-15

    change. - Highlights: • We assess climate change impacts on forests: South-eastern France as case study in the last 20 years. • We detect and estimate trends for O{sub 3} concentrations, climatic parameters and visible injury. • We establish a state-of-the-art of the health of 2 common pine species in a context of climate change. • We use two valuable bio-indicator species for O{sub 3} stress: Pinus halepensis and Pinus cembra. • Deterioration of crown conditions: climate change creates additional challenges for forest.

  3. Russia puts Europe to a test of morality / Vytautas Landsbergis ; interv. Sven Becker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Landsbergis, Vytautas

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liige vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Leedut Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigina, Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhteid, Vene-Saksa gaasitoru ja Leedu sisepoliitikat. Lisa: Vytautas Landsbergise CV

  4. "Danish women put up with less"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leine, Marie; Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    2018-01-01

    Denmark is a country that has been heralded for its high levels of gender equality for decades. One would have expected, then, that the recent EU report that ranked Denmark as the EU-member country with the highest occurrence of physical violence towards women would have created a public uproar....... Yet the few reactions to the study in the media were generally characterized by skepticism regarding the study’s comparative scope. The notion was widely circulated that Danish women experience behavior as “violent” that women in other countries would consider ordinary. It was argued that “Danish...... women put up with less”—and that the report was, in effect, invalid. In this article we outline the discursive space that emerges when the mass media seeks to tackle symptoms of inequality in Denmark. We argue that the ideology of gender equality comes to construct a dominant discourse, which silences...

  5. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  6. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton on Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk [Ossining, NY; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  7. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among S pecial Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia Oral cleanliness among athletes with intellectual disabilities e591 Journal section: Medically compromised patients in Dentistry Publication Types: Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Luc; Fernandez, Carla; Kaschke, Imke; Perlman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. Material and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 at...

  8. Health economics and European Renal Best Practice--is it time to bring health economics into evidence-based guideline production in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; Vanholder, Raymond; Oberbauer, Rainer; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2014-11-01

    Medical management of patients with kidney disease is complex and resource intensive. In times of limited health care budgets, economic evaluations have become more important over the past few years in identifying interventions with a beneficial cost-effectiveness to maximize the benefits served from the available resources. However, integrating evidence from health-economic evaluations into clinical practice guidelines remains a challenge. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), the official guideline body of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) herewith presents some lines of thought that need consideration in the discussion on incorporating health-economic considerations into clinical guideline development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J. Voorham; R. van Staveren; E. Koppelaar; L.F.J. Martijn; E. Valía-Cotanda; T. Alhambra-Borrás; T. Rentoumis; L. Bilajac; V. Vasiljev Marchesi; T. Rukavina; A. Verma; G. Williams; G. Clough; J. Garcés-Ferrer; F. Mattace Raso; H. Raat; C.B. Franse

    2017-01-01

    Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In

  10. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): Preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franse, C.B. (Carmen B.); A.J. Voorham; Van Staveren, R. (Rob); E. Koppelaar (Elin); Martijn, R. (Rens); Valía-Cotanda, E. (Elisa); Alhambra-Borrás, T. (Tamara); Rentoumis, T. (Tasos); Bilajac, L. (Lovorka); Marchesi, V.V. (Vanja Vasiljev); Rukavina, T. (Tomislav); Verma, A. (Arpana); Williams, G. (Greg); Clough, G. (Gary); Garcés-Ferrer, J. (Jorge); F.M. Raso; H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living

  11. 'FIFA 11 for Health' for Europe. II: effect on health markers and physical fitness in Danish schoolchildren aged 10-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørntoft, Christina; Fuller, Colin W; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Bangsbo, Jens; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate whether a modified 'FIFA 11 for Health' programme for non-communicable diseases had effects on body composition, blood pressure and physical fitness of Danish schoolchildren aged 10-12 years. A cluster-randomised controlled study with 7 intervention and 2 control schools. 546 Danish 5th grade municipal schoolchildren allocated to an intervention group (IG; n=402: 11.1±0.4 (±SD) years, 150.1±7.0 cm, 41.3±8.4 kg) and a control group (CG; n=144: 11.0±0.5 years, 151.2±7.8 cm, 41.3±9.0 kg). As part of the physical education (PE) curriculum, IG carried out 2 weekly 45 min 'FIFA 11 for Health' sessions focusing on health issues, football skills and 3v3 games. CG continued regular school PE activities. Measurements of body composition, blood pressure at rest, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C), balance, jump and sprint performance were performed before and after the 11-week study period. During the 11-week study period, systolic blood pressure (-3.5 vs 0.9 mm Hg), mean arterial blood pressure (-1.9 vs 0.4 mm Hg), body mass index (-0.02 vs 0.13 kg/m 2 ) and body fat percentage (-0.83% vs -0.04%) decreased more (pFIFA 11 for Health' programme has beneficial effects on body composition and blood pressure for Danish schoolchildren aged 10-12 years, thereby providing evidence that this football-based health education programme can directly impact participants' cardiovascular health profile. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Putting in place the LHC computing organization

    CERN Multimedia

    Akesson, T

    2001-01-01

    Following the CERN review of computing, the ball is in the able hands of the CERN directorate to translate the review recommendations into the implementation of a LHC computing organization. From the ATLAS point of view it is rather clear what is needed: A credible set-up that can get into place the total computing infrastructure to match ATLAS global computing requirements, and not just at CERN. The next six months will demonstrate if CERN is on a good track to get operational an organization that can tackle this global challenge. CERN put forward to the 15th of June Council a paper that invites comments on a LHC Computing Grid Project as part of the CERN base program. In particular, it asked for new resources, of 25+25 MCHF, for CERN to build the CERN-part of a prototype that should be matched to the need of the experiments for the forthcoming data challenges. The intention of CERN now is to discuss with member-states in July to establish a sufficient resource-base to get approval at the September Commit...

  13. Putting an End to Diarrhoeal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Focusing on health issues in developing countries, this journal presents information about diarrhoeal diseases and related health problems. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "Intestinal Absorption of Water and Electrolytes"; (2) "Diagnosis of Infectious Diarrhoea"; (3) "Hydration and…

  14. L'EUROPE SAINT-SIMONIENNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people have been preoccupied with Europe ever since the beginnings of time. Their ideas can be traced back as far as ancient mythology, as attempts to explain the world. But as of the 18th century, they looked at it differently, as an organized, unified, political institution. Numerous essays have influenced the history of the European idea, among them the work of Saint-Simon who, in 1814, thought of a European Parliament governing the national parliaments. In his essay on reorganizing the European society he brought forth ideas such as Europe rebuilt as a confederation, the establishment of a general parliament responsible for making decisions concerning the common interests of the whole European society. He strongly believed that putting the great political issues to the test is the aim of all contemporary efforts. If the previous century's philosophy was revolutionary, the 19ths centurys philosophy had to be organizing.

  15. Live-case demonstrations: putting patients first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajadet, Jean; Wood, Shelley; Wijns, William

    2017-11-07

    Live-case demonstrations have become essential teaching tools. Debate about their added educational value and risk-benefit considerations vis-à-vis patient safety demand that major interventional cardiology meetings offering live-case demonstrations carefully define and monitor the objectives and quality of the cases included at their meetings. To this end, Europa Organisation, the content-providing group that supports EuroPCR and other PCR conferences internationally, has convened the PCR VITAL-Live Workshop, bringing together senior interventional cardiologists and experienced live-case operators with the aim of defining and reviewing the key components and goals of valuable live-case demonstrations. The Vital-Live participants unanimously agreed that live cases provide an educational experience with an immediacy and intensity that is unmatched by taped cases, through audience engagement with unfiltered reality and participation in real-time decision-making. Best practices regarding case selection, preparation, objectives, delivery, and discussion of the demonstrations were designed to ensure that the lessons learned would be clear and implementable by audience members, leading to improved patient care and safety in their own practices. Today's on-line accessibility of live-cases underscores the need for operators, hospitals, panels, and meeting chairs to insure that the content, quality, and intent anticipate any public scrutiny. This requires putting patient outcomes first, both at the level of the live demonstration itself and its broader educational worth. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Gender differences in depression and pain: A two year follow-up study of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; López-Pousa, Secundino; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2016-03-15

    The longitudinal association of depression and pain according to gender was investigated using a population-based sample from 13 European countries. The study population was taken from waves 4-5 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The sample consisted of 22,280 participants ≥50 years, who were interviewed at baseline, and after two years. Regression models for each gender were used to assess the variables associated with depression and pain incidence and persistence. Prevalences of depression, pain, and depression-pain co-occurrence, were higher in women than in men (depression: 34.5% vs. 20.3%; OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.9-2.2; pain: 60.2% vs. 53.5%; OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.2-1.4; co-occurrence 25.3% vs. 14.0%; OR=2.3; 95% CI=2.2-2.6). Treated baseline pain in women (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.3-2.0), and treated/untreated pain in men (untreated OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.1-1.7; treated OR=2.0; 95% CI=1.5-2.7), were associated with incident depression. Untreated baseline depression was associated with incident pain (women OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.1-1.7; men OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.3-2.6), and with persistent pain only in women (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.1-1.6). We lack information on pain severity, and the consumption of analgesics was used as a proxy. We lack information on antidepressants and anxiolytics consumption separately. Participants were interviewed twice in two years, and pain/depression at both interviews were considered persistent although they may have relapsed and recurred. Treated baseline pain is a risk factor for incident depression in both genders; untreated baseline pain is a risk factor only in men. Treating depression at baseline may protect from developing pain in both genders, and in women, it may also protect from pain persistence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  18. EUROCOURSE lessons learned from and for population-based cancer registries in Europe and their programme owners : Improving performance by research programming for public health and clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, J.W.; van den Hurk, C.J.; Rosso, S.; Comber, H.; Storm, H.; Zanetti, R.; Sacchetto, L.; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Thong, M.S.Y.; Siesling, S.; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Population-based cancer registries (CRs) in Europe have played a supportive, sometimes guiding, role in describing geographic variation of cancer epidemics and comparisons of oncological practice and preventive interventions since the 1950s for all types of cancer, separate and simultaneously. This

  19. Improved cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish children after the school-based physical activity programme "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2017-01-01

    , p = .012) and working memory (79, sx– = 35 ms, p = .020). Conclusion: This pilot study provides evidence that the school-based physical activity programme “FIFA 11 for Health” for Europe can improve cognitive performance in preadolescent Danish schoolchildren. Future studies should attempt...

  20. Ixodes ricinus and its transmitted pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas in Europe: new hazards and relevance for public health

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rizzoli, A.; Silaghi, C.; Obiegala, A.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Földvári, G.; Plantard, O.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Bonnet, S.; Špitalská, E.; Kazimírová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 251 (2014) ISSN 2296-2565 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ticks * Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne pathogens * urban habitats * Europe Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  1. Value for money: putting the patient first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Robert; Mayer, Joseph; Adams, Owen

    2009-01-01

    Canadians spend more on healthcare than people in most other countries. We are fifth in the OECD in terms of health spending per capita, and eighth out of 28 countries in terms of health spending as a percentage of GDP. Given these facts, it is appropriate to discuss the issue of value for money in healthcare. In their paper, McGrail et al. present four challenges to improving value for money in Canadian healthcare: a lack of analysis of the hospital sector; the need to learn from rate variation analysis; the slow uptake of the electronic health record (EHR); and the need to measure health outcomes. Our paper addresses each of these points, but also proposes that a broader outlook is needed to come to grips with this question. It is essential to go beyond supply-side cost control, and also take into account the needs of the patient. Moreover, we need to look beyond our borders to learn how other countries have been able to evolve universal publicly funded health systems without long waiting times.

  2. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...... on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries...

  3. Colleges Put the Squeeze on Germs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    A spirited campaign to promote "hand hygiene" is under way at the University of Central Florida Orlando campus, and the urinal toter, known as UCF 5th Guy, is its front line. Like their counterparts at many other institutions, health officials at Central Florida want students to think about the germs that lurk on their hands. And then…

  4. The Reshaping of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the different paths Europe may follow, this study treats Soviet reform and new -vi- dinking as an independent variable that propels systemic change...Europe dating back to the Bolshevik Revolution to reinstate Russia in the European family of nations. Whether the Soviet Union chooses to behave as a

  5. Islam in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007.......A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007....

  6. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  7. The European Union, Europe Direct Centres and Civil Society Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents and discusses the activities for civil society organizations developed by the Europe Direct centres of one member state, Italy. Specifically it explores the diverse range of activities that Italian Europe Direct centres put in place during 2007 and it identifies the extent...... to which these activities have contributed to the EU envisaged role of constructing a stronger civil society and enhancing citizens' interest and national debate for European issues. This study of the Italian European Direct activities is based on the findings of a project conducted in 2007 for the Italian...

  8. Putting organizational development principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N E

    1990-01-01

    Organizational development requires us to look at the whole system, rather than to isolate the parts. Its precepts urge widespread participation in planning and implementing change. Turning the organization into a conscious learning system ensures ongoing adaptation to an unpredictable environment. The role of everyone with OD knowledge in health care is to apply the guiding principles we have discussed. It is also to raise awareness about the potential harm that may ensue from ignoring these principles. Rarely will an OD intervention provide a quick fix. Substantive changes always go through a cycle of "worse before better." But, the lasting benefit from integrating OD principles into health care education and management is that they provide the resiliency that people and organizations need to thrive in a time of change.

  9. Adult and early childhood diet of early medieval untypical population group of Central Europe (10th century AD, Czech Republic) in relation to the health status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaupová, S.; Velemínský, P.; Stránská, Petra; Tomková, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, S64 (2017), s. 239 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /86./. 19.04.2017-22.04.2017, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36938G Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * diet * anthropology * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23210/pdf

  10. Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system – an integrated modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brandt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution, based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors, which can be used to support policy-making with respect to emission control. Central for the system is a newly developed tagging method capable of calculating the contribution from a specific emission source or sector to the overall air pollution levels, taking into account the non-linear atmospheric chemistry. The main objective of this work is to identify the anthropogenic emission sources in Europe and Denmark that contribute the most to human health impacts. In this study, we applied the EVA system to Europe and Denmark, with a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions. The paper contains a thorough description of the EVA system, the main results from the assessment of the main contributors and a discussion of the most important atmospheric chemical reactions relevant for interpreting the results. The main conclusion from the analysis is that the major contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. We conclude that when regulating the emissions of ammonia from the agricultural sector, both the impacts on nature and on human health should be taken into account. This study confirms that air pollution constitutes a serious problem for human health and that the related external costs are considerable. The results in this work emphasize the importance of defining the right questions in the decision-making process. The results from assessing the impacts from each emission sector depend clearly on the assumption that the other emission sectors are not changed, especially emissions changing concentrations of

  11. From compulsory to voluntary immunisation: Italy's National Vaccination Plan (2005-7) and the ethical and organisational challenges facing public health policy-makers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, N E; Gainotti, S; Petrini, C

    2008-09-01

    Increasing geographical mobility and international travel augment the ease and speed by which infectious diseases can spread across large distances. It is therefore incumbent upon each state to ensure that immunisation programmes are effective and that herd immunity is achieved. Across Europe, a range of immunisation policies exist: compulsion, the offer of financial incentives to parents or healthcare professionals, social and professional pressure, or simply the dissemination of clear information and advice. Until recently, immunisation against particular communicable diseases was compulsory in Italy. The Italian National Vaccination Plan (NVP) (2005-7) paved the way for regions to suspend the sanctions associated with compulsory vaccinations for children when certain criteria are met--for example when immunisation coverage is high and when effective monitoring/surveillance systems are in place--and thus marked a milestone in the move from compulsory to voluntary immunisation. The forthcoming NVP for 2008-10 confirms the liberal approach to vaccination in Italy as it entrusts to the regions responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of herd immunity. This paper reviews the arguments for and against compulsory and voluntary immunisation in relation to the Italian NVP (2005-7) and in the context of the diverse immunisation policies that exist across Europe. It concludes with cautious support for the NVP and an associated shift from compulsory to voluntary immunisation in Italy, and draws similarities between issues concerning regional variation in immunisation policy in Italy and national variation in immunisation policy across Europe and beyond.

  12. Harmonised human biomonitoring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joas, Reinhard; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Biot, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    for policy making; (ii) to evaluate policy actions aimed at reducing exposure to potentially hazardous environmental stressors; and (iii) to promote more comprehensive health impact assessments of policy options. In support of the European Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010, European scientists......, experts from authorities and other stakeholders joined forces to work towards developing a functional framework and standards for a coherent HBM in Europe. Within the European coordination action on human biomonitoring, 35 partners from 27 European countries in the COPHES consortium aggregated...... health concerns, and political and health priorities. The harmonised approach includes sampling recruitment, and analytical procedures, communication strategies and biobanking initiatives. The protocols and the harmonised approach are a means to increase acceptance and policy support and to in the future...

  13. Effect of Putting Grip on Eye and Head Movements During the Golf Putting Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the effect of three different putting grips (conventional, cross-hand, and one-handed on variations in eye and head movements during the putting stroke. Seven volunteer novice players, ranging in age from 21 to 22 years, participated in the study. During each experimental session, the subject stood on a specially designed platform covered with artificial turf and putted golf balls towards a standard golf hole. The three different types of grips were tested at two distances: 3 and 9 ft. For each condition, 20 putts were attempted. For each putt, data were recorded over a 3-s interval at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. Eye movements were recorded using a helmet-mounted eye movement monitor. Head rotation about an imaginary axis through the top of the head and its center-of-rotation was measured by means of a potentiometer mounted on a fixed frame and coupled to the helmet. Putter-head motion was measured using a linear array of infrared phototransistors embedded in the platform. The standard deviation (STD, relative to the initial level was calculated for eye and head movements over the duration of the putt (i.e., from the beginning of the backstroke, through the forward stroke, to impact. The averaged STD for the attempted putts was calculated for each subject. Then, the averaged STDs and other data for the seven subjects were statistically compared across the three grip conditions. The STD of eye movements were greater (p < 0.1 for conventional than cross-hand (9 ft and one-handed (3 and 9 ft grips. Also, the STD of head movements were greater (p < 0.1; 3 ft for conventional than cross-hand and one-handed grips. Vestibulo-ocular responses associated with head rotations could be observed in many 9 ft and some 3 ft putts. The duration of the putt was significantly longer (p < 0.05; 3 and 9 ft for the one-handed than conventional and cross-hand grips. Finally, performance, or percentage putts made, was

  14. Iron deficiency in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercberg, S; Preziosi, P; Galan, P

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, iron deficiency is considered to be one of the main nutritional deficiency disorders affecting large fractions of the population, particularly such physiological groups as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Some factors such as type of contraception in women, blood donation or minor pathological blood loss (haemorrhoids, gynaecological bleeding...) considerably increase the difficulty of covering iron needs. Moreover, women, especially adolescents consuming low-energy diets, vegetarians and vegans are at high risk of iron deficiency. Although there is no evidence that an absence of iron stores has any adverse consequences, it does indicate that iron nutrition is borderline, since any further reduction in body iron is associated with a decrease in the level of functional compounds such as haemoglobin. The prevalence of iron-deficient anaemia has slightly decreased in infants and menstruating women. Some positive factors may have contributed to reducing the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in some groups of population: the use of iron-fortified formulas and iron-fortified cereals; the use of oral contraceptives and increased enrichment of iron in several countries; and the use of iron supplements during pregnancy in some European countries. It is possible to prevent and control iron deficiency by counseling individuals and families about sound iron nutrition during infancy and beyond, and about iron supplementation during pregnancy, by screening persons on the basis of their risk for iron deficiency, and by treating and following up persons with presumptive iron deficiency. This may help to reduce manifestations of iron deficiency and thus improve public health. Evidence linking iron status with risk of cardiovascular disease or cancer is unconvincing and does not justify changes in food fortification or medical practice, particularly because the benefits of assuring adequate iron intake during growth and development are well established

  15. The Models of Personal Bankruptcy in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hetes-Gavra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal bankruptcy is regulated in all the countries from Western Europe. We selected a groupof three countries: France, Ireland and Germany, to analyze the ways in which physical personsare put under bankruptcy law protection, while considering that implementation of the personalbankruptcy law is constantly delayed in Romania. Taking into account some comparative studies,we have found out that in all three countries is applied the principle of “consumer-friendlylegislation”.

  16. Allergology in Europe, the blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Monchy, J G; Demoly, P; Akdis, C A; Cardona, V; Papadopoulos, N G; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Gayraud, J

    2013-10-01

    The number of patients with allergic diseases in Europe, and thus relevant demand for health care, is continuously increasing. In this EAACI-UEMS position paper, a rationale is given for the medical specialty of allergology. General practitioners and general paediatricians usually cannot elucidate and address all causative factors. Throughout Europe, therefore, the expertise of allergologists (allergists) is required. In collaboration with other medical professionals, they take care of allergic patients, in private practices or in specialized public centres. A well-structured collaboration between allergists and allergy centres offers the possibility of rapid signalling of new trends developing in the population of allergic patients (e.g., in food and drug allergy). Allergy centres also can perform clinical (and basic) research, teach medical students, future allergists and provide postgraduate training. To prevent that the quality of care in one or several countries within Europe lags behind developments in other countries, the UEMS Section and Board on Allergology together with the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology advocates the status of a full specialty of allergology in each European country, with a further intention to align their activities (blueprint, curriculum and centre visitation) with the UEMS Section of Paediatrics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Putting the teeth into the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, John

    2011-01-01

    The author of this article has been involved in the development of the UK Biobank, and was instrumental in ensuring that dentistry has been included in the project. He describes what the UK Biobank is, what the project involves and aims to achieve, and how by July 2010 some 500,000 UK citizens aged from 40-69 years had been recruited. He then details the events that led to the inclusion of dentistry in the project, the key role that stored saliva samples will have, and how the project will link to data stored by the Dental Practice Board and now the National Health Service Business Services Authority. The article ends with a brief look into the future of the project.

  18. Putting Harry Potter on the couch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Colman

    2006-10-01

    This article will explore J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter (2004) literary series from a psychoanalytical perspective. The author draws out the main themes of the Harry Potter stories to see if they can be employed clinically to assist in psychotherapeutic work with children and adolescents. The article begins by discussing Bettelheim's (1976) extensive work on children's fairytales and their therapeutic value, moving on to discuss Rustin and Rustin's (2005) more recent insights into narrative therapy and children's fiction. A clinical example is given of how the storylines were implemented to enhance a psychotherapeutic group process for adolescents. The author hopes to illustrate the power of symbolism and metaphor in the Harry Potter storylines and elucidate why these books may appeal to young people with mental health difficulties.

  19. Purification and characterization of Put1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanduragala, Srimevan; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Liang, Xinwen; Becker, Donald F

    2010-06-15

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the PUT1 and PUT2 genes are required for the conversion of proline to glutamate. The PUT1 gene encodes Put1p, a proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) enzyme localized in the mitochondrion. Put1p was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and shown to have a UV-visible absorption spectrum that is typical of a bound flavin cofactor. A K(m) value of 36 mM proline and a k(cat)=27 s(-1) were determined for Put1p using an artificial electron acceptor. Put1p also exhibited high activity using ubiquinone-1 (CoQ(1)) as an electron acceptor with a k(cat)=9.6 s(-1) and a K(m) of 33 microM for CoQ(1). In addition, knockout strains of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) homolog in S. cerevisiae were able to grow on proline as the sole nitrogen source demonstrating that ETF is not required for proline utilization in yeast. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.