WorldWideScience

Sample records for europe joule project

  1. Harmonisation of wind turbine certification in Europe JOULE project EWTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, C [Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany); Eriksson, C [Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark); Hulle, F van [Frans van Hulle, Petten (Netherlands); Skamris, C [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Stam, W [CIWI Holland, Arnheim (Netherlands); Vionis, P [CRES, Attki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    Wind turbine certification requirements are currently fairly divers within Europe. Therefore the leading European certification bodies initiated a JOULE project to harmonise the certification procedure on the basis of the current set of IEC/EN 61400 series standards. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of wind turbine certification in European countries and an outline of the sturcture of the project. The main steps of the project are (a) the collection of differences in certification practices by round robin certification of three wind turbine types; (b) assessment of the different certification results and (c) the development of a harmonised certification procedure. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 19 refs.

  2. Craft-Joule Project: Stagnation proof transparently insulated flat plate solar collector (static)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, A; Cadafalch, J; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The STATIC (STAgnation proof Transparently Insulated flat plate Solar Collector) project is a Craft-Joule Project within the framework of the Non Nuclear Energy Programme Joule III coordinated by the Centre Technologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC). The core group of SMEs involved in the project has its main economical activity in the field of solar thermal systems at low temperature level (domestic hot water, solar heating, etc.). Beyond this, a large application potential exists for solar heating at medium temperature level (from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees) : industrial process heat, solar cooling and air conditioning, solar drying , distillation and desalination. Three of the four SME proposers are located in Southern Europe and in the Caribean, where a continuos increase of the demand for air conditioning and cooling has been demonstrated in the last years. The recent development of flat plate solar collectors with honeycomb-type transparent insulation cover has shown that this type of collectors can become a low cost alternative to evacuated tube and high concentrating CPC collectors in the medium temperature range from 80 to 160 Celsius degrees. With the expected reduction of collector cost, that forms 30%-50% of total system cost, a decisive break-through of solar thermal systems using heat in the medium temperature range can be achieved. The feasibility and good performance of these solar collectors has been proved in several prototypes. Nevertheless, up to now no commercial products are available. In order to reach this, the following developments of new concepts are necessary and are being carried out within this project: solution of the problem of overheating: development of collector versions for different working temperatures: optimization of the design with the support of high level numerical simulation. Several prototypes of the new solar collectors are being tested. System tests will also be carried or for two test arrays of optimized collector

  3. Policy implications of endogenous technological learning: some conclusions of the EU JOULE III project TEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto, L.

    2000-01-01

    The TEEM (Energy Technology Dynamics and Advanced System Modelling) project focused activities on the role that technology and R and D spending could play for the mitigation of climatic change. The primary objectives of the PSI team were to share experience with other model developers in Europe, to expand the modelling capabilities, to contribute to quantitative analyses on the diffusion of innovative technologies, and to gain insights on the public energy research and development strategies. The paper describes the main findings of some scenarios on CO 2 mitigation for the global electricity system based on analyses using the multi-regional version of the ERIS prototype model, developed during the project. (authors)

  4. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  5. Analysis of multi-functional ventilated facades. An European joule project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M; Perez Segarra, C.D; A Oliva; Aceves, O; Sen F [Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The name Multi-Functional Ventilated Facade (MFVF) has been used in the project as a generic name to refer to a facade characterized by an inner ventilated air layer along with the incorporation of some additional technological elements. The elements here studied have been the following: the use of phase change materials (PCM) in the opaque walls to provide thermal inertia, the use of transparent insulation (TI) to reduce the connective losses in the semi-transparent areas and, finally the incorporation of photovoltaic cells (PV) at the skin of the building to provide electrical power. The flux air developed in the channel provides not only an additional thermal resistance but a heat flux which can be driven outdoors or indoors conveniently according to the buildings energetic load. Different MFVF prototypes adapted to the different European climates have been experimentally tested in cabin test cells under real outdoor conditions and for long time periods. Also, an specific computing code has been adapted to analyze the thermal behavior of this kind of facades. The code has been partially validated with the experimental information provided by the prototypes. Finally, the code is been used to optimize the main design variables of these facades. [Spanish] El nombre de fachadas ventiladas multi-funcionales (MFVF) ha sido usado en el proyecto como un nombre generico para referirse a una fachada caracterizada por una capa interior ventilada con aire juntamente con la incorporacion de algunos elementos tecnologicos adicionales. Los elementos aqui estudiados han sido los siguientes: el uso de materiales de cambio de fase (PCM) en las paredes opacas para proporcionar inercia termica, el uso de aislamiento transparente (TI) para reducir las perdidas conectivas en las areas semitransparentes, y finalmente la incorporacion de celdas fotovoltaica (PV) y el recubrimiento del edificio para proporcionar energia electrica. El flujo del aire desarrollado en el canal proporciona

  6. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R.

    2007-01-01

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  7. Financing clean coal projects in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Trade and Development Program (TDP), a U.S. Government agency, provides funding for US firms to carry out feasibility studies, consultancies, and other planning services related to major projects in developing countries. By providing assistance in project planning, TDP promotes economic development; at the same time, TDP helps US firms get involved in projects that offer significant export opportunities. TDP has programs throughout the developing world, including Central and Eastern Europe, and has recently been authorized to operate in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. The vast size and population of this region, as well as its tremendous infrastructural and basic industrial needs, present new challenges to TDP. The basic TDP program is described below; it is likely to be modified somewhat to meet the specific requirements of the NIS

  8. Developing financeable projects in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelberg, R.; Prerad, V. [POWER International, Josefov (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    POWER`s engineering and development experience in the Czech Republic creating financeable projects within the power generation industry will be presented. POWER has been involved in the Czech Republic`s privatization process, environmental legislation as well as formation of the regulatory environment. Strategic methods for accomplishing the development of financeable projects often include ownership and financial restructuring of the projects. This is done by utilizing internal cash flows, external debt and equity placement (provided by international financial institutions) by restructuring the facility`s contractual relationships and operations (providing as least cost solution to engineering) and possibly using existing governmental guarantees. In order to make any recommendations on how to come into compliance with the country`s environmental legislation, it is necessary to begin with an analysis of the existing facility. This involves preparation of technical and economic feasibility study, evaluation of technology and preliminary engineering solutions. It further involves restructuring of power sales agreements, heat sales agreements, and fuel supply agreements. The goal is to provide suitable security for the equity and debt financing participants by mitigating risk and creating a single purpose business unit with predictable life and economics.

  9. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  10. Consumer engagement: An insight from smart grid projects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangale, Flavia; Mengolini, Anna; Onyeji, Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an insight into consumer engagement in smart grid projects in Europe. Projects analysed are those included in the catalogue annexed in the JRC Report “Smart Grid projects in Europe: lessons learned and current developments”. The analysis suggests an increase in the interest in consumer engagement projects at European level and a strong focus on the residential sector, and emphasises the key importance of public funding to support these projects. The study also reveals that projects involving consumers are characterised by the pursuit of two main objectives: gaining deeper knowledge of consumer behaviour (observing and understanding the consumer) and motivating and empowering consumers to become active energy customers (engaging the consumer). The paper reviews the main activities undertaken to obtain these objectives and highlights trends and developments in the field. Finally, the paper discusses obstacles to consumer engagement and the strategies adopted by the projects surveyed to tackle them, highlighting the need to build consumer trust and to design targeted campaigns taking into consideration different consumer segments. The conclusions are in line with findings and analyses presented in the literature and underscore the need for further research and action at European level. - Highlights: • Consumers' key role in the success of the future electricity system (smart grids). • Survey on consumer engagement experiences in European smart grid projects. • Focus is on observing and understanding the consumers and on engaging them. • Trust and confidence as central elements. • Need to take into consideration different consumer segments/motivational factors

  11. Collaboration Networks in Applied Conservation Projects across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Andreea; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Manolache, Steluta; Ciocănea, Cristiana Maria; Miu, Iulia Viorica; Popescu, Viorel Dan

    2016-01-01

    The main funding instrument for implementing EU policies on nature conservation and supporting environmental and climate action is the LIFE Nature programme, established by the European Commission in 1992. LIFE Nature projects (>1400 awarded) are applied conservation projects in which partnerships between institutions are critical for successful conservation outcomes, yet little is known about the structure of collaborative networks within and between EU countries. The aim of our study is to understand the nature of collaboration in LIFE Nature projects using a novel application of social network theory at two levels: (1) collaboration between countries, and (2) collaboration within countries using six case studies: Western Europe (United Kingdom and Netherlands), Eastern Europe (Romania and Latvia) and Southern Europe (Greece and Portugal). Using data on 1261 projects financed between 1996 and 2013, we found that Italy was the most successful country not only in terms of awarded number of projects, but also in terms of overall influence being by far the most influent country in the European LIFE Nature network, having the highest eigenvector (0.989) and degree centrality (0.177). Another key player in the network is Netherlands, which ensures a fast communication flow with other network members (closeness-0.318) by staying connected with the most active countries. Although Western European countries have higher centrality scores than most of the Eastern European countries, our results showed that overall there is a lower tendency to create partnerships between different organization categories. Also, the comparisons of the six case studies indicates significant differences in regards to the pattern of creating partnerships, providing valuable information on collaboration on EU nature conservation. This study represents a starting point in predicting the formation of future partnerships within LIFE Nature programme, suggesting ways to improve transnational

  12. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  13. THE CARE PROJECT - Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A one-day presentation of the project will take place on Monday February 10th in the CERN Council Chamber. The meeting will start a 9am and is expected to end at 4:30pm. The meeting, which is open to the whole community, will present an initiative on accelerator R&D in Europe, supported by ECFA, with the aim to bid for European Union support through the Framework 6 scheme. This initiative is coordinated by a steering group (ESGARD - European Steering Group on Accelerator Research and Development), which has been set up to coordinate European efforts on accelerator R&D and the submission of such bids. The initial bids have to be submitted by April 15th. All those interested in accelerator R&D are welcome to attend. Presentation of the CARE project (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe) to be submitted within FP6 February 10th, at CERN in the council room Agenda Chair : C. Wyss 9:00 General presentation of FP6 and introduction of IA proposal (R. Aleksan) 9:45 Networking activities on e ...

  14. The CARE project - Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A one-day presentation of the project will take place on Monday February 10th in the CERN Council Chamber. The meeting will start a 9am and is expected to end at 4:30pm. The meeting, which is open to the whole community, will present an initiative on accelerator R&D in Europe, supported by ECFA, with the aim to bid for European Union support through the Framework 6 scheme. This initiative is coordinated by a steering group (ESGARD - European Steering Group on Accelerator Research and Development), which has been set up to coordinate European efforts on accelerator R&D and the submission of such bids. The initial bids have to be submitted by April 15th. All those interested in accelerator R&D are welcome to attend.

  15. Differences in flood hazard projections in Europe – their causes and consequences for decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Krysanova, V.; Dankers, R.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Milly, P. C. D.; Stoffel, M.H.; Driessen, P. P. J.; Matczak, Piotr; Quevauviller, P.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper interprets differences in flood hazard projections over Europe and identifies likely sources of discrepancy. Further, it discusses potential implications of these differences for flood risk reduction and adaptation to climate change. The discrepancy in flood hazard projections raises

  16. Observed and projected drivers of emerging infectious diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim; Penttinen, Pasi; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of international concern because of the potential for, and impact of, pandemics; however, they are difficult to predict. To identify the drivers of disease emergence, we analyzed infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) detected through epidemic intelligence collected at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) between 2008 and 2013, and compared the observed results with a 2008 ECDC foresight study of projected drivers of future IDTEs in Europe. Among 10 categories of IDTEs, foodborne and waterborne IDTEs were the most common, vaccine-preventable IDTEs caused the highest number of cases, and airborne IDTEs caused the most deaths. Observed drivers for each IDTE were sorted into three main groups: globalization and environmental drivers contributed to 61% of all IDTEs, public health system drivers contributed to 21%, and social and demographic drivers to 18%. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that four of the top five drivers for observed IDTEs were in the globalization and environment group. In the observational study, the globalization and environment group was related to all IDTE categories, but only to five of eight categories in the foresight study. Directly targeting these drivers with public health interventions may diminish the chances of IDTE occurrence from the outset. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witteveen, A. B.; Bisson, J. I.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2012-01-01

    At present post-disaster activities and plans seem to vary widely. An adequate estimation of the availability of post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe is needed in order to compare them with recently developed evidence-informed psychosocial care guidelines. Here we report on the results...... of a cross-sectional web-based survey completed in 2008 by two hundred and eighty-six representatives of organizations involved in psychosocial responses to trauma and disaster from thirty-three different countries across Europe. The survey addressed planning and delivery of psychosocial care after disaster......, methods of screening and diagnosis, types of interventions used, and other aspects of psychosocial care after trauma. The findings showed that planning and delivery of psychosocial care was inconsistent across Europe. Countries in East Europe seemed to have less central coordination of the post...

  18. Determinants of health and disability in ageing population: the COURAGE in Europe Project (collaborative research on ageing in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Chatterji, Somnath; Koskinen, Seppo; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Frisoni, Giovanni; Frattura, Lucilla; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Gmurek, Michal; Serrano, Ramon; Finocchiaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    COURAGE in Europe was a 3-year project involving 12 partners from four European countries and the World Health Organization. It was inspired by the pressing need to integrate international studies on disability and ageing in light of an innovative perspective based on a validated data-collection protocol. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of the built environment and social networks on health, disability, quality of life and well-being. The main survey was conducted by partners in Finland, Poland and Spain where the survey has been administered to a sample of 10,800 persons, which was completed in March 2012. The newly developed and validated COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in ageing population, and the COURAGE in Europe Project has created valid and reliable scientific evidence, demonstrating cross-country comparability, for disability and ageing research and policy development. It is therefore recommended that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use the COURAGE-derived methodology. COURAGE in Europe Project collected data on the determinants of health and disability in an ageing population, with specific tools for the evaluation of the role of built environment and social networks on health, disability quality of life and well-being. The COURAGE Protocol for Ageing Studies has proven to be a valid tool for collecting comparable data in the ageing population. The COURAGE in Europe Consortium recommends that future studies exploring determinants of health and disability in ageing use COURAGE-derived methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Public mental health research in Europe : A systematic mapping for the ROAMER project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsman, A.K.; Ventus, D.B.J.; van der Feltz, C.M.; Wahlbeck, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the ROAMER (ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe) project, aiming to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research, we set out to map the hitherto unmapped territory of public mental health research in Europe. Methods: Five electronic databases

  20. Retrofit options to enable biomass firing at Irish peat plants: Background report 4.2 for the EU Joule 2+ project: Energy from biomass: An assessment of two promising systems for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, R.; Faaij, A.; Blaney, G.

    1995-05-01

    An overview is given of the most promising options for retrofitting existing Irish peat plants to accept biomass fuel. It is expected that with low investment costs the existing peat stations can be adapted to enable them to fire biomass. It will also be possible to co-fire peat and biomass, this option will become a way of using biomass in power generation with relatively low risk, both on the field of initial investments and supply security. The objectives of this report are: assessing the different technical options for retrofitting the plants to enable biomass firing; provide investment costs, efficiencies, emissions and expected lifetimes for the different retrofit options. The results from this study are used in the final integration phase of the EU-Joule project 'Energy from biomass'. Chapter 2 deals with methodological considerations which have been made in estimation of the investment costs. In chapter 3 the present situation is described. Both peat harvesting and power plant operation of both sod and milled peat plants are explained. Also some past experiences with wood chips firing in Irish peat stations are discussed. Chapter 4 gives a general view on retrofitting peat plants to enable biomass firing. Some starting points like biomass fuel feeding and emission standards that have to be met are highlighted. The rationale behind four main choices are given. Finally, a technical description is presented of the two boiler adaptations that will be considered among the different retrofit options, namely conversion of milled peat units into bubbling fluidized bed and into a whole tree energy unit. Six retrofit options are described in more detail in chapter 5. Information is given on the present status of the plants, the technical considerations of the retrofit, expected performance and an estimation of a range in which the investment costs can be expected. 4 figs., 10 tabs., 5 appendices

  1. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  2. Biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. General information, favorable concepts and financing possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenbroek, R.; Ballard-Tremeer, G.; Koeks, R.; Venendaal, R.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide information on the possibilities to invest and carry out biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe. In the first part of the guide background information is given on countries in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on bio-energy. A few cases are presented to illustrate different biomass energy concepts. Based on economic calculations an indication is given of the feasibility of those concepts. Also the most relevant sources of information are listed. In the second part an overview is given of Dutch, European and international financial tools that can be used in biomass energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe

  3. Projected prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinas, B.R.; Barba, L.R.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Novakovic, R.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Matthys, C.; Serra Majem, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy in Europe, applying the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations in the context of the EURRECA Network of Excellence. Methods: Nutrient data was obtained from the European Nutrition and Health Report II.

  4. ECFA Meeting in May: LEP project changes / Backing for HERA / HEP in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The European Committee for Future Accelerators held a Plenary Meeting at CERN on 9 May. The representatives of the Universities and Laboratories in the CERN Member States heard presentations on the latest developments concerning the LEP project at CERN. They supported a recommendation on the HERA project at DESY and they endorsed a detailed report on high energy physics in Europe

  5. Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Voilà deux militants de la cause européenne qui plaident, chacun à sa manière, pour un sursaut afin que renaisse ce « désir d’Europe » qui nous fait tant défaut. « Il n’est pas trop tard, mais il est temps… », écrit P. COLLOWALD dans ses mémoires préfacées par Jacques Delors. Constatant que, « dans les jugements hâtifs de notre époque, on manque souvent de discernement, par ignorance et par manque de recul historique », cet ancien responsable de l’information à la Commission et au Parlement e...

  6. Climate Change and Aedes Vectors: 21st Century Projections for Dengue Transmission in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu-Helmersson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Warming temperatures may increase the geographic spread of vector-borne diseases into temperate areas. Although a tropical mosquito-borne viral disease, a dengue outbreak occurred in Madeira, Portugal, in 2012; the first in Europe since 1920s. This outbreak emphasizes the potential for dengue re-emergence in Europe given changing climates. We present estimates of dengue epidemic potential using vectorial capacity (VC based on historic and projected temperature (1901–2099. VC indicates the vectors' ability to spread disease among humans. We calculated temperature-dependent VC for Europe, highlighting 10 European cities and three non-European reference cities. Compared with the tropics, Europe shows pronounced seasonality and geographical heterogeneity. Although low, VC during summer is currently sufficient for dengue outbreaks in Southern Europe to commence–if sufficient vector populations (either Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were active and virus were introduced. Under various climate change scenarios, the seasonal peak and time window for dengue epidemic potential increases during the 21st century. Our study maps dengue epidemic potential in Europe and identifies seasonal time windows when major cities are most conducive for dengue transmission from 1901 to 2099. Our findings illustrate, that besides vector control, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions crucially reduces the future epidemic potential of dengue in Europe.

  7. The CARE project (Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoly, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    CARE, an ambitious and coordinated project of accelerator research and developments oriented towards High Energy Physics projects, has been launched in January 2004 by the main European laboratories and the European Commission with the 6th Framework Programme. This project aims at improving existing infrastructures dedicated to future projects such as linear colliders, upgrades of hadron colliders and high intensity proton drivers An important part of this programme is devoted to advancing the performance of the superconducting technology, both in the fields of RF cavities for electron and proton acceleration and of high field magnets, as well as to developing high intensity electron and proton injectors. We describe the plans of the four main Joint Research Activities and report on the results and progress obtained so far. The CARE project also includes three adjacent Networking Activities whose main goal is to organize a forum of discussions and to provide the strategic plans in the fields of the Linear Collider, intense Neutrino Beams, and future Hadron Colliders

  8. Performativity and the project: enacting urban transport security in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    2015-01-01

    In April 2011, a large consortium of European rail and security suppliers, transport operators and research organisations launched the Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration (SECUR-ED) project with the objective of providing public transport operators with the means to enhance urban

  9. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czvikovszky, T.; Dobó, J. [Research Institute for Plastics, Budapest (Hungary)

    1968-10-15

    The preparation of wood-plastic combinations can be regarded as a special field of graft-copolymerization. It is therefore quite understandable why this idea was first introduced by graft-copolymerization specialists. On the basis of the theory and technique of radiation-induced graft- copolymerization, which has been greatly developed since 1950, wood-plastic combinations appeared simultaneously in the United States of America and in Europe. As is known, intensive American research on wood-plastic combinations is based on four patents by Kenaga from 1958, which were published in 1963. The worldwide interest in the matter was initiated, however, by Karpov's paper of 1960 based on Soviet patents from 1958 and 1960.

  10. Projections of Future Precipitation Extremes Over Europe: A Multimodel Assessment of Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczak, Jan; Schär, Christoph

    2017-10-01

    Projections of precipitation and its extremes over the European continent are analyzed in an extensive multimodel ensemble of 12 and 50 km resolution EURO-CORDEX Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced by RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway) aerosol and greenhouse gas emission scenarios. A systematic intercomparison with ENSEMBLES RCMs is carried out, such that in total information is provided for an unprecedentedly large data set of 100 RCM simulations. An evaluation finds very reasonable skill for the EURO-CORDEX models in simulating temporal and geographical variations of (mean and heavy) precipitation at both horizontal resolutions. Heavy and extreme precipitation events are projected to intensify across most of Europe throughout the whole year. All considered models agree on a distinct intensification of extremes by often more than +20% in winter and fall and over central and northern Europe. A reduction of rainy days and mean precipitation in summer is simulated by a large majority of models in the Mediterranean area, but intermodel spread between the simulations is large. In central Europe and France during summer, models project decreases in precipitation but more intense heavy and extreme rainfalls. Comparison to previous RCM projections from ENSEMBLES reveals consistency but slight differences in summer, where reductions in southern European precipitation are not as pronounced as previously projected. The projected changes of the European hydrological cycle may have substantial impact on environmental and anthropogenic systems. In particular, the simulations indicate a rising probability of summertime drought in southern Europe and more frequent and intense heavy rainfall across all of Europe.

  11. Differences in flood hazard projections in Europe – their causes and consequences for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Krysanova, V.; Dankers, R.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Hattermann, F. F.; Huang, S.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Stoffel, M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Matczak, P.; Quevauviller, P.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper interprets differences in flood hazard projections over Europe and identifies likely sources of discrepancy. Further, it discusses potential implications of these differences for flood risk reduction and adaptation to climate change. The discrepancy in flood hazard projections raises caution, especially among decision makers in charge of water resources management, flood risk reduction, and climate change adaptation at regional to local scales. Because it is naïve to expect availability of trustworthy quantitative projections of future flood hazard, in order to reduce flood risk one should focus attention on mapping of current and future risks and vulnerability hotspots and improve the situation there. Although an intercomparison of flood hazard projections is done in this paper and differences are identified and interpreted, it does not seems possible to recommend which large-scale studies may be considered most credible in particular areas of Europe.

  12. Experience in implementing projects in Eastern Europe; Erfahrungen bei der Realisierung von Projekten in Osteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichard, A.; Bauer, I.; Rieck, R.; Ziehm, R. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    The article covers the present projects and activities in Eastern Europe of Nukem Technologies GmbH. The company's East European business began in 1973 in the field of uranium trading. After difficult negotiations in the period of the ''cold war'' it became possible to enter into an agreement with the Soviet foreign trade organization, Techsnabexport, about purchases of uranium for Western nuclear power plants. In the course of Nukem's realignment in the late 1980s, the focus was shifted more and more to the possibility of exporting into other countries the technologies developed and proven in Germany. This included countries in Eastern Europe. The situation changed abruptly with the political opening of Eastern Europe. A large potential market opened to Nukem as a supplier of technologies and plants for waste treatment and, later, the wider area of decommissioning. The partners in Eastern Europe were interested in proven, modern solutions. The ensuing success was also due to the fact that Nukem, in the early nineties, hired specialists from the new German federal states who had studied in the Soviet Union and were familiar with Russian technology, language, and culture. Soliciting analogous projects in the countries of Eastern Europe other than the former Soviet Union was begun in a parallel process. Very soon it turned out that also the interim storage of spent fuel elements constituted a potential market. (orig.)

  13. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  14. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  15. Remote Joule heating by a carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Kamal H; Voskanian, Norvik; Bronsgeest, Merijntje; Cumings, John

    2012-04-08

    Minimizing Joule heating remains an important goal in the design of electronic devices. The prevailing model of Joule heating relies on a simple semiclassical picture in which electrons collide with the atoms of a conductor, generating heat locally and only in regions of non-zero current density, and this model has been supported by most experiments. Recently, however, it has been predicted that electric currents in graphene and carbon nanotubes can couple to the vibrational modes of a neighbouring material, heating it remotely. Here, we use in situ electron thermal microscopy to detect the remote Joule heating of a silicon nitride substrate by a single multiwalled carbon nanotube. At least 84% of the electrical power supplied to the nanotube is dissipated directly into the substrate, rather than in the nanotube itself. Although it has different physical origins, this phenomenon is reminiscent of induction heating or microwave dielectric heating. Such an ability to dissipate waste energy remotely could lead to improved thermal management in electronic devices.

  16. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Ko?, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected acc...

  17. Unigrace - A Project For The Unification of Gravity Systems In Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Falk, R.; Erker, E.; Ruess, D.; Mäkinen, J.; Hinderer, J.; Marson, I.; Sledzinski, J.

    Because of the present trends of political and economical unification in Europe for- merly classified gravimetric data in Central Europe are becoming available. The dif- ferences, however, between gravity systems in this area are so large that they strongly affect the geoid, vertical datum definitions and height systems. It is therefore manda- tory to study system differences and to unify them. The project UNIGRACE aims at solving this problem by carrying out absolute grav- ity measurements with the most advanced technology at 17 selected sites in the coun- tries concerned. In a joint effort five European groups from Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and Poland using their absolute gravimeters and partners from Bul- garia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia cooperate in selecting and/or establishing the sites and performing the measurements as well as in connecting the absolute sites to the national gravimetric networks. As a result, a unique gravity system in Central Europe will be available. The project started on Jan. 1, 1998 and till the end of 2000 all selected gravity sites have been observed twice by absolute gravimeters. From these repeated measurements the final results for this project will be presented which was granted by the European Commission.

  18. The regional (Europe) project on study of energy options using the IAEA planning methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, P.

    1997-01-01

    As a means to assist developing IAEA Member States in the Europe region in the broad area of energy, electricity and nuclear power planning, a new project has been implemented as part of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme. This paper describes the major objectives of this regional TC project and the activities to be organized in order to provide the required assistance. Focus is made on the present workshop and the current activities sponsored by the IAEA for further developments of the IAEA planning tools for energy, electricity and nuclear power planning with emphasis on the Energy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) and the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) packages. (author)

  19. The regional (Europe) project on study of energy options using the IAEA planning methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, P [Division of Nuclear Power, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-09-01

    As a means to assist developing IAEA Member States in the Europe region in the broad area of energy, electricity and nuclear power planning, a new project has been implemented as part of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Programme. This paper describes the major objectives of this regional TC project and the activities to be organized in order to provide the required assistance. Focus is made on the present workshop and the current activities sponsored by the IAEA for further developments of the IAEA planning tools for energy, electricity and nuclear power planning with emphasis on the Energy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) and the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) packages. (author).

  20. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  1. Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dominik; Thomas, Stephanie Margarete; Niemitz, Franziska; Reineking, Björn; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2011-07-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus ( Ae. albopictus) has rapidly spread around the globe. The spread of this species raises serious public health concerns. Here, we model the present distribution and the future climatic suitability of Europe for this vector in the face of climate change. In order to achieve the most realistic current prediction and future projection, we compare the performance of four different modelling approaches, differentiated by the selection of climate variables (based on expert knowledge vs. statistical criteria) and by the geographical range of presence records (native range vs. global range). First, models of the native and global range were built with MaxEnt and were either based on (1) statistically selected climatic input variables or (2) input variables selected with expert knowledge from the literature. Native models show high model performance (AUC: 0.91-0.94) for the native range, but do not predict the European distribution well (AUC: 0.70-0.72). Models based on the global distribution of the species, however, were able to identify all regions where Ae. albopictus is currently established, including Europe (AUC: 0.89-0.91). In a second step, the modelled bioclimatic envelope of the global range was projected to future climatic conditions in Europe using two emission scenarios implemented in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM for three time periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. For both global-driven models, the results indicate that climatically suitable areas for the establishment of Ae. albopictus will increase in western and central Europe already in 2011-2040 and with a temporal delay in eastern Europe. On the other hand, a decline in climatically suitable areas in southern Europe is pronounced in the Expert knowledge based model. Our projections appear unaffected by non-analogue climate, as this is not detected by Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis. The generated risk maps

  2. Multi-Model Projections of River Flood Risk in Europe under Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Alfieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the costs of natural disasters under climate change is key information for planning adaptation and mitigation strategies of future climate policies. Impact models for large scale flood risk assessment have made leaps forward in the past few years, thanks to the increased availability of high resolution climate projections and of information on local exposure and vulnerability to river floods. Yet, state-of-the-art flood impact models rely on a number of input data and techniques that can substantially influence their results. This work compares estimates of river flood risk in Europe from three recent case studies, assuming global warming scenarios of 1.5, 2, and 3 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial levels. The assessment is based on comparing ensemble projections of expected damage and population affected at country level. Differences and common points between the three cases are shown, to point out main sources of uncertainty, strengths, and limitations. In addition, the multi-model comparison helps identify regions with the largest agreement on specific changes in flood risk. Results show that global warming is linked to substantial increase in flood risk over most countries in Central and Western Europe at all warming levels. In Eastern Europe, the average change in flood risk is smaller and the multi-model agreement is poorer.

  3. The Joint CEDEFOP/ETF Project on 'Scenarios and Strategies for Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Europe': A Contribution to the Debate on the Future of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, Burkart

    A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…

  4. The Italian forest sites of FunDivEUROPE: a new FP7 project on the functional significance of forest biodiversity in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussotti F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian forest sites of FunDivEUROPE: a new FP7 project on the functional significance of forest biodiversity in Europe. FunDivEUROPE is a new project aiming at a deeper understanding of the role of forest diversity on ecosystem functions and service provisioning for society. This project combines three scientific platforms: experimental, exploratory and inventory. The exploratory platform is based on the observation of a broad range of properties, traits and ecological processes on a network of ca. 240 natural forest sites representing a gradient of tree species diversity in six focal regions of Europe (Spain, Italy, Germany, Poland, Finland and Romania. The Italian sites are located on the hills of central and Southern Tuscany and represent the category “thermophilous deciduous forest”. Almost one year of fieldwork was needed to select and characterize 36 plots measuring 30 x 30 m. Selection was based on criteria concerning tree mixtures and richness, structural parameters and main environmental variables. The main features of these sites are synthetically presented in this paper together with a short description of the project structure and scope. The aim is also to enhance dissemination of the potential implications for a sustainable forest management in Italy.

  5. An Analytical Model of Joule Heating in Piezoresistive Microcantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongdu Cho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates Joule heating in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. Joule heating and thermal deflections are a major source of noise in such sensors. This work uses analytical and numerical techniques to characterise the Joule heating in 4-layer piezoresistive microcantilevers made of silicon and silicon dioxide substrates but with the same U-shaped silicon piezoresistor. A theoretical model for predicting the temperature generated due to Joule heating is developed. The commercial finite element software ANSYS Multiphysics was used to study the effect of electrical potential on temperature and deflection produced in the cantilevers. The effect of piezoresistor width on Joule heating is also studied. Results show that Joule heating strongly depends on the applied potential and width of piezoresistor and that a silicon substrate cantilever has better thermal characteristics than a silicon dioxide cantilever.

  6. An analytical model of joule heating in piezoresistive microcantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Zahid; Cho, Chongdu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates Joule heating in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. Joule heating and thermal deflections are a major source of noise in such sensors. This work uses analytical and numerical techniques to characterise the Joule heating in 4-layer piezoresistive microcantilevers made of silicon and silicon dioxide substrates but with the same U-shaped silicon piezoresistor. A theoretical model for predicting the temperature generated due to Joule heating is developed. The commercial finite element software ANSYS Multiphysics was used to study the effect of electrical potential on temperature and deflection produced in the cantilevers. The effect of piezoresistor width on Joule heating is also studied. Results show that Joule heating strongly depends on the applied potential and width of piezoresistor and that a silicon substrate cantilever has better thermal characteristics than a silicon dioxide cantilever.

  7. Structuring and financing new nuclear power plant projects in Europe: selected remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Project financing in the field of nuclear energy is discussed taking into account the changes and new challenges in Europe. Bringing a project to maturity under 'revised' assumptions is likely to be a complex task for all parties involved, but there is a real potential for an enhanced role for stake holders from the private sector. There is a more realistic understanding about how the public and the private sectors can work together. Successfully combining public and private, national and foreign stake holders is likely to be a critical factor of success. The alignment of interest over the long term best serves a projects business case. In that context, a Governments policies are increasingly under the spotlight

  8. Biodiversity monitoring in Europe: the EU FP7 EBONE project. European biodiversity observation NEtwork

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available submission Presentation Poster presentation A) Title Biodiversity Monitoring in Europe: The EU FP7 EBONE project European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork B) Short title EBONE - European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork C) Author(s) Vogel, M. (1... stream_source_info Vogel_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3055 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Vogel_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 BIOTA AFRICA Congress 2008 Abstract...

  9. Projected evolution of circulation types and their temperatures over Central Europe in climate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 114, 3-4 (2013), s. 625-634 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Project s: GA ČR GAP209/10/2265 Grant - others:ENSEMBLES: EU-FP6(XE) 505539 Program:FP6 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Regional climate models * Atmospheric circulation * Climate change scenarios * Surface air temperature * ENSEMBLES * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00704-013-0874-4#page-1

  10. Status of Radon Related Activities in Member States Participating in Technical Cooperation Projects in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This publication summarizes the status of radon programmes at the start of 2014 in the Member States in Europe participating in the IAEA technical cooperation project on establishing enhanced approaches to the control of public exposure to radon. The current status was determined from responses to a questionnaire covering the following elements of a national radon action plan: policies and strategies; radon measurement surveys; establishment of reference levels; managing radon in existing buildings and in future buildings; education and training of professionals; and public awareness initiatives.

  11. Exploring Community-Oriented Approaches in Demand Side Management Projects in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mengolini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate if the theoretical and political trends towards a more collective dimension of energy use are reflected in the design and development of demand side management (DSM pilot projects in Europe. Specifically, the paper analyses DSM projects in the database of the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission to capture signs of a new attention towards the wider context in which consumers live and towards the social dimension associated with energy consumption. To this end, the paper investigates the projects’ scope (in terms of project’s partners, end-use sectors and targeted services as well as the consumer engagement strategies that projects use. These elements reflect the projects’ consideration for the socio-economic dimension of the community where the pilots take place and their inclination to build on community dynamics. The analysis shows that DSM projects in the EU are increasingly being designed and developed with a collegial approach to energy consumption in mind, although an integrated approach is still missing. In addition, research is still needed to link the use of this innovative approach to project results. A closer look at the developments and results of these projects can help to identify what works and what doesn’t in real life experiences, thus supporting effective policy making at the EU and national level.

  12. Changing pattern of landslide risk in Europe - The SafeLand project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, F.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    The need to protect people and property with a changing pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change and changes in demography, and the reality for societies in Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards, were the motives for the project SafeLand: "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies." SafeLand is a large, integrating research project under the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project started on 1 May 2009 and will end on 30 April 2012. It involves 27 partners from 12 European countries, and has international collaborators and advisers from China, India, USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involves 25 End-Users from 11 countries. SafeLand is coordinated by the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) at Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Norway. Further information on the SafeLand project can be found at its web site http://safeland-fp7.eu/. Main results achieved in SafeLand include: - Various guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-out modelling. - Development and testing of several empirical methods for predicting the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for triggering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demography and population density. - Guideline for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment and zoning. - New methodologies for physical and societal vulnerability assessment. - Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots for Europe. The results show clearly where areas with the largest landslide risk are located in Europe and the objective approach allows a ranking of the countries by exposed area and population. - Different regional and local climate model simulations over selected regions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10x10 km and 2.8x2.8 km

  13. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.

    2015-01-01

    Information on extreme precipitation for future climate is needed to assess the changes in the frequency and intensity of flooding. The primary source of information in climate change impact studies is climate model projections. However, due to the coarse resolution and biases of these models......), three are bias correction (BC) methods, and one is a perfect prognosis method. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from 15 regional climate models (RCMs) from the ENSEMBLES project for 11 catchments in Europe. The overall results point to an increase in extreme precipitation...... that at least 30% and up to approximately half of the total variance is derived from the SDMs. This study illustrates the large variability in the expected changes in extreme precipitation and highlights the need for considering an ensemble of both SDMs and climate models. Recommendations are provided...

  14. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme flow indices across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Lawrence, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The effect of methods of statistical downscaling of daily precipitation on changes in extreme flow indices under a plausible future climate change scenario was investigated in 11 catchments selected from 9 countries in different parts of Europe. The catchments vary from 67 to 6171km2 in size...... catchments to simulate daily runoff. A set of flood indices were derived from daily flows and their changes have been evaluated by comparing their values derived from simulations corresponding to the current and future climate. Most of the implemented downscaling methods project an increase in the extreme...... flow indices in most of the catchments. The catchments where the extremes are expected to increase have a rainfall-dominated flood regime. In these catchments, the downscaling methods also project an increase in the extreme precipitation in the seasons when the extreme flows occur. In catchments where...

  15. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-02

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  16. Long term Gas Supply Security in an Enlarged Europe. Final Report ENGAGED Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Likachev, V.; Morgan, T.

    2004-12-01

    The title project concerned a study on the long-term gas supply security in Europe with a focus on the developments, risks and policies in the candidate countries in Eastern Europe. For that reason the report not only includes a European and EU-30 wide scenario analysis but also chapters on specific topics. One study (a chapter in this report) concerns the gas market and regulation developments in a number of relevant candidate countries. Another chapter presents a Russian vision on gas demand, production and supplies from Russia and also includes a paragraph on the supplies from other neighbours and the transit issues in the Ukraine. Finally, the report contains a chapter discussing the required network infrastructure for bringing the gas from external gas suppliers to the EU-30 markets. Hereby it analysis and tests the network flexibility to cope with some unlikely and unexpected supply interruptions in main pipelines to EU markets. The background information of the studies underlying the chapters can be partly found in the annexes and in the individual task reports. During the project the results of the study were discussed at several seminars in candidate countries and particularly on the final seminar in Prague, in June 2003, with different and important stakeholders and market actors

  17. PROJECTED PRECIPITATION CHANGES IN CENTRAL/EASTERN EUROPE ON THE BASIS OF ENSEMBLE SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Miklos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected precipitation changes in Central/Eastern Europe on the basis of ENSEMBLE simulations. For building appropriate local/national adaptation and mitigation strategies, detailed analysis of regional climate change is essential. In order to estimate the climate change for the 21st century, both global and regional models may be used. However, due to the coarse horizontal resolution, global climate models are not appropriate to describe regional scale climate processes. On the other hand, regional climate models (RCMs provide more realistic regional climate scenarios. A wide range of RCM experiments was accomplished in the frame of the ENSEMBLES project funded by the EU FP6 program, which was one of the largest climate change research project ever completed. All the RCM experiments used 25 km horizontal resolution and the A1B emission scenario, according to which CO2 concentration by 2100 is estimated to exceed 700 ppm, i.e., more than twice of the preindustrial level.The 25 km spatial resolution is fine enough to estimate the future hydrology-related conditions in different parts of Europe, from which we separated and analyzed simulated climate data sets for the Central/Eastern European region. Precipitation is an especially important climatological variable because of agricultural aspects and flood-related natural hazards, which may seriously affect all the countries in the evaluated region. On the basis of our results, different RCM simulations generally project drier summers and wetter winters (compared to the recent decades. The southern countries are more likely to suffer more intense warming, especially, in summer, and also, more intense drought events due to the stronger Mediterranean impact.

  18. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY PROJECTS FOR EUROPE – SOUTH STREAM AND NABUCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Sučić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Stream and Nabucco are planned southern corridor projects for natural gas supply to Europe. South Stream is a Russian construction project of the gas pipeline with the capacity of 63 bcm of natural gas per year. It will connect Russia with Austria through Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Hungary, and with southern Italy through Greece and Ionian Sea, respectively. Nabucco is a European Union planned gas pipeline with the capacity of 31 bcm per year. If built, it will connect Caspian Region and Middle East with Austria through Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. Gas sources for South Stream pipeline are known and available, however it’s construction will be expensive. Nabucco gas pipeline construction costs will be two times less, but the unresolved political relations and non-existent infrastructure have caused it to have no available gas sources at the moment. Countries like Bulgaria and Hungary are involved with both projects, indicating the importance of both projects. In this paper SWOT analysis of the proposed projects was done and it has shown that there is a great chance Nabucco won’t be built if South Stream materializes first (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying and prioritizing barriers to implementation of smart energy city projects in Europe: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosannenzadeh, Farnaz; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Vettorato, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Successful implementation of smart energy city projects in Europe is crucial for a sustainable transition of urban energy systems and the improvement of quality of life for citizens. We aim to develop a systematic classification and analysis of the barriers hindering successful implementation of smart energy city projects. Through an empirical approach, we investigated 43 communities implementing smart and sustainable energy city projects under the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes of the European Union. Validated through literature review, we identified 35 barriers categorized in policy, administrative, legal, financial, market, environmental, technical, social, and information-and-awareness dimensions. We prioritized these barriers, using a novel multi-dimensional methodology that simultaneously analyses barriers based on frequency, level of impact, causal relationship among barriers, origin, and scale. The results indicate that the key barriers are lacking or fragmented political support on the long term at the policy level, and lack of good cooperation and acceptance among project partners, insufficient external financial support, lack of skilled and trained personnel, and fragmented ownership at the project level. The outcome of the research should aid policy-makers to better understand and prioritize implementation barriers to develop effective action and policy interventions towards more successful implementation of smart energy city projects. - Highlights: • A solid empirical study on the implementation of European smart energy city projects. • We found 35 barriers in nine dimensions; e.g. policy, legal, financial, and social. • We suggested a new multi-dimensional methodology to prioritize barriers. • Lacking or fragmented political support on the long term is a key barrier. • We provided insights for action for project coordinators and policy makers.

  1. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  2. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  3. The implications of the Kyoto project mechanisms for the deployment of renewable electricity in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.D.R. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales; Hernandez, F. [IEG CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Gual, M. [Universidad Pablo de olavide, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    EU energy/environmental policy has at least two major and interrelated goals: to increase the percentage of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to control the emission of GHG cost efficiently. These two goals could be in conflict. This paper explores one aspect of this conflicting relationship, namely the effect that the use of the Kyoto Protocol project mechanisms (CDM/JI project) may have on the deployment of RES-E within EU borders. The main conclusion is that, under certain assumptions (i.e., no mandatory EU RES-E quota), CDM/JI projects might reduce the incentive to deploy RES-E within EU borders because they would allow European power companies to comply with GHG targets in a cheaper way than if they reduced emissions by investing in renewable electricity in Europe. This is problematic, since many benefits from renewable electricity are local and these would be gone. This situation would be different if a mandatory RES-E quota (combined with an EU-wide TGC scheme) was implemented. In this case, the RES-E target would be fulfilled and CDM/JI projects would only affect RES-E deployment exceeding the target. (author)

  4. The implications of the Kyoto project mechanisms for the deployment of renewable electricity in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del; Hernandez, Felix; Gual, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    EU energy/environmental policy has at least two major and interrelated goals: to increase the percentage of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and to control the emission of GHG cost efficiently. These two goals could be in conflict. This paper explores one aspect of this conflicting relationship, namely the effect that the use of the Kyoto Protocol project mechanisms (CDM/JI project) may have on the deployment of RES-E within EU borders. The main conclusion is that, under certain assumptions (i.e., no mandatory EU RES-E quota), CDM/JI projects might reduce the incentive to deploy RES-E within EU borders because they would allow European power companies to comply with GHG targets in a cheaper way than if they reduced emissions by investing in renewable electricity in Europe. This is problematic, since many benefits from renewable electricity are local and these would be gone. This situation would be different if a mandatory RES-E quota (combined with an EU-wide TGC scheme) was implemented. In this case, the RES-E target would be fulfilled and CDM/JI projects would only affect RES-E deployment exceeding the target

  5. Gender Policies and Gender Inequalities in Health in Europe: Results of the SOPHIE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palència, Laia; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Salvador-Piedrafita, María; Puig-Barrachina, Vanessa; Hagqvist, Emma; Pérez, Glòria; Ruiz, Marisol E; Trujillo-Alemán, Sara; Vanroelen, Christophe; Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explain the results of the SOPHIE project regarding the effect of gender policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe. We start with the results of a systematic review on how gender regimes and gender equality policies at the country level impact women's health and gender inequalities in health. Then, we report on three empirical analyses on the relationship between different family policy models existing in Europe and gender inequalities in health. Finally we present four case studies on specific examples of gender policies or determinants of gender inequalities in health. The results show that policies that support women's participation in the labor force and decrease their burden of care, such as public services and support for families and entitlements for fathers, are related to lower levels of gender inequality in terms of health. In addition, public services and benefits for disabled and dependent people can reduce the burden placed on family caregivers and hence improve their health. In the context of the current economic crisis, gender equality policies should be maintained or improved. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  7. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP. This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  8. Development of healthcare quality indicators for rheumatoid arthritis in Europe: the eumusc.net project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Ingemar F; Strömbeck, Britta; Andersen, Lene; Cimmino, Marco; Greiff, Rolf; Loza, Estibaliz; Sciré, Carlo; Stamm, Tanja; Stoffer, Michaela; Uhlig, Till; Woolf, Anthony D; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M

    2014-05-01

    Eumusc.net (http://www.eumusc.net) is a European project supported by the EU and European League Against Rheumatism to improve musculoskeletal care in Europe. To develop patient-centred healthcare quality indicators (HCQIs) for healthcare provision for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Based on a systematic literature search, existing HCQIs for RA were identified and their contents analysed and categorised referring to a list of 16 standards of care developed within the eumusc.net. An international expert panel comprising 14 healthcare providers and two patient representatives added topics and during repeated Delphi processes by email ranked the topics and rephrased suggested HCQIs with the preliminary set being established during a second expert group meeting. After an audit process by rheumatology units (including academic centres) in six countries (The Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Italy, Austria and Sweden), a final version of the HCQIs was established. 56 possible topics for HCQIs were processed resulting in a final set of HCQIs for RA (n=14) including two for structure (patient information and calculation of composite scores), 11 for process (eg, access to care, assessments, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments) and one for outcome (effect of treatment on disease activity). They included definitions to be used in clinical practice and also by patients. Further, the numerators and the denominators for each HCQI were defined. A set of 14 patient-centred HCQIs for RA was developed to be used in quality improvement and bench marking in countries across Europe.

  9. The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess, Viviane; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Koç, Ceren; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background : The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children's mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods : Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results : 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78.7% In Eastern countries 63.1% in Western Europe.

  10. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe: the EU-integrated project GEHA (GEnetics of Healthy Aging)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the 5-year European Union (EU)-Integrated Project GEnetics of Healthy Aging (GEHA), constituted by 25 partners (24 from Europe plus the Beijing Genomics Institute from China), is to identify genes involved in healthy aging and longevity, which allow individuals to survive to advanced old......DNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology...... age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians...

  11. Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Hundecha, Y.; Lawrence, D.

    impact studies. Four methods are based on change factors and four are bias correction methods. The change factor methods perturb the observations according to changes in precipitation properties estimated from the Regional Climate Models (RCMs). The bias correction methods correct the output from...... the RCMs. The eight methods are used to downscale precipitation output from fifteen RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project for eleven catchments in Europe. The performance of the bias correction methods depends on the catchment, but in all cases they represent an improvement compared to RCM output. The overall...... results point to an increase in extreme precipitation in all the catchments in winter and in most catchments in summer. For each catchment, the results tend to agree on the direction of the change but differ in the magnitude. These differences can be mainly explained due to differences in the RCMs....

  12. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C. [CEA DEN, Nuclear Energy Div., RadioChemistry and Processes Dept., F-30207Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Geist, A. [KIT-INE (Germany); Cassayre, L. [CIEMAT (Spain); Rhodes, C. [NNL-UK (United Kingdom); Ekberg, C. [CHALMERS (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were

  13. Projections of alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer mortality in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, I; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P

    2000-07-01

    Central European mortality rates for cancer sites related to tobacco and alcohol have increased rapidly in recent decades. From a public health point of view, it is of considerable interest to know whether these past increases in cancer mortality will continue into the future. Cancer mortality rates for the period 1965-1994 in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Slovakia (analysed together), Hungary, Poland, and Romania were analysed for cancers of the larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Using a Bayesian age-period-cohort approach, we have calculated smoothed observed rates. The effects of period and cohort were extrapolated to estimate mortality projections for 1995-99, 2004-09, and 2005-09. Mortality rates for all sites are projected to increase in most countries. Hungary has the highest projected rates for most sites, and particularly rapid increases are expected for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and of the larynx in Hungarian men. The smoothed 1990-94 male mortality rates for these two sites of 16. 32/100,000 and 8.70/100,000, respectively, are projected to reach 35. 17/100,000 for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and 14.12/100, 000 for cancer of the larynx by the period 2000-04. For kidney cancer, former Czechoslovakia has the highest observed and projected mortality rates. The smoothed 1990-94 rate of 8.37/100,000 is expected to increase 24% to 10.38/100,000 by 2000-04. Our results indicate that further increases may be expected on top of the already high cancer mortality levels in Central Europe. Policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent smoking in younger generations are necessary to reduce mortality as these cohorts age. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Climate change projections of heat stress in Europe: From meteorological variables to impacts on productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Future climate change is likely to have important impacts in many socio-economic sectors. In particular, higher summer temperatures or more prolonged heat waves may be responsible for health problems and productivity losses related to heat stress, especially affecting people exposed to such situations (e.g. working under outside settings or in non-acclimatized workplaces). Heat stress on the body under work load and consequently their productivity loss can be described through heat stress indices that are based on multiple meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind and radiation. Exploring the changes of these variables under a warmer climate is of prime importance for the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability communities. In particular, the H2020 project HEAT-SHIELD aims at analyzing the impact of climate change on heat stress in strategic industries in Europe (manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture) within an inter-sectoral framework (climate scientists, biometeorologists, physiologists and stakeholders). In the present work we explore present and future heat stress over Europe using an ensemble of the state-of-the-art RCMs from the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Since RCMs cannot be directly used in impact studies due to their partly substantial biases, a standard bias correction method (empirical quantile mapping) is applied to correct the individual variables that are then used to derive heat stress indices. The objectives of this study are twofold, 1) to test the ability of the separately bias corrected variables to reproduce the main characteristics of heat stress indices in present climate conditions and 2) to explore climate change projections of heat stress indices. We use the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as primary heat stress index, considering two different versions for indoor (or in the shade, based on temperature and humidity conditions) and outdoor settings (including also wind and radiation). The WBGT

  15. Project Maghreb - Europe: Solar Production of Hydrogen. Phase I: Feasibility and opportunity study of the project; Projet Maghreb - Europe: Production d'hydrogene solaire. Phase I: Etude d'opportunite et de faisabilite du projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf; Chader, Samira; M' Raoui, Abdelhamid; Harouadi, Farid; Etievant, Claude; Lechevalier, Steve; Cherigui, Abdel-Nasser

    2007-07-01

    During the 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference which held on June 13-16, 2006, in Lyon (France), an important project appeared, the Maghreb-Europe Project for production and export of solar hydrogen, proposed in the Algiers Declaration of the hydrogen of origin renewable and directed by the researchers efforts of the Renewable Energies Development Center of Algiers (CDER) and members of the European company of Hydrogen Technologies (CETH). The present introductory communication exposes a scientific study on the appropriateness and the feasibility of the Project, as well as the objectives, missions and the fundamental elements for a scientific and technique accompaniment of this important project. (auth)

  16. The Handover Project: Improving the continuity of patient care through identification and implementation of novel patient handoff processes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Kicken, Wendy; Van der Klink, Marcel; Stoyanov, Slavi; Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Kicken, W., Van der Klink, M., Stoyanov, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, 21 March). The Handover project: Improving the continuity of patient care through identification and implementation of novel patient handoff processes in Europe. Presentation at Learning Networks meeting,

  17. Quality of illegally and informally produced alcohol in Europe: Results from the AMPHORA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Leitz, Jenny; Schoeberl, Kerstin; Kuballa, Thomas; Straub, Irene; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    In the WHO region Europe, the average unrecorded adult per capita alcohol consumption was 2.67 L pure ethanol in 2005, which is 22% of the total consumption of 12.20 L. Despite concerns about potential health harms from the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol, there are surprisingly few data on the problem in the European Region. This study reports the results from the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) project, which assessed the quality of unrecorded alcohol in a Europe-wide study. Samples of unrecorded alcohol were collected in 16 European countries and chemically analyzed for potentially health-relevant parameters. Thresholds for parameters were defined based on potential health hazards of daily drinking. The average alcoholic strength of unrecorded wine products was 14.9% vol, and 47.8% vol in unrecorded spirits. One half of the samples (n=57) showed acceptable alcohol quality. The other half (n=58) showed one or several deficits with the most prevalent problem being ethyl carbamate contamination (n=29). Other problems included copper (n=20), manganese (n=16) and acetaldehyde (n=12). All other parameters (including methanol, higher alcohols, phthalates) were only seldom problematic (limit exceedance in less than 10 samples). The price of unrecorded alcohol was approximately 45% of the price of recorded alcohol. The major problem regarding unrecorded alcohol appears to be ethanol itself, as it is often higher in strength and its lower price may further contribute to higher drinking amounts. Compared to the health effects of ethanol, the contamination problems detected may be of minor importance as exposure will only in worst-case scenarios reach tolerable daily intakes of these substances.

  18. A Europe-wide system for assessing the quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates: the AQEM Project* and its importance for southern Europe (with special emphasis on Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L. KEMP

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The AQEM Project aims to develop a Europe-wide system for monitoring the ecological quality of rivers using macroinvertebrates, to satisfy the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. Three main types of anthropogenic perturbation are being investigated: morphological degradation, water (organic pollution and acidification (the last is not under investigation in Italy. The selection of reference and impaired study sites is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the problems encountered when defining reference conditions. The initial stages of the project highlighted the lack of a Europe-wide definition of river types. The future development of such a typology from the AQEM database is discussed. The standard AQEM data gathering methods are presented, from background information about sites to the microhabitat-based macroinvertebrate sampling method. The extended fieldwork methods used in Italy are described. These included the separate analysis of the invertebrate assemblages from each replicate, the recording of additional microhabitat variables for each replicate and the completion of large-scale survey techniques for each site (including RHS. The extended method was designed to enhance the important ecological information available from the dataset, particularly relevant in Italy where significant gaps exist in the taxonomic and ecological knowledge of many macroinvertebrate taxa. Preliminary and expected findings are presented, including examples of the range and habitat selection of two species of Ephemeroptera endemic to Italy, as well as data relating to the number of taxa found at a site with increasing numbers of microhabitat replicates taken. The importance of the AQEM Project not only for biomonitoring, but also for ecology, taxonomy and conservation, in Italy and for the south of Europe in general, is emphasised.

  19. Review of interactions between climate policy and energy safety in Europe (ELIPSE project) - Final report, December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarch, Celine; Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Monjon, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The ELIPSE project is a better understanding of the consequences of ambitious energy policies for a secure energy in Europe. It is based on a choice of indicators for a secure energy which are related to availability and diversification, energy dependence and efficiency, energy cost for the society, and acceptability. Four RCP (representative concentration pathways) scenarios are selected. Their results are discussed, notably in terms of evolution of emissions, of evolution of the carbon tax, of carbon-tax variability, of GDP growth according to scenarios with or without climate policy, of primary energy supply with or without climate policy, of oil supply in Europe and oil prices with or without climate policy. The authors discuss the perspectives of evolution of energy security in Europe on the short, medium or long term, and the influence of different factors. They discuss the development and spreading of low carbon technologies (renewable energies, carbon capture and storage, electric vehicles)

  20. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  1. Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe: Results of the Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploring policies and systems for assuring academic integrity and deterring plagiarism in different higher education institutions was the subject of a three-year project funded by the European Union (EU. The research for Impact of Policies for Plagiarism in Higher Education Across Europe (IPPHEAE, completed in November 2013, was conducted by teams at five higher education institutions from UK, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Czech Republic. The research included an EU-wide survey of higher education institutions across 27 EU member states. Separate reports were prepared for the countries surveyed, each containing details of findings and recommendations for what could and should be done to improve academic quality and integrity at national, institutional and individual levels. An EU-wide comparative study provided an assessment of the maturity of policies and processes for academic integrity in each country, based on the data collected and the research conducted for each national report.This paper presents selected comparisons of results from the research, especially looking at evidence for maturity of policies, consistency of approach, examples of good practice and highlighting where serious effort is needed to strengthen current policies and practices.

  2. Climate change projections of West Nile virus infections in Europe: implications for blood safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Tran, Annelise; Espinosa, Laura; Sudre, Bertrand; Domanovic, Dragoslav; Paz, Shlomit

    2016-03-08

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. Extrinsic factors such as temperature and land use are determinants of WNV outbreaks in Europe, along with intrinsic factors of the vector and virus. With a multivariate model for WNV transmission we computed the probability of WNV infection in 2014, with July 2014 temperature anomalies. We applied the July temperature anomalies under the balanced A1B climate change scenario (mix of all energy sources, fossil and non-fossil) for 2025 and 2050 to model and project the risk of WNV infection in the future. Since asymptomatic infections are common in humans (which can result in the contamination of the donated blood) we estimated the predictive prevalence of WNV infections in the blood donor population. External validation of the probability model with 2014 cases indicated good prediction, based on an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.871 (SD = 0.032), on the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The climate change projections for 2025 reveal a higher probability of WNV infection particularly at the edges of the current transmission areas (for example in Eastern Croatia, Northeastern and Northwestern Turkey) and an even further expansion in 2050. The prevalence of infection in (blood donor) populations in the outbreak-affected districts is expected to expand in the future. Predictive modelling of environmental and climatic drivers of WNV can be a valuable tool for public health practice. It can help delineate districts at risk for future transmission. These areas can be subjected to integrated disease and vector surveillance, outreach to the public and health care providers, implementation of personal protective measures, screening of blood donors, and vector abatement activities.

  3. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai; Grapengiesser, S.; Bennerstedt, T.

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs

  4. Trends and projections in Europe 2013. Tracking progress towards Europe's climate and energy targets until 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-01

    This report provide an assessment of the progress of the EU and European countries towards achieving their climate mitigation and energy policy objectives. These targets include international commitments pursuant the KP and the EU 2020 commitment to reduce by 20 % greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to 1990, to create 20 % of energy consumption from renewables and to increase energy efficiency by 20 %. The assessment is based on GHG data for the period 2008-2012, including recent estimates of proxy 2012 GHG emissions, GHG projections until 2020 submitted by Member States in 2013, as well as energy statistics until 2011. (Author)

  5. Joule-Thomson Coefficient for Strongly Interacting Unitary Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Kai; Chen Jisheng; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson effect reflects the interaction among constituent particles of macroscopic system. For classical ideal gas, the corresponding Joule-Thomson coefficient is vanishing while it is non-zero for ideal quantum gas due to the quantum degeneracy. In recent years, much attention is paid to the unitary Fermi gas with infinite two-body scattering length. According to universal analysis, the thermodynamical law of unitary Fermi gas is similar to that of non-interacting ideal gas, which can be explored by the virial theorem P = 2E/3V. Based on previous works, we further study the unitary Fermi gas properties. The effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the nonlinear levels crossing effects in a strongly interacting medium. The changing behavior of the rescaled Joule-Thomson coefficient according to temperature manifests a quite different behavior from that for ideal Fermi gas. (general)

  6. Global and local Joule heating effects seen by DE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelis, R. A.; Coley, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    In the altitude region between 350 and 550 km, variations in the ion temperature principally reflect similar variations in the local frictional heating produced by a velocity difference between the ions and the neutrals. Here, the distribution of the ion temperature in this altitude region is shown, and its attributes in relation to previous work on local Joule heating rates are discussed. In addition to the ion temperature, instrumentation on the DE 2 satellite also provides a measure of the ion velocity vector representative of the total electric field. From this information, the local Joule heating rate is derived. From an estimate of the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity it is also possible to estimate the global (height-integrated) Joule heating rate. Here, the differences and relationships between these various parameters are described.

  7. Joule heating of Fe-B metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.; Lipka, J.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 80 B 20 and Fe 83 B 17 ribbons were heated in air and in vacuum, respectively, by a dc electric current passing through the specimen. During the Joule heating, 57 Fe transmission Moessbauer spectra were recorded. Ribbons of the same geometrical dimensions, cut from a natural iron foil, were treated in the same way as a reference. The influence of the current-induced magnetic field in addition to the Joule heating is supposed to cause fluctuations in a short-range order observed. Changes in the hyperfine magnetic fields are compared with those obtained by a conventional heating in a vacuum furnace. (orig.)

  8. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  9. Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise challenging issues. Case studies: The transmed and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khene, D.

    1997-01-01

    Development of cross border gas transmission projects raise complex and interdependent issues whose successful resolution require not only technical and management strengths but also a close cooperation between the key players involved in the game. In this paper we shall attempt to explain some of the major issues encountered during the appraisal and construction of long distance gas pipeline schemes. The information used derive essentially from the experience gained during the development of the Trans-mediterranean and the Maghreb/Europe pipelines. Running through the various issues we shall also identify and then discuss a number of factors which contributed to the successful implementation of these two projects. (au)

  10. ESH&Q Joule: Greg Gilbert | News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial Officer Finance Section Office of the Chief Operating Officer Facilities Engineering Services Accelerator Division Accelerator Physics Center Office of the Chief Safety Officer Environment, Safety, Health and Quality Section Office of the Chief Project Officer Office of Project Support Services Office of

  11. Survey on paediatric tumour boards in Europe: current situation and results from the ExPo-r-Net project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Ribelles, A; Berlanga, P; Schreier, G; Nitzlnader, M; Brunmair, B; Castel, V; Essiaf, S; Cañete, A; Ladenstein, R

    2018-01-08

    Under the ExPO-r-NeT project (European Expert Paediatric Oncology Reference Network for Diagnostics and Treatment), we aimed to identify paediatric oncology tumour boards in Europe to investigate the kind of technologies and logistics that are in place in different countries and to explore current differences between regions. A 20-question survey regarding several features of tumor boards was designed. Data collected included infrastructure, organization, and clinical decision-making information from the centres. The survey was distributed to the National Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Societies that forwarded the survey to the sites. For comparative analysis, respondents were grouped into four geographical regions. The questionnaire was distributed amongst 30 countries. Response was obtained from 23 (77%) that altogether have 212 paediatric oncology treating centres. A total of 121 institutions answered (57%). Ninety-one percent of the centres hold multidisciplinary boards; however, international second consultations are performed in 36% and only 15% participate on virtual tumor boards. Videoconferencing facilities and standard operational procedures (SOPs) are available in 49 and 43% of the centres, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between European regions concerning meeting infrastructure and organization/logistics: specific room, projecting equipment, access to medical records, videoconferencing facilities, and existence of SOPs. Paediatric tumor boards are a common feature in Europe. To reduce inequalities and have equal access to healthcare, a virtual network is needed. Important differences on the functioning and access to technology between regions in Europe have been observed and need to be addressed.

  12. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks : Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  13. Europe's gas imports via pipelines. Projects and safety aspects; Europas Gasimporte durch Pipelines. Projekte und Sicherheitsaspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, R.

    2008-08-15

    By the year 2030 Europe's gas imports will have risen to approximately 200 bn m{sup 3}, necessitating the installation of new pipelines and LNG terminals. The largest growth in imports is not expected from Russia but from Africa and the Near East. An analysis of projected pipelines demonstrates these regions' contribution to securing Europe's gas supply. Because they help to establish market dominance or to fend off potential competitors these pipelines also serve corporate strategies. The most reliable supply will continue to come from Norway. By contrast, gas imports via pipelines from North Africa, Russia and the Persian Gulf all carry high risks of approximately the same degree. The greatest risks are associated with gas imports from the Caspian Sea.

  14. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Cash-Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field.Methodology: To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has

  15. Det europæiske Model Company Law Act Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Paul Krüger; Baums, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    På initiativ af forfatterne til det følgende blev der i 2007 dannet en europæisk gruppe af fremtrædende selskabsretseksperter med henblik på at udforme en »European Model Company Law Act« (EMCLA). Gruppen holdt sit første møde i Århus i september 2007.  ...

  16. The Curse of the Gold: Discourses Surrounding the Project of the Largest Pit-mine in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Egresi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a Canadian company started geological explorations in the Rosia Montana area in the Romanian Carpathians. Two years later it formed a joint-venture with a Romanian state company to exploit what is believed to be Europe´s largest gold reserves. However, as of June 2011 extraction has not started yet and it may never start due to the opposition of numerous NGO´s that have pointed out the environmental, social and economic unsustainability of this mining project. This situation is highly unusual for a country that is hungry for foreign investment especially since up until very recently the state had supported any project promising to revitalize its mining sector. This paper will investigate the changes in the discourses surrounding this mining project taking into consideration the effects of globalization and the effects of Romania´s EU membership after 2007.

  17. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  18. FashionBrain Project: A Vision for Understanding Europe's Fashion Data Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Checco, Alessandro; Demartini, Gianluca; Loeser, Alexander; Arous, Ines; Khayati, Mourad; Dantone, Matthias; Koopmanschap, Richard; Stalinov, Svetlin; Kersten, Martin; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    A core business in the fashion industry is the understanding and prediction of customer needs and trends. Search engines and social networks are at the same time a fundamental bridge and a costly middleman between the customer's purchase intention and the retailer. To better exploit Europe's distinctive characteristics e.g., multiple languages, fashion and cultural differences, it is pivotal to reduce retailers' dependence to search engines. This goal can be achieved by harnessing various dat...

  19. Joule heating of Fe-B metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.; Lipka, J. (Dept. of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava, Slovak Republic (Czechoslovakia))

    1993-04-01

    Amorphous Fe[sub 80]B[sub 20] and Fe[sub 83]B[sub 17] ribbons were heated in air and in vacuum, respectively, by a dc electric current passing through the specimen. During the Joule heating, [sup 57]Fe transmission Moessbauer spectra were recorded. Ribbons of the same geometrical dimensions, cut from a natural iron foil, were treated in the same way as a reference. The influence of the current-induced magnetic field in addition to the Joule heating is supposed to cause fluctuations in a short-range order observed. Changes in the hyperfine magnetic fields are compared with those obtained by a conventional heating in a vacuum furnace. (orig.).

  20. Review of laser mega joule target area: Design and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geitzholz, M.; Lanternier, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Mega Joule (LMJ) target area is currently designed to achieve ignition and significant fusion gain in laboratory. LMJ will be composed of 240 identical large 370 mm * 370 mm square laser beams. These beams will focus 2 mega-joules of energy at the wavelength of 351 nm on the center of an experiment chamber. Design studies for target equipment are well advanced, target chamber and target holder (concrete) works have already begun. A detailed overview of the target area equipment is presented: target chamber, frame, diagnostic inserter manipulator, final optic assembly, dual diagnostic and laser reference, non cryogenic target positioner. Recent technical and architectural choices are detailed including safety transfers and alignment processes (target, laser and diagnostic). All this target equipment allows us to optimize shot chrono-gram, from target metrology to the shot, including calibration process. (authors)

  1. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1996-1999. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: the ODYSSEE and MURE projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2002-05-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: the ODYSSEE and MURE projects''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-1999. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.6% per year from 1990 to 1999. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.4% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.2% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 8 TWh from 1990 to 1999. (author)

  2. Gas cooled fast reactor research in Europe (GCFR and GoFastR projects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainsby, Richard; Peers, Karen; Mitchell, Colin; Poette, Christian; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Somers, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarises the achievements of Euratom's research efforts into the GFR system, starting with the 5th Framework programme (FP5) GCFR project in 2000, through the FP6 project between 2005 and 2009 and looking ahead to the proposed activities within the current 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It consists of the following sections: (i) Introduction; (ii) The potential of GFR; (iii) EURATOM GFR projects - (a) ALLEGRo: a GFR Demonstrator; (b) GFR Development; (c) Fuel concepts development; (d) Dissemination of project information; (e) Education and training; (f) Future direction of the project; and (g) International collaboration

  3. The Joule heating problem in silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaligh, H. H.; Xu, L.; Khosropour, A.; Madeira, A.; Romano, M.; Pradére, C.; Tréguer-Delapierre, M.; Servant, L.; Pope, M. A.; Goldthorpe, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    Silver nanowire transparent electrodes have shown considerable potential to replace conventional transparent conductive materials. However, in this report we show that Joule heating is a unique and serious problem with these electrodes. When conducting current densities encountered in organic solar cells, the average surface temperature of indium tin oxide (ITO) and silver nanowire electrodes, both with sheet resistances of 60 ohms/square, remains below 35 °C. However, in contrast to ITO, the temperature in the nanowire electrode is very non-uniform, with some localized points reaching temperatures above 250 °C. These hotspots accelerate nanowire degradation, leading to electrode failure after 5 days of continuous current flow. We show that graphene, a commonly used passivation layer for these electrodes, slows nanowire degradation and creates a more uniform surface temperature under current flow. However, the graphene does not prevent Joule heating in the nanowires and local points of high temperature ultimately shift the failure mechanism from nanowire degradation to melting of the underlying plastic substrate. In this paper, surface temperature mapping, lifetime testing under current flow, post-mortem analysis, and modelling illuminate the behaviour and failure mechanisms of nanowires under extended current flow and provide guidelines for managing Joule heating.

  4. Electroosmotic flow and Joule heating in preparative continuous annular electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, René; Bart, Hans-Jörg

    2015-09-01

    An openFOAM "computational fluid dynamic" simulation model was developed for the description of local interaction of hydrodynamics and Joule heating in annular electrochromatography. A local decline of electrical conductivity of the background eluent is caused by an electrokinetic migration of ions resulting in higher Joule heat generation. The model equations consider the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible fluids, the energy equation for stationary temperature fields, and the mass transfer equation for the electrokinetic flow. The simulations were embedded in commercial ANSYS Fluent software and in open-source environment openFOAM. The annular gap (1 mm width) contained an inorganic C8 reverse-phase monolith as stationary phase prepared by an in situ sol-gel process. The process temperature generated by Joule heating was determined by thermal camera system. The local hydrodynamics in the prototype was detected by a gravimetric contact-free measurement method and experimental and simulated values matched quite well. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – can it help to reduce costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    a certain overview of the range of costs in various budget disciplines. The Copenhagen-Ringsted project is shown to be right in the middle of the range in terms of total costs per kilometre, and its values in the discipline comparisons do not significantly differ from the values of the less expensive...... projects. Deeper analysis of project unit costs is still continuing, but the preliminary results show that the cost values for projects located in the same geographical zone are similar. For example, this can be explained by their use of the same construction companies. However, unit prices in southern...

  6. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – dealing with uncertainties in cost estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara

    Past experiences in the construction of high-speed railway projects demontrate either positive or negative financial outcomes of the actual project’s budget. Usually some uncertainty value is included into initial budget calculations. Uncertainty is related to the increase of material prices...... per main cost drivers were compared and analyzed. There were observed nine railway projects, comparable to the Copenhagen-Ringsted project. The results of this comparison provided a certain overview on the cost range in different budget disciplines. The Copenhagen-Ringsted project is positioned right...

  7. Projections for the Production of Bulk Volume Bio-Based Polymers in Europe and Environmental Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.; Crank, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the most important emerging groups of bio-based polymers for bulk volume applications and we discuss market projections for these types of bio-based polymers in the EU, thereby distinguishing between three scenarios. Bio-based polymers are projected to reach a

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MUSEUMS, ARCHIVES AND LIBRARIES IN E-EUROPE: PROJECT OF EC CALIMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozuraite, Vita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the social role of local cultural institutions of all kinds has changed. A shift from the use of information on traditional paper-based carriers to electronic formats has takenplace. The implementation of technology has brought about the modernisation of basic work processes and widened the range of services and channels of access. There is closer intra- and interdomain co-operation both at national and international level. It is no longer easy to draw clear boundaries between archives, libraries and museums in terms of digital content provision.Memory institutions such as libraries, museums and archives are adjusting themselves to the digital age. Web-based services have been expanded, remote use of online catalogues and the accessibility of digitised heritage have all been improved. The task now is to create and promote new services which reach and motivate more people. New services require new tools, many of them ICT-based – and above all a new attitude.CALIMERA (Cultural Applications: Local Institutions Mediating Electronics Resource Access Co-ordination Action, funded under Information Society Technologies Sixth Framework Programme has set out to help ordinary citizens right across Europe to join e-Europe through the digital services provided by their local cultural institutions. CALIMERA has continued to contribute to the sharing of best practice, producing guidelines and roadmaps with a special focus of local archives and museums and addressing the needs of the end user.The aim of CALIMERA Best Practice Guidelines is to provide policy makers and professionals working in cultural institutions at the local level with a concise and relevant summary of the state of the art in the use of new technologies. These Guidelines are intended to explain in a readable way how these technologies can be deployed to develop digital services designed to meet real user needs – social, cultural and economics – to stimulate wider

  9. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of Danish tenders in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Kranker Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period: January 2010 to March 2013. Fisher's Exact Test was conducted to determine if there was any significant use of some selection and assignment criteria. The findings of the study showed that invited tenders with pre-qualification and lowest price in 69.8% of the tenders are the most used selection and assignment criteria, with little regard to project type.

  10. Exploring overweight, obesity and their behavioural correlates among children and adolescents: results from the Health-promotion through Obesity Prevention across Europe project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna; Klepp, Knut-Inge; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2010-10-01

    The Health-promotion through Obesity Prevention across Europe (HOPE) project aims to bring the European scientific knowledge on overweight, obesity and their determinants together and use the expertise of researchers across Europe to contribute to tackling the obesity epidemic. This special issue of Public Health Nutrition presents important results from one of the work packages of the HOPE project that aims at gaining and integrating knowledge on the determinants of nutrition, physical activity and obesity among schoolchildren and adolescents (aged 10-18 years) in different European regions. It includes contributions from Northern Europe (Norway), Central and Eastern Europe (Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic), Southern Europe (Greece) and Western Europe (Belgium and The Netherlands), as well as an overview of the availability of good-quality data on prevalence rates and trends in overweight (including obesity) among adolescents in European Union (EU) countries. The studies that are included report prevalence differences, data on relevant nutrition and physical activity behaviours, as well as potential physical and environmental behavioural determinants. These papers provide further evidence on differences in obesity and overweight prevalence among different EU regions and countries, and contribute to the further exploration of risk factors that may or should be addressed in obesity prevention efforts for school-aged children and adolescents in EU countries.

  11. Radiation protection and quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - an IAEA coordinated research project in Asia and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, Modupe; LeHeron, J.; Maccia, C.; Padovani, R.; Vano, E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency currently has two parallel Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) running in Asia and Eastern Europe. The main objective of the CRPs is to raise the level of awareness in participating countries about the need for radiation protection for patients undergoing diagnostic radiology procedures. This is to be achieved by first assessing the status quo in a sample of hospitals and X-ray rooms in each participating country. A program of optimization of radiation protection for patients is then introduced by means of a comprehensive quality assurance program and the implementation of appropriate dose reduction methods, taking into account clinical requirements for diagnostically acceptable images. Patient dose assessment and image quality assessment are to be performed both before and after the introduction of the quality assurance program. The CRP is divided into two phases - the first is concerned with conventional radiography, while the second involves fluoroscopy and computed tomography. The CRP is still running, restricting the scope of this paper to a discussion of the approach being taken with the project. The project will be completed in 1998, with analysis to follow

  12. Radiation protection and quality assurance in diagnostic radiology - an IAEA coordinated research project in Asia and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oresegun, Modupe [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); LeHeron, J. [National Radiation Laboratory, Christchurch (New Zealand); Maccia, C. [Centre d' Assurance de qualite des Applications Technologiques dans le Domaine de la Sante, Bourg-la-Reine (France); Padovani, R. [Instituto di Fisica Sanitaria, Udine (Italy); Vano, E. [Medical Physics Group, Radiology Department, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency currently has two parallel Coordinated Research Projects (CRP) running in Asia and Eastern Europe. The main objective of the CRPs is to raise the level of awareness in participating countries about the need for radiation protection for patients undergoing diagnostic radiology procedures. This is to be achieved by first assessing the status quo in a sample of hospitals and X-ray rooms in each participating country. A program of optimization of radiation protection for patients is then introduced by means of a comprehensive quality assurance program and the implementation of appropriate dose reduction methods, taking into account clinical requirements for diagnostically acceptable images. Patient dose assessment and image quality assessment are to be performed both before and after the introduction of the quality assurance program. The CRP is divided into two phases - the first is concerned with conventional radiography, while the second involves fluoroscopy and computed tomography. The CRP is still running, restricting the scope of this paper to a discussion of the approach being taken with the project. The project will be completed in 1998, with analysis to follow.

  13. GERMANY AND EUROPE: A NEW TONE OR POLITICS AS USUAL?’ - A PROJECTION OF THE GERMAN EU PRESIDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Guérot

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The German EU Presidency, from January to June 2007, will face numerous challenges among which the most important consists in helping Europe emerge from the deep Constitutional crisis in which it is embedded and of reenergising the enlargement project. Furthermore, it will be necessary to tackle several dossiers linked to the Lisbon Agenda, energy policy and re-launching the Constitutional project, as well as issues relating to Justice and Home Affairs, immigration policy, the struggle against terror and a wide array of topics including the European Neighbourhood Policy. The agenda is, therefore, both heavy and complex. Unfortunately, the threat of an international crisis and the French elections will significantly reduce the policy options for Germany, because Germany’s European policy can only be discussed within the framework of its relationship with France. To reenergise the European project, the traditional “Franco-German engine” will have to act in close cooperation with other large and small EU states. Europe’s strength resides in its ability to change and adapt to new challenges and opportunities. The fundamental issues of Europe’s future, defence and energy, require an open frame of mind and forward thinking. Simultaneously, they necessitate a clear definition of all of Europe’s interests, not solely those of France and Germany. It is up to a new and modern thinking Franco-German duo to devise clear strategies in order to respond to these new challenges.

  14. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs

  16. Observed and simulated impacts of the summer NAO in Europe: implications for projected drying in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blade, Ileana; Fortuny, Didac [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica, Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Barcelona (Spain); Liebmann, Brant [CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO (United States); Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van [Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Climate models predict substantial summer precipitation reductions in Europe and the Mediterranean region in the twenty-first century, but the extent to which these models correctly represent the mechanisms of summertime precipitation in this region is uncertain. Here an analysis is conducted to compare the observed and simulated impacts of the dominant large-scale driver of summer rainfall variability in Europe and the Mediterranean, the summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). The SNAO is defined as the leading mode of July-August sea level pressure variability in the North Atlantic sector. Although the SNAO is weaker and confined to northern latitudes compared to its winter counterpart, with a southern lobe located over the UK, it significantly affects precipitation in the Mediterranean, particularly Italy and the Balkans (correlations of up to 0.6). During high SNAO summers, when strong anticyclonic conditions and suppressed precipitation prevail over the UK, the Mediterranean region instead is anomalously wet. This enhanced precipitation is related to the presence of a strong upper-level trough over the Balkans - part of a hemispheric pattern of anomalies that develops in association with the SNAO - that leads to mid-level cooling and increased potential instability. Neither this downstream extension nor the surface influence of the SNAO is captured in the two CMIP3 models examined (HadCM3 and GFDL-CM2.1), with weak or non-existent correlations between the SNAO and Mediterranean precipitation. Because these models also predict a strong upward SNAO trend in the future, the error in their representation of the SNAO surface signature impacts the projected precipitation trends. In particular, the attendant increase in precipitation that, based on observations, should occur in the Mediterranean and offset some of the non-SNAO related drying does not occur. Furthermore, the fact that neither the observed SNAO nor summer precipitation in Europe/Mediterranean region

  17. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-07-31

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure.

  18. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The polar cap (PC) index measures the level of geomagnetic activity in the polar cap based on magnetic perturbations from overhead ionospheric currents and distant field-aligned currents on the poleward edge of the nightside auroral oval. Because PC essentially measures the main sources of energy...... input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...

  19. Study of density limit in JT-60 joule heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori; Hirayama, Toshio; Azumi, Masafumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    Impurities which mingle in tokamak plasmas cause dominant radiation loss in the high density regime and the energy balance of plasma is lost. This gives rise to MHD instability and results in major disruption. Density limit in joule heated plasmas has been studied by using one dimensional transport code combined with MHD instability analysis code. When the diffusion of impurity is taken into account, the numerically obtained density limit diagram or Hugill diagram quantitatively agrees well with that obtained in the experiment. It is also clarified that the corona-equilibrium model overestimates the density limit. (author).

  20. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  1. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Zhenggang; Segura, Martha; Podoliak, Nina; Feng, Xian; White, Nicholas; Horak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS). Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure. PMID:28788148

  2. Report on the geo-environmental inquiry project, central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattig, U.; Mulder, E.F.J. de

    1998-01-01

    The Commission on Geological Sciences for Environmental Planning (COGEOENVIRONMENT) of IUGS and UNESCO have initiated a joint project to develop a worldwide data base on earthscience-related environmental problems and to assess which geoscientific information is available locally for prevention,

  3. A 50-year precipitation analysis over Europe at 5.5km within the UERRA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Eric; Abida, Rachid; Soci, Cornel; Verrelle, Antoine; Szczypta, Camille; Le Moigne, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The UERRA project is a 4-year project (2014-2017) financed by the European Union under its 7th Framework Programme SPACE. One of its main objectives is to provide a 50-year reanalysis dataset of surface essential climate variables (ECV) at 5.5km grid at European scale, together with, as much as possible, uncertainty estimates. One of the ECV is the precipitation and this variable is of essential interest in weather forecasting, climate study and to "drive" hydrological model for water management, or agrometeorology. After a brief description of the method used for the precipitation analysis (Soci et al. 2016)during this project, the preliminary results will be presented. The estimation of uncertainties will be also discussed associated with the problem of the evolution of the observation density network and its impact on the long term series. Additional information about the UERRA project can be found at http://www.uerra.eu The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union, Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2013-1) under grant agreement no 607193.

  4. Scintillations and TEC gradients from Europe to Africa: a picture by the MISW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca; Cesaroni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    MISW (Mitigation of space weather threats to GNSS services) is an EU/FP7 project with the purpose of tacklingthe research challenges associated with Space Weather effects on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System).In particular, the objective of MISW is to develop suitable algorithms capable of...

  5. A Community-University Exchange Project Modeled after Europe's Science Shops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Ross, J. Ashleigh

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project of the Morgridge Center for Public Service at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for a new structure for community-based learning and research. It is based on the European-derived science shop model for democratizing campus-community partnerships using shared values of mutual respect and validation of…

  6. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious

  7. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    , and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...

  8. Projecting trends in plant invasions in Europe under different scenarios of future land-use change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Wild, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Dendoncker, N.; Reginster, I.; Pino, J.; Maskell, L. C.; Vila, M.; Pergl, Jan; Kühn, I.; Spangenberg, J.H.; Settele, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2012), s. 75-87 ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * land-use change * prediction Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.223, year: 2012

  9. Comenius Project: Are e-Learning Collaborations of High School Students across Europe in Maths Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovits, Reinhard; McElroy, Jim; O'Loughlin, James; Townsend, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of the project is to allow for the collaboration of high school students of different European countries on small, selected maths topics. This involves the use of technology, student mobility and English language competency. Benefits are also expected to accrue to teachers of mathematics by providing the opportunity to work with…

  10. The impact of headache in Europe: principal results of the Eurolight project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background European data, at least from Western Europe, are relatively good on migraine prevalence but less sound for tension-type headache (TTH) and medication-overuse headache (MOH). Evidence on impact of headache disorders is very limited. Eurolight was a data-gathering exercise primarily to inform health policy in the European Union (EU). This manuscript reports personal impact. Methods The study was cross-sectional with modified cluster sampling. Surveys were conducted by structured questionnaire, including diagnostic questions based on ICHD-II and various measures of impact, and are reported from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom. Different methods of sampling were used in each. The full methodology is described elsewhere. Results Questionnaires were analysed from 8,271 participants (58% female, mean age 43.4 y). Participation-rates, where calculable, varied from 10.6% to 58.8%. Moderate interest-bias was detected. Unadjusted lifetime prevalence of any headache was 91.3%. Gender-adjusted 1-year prevalences were: any headache 78.6%; migraine 35.3%; TTH 38.2%, headache on ≥15 d/mo 7.2%; probable MOH 3.1%. Personal impact was high, and included ictal symptom burden, interictal burden, cumulative burden and impact on others (partners and children). There was a general gradient of probable MOH > migraine > TTH, and most measures indicated higher impact among females. Lost useful time was substantial: 17.7% of males and 28.0% of females with migraine lost >10% of days; 44.7% of males and 53.7% of females with probable MOH lost >20%. Conclusions The common headache disorders have very high personal impact in the EU, with important implications for health policy. PMID:24884549

  11. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  12. Miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooling principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Maytal, Ben-Zion

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. • The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types • Theoretical Aspec...

  13. The Test Blanket Modules project in Europe: From the strategy to the technical plan over next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, Y.; Zmitko, M.; Orco, G. dell; Laesser, R.; Diegele, E.; Sundstroem, J.; Boccaccini, L.; Salavy, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    The testing of Breeding Blanket concepts in ITER is recognized as an essential milestone in the development of a future reactor ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, extraction of high grade heat and electricity production. Europe is currently developing two reference breeding blankets for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) blanket which uses the eutectic Pb-15. 7 Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier, and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket which features lithiated ceramic pebbles (Li 4 SiO 4 or Li 2 TiO 3 ) as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Both blankets are using the pressurized He technology for heat extraction (8 MPa, inlet/outlet temperature 300/500 o C) and a 9% CrWVTa Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material, the EUROFER. Referring to the so called '' fast-track '' EU scenario, those concepts are intended to be tested in ITER, getting the maximum of information required for launching the DEMO blanket design and construction after the first 10 years of ITER operation. For that, the EU has adopted a blanket testing strategy based on the development of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) that are expected to use DEMO relevant technologies and are designed for each ITER plasma phase to optimize the feedback and to avoid any impact on ITER availability. Following the decision on ITER construction, the EU has reviewed and detailed the fundamental elements for an implementation of the future EU TBMs Project aimed at delivering TBMs Systems to ITER under suitable schedule and acceptance standards. For that the following items have been analyzed in detail and are reported in the present paper: · Impact of the ITER environment (design, standards, schedule, operational scheme) on the TBM systems design and development plan · Project technical plan with focus on the next ten years up to the installation of the first TBMs in ITER · Project risk

  14. Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P., E-mail: delahaye@ganil.fr; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Blvd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galatà, A.; Patti, G. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC–Université Grenoble Alpes–CNRS/IN2P3, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cam, J. F.; Traykov, E.; Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 Blvd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Koivisto, H.; Kolhinen, V.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, PB 35 (YFL), 40351 Jyväskylä (Finland); Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wenander, F. [ISOLDE, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam contamination. In recent years, improvements have been made which significantly reduce the differences between the two techniques, making ECRIS charge breeding more attractive especially for CW machines producing intense beams. Upgraded versions of the Phoenix charge breeder, originally developed by LPSC, will be used at SPES and GANIL/SPIRAL. These two charge breeders have benefited from studies undertaken within EMILIE, which are also briefly summarized here.

  15. New power plants in Europe? A challenge for project and quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, M. [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Against the backdrop of the age structure of the European power plant fleet and the EU's climate protection targets, a significant need for new-build and replacement power plant capacity is becoming apparent. RWE has thus founded RWE Technology in order to achieve its growth targets, but also to implement its ongoing power plant new-build programme in the order of no fewer than 12,000 MW in capacity. This company combines the project management and engineering capacity of the Group in order to meet the challenges posed by the fast-changing energy market. The following article explains the specific steps taken to achieve these objectives. (orig.)

  16. The PHILOSOL project: a strategic market development of the solar thermal sector in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiorgas, Michaelis; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Berkmann, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Given the rapid development of the European ST market and the tremendous potential of the local markets due to favorable climatic conditions, the local Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of the EU face the opportunity to enter this rapidly growing market with reliable technologies and know-how. In order to assist them, the PHILOSOL project aimed at stimulating awareness of the local authorities, promoting the use of ST technology and involving the local market actors in business partenariat meetings. The experiences of the more ST technology mature countries show that more than a product and a subsidy programme are needed. Amongst others, the motivation of the population by information and image campaigns can assist solar energy in becoming an intrinsic part of household technology

  17. The Mayer-Joule Principle: The Foundation of the First Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald; Leff, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    To most students today the mechanical equivalent of heat, called the Mayer-Joule principle, is simply a way to convert from calories to joules and vice versa. However, in linking work and heat--once thought to be disjointed concepts--it goes far beyond unit conversion. Heat had eluded understanding for two centuries after Galileo Galilei…

  18. CINCH-II project. Next step in the coordination of education in nuclear- and radiochemistry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Jan; Cuba, Vaclav; Nemec, Mojmir

    2013-01-01

    Any of the potential options for the nuclear power – both the renaissance, if any, or the phase out – will require significant numbers of the respective specialists, amongst others the nuclear and/or radiochemists. In parallel, a significant demand exists for these specialists in non-energy fields, such as environmental protection, radiopharmacy, nuclear medicine, biology, authorities, etc. Since the numbers of staff in teaching and the number of univerzities with facilities licensed for the work with open sources of ionizing radiation has decreased on or sometimes even below the critical level, coordination and collaboration are required to maintain the necessary teaching and training capabilities. The CINCH-II project, aiming at the Coordination of education and training In Nuclear CHemistry in Europe, will be a direct continuation of the CINCH-I project which, among others, identified the EuroMaster in Nuclear Chemistry quality label recognized and guaranteed by the European Chemistry Thematic Network Association as an optimum common mutual recognition system in the field of education in Nuclear Chemistry in Europe, surveyed the status of Nuclear Chemistry in industry / the needs of the end-users, developed an efficient system of education/training compact modular courses, or developed and tested two electronic tools as a basis of a future efficient distance learning system. In the first part of this paper, the achievements of the CINCH-I project will be described. This description will cover both the status review and the development activities of this Collaboration. In the status review field, the results of a detailed survey of the universities and curricula in nuclear- and radiochemistry in Europe and Russia will be presented. Another survey mapped the nuclear- and radiochemistry in industry – specifically the training and education needs of the end users. In the development activities field, the main achievements of the CINCH-project will be presented

  19. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2012. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gores, S.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    At the end of 2011, almost all European countries were on track towards their Kyoto targets for 2008-2012. The EU-15 also remained on track to achieve its Kyoto target. Italy, however, was not on track. Spain plans to acquire a large quantity of Kyoto units through the KP's flexible mechanisms to achieve its target. With emission caps already set for the economic sectors under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), emissions reductions during 2012 in the sectors outside the EU ETS together with reductions by carbon sinks will set the frame for how many Kyoto units Member States need to acquire to reach their individual targets. Hence, both the development and delivery of adequate plans to acquire enough Kyoto credits is becoming increasingly important. ETS emissions from 2008 to 2011 were on average 5 % below these caps, which results in an oversupply of allowances. The EU ETS is undergoing important changes in view of the third trading phase from 2013 to 2020. Most EU Member States project that in 2020, their emissions outside the EU ETS will be lower than their national targets set under the Climate and Energy Package. However, further efforts will be necessary to achieve longer term reductions. (Author)

  20. Stability improvement for coil position locking of joule balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Liu, Yongmeng; Lu, Yunfeng; Hu, Pengcheng; Wang, Dawei; Li, Zhengkun; Tan, Jiubin; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The relative vertical position locking precision between the exciting and suspended coils is an important uncertainty for the Planck constant traceability in joule balance. In order to improve the relative vertical position locking precision, several stability experiments are conducted. The stability characteristics of the suspended and exciting coils are measured using a six-axis laser interferometer system; meanwhile, the effectiveness of the active vibration isolation table is measured using a vibration measurement sensor. The piezoelectric ceramic actuators with PID controller are used to compensate the relative vertical displacement drifts while a six-axis laser interferometer system is used to measure the positions of two coils. Experimental results show that the relative vertical position is stably locked.

  1. Joule-Thomson effect in a Pierce electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model which can be investigated both by means of the system of Vlasov equations and by means of ideal gas state equation is proposed for evaluation of emittance growth in the Pierce electron gun of electron beam with the limiting small distribution rate and intended for electron cooling facilities. The assumption has been made that transverse emittance growth is different from the zero. Thermodynamical approach to the problem of electron beam propagation permits to evaluate the increase of its emittance. It is shown that the increase of the electron beam emittance in the Pierce electron gun is similar to Joule-Thompson effect for gases. The effect increases with the decrease of the beam initial temperature. The increase of the emittance can become essential even in hte perfect (without aberration) Pierce optics at beam transverse temperature of the order of 0.1 eV

  2. Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe 2011. Tracking progress towards Kyoto and 2020 targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, J.; Scheffler, M.; Graichen, V. (Umweltbundesamt, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    2011-10-15

    At the end of 2010, the EU-15 was on track to achieve its Kyoto target but three EU-15 Member States (Austria, Italy and Luxembourg) were not on track to meet their burden-sharing targets. These countries must therefore seriously consider further action to ensure compliance, in particular revising their plans on using flexible mechanisms. Among the EEA member countries outside the EU, Liechtenstein and Switzerland were not on track to achieve their Kyoto target at the end of 2009. All other European countries are on track to meet their targets, either based on domestic emissions only or with the assistance of Kyoto mechanisms. The economic recession had a significant impact on the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends but a more limited effect on progress towards Kyoto targets. This is because emissions in the sectors covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which were most affected by the crisis, do not affect Kyoto compliance once ETS caps have been set. With existing national measures, Member States do not project enough emission reductions for the EU to meet its unilateral 20 % reduction commitment in 2020. Additional measures currently planned by Member States will help further reduce emissions but will be insufficient to achieve the important emission cuts needed in the longer term. By 2020 Member States must enhance their efforts to reduce emissions in non-EU ETS sectors, such as the residential, transport or agriculture sectors, where legally binding national targets have been set under the EU's 2009 climate and energy package. (Author)

  3. Status of the Next European Dipole (NED) Activity of the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Devred, Arnaud; Baynham, D Elwyn; Boutboul, T; Canfer, S; Chorowski, M; den Ouden, A; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Fessia, P; Fydrych, J; Félice, H; Greco, Michela; Greenhalgh, J; Leroy, D; Loveridge, P W; Michel, F; Oberli, L R; Pedrini, D; Polinski, J; Previtali, V; Quettier, L; Rifflet, J M; Rochford, J; Rondeaux, F; Sanz, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Sorbi, M; Toral-Fernandez, F; Van Weelderen, R; Vincent-Viry, O; Volpini, G; Védrine, P

    2005-01-01

    Plans for LHC upgrade and for the final focalization of linear colliders call for large aperture and/or high-performance dipole and quadrupole magnets that may be beyond the reach of conventional NbTi magnet technology. The Next European Dipole (NED) activity was launched on January 1st, 2004 to promote the development of high-performance, Nb$_{3}$Sn wires in collaboration with European industry (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T) and to assess the suitability of Nb$_{3}$Sn technology to the next generation of accelerator magnets (aiming at an aperture of 88 mm and a conductor peak field of 15 T). It is integrated within the Collaborated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project, involves seven collaborators, and is partly funded by the European Union. We present here an overview of the NED activity and we report on the status of the various work packages it encompasses.

  4. Alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe: the ARCAGE project: study samples and data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-02-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include those of the oral cavity, pharynx (other than nasopharynx), larynx, and esophagus. Tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages are established causes of UADT cancers, whereas reduced intake of vegetables and fruits are likely causes. The role of genetic predisposition and possible interactions of genetic with exogenous factors, however, have not been adequately studied. Moreover, the role of pattern of smoking and drinking, as well as the exact nature of the implicated dietary variables, has not been clarified. To address these issues, the International Agency for Research on Cancer initiated in 2002 the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility (ARCAGE) in Europe project, with the participation of 15 centers in 11 European countries. Information and biological data from a total of 2304 cases and 2227 controls have been collected and will be used in a series of analyses. A total of 166 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 76 genes are being studied for genetic associations with UADT cancers. We report here the methodology of the ARCAGE project, main demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the cases and controls, as well as the distribution of cases by histology and subsite. About 80% of cases were males and fewer than 20% of all cases occurred before the age of 50 years. Overall, the most common subsite was larynx, followed by oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus and hypopharynx. Close to 90% of UADT cancers were squamous cell carcinomas. A clear preponderance of smokers and alcohol drinkers among UADT cases compared with controls was observed.

  5. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Dresen, Monique Frings; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious distinction is where the influence over the working hours lies, that is between the "company-based flexibility" and the "individual-oriented flexibility"; (b) The review of the Legislation in force in the 15 European countries shows that the regulation of working times is quite extensive and covers (Council Directive 93/104/EC) almost all the various arrangements of working hours (i.e., part-time, overtime, shift, and night work), but fails to provide for flexibility; (c) According to the data of the Third EU Survey on Working Conditions, longer and "irregular" working hours are in general linked to lower levels of health and well-being; moreover, low (individual) flexibility and high variability of working hours (i.e., company-based flexibility) were consistently associated with poor health and well-being, while low variability combined with high autonomy showed positive effects; (d) Six substudies from different countries demonstrated that flexible working hours vary according to country, economic sector, social status, and gender; overtime is the most frequent form of company-based flexibility but has negative effects on stress, sleep, and social and mental health; individual flexibility alleviates the negative effects of the company-based flexibility on subjective health, safety, and social well-being; (e) The literature review was able to list more than 1,000 references, but it was striking that most of these documents were mainly argumentative with very little empirical data. Thus, one may conclude that there is a large-scale intervention ongoing in our society with almost completely unknown and uncontrolled effects. Consequently, there is a strong need for systematic

  6. Projections of future floods and hydrological droughts in Europe under a +2°C global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roudier, Philippe; Andersson, Jafet C.M.; Donnelly, Chantal; Feyen, Luc; Greuell, Wouter; Ludwig, Fulco

    2016-01-01

    We present an assessment of the impacts of a +2°C global warming on extreme floods and hydrological droughts (1 in 10 and 1 in 100 year events) in Europe using eleven bias-corrected climate model simulations from CORDEX Europe and three hydrological models. The results show quite contrasted results

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in stillbirth rates in Europe: measuring the gap using routine data from the Euro-Peristat Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Prunet, Caroline; Macfarlane, Alison; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D; Gissler, Mika; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; van der Pal, Karin; Bolumar, Francisco; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Ólafsdóttir, Helga Sól; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Blondel, Béatrice; Alexander, Sophie

    2016-01-19

    Previous studies have shown that socioeconomic position is inversely associated with stillbirth risk, but the impact on national rates in Europe is not known. We aimed to assess the magnitude of social inequalities in stillbirth rates in European countries using indicators generated from routine monitoring systems. Aggregated data on the number of stillbirths and live births for the year 2010 were collected for three socioeconomic indicators (mothers' educational level, mothers' and fathers' occupational group) from 29 European countries participating in the Euro-Peristat project. Educational categories were coded using the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) and analysed as: primary/lower secondary, upper secondary and postsecondary. Parents' occupations were grouped using International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) major groups and then coded into 4 categories: No occupation or student, Skilled/ unskilled workers, Technicians/clerical/service occupations and Managers/professionals. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth by each occupational group as well as the percentage population attributable risks using the most advantaged category as the reference (post-secondary education and professional/managerial occupations). Data on stillbirth rates by mothers' education were available in 19 countries and by mothers' and fathers' occupations in 13 countries. In countries with these data, the median RR of stillbirth for women with primary and lower secondary education compared to women with postsecondary education was 1.9 (interquartile range (IQR): 1.5 to 2.4) and 1.4 (IQR: 1.2 to 1.6), respectively. For mothers' occupations, the median RR comparing outcomes among manual workers with managers and professionals was 1.6 (IQR: 1.0-2.1) whereas for fathers' occupations, the median RR was 1.4 (IQR: 1.2-1.8). When applied to the entire set of countries with data about mothers' education, 1606 out of 6337 stillbirths (25

  8. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    preliminary ARSs show some adaptation options allow recover up to ca. 2000 kg/ha. Compared to the historical yields recorded at Lleida province (2550 kg/ha in 1981-2010) our results indicate that adaptation is feasible and may help to reduce detrimental effects of CC. Our analysis evaluates if the explored adaptations fulfill the biophysical requirements to become a practical adaptive solution. This study exemplifies how adaptation options and their impacts can be analyzed, evaluated and communicated in a context of high regional uncertainty for current and future conditions and for short to long-term perspective. This work was funded by MACSUR project within FACCE-JPI. References Abeledo, L.G., R. Savin and G.A. Slafer (2008). European Journal of Agronomy 28:541-550. Cartelle, J., A. Pedró, R. Savin, G.A. Slafer (2006) European Journal of Agronomy 25:365-371. Pirttioja, N., T. Carter, S. Fronzek, M. Bindi, H. Hoffmann, T. Palosuo, M. Ruiz-Ramos, F. Tao, M. Acutis, S. Asseng, P. Baranowski, B. Basso, P. Bodin, S. Buis, D. Cammarano, P. Deligios, M.-F. Destain, B. Dumont, R. Ewert, R. Ferrise, L. François, T. Gaiser, P. Hlavinka, I. Jacquemin, K.C. Kersebaum, C. Kollas, J. Krzyszczak, I.J. Lorite, J. Minet, M.I. Minguez, M. Montesino, M. Moriondo, C. Müller, C. Nendel, I. Öztürk, A. Perego, A. Rodríguez, A.C. Ruane, F. Ruget, M. Sanna, M.A. Semenov, C. Slawinski, P. Stratonovitch, I. Supit, K. Waha, E. Wang, L. Wu, Z. Zhao, and R.P. Rötter, 2015: A crop model ensemble analysis of temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect using impact response surfaces. Clim. Res., 65, 87-105, doi:10.3354/cr01322. IRS2 TEAM: Alfredo Rodríguez(1), Ignacio J. Lorite(3), Fulu Tao(4), Nina Pirttioja(5), Stefan Fronzek(5), Taru Palosuo(4), Timothy R. Carter(5), Marco Bindi(2), Jukka G Höhn(4), Kurt Christian Kersebaum(6), Miroslav Trnka(7,8), Holger Hoffmann(9), Piotr Baranowski(10), Samuel Buis(11), Davide Cammarano(12), Yi Chen(13,4), Paola Deligios

  9. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to

  10. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; McConnon, Aine; Kennedy, Jean; Raats, Monique; Shepherd, Richard; Verbeke, Wim; Fletcher, Jon; Kuttschreuter, Margôt; Lima, Luisa; Wills, Josephine; Wall, Patrick

    2011-05-13

    European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. The

  11. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Luisa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies" aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to

  12. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barnett, Julie

    2011-05-13

    Abstract Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks\\/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods\\/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk\\/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk\\/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating

  13. Projected changes in terrestrial carbon storage in Europe under climate and land-use change, 1990-2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaehle, S.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.; Erhard, M.; Sitch, S.; Smith, P.C.; Zaehle, S.; Smith, P.C.; Carter, T.R.; Erhard, M.; Prentice, C.; Prentice, C.; Reginster, I.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.; Sitch, S.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M

    2007-01-01

    Changes in climate and land use, caused by socio-economic changes, greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural policies and other factors, are known to affect both natural and managed ecosystems, and will likely impact on the European terrestrial carbon balance during the coming decades. This study presents a comprehensive European Union wide (EU15 plus Norway and Switzerland, EU*) assessment of potential future changes in terrestrial carbon storage considering these effects based on four illustrative IPCC-SRES story-lines (A1FI, A2, B1, B2). A process-based land vegetation model (LPJ-DGVM), adapted to include a generic representation of managed ecosystems, is forced with changing fields of land-use patterns from 1901 to 2100 to assess the effect of land-use and cover changes on the terrestrial carbon balance of Europe. The uncertainty in the future carbon balance associated with the choice of a climate change scenario is assessed by forcing LPJ-DGVM with output from four different climate models (GCMs: CGCM2, CSIRO2, HadCM3, PCM2) for the same SRES story-line. Decrease in agricultural areas and afforestation leads to simulated carbon sequestration for all land-use change scenarios with an average net uptake of 17-38 Tg C/year between 1990 and 2100, corresponding to 1.9-2.9% of the EU*s CO 2 emissions over the same period. Soil carbon losses resulting from climate warming reduce or even offset carbon sequestration resulting from growth enhancement induced by climate change and increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations in the second half of the twenty-first century. Differences in future climate change projections among GCMs are the main cause for uncertainty in the cumulative European terrestrial carbon uptake of 4.4-10.1 Pg C between 1990 and 2100. (authors)

  14. Measurement and evaluation of EDM bearing currents by the normalized Joule integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, Gregor; Miljavec, Damijan; Agrež, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Apparent current density is the most common criterion used in literature to estimate bearing endangerment due to bearing currents. In the paper, a new criterion called the normalized Joule integral is proposed as a more reliable and accurate one. This approach is more general and gives good correlation between current in the bypass bridge and bearing current. Furthermore, it considers the whole current that causes bearing damage, not just its peak value. The choice of the normalized Joule integral is theoretically explained and supported by measurements and simulations. The levels of bearing endangerment related to the normalized Joule integral of bearing currents are estimated. (paper)

  15. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ''Environmental Restoration'' for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation

  16. New power plants in Europe. A challenge for project and quality management; Kraftwerksneubau in Europa. Eine Herausforderung fuer Projekt- und Qualitaetsmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Matthias [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The challenges faced by power plant engineering in Europe have become more versatile and - above all - more complex. RWE has created the preconditions for setting up a uniform European negotiating basis for dealing with contracting parties, suppliers, building contractors and service providers. In addition, merging employees from our core markets is efficiently promoting the technology and best-practice transfer within the group. In this context, the harmonisation of standards and pooling of project management as well as engineering skills for the implementation of complex investment projects at international level are of decisive importance. (orig.)

  17. Estimate of the global-scale joule heating rates in the thermosphere due to time mean currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roble, R.G.; Matsushita, S.

    1975-01-01

    An estimate of the global-scale joule heating rates in the thermosphere is made based on derived global equivalent overhead electric current systems in the dynamo region during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. The equivalent total electric field distribution is calculated from Ohm's law. The global-scale joule heating rates are calculated for various monthly average periods in 1965. The calculated joule heating rates maximize at high latitudes in the early evening and postmidnight sectors. During geomagnetically quiet times the daytime joule heating rates are considerably lower than heating by solar EUV radiation. However, during geomagnetically disturbed periods the estimated joule heating rates increase by an order of magnitude and can locally exceed the solar EUV heating rates. The results show that joule heating is an important and at times the dominant energy source at high latitudes. However, the global mean joule heating rates calculated near solar minimum are generally small compared to the global mean solar EUV heating rates. (auth)

  18. Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in a solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The hard and soft x ray and microwave emissions from a solar flare (May 14, 1980) were analyzed and interpreted in terms of Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft x ray emitting plasma can only be heated by a single current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity of 10(exp 7) K, 10(exp 11)/cu cm plasma. If the hard x ray emission is from thermal electrons, anomalous resistivity or densities exceeding 3 x 10(exp 12)/cu cm are required. If the hard x ray emission is from nonthermal electrons, the emissions can be produced with classical resistivity in the current sheets if the heating rate is approximately 4 times greater than that deduced from the soft x ray data (with a density of 10(exp 10)/cu cm in the soft x ray emitting region), if there are at least 10(exp 4) current sheets, and if the plasma properties in the sheets are characteristic of the superhot plasma observed in some flares by Lin et al., and with Hinotori. Most of the released energy goes directly into bulk heating, rather than accelerated particles.

  19. Uncertainty evaluation for ordinary least-square fitting with arbitrary order polynomial in joule balance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Qiang; Xu, JinXin; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    The ordinary least-square fitting with polynomial is used in both the dynamic phase of the watt balance method and the weighting phase of joule balance method but few researches have been conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the fitting data in the electrical balance methods. In this paper, a matrix-calculation method for evaluating the uncertainty of the polynomial fitting data is derived and the properties of this method are studied by simulation. Based on this, another two derived methods are proposed. One is used to find the optimal fitting order for the watt or joule balance methods. Accuracy and effective factors of this method are experimented with simulations. The other is used to evaluate the uncertainty of the integral of the fitting data for joule balance, which is demonstrated with an experiment from the NIM-1 joule balance. (paper)

  20. Joule-Thomson expansion of Kerr-AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2018-02-15

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson expansion for Kerr-AdS black holes in the extended phase space. A Joule-Thomson expansion formula of Kerr-AdS black holes is derived. We investigate both isenthalpic and numerical inversion curves in the T-P plane and demonstrate the cooling-heating regions for Kerr-AdS black holes. We also calculate the ratio between minimum inversion and critical temperatures for Kerr-AdS black holes. (orig.)

  1. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive); Proyecto de integracion de mercados regionales en Europa (Directva europea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  2. Assessment of ionospheric Joule heating by GUMICS-4 MHD simulation, AMIE, and satellite-based statistics: towards a synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palmroth

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4. In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE, and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents

  3. Costing the impact of climate change on tourism in Europe: results of the PESETA project. Climatic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelung, B.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change might lead to large shifts in tourist flows, with large economic implications. This article simulates the effect of future climate change by the 2080s on outdoor international tourism expenditure within Europe. The assessment is based on the statistical relationship between bed nights

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in stillbirth rates in Europe: measuring the gap using routine data from the Euro-Peristat Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Mortensen, L.; Prunet, C.; Macfarlane, A.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Gissler, M.; Szamotulska, K.; Pal, K. van der; Bolumar, F.; Andersen, A.M.; Ólafsdóttir, H.S.; Zhang, W.H.; Blondel, B.; Alexander, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that socioeconomic position is inversely associated with stillbirth risk, but the impact on national rates in Europe is not known. We aimed to assess the magnitude of social inequalities in stillbirth rates in European countries using indicators generated from

  5. Experiences from a pilot study on how to conduct a qualitative multi-country research project regarding use of antibiotics in Southeast Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2016-01-01

    regarding how to conduct these types of research projects by evaluating a pilot study of the project. METHODS: Local data collectors conducted the study according to a developed protocol and evaluated the study with the responsible researcher-team from University of Copenhagen. The pilot study focused......BACKGROUND: In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations......) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors. The aim of this paper was therefore to contribute to the knowledge...

  6. Planning for environmental restoration of uranium mining and milling sites in Central and Eastern Europe. Proceedings of a workshop held under the technical co-operation project RER/9/022 on environmental restoration in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    An IAEA Regional Technical Co-operation (TC) project RER/9/022 on ``Environmental Restoration`` for central and eastern Europe and the former USSR was launched in 1992 and concluded at the end of 1996. The first phase of this project had the primary purpose of identifying and characterizing radioactively contaminated sites in the region, including evaluation of doses to the general public and other environmental impacts. The main result of this phase of the project were published in IAEA-TECDOC-865. A new 1995-1996 phase of the project focused on the radioactive contamination of uranium mining and milling sites and the development of plans for environmental restoration of these sites. While the 1993-1994 phase aimed at attracting the attention of Member States in the region to a long neglected problem, the second phase served as a stimulus to initiate concrete planning activities that would lead to corrective actions in highly contaminated areas in those countries. As a consequence, the project emphasis shifted from scientific discussions to the identification of responsibilities, planning activities, and the assessment of existing and required resources for the eventual implementation of restoration plans. The 1995-1996 phase of the project consisted of a planning meeting and three workshops that addressed different topical themes. The papers compiled in this publication were presented at the last workshop, held in Felix, Romania, 4-8 November 1996. They summarize national situations in environmental contamination as of the end of 1996 and ongoing or planned actions for remediation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Scaling vectors of attoJoule per bit modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, Volker J.; Amin, Rubab; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Ma, Zhizhen; Dalir, Hamed; Khan, Sikandar

    2018-01-01

    Electro-optic modulation performs the conversion between the electrical and optical domain with applications in data communication for optical interconnects, but also for novel optical computing algorithms such as providing nonlinearity at the output stage of optical perceptrons in neuromorphic analog optical computing. While resembling an optical transistor, the weak light-matter-interaction makes modulators 105 times larger compared to their electronic counterparts. Since the clock frequency for photonics on-chip has a power-overhead sweet-spot around tens of GHz, ultrafast modulation may only be required in long-distance communication, not for short on-chip links. Hence, the search is open for power-efficient on-chip modulators beyond the solutions offered by foundries to date. Here, we show scaling vectors towards atto-Joule per bit efficient modulators on-chip as well as some experimental demonstrations of novel plasmonic modulators with sub-fJ/bit efficiencies. Our parametric study of placing different actively modulated materials into plasmonic versus photonic optical modes shows that 2D materials overcompensate their miniscule modal overlap by their unity-high index change. Furthermore, we reveal that the metal used in plasmonic-based modulators not only serves as an electrical contact, but also enables low electrical series resistances leading to near-ideal capacitors. We then discuss the first experimental demonstration of a photon-plasmon-hybrid graphene-based electro-absorption modulator on silicon. The device shows a sub-1 V steep switching enabled by near-ideal electrostatics delivering a high 0.05 dB V-1 μm-1 performance requiring only 110 aJ/bit. Improving on this demonstration, we discuss a plasmonic slot-based graphene modulator design, where the polarization of the plasmonic mode aligns with graphene’s in-plane dimension; where a push-pull dual-gating scheme enables 2 dB V-1 μm-1 efficient modulation allowing the device to be just 770 nm

  8. Council of Europe Black Sea Area Project: International Cooperation for the Development of Activities Related to Donation and Transplantation of Organs in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H

    2018-03-01

    In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation

  9. HyLights: Preparation of the Large-Scale Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich Bunger; Volker Blandow; Volker Jaensch; Harm Jeeninga; Cristina Morte Gomez

    2006-01-01

    The strategically important project HyLights has been launched by the European Commission in preparation of the large scale demonstration projects in transition to hydrogen as a fuel and long-term renewable energy carrier. HyLights, monitors concluded/ongoing demonstration projects and assists the planning of the next demonstration project phase, putting a clear focus on hydrogen in transport. HyLights is a coordination action that comprises 5 tasks to: 1) develop an assessment framework for concluded/ongoing demonstration projects, 2) analyse individual projects and establish a project database, 3) carry out a gaps analysis and prepare a requirement profile for the next stage projects, 4) assess and identify necessary financial and legal steps in preparation of the new projects, and 5) develop a European Initiative for the Growth of Hydrogen for Transport (EIGHT). (authors)

  10. Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M.; Eijssen, Lars M.T.; Geurts, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants...... of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi......Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges...

  11. Assessing Shifts of Mediterranean and Arid Climates Under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 Climate Projections in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barredo, José I.; Mauri, Achille; Caudullo, Giovanni; Dosio, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin is the richest biodiversity region in Europe and a global hotspot of biological diversity. In spite of that, anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious concerns for nature conservation in this region. One of the climatic threats is represented by shifts of the Mediterranean climate and expansion of the arid climate. In this paper, we present an assessment of changes in the spatial range of the Mediterranean climate in Europe and the conversion into arid climate under different greenhouse gas forcings, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We used 11 simulations in two future 30-year periods of state-of-the-art regional climate models from EURO-CORDEX. Our results indicate that by the end of the century under RCP8.5 the present Mediterranean climate zone is projected to contract by 16%, i.e. an area ( 157,000 km2) equivalent to half the size of Italy. This compares with the less severe scenario RCP4.5 that projected only a 3% reduction. In addition, the Mediterranean climate zone is projected to expand to other zones by an area equivalent to 24 and 50% of its present extent under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Our study indicates that expansion of the arid zone is almost always the cause for contraction of the Mediterranean zone. Under RCP8.5 the arid zone is projected to increase by more than twice its present extent, equivalent to three times the size of Greece. Results of this study are useful for identifying (1) priority zones for biodiversity conservation, i.e. stable Mediterranean climate zones, (2) zones requiring assisted adaptation, such as establishment of new protected areas, implementation of buffer zones around protected areas and creating ecological corridors connecting stable Mediterranean zones.

  12. Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shafique, Maryam [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, A., E-mail: anum@math.qau.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects. - Highlights: • Peristalsis in the presence of Jeffery nanofluid is formulated. • Compliant properties of channel walls are addressed. • Impact of Hall and ion slip effects is outlined. • Influence of Joule heating and radiation is investigated. • Mixed convection for both heat and mass transfer is present.

  13. Joule loss on a Faraday shield of JT-60 ICRF test antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tsuneyuki; Saigusa, Mikio; Ikeda, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Haruyuki; Hirashima, Teruhisa; Uehara, Munenori.

    1988-01-01

    Joule loss on a Faraday shield of JT-60 ICRF test antenna with a conductive casing is investigated at the frequency range of 120 MHz. The magnetic field radiated from the antenna is measured by three-dimensionally scanning an rf probe both inside and outside the antenna casing. The magnetic field perpendicular to the Faraday shield, B x , is found to be the largest component near the Faraday shield. It consequently gives the major part of the joule loss on the Faraday shield. The temperature distribution of the Faraday shield due to joule loss is measured directly with a thermocamera. It is confirmed that the area of the high temperature rise is consistent with the peak positions of the B x field. Faraday shield resistance which is estimated from power measurements agrees with the theoretical value. (author)

  14. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P. [BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design.

  15. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design

  16. Joule heat production rate and the particle energy injection rate as a function of the geomagnetic indices AE and AL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, B.; Akasofu, S.; Kamide, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the joint efforts of operating six meridian chains of magnetometers during the IMS, magnetic records from 71 stations are used to deduce the distribution of electric fields and currents in the polar ionosphere for March 17, 18, and 19, 1978. As a continuation of this project, we have constructed hourly distribution maps of the Joule heat production rate and their sum over the entire polar region on the three days. For this purpose the conductivity distribution is inferred at each instant partially on the basis of an empirical method devised by Ahn et al. (1982). The particle energy injection rate is estimated similarly by using an empirical method. The data set thus obtained allows us to estimate also the global Joule heat production rate U/sub J/, the global particle energy injection rate U/sub A/ and the sum U/sub Gamma/ of the two quantities. It is found that three global quantities (watt) are related almost linearly to the AE(nT) and AL(nT) indices. Our present estimates give the following relationships: U/sub J/ = 2.3 times 10 8 x AE 8 U/sub A/ = 0.6 times 10 8 x AE 8 and U/sub I/ = 2.9 times 10 8 x AE: U/sub J/ = 3.0 times 10 8 x AL 8 U/sub A/ = 0.8 times 10 8 x AL, and U/sub I/ = 3.8 times 10 8 x AL

  17. Postcolonial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How has European identity been shaped through its colonial empires? Does this history of imperialism influence the conceptualisation of Europe in the contemporary globalised world? How has coloniality shaped geopolitical differences within Europe? What does this mean for the future of Europe......? Postcolonial Europe: Comparative Reflections after the Empires brings together scholars from across disciplines to rethink European colonialism in the light of its vanishing empires and the rise of new global power structures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the postcolonial European legacy the book...... argues that the commonly used nation-centric approach does not effectively capture the overlap between different colonial and postcolonial experiences across Europe....

  18. Passivation of organic light emitting diode anode grid lines by pulsed Joule heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janka, M.; Gierth, R.; Rubingh, J.E.; Abendroth, M.; Eggert, M.; Moet, D.J.D.; Lupo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the self-aligned passivation of a current distribution grid for an organic light emitting diode (OLED) anode using a pulsed Joule heating method to align the passivation layer accurately on the metal grid. This method involves passing an electric current through the grid to cure a polymer

  19. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  20. Discretization of the Joule heating term for plasma discharge fluid models in unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, T.; Mahadevan, S.; Raja, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The fluid (continuum) approach is commonly used for simulation of plasma phenomena in electrical discharges at moderate to high pressures (>10's mTorr). The description comprises governing equations for charged and neutral species transport and energy equations for electrons and the heavy species, coupled to equations for the electromagnetic fields. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species (ion) energy equations. Proper numerical discretization of this term is necessary for accurate description of discharge energetics; however, discretization of this term poses a special problem in the case of unstructured meshes owing to the arbitrary orientation of the faces enclosing each cell. We propose a method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term using a cell-centered finite volume approach on unstructured meshes with closed convex cells. The Joule heating term is computed by evaluating both the electric field and the species flux at the cell center. The dot product of these two vector quantities is computed to obtain the Joule heating source term. We compare two methods to evaluate the species flux at the cell center. One is based on reconstructing the fluxes at the cell centers from the fluxes at the face centers. The other recomputes the flux at the cell center using the common drift-diffusion approximation. The reconstructed flux scheme is the most stable method and yields reasonably accurate results on coarse meshes.

  1. Joule-Thomson expansion of the charged AdS black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oekcue, Oezguer; Aydiner, Ekrem [Istanbul University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    In this paper, we study Joule-Thomson effects for charged AdS black holes. We obtain inversion temperatures and curves. We investigate similarities and differences between van der Waals fluids and charged AdS black holes for the expansion. We obtain isenthalpic curves for both systems in the T-P plane and determine the cooling-heating regions. (orig.)

  2. Sensitivity of Micromachined Joule-Thomson Cooler to Clogging Due to Moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Haishan; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Holland, Herman J.; Vermeer, Cristian Hendrik; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A major issue in long-term operation of micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers is the clogging of the microchannels and/or the restriction due to the deposition of water molecules present in the working fluid. In this study, we present the performance of a microcooler operated with nitrogen gas with

  3. A Joule-Heated Melter Technology For The Treatment And Immobilization Of Low-Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  4. Joule heat generation in thermionic cathodes of high-pressure arc discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M. S.; Cunha, M. D. [Departamento de Fisica, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Municipio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-02-14

    The nonlinear surface heating model of plasma-cathode interaction in high-pressure arcs is extended to take into account the Joule effect inside the cathode body. Calculation results are given for different modes of current transfer to tungsten cathodes of different configurations in argon plasmas of atmospheric or higher pressures. Special attention is paid to analysis of energy balances of the cathode and the near-cathode plasma layer. In all the cases, the variation of potential inside the cathode is much smaller than the near-cathode voltage drop. However, this variation can be comparable to the volt equivalent of the energy flux from the plasma to the cathode and then the Joule effect is essential. Such is the case of the diffuse and mixed modes on rod cathodes at high currents, where the Joule heating causes a dramatic change of thermal and electrical regimes of the cathode. The Joule heating has virtually no effect over characteristics of spots on rod and infinite planar cathodes.

  5. Stratospheric Joule heating by lightning continuing current inferred from radio remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullekrug, M.; Ignaccolo, M.; Kuvshinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    to ground deposits electrical energy into the stratosphere resulting from quasi-static ( Joule) heating. The energy deposition is dominated by the lightning continuing current, and it is similar to 10(-5) J/m(3) at 30 km height. It is speculated that the initiation of blue jets and gigantic jets...

  6. Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter with a graphite slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.L.; Porter, M.A.; Routt, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    Startup of a Joule-heated glass melter using a graphite slurry as a conducting medium was demonstrated. This technique can be used for the initial startup and for the restart of a melter used for vitrifying high-level radioactive waste. Theory, physical property data, and a demonstration test are reported

  7. A JOULE-HEATED MELTER TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE

    2011-04-07

    This report is one of four reports written to provide background information regarding immobilization technologies remaining under consideration for supplemental immobilization of Hanford's low-activity waste. This paper provides the reader a general understanding of joule-heated ceramic lined melters and their application to Hanford's low-activity waste.

  8. GEM-CEDAR Challenge: Poynting Flux at DMSP and Modeled Joule Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; hide

    2016-01-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  9. Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Alessandrini, Ester; Cadum, Ennio; Ostro, Bart; Berti, Giovanna; Faustini, Annunziata; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Linares, Cristina; Pascal, Mathilde; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Stivanello, Elisa; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate associations of daily concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and their difference (PM2.5–10) with daily counts of emergency hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We derived pooled estimates from random-effects meta-analysis and evaluated the robustness of results to co-pollutant exposure adjustment and model specification. Pooled concentration–response curves were estimated using a meta-smoothing approach. Results: We found significant associations between all PM fractions and cardiovascular admissions. Increases of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, 6.3 μg/m3 in PM2.5–10, and 14.4 μg/m3 in PM10 (lag 0–1 days) were associated with increases in cardiovascular admissions of 0.51% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.90%), 0.46% (95% CI: 0.10, 0.82%), and 0.53% (95% CI: 0.06, 1.00%), respectively. Stronger associations were estimated for respiratory hospitalizations, ranging from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.21, 2.11%) for PM10 to 1.36% (95% CI: 0.23, 2.49) for PM2.5 (lag 0–5 days). Conclusions: PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air quality standards. Citation: Stafoggia M, Samoli E, Alessandrini E, Cadum E, Ostro B, Berti G, Faustini A, Jacquemin B, Linares C, Pascal M, Randi G, Ranzi A, Stivanello E, Forastiere F, the MED-PARTICLES Study Group. 2013. Short

  10. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  11. Projected Impacts of Bioenergy-Demand-Induced Land Use and Cover Changes on Regional Climate in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy shortfalls are becoming more and more serious all over the world, and worldwide governments have tried to promote the development of biofuels in order to mitigate the climatic impacts of massive fossil fuel consumption. Since the land is the main input factor of the bioenergy production, the development of biofuels will inevitably lead to change of the land use structure and allocation and thereby affect the climate system. With Central Europe as the study area, this study explored the impacts of land use/land cover change (LUCC on climate under the influence of demand of bioenergy production for land resources. First, the land use structure from 2010 to 2050 is simulated with the Agriculture and Land Use model in MiniCam. The result indicates that the main conversion will be mainly from grassland and forest to cropland and from cropland to grassland. Then the Dynamics of Land System model was used to spatially simulate the LUCC in the future. The impacts of LUCC on the climate were analyzed on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The climate change will be characterized by the increase of latent heat flux and temperature and the decrease of precipitation.

  12. Characteristics and drivers of drought in Europe-a summary of the DROUGHT-R&SPI project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stagge, James H.; Stahl, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Orth, Rene; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Loon, van Anne F.; Lanen, van Henny A.J.

    2015-01-01

    A prerequisite to mitigate the wide range of drought impacts is to establish a good understanding of the drought generating mechanisms from their initiation as a meteorological drought through to their development as soil moisture and hydrological drought. The DROUGHT-R&SPI project has

  13. Experiences from a pilot study on how to conduct a qualitative multi-country research project regarding use of antibiotics in Southeast Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Jakupi, Arianit; Raka, Denis; Gürpinar, Emre Umut; Alkan, Ali; Hoxha, Iris; Malaj, Admir; Cantarero, Lourdes Arevalo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a qualitative multi-country research project was launched to study the reasons behind the high use of antibiotics in regions of Southeast Europe by using previously untrained national interviewers (who were engaged in other antibiotic microbial resistance-related investigations) to conduct qualitative interviews with local patients, physicians and pharmacists. Little knowledge exists about how to implement qualitative multi-country research collaborations involving previously untrained local data collectors. The aim of this paper was therefore to contribute to the knowledge regarding how to conduct these types of research projects by evaluating a pilot study of the project. Local data collectors conducted the study according to a developed protocol and evaluated the study with the responsible researcher-team from University of Copenhagen. The pilot study focused on 'local ownership', 'research quality' and 'feasibility' with regard to successful implementation and evaluation. The evaluation was achieved by interpreting 'Skype' and 'face to face' meetings and email correspondence by applying 'critical common sense'. Local data collectors achieved a sense of joint ownership. Overall, the protocol worked well. Several minor challenges pertaining to research quality and feasibility were identified, in particular obtaining narratives when conducting interviews and recruiting patients for the study. Furthermore, local data collectors found it difficult to allocate sufficient time to the project. Solutions were discussed and added to the protocol. Despite the challenges, it was possible to achieve an acceptable scientific level of research when conducting qualitative multi-country research collaboration under the given circumstances. Specific recommendations to achieve this are provided by the authors.

  14. CrossRef Optimizing charge breeding techniques for ISOL facilities in Europe: Conclusions from the EMILIE project

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Angot, J; Cam, J F; Traykov, E; Ban, G; Celona, L; Choinski, J; Gmaj, P; Jardin, P; Koivisto, H; Kolhinen, V; Lamy, T; Maunoury, L; Patti, G; Thuillier, T; Tarvainen, O; Vondrasek, R; Wenander, F

    2016-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results obtained from the past few years in the framework of the Enhanced Multi-Ionization of short-Lived Isotopes for Eurisol (EMILIE) project. The EMILIE project aims at improving the charge breeding techniques with both Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) and Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBISs) for European Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities. Within EMILIE, an original technique for debunching the beam from EBIS charge breeders is being developed, for making an optimal use of the capabilities of CW post-accelerators of the future facilities. Such a debunching technique should eventually resolve duty cycle and time structure issues which presently complicate the data-acquisition of experiments. The results of the first tests of this technique are reported here. In comparison with charge breeding with an EBIS, the ECRIS technique had lower performance in efficiency and attainable charge state for metallic ion beams and also suffered from issues related to beam c...

  15. Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE): toward a collaborative project integrating dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology to study the effects of occupational uranium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Gomolka, Maria; Haylock, Richard; Blanchardon, Eric; Giussani, Augusto; Atkinson, Will; Baatout, Sarah; Bingham, Derek; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Tomasek, Ladislav; Ancelet, Sophie; Badie, Christophe; Bethel, Gary; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Bouet, Ségolène; Bull, Richard; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cécile; Cockerill, Rupert; Davesne, Estelle; Ebrahimian, Teni; Engels, Hilde; Gillies, Michael; Grellier, James; Grison, Stephane; Gueguen, Yann; Hornhardt, Sabine; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Kabacik, Sylwia; Kotik, Lukas; Kreuzer, Michaela; Lebacq, Anne Laure; Marsh, James; Nosske, Dietmar; O'Hagan, Jackie; Pernot, Eileen; Puncher, Matthew; Rage, Estelle; Riddell, Tony; Roy, Laurence; Samson, Eric; Souidi, Maamar; Turner, Michelle C; Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The potential health impacts of chronic exposures to uranium, as they occur in occupational settings, are not well characterized. Most epidemiological studies have been limited by small sample sizes, and a lack of harmonization of methods used to quantify radiation doses resulting from uranium exposure. Experimental studies have shown that uranium has biological effects, but their implications for human health are not clear. New studies that would combine the strengths of large, well-designed epidemiological datasets with those of state-of-the-art biological methods would help improve the characterization of the biological and health effects of occupational uranium exposure. The aim of the European Commission concerted action CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) was to develop protocols for such a future collaborative research project, in which dosimetry, epidemiology and biology would be integrated to better characterize the effects of occupational uranium exposure. These protocols were developed from existing European cohorts of workers exposed to uranium together with expertise in epidemiology, biology and dosimetry of CURE partner institutions. The preparatory work of CURE should allow a large scale collaborative project to be launched, in order to better characterize the effects of uranium exposure and more generally of alpha particles and low doses of ionizing radiation.

  16. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of solar radiation by manmade aerosol in Europe. A joint European project EV5V-CT92-0171

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Brink, H M [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Grassl, H; Schult, I [Max Planck Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Maracchi, G; Bindi, M [Centro di Studio per l` Applicazione dell` Informatica in Agricoltura, Firenze (Italy); Scott, J A [University College Dublin (Ireland); Dlugi, R [Meteorologisches Institut der Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Russak, V [Institute of Astro-Physics and Atmospheric Physics, Toravere (Estonia)

    1995-08-01

    Results of a study on the reduction of solar radiation by back-scattering on manmade aerosol in Europe are presented. A localized study was carried out due to the relatively short residence time of aerosols in the atmosphere which limits the extent of the European aerosol to the European area. The regional character of the aerosol forcing called for a regional investigation which was performed along three lines: (a) measurement of the light-scattering by aerosol components known to be of anthropogenic origin (sulfate and nitrate) in The Netherlands; (b) the trend in solar radiation in Italy, Ireland, Estonia and Germany; (c) calculations of the radiative transfer of solar radiation through the atmosphere with typical continental aerosol. The combined results of the project led to a first indicative value of the reduction in solar radiation in Europe of -3 to -4 W.m{sup - }2. This value is based on combining the following results from the subprojects. Nitrate increases the amount of light scattered by aerosol in The Netherlands, compared to the reference compound in the IPCC estimate (sulfate) by a factor of two. Carbonaceous aerosol material seems to have an equally large contribution to the light-scattering. A decrease in the radiation over the last forty years with 3 to 5 % was observed in Italy and in Estonia, while a decrease was absent at a background station in Ireland with predominantly natural marine aerosol. The trend values are indicative of an even higher decrease in solar radiation than the mentioned -3 to -4 W.m{sup -2}. A reduction of solar radiation of order -20 W.m{sup -2} on cloudless days was deduced from a limited set of measurements in The Netherlands. 1-dimensional modeling of climate parameters with integrated aerosol forcing indicates a local cooling of 1.3 K for the mentioned reduction in solar radiation. The mentioned values have an estimated uncertainty of the same magnitude as the actual values. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  19. Radionuclide Metrology in Europe: Joint Research Projects in the Framework of EMRP; La Metrologia de Radionucleidos en el entorno europeo: proyectos conjuntos de investigacion en el marco de EMRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Torano, E.

    2013-02-01

    During recent years, the tendency to integrate national research groups into Europe-wide projects has increased significantly. In the field of Metrology, the launch of specific programmes such as EMRP, co-funded by the European Commission and the participating countries, has driven this trend. This article describes the work of the CIEMAT Radionuclide Metrology laboratory and the main European projects in which it is currently taking part. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Alquen Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1 develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2 evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3 explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.

  1. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1 systematic reviews of the literature, 2 secondary analyses of existing data, 3 focus group research, and 4 a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international

  2. Implantable polymer/metal thin film structures for the localized treatment of cancer by Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Dapaah, Kwabena; Rahbar, Nima; Theriault, Christian; Soboyejo, Wole

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an implantable polymer/metal alloy thin film structure for localized post-operative treatment of breast cancer. A combination of experiments and models is used to study the temperature changes due to Joule heating by patterned metallic thin films embedded in poly-dimethylsiloxane. The heat conduction within the device and the surrounding normal/cancerous breast tissue is modeled with three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). The FEM simulations are used to explore the potential effects of device geometry and Joule heating on the temperature distribution and lesion (thermal dose). The FEM model is validated using a gel model that mimics biological media. The predictions are also compared to prior results from in vitro studies and relevant in vivo studies in the literature. The implications of the results are discussed for the potential application of polymer/metal thin film structures in hyperthermic treatment of cancer.

  3. Joule-Thief Circuit Performance for Electricity Energy Saving of Emergency Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto Budisusila, Eka; Arifin, Bustanul

    2017-04-01

    The alternative energy such as battery as power source is required as energy source failures. The other need is outdoor lighting. The electrical power source is expected to be a power saving, optimum and has long life operating. The Joule-Thief circuit is one of solution method for energy saving by using raised electromagnetic force on cored coil when there is back-current. This circuit has a transistor operated as a switch to cut voltage and current flowing along the coils. The present of current causing magnetic induction and generates energy. Experimental prototype was designed by using battery 1.5V to activate Light Emitting Diode or LED as load. The LED was connected in parallel or serial circuit configuration. The result show that the joule-thief circuit able to supply LED circuits up to 40 LEDs.

  4. Performance Analysis of Joule-Thomson Cooler Supplied with Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, A.; Chorowski, M.; Dorosz, P.

    2017-02-01

    Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryo-coolers working in closed cycles and supplied with gas mixtures are the subject of intensive research in different laboratories. The replacement of pure nitrogen by nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures allows to improve both thermodynamic parameters and economy of the refrigerators. It is possible to avoid high pressures in the heat exchanger and to use standard refrigeration compressor instead of gas bottles or high-pressure oil free compressor. Closed cycle and mixture filled Joule-Thomson cryogenic refrigerator providing 10-20 W of cooling power at temperature range 90-100 K has been designed and manufactured. Thermodynamic analysis including the optimization of the cryo-cooler mixture has been performed with ASPEN HYSYS software. The paper describes the design of the cryo-cooler and provides thermodynamic analysis of the system. The test results are presented and discussed.

  5. Imaging radar observations of Farley Buneman waves during the JOULE II experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vector electric fields and associated E×B drifts measured by a sounding rocket in the auroral zone during the NASA JOULE II experiment in January 2007, are compared with coherent scatter spectra measured by a 30 MHz radar imager in a common volume. Radar imaging permits precise collocation of the spectra with the background electric field. The Doppler shifts and spectral widths appear to be governed by the cosine and sine of the convection flow angle, respectively, and also proportional to the presumptive ion acoustic speed. The neutral wind also contributes to the Doppler shifts. These findings are consistent with those from the JOULE I experiment and also with recent numerical simulations of Farley Buneman waves and instabilities carried out by Oppenheim et al. (2008. Simple linear analysis of the waves offers some insights into the spectral moments. A formula relating the spectral width to the flow angle, ion acoustic speed, and other ionospheric parameters is derived.

  6. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined convective heated stretching cylinder with Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Khan

    Full Text Available Current work highlights the computational aspects of MHD Carreau nanofluid flow over an inclined stretching cylinder with convective boundary conditions and Joule heating. The mathematical modeling of physical problem yields nonlinear set of partial differential equations. A suitable scaling group of variables is employed on modeled equations to convert them into non-dimensional form. The integration scheme Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg on the behalf of shooting technique is utilized to solve attained set of equations. The interesting aspects of physical problem (linear momentum, energy and nanoparticles concentration are elaborated under the different parametric conditions through graphical and tabular manners. Additionally, the quantities (local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number which are responsible to dig out the physical phenomena in the vicinity of stretched surface are computed and delineated by varying controlling flow parameters. Keywords: MHD, Carreau nanofluid, Inclined stretching cylinder, Joule heating, Shooting technique

  8. The variability of Joule heating, and its effects on the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A considerable fraction of the solar wind energy that crosses the magnetopause ends up in the high-latitude thermosphere-ionosphere system as a result of Joule heating, the consequences of which are very significant and global in nature. Often Joule heating calculations use hourly averages of the electric field, rather than the time-varying electric field. This leads to an underestimation of the heating. In this paper, we determine the magnitude of the underestimation of Joule heating by analysing electric field data from the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar, situated at the 67° E magnetic latitude. We find that the underestimation, using hourly-averaged electric field values, is normally ~20%, with an upper value of about 65%. We find that these values are insensitive to changes in solar flux, magnetic activity and magnetic local time, implying that the electric field fluctuations are linear related to the amplitude of the electric field. Assuming that these changes are representative of the entire auroral oval, we then use a coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model to calculate the local changes these underestimations in the heating rate cause to the neutral temperature, mean molecular mass and meridional wind. The changes in each parameter are of the order of a few percent but they result in a reduction in the peak F-region concentration of ~20% in the summer hemisphere at high latitudes, and about half of this level in the winter hemisphere. We suggest that these calculations could be used to add corrections to modelled values of Joule heating.Key words. Ionosphere (eletric fields and currents; ionospheric disturbances; polar ionosphere

  9. Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugilal, G; Wattal, P K; Theyyunni, T K [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author).

  10. Effect of cold cap boundary conditions on Joule-heating flow in the sloping bottom cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jiaju; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tsuzuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikura, Hiroshige

    2015-01-01

    Flow behavior in a sloping bottom cavity is observed to study the effect of cavity shape on flow behavior for Joule-heating flow. In the former study, a simple cubic cavity is applied to study the chaotic flow behavior of Joule-heating convection due to simplification as the real melter case is complicated. In this study, a sloping bottom cavity of the dimension one-fifth of the actual melter is applied to study the detail flow behavior. Carbon electrodes and top cooling surface are placed to make Joule-heating and the chaotic flow behavior. The working fluid is 80%wt Glycerol-water solution with LiCl as electrolyte. To observe the chaotic flow behavior spatio-temporally, Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) is applied in this experiment to obtain the one-dimensional continuous velocity profiles in the center line of cavity. Particle Image Velocity (PIV) method is also applied to observe the two-dimensional flow behavior and to examine the cross-check between UVP and PIV for the chaotic flow behavior with temperature distribution. The flow profiles of the former cubic cavity and the sloping bottom cavity are compared changing voltage magnitude and cooling temperature of the electrodes side to analyze the effect of cavity shape under Joule-heating condition. The flow behavior in the upper part of the sloping bottom cavity is similar to that in the cubic cavity in the experiment in whole cavity, the range down-flow achieved is larger than the cubic cavity. (author)

  11. Steady state simulation of Joule heated ceramic melter for vitrification of high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Iyer, K.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Joule heated ceramic melter is emerging as an attractive alternative to metallic melters for high level waste vitrification. The inherent limitations with metallic melters viz., low capacity and short melter life, are overcome in a ceramic melter which can be adopted for continuous mode of operation. The ceramic melter has the added advantage of better operational flexibility. This paper describes the three dimensional model used for simulating the complex design conditions of the ceramic melter. (author)

  12. Jupiter Thermospheric General Circulation Model (JTGCM): Global Structure and Dynamics Driven by Auroral and Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.; J. Il. Waite, Jr.; Majeed, T.

    2005-01-01

    A growing multispectral database plus recent Galileo descent measurements are being used to construct a self-consistent picture of the Jupiter thermosphere/ionosphere system. The proper characterization of Jupiter s upper atmosphere, embedded ionosphere, and auroral features requires the examination of underlying processes, including the feedbacks of energetics, neutral-ion dynamics, composition, and magnetospheric coupling. A fully 3-D Jupiter Thermospheric General Circulation Model (JTGCM) has been developed and exercised to address global temperatures, three-component neutral winds, and neutral-ion species distributions. The domain of this JTGCM extends from 20-microbar (capturing hydrocarbon cooling) to 1.0 x 10(exp -4) nbar (including aurora/Joule heating processes). The resulting JTGCM has been fully spun-up and integrated for greater than or equal to40 Jupiter rotations. Results from three JTGCM cases incorporating moderate auroral heating, ion drag, and moderate to strong Joule heating processes are presented. The neutral horizontal winds at ionospheric heights vary from 0.5 km/s to 1.2 km/s, atomic hydrogen is transported equatorward, and auroral exospheric temperatures range from approx.1200-1300 K to above 3000 K, depending on the magnitude of Joule heating. The equatorial temperature profiles from the JTGCM are compared with the measured temperature structure from the Galileo AS1 data set. The best fit to the Galileo data implies that the major energy source for maintaining the equatorial temperatures is due to dynamical heating induced by the low-latitude convergence of the high-latitude-driven thermospheric circulation. Overall, the Jupiter thermosphere/ionosphere system is highly variable and is shown to be strongly dependent on magnetospheric coupling which regulates Joule heating.

  13. From Joule to Caratheodory and Born: A Conceptual Evolution of the First Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In the years after Joule's experiment on the equivalence of heat and work, it was taken for granted that heat and work could be independently defined and that the change in energy for a change of state is the sum of the heat and the work. Only with the work of Caratheodory and Born did it become clear that heat cannot be measured independently,…

  14. High-resolution multimodel projections of soil moisture drought in Europe under 1.5, 2 and 3 degree global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Kumar, R.; Zink, M.; Pan, M.; Wanders, N.; Marx, A.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.; Thober, S.

    2017-12-01

    Droughts are creeping hydro-meteorological events that may bring societies and natural systems to their limits by inducing significant environmental changes and large socio-economic losses. Little is know about the effects of varios degrees of warming (i.e., 1.5 , 2 and 3 K) and their respective uncertainties on extreme characteristics such as drought duration and area under drought in general, and in Europe in particular. In this study we investigate the evolution of droughts characteristics under three levels of warming using an unprecedented high-resolution multi-model hydrologic ensemble over the Pan-EU domain at a scale of 5x5 km2 from 1950 until 2100. This multi-model ensemble comprises four hydrologic models (HMs: mHM, Noah-MP, PCR-GLOBWB, VIC) which are forced by five CMIP-5 Global Climate Models (GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) under three RCP scenarios 2.6, 6.0, and 8.5. This results in a 60-member ensemble. The contribution GCM/HM uncertainties were analyzed based on a sequential sampling algorithm proposed by Samaniego et al. 2016. This study is carried out within the EDgE project funded by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (edge.climate.copernicus.eu) and the HOKLIM project funded by the German Ministry of Education (BMBF)(www.ufz.de/hoklim). The changes under three levels of warming indicate significant increase (more than 10%) of the number of droughts and area under drought with respect to 30-year climatological means obtained with E-OBS observations. Furthermore, we found that: 1) the number of drought events exhibit significant regional changes. Largest changes are observed in the Mediterrinian where frequency of droughts increases from 25% under 1.5 K to 33% under 2 K, and to more than 50% under 3 K warming. Minor changes are seen in Central-Europe and the British Isles. 2) The GCMs/HMs uncertainties have marked regional differences too, with GCM uncertainty appear to be larger everywhere. The uncertainty of

  15. Impacts of agricultural management practices on soil quality in Europe and China - an assessment within the framework of the EU iSQAPER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Schwilch, Gudrun; Barão, Lúcia; Basch, Gottlieb; Sukkel, Wijnand; Lemesle, Julie; Ferreira, Carla; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugan, Alicia; Mataix, Jorge; Kosmas, Costas; Glavan, Matjaž; Tóth, Brigitta; Petrutza Gate, Olga; Lipiec, Jerzy; Reintam, Endla; Xu, Minggang; Di, Jiaying; Fan, Hongzhu; Geissen, Violette

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural soils are under a wide variety of pressures, including from increasing global demand for food associated with population growth, changing diets, land degradation, and associated productivity reductions potentially exacerbated by climate change. To manage the use of agricultural soils well, decision-makers need science-based, easily applicable, and cost-effective tools for assessing soil quality and soil functions. Since a practical assessment of soil quality requires the integrated consideration of key soil properties and their variations in space and time, providing such tools remains a challenging task. This study aims to assess the impact of innovative agricultural management practices on soil quality in 14 study sites across Europe (10) and China (4), covering the major pedo-climatic zones. The study is part of the European H2020 project iSQAPER, which involves 25 partners across Europe and China and is coordinated by Wageningen University, The Netherlands. iSQAPER is aimed at interactive soil quality assessment in Europe and China for agricultural productivity and environmental resilience. The study began with a thorough literature analysis to inform the selection of indicators for the assessment of soil structure and soil functions. A manual was then developed in order to standardize and facilitate the task of inventorying soil quality and management practices at the case study sites. The manual provides clear and precise instructions on how to assess the 11 selected soil quality indicators based on a visual soil assessment methodology. A newly developed infiltrometer was used to easily assess the soil infiltration capacity in the field and investigate hydrodynamic flow processes. Based on consistent calibration, the infiltrometer enables reliable prediction of key soil hydraulic properties. The main aim of this inventory is to link agricultural management practices to the soil quality status at the case study sites, and to identify innovative

  16. Rotating ferro-nanofluid over stretching plate under the effect of hall current and joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed S., E-mail: eng_moh_sayed@live.com

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of boundary layer over a stretching plate filled with ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and subjected to magnetic field with hall current, joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation has been investigated. The modeling based on nonlinear partial differential equations due to continuity, momentum and heat equations, these equations transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation technique then solved numerically. The effect of hall current, joule heating and thermal radiation on the physical quantities such as surface shear stress and heat flux have been investigated and discussed. Moreover, the velocities and temperature profiles of the boundary layer under the influence of the presented external forces plotted and discussed. - Highlights: • The existence of the hall current increases the transverse velocity, as well as has a limited impact on the longitudinal velocity. • Boundary layer temperature exposed to nonlinear thermal radiation is higher than that exposed to linear thermal radiation. • Joule heating increases the boundary layer temperature near the surface especially in the linear model of thermal radiation. • Magnetic field with hall current increases the x-direction skin friction and reduces it in the y-direction.

  17. Influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Simone, E-mail: simone.moretti@usal.es; Raposo, Victor; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-06-07

    The domain wall depinning from a notch in a Permalloy nanostrip on top of a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate is studied theoretically under application of static magnetic fields and the injection of short current pulses. The influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning is explored self-consistently by coupling the magnetization dynamics in the ferromagnetic strip to the heat transport throughout the system. Our results indicate that Joule heating plays a remarkable role in these processes, resulting in a reduction in the critical depinning field and/or in a temporary destruction of the ferromagnetic order for typically injected current pulses. In agreement with experimental observations, similar pinning-depinning phase diagrams can be deduced for both current polarities when the Joule heating is taken into account. These observations, which are incompatible with the sole contribution of spin transfer torques, provide a deeper understanding of the physics underlying these processes and establish the real scope of the spin transfer torque. They are also relevant for technological applications based on current-induced domain-wall motion along soft strips.

  18. Continuum theory of the mixed-state and surface Joule effects in type-II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocquet, T.; Mathieu, P.; Simon, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological theory of vortex motion, where the mixed state is regarded as a continuum, has been proposed by two of the authors in a short previous letter. Its outlines are recalled in this paper with further comments and arguments; in particular the basic equations and their implications are discussed at some length. This theory leads to a model of pinning, from which we argue that critical currents I c , in soft type-II samples of standard bulk homogeneity, should be governed essentially by surface defects. I c is interpreted as a physically well-defined part of the total transport current I, which is flowing over a small depth close to the surface. Thus, on the scale of an ordinary sample, this part of the transport current is superficial, the remaining part I-I c being uniformly distributed over the cross section. Coherently, an analysis of the dissipation in such samples predicts that the part VI c of the total Joule effect VI must arise as surface heat sources, while the Joule effect V(I-I c ), usually associated with the steady viscous flow of vortices, is uniformly distributed in the bulk. As a proof, we present a method, using second-sound acoustics, to detect and separate surface and volume heat sources. Experimental results give clear evidence of a surface Joule effect, and support the validity of our model of surface pinning in soft materials

  19. "El proyecto PARTEA: una experiencia educativa para el desarrollo del diálogo intercultural en Europa" [PARTEA project: an educational experience to develop intercultural dialogue in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Hernández Bravo

    2011-01-01

    the educational communities, considering that a closer relationship is needed among parents of different cultures and teachers to develop an effective intercultural dialogue. Thus, the project has also been an excellent opportunity to exchange good educational practices among teachers, establishing new channels of communication and interaction with families from different cultures in the context of a much more culturally diverse Europe.

  20. Energy for climate in Europe. An assessment of energy policies with climate-relevance. The LinkS Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Knudsen, Joergen K.; Jacobsen, Gerd B.

    2011-07-01

    The LinkS project aims at providing a better linkage between perspectives and projections for global climate policy development and regional energy systems, by linking relevant modelling tools. The present report provides a specific focus on energy policy measures within the EY with climate relevance. The EU has in recent years aimed at reinforcing the linkage between the climate and energy policies, both at strategic and operational levels. The EU has pledged itself to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with 8 percent by 2008-12 as compared to the 1990 level, and by 20 percent by 2020 as compared to the as compared to the 2005 level. The EU-27 reduced it GHG emissions with 11,3 percent in 1990-2008. The 2020-target, however, will require stronger efforts and energy is a key sector: The EU has decided that 20 percent of the energy must be renewable, and that the energy usage in 2020 is to be 20 per sent more efficient than in 2005. A number of policy strategies, measures and legislation are formulated to fulfil these targets. In order to highlight the potential of these measures, this report specifically addresses the drivers and limitations given the existing decision-making structures in the EU. The methodology employed is mainly qualitative, based on document analysis and a review of secondary literature. Climate-change mitigation is in principle based on supra-national decision-making, but unanimity among all Eu Member States is still required in critical issues related to the energy sector. In addition, the national follow-up of the targets constitutes a particular challenge. This is here illustrated by the cases of Denmark and Norway. Energy policy is also substantially characterised by several conflicting interests between the Member States, resulting in diverging policy priorities. It is, therefore, an open question whether the EU will succeed in fulfilling its 20/20/20 percent targets by 2020, and will be the actual role of energy within the climate

  1. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  2. The new EC FP7 MatISSE project: materials' innovations for a safe and sustainable nuclear in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabet, C.; Michaux, A.; Fazio, C.; Malerba, L.; Maday, M.F.; Serrano, M.; Nilsson, K.F.; )

    2015-01-01

    The European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), set-up under the European SET-Plan, has launched an initiative for a Joint Programme on Nuclear Materials (JPNM). The JNMP aims to establish key priorities in the area of advanced nuclear materials, identify funding opportunities and harmonise this scientific and technical domain at the European level by maximising complementarities and synergies with the major actors of the field. The JPNM partners submitted the MatISSE proposal which was accepted by the European Commission. The MatISSE project has the ambition to prepare the building of a European integrated research programme on materials innovation for a safe and sustainable nuclear. Emphasis is on advanced nuclear systems in particular sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR). The aim of the selected scientific and technical work is to make progress in the fields of conventional materials, advanced materials and predictive capabilities for fuel elements and structural components. (authors)

  3. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  4. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  5. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  6. Implementation of patient blood management remains extremely variable in Europe and Canada: the NATA benchmark project: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Philippe; Hardy, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Preoperative anaemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patient blood management (PBM) is advocated to improve patient outcomes. NATA, the 'Network for the advancement of patient blood management, haemostasis and thrombosis', initiated a benchmark project with the aim of providing the basis for educational strategies to implement optimal PBM in participating centres. Prospective, observational study with online data collection in 11 secondary and tertiary care institutions interested in developing PBM. Ten European centres (Austria, Spain, England, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Romania, Greece, France, and Germany) and one Canadian centre participated between January 2010 and June 2011. A total of 2470 patients undergoing total hip (THR) or knee replacement, or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), were registered in the study. Data from 2431 records were included in the final analysis. Primary outcome measures were the incidence and volume of red blood cells (RBC) transfused. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with RBC transfusions. The incidence of transfusion was significantly different between centres for THR (range 7 to 95%), total knee replacement (range 3 to 100%) and CABG (range 20 to 95%). The volume of RBC transfused was significantly different between centres for THR and CABG. The incidence of preoperative anaemia ranged between 3 and 40% and its treatment between 0 and 40%, the latter not being related to the former. Patient characteristics, evolution of haemoglobin concentrations and blood losses were also different between centres. Variables independently associated with RBC transfusion were preoperative haemoglobin concentration, lost volume of RBC and female sex. Implementation of PBM remains extremely variable across centres. The relative importance of factors explaining RBC transfusion differs across institutions, some being patient related whereas others are related to

  7. Image quality and dose in mammography in 17 countries in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe: Results from IAEA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Avramova-Cholakova, Simona; Beganovic, Adnan; Economides, Sotirios; Faj, Dario; Gershan, Vesna; Grupetta, Edward; Kharita, M.H.; Milakovic, Milomir; Milu, Constantin; Muhogora, Wilbroad E.; Muthuvelu, Pirunthavany; Oola, Samuel; Setayeshi, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective is to study mammography practice from an optimisation point of view by assessing the impact of simple and immediately implementable corrective actions on image quality. Materials and methods: This prospective multinational study included 54 mammography units in 17 countries. More than 21,000 mammography images were evaluated using a three-level image quality scoring system. Following initial assessment, appropriate corrective actions were implemented and image quality was re-assessed in 24 units. Results: The fraction of images that were considered acceptable without any remark in the first phase (before the implementation of corrective actions) was 70% and 75% for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique projections, respectively. The main causes for poor image quality before corrective actions were related to film processing, damaged or scratched image receptors, or film-screen combinations that are not spectrally matched, inappropriate radiographic techniques and lack of training. Average glandular dose to a standard breast was 1.5 mGy (mean and range 0.59–3.2 mGy). After optimisation the frequency of poor quality images decreased, but the relative contributions of the various causes remained similar. Image quality improvements following appropriate corrective actions were up to 50 percentage points in some facilities. Conclusions: Poor image quality is a major source of unnecessary radiation dose to the breast. An increased awareness of good quality mammograms is of particular importance for countries that are moving towards introduction of population-based screening programmes. The study demonstrated how simple and low-cost measures can be a valuable tool in improving of image quality in mammography

  8. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  9. Patient safety in external beam radiotherapy, results of the ACCIRAD project: Current status of proactive risk assessment, reactive analysis of events, and reporting and learning systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian; Bly, Ritva; Bulot, Mireille; Godet, Jean-Luc; Jahnen, Andreas; Krengli, Marco; Maingon, Philippe; Prieto Martin, Carlos; Przybylska, Kamila; Skrobała, Agnieszka; Valero, Marc; Jarvinen, Hannu

    2017-04-01

    To describe the current status of implementation of European directives for risk management in radiotherapy and to assess variability in risk management in the following areas: 1) in-country regulatory framework; 2) proactive risk assessment; (3) reactive analysis of events; and (4) reporting and learning systems. The original data were collected as part of the ACCIRAD project through two online surveys. Risk assessment criteria are closely associated with quality assurance programs. Only 9/32 responding countries (28%) with national regulations reported clear "requirements" for proactive risk assessment and/or reactive risk analysis, with wide variability in assessment methods. Reporting of adverse error events is mandatory in most (70%) but not all surveyed countries. Most European countries have taken steps to implement European directives designed to reduce the probability and magnitude of accidents in radiotherapy. Variability between countries is substantial in terms of legal frameworks, tools used to conduct proactive risk assessment and reactive analysis of events, and in the reporting and learning systems utilized. These findings underscore the need for greater harmonisation in common terminology, classification and reporting practices across Europe to improve patient safety and to enable more reliable inter-country comparisons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  11. Micro-joule pico-second range Yb3+-doped fibre laser for medical applications in acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.; Rivera-Manrique, S. I.; Jacques, S. L.

    2011-08-01

    The work described here is based on the optical design, simulation and on-going implementation of a pulsed (Q-switch) Yb3+-doped, 1-um diffraction-limited fibre laser with pico-second, 10 micro-Joule-range energy pulses for producing the right energy pulses which could be of benefit for patients who suffer chronic headache, photophobia, and even nausea which could is sometimes triggered by a series of factors. The specific therapeutic effect known as acupunctural analgesia is the main objective of this medium-term project. It is a simple design on which commercially available software was employed for laser cavity design. Monte Carlo technique for skin light-transport, thermal diffusion and the possible thermal de-naturalization optical study and prediction will also be included in the presentation. Full optical characterization will be included and a complete set of recent results on the laser-skin interaction and the so called moxi-bustion from the laser design will be extensively described.

  12. Generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aveline, Michelle; Mason, Laura.

    1994-01-01

    Information for this document has been collected from a range of primary sources which include annual reports, strategy statements and company information leaflets. The first part consists of profiles for each of the countries of Western Europe and selected countries in Eastern Europe. In each case an overview of the organization of the electricity industry is given and information where available on interconnections, new projects, ongoing work at existing plant, environmental issues and details of plant and closures. In the second part, details are given of some of the largest power generating companies in Europe listed in alphabetical order. The most up-to-date figures available have been used in all cases and the companies have been invited to comment on the text. (UK)

  13. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alquen, Daniela; De Boeck, Kris; Bradley, Judy; Vávrová, Věra; Dembski, Birgit; Wagner, Thomas O F; Pfalz, Annette; Hebestreit, Helge

    2012-02-06

    The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p value 0.105 ± 0.024, p change over time. The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness. © 2012 d’Alquen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. EC SAGE Project: Strategies and guidance for establishing a practical radiation protection culture in Europe in case of long-term radioactive contamination after a nuclear accident. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Crouail, P.; Bataille, C.; Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G.; Mercer, J.; Nisbet, A.; Sudas, A.; Zaitzev, A.; Zhukovskaya, L.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Nesterenko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of 'rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories' is a reality that overhangs widely the territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia affected by the catastrophe of Chernobyl. Thousands of people in Europe live in territories considered as contaminated areas. The SAGE project has contributed to the development of strategies and guidance for implementing and disseminating a practical radiation protection culture in Western Europe required for the management of contaminated areas following a nuclear incident or any accident having long term radiological impact. Moreover it highlighted that the involvement of stakeholders is an innovative approach that can significantly improve the quality of the answers and actions. Such an approach is pertinent and could be applied to any situation of long-term contamination at a local or national scale, in parallel to the countermeasures implemented by public authorities. The present final technical report presents the main results of the project and describes its fifth deliverables. (authors)

  15. Magnetospheric structure and atmospheric Joule heating of habitable planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Garraffo, C.; Poppenhaeger, K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Glocer, A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bell, J. M. [Center for Planetary Atmospheres and Flight Sciences, National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We study the magnetospheric structure and the ionospheric Joule Heating of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone using a set of magnetohydrodynamic models. The stellar wind solution is used to drive a model for the planetary magnetosphere, which is coupled with a model for the planetary ionosphere. Our simulations reveal that the space environment around close-in habitable planets is extreme, and the stellar wind plasma conditions change from sub- to super-Alfvénic along the planetary orbit. As a result, the magnetospheric structure changes dramatically with a bow shock forming in the super-Alfvénic sectors, while no bow shock forms in the sub-Alfvénic sectors. The planets reside most of the time in the sub-Alfvénic sectors with poor atmospheric protection. A significant amount of Joule Heating is provided at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the intense stellar wind. For the steady-state solution, the heating is about 0.1%-3% of the total incoming stellar irradiation, and it is enhanced by 50% for the time-dependent case. The significant Joule Heating obtained here should be considered in models for the atmospheres of habitable planets in terms of the thickness of the atmosphere, the top-side temperature and density, the boundary conditions for the atmospheric pressure, and particle radiation and transport. Here we assume constant ionospheric Pedersen conductance similar to that of the Earth. The conductance could be greater due to the intense EUV radiation leading to smaller heating rates. We plan to quantify the ionospheric conductance in future study.

  16. Joule heating induced stream broadening in free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debashis

    2018-03-01

    The use of an electric field in free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) automatically leads to Joule heating yielding a higher temperature at the center of the separation chamber relative to that around the channel walls. For small amounts of heat generated, this thermal effect introduces a variation in the equilibrium position of the analyte molecules due to the dependence of liquid viscosity and analyte diffusivity on temperature leading to a modification in the position of the analyte stream as well as the zone width. In this article, an analytic theory is presented to quantitate such effects of Joule heating on FFZE assays in the limit of small temperature differentials across the channel gap yielding a closed form expression for the stream position and zone variance under equilibrium conditions. A method-of-moments approach is employed to develop this analytic theory, which is further validated with numerical solutions of the governing equations. Interestingly, the noted analyses predict that Joule heating can drift the location of the analyte stream either way of its equilibrium position realized in the absence of any temperature rise in the system, and also tends to reduce zone dispersion. The extent of these modifications, however, is governed by the electric field induced temperature rise and three Péclet numbers evaluated based on the axial pressure-driven flow, transverse electroosmotic and electrophoretic solute velocities in the separation chamber. Monte Carlo simulations of the FFZE system further establish a time and a length scale over which the results from the analytic theory are valid. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effect of Joule heating and current crowding on electromigration in mobile technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. N.; Liu, Yingxia; Li, Menglu

    2017-03-01

    In the present era of big data and internet of things, the use of microelectronic products in all aspects of our life is manifested by the ubiquitous presence of mobile devices as i-phones and wearable i-products. These devices are facing the need for higher power and greater functionality applications such as in i-health, yet they are limited by physical size. At the moment, software (Apps) is much ahead of hardware in mobile technology. To advance hardware, the end of Moore's law in two-dimensional integrated circuits can be extended by three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs). The concept of 3D ICs has been with us for more than ten years. The challenge in 3D IC technology is dense packing by using both vertical and horizontal interconnections. Mass production of 3D IC devices is behind schedule due to cost because of low yield and uncertain reliability. Joule heating is serious in a dense structure because of heat generation and dissipation. A change of reliability paradigm has advanced from failure at a specific circuit component to failure at a system level weak-link. Currently, the electronic industry is introducing 3D IC devices in mainframe computers, where cost is not an issue, for the purpose of collecting field data of failure, especially the effect of Joule heating and current crowding on electromigration. This review will concentrate on the positive feedback between Joule heating and electromigration, resulting in an accelerated system level weak-link failure. A new driving force of electromigration, the electric potential gradient force due to current crowding, will be reviewed critically. The induced failure tends to occur in the low current density region.

  18. SCOPE: a scorecard for osteoporosis in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kanis, J. A.; Borgström, F.; Compston, J.; Dreinhöfer, K.; Nolte, E.; Jonsson, L.; Lems, W. F.; McCloskey, E. V.; Rizzoli, R.; Stenmark, J.

    2013-01-01

    The scorecard summarises key indicators of the burden of osteoporosis and its management in each of the member states of the European Union. The resulting scorecard elements were then assembled on a single sheet to provide a unique overview of osteoporosis in Europe. Introduction: The scorecard for osteoporosis in Europe (SCOPE) is an independent project that seeks to raise awareness of osteoporosis care in Europe. The aim of this project was to develop a scorecard and background documents to...

  19. Influence of the number of cones on speckle patterns in the Laser MegaJoule configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cain, A.; Riazuelo, G.; Sajer, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates statistical properties of hot spots when speckle patterns are generated by the superimposition of multiple laser beams in a 2 cone and a 3 cone Laser MegaJoule configuration in the zone where all the beams overlap. Three different cases of polarizations are investigated: P polarization, S polarization and the case of Double Polarization Smoothing (DPS). It is found that the sizes of the speckles depend on the choice of the polarization and that DPS seems to be the best option in both configurations. It is shown that the longitudinal radius of the hot spots in a 2 cone configuration is bigger than in a 3 cone configuration. (authors)

  20. The exact effects of radiation and joule heating on magnetohydrodynamic Marangoni convection over a flat surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled S.M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we re-investigate the problem describing effects of radiation, Joule heating, and viscous dissipation on magnetohydrodynamic Marangoni convection boundary layer over a flat surface with suction/injection. The analytical solution obtained for the reduced system of non-linear-coupled differential equations governing the problem. Laplace transform successfully implemented to get the exact expression for the temperature profile. Furthermore, comparing the current exact results with approximate numerical results obtained using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is introduced. These comparisons declare that the published numerical results agree with the current exact results. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the temperature profile are discussed graphically.

  1. Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects in MHD 3D flow with heat and mass fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    The present research explores the three-dimensional stretched flow of viscous fluid in the presence of prescribed heat (PHF) and concentration (PCF) fluxes. Mathematical formulation is developed in the presence of chemical reaction, viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Appropriate transformations yield the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the temperature and concentration distributions. Skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed.

  2. Localized Edge Vibrations and Edge Reconstruction by Joule Heating in Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Mads; Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Control of the edge topology of graphene nanostructures is critical to graphene-based electronics. A means of producing atomically smooth zigzag edges using electronic current has recently been demonstrated in experiments [Jia et al., Science 323, 1701 (2009)]. We develop a microscopic theory...... for current-induced edge reconstruction using density functional theory. Our calculations provide evidence for localized vibrations at edge interfaces involving unpassivated armchair edges. We demonstrate that these vibrations couple to the current, estimate their excitation by Joule heating, and argue...

  3. New class of microminiature Joule — Thomson refrigerator and vacuum package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugh, Robert L.

    1990-12-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a two-stage, fast cooldown Joule — Thomson refrigerator using nitrogen gas and a nitrogen — hydrocarbon gas mixture as the refrigerants. The refrigerator incorporates a microminiature Venturi pump to reduce the pressure of the exhaust of the main boiler to bring the operating temperature of the cold stage to < 70 K in as little as 10 s. The vacuum package for the refrigerator contains no organic materials and is designed to provide a ten year shelf life. Special glass strengthening techniques are being used to achieve cooler survival of acceleration tests of up to 100 000g.

  4. Viscous and Joule heating effects on MHD free convection flow with variable plate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    A steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical heated plate with variable temperature in the presence of a transverse uniform magnetic field has been investigated by bringing the effect of viscous and Joules heating. The non-dimensional boundary layer equations are solved using the implicit finite difference method along with Newton's approximation for small Prandtl number chosen as typical of coolant liquid metals at operating temperature. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data

  6. A self-consistent derivation of ion drag and Joule heating for atmospheric dynamics in the thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The thermosphere is subject to additional electric and magnetic forces, not important in the middle and lower atmosphere, due to its partially ionized atmosphere. The effects of charged particles on the neutral atmospheric dynamics are often parameterized by ion drag in the momentum equations and Joule heating in the energy equation. Presented in this paper are a set of more accurate parameterizations for the ion drag and Joule heating for the neutral atmosphere that are functions of the difference between bulk ion velocity and neutral wind. The parameterized expressions also depend on the magnetic field, the Pedersen and Hall conductivities, and the ratio of the ion cyclotron frequency to the ion-neutral collision frequency. The formal relationship between the electromagnetic energy, atmospheric kinetic energy, and Joule heating is illustrated through the conversion terms between these three types of energy. It is shown that there will always be an accompanying conversion of kinetic energy into Joule heating when electromagnetic energy is generated through the dynamo mechanism of the atmospheric neutral wind. Likewise, electromagnetic energy cannot be fully converted into kinetic energy without producing Joule heating in the thermosphere.

  7. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Kyle L; Pop, Eric; King, William P

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K(-1). This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  8. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Kyle L. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); King, William P., E-mail: wpk@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  9. A technical-scientific production of James Prescott Joule: a reading from the epistemology of Ludwik Fleck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Pereira de Queirós

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims an epistemologically analysis of the attempt of James Prescott Joule to replace the steam engine by the electric one. In this historical analysis, we use the epistemological categories: style of thinking, collective thinking, intercollective circulation of ideas and practices,Joule and other technicians in Machester received in that time financial incentives from governments and industry to replace the steam engine by the electric one, since it was in Manchester a culture of the technique of the accuracy and precision in which Joule was immersed, which allowed us to initially identify the styles of techniques thinking and experimental efficiency, However, Joule could not replace the steam engine by the electric; and the awareness of the problems faced by him, in the attempt to make such a substitution, led him to seek, through an intercollective circulation of ideas and practices, such as the studies of Faraday and Jacobi, a change of direction in his researches. According to our analysis, what happened was a change of style from a technical to a scientific thinking. In this sense, Joule began to investigate issues of a scientific nature, as the Joule’s effect and the mechanical equivalent of heat, which contributed significantly to the establishment of the principle of conservation of energy. We present here the contributions of this epistemological analysis to the discussion of questions of the nature of science in the basic education and for the training of physics teachers

  10. Organic Farming in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In this article latest developments in Europe are presented: › Current statistics › Review of the European political and legal framework for organic agriculture › EU regulation on organic farming › Policy support › Action plans › Research › Progress of the OrganicDataNetwork project › Successful policy work of IFOAM EU › Further reading › Websites

  11. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  12. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer

  13. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Pre-survey in Europe; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Oshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey in Europe surveyed the current status of the coal industry, supporting directions and policies of governments on the coal industry, and summarized the information thereof. The survey included movements in policies and activities in transfer of technologies to overseas countries by governments and corporations of different countries, and the current status of the coal technology training project. The survey covered Britain and Germany. The British coal industry is facing a serious difficulty because the electric power industry being the major coal purchaser has changes its sourcing to natural gas. In addition, the open-cut mining which has been considered high in productivity has no further hope of big progress due to regulations in the environmental aspects. However, as a result of having performed positively research and development on production cost reduction, the production efficiency has grown excellently. Using this situation as the base, positive advancement into overseas countries is being carried out. The German coal industry has, in spite of having reduced the production size and the number of coal mines, shifted coal purchasers to electric power generation and steel making areas, and its quality and supply capability stand equivalent to those of imported coals. (NEDO)

  14. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project"…

  15. Inertial fusion science in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, B.

    2006-01-01

    Europe has built significant laser facilities to study inertial confinement fusion since the beginning of this science. The goal is to understand the processes of ignition and propagation of thermonuclear combustion. Three routes toward fusion are pursued, each of which has advantages and difficulties. The conventional routes are using a central hot spot created by the same compression and heating laser beams, either with indirect or direct drive. A more recent route, 'fast ignition', has been actively studied since the 90's, increasing the need for very high energy lasers to create the hot spot; some European lasers of this kind are already functioning, others are under construction or planned. Among European facilities, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), which is under construction, will be the most powerful tool at the end of the decade, along with NIF in the Usa, to study and obtain fusion. LMJ is designed not only to obtain fusion but also to carry out experiments on all laser-plasma physics themes thanks to its flexibility. This facility, mainly dedicated to defence programmes, will be accessible to the academic research community. On all these facilities, numerous results are and will be obtained in the fields of High Energy Density Physics and Ultra High Intensity. (author)

  16. Electric fields, Joule and particle heating in the high latitude thermosphere. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, A [Auroral Observatory, Tromsoe (Norway)

    1976-08-01

    A short review of the recent high latitude measurements of ionospheric electric fields is given. The importance of investigating large-scale and slowly-varying electric fields in order to study magnetospheric convection is stressed. The motion of such high energetic phenomena as auroral forms and spread E-region echoes must be treated by extreme caution when interpreted as a manifestation of convection motion. The relationship between the ionospheric source and polarization field is still an unanswered problem. It is indicated that progress can be made in this respect when electric fields and conductivities are measured simultaneously in the ionosphere. Evidence is shown at one occasion that the meridional component during an auroral sunstorm might be mainly a polarization field. The height-integrated Joule heating rate is occasionally found to be far larger than the solar radiation input at auroral altitudes. The presence of this additional heat source at any time of day is expected to have a strong impact on the global-scale atmospheric dynamics. From comparisons made between Joule and particle heating it appears that the two components are comparable. It is expected that high latitude incoherent radars will contribute substantially to the understanding of these phenomena in the near future.

  17. A numerical study of magnetohydrodynamics flow in Casson nanofluid combined with Joule heating and slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kamran

    Full Text Available A numerical study of Casson nanofluid past horizontal stretching surface with magnetic effect and Joule heating are presented. Slip and thermal convective boundary conditions are considered in the study. A numerical technique of Keller box is applied to the nonlinear ODEs which are obtained by applying the similarity transformation to the nonlinear partial differential equations. The magnetic field and Joule heating effects are observed graphically. Also the strength of convective heat exchange (Nusselt number and the strength of mass exchange (Sherwood number are analyzed. It is noted that Nusselt number declines whereas Sherwood number rises by increasing Eckert number. The impact of increasing Hartman number resulted in the decrease of both Sherwood and Nusselt number. Keywords: Casson nanofluid, Magnetohydrodynamic, Joule heating, Keller box method

  18. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominques, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The maturation of Molten Regolith Electrolysis (MRE) as a viable technology for oxygen and metals production on explored planets relies on the realization of the self-heating mode for the reactor. Joule heat generated during regolith electrolysis creates thermal energy that should be able to maintain the molten phase (similar to electrolytic Hall-Heroult process for aluminum production). Self-heating via Joule heating offers many advantages: (1) The regolith itself is the crucible material, it protects the vessel walls (2) Simplifies the engineering of the reactor (3) Reduces power consumption (no external heating) (4) Extends the longevity of the reactor. Predictive modeling is a tool chosen to perform dimensional analysis of a self-heating reactor: (1) Multiphysics modeling (COMSOL) was selected for Joule heat generation and heat transfer (2) Objective is to identify critical dimensions for first reactor prototype.

  19. Transnational Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2016-01-01

    -productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation......This article deals with the social and cultural dimensions of globalization and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the effects of stronger European integration on media production and reception. It combines theories and methods from sociology, anthropology and media studies...... in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute...

  20. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  1. Gender-related differences in the multi-pathway effect of social determinants on quality of life in older age-the COURAGE in Europe project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-07-01

    Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. The study group consisted of 5099 participants aged 50+ representing general populations of three different European regions (Finland, Poland, Spain) who participated in COURAGE in EUROPE Project. Standardized tools were used to measure quality of life (WHOQOL-AGE) and social determinants (COURAGE Social Network Index, OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, UCLA Loneliness Scale, participation scale and trust). A multipath model considering exogenous predictors (demographic, economic), mediators (social) and endogenous outcome (QOL) was created to reveal the role of determinants. Gender-related differences were investigated across three age categories: 50-64; 65-79 and 80+. The model (RMSEA = 0.058; CFI = 0.939) showed the effects of all of the investigated determinants. Gender-related differences in the association between social constructs and QOL were observed for social networks in the group of 80+, for social support in the group of 50-64 and 65-79 years, and for social participation in the group of 65-79 years. Males benefited more (in QOL) from social networks and social support, and women from social participation. The research provides valuable knowledge about the role of social determinants in QOL considering complex relations between different social constructs. Additionally, the results showed gender-related differences in the associations between social networks, social support, social participation and QOL, suggesting that men might benefit more from the interventions in the first two

  2. Highly lead-loaded red plastic scintillators as an X-ray imaging system for the laser Mega Joule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, Matthieu; Normand, Stephane; Turk, Gregory; Darbon, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this project intends to record spatially resolved images of core shape and size of a deuterium-tritium micro-balloon during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at Laser Mega Joule facility (LMJ). We need to develop an x-ray imaging system which can operate in the hard radiative background generated by an ignition shot of ICF. The scintillator is a part of the imaging system and has to gather a compromise of scintillating properties (scintillating efficiency, decay time, emission wavelength) so as to both operate in the hard radiative environment and to allow the acquisition of spatially resolved images. Inorganic scintillators cannot be used because no compromise can be found regarding the expected scintillating properties. Most of them are not fast enough and emit blue light. Organic scintillators are generally fast, but present low x-ray photoelectric absorption in the 10 to 40 keV range. This does not enable the acquisition of spatially resolved images. To this aim, we have developed highly lead-loaded and red-fluorescent fast plastic scintillators. Such a combination is not currently available via scintillator suppliers, since they propose only blue-fluorescent plastic scintillators doped with up to 12 wt% Pb. Thus, incorporation ratio up to 27 wt% Pb has been reached in our laboratory, which can afford a plastic scintillator with an outstanding Z(eff) close to 50. X-rays in the 10 to 40 keV range can thus interact with a higher probability of photoelectric effect than for classic organic scintillators, such as NE-102. The strong orange-red fluorescence can be filtered, so that we can eliminate residual Cerenkov light, generated by gamma-ray absorption in glass parts of the imaging system. Characteristic decay times of our scintillators evaluated under UV excitation were estimated to be in the range 10 to 13 ns. (authors)

  3. Design and realization of a hard X-ray prototype imager with spectral selection for the Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennetiere, David

    2012-01-01

    In the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) project context, measurements need to be done by diagnostics in order to achieve ignition. Amongst these diagnostics, some of the X-ray imagers will have to observe hydrodynamics instabilities on the micron balloon surface. X-ray radiography or self-emission imaging are the techniques used to obtain such imaging. None of the existing X-ray imagers designed for LMJ is currently able to record this kind of image. The X-ray imager designed during this thesis will have to achieve a high resolution image at high energy and will have to meet all the requirements subsequent to its use on a large facility like LMJ. We have studied and optimized an already existing diagnostic: EHRXI. We have extended its covered spectral range up to 12 keV. We measured its resolution that is under 5 μm in a 1 mm diameter field of view. This diagnostic has been successfully used on laser experiments in ELFIE 100 TW and OMEGA. After analyzing the performances and weaknesses of EHRXI, we were able to design a LMJ diagnostic prototype: Merssix. This microscope will achieve a resolution under 5 μm in a 500 μm diameter field of view with a covered spectral range up to 22 keV. Merssix has been specifically designed for LMJ and adapted to fit its experimental framework. Its design allows it in particular to be used for radiography in a complex X-ray producing environment. (author) [fr

  4. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviours according to ethnic background among adolescents in seven countries in Europe: the ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brug, J.; van Stralen, M.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Bere, E.; Singh, A.S.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.; Jan, N.; Kovacs, E.; Lobstein, T.; Manios, Y.; te Velde, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore differences in weight status and energy balance behaviours according to ethnic background among adolescents across Europe. Methods: A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries. Weight, height and

  5. Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is critical to eliminating HCV in Europe. We estimate impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment with and without scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes (...

  6. Do differences in maternal age, parity and multiple births explain variations in fetal and neonatal mortality rates in Europe? - Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Pal-De Bruin, K.M. van der; Buitendijk, S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal mortality rates differ markedly between countries in Europe. If population characteristics, such as maternal age, parity or multiple births, contribute to these differences, standardised rates may be useful for international comparisons of health status and especially quality of care. This

  7. Implementing and up-scaling evidence-based eMental health in Europe: The study protocol for the MasterMind project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Vis

    2015-11-01

    Discussion: The use of Internet interventions in routine practice is limited. MasterMind attempts to bridge the gap between routine practice and effectiveness research by evaluating the implementation of evidence-based Internet interventions for depressive disorders in routine mental healthcare settings in Europe.

  8. Regional governance assessment for drought adaptation in North-West Europe: case study results from the analysis with a governance assessment tool in the DROP-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troeltzsch, Jenny; Stein, Ulf; Vidaurre, Rodrigo; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Özerol, Gül; Furusho, Carina; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Paredes-Qrquiola, Javier; Haro-Monteagudo, David; van Lanen, Henny

    2015-01-01

    North-West Europe will increasingly face drought periods that may se-riously affect inter alia agricultural production, natural ecosystems and fresh water supplies. In addition to implementing hard adaptation measures, enhancing regional water governance is crucial for effective drought adaptation.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective slip flow over an inclined porous plate with viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on the momentum and thermal transport for the magnetohydrodynamic flow past an inclined plate in both aiding and opposing buoyancy situations have been carried out. The governing non-linear partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth order method with shooting technique. Numerical results are obtained for the fluid velocity, temperature as well as the shear stress and the rate of heat transfer at the plate. The results show that there are significant effects of pertinent parameters on the flow fields.

  10. Simultaneous effects of slip and wall properties on MHD peristaltic motion of nanofluid with Joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Nisar, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Yasmin, H., E-mail: qau2011@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, G.T. Road, Wah Cantt 47040 (Pakistan)

    2015-12-01

    This paper is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of nanofluid in a channel with wall properties. Flow analysis is addressed in the presence of viscous dissipation, partial slip and Joule heating effects. Mathematical modelling also includes the salient features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Both analytic and numerical solutions are provided. Comparison between the solutions is shown in a very good agreement. Attention is focused to the Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Hartman number, Eckert number and Prandtl number. Influences of various parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also investigated. It is found that both the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are increasing functions of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. - Highlights: • Temperature rises when Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects intensify. • Temperature profile increases when thermal slip parameter increases. • Concentration field is a decreasing function of concentration slip parameter. • Temperature decreases whereas concentration increases for Hartman number.

  11. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Belasri, A [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, des Materiaux Conducteur et Leurs Applications, Universite d' Oran (Algeria)

    2008-10-07

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  12. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  13. Variability of Jovian ion winds: an upper limit for enhanced Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Lystrup

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that short-timescale fluctuations about the mean electric field can significantly increase the upper atmospheric energy inputs at Jupiter, which may help to explain the high observed thermospheric temperatures. We present data from the first attempt to detect such variations in the Jovian ionosphere. Line-of-sight ionospheric velocity profiles in the Southern Jovian auroral/polar region are shown, derived from the Doppler shifting of H3+ infrared emission spectra. These data were recently obtained from the high-resolution CSHELL spectrometer at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We find that there is no variability within this data set on timescales of the order of one minute and spatial scales of 640 km, putting upper limits on the timescales of fluctuations that would be needed to enhance Joule heating.

  14. Modeling principles applied to the simulation of a joule-heated glass melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routt, K.R.

    1980-05-01

    Three-dimensional conservation equations applicable to the operation of a joule-heated glass melter were rigorously examined and used to develop scaling relationships for modeling purposes. By rigorous application of the conservation equations governing transfer of mass, momentum, energy, and electrical charge in three-dimensional cylindrical coordinates, scaling relationships were derived between a glass melter and a physical model for the following independent and dependent variables: geometrical size (scale), velocity, temperature, pressure, mass input rate, energy input rate, voltage, electrode current, electrode current flux, total power, and electrical resistance. The scaling relationships were then applied to the design and construction of a physical model of the semiworks glass melter for the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The design and construction of such a model using glycerine plus LiCl as a model fluid in a one-half-scale Plexiglas tank is described

  15. Simultaneous effects of slip and wall properties on MHD peristaltic motion of nanofluid with Joule heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, T.; Nisar, Z.; Ahmad, B.; Yasmin, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) peristaltic transport of nanofluid in a channel with wall properties. Flow analysis is addressed in the presence of viscous dissipation, partial slip and Joule heating effects. Mathematical modelling also includes the salient features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Both analytic and numerical solutions are provided. Comparison between the solutions is shown in a very good agreement. Attention is focused to the Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Hartman number, Eckert number and Prandtl number. Influences of various parameters on skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are also investigated. It is found that both the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are increasing functions of Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. - Highlights: • Temperature rises when Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects intensify. • Temperature profile increases when thermal slip parameter increases. • Concentration field is a decreasing function of concentration slip parameter. • Temperature decreases whereas concentration increases for Hartman number

  16. X-ray calibration facility for plasma diagnostics of the MegaJoule laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, S.; Prevot, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) located at CEA-CESTA will be equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors and cameras. To guarantee LMJ measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras need to be regularly calibrated. An x-ray laboratory is devoted to this task and performs absolute x-ray calibrations for similar x-ray cameras running on Laser Integration Line (LIL). This paper presents the x-ray calibration bench with its x-ray tube based High Energy x-ray Source (HEXS) and some calibration results. By mean of an ingenious transposition system under vacuum absolute x-ray calibration of x-ray cameras, like streak and stripline ones, can be carried out. Coupled to a new collimation system with micrometric accuracy on aperture sensitivity quantum efficiency measurements can be achieved with reduced uncertainties. (authors)

  17. Antenna-coupled terahertz radiation from joule-heated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muthee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter an experimental method is introduced that allows detection of terahertz (THz radiation from arrays of joule-heated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs, by coupling this radiation through integrated antennas and a silicon lens. The radiation forms a diffraction-limited beam with a total maximum radiated power of 450 nW, significantly greater than the power estimated from Nyquist thermal noise (8 nW. The physical radiation process is unknown at this stage, but possible explanations for the high radiated power are discussed briefly. The emission has a typical bandwidth of 1.2 THz and can be tuned to different frequencies by changing the dimensions of the antennas. Arrays of the devices could be integrated in CMOS integrated circuits, and find application in THz systems, such as in near-range medical imaging.

  18. Overview of the ARGOS X-ray framing camera for Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trosseille, C., E-mail: clement.trosseille@cea.fr; Aubert, D.; Auger, L.; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; Jasmin, S.; Maruenda, P.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Raimbourg, J.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Zuber, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Beck, T. [CEA, DEN, CADARACHE, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Gazave, J. [CEA, DAM, CESTA, F-33116 Le Barp (France)

    2014-11-15

    Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives has developed the ARGOS X-ray framing camera to perform two-dimensional, high-timing resolution imaging of an imploding target on the French high-power laser facility Laser MegaJoule. The main features of this camera are: a microchannel plate gated X-ray detector, a spring-loaded CCD camera that maintains proximity focus in any orientation, and electronics packages that provide remotely-selectable high-voltages to modify the exposure-time of the camera. These components are integrated into an “air-box” that protects them from the harsh environmental conditions. A miniaturized X-ray generator is also part of the device for in situ self-testing purposes.

  19. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment.

  20. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanallah, K; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F; Fernandez-Rueda, A; Belasri, A

    2008-01-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage

  1. Ozone generation by negative corona discharge: the effect of Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Fernández-Rueda, A.; Castellanos, A.; Belasri, A.

    2008-10-01

    Ozone generation in pure oxygen using a wire-to-cylinder corona discharge reactor is experimentally and numerically investigated. Ozone concentration is determined by means of direct UV spectroscopy and the effects of Joule heating and ozone decomposition on the electrodes are analysed for different discharge gaps. The numerical model combines the physical processes in the corona discharge with the chemistry of ozone formation and destruction. The chemical kinetics model and the electrical model are coupled through Poisson's equation, and the current-voltage (CV) characteristic measured in experiments is used as input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to predict the radial distributions of electrons, ions, atoms and molecules for each applied voltage of the CV characteristic. In particular, the evolution of ozone density inside the discharge cell has been investigated as a function of current intensity and applied voltage.

  2. High-power optical coatings for a mega-joule class ICF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Thomas, I.M.; Campbell, J.H.; Rainer, F.

    1992-11-01

    As a consequence of advancements in Inertial Confinement Fusion research, LLNL is developing plans for a new 1.5 to 2 mega-joule solid-state Nd:glass laser designed to achieve fusion ignition. The new design is possible in part due to advances in optical coatings suitable for high power laser systems. High damage threshold mirrors and polarizers are comprised of electron beam deposited dielectric multilayers. Subthreshold illumination, or laser conditioning, of the multilayer coatings results in an increase in the damage thresholds by factors of 2 to 3 at 1.06μm, thus meeting the fluence requirements of the advanced architecture. For anti-reflective coatings, protective organic coatings for non-linear crystals and phase plates for beam smoothing, sol-gel films provide high damage thresholds coatings at low cost

  3. Direct-drive shock-ignition for the Laser MégaJoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canaud B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of direct-drive shock ignition studies done as an alternative for the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ. One and two dimensional systematic analyses of HiPER-like shock-ignited target designs are performed for the fuel assembly irradiation uniformity using the whole LMJ configuration or a part of the facility, and for the uniformity of the ignitor spike. High-gain shock-ignition is shown to be possible with intensity of each quad less than 1015 W/cm2 but low modes asymmetries displace the power required in the ignitor spike towards higher powers. Shock-ignition of Direct-Drive Double-Shell non-cryogenic targets is also addressed.

  4. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  5. Development of equipments for remote dismantling of joule heated ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badgujar, Kiran T.; Usarkar, Sachin G.; Kumar, Binu; Nair, K.N.S.

    2011-01-01

    Joule Heated Ceramic Melter (JHCM) technology has been adopted for industrial scale vitrification of high level liquid waste (HLLW) at Tarapur and Kalpakkam. The melter installed at Advanced Vitrification System (AVS), Tarapur has immobilized 175 m 3 of HLLW in 113 canisters containing 11533Kg of Vitrified Waste Product (VWP). The melter has been in operation for 3 years before shutdown. It is intended to demonstrate the complete procedure of dismantling of Joule Melter in 1:1 scale prior to going in for actual dismantling in the hot cell. The Melter consists of an assembly of Inconel/SS pipes and plates, fuse cast refractories, thermal insulations of various types inside a SS casing and possibly some glass which is left over in the melter. Dismantling of melter involves remote cutting of the outer casing, pipe connections, electrical connections and removal, sizing and packing of internals in a sequential manner to minimise generation of secondary waste. The challenge involves development of remotely operated multi-degrees of freedom fixtures, modification and performance testing of standard industrial cutting and breaking tools and adapting them for remote operations. The work also involves development of equipments for collection of waste generated during the dismantling operation and packaging thus in special packages. Remotely actuated fixtures have been developed for remote top plate and side electrodes cutting. Remotely operated grab has been developed for handling of loose material and grippers have been developed for handling of refractory blocks. Industrial vacuum suction device has been modified into split units to enable for reducing the spread of powder material, while dismantling in progress. The performance test of developed fixtures, equipments, cutting and breaking tools have been carried on 1:1 scale melter model. Various parameters like cutting speed, cutting tool performance, generation of waste volume has been measured and analysed for

  6. Interference characterisation of a commercial Joule-Thomson cooler to be used in a SQUID-based foetal heart monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bangma, M.R.; Rijpma, A.P.; Vries, de E.; Reincke, H.A.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Rogalla, H.

    2001-01-01

    At the University of Twente, a fetal heart monitor based on a high-TC SQUID magnetometer system is under development. The purpose of this system is to measure a fetal heart signal in a clin. environment. For cooling a first demonstrator version, a closed-cycle Joule-Thomson cooler from APD

  7. Development of slagging system using DC joule-heating furnace; Chokuryu denki teikoshiki hai yoyu gijutsu no shohinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, N.; Ueda, J.; Nishino, J.; Takeshige, S. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Waste disposal by incineration is in wide use, inevitably discharging the unburnt portion or ash as the residue, and the residue contains heavy metals and dioxins. New slagging technologies capable of dealing with the situation, respecting in addition the effective use of resources, are now attracting attention, and are coming into popular use. IHI has already developed three types of melting technologies, which are the residual carbon combustion type, the joule-heating furnace type, and the coke-bed furnace type, and has already delivered to clients some facilities using these technologies. In this report, the three types are outlined, and the joule-heating furnace is taken up to explain the process of development up to commercialization. In the joule-heating furnace, molten slag (resistivity several ohms/cm at 1300degC) is electrified for the melting of ash by joule heat, and the result is a high-quality slag containing less chlorine thanks to the electrochemical decomposition. Studies were conducted about exhaust gas cleaning, silent operation, and cost performance (using only one electrode), etc., by operating 2.4t/d and 10t/d demonstration plants, and the efforts have culminated in the commercialization of the technology. 6 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Joule Heating Behavior and Residual Compressive Stress around Crack Tip under High Electric Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Joule heating effect and residual compressive stress near the crack tip under the electro-thermo-structural coupling state. For the crack tip field, the compressive condition is important for retarding or stopping the crack growth.

  9. Statistics of Joule heating in the auroral zone and polar cap using Astrid-2 satellite Poynting flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We make a statistical study of ionospheric Joule heating with the Poynting flux method using six months of Astrid-2/EMMA electric and magnetic field data during 1999 (solar maximum year. For the background magnetic field we use the IGRF model. Our results are in agreement with earlier statistical satellite studies using both the ΣPE2 method and the Poynting flux method. We present a rather comprehensive set of fitted Joule heating formulas expressing the Joule heating in given magnetic local time (MLT and invariant latitude (ILAT range under given solar illumination conditions as a function of the Kp index, the AE index, the Akasofu epsilon parameter and the solar wind kinetic energy flux. The study thus provides improved and more detailed estimates of the statistical Joule heating. Such estimates are necessary building blocks for future quantitative studies of the power budget in the magnetosphere and in the nightside auroral region. Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions – Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  10. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.2: Planning for environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. It is under these circumstances that the IAEA decided to launch a Technical Co-operation (TC) Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe. The project was initiated in the latter part of 1992 and ended in 1994. The countries that were involved and represented in this forum are: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Ukraine. Several experts from countries outside the region participated and offered their co-operation throughout the project. Refs, figs, tabs.

  11. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.2: Planning for environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. It is under these circumstances that the IAEA decided to launch a Technical Co-operation (TC) Project on Environmental Restoration in Central and Eastern Europe. The project was initiated in the latter part of 1992 and ended in 1994. The countries that were involved and represented in this forum are: Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Ukraine. Several experts from countries outside the region participated and offered their co-operation throughout the project. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  13. Scenarios, Policies and Impacts for the Linked Transport and Energy Systems - Results of the European TRIAS Project: Paper presented at TRA 2008 - Transport Research Arena Europe, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 21 - 25 April 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schade, W.; Helfrich, N.; Krail, M.; Fiorello, D.; Fermi, F.; Schade, B.

    2008-01-01

    High oil prices and the growing awareness that this will not be a temporary but a permanent situation fosters the search for alternative fuels and new technologies to propel the transport system, which, so far, in Europe depends to more than 96% on fossil fuels. Two of these alternatives would be hydrogen and biofuels that both can be generated from a number of different sources including a number of non-fossil and renewable sources. The TRIAS project combined four models (ASTRA, POLES, VACLA...

  14. Solar architecture in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steemers, T C [comp.; Directorate-General Telecommunications, Information, Industries and Innovation, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1991-01-01

    The title subject is one result of a project within the European Economic Community's research and development program to study houses, schools, factories and offices with features using passive solar energy. The purpose behind this project was political (to reduce Europe's dependence on imported oil), economic (to reduce costs in the face of rising oil prices) and environmental (to reduce pollution). Thirty schemes were selected to appear in this rich illustrated book, and each is fully explained and evaluated. Projects from the United Kingdom, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Italy, Germany, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, and Ireland are described. Full details are provided about the aims of the schemes, the design features, the actual performance and the cost effectiveness.

  15. Addiction and Lifestyles in Contemporary Europe: Reframing Addictions Project (ALICE RAP). Final Evaluation Report Deliverable 21.1, Work Package 21

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2016-01-01

    At the onset of the ALICE RAP project, the following objectives, description of work, and main tasks were agreed for Work Package 21: 1. To evaluate the overall functioning of the collaborative research project, using a state-of-art systems model of partnership functioning. 2. To document the interactions and linkages between project inputs, throughputs and outputs as the project unfolds over five years. 3. To facilitate structured discussions involving all pa...

  16. Europe - the first hydrogen economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.

    1999-01-01

    An examination of the state of research relating to hydrogen production and utilization indicates that interest in hydrogen from major companies in Europe has increased by several orders of magnitude in recent years. Of the three major areas where a hydrogen economy could be expected to start, namely, Japan, the United States and Europe, the latter may have advantages in diversity of resources, attitudes towards environmental issues and specific fiscal and regulatory structures. Examples of ongoing research and development projects in Europe include Norway's hydrogen combustion turbine to run on hydrogen from decarbonised natural gas, a project in the Netherlands involving mixing hydrogen and methane in the natural gas grid and a variety of projects involving liquid hydrogen refuelling, hydrogen aircraft, hydrogen fuelling stations and fuel cell vehicle development. There are also ongoing projects in carbon sequestration and hydrogen production for power generation and vehicle use. The author's main contention is that the combination of natural surroundings, environmental problems and attitudes, and business and government frameworks strongly suggest that Europe may be the first to have a hydrogen-based economy. 8 refs

  17. Alcoholic Beverage Preference and Dietary Habits in Elderly across Europe: Analyses within the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diewertje Sluik

    Full Text Available The differential associations of beer, wine, and spirit consumption on cardiovascular risk found in observational studies may be confounded by diet. We described and compared dietary intake and diet quality according to alcoholic beverage preference in European elderly.From the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES, seven European cohorts were included, i.e. four sub-cohorts from EPIC-Elderly, the SENECA Study, the Zutphen Elderly Study, and the Rotterdam Study. Harmonized data of 29,423 elderly participants from 14 European countries were analyzed. Baseline data on consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, and dietary intake were collected with questionnaires. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI. Intakes and scores across categories of alcoholic beverage preference (beer, wine, spirit, no preference, non-consumers were adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic status, self-reported prevalent diseases, and lifestyle factors. Cohort-specific mean intakes and scores were calculated as well as weighted means combining all cohorts.In 5 of 7 cohorts, persons with a wine preference formed the largest group. After multivariate adjustment, persons with a wine preference tended to have a higher HDI score and intake of healthy foods in most cohorts, but differences were small. The weighted estimates of all cohorts combined revealed that non-consumers had the highest fruit and vegetable intake, followed by wine consumers. Non-consumers and persons with no specific preference had a higher HDI score, spirit consumers the lowest. However, overall diet quality as measured by HDI did not differ greatly across alcoholic beverage preference categories.This study using harmonized data from ~30,000 elderly from 14 European countries showed that, after multivariate adjustment, dietary habits and diet quality did not differ greatly according to alcoholic beverage preference.

  18. Fast reactors fuel Cycle: State in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In this SFEN day we treat all aspects (economics-reactor cores, reprocessing, experience return) of the LMFBR fuel cycle in Europe and we discuss about the development of this type of reactor (EFR project) [fr

  19. Agricultural impacts: Europe's diminishing bread basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Holger

    2014-07-01

    Global demand for wheat is projected to increase significantly with continuing population growth. Currently, Europe reliably produces about 29% of global wheat supply. However, this might be under threat from climate change if adaptive measures are not taken now.

  20. Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine; Hansen, Mette Weinreich

    2004-01-01

    Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1......Nielsen T, Kristensen NH, Hansen MW (2004): Overview of Organic Marketing Initiatives in Europe. Chapter in: Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development. Volume 7, from the OMIaRD project. University of Wales, Aberystwyth, UK. ISBN: 0-9543279-7-1...

  1. Properties of nonstationary modes of Joule heating of a low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkevich, I.M.; Sinkevich, O.A.

    1980-01-01

    The qualitative properties are investigated of the one-dimensional temperature distributions and voltage-current characteristics of a low-temperature plasma under conditions of steady-state Joule heating. The analysis is carried out for arbitrary temperature dependences of the electric conductivity sigma(T) and thermal conductivity kappa(T) (for a planar geometry). Sufficient conditions are established for uniqueness of the solution of a nonlinear boundary-value problem. The effect is studied of the relative orientation of the electric current and heat flux vectors on the properties of the solutions. Examples are constructed of N-shaped, S-shaped, and more complex voltage-current characteristics for which the uniqueness conditions are violated. The relation is studied between the temperature dependences of the true and effective electric conductivities. A qualitative difference is observed in the behavior of these quantities for a function sigma (T) having a minimum. The inverse problem is considered of determining the functions sigma(T) and kappa(T) from data of electrical measurements. The role is discussed of the finite value of the thermal resistance of the walls in the generation of nonmonotone voltage-current characteristics

  2. Accelerated SDS depletion from proteins by transmembrane electrophoresis: Impacts of Joule heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterlander, Nicole; Doucette, Alan Austin

    2018-02-08

    SDS plays a key role in proteomics workflows, including protein extraction, solubilization and mass-based separations (e.g. SDS-PAGE, GELFrEE). However, SDS interferes with mass spectrometry and so it must be removed prior to analysis. We recently introduced an electrophoretic platform, termed transmembrane electrophoresis (TME), enabling extensive depletion of SDS from proteins in solution with exceptional protein yields. However, our prior TME runs required 1 h to complete, being limited by Joule heating which causes protein aggregation at higher operating currents. Here, we demonstrate effective strategies to maintain lower TME sample temperatures, permitting accelerated SDS depletion. Among these strategies, the use of a magnetic stir bar to continuously agitate a model protein system (BSA) allows SDS to be depleted below 100 ppm (>98% removal) within 10 min of TME operations, while maintaining exceptional protein recovery (>95%). Moreover, these modifications allow TME to operate without any user intervention, improving throughput and robustness of the approach. Through fits of our time-course SDS depletion curves to an exponential model, we calculate SDS depletion half-lives as low as 1.2 min. This promising electrophoretic platform should provide proteomics researchers with an effective purification strategy to enable MS characterization of SDS-containing proteins. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quintessence Reissner Nordström Anti de Sitter Black Holes and Joule Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarnejad, H.; Yaraie, E.; Farsam, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we investigate corrections of the quintessence regime of the dark energy on the Joule-Thomson (JT) effect of the Reissner Nordström anti de Sitter (RNAdS) black hole. The quintessence dark energy has equation of state as p q = ω ρ q in which -1black hole mass, we calculate inversion temperature T i of the quintessence RNAdS black hole where its cooling phase is changed to heating phase at a particular (inverse) pressure P i . Position of the inverse point { T i , P i } is determined by crossing the inverse curves with the corresponding Gibbons-Hawking temperature on the T-P plan. We determine position of the inverse point versus different numerical values of the mass M and the charge Q of the quintessence AdS RN black hole. The cooling-heating phase transition (JT effect) is happened for M > Q in which the causal singularity is still covered by the horizon. Our calculations show sensitivity of the inverse point { T i , P i } position on the T-P plan to existence of the quintessence dark energy just for large numerical values of the AdS RN black holes charge Q. In other words the quintessence dark energy dose not affect on position of the inverse point when the AdS RN black hole takes on small charges.

  4. Power line conductor icing prevention by the Joule effect : parametric analysis and energy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Z.; Farzaneh, M.; Kiss, L.I. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Industrial Chair on Atmospheric Icing of Power Network Equipment

    2005-07-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the minimum current intensity needed to prevent potentially damaging ice accretion on power line conductors was presented. The influence of atmospheric parameters such as wind speed, air temperature and liquid water were considered. Energy analysis was developed for an aluminum and steel reinforced conductor with circular cylindrical wire and concentric layers. Atmospheric parameters and the duration of the freezing conditions were considered with reference to the Joule effect. The model was then compared with experiments and simulations performed at an icing wind tunnel and in a climate room. It was determined that the equivalent thermal conductivity of the conductor should be assessed to identify the temperature distribution in the power line conductor. The radial component of the thermal conductivity was estimated on the basis of experiments performed in the wind tunnel, which provided a good estimation of the equivalent thermal conductivity and overall heat transfer coefficient around the stranded conductor. Experimental results were compared with values obtained from theoretically equivalent conductivity models. It was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficients around stranded conductors were higher than around smooth cylinders, and that the mathematical calculations slightly overestimated the wind tunnel measurements due to difficulties in estimating the wetted surface and the overall convection heat transfer coefficient around a stranded conductor. The typical range for the equivalent thermal conductivity of stranded conductors was also presented. 13 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  5. Numerical model and investigations of the externally heated valve Joule engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojewoda, Jerzy [University of Aberdeen, School of Engineering, Fraser Noble Bldg, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Kazimierski, Zbyszko [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska Str., 93-005 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    The mineral fuels used recently, i.e., oil and gas, will be soon exploited out. This paper presents an idea of the engine where any fuel or solar heat can be used as a source of energy. The proposed model is an externally heated, 2-stroke, valve engine (EHVE). This is a piston-type engine, entirely different from the well-known Stirling one, which is the best known example of such a solution. It works in a closed Joule cycle and is designed to produce a moderate amount of energy. The engine is composed of typical parts met in piston designs: an expander, a compressor, a heater, a cooler and, additionally, two recirculation blowers, which consume a small amount of produced power. An additional advantage is its working medium, which may be simply atmospheric air and the engine has a conventional crankshaft and an oil lubrication system. It has already been proven that operation of the EHVE is possible with satisfactory power and efficiency at the output. Comparisons of the EHVE action with and without recirculation blowers are performed. (author)

  6. Design of distributed JT (Joule-Thomson) effect heat exchanger for superfluid 2 K cooling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S.; Park, C.; Kim, K.

    2018-03-01

    Superfluid at 2 K or below is readily obtained from liquid helium at 4.2 K by reducing its vapour pressure. For better cooling performance, however, the cold energy of vaporized helium at 2 K chamber can be effectively utilized in a recuperator which is specially designed in this paper for accomplishing so-called the distributed Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion effect. This paper describes the design methodology of distributed JT effect heat exchanger for 2 K JT cooling device. The newly developed heat exchanger allows continuous significant pressure drop at high-pressure part of the recuperative heat exchanger by using a capillary tube. Being different from conventional recuperative heat exchangers, the efficient JT effect HX must consider the pressure drop effect as well as the heat transfer characteristic. The heat exchanger for the distributed JT effect actively utilizes continuous pressure loss at the hot stream of the heat exchanger by using an OD of 0.64 mm and an ID of 0.4 mm capillary tube. The analysis is performed by dividing the heat exchanger into the multiple sub-units of the heat exchange part and JT valve. For more accurate estimation of the pressure drop of spirally wound capillary tube, preliminary experiments are carried out to investigate the friction factor at high Reynolds number. By using the developed pressure drop correlation and the heat transfer correlation, the specification of the heat exchanger with distributed JT effect for 2 K JT refrigerator is determined.

  7. Joule-heated glass-furnace system for the incineration of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.; Doty, J.W.; Kramer, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 1-1/2 years, Mound has been preparing and evaluating a commercially available joule-heated glass furnace unit, coupled with a wet scrubbing system. The purpose of the glass furnace evaluation is to advance and document incinerator technology for such combustibles as solids, resins, and sludges, and to develop a stable waste form for subsequent disposal. Four (4) waste nonradioactive types were selected to determine the combustion efficiency of the furnace unit: (1) dry solid waste composed of paper, plastics, rubber, and cloth, (2) ion exchange resin of both the anionic and cationic type, (3) filter sludge composed of diatomaceous earth, organic cellulosic filter aid, and powdered ion exchange resin, and (4) cartridge filters having glass and plastic filter surfaces and nonmetallic cores. When completed, the combustion efficiency experiments for the proposed nonradioactive waste-types revealed the ability of the furnace to easily incinerate waste at feedrates of up to 150 lb/hr. During the course of the experiments, combustibles in the offgas remained consistently low, suggesting excellent combustion efficiency. Furthermore, ash produced by the combustion process was effectively incorporated into the melt by convective currents in the glass. Future work on the glass furnace incinerator will include spiking the waste to determine radioisotope behavior in the furnace

  8. Chemical reaction for Carreau-Yasuda nanofluid flow past a nonlinear stretching sheet considering Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mair; Shahid, Amna; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    Current analysis has been made to scrutinize the consequences of chemical response against magneto-hydrodynamic Carreau-Yasuda nanofluid flow induced by a non-linear stretching surface considering zero normal flux, slip and convective boundary conditions. Joule heating effect is also considered. Appropriate similarity approach is used to convert leading system of PDE's for Carreau-Yasuda nanofluid into nonlinear ODE's. Well known mathematical scheme namely shooting method is utilized to solve the system numerically. Physical parameters, namely Weissenberg number We , thermal slip parameter δ , thermophoresis number NT, non-linear stretching parameter n, magnetic field parameter M, velocity slip parameter k , Lewis number Le, Brownian motion parameter NB, Prandtl number Pr, Eckert number Ec and chemical reaction parameter γ upon temperature, velocity and concentration profiles are visualized through graphs and tables. Numerical influence of mass and heat transfer rates and friction factor are also represented in tabular as well as graphical form respectively. Skin friction coefficient reduces when Weissenberg number We is incremented. Rate of heat transfer enhances for large values of Brownian motion constraint NB. By increasing Lewis quantity Le rate of mass transfer declines.

  9. Effect of Spatial Dimension and External Potential on Joule-Thomson Coefficients of Ideal Bose Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Duqi; Wang Canjun

    2010-01-01

    Based on the form of the n-dimensional generic power-law potential, the state equation and the heat capacity, the analytical expressions of the Joule-Thomson coefficient (JTC) for an ideal Bose gas are derived in n-dimensional potential. The effect of the spatial dimension and the external potential on the JTC are discussed, respectively. These results show that: (i) For the free ideal Bose gas, when n/s ≤ 2 (n is the spatial dimension, s is the momentum index in the relation between the energy and the momentum), and T → T C (T C is the critical temperature), the JTC can obviously improve by means of changing the throttle valve's shape and decreasing the spatial dimension of gases. (ii) For the inhomogeneous external potential, the discriminant Δ = [1 - Π[ n i=1 (kT/varpi i ) 1/t i Γ(1/t i + 1)] (k is the Boltzmann Constant, T is the thermodynamic temperature, varpi i is the external field's energy), is obtained. The potential makes the JTC increase when Δ > 0, on the contrary, it makes the JTC decrease when Δ i < 1. (general)

  10. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models

  11. Preliminary experiments to simulate glass/electrode interactions within a Joule Ceramic Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.T.; Paige, E.L.; Sutcliffe, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary isothermal corrosion tests have been made on Inconel 690 coupon samples immersed in Harvest II M9 glass with and without excess additions of Li 2 O (1.5%) and RuO 2 (20%) together with TeO 2 (2%) at 1200 0 C for periods up to 100 hours. Inconel 690 corrosion and the products and ruthenium redox conditions within the glass approximate to those observed in the 1/3rd scale Joule Ceramic Melter operations. Corrosion takes place by an oxidation mechanism to form a chromium-rich surface oxide, and dissolution of this surface oxide by the surrounding glass. Additions of excess Li 2 O increase the corrosion rate of Inconel 690, whereas RuO 2 + TeO 2 are neutral. The latter however have a marked effect in lowering the room temperature resistivity by at least 5 orders of magnitude even though relatively small fraction of the RuO 2 precipitates were reduced to ruthenium metal. (author)

  12. Liquid hydrogen mass flow through a multiple orifice Joule-Thomson device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papell, S.S.; Nyland, T.W.; Saiyed, N.H.

    1992-07-01

    Liquid hydrogen mass flow rate, pressure drop, and temperature drop data were obtained for a number of multiple orifice Joule-Thomson devices known as visco jets. The present investigation continues a study to develop an equation for predicting two phase flow of cryogens through these devices. The test apparatus design allowed isenthalpic expansion of the cryogen through the visco jets. The data covered a range of inlet and outlet operating conditions. The mass flow rate range single phase or two phase was 0.015 to 0.98 lbm/hr. The manufacturer's equation was found to overpredict the single phase hydrogen data by 10 percent and the two phase data by as much as 27 percent. Two modifications of the equation resulted in a data correlation that predicts both the single and two phase flow across the visco jet. The first modification was of a theoretical nature, and the second strictly empirical. The former reduced the spread in the two phase data. It was a multiplication factor of 1-X applied to the manufacturer's equation. The parameter X is the flow quality downstream of the visco jet based on isenthalpic expansion across the device. The latter modification was a 10 percent correction term that correlated 90 percent of the single and two phase data to within +/- 10 percent scatter band. 3 refs

  13. Auroral energy input from energetic electrons and Joule heating at Chatanika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickwar, V.B.; Baron, M.J.; Sears, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    With the incoherent scatter radar at Chatanika, Alaska, a wide variety of measurements can be made related to the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and neutral atmosphere. A significant parameter is the amount of energy transferred from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere during periods of auroral activity. In this report a procedure is examined whereby the incident energy flux of auroral electrons is ascertained from radar measurements. As part of the process radar-determined fluxes are compared with those ascertained from simultaneous photometric observations at 4278 A. The fluxes obtained by both techniques had similar magnitudes and time variations. If it is assumed that the largest uncertainty in the radar/photometer comparison is the effective recombination coefficient, then that coefficient can also be deduced. A value 3times10 -7 cm 3 /s at about 105 km is found, which is in good agreement with other recent determinations during active auroral conditions. This technique is combined with one to ascertain the Joule heating to determine the energy input from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere in a region localized above the radar on March 22, 1973, in the midnight sector. The energy input is continuous at a significant level, i.e., greater than the 3 ergs/cm 2 that could be delivered by the sun, were it overhead. Moreover, at times, each of these inputs became as great as 30 ergs/cm 2 s

  14. Cathode-Control Alloying at an Au-ZnSe Nanowire Contact via in Situ Joule Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Ya-Ping; Qu Bai-Hua; Yu Hong-Chun; Wang Yan-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Controllable interfacial alloying is achieved at a Au-ZnSe nanowire (M-S) contact via in situ Joule heating inside transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM inspection reveals that the Au electrode is locally molten at the M-S contact and the tip of the ZnSe nanowire is covered by the Au melting. Experimental evidences confirm that the alloying at the reversely biased M-S contact is due to the high resistance of the Schottky barrier at this M-S contact, coincident to cathode-control mode. Consequently, in situ Joule heating can be an effective method to improve the performance of nanoelectronics based on a metal-semiconductor-metal nanostructure. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. In-situ TEM study on structural change and light emission of a multiwall carbon nanotube during Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.; Asaka, K.; Nakahara, H.; Saito, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Structure changes of a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) during Joule heating were studied with simultaneous measurement of light emission spectra. The outer shells of the MWNT peeled off one by one because of excessive heating. All the peeled outer shells finally disappeared and inner shells whose tips were closed emerged, i.e., a new MWNT was formed. Each diameter of the shells comprising the MWNT decreased compared with those before the fracture. Light emission spectra during Joule heating of an MWNT were composed of both the blackbody radiation and characteristic peaks. The peaks in the light emission spectra shifted to higher energies in accordance with shrinkage of the inner shells. The energies of the peaks in the spectra corresponded to energy gaps between van Hove singularities calculated from the diameters of the shells, indicating that the peaks in the spectra are attributed to the interband electron transition in the MWNT.

  16. Joule-Heated Molten Regolith Electrolysis Reactor Concepts for Oxygen and Metals Production on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Dominguez, Jesus A.

    2012-01-01

    The technology of direct electrolysis of molten lunar regolith to produce oxygen and molten metal alloys has progressed greatly in the last few years. The development of long-lasting inert anodes and cathode designs as well as techniques for the removal of molten products from the reactor has been demonstrated. The containment of chemically aggressive oxide and metal melts is very difficult at the operating temperatures ca. 1600 C. Containing the molten oxides in a regolith shell can solve this technical issue and can be achieved by designing a Joule-heated (sometimes called 'self-heating') reactor in which the electrolytic currents generate enough Joule heat to create a molten bath. Solutions obtained by multiphysics modeling allow the identification of the critical dimensions of concept reactors.

  17. Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a rotating channel with convective boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties

  18. The dismantling of the one-third-scale Joule ceramic melter and preliminary investigation of electrode corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.; Walmsley, D.; Hollinrake, A.; Horsley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The Harwell one-third scale Joule ceramic melter was dismantled to discover the cause of a fall in electric resistance. The two inconel-690 electrodes were corroded over the lower 40mm sections and were examined by optical and electron microscopy. Sedimentation of Ru species on the floor of the melter may have led to corrosion of the electrodes. Glass withdrawn from the canisters was analyzed for evidence of a segregation mechanism. (UK)

  19. Influence of radiation on MHD peristaltic blood flow through a tapered channel in presence of slip and joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Ravikumar, S.; Govindaraju, Kalimuthu

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present attempt was to investigate an effect of slip and joule heating on MHD peristaltic Newtonian fluid through an asymmetric vertical tapered channel under influence of radiation. The Mathematical modeling is investigated by utilizing long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. The effects of Hartmann number, porosity parameter, volumetric flow rate, radiation parameter, non uniform parameter, shift angle, Prandtl number, Brinkman number, heat source/sink parameter on temperature characteristics are presented graphically and discussed in detail.

  20. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  1. Dynamic modelling of the expansion cylinder of an open Joule cycle Ericsson engine: A bond graph approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creyx, M.; Delacourt, E.; Morin, C.; Desmet, B.

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic model using the bond graph formalism of the expansion cylinder of an open Joule cycle Ericsson engine intended for a biomass-fuelled micro-CHP system is presented. Dynamic phenomena, such as the thermodynamic evolution of air, the instantaneous air mass flow rates linked to pressure drops crossing the valves, the heat transferred through the expansion cylinder wall and the mechanical friction losses, are included in the model. The influence on the Ericsson engine performances of the main operating conditions (intake air pressure and temperature, timing of intake and exhaust valve closing, rotational speed, mechanical friction losses and heat transfer at expansion cylinder wall) is studied. The operating conditions maximizing the performances of the Ericsson engine used in the a biomass-fuelled micro-CHP unit are an intake air pressure between 6 and 8 bar, a maximized intake air temperature, an adjustment of the intake and exhaust valve closing corresponding to an expansion cycle close to the theoretical Joule cycle, a rotational speed close to 800 rpm. The heat transfer at the expansion cylinder wall reduces the engine performances. - Highlights: • A bond graph dynamic model of the Ericsson engine expansion cylinder is presented. • Dynamic aspects are modelled: pressure drops, friction losses, wall heat transfer. • Influent factors and phenomena on the engine performances are investigated. • Expansion cycles close to the theoretical Joule cycle maximize the performances. • The heat transfer at the expansion chamber wall reduces the performances.

  2. Incorporation of the Joule Heating of highly conducting materials into the Truchas code via an asymptotic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcay, Cihan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlson, Neil N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-21

    The EM module of the Truchas code currently lacks the capability to model the Joule (Ohmic) heating of highly conducting materials that are inserted into induction furnaces from time to time to change the heating profile. This effect is difficult to simulate directly because of the requirement to resolve the extremely thin skin depth of good conductors, which is computationally costly. For example, copper has a skin depth, δ ~ 1 mm, for an oscillation frequency of tens of kHz. The industry is interested in determining what fraction of the heating power is lost to the Joule heating of these good conductors inserted inside the furnaces. The approach presented in this document is one of asymptotics where the leading order (unperturbed) solution is taken as that which emerges from solving the EM problem for a perfectly conducting insert. The conductor is treated as a boundary of the domain. The perturbative correction enters as a series expansion in terms of the dimensionless skin depth δ/L, where L is the characteristic size of the EM system. The correction at each order depends on the previous. This means that the leading order correction only depends on the unperturbed solution, in other words, it does not require Truchas to perform an additional EM field solve. Thus, the Joule heating can be captured by a clever leveraging of the existing tools in Truchas with only slight modifications.

  3. Quality of life in people aged 65+ in Europe: associated factors and models of social welfare-analysis of data from the SHARE project (Wave 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sala, Josep L; Portellano-Ortiz, Cristina; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2017-04-01

    To analyse the clinical, sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that influence perceived quality of life (QoL) in a community sample of 33,241 people aged 65+ and to examine the relationship with models of social welfare in Europe. This was a cross-sectional study of data from Wave 5 (2013) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The instruments used in the present study were as follows: sociodemographic data, CASP-12 (QoL), EURO-D (depression), indicators of life expectancy and suicide (WHO), and economic indicators (World Bank). Statistical analysis included bivariate and multilevel analyses. In the multilevel analysis, greater satisfaction in life, less depression, sufficient income, better subjective health, physical activity, an absence of functional impairment, younger age and participation in activities were associated with better QoL in all countries. More education was only associated with higher QoL in Eastern European and Mediterranean countries, and only in the latter was caring for grandchildren also related to better QoL. Socioeconomic indicators were better and QoL scores higher (mean = 38.5 ± 5.8) in countries that had a social democratic (Nordic cluster) or corporatist model (Continental cluster) of social welfare, as compared to Eastern European and Mediterranean countries, which were characterized by poorer socioeconomic conditions, more limited social welfare provision and lower QoL scores (mean = 33.5 ± 6.4). Perceived quality-of-life scores are consistent with the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants, as well as with the socioeconomic indicators and models of social welfare of the countries in which they live.

  4. Science in Society in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....

  5. FY 2009 Annual Report of Joule Software Metric SC GG 3.1/2.5.2, Improve Computational Science Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothe, Douglas B [ORNL; Roche, Kenneth J [ORNL; Kendall, Ricky A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Joule Software Metric for Computational Effectiveness is established by Public Authorizations PL 95-91, Department of Energy Organization Act, and PL 103-62, Government Performance and Results Act. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) oversees the preparation and administration of the President s budget; evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures; assesses competing funding demands across agencies; and sets the funding priorities for the federal government. The OMB has the power of audit and exercises this right annually for each federal agency. According to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), federal agencies are required to develop three planning and performance documents: 1.Strategic Plan: a broad, 3 year outlook; 2.Annual Performance Plan: a focused, 1 year outlook of annual goals and objectives that is reflected in the annual budget request (What results can the agency deliver as part of its public funding?); and 3.Performance and Accountability Report: an annual report that details the previous fiscal year performance (What results did the agency produce in return for its public funding?). OMB uses its Performance Assessment Rating Tool (PART) to perform evaluations. PART has seven worksheets for seven types of agency functions. The function of Research and Development (R&D) programs is included. R&D programs are assessed on the following criteria: Does the R&D program perform a clear role? Has the program set valid long term and annual goals? Is the program well managed? Is the program achieving the results set forth in its GPRA documents? In Fiscal Year (FY) 2003, the Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC-1) worked directly with OMB to come to a consensus on an appropriate set of performance measures consistent with PART requirements. The scientific performance expectations of these requirements reach the scope of work conducted at the DOE national laboratories. The Joule system

  6. Metrology for the radiological early warning system in Europe. The ''MetroERM'' project; Metrologie fuer die radiologischen Fruehwarnsysteme in Europa. Das ''MetroERM''-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    In the European radiological early warning system about 5500 stationary sensors are actually implemented that measure continuously the local dose rate. Alongside several hundred air dust collecting systems attribute to the measurement of airborne radioactivity. The local dose rates are transmitted hourly to a central data base that is operated on behalf of the EU commission. In significantly larger time intervals the measured data of the airborne radioactivity are transmitted. In case of a cross-border radiological accident these data are the basis for recommendations given by the EU commission to the member states for national counter measures. The focus of the project ''Metrology for radiological early warning networks in Europe'' is an improvement of the metrological quality and harmonization these data and the development of improved measuring systems and evaluation methods.

  7. Research on the effect of the external magnetic field in the joule balance at NIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinxin; You, Qiang; Li, Zhengkun; Bai, Yang; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Zhonghua; He, Qing

    2018-06-01

    The first determination of the Planck constant with the second generation of the joule balance, NIM-2, was completed in 2017 with an uncertainty of 2.4  ×  10‑7. Due to the movement of the magnet during the measurement process, the effect of the external field is a critical problem in NIM-2. At present, the electromagnet system is used in NIM-2. By taking the average of the results with positive and negative exciting currents, the uncertainty from the external field is reduced to 1.7  ×  10‑7, which is still the largest source in the uncertainty budget as all the other items are less than 1  ×  10‑7. In the near future, a permanent magnet system will be applied in NIM-2 and the main field cannot be reversed. Although the coupling of the external magnetic field in the permanent magnet system is about 40 times less than that in the electromagnet system, further reduction of this effect is still required in the permanent magnet system. In this paper, the effect of the external field is analyzed in both an electromagnet system and a permanent magnet system based on simulations and experiments. Then, the methods of magnetic shielding and compensation coils are proposed and simulated in the permanent magnet system. The results show that it may be possible to reduce the uncertainty of the external field to less than 2  ×  10‑8 in the permanent magnet system by employing the two methods.

  8. Physical modeling of joule heated ceramic glass melters for high level waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, M.S.; Kreid, D.K.

    1979-03-01

    This study developed physical modeling techniques and apparatus suitable for experimental analysis of joule heated ceramic glass melters designed for immobilizing high level waste. The physical modeling experiments can give qualitative insight into the design and operation of prototype furnaces and, if properly verified with prototype data, the physical models could be used for quantitative analysis of specific furnaces. Based on evaluation of the results of this study, it is recommended that the following actions and investigations be undertaken: It was not shown that the isothermal boundary conditions imposed by this study established prototypic heat losses through the boundaries of the model. Prototype wall temperatures and heat fluxes should be measured to provide better verification of the accuracy of the physical model. The VECTRA computer code is a two-dimensional analytical model. Physical model runs which are isothermal in the Y direction should be made to provide two-dimensional data for more direct comparison to the VECTRA predictions. The ability of the physical model to accurately predict prototype operating conditions should be proven before the model can become a reliable design tool. This will require significantly more prototype operating and glass property data than were available at the time of this study. A complete set of measurements covering power input, heat balances, wall temperatures, glass temperatures, and glass properties should be attempted for at least one prototype run. The information could be used to verify both physical and analytical models. Particle settling and/or sludge buildup should be studied directly by observing the accumulation of the appropriate size and density particles during feeding in the physical model. New designs should be formulated and modeled to minimize the potential problems with melter operation identifed by this study

  9. Thermodynamic optimization of mixed refrigerant Joule- Thomson systems constrained by heat transfer considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinze, J F; Klein, S A; Nellis, G F

    2015-01-01

    Mixed refrigerant (MR) working fluids can significantly increase the cooling capacity of a Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle. The optimization of MRJT systems has been the subject of substantial research. However, most optimization techniques do not model the recuperator in sufficient detail. For example, the recuperator is usually assumed to have a heat transfer coefficient that does not vary with the mixture. Ongoing work at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shown that the heat transfer coefficients for two-phase flow are approximately three times greater than for a single phase mixture when the mixture quality is between 15% and 85%. As a result, a system that optimizes a MR without also requiring that the flow be in this quality range may require an extremely large recuperator or not achieve the performance predicted by the model. To ensure optimal performance of the JT cycle, the MR should be selected such that it is entirely two-phase within the recuperator. To determine the optimal MR composition, a parametric study was conducted assuming a thermodynamically ideal cycle. The results of the parametric study are graphically presented on a contour plot in the parameter space consisting of the extremes of the qualities that exist within the recuperator. The contours show constant values of the normalized refrigeration power. This ‘map’ shows the effect of MR composition on the cycle performance and it can be used to select the MR that provides a high cooling load while also constraining the recuperator to be two phase. The predicted best MR composition can be used as a starting point for experimentally determining the best MR. (paper)

  10. Viewls - Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios. Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. (and others)

    2006-01-15

    The EU has set ambitious targets to increase the use of Renewable Energy Sources from which a large part has to come from biomass To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed which requires large areas of land in the EU. This article discusses a methodology and results for a regional biomass potential assessment in Central and Eastern European Accession countries (CEEC). The biomass potential assessment is implemented for a defined set of scenarios. The scenarios are based on the main drivers in Europe relevant for agriculture and land use change, i.e. World Trade Negotiations or Common Agricultural Policy. The methodology for the biomass potential assessment is based on land use changes over time. A certain amount of land is needed to meet the required production for food (derived from agricultural crops and livestock) and wood products. The surplus available land can possibly be used for biomass production. Results of the biomass potential assessment are available on a Nuts-3 region level in the CEEC for different scenarios. As the concept of large-scale biomass production is only feasible when production is profitable for the stakeholders involved, price and cost-relations are included in the assessment. Final deliverable are cost-supply curves from different sources (energy crops, residues) and scenarios for the CEEC. (au)

  11. MOEM systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.; Parriaux, Olivier M.

    1997-04-01

    This is a brief summary of the talk given at Photonics West, San Jose, on 10 February 1997. The description made hereafter of the strategic problematics in Europe in the domain of microsystems results from a free and extensive reading of the literature made available by the EC programs in particular through EUROPRACTICE and NEXUS. What follows expresses personal views and does not reflect any official position. Most of the information material can be found in the mst news journal edited by VDI/VDE-IT. This talk was an attempt to extract the essentials of what is going on in European Microsystem Technologies (MST) from the numerous programs, projects schemes, and initiatives which have been announced, and to position the Opto-Electro-Mechanical Microsystem sin the MST framework.

  12. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro......The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170......,000 European participants. The aim of the consortium is to promote and sustain collaboration and sharing of data and knowledge in the field of ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe, with particular focus on the harmonization of methods for future research, estimation and projection of frequency and impact...

  13. Trends in winter circulation over the British Isles and central Europe in twenty-first century projections by 25 CMIP5 GCMs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stryhal, Jan; Huth, Radan

    in press (2018) ISSN 0930-7575 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Global climate models * Projections * CMIP5 * Circulation classifications * Atmospheric circulation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 4.146, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00382-018-4178-3

  14. Population and labour force projections for 27 European countries, 2002-052: impact of international migration on population ageing: Projections de population et de population active pour 27 pays européens 2002-052: impact de la migration internationale sur le vieillissement de la population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Jakub; Kupiszewska, Dorota; Kupiszewski, Marek; Saczuk, Katarzyna; Kicinger, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Population and labour force projections are made for 27 selected European countries for 2002-052, focussing on the impact of international migration on population and labour force dynamics. Starting from single scenarios for fertility, mortality and economic activity, three sets of assumptions are explored regarding migration flows, taking into account probable policy developments in Europe following the enlargement of the EU. In addition to age structures, various support ratio indicators are analysed. The results indicate that plausible immigration cannot offset the negative effects of population and labour force ageing.

  15. Preliminary survey report for fiscal 1999 on engineer exchange project (field of coal mining technology), international exchange project. Europe; 1999 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo jizen chosa. Oshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In Europe, international division is in progress as the result of market internationalization, and the coal market is experiencing an increasingly intensive competition in the storm of deregulation. The coal industry of Britain is away from a crisis for the time being, thanks to a new 5-year contract concluded with the electric utilities who are the primary purchasers, but it has to compete with imported coal and natural gas. The industry is also hit by the control imposed on the development of new opencast coal mines. Production is on the decline in the German coal market, which is one the largest in Western Europe, due to reduced subsidies, unfavorable geological conditions, lowered price, etc. The German coal industry is positively striving to exploit coal mines overseas and to export coal mining technologies. In Spain and France, the coal industry is forced to shrink and, in France, there is a plan to terminate coal mining completely in 2005. In Poland, the introduction of market economy has resulted in the influx of low-price coal from Russia etc., and all the Polish mines are now in the red. Its joining the European Union in the near future will further increase the pressure from other nations. It is learned that in Britain, Germany, etc., coal businesses are accelerating their transfer of technology to developing countries and are positively strengthening their presence abroad. (NEDO)

  16. Communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care in Europe: the case for improvement. The rationale for the RESTORE FP 7 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Burns, Nicola; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Lionis, Christos; Dowrick, Chris; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brun, Tomas; MacFarlane, Anne

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the importance of research about barriers and levers to the implementation of supports for cross-cultural communication in primary care settings in Europe. After an overview of migrant health issues, with the focus on communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care and the importance of language barriers, we highlight the fact that there are serious problems in routine practice that persist over time and across different European settings. Language and cultural barriers hamper communication in consultations between doctors and migrants, with a range of negative effects including poorer compliance and a greater propensity to access emergency services. It is well established that there is a need for skilled interpreters and for professionals who are culturally competent to address this problem. A range of professional guidelines and training initiatives exist that support the communication in cross-cultural consultations in primary care. However, these are commonly not implemented in daily practice. It is as yet unknown why professionals do not accept or implement these guidelines and interventions, or under what circumstances they would do so. A new study involving six European countries, RESTORE (REsearch into implementation STrategies to support patients of different ORigins and language background in a variety of European primary care settings), aims to address these gaps in knowledge. It uses a unique combination of a contemporary social theory, normalisation process theory (NPT) and participatory learning and action (PLA) research. This should enhance understanding of the levers and barriers to implementation, as well as providing stakeholders, with the opportunity to generate creative solutions to problems experienced with the implementation of such interventions.

  17. Gearing up and accelerating cross-fertilization between academic and industrial robotics research in Europe technology transfer experiments from the ECHORD project

    CERN Document Server

    Veiga, Germano; Natale, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This monograph by Florian Röhrbein, Germano Veiga and Ciro Natale is an edited collection of 15 authoritative contributions in the area of robot technology transfer between academia and industry. It comprises three parts on Future Industrial Robotics, Robotic Grasping as well as Human-Centered Robots. The book chapters cover almost all the topics nowadays considered ‘hot’ within the robotics community, from reliable object recognition to dexterous grasping, from speech recognition to intuitive robot programming, from mobile robot navigation to aerial robotics, from safe physical human-robot interaction to body extenders. All contributions stem from the results of ECHORD – the European Clearing House for Open Robotics Development, a large-scale integrating project funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme from 2009 to 2013. ECHORD’s two main pillars were the so-called experiments, 51 small-sized industry-driven research projects, and the structured dialog, a powerful interac...

  18. Gearing up and accelerating cross-fertilization between academic and industrial robotics research in Europe technology transfer experiments from the ECHORD project

    CERN Document Server

    Veiga, Germano; Natale, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    This monograph by Florian Röhrbein, Germano Veiga and Ciro Natale is an edited collection of 15 authoritative contributions in the area of robot technology transfer between academia and industry. It comprises three parts on Future Industrial Robotics, Robotic Grasping as well as Human-Centered Robots. The book chapters cover almost all the topics nowadays considered ‘hot’ within the robotics community, from reliable object recognition to dexterous grasping, from speech recognition to intuitive robot programming, from mobile robot navigation to aerial robotics, from safe physical human-robot interaction to body extenders. All contributions stem from the results of ECHORD – the European Clearing House for Open Robotics Development, a large-scale integrating project funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme from 2009 to 2013. ECHORD’s two main pillars were the so-called experiments, 52 small-sized industry-driven research projects, and the structured dialog, a powerful interac...

  19. MOOCs in Europe: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Donovan, Maria Margaret O

    2015-01-01

    “MOOCS in Europe: A Literature Review” is an integrated part of the Exploitation work package of the HOME project: Higher education Online: MOOCs the European way. It has been carried out in order to compare the results from the HOME project with the ongoing European and International discussions...... on MOOCs....

  20. Project Physics Text 3, The Triumph of Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    Mechanical theories are presented in this unit of the Project Physics text for senior high students. Collisions, Newton's laws, isolated systems, and Leibniz' concept are discussed, leading to conservation of mass and momentum. Energy conservation is analyzed in terms of mechanical energy, heat energy, steam engines, Watt's engine, Joule's…

  1. Micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers for cooling low-temperature detectors and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Brake, Marcel; Lerou, P. P. P. M.; Burger, J. F.; Holland, H. J.; Derking, J. H.; Rogalla, H.

    2017-11-01

    The performance of electronic devices can often be improved by lowering the operating temperature resulting in lower noise and larger speed. Also, new phenomena can be applied at low temperatures, as for instance superconductivity. In order to fully exploit lowtemperature electronic devices, the cryogenic system (cooler plus interface) should be `invisible' to the user. It should be small, low-cost, low-interference, and above all very reliable (long-life). The realization of cryogenic systems fulfilling these requirements is the topic of research of the Cooling and Instrumentation group at the University of Twente. A MEMS-based cold stage was designed and prototypes were realized and tested. The cooler operates on basis of the Joule-Thomson effect. Here, a high-pressure gas expands adiabatically over a flow restriction and thus cools and liquefies. Heat from the environment (e.g., an optical detector) can be absorbed in the evaporation of the liquid. The evaporated working fluid returns to the low-pressure side of the system via a counter-flow heat exchanger. In passing this heat exchanger, it takes up heat from the incoming high-pressure gas that thus is precooled on its way to the restriction. The cold stage consists of a stack of three glass wafers. In the top wafer, a high-pressure channel is etched that ends in a flow restriction with a height of typically 300 nm. An evaporator volume crosses the center wafer into the bottom wafer. This bottom wafer contains the lowpressure channel thus forming a counter-flow heat exchanger. A design aiming at a net cooling power of 10 mW at 96 K and operating with nitrogen as the working fluid was optimized based on the minimization of entropy production. The optimum cold finger measures 28 mm x 2.2 mm x 0.8 mm operating with a nitrogen flow of 1 mg/s at a high pressure of 80 bar and a low pressure of 6 bar. The design and fabrication of the coolers will be discussed along with experimental results.

  2. Project Copernicus: Cooperation Programme in Europe on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Study. Round Table. Unesco-Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents, and Vice Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE) (Catania, Sicily, April 5-8, 1989). Number 32. Papers on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This Project COPERNICUS (Cooperation Programme in Europe for Research on Nature and Industry through Coordinated University Studies) Round Table report considers efforts to identify priorities and objectives of the new alliance between the higher education community, industry, and international organizations in addressing today's environmental…

  3. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  4. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in…

  5. First order reversal curve analysis on NdFeB nanocomposite ribbons subjected to Joule heating treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampillo, L.G. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Saccone, F.D., E-mail: fsaccone@fi.uba.ar [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina); Knobel, M. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin-Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada-Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz, Barao Geraldo 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sirkin, H.R.M. [INTECIN-Instituto de Tecnologias y ciencias de la Ingenieria ' Hilario Fernandez Long' (UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), C. A. B. A. (Argentina)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd-lean amorphous precursors subjected to Joule heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange-spring magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FORC diagrams of irreversible switching fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This last techniques helped us to verify the optimized treatments conditions. - Abstract: Amorphous precursors with composition Nd{sub 4.5}Fe{sub 72-x}Co{sub 3+x}Cr{sub 2}Al{sub 1}B{sub 17.5} (x = 0, 2, 7, 12) were thermally treated by the Joule heating technique with a linearly varying electrical current. The crystallization kinetics was followed by monitoring the resistance of the ribbons during the heating up to the final applied current. Crystallized nanostructured phases coexist with an amorphous matrix, as it was observed by means of Moessbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The irreversible magnetic response of the Joule heated ribbons was analyzed by the First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) diagram technique. For the optimal treatments, associated with the higher maximum energy products for each sample composition, it was found that the main interaction is of a strongly dipolar characteristic. Over annealed samples show a FORC diagram that gives into account of softening, due to grain growth, for those phases precipitated at the first crystallization stage. When it is measured at 20 K, the hardest magnetic sample (Fe = 72 at.%, Co = 3 at.%, I{sub final} = 0.5 A), exhibits a diagram with characteristics corresponding to dipolar interactions of soft phases. This fact is consistent with an enhancement of the exchange length due to the increase in the soft phase stiffness as it is expected at low temperatures.

  6. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V. 3: Technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defence related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subjects of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. The second part of the project and the second workshop (Piestany, Slovak Republic, 12-16 April 1994) involved planning and preparing the identified sites for restoration. This included items such as the restoration objectives, dose and environmental assessment, cost analysis, strategy and prioritization. Eventually, the third part of the project covered technologies for, and the implementation of, environmental restoration. The third and final workshop was held in Rez, Czech Republic, 12-16 December 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine...

  9. ESTUDIO EXPERIMENTAL DE UNA DESCARGA PLASMA FOCUS RAPIDA OPERADA EN EL RANGO DE DECENAS DE JOULES EMITIENDO NEUTRONES

    OpenAIRE

    TARIFEÑO SALDIVIA; ARIEL ESTEBAN; TARIFEÑO SALDIVIA; ARIEL ESTEBAN

    2011-01-01

    En esta investigación doctoral se estudió experimentalmente una descarga plasma focus operada a decenas de joules y decenas de kiloamperes. El dispositivo genera una descarga coaxial por medio de un arreglo de electrodos los cuales consisten de un electrodo central, un aislante cilíndrico y un electrodo exterior. La descarga es alimentada por un generador capacitivo y se opera a presiones de algunos milibar. Los parámetros eléctricos típicos del dispositivo, denominado PF-50J, son T/4 ...

  10. Enhancing GMI properties of melt-extracted Co-based amorphous wires by twin-zone Joule annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.S.; Cao, F.Y.; Xing, D.W.; Zhang, L.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qin, F.X. [Advanced Composite Center for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Peng, H.X. [Advanced Composite Center for Innovation and Science (ACCIS), Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Centre for Nanoscience and Quantum Information, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1FD (United Kingdom); Xue, X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, J.F., E-mail: jfsun_hit@263.net [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GMI effect is closely related to annealed microstructures observed by HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twin-zone Joule-heated annealing (TJHA) as a novel effective annealing treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TJHA wires have relatively larger GMI ratio and field sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer From HRTEM perspective to explain the GMI peaks feature of different states wires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TJHA wires are useful for high-resolution magnetic sensor applications. - Abstract: The influence of twin-zone Joule annealing (TJA) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of melt-extracted Co{sub 68.2}Fe{sub 4.3}B{sub 15}Si{sub 12.5} amorphous microwires has been investigated. Experimental results indicated that twin-zone Joule annealing treatment improved the GMI property of as-cast wires to a greater extent comparing with Joule annealing (JA) and conventional vacuum annealing (CVA) techniques. At 15 MHz, e.g., the maximum GMI ratio [{Delta}Z/Z{sub 0}]{sub max} of a TJA wire increases to 104.29%, which is more than 5 times of 20.49% for the as-cast wire, nearly two times of 56.47% for the JA wire, while the CVA wire has a decreased GMI ratio; the field response sensitivity of the TJA wire increased to 171.62%/Oe from 80.32%/Oe for the as-cast wire, exceeding the values of 140.76%/Oe for the JA wire and of 39.17%/Oe for the CVA wire. The stress or structural relaxation in TJA wire increases circumferential permeability, and magnetic moment achieves a critical state of excitation for overcoming eddy-current damping or 'nail-sticked' action in rotational magnetization process at relatively high frequency. From the microstructural point of view, the role of regularly arranged atomic micro-regions (RAAM) and of medium range order region (MROR) determines the efficiency of various annealing techniques. Conclusively, TJA is established as an efficient annealing technique to enhance the GMI effect

  11. Advances towards a portable pulsed source of neutrons and X-ray with energy of work close to 1 Joule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, C.; Moreno, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro; Barbaglia, Mario O.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma Focus devices are pulsed sources of X and neutron radiation from intense electrical discharges in deuterium. Classically these devices operate at energies between a few KJ to 1 MJ. In this work we present the design and feasibility studies of a Plasma Focus operating at energies close to 1 Joule. Experimental evidence of focalization is presented, and the optimum parameter relations at such low energies are discussed. The results indicate the device will be able to emit pulses about 1000 neutrons per J. (author) [es

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-28

    EUROPE AEROSPACE, CIVIL AVIATION Polish Participation in Space Projects (ASTRONAUTYKA, No 2, 1987) 103 Cooperation in Solar Research, Janusz...0.55-micron filaments. Its losses are less than 100 W per cubic decimeter of wire at 1 tesla (at 50 Hz). Marcoussis researchers have even produced a...In May 1987 the company will have the first space environment test center in Europe to allow pretrial integration and testing under one roof

  13. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  14. The role of the rheological properties of non-newtonian fluids in controlling dispersive mixing in a batch electrophoretic cell with Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bosse

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the effect of Joule heating generation on the hydrodynamic profile and the solute transport found in electrophoretic devices is addressed in this article. The research is focused on the following two problems: The first one is centered around the effect of Joule heating on the hydrodynamic velocity profile and it is referred to as "the carrier fluid problem." The other one is related to the effect of Joule heating on the solute transport inside electrophoretic cells and it is referred to as "the solute problem". The hydrodynamic aspects were studied first to yield the velocity profiles required for analysis of the solute transport problem. The velocity profile obtained in this study is analytical and the results are valid for non-Newtonian fluids carriers. To this end, the power-law model was used to study the effect of the rheology of the material in conjunction with the effect of Joule heating generation inside batch electrophoretic devices. This aspect of the research was then effectively used to study the effect of Joule heating generation on the motion of solutes (such as macromolecules under the influence of non-Newtonian carriers. This aspect of the study was performed using an area-averaging approach that yielded analytical results for the effective diffusivity of the device.

  15. Estimation of Joule heating and its role in nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhalil, Hariharan; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-12-01

    Highly non-linear I-V characteristics and apparent colossal electro-resistance were observed in non-charge ordered manganite Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3 single crystal in low temperature transport measurements. Significant changes were noticed in top surface temperature of the sample as compared to its base while passing current at low temperature. By analyzing these variations, we realize that the change in surface temperature (ΔTsur) is too small to have caused by the strong negative differential resistance. A more accurate estimation of change in the sample temperature was made by back-calculating the sample temperature from the temperature variation of resistance (R-T) data (ΔTcal), which was found to be higher than ΔTsur. This result indicates that there are large thermal gradients across the sample. The experimentally derived ΔTcal is validated with the help of a simple theoretical model and estimation of Joule heating. Pulse measurements realize substantial reduction in Joule heating. With decrease in sample thickness, Joule heating effect is found to be reduced. Our studies reveal that Joule heating plays a major role in the nonlinear electrical response of Tb0.5Sr0.5MnO3. By careful management of the duty cycle and pulse current I-V measurements, Joule heating can be mitigated to a large extent.

  16. Analyzing the effect of selected control policy measures and sociodemographic factors on alcoholic beverage consumption in Europe within the AMPHORA project: statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Michela; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the methods used to investigate variations in total alcoholic beverage consumption as related to selected control intervention policies and other socioeconomic factors (unplanned factors) within 12 European countries involved in the AMPHORA project. The analysis presented several critical points: presence of missing values, strong correlation among the unplanned factors, long-term waves or trends in both the time series of alcohol consumption and the time series of the main explanatory variables. These difficulties were addressed by implementing a multiple imputation procedure for filling in missing values, then specifying for each country a multiple regression model which accounted for time trend, policy measures and a limited set of unplanned factors, selected in advance on the basis of sociological and statistical considerations are addressed. This approach allowed estimating the "net" effect of the selected control policies on alcohol consumption, but not the association between each unplanned factor and the outcome.

  17. Vitrification of Hanford wastes in a joule-heated ceramic melter and evaluation of resultant canisterized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Buelt, J.L.; Slate, S.C.; Katayama, Y.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1979-08-01

    Experience gained in the week-long vitrification test and characterization of the glass produced in the run support the following conclusions: The Hanford waste simulated in this test can be readily vitrified in a joule-heated ceramic melter. Physical properties of the molten glass were entirely compatible with melter operation. The average feed rate of 106 kg/h is high enough to make the ceramic melter a feasible piece of equipment for vitrifying Hanford wastes. The glass produced in this trial had good chemical durability, 6(10) -5 g/cm 2 -d. When one of the canisters was purposely dropped onto a steel pad, the damage was limited to deformation of the steel can in the impact area, cracking of a weld, and fracturing of glass in the immediate vicinity of the impact area. No glass was released from the canister as a result of the drop test. The results of this vitrification test support the technical feasibility of vitrifying Hanford wastes by means of a joule-heated ceramic melter. Surface area for large glass castings is equivalent to the mass median particle diameters between 4.27 cm (1.75 in.) and 8.91 cm (3.51 in.) even when allowed to cool rapidly by standing in ambient air. Large canisters (up to 0.91 m in dia) can be cast without large voids while standing in air if the fill rate is over 100 kg/h. 34 figures, 10 tables

  18. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography. Final report of a coordinated research project in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    Although radiography has been an established imaging modality for over a century, continuous developments have led to improvements in technique resulting in improved image quality at reduced patient dose. If one compares the technique used by Roentgen with the methods used today, one finds that a radiograph can now be obtained at a dose which is smaller by a factor of 100 or more. Nonetheless, some national surveys, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States of America in the 1980s and 1990s, have indicated large variations in patient doses for the same diagnostic examination, in some cases by a factor of 20 or more. This arises not only owing to the various types of equipment and accessories used by the different health care providers, but also because of operational factors. The IAEA has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionising radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), issued by the IAEA in cooperation with the FAO, ILO, WHO, PAHO and NEA, is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. Towards its responsibility of implementation of standards and under the subprogramme of radiation safety, in 1995, the IAEA launched a coordinated research project (CRP) on radiological protection in diagnostic radiology in some countries in the Eastern European, African and Asian region. Initially, the CRP addressed radiography only and it covered wide aspects of optimisation of radiological protection. Subsequently, the scope of the CRP was extended to fluoroscopy and computed tomography (CT), but it covered primarily situation analysis of patient doses and equipment quality control. It did not cover patient dose reduction aspects in fluoroscopy and CT. The project

  19. The 'Europe, Territories' project of energy transition(s) in Europe: comparative analysis of scenarios, of their territorial application, and of their social-economic impacts. Phase 1. Analysis of national scenarios in Germany, Austria, Denmark and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelin, Stephane; Marignac, Yves; Besnard, Manon; Letz, Thomas; Rialhe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This report reports an identification and an analysis of different scenarios of energy transition elaborated in different European countries (Germany, Austria, Denmark, Switzerland), and is a required preliminary step for the 'Europe-Territories' project implemented by the NegaWatt association. The report justifies the selection of these countries and, for each country, the selection of a specific scenario as several scenarios were available for each country. It discusses available data, identifies missing data and reports the search for additional data. Then, it reports the comparison between noticed trajectories, European objectives and retained scenarios. More precisely, and for each of the four countries and for France, it analyses the share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, and the evolution of final energy consumption. For each national scenario, it presents various aspects which can be, depending on the country, framework and method, major focuses, implementation, results, economic benefits, scenario assessment, energy production and demand. It proposes a comparative analysis of the studied national scenarios in terms of objectives and methodology, of energy demand and of energy production. It finally analyses trajectories on the short and on the long term. Some more detailed presentations of national scenarios are given in appendix

  20. Formulation of special glass frit and its use for decontamination of Joule melter employed for vitrification of high level and radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsala, T.P.; Mishra, P.K.; Thakur, D.A.; Ghongane, D.E.; Jayan, R.V.; Dani, U.; Sonavane, M.S.; Kulkarni, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced vitrification system at TWMP Tarapur was used for successful vitrification of large volume of HLW stored in waste tank farm. After completion of the operational life of the joule melter, dismantling was planned. Prior to the dismantling, the hold up inventory of active glass product from the melter was flushed out using specially formulated inactive glass frit to reduce the air activity buildup in the cell during dismantling operations. The properties of the special glass frit prepared are comparable with that of the regular product glass. More than 94% of holdup activity was flushed out from the joule melter prior to the dismantling of the melter. (author)

  1. Small-scale, joule-heated melting of Savannah River Plant waste glass. I. Factors affecting large-scale vitrification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Chismar, P.H.

    1979-10-01

    A promising method of immobilizing SRP radioactive waste solids is incorporation in borosilicate glass. In the reference vitrification process, called joule-heated melting, a mixture of glass frit and calcined waste is heated by passage of an electric current. Two problems observed in large-scale tests are foaming and formation of an insoluble slag. A small joule-heated melter was designed and built to study problems such as these. This report describes the melter, identifies factors involved in foaming and slag formation, and proposes ways to overcome these problems

  2. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  3. Nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    2000-01-01

    Currently nuclear power accounts for more than 25% of total electricity production in Europe (including Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) However, significant new construction is planned in Central and Eastern Europe only, apart from some in France and, possibly in Finland. Many countries in Western Europe have put nuclear construction plans on hold and several have cancelled their nuclear programs. This report looks at the history of nuclear power and its current status in both Eastern and Western Europe. It provides an outline of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, from uranium procurement to final waste disposal. Economic and environmental issues are discussed, as well as the prospect of increased East-West trade and cooperation in the new poso-cold war world. Detailed profiles are provided of all the countries in Western Europe with significant nuclear power programs, as well as profiles of major energy and nuclear companies

  4. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This document is a summary of the key technical inputs for the modelling of the heat strategy for Europe outlined in the latest Heat Roadmap Europe studies [1, 2]. These studies quantify the impact of alternative heating strategies for Europe in 2030 and 2050. The study is based on geographical...... information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... includes energy efficiency, individual heating units (such as boilers and heat pumps), and heat networks, the recommendations here are primarily relating to the potential and modelling of district heating. Although other solutions will play a significant role in decarbonising the heating and cooling sector...

  5. Europe representations in textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Brennetot , Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    This EuroBroadMap working paper presents an analysis of textbooks dealing with the representations of Europe and European Union. In most of these textbooks from secondary school, the teaching of the geography of Europe precedes the evocation of the EU. Europe is often depicted as a given object, reduced to a number of structural aspects (relief, climate, demography, traditional cultures, economic activities, etc.) whose only common point is their location within conventional boundaries. Such ...

  6. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule; Impact de l'environnement sur l'endommagement laser des optiques de silice du Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-15

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm{sup 2}, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  7. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Western Europe, Austria, Finland, Greece, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, Greenland, Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy, contains articles on Politics...

  8. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This document contains articles about Western Europe. Some topics discussed are socialism, political parties, international relations, foreign policy, sociology, consumerism, economics, military operations, commerce, industries, energy, trade, private...

  9. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  10. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  11. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Eastern Europe, Interior's agreement, Political Health, Refugee, WOrking People, Saving Banks, Radio Telephones, Budget Draft, Reduced Inflation Rate, New Land, Land Management, Real Estate Laws...

  12. Heat treatment of whole milk by the direct joule effect--experimental and numerical approaches to fouling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaudeau, L; Winterton, P; Leuliet, J C; Tissier, J P; Maury, V; Semet, F; Debreyne, P; Berthou, M; Chopard, F

    2006-12-01

    The development of alternative technologies such as the direct Joule effect to pasteurize and sterilize food products is of great scientific and industrial interest. Our objective was 1) to gain insight into the ability to ensure ultra-high-temperature treatment of milk and 2) to investigate the links among thermal, hydraulic, and electrical phenomena in relation to fouling in a direct Joule effect heater. The ohmic heater [OH; E perpendicular to v (where E is the electrical field and v is the velocity); P (power) = 15 kW] was composed of 5 flat rectangular cells [e (space between the plate and electrode) = 15 mm, w (wall) = 76 mm, and L (length of the plate in plate heat exchanger or electrode) = 246 mm]--3 active cells to ensure heating and 2 (at the extremities) for electrical insulation and the recovery of leakage currents. In the first step, the thermal performance of the OH was investigated vs. the flow regimen [50 conductivity of fluids (0.1 thermal approach (thermal and electrical balance, modeling of the temperature profile of a fluid) and local analysis of the wall temperature of the electrode. An empirical correlation was established to estimate the temperature gradient, T(w)-T(b) (where T(w) is the wall temperature and T(b) is the product temperature) under clean conditions (without fouling) and was used to define operating conditions for pure-volume and direct-resistance heating. In the second step, the ability of OH to ensure the ultra-high-temperature treatment of whole milk was investigated and compared with a plate heat exchanger. Special care was taken to investigate the heat transfer phenomena occurring over a range of temperatures from 105 to 138 degrees C. This temperature range corresponds to the part of the process made critical by protein and mineral fouling. The objectives were 1) to demonstrate the ability of an OH to ensure heat treatment of milk, 2) to study the thermal and hydraulic performance with an increasing power and temperature

  13. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Androutsos, Odysseas; Chinapaw, Mai; Moreno, Luis A; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Singh, Amika; Brug, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and

  14. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients: Image quality and dose in mammography (co-ordinated research in Europe). Results of the coordinated research project on optimization of protection mammography in some eastern European States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    Mammography is an extremely useful non-invasive imaging technique with unparalleled advantages for the detection of breast cancer. It has played an immense role in the screening of women above a certain age or with a family history of breast cancer. The IAEA has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (BSS) and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by FAO, ILO, WHO, PAHO and NEA, is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. In keeping with its responsibility on the application of standards, the IAEA programme on Radiological Protection of Patients attempts to reduce radiation doses to patients while balancing quality assurance considerations. IAEA-TECDOC-796, Radiation Doses in Diagnostic Radiology and Methods for Dose Reduction (1995), addresses this aspect. The related IAEA-TECDOC-1423 on Optimization of the Radiological Protection of Patients undergoing Radiography, Fluoroscopy and Computed Tomography, (2004) constitutes the final report of the coordinated research in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe. The preceding publications do not explicitly consider mammography. Mindful of the importance of this imaging technique, the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project on Optimization of Protection in Mammography in some eastern European States. The present publication is the outcome of this project: it is aimed at evaluating the situation in a number of countries, identifying variations in the technique, examining the status of the equipment and comparing performance in the light of the norms established by the European Commission. A number of important aspects are covered, including: - quality control of mammography equipment; - imaging

  15. Evaluation of a Novel Temperature Sensing Probe for Monitoring and Controlling Glass Temperature in a Joule-Heated Glass Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, A. D.; Musick, C. A.; Cannon, C.; Carlson, N. M.; Mullenix, P.D.; Tillotson, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    A self-verifying temperature sensor that employs advanced contact thermocouple probe technology was tested in a laboratory-scale, joule-heated, refractory-lined glass melter used for radioactive waste vitrification. The novel temperature probe monitors melt temperature at any given level of the melt chamber. The data acquisition system provides the real-time temperature for molten glass. Test results indicate that the self-verifying sensor is more accurate and reliable than classic platinum/rhodium thermocouple and sheath assemblies. The results of this test are reported as well as enhancements being made to the temperature probe. To obtain more reliable temperature measurements of the molten glass for improving production efficiency and ensuring consistent glass properties, optical sensing was reviewed for application in a high temperature environment

  16. Joule heating and spin-transfer torque investigated on the atomic scale using a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R

    2011-10-28

    The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.

  17. Analytical solution for Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 geo-sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, S.A.; Gluyas, J.G.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2010-05-21

    Mathematical tools are needed to screen out sites where Joule-Thomson cooling is a prohibitive factor for CO{sub 2} geo-sequestration and to design approaches to mitigate the effect. In this paper, a simple analytical solution is developed by invoking steady-state flow and constant thermophysical properties. The analytical solution allows fast evaluation of spatiotemporal temperature fields, resulting from constant-rate CO{sub 2} injection. The applicability of the analytical solution is demonstrated by comparison with non-isothermal simulation results from the reservoir simulator TOUGH2. Analysis confirms that for an injection rate of 3 kg s{sup -1} (0.1 MT yr{sup -1}) into moderately warm (>40 C) and permeable formations (>10{sup -14} m{sup 2} (10 mD)), JTC is unlikely to be a problem for initial reservoir pressures as low as 2 MPa (290 psi).

  18. Heavy-ion driver parametric studies and choice of a base 5 mega-joule driver design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Meier, W.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric studies to optimize heavy-ion driver designs are described and an optimized 5 MJ driver design is described. Parametric studies are done on driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, axial quadrupole field packing fraction, ion mass, and ion charge state. All modeled drivers use the maximum beam currents allowed by the Maschke limits; driver scaling is described in a companion paper. The optimized driver described is conservative and cost effective. The base driver direct costs are only $120/Joule, and the base driver uses no recirculation, beam combination, or beam separation. The low driver cost achieved is due, in part, to the use of compact Nb 3 Sn quadrupole arrays, but results primarily from optimization over the large, multi-dimensional, parameter space available for heavy-ion drivers

  19. Heat transfer analysis for magnetohydrodynamics axisymmetric flow between stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of heat transfer analysis on steady MHD axi-symmetric flow between two infinite stretching disks in the presence of viscous dissipation and Joule heating is basic objective of this paper. Attention has been focused to acquire the similarity solutions of the equations governing the flow and thermal fields. The transformed boundary value problem is solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. The series solutions are developed and the convergence of these solutions is explicitly discussed. The analytical expressions for fluid velocity, pressure and temperature are constructed and analyzed for various set of parameter values. The numerical values for skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. Particular attention is given to the variations of Prandtl and Eckert numbers. We examined that the dimensionless temperature field is enhanced when we increase the values of Eckert number and Prandtl number.

  20. Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepin, H.; Comtois, D.; Vidal, F.; Chien, C.Y.; Desparois, A.; Johnston, T.W.; Kieffer, J.C.; La Fontaine, B.; Martin, F.; Rizk, F.A.M.; Potvin, C.; Couture, P.; Mercure, H.P.; Bondiou-Clergerie, A.; Lalande, P.; Gallimberti, I.

    2001-01-01

    The triggering and guiding of leader discharges using a plasma channel created by a sub-joule ultrashort laser pulse have been studied in a megavolt large-scale electrode configuration (3-7 m rod-plane air gap). By focusing the laser close to the positive rod electrode it has been possible, with a 400 mJ pulse, to trigger and guide leaders over distances of 3 m, to lower the leader inception voltage by 50%, and to increase the leader velocity by a factor of 10. The dynamics of the breakdown discharges with and without the laser pulse have been analyzed by means of a streak camera and of electric field and current probes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced many of the experimental results obtained with and without the presence of the laser plasma channel

  1. Application of Streaming Effect and Joule Heating Effect of Pulse Current in Crack Healing of Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacture engineering is an emerging industry that saves resources as well as protects the environment. However, cracks on remanufactured components can result in serious trouble. Therefore, in order to avoid unnecessary waste of resources and energy, these cracks should be repaired radically in order to ensure the smooth progressing of the remanufacturing process. Consequently, the crack healing technique of metal materials is very important in the field of remanufacturing. In this study, the U-shape vane stainless steel of a centrifugal compressor which had cracks was processed by pulse current using a high pulse current discharge device, and the influence of the streaming effect and Joule heating effect of pulse current on the crack healing of metal materials was studied, aiming to provide references for the better application of this technology in the remanufacturing field in the future.

  2. Energy, North Africa and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.

    1995-01-01

    The energy situation in the North African countries not only offers a multitude of opportunities for regional cooperation, but also for consolidating ties with the European Union. What are the medium-term chances of putting these possibilities to use ? This article reviews the energy issues in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, all in the middle of a complete economic, political, and cultural mutations. It identifies the intra-regional cooperative projects and certain potential obstacles, and analyzes the energy relations between North Africa and Europe from the strategic viewpoint of both regions. (author). 7 tabs

  3. Sustainable energy successes in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Oesterfelt, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The publication describes more than 20 `good practices` in energy conservation in Central and Eastern Europe: successful campaigns and projects for increased energy efficiency and renewable energy. The cases are collected mainly by NGO-organisations in INFORSE (International Network for Sustainable Energy) - Europe as part of their contributions to the ECO-Forum Energy and Climate Group. (LN)

  4. Weather- and climate-related natural hazards in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurnik, Blaz; Linden, van der P.; Mysiak, J.; Swart, R.J.; Füssel, H.M.; Christiansen, Trine; Cavicchia, Leone; Gualdi, S.; Mercogliano, Paola; Rianna, Guido; Kramer, K.; Michetti, Melania; Salis, Michele; Schelhaas, M.; Leitner, M.; Vanneuville, W.; Macadam, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Since 2003, Europe has experienced several extreme summer heat waves. Such heat waves are projected to occur as often as every 2 years in the second half of the 21st century, under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). The impacts will be
    particularly strong in southern Europe.
    Heavy

  5. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  6. Sustainable growth in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreini, P.

    1993-01-01

    The measures till now adopted did not stop environmental deterioration in Europe and the growth of economic activities in the future will make the situation more and more heavy. The European Communities (EEC) Cabinet launched a long term program for a sustainable growth in Europe, which could conciliate economic needs with environmental protection. This paper presents the first part of the program

  7. Islam in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007.......A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007....

  8. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  9. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  10. The new Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities for business growth in an area of changing social, economic and political climate. The topics include existing political and economic ties, how these ties are evolving, comparisons between east and west, pollution and environmental issues, battery markets in eastern Europe, motive power, standby power, the transition of eastern europe to a market economy, and opportunities for the west

  11. Effects of distributing wind energy generation over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Using data from 60 meteorological stations distributed all over Europe in conjunction with the National Grid Model (NGM) from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the effects of the large-scale distribution of wind energy generation are studied. In some regions of Europe, wind energy already covers a significant proportion of the electricity demand. But the intermittence of the wind resource is always a limiting factor when penetration levels are high. Studies for single countries have shown that distributing the generation over a large area reduces the variability of the output and hence makes wind energy more appealing to utilities, since the stability requirement of the network are easier to fulfil. The data are analysed in terms of absolute highs and lows, temporal and spatial correlations. To assess the financial benefits, the NGM is used to evaluate the match of electricity demand and generation as well as the possibel savings of fossil fuel in an electricity grid incorporating various capacities of wind energy generation. To assess the value of wind energy on a trans-national scale, the European plant mix is modelled, and the NGM is used to simulate the scheduling of these plants in the presence of different penetrations of wind energy. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  12. Hacking Europe: From Computer Cultures to Demoscenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, G.; Oldenziel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Hacking Europe focuses on the playfulness that was at the heart of how European users appropriated microcomputers in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The essays argue that users--whether the design of the projected use of computers was detailed or still unfinished--assigned their own

  13. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  14. Renewables in Europe: The Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the experience of Europe in the economical aspects of renewable energy sources including generation costs and the evolution of costs per kW installed. Also describes how to apply this experience in Central America considering aspects of demand and supply of energy and diagnoses the potential of projects with renewable energy

  15. General lexicography in Europe | Hartmann | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of several surveys of experts, centres and projects in lexicography, and against the author's own experience of metalexicography, the paper traces the recent progress of academic lexicography, especially in Europe. Particular attention is paid to 'dictionary research' in four of its divisions. One special concern is ...

  16. Development of superconducting power devices in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Europe celebrated last year (2008) the 100-year anniversary of the first liquefaction of helium by H. Kammerling Onnes in Leiden. It led to the discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Europe is still active in the development of superconducting (SC) devices. The discovery of high critical temperature materials in 1986, again in Europe, has opened a lot of opportunities for SC devices by broking the 4 K cryogenic bottleneck. Electric networks experience deep changes due to the emergence of dispersed generation (renewable among other) and to the advances in ICT (Information Communication Technologies). The networks of the future will be 'smart grids'. Superconductivity will offer 'smart' devices for these grids like FCL (Fault Current Limiter) or VLI (Very Low Inductance) cable and would certainly play an important part. Superconductivity also will participate to the required sustainable development by lowering the losses and enhancing the mass specific powers. Different SC projects in Europe will be presented (Cable, FCL, SMES, Flywheel and Electrical Machine) but the description is not exhaustive. Nexans has commercialized the first two FCLs without public funds in the European grid (UK and Germany). The Amsterdam HTS cable is an exciting challenge in term of losses for long SC cables. European companies (Nexans, Air Liquide, Siemens, Converteam, ...) are also very active for projects outside Europe (LIPA, DOE FCL, ...).

  17. The Anglo-Ukrainian project “Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe?” sends its travelling exhibition to Chişinău / Proiectul anglo-ucrainean „Urbanismul timpuriu în Europa preistorică?” aduce expoziţia itinerantă la Chişinău

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Chapman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The AHRC-funded Anglo-Ukrainian Project ”Early urbanism in prehistoric Europe?: the case of the Tripillia mega-sites“ (2012-2016 is a joint project organized between Durham University (Professor John Chapman and The Kiev Institute of Archaeology (Dr. Mikhail Yu. Videiko. The international travelling exhibition which has now arrived in Chisinau has already been on display in Ukraine (Kirovograd Historical Museum and Bulgaria (Varna rchaeological Museum and will then travel to Hungary (Eötvös Lórand University, Budapest and Germany (Kiel University before reaching home in England (Durham University in April 2016.

  18. World review: Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of Europe in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Belgium, Czech Republic, France, the former Soviet Union, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It is suggested that in E. Europe, the demand for gas could triple by 2020, in S. Europe the market for gas will double in the next ten years and the Mediterranean will continue to be a developing global refinery into the 21st century

  19. Heat Roadmap Europe 3 (STRATEGO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Hansen, Kenneth; Drysdale, David

    Heat Roadmap Europe 3 is from work package 2 of the STRATEGO project (http://stratego-project.eu/). It quantifies the impact of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the heating and cooling sectors of five EU Member States: Czech Republic, Croatia, Italy, Romania, and the United...... of approximately €1.1 trillion in energy efficiency measures across all five of these countries, between 2010 and 2050, will save enough fuel to reduce the costs of their energy systems. After considering both the initial investment and the resulting savings, the total annual cost of the heating, cooling......, and electricity sectors is reduced by an average of ~15% in each country. These initial investments are primarily required in heat savings for the buildings, district heating in urban areas, and electric heat pumps in rural areas. In essence, energy efficiency measures in the heating sector will enable EU Member...

  20. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  1. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  2. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... an expanding role in public debates about science policy and school curricula. In this, the first comprehensive history of creationism in Europe, leading historians, philosophers, and scientists narrate the rise of—and response to—scientific creationism, creation science, intelligent design, and organized...... antievolutionism in countries and religions throughout Europe. Providing a unique map of creationism in Europe, the authors chart the surprising history of creationist activities and strategies there. Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus...

  3. EPA Collaboration with Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    By working together to achieve common goals, the U.S. and Europe can enhance our respective environmental protection efforts while creating a cleaner environment on both continents and around the world.

  4. Where Europe meets Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent). From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was

  5. Biotechnological research in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, H J

    1982-01-01

    The current research possibilities in the expanding field of biotechnology in Europe are very briefly described. Remarks on research and development are limited to six topics: fermented food products; biomass production; product formation; bioreactors; waste-water treatment, environmental processes and methane formation; central research institutions. It is summarised that increased efforts at co-operation on all levels are vital for an improved development in the field of biotechnology throughout Europe.

  6. Somalis in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    FAGIOLI-NDLOVU, Monica

    2015-01-01

    INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals? Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration Somalis have a long history in Europe; the first Somalis were seamen who arrived in the UK working on British ships at the beginning of the 20th century. Throughout different waves of migrations directly related to European colonial history, Somalis have settled down in various cities throughout Europe. More recently,...

  7. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  8. Joule-class 940-nm diode laser bars for millisecond pulse applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crump, P.; Frevert, C.; Ginolas, A.; Knigge, S.; Maassdorf, A.; Lotz, J.; Fassbender, W.; Neukum, J.; Körner, J.; Töpfer, T.; Pranovich, Alina; Divoký, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš; Ertel, K.; De Vido, M.; Erbert, G.; Traenkle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 15 (2015), s. 1663-1666 ISSN 1041-1135 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : semiconductor laser arrays * power conversion * pulse power systems * pumps * YAG lasers * cryogenics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.945, year: 2015

  9. Influence of Ge on magnetic and structural properties of Joule-heated Co-based ribbons: Giant magnetoimpedance response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraca, D.; Cremaschi, V.; Knobel, M.; Sirkin, H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of magnetic and structural properties of Fe 3.5 Co 66.5 Si 12-x Ge x B 18 (x=0, 3, and 6) soft magnetic ribbons obtained by melt-spinning were performed. The samples were submitted to Joule-heating treatments with different maximum current values (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.8 A, respectively) with steps of 0.01 A and times by step of 1, 2, and 10 s). X-ray diffraction, temperature dependence of magnetization (for the as-quenched samples), coercivity and giant magnetoimpedance (GMI), measured at different frequencies (100, 500, and 900 kHz, respectively) were performed. All the samples crystallized at annealing currents higher than 0.4 A, which was consistent with the magnetic hardening of the material. Coercivities less than 1 A/m were obtained for the three samples between 0.1 and 0.2 A. Maximum value of GMI response was observed for the sample without Ge in the as-quenched state

  10. Polypyrrole/silver coaxial nanowire aero-sponges for temperature-independent stress sensing and stress-triggered Joule heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weina; Li, Guangyong; Zhang, Shangquan; Wei, Yong; Wang, Jin; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Xuetong

    2015-04-28

    To obtain ideal sensing materials with nearly zero temperature coefficient resistance (TCR) for self-temperature-compensated pressure sensors, we proposed an Incipient Network Conformal Growth (INCG) technology to prepare hybrid and elastic porous materials: the nanoparticles (NPs) are first dispersed in solvent to form an incipient network, another component is then introduced to coat the incipient network conformally via wet chemical route. The conformal coatings not only endow NPs with high stability but also offer them additional structural elasticity, meeting requirements for future generations of portable, compressive and flexible devices. The resultant polypyrrole/silver coaxial nanowire hybrid aero-sponges prepared via INCG technology have been processed into a piezoresistive sensor with highly sensing stability (low TCR 0.86 × 10(-3)/°C), sensitivity (0.33 kPa(-1)), short response time (1 ms), minimum detectable pressure (4.93 Pa) after suffering repeated stimuli, temperature change and electric heating. Moreover, a stress-triggered Joule heater can be also fabricated mainly by the PPy-Ag NW hybrid aero-sponges with nearly zero temperature coefficient.

  11. Conceptual design of a joule-heated ceramic melter for the DOE Fernald silos 1, 2, and 3 wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Janke, D.S.; Peters, R.; Fekete, L.

    1992-06-01

    Vitrification of nuclear wastes has been under investigation since the mid-1950s. Most of the international communities experience has been with vitrification of high level nuclear wastes. In the US, this technology was developed by Battelle scientists at the DOEs Pacific Northwest Laboratories located at their Hanford site. Based on Laboratory and pilot-scale testing conducted at Hanford in the early 1970s, the DOE has constructed high level nuclear waste vitrification facilities at both Savannah River, South Carolina, and West Valley, New York, and is finalizing the design of a similar treatment facility at Hanford. Although these systems were designed to be fully remote due to the extreme radioactive hazards associated with this type of nuclear waste, technology transfer was successfully applied to the design of a vitrification process for the K-65 and uranium metal oxide wastes in a semi-remote operation at Fernald. This paper describes a conceptual design of a joule-heated, slurry-fed ceramic melter that was developed for vitrification of the DOE K-65 and metal oxide low level wastes at Fernald, Ohio

  12. Joule heating effects on electromagnetohydrodynamic flow through a peristaltically induced micro-channel with different zeta potential and wall slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, N. K.; Shit, G. C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for magnetohydrodynamic flow of biofluids through a hydrophobic micro-channel with periodically contracting and expanding walls under the influence of an axially applied electric field. The velocity slip effects have been taken into account at the channel walls by employing different slip lengths due to hydrophobic gating. Different temperature jump factors have also been used to investigate the thermomechanical interactions at the fluid-solid interface. The electromagnetohydrodynamic flow in a microchannel is simplified under the framework of Debye-Hückel linearization approximation. We have derived the closed-form solutions for the linearized dimensionless boundary value problem under the assumptions of long wave length and low Reynolds number. The axial velocity, temperature, pressure distribution, stream function, wall shear stress and the Nusselt number have been appraised for diverse values of the parameters approaching into the problem. Our main focus is to determine the effects of different zeta potential on the axial velocity and temperature distribution under electromagnetic environment. This study puts forward an important observation that the different zeta potential plays an important role in controlling fluid velocity. The study further reveals that the temperature increases significantly with the Joule heating parameter and the Brinkman number (arises due to the dissipation of energy).

  13. Numerical simulation of tubes-in-tube heat exchanger in a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, R. M.; Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MRJT) cryocoolers can produce cryogenic temperatures with high efficiency and low operating pressures. As compared to the high system pressures of around 150-200 bar with nitrogen, the operational pressures with non-azeotropic mixtures (e.g., nitrogen-hydrocarbons) come down to 10-25 bar. With mixtures, the heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger takes place in the two-phase region. The simultaneous boiling and condensation of the cold and hot gas streams lead to higher heat transfer coefficients as compared to single phase heat exchange. The two-phase heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger drastically affects the performance of a MRJT cryocooler. In this work, a previously reported numerical model for a simple tube-in-tube heat exchanger is extended to a multi tubes-in-tube heat exchanger with a transient formulation. Additionally, the J-T expansion process is also considered to simulate the cooling process of the heat exchanger from ambient temperature conditions. A tubes-in-tube heat exchanger offers more heat transfer area per unit volume resulting in a compact design. Also, the division of flow in multiple tubes reduces the pressure drop in the heat exchanger. Simulations with different mixtures of nitrogen-hydrocarbons are carried out and the numerical results are compared with the experimental data.

  14. Off-gas characteristics of defense waste vitrification using liquid-fed Joule-heated ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goles, R.W.; Sevigny, G.J.

    1983-09-01

    Off-gas and effluent characterization studies have been established as part of a PNL Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter development program supporting the Savannah River Laboratory Defense Waste Processing Facility (SRL-DWPF). The objectives of these studies were to characterize the gaseous and airborne emission properties of liquid-fed joule-heated melters as a function of melter operational parameters and feed composition. All areas of off-gas interest and concern including effluent characterization, emission control, flow rate behavior and corrosion effects have been studied using alkaline and formic-acid based feed compositions. In addition, the behavioral patterns of gaseous emissions, the characteristics of melter-generated aerosols and the nature and magnitude of melter effluent losses have been established under a variety of feeding conditions with and without the use of auxiliary plenum heaters. The results of these studies have shown that particulate emissions are responsible for most radiologically important melter effluent losses. Melter-generated gases have been found to be potentially flammable as well as corrosive. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide present the greatest flammability hazard of the combustibles produced. Melter emissions of acidic volatile compounds of sulfur and the halogens have been responsible for extensive corrosion observed in melter plenums and in associated off-gas lines and processing equipment. The use of auxiliary plenum heating has had little effect upon melter off-gas characteristics other than reducing the concentrations of combustibles

  15. Comparative investigation of five nanoparticles in flow of viscous fluid with Joule heating and slip due to rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Sumaira; Khan, Muhammad Ijaz; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Present article addresses the comparative study for flow of five water based nanofluids. Flow in presence of Joule heating is generated by rotating disk with variable thickness. Nanofluids are suspension of Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu), Copper oxide (CuO), Aluminum oxide or Alumina (Al2O3), Titanium oxide or titania (TiO2) and water. Boundary layer approximation is applied to partial differential equations. Using Von Karman transformations the partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are obtained. Graphical results are presented to examine the behaviors of axial, radial and tangential velocities, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number. It is observed that radial, axial and tangential velocities decay for slip parameters. Axial velocity decays for larger nanoparticle volume fraction. Effect of nanofluids on velocities dominant than base material. Temperature rises for larger Eckert number and temperature of silver water nanofluid is more because of its higher thermal conductivity. Surface drag force reduces for higher slip parameters. Transfer of heat is more for larger disk thickness index.

  16. Controlling the crystallization and magnetic properties of melt-spun Pr2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposites by Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z. Q.; Cui, B. Z.; Liu, J. P.; Ding, Y.; Wang, Z. L.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2004-05-01

    Pr2Fe14B/α-Fe based nanocomposites have been prepared through crystallization of melt-spun amorphous Pr7Tb1Fe85Nb0.5Zr0.5B6 ribbons by means of ac Joule heating while simultaneously monitoring room-temperature electrical resistance R. The R value shows a strong variation with respect to applied current I, and is closely related to the amorphous-to-nanocrystalline phase transformation. The curve of R versus I allows one to control the crystallization behavior during Joule heating and to identify the heat-treatment conditions for optimum magnetic properties. A coercivity of 550 kA/m and a maximum energy product of 128 kJ/m3 have been obtained upon heating the amorphous ribbons at a current of 2.0 A. These properties are around 30% higher than the values of samples prepared by conventionally (furnace) annealed amorphous ribbons.

  17. Influence of nonlinear thermal radiation and viscous dissipation on three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nano fluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of Joule heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, K.; Rudraswamy, N. G.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishnamurthy, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Present exploration discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on three dimensional flow and heat transfer of a Jeffrey nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Here the flow is generated over bidirectional stretching sheet in the presence of applied magnetic field by accounting thermophoresis and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. Suitable similarity transformations are employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Graphically results are presented and discussed for various parameters. Validation of the current method is proved by comparing our results with the existing results under limiting situations. It can be concluded that combined effect of Joule and viscous heating increases the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness.

  18. Hysteresis properties of conventionally annealed and Joule-heated nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberto, P.; Basso, V.; Beatrice, C.; Bertotti, G.

    1996-01-01

    The dependence of magnetic properties on the thermal treatment used to induce the amorphous-to-nanocrystalline transformation in Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 13.5 B 9 alloy has been studied. Quasi-static hysteresis loops and initial permeability measurements were performed on nanocrystalline samples obtained by conventional annealing and Joule heating. A comparison between the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline samples obtained by the two heating procedures is presented. (orig.)

  19. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, K.

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  20. Nuclear power. Europe report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Last year, 2001, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, respectively, in 18 countries all over Europe. In 8 of the 15 member countries of the European Union nuclear power plants have been in operation. In 7 of the 13 EU Candidate Countries nuclear energy was used for power production. A total of 216 plants with an aggregate net capacity of 171 802 MWe and an aggregate gross capacity of 181 212 MWe were in operation. One unit, i.e. Volgodonsk-1 in Russia went critical for the first time and started test operation after having been connected to the grid. Volgodonsk-1 adds about 1 000 MWe (gross) nd 953 MWe (net) to the electricity production capacity. The operator of the Muehlheim-Kaerlich NPP field an application to decommission and dismantle the plant; this plant was only 13 months in operation and has been shut down since 1988 for legal reasons. Last year, 10 plants were under construction in Romania (1), Russia (4), Slovakia (2), the Czech Republic (1) and the Ukraine (2), that is only in East European Countries. In eight countries of the European Union 143 nuclear power plants have been operated with an aggregate gross capacity of 128 758 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 122 601 MWe. Net electricity production in 2001 in the EU amounts to approx. 880.3 TWh gross, which means a share of 33,1 per cent of the total production in the whole EU. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. The reach 75.6% in France, 74.2% in Lithuania, 58.2% in Belgium, 53.2% in the Slovak Republic, and 47.4% in the Ukraine. Nuclear power also provides a noticeable share in the electricity supply of countries, which operate no own nuclear power plants, e.g. Italy, Portugal, and Austria. On May 24th, 2002 the Finnish Parliament voted for the decision in principle to build a fifth nuclear power plant in the country. This launches the next stage in the nuclear power plant project. The electric output of the plant unit will be 1000-1600 MW

  1. Desertification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantechi, R.; Margaris, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    Desertification in Europe highlights a phenomenon which is widespread in most of Southern Europe. The continuous loss of fertile soil, wind and water erosion, vegetation degradation, droughts and forest fires all contribute to the creation of a potentially alarming situation. If one adds to this list the threat posed by acid rain, and the possibility of a climatic change inducing drier and warmer conditions in areas already heavily affected by degradation of soil and vegetation, the problem of desertification in Europe could be seen as being grave. This book focuses on those processes in which nature and Man cooperate in producing accelerated and irreversible barreness of once fertile soils. One paper discusses the use of short-lived radioisotopes to provide chronologies of sedimentation

  2. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...

  3. Europe's New Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piebalgs, A.; Conn, I.; Dobbeni, D.; Josefsson, L.G.; Mogg, L.; Rifkin, J.; Scaroni, P.; Tanaka, N.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's energy policy has been completely transformed over the last few years, tackling the dual challenges of climate change and energy security. This has lead to major new laws on issues such as energy liberalisation, renewable energy and energy efficiency. In this volume the detailed reasons for these changes are outlined and the way in which the European Union has risen to these challenges is discussed. Views are given on where Europe's energy policy will go next, the challenges of 2050 and the development of a 'third industrial revolution'. This insight is complemented by the observations and comments of some of the leading figures concerning European and global energy issues, explaining how industry, energy regulators and global thinkers see Europe's energy policy and the challenges that it now faces

  4. Will Half a Degree Make a Difference? Robust Projections of Indices of Mean and Extreme Climate in Europe Under 1.5°C, 2°C, and 3°C Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosio, Alessandro; Fischer, Erich M.

    2018-01-01

    Based on high-resolution models, we investigate the change in climate extremes and impact-relevant indicators over Europe under different levels of global warming. We specifically assess the robustness of the changes and the benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C instead of 2°C. Compared to 1.5°C world, a further 0.5°C warming results in a robust change of minimum summer temperature indices (mean, Tn10p, and Tn900p) over more than 70% of Europe. Robust changes (more than 0.5°C) in maximum temperature affect smaller areas (usually less than 20%). There is a substantial nonlinear change of fixed-threshold indices, with more than 60% increase of the number of tropical nights over southern Europe and more than 50% decrease in the number of frost days over central Europe. The change in mean precipitation due to 0.5°C warming is mostly nonsignificant at the grid point level, but, locally, it is accompanied by a more marked change in extreme rainfall.

  5. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manios, Y.; Moschonis, G.; Karatzi, K.; Androutsos, O.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Moreno, L.A.; Bere, E.; Molnar, D.; Jan, N.; Dossegger, A.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Singh, A.S.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Design Children's weight and height were

  6. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Andrei; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Averfalk, Helge

    2017-01-01

    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that suc......The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document...

  7. English-Only Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    and international relations. In this book, Robert Phillipson considers whether the contemporary expansion of English represents a serious threat to other European languages. After exploring the implications of current policies, Phillipson argues the case for more active language policies to safeguard a multilingual......English-Only Europe? explores the role of languages in the process of European integration. Languages are central to the development of an integrated Europe. The way in which the European Union deals with multilingualism has serious implications for both individual member countries...

  8. Social Impact Assessment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Lyhne, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    Social impact assessment (SIA) is applied worldwide to assess social impacts of plans and projects. In Europe, directives on environmental assessment (EA) require attention to social impacts, however, there is a need to investigate the implementation in practise. To this end, we study three Danish...... are not suggested or are postponed and the geographical distribution of impacts assessed is biased towards including negative local impacts. We discuss the scope and handling of social impacts, and possible implications. Based on this, we conclude with the view that EA might do the job of handling social impacts...... cases, which are characterised by debates and conflicts on social issues. Analysis of the EA statements shows inclusion of a broad range of social impacts. However, the EAs do not fully match the concerns of the public, and social impacts are not always analysed in depth, mitigation measures...

  9. Managed Realignment in Europe: Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental and financial sustainability associated with climate change adaptation needs are the key drivers leading to the development of national and regional strategies which promote managed realignment. Managed realignment aims to maximise environmental and socioeconomic benefits by creating space for coastal habitats to evolve more naturally. Therefore, the natural adaptive capacity of coastal habitats and the range of ecosystem services they provide are paramount to the success of these strategies. In Europe, most projects involve the creation of intertidal areas by artificially restoring tidal flow into embanked land. Projects generally involve at least one of the following: removal, breach, or realignment of existing coastal protection, controlled tidal restoration and managed retreat (i.e. relocation from risk areas). Since early 1980s, over 140 managed realignment projects have been implemented (or are under construction) in Europe, mainly in the UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and Spain, resulting in approximately 15,800 ha of habitat creation. This paper will present an overview of managed realignment initiatives in Europe, summarise achievements so far and discuss ways to overcome commonly faced challenges, focusing on high-level strategy; delivery of objectives at the project level; and public perception. Projects vary greatly as planning must take into account local social and environmental characteristics and constraints. Evidence of benefits gained in each project and their contribution to high level targets need to be quantified and widely disseminated to help attract public support. However, the lack of information and/or undisputable evidence about the realisation of tangible socioeconomic benefits is still hindering public acceptance. The knowledge about how the many social, economic, and technical aspects interact is evolving fast as new policies are formulated, more projects are implemented, and monitoring data are made available.

  10. Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.; Paris, P. J.

    2000-10-01

    A summary will be presented of PR efforts on fusion energy research in Europe. A 3-D movie of a fusion research experimental reactor has been realized at the start of this year. It has been made entirely on virtual animation basis. Two versions exists, a short version of 3 min., as a video clip, and a longer version of nearly 8 min. Both could be viewed in 3D, using special projections and passive glasses or in normal VHS video projections. A new CD-ROM for individual and classroom use will be presented, discussing (i) the different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is now produced in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  11. Design of closed-loop nitrogen Joule-Thomson refrigeration cycle for 67 K with sub-atmospheric device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Closed-loop J-T (Joule-Thomson) refrigeration cycle is advantageous compared to common open loop N{sub 2} decompression system in terms of nitrogen consumption. In this study, two closed-loop pure N{sub 2} J-T refrigeration systems with sub-atmospheric device for cooling High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cable are investigated. J-T cooling systems include 2-stage compressor, 2-stage precooling cycle, J-T valve and a cold compressor or an auxiliary vacuum pump at the room temperature. The cold compressor and the vacuum pump are installed after the J-T valve to create sub-atmospheric condition. The temperature of 67 K is possible by lowering the pressure up to 24 kPa at the cold part. The optimized hydrocarbon mixed refrigerant (MR) J-T system is applied for precooling stage. The cold head of precooling MR J-T have the temperature from 120 K to 150 K. The various characteristics of cold compressor are investigated and applied to design parameter of the cold compressor. The Carnot efficiency of cold compressor system is calculated as 16.7% and that of vacuum pump system as 16.4%. The efficiency difference between the cold compressor system and the vacuum pump system is due to difference of enthalpy change at cryogenic temperature, enthalpy change at room temperature and different work load at the pre-cooling cycle. The efficiency of neon-nitrogen MR J-T system is also presented for comparison with the sub-atmospheric devices. These systems have several pros and cons in comparison to typical MR J-T systems such as vacuum line maintainability, system's COP and etc. In this paper, the detailed design of the subcooled N{sub 2} J-T systems are examined and some practical issues of the sub-atmospheric devices are discussed.

  12. Connecting Europe: Postcolonial Mediations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzanesi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The current refugee crisis, magnified by media sensationalism and political opportunism, brings into sharp focus internal tensions that threaten the very notion of Europe. In a wave of nostalgia for the false security of the old sovereign states, old borders are being re-established and Fortress

  13. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  14. Environment for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report deals with how European policy makers are trying to work out a distinctively European approach to environmental problems which Europe is experiencing. Atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems pollutions from various sources and efforts being undertaken for the future abatement and control of environmental impacts are addressed

  15. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem...

  16. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  17. PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN EUROPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PILOT, T; MIYAZAKI, H

    The aim of the present overview is to evaluate the periodontal conditions in European populations. Study was made of a number of extensive surveys of periodontal diseases carried out in a number of European countries, primarily North West Europe. These surveys often provide considerable detail.

  18. Gas in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  19. England in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyler, Elizabeth Muir

    In England in Europe, Elizabeth Tyler focuses on two histories: the Encomium Emmae Reginae, written for Emma the wife of the Æthelred II and Cnut, and The Life of King Edward, written for Edith the wife of Edward the Confessor. Tyler offers a bold literary and historical analysis of both texts...

  20. Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The chapter develops a normative power approach to European studies that can be applied across and beyond its constitutive disciplines in order to interrogate and transgress the ideas and spaces on/of Europe. In four parts the chapter explores the terms ‘normative', ‘power', and ‘Europe', before......' - in order to make sense of ideas of the common good. Part two looks at three different types of power - ‘relational', ‘structural', and ‘normative' - as a means of understanding the power of ideas of the common good. Part three considers three different means of understanding Europe - ‘civilizational......', ‘categorical', and ‘cultural' - to show how the power of ideas of the common good shape our means of comprehending contemporary Europe. Part four attempts to apply the approach to the question of a European counter-terrorist response. This example was chosen because of the challenges it presents...

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-05

    phenome- The whole of the material from this session, entitled nology, sociolinguistics and others. But their broader "Surveys in Contemporary Polish...by this method are monopolies. America , and in Western Europe, and yet we ourselves have yielded to its temptation. In the case of producer goods, the

  2. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should be ...

  3. Eastern Europe's market role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  4. A Europe of science

    CERN Document Server

    Banda, E

    2000-01-01

    The GDP of the EU is roughly equivalent to that of the USA but the EU invests $60 billion less a year in research and development. To ensure that Europe can remain competitive it is vital that the EU increases investment in R&D and renews its mechanisms for collaboration (1 page).

  5. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  6. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  7. East Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-13

    demand. They relate mainly to building in water pipes, the provision of water heaters, indoor toilets, showers, baths and central heating systems...related to illegal marijuana fields have been handled by the police in Eastern Europe, {Ex- cerpt] [Paris LE MONDE in French 14 Jan 87 pi] /9274 CSO? 2900/7 END 91

  8. Populism in Europe: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, J.; Birdwell, J.; de Lange, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nationalist populist parties and movements are growing in support throughout Europe. These groups are known for their opposition to immigration, their ‘anti-establishment’ views and their concern for protecting national culture. Their rise in popularity has gone hand-in-hand with the advent of

  9. Rickettsioses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia (family rickettsiaceae, order rickettsiales) cause rickettsioses worldwide, and are transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites. In Europe, only Rickettsia spp. cause rickettsioses. With improvement of hygiene, the risk of louse-borne rickettsiosis (epidemic typhus) is low in Europe. Nevertheless, recrudescent form of Rickettsia prowazekii infection persists. There could be an epidemic typhus outbreak if a body lice epidemic occurs under unfavorable sanitary conditions. In Europe, endemic typhus or Rickettsia typhi infection, transmitted by rats and fleas, causes febrile illness. At the beginning of this century, flea-borne spotted fever cases caused by Rickettsia felis were diagnosed. Flea-borne rickettsiosis should be suspected after flea bites if fever, with or without rash, is developed. Tick-borne rickettsioses are the main source of rickettsia infections in Europe. Apart from Rickettsia conorii, the Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) agent, other Rickettsia spp. cause MSF-like: Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia aeschlimannii. In the 1990s, two 'new' rickettsioses were diagnosed: Lymphangitis Associated Rickettsiosis (LAR) caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Tick-Borne Lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-Borne-Necrosis-Erythema-Lymphadenopathy/Scalp Eschar Neck Lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA/DEBONEL/SENLAT), caused by Rickettsia slovaca, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja and Rickettsia raoultii. Lastly, European reports about mite-borne rickettsiosis are scarce. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Renewable energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaies, M.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's increasing demand for energy and its environmental preoccupations are creating a favourable environment for the development of renewable energy sources. This article stated that although many European countries have adopted voluntary policies since the 1990s to increase the use of renewable energy sources, they have not been developed in an equal or consistent manner. A table was included to show the consumption of renewable energies by country; the percentage of renewable energies in 1995 as compared to 2006; and the consumption of primary energy resources. Combined, Germany, Spain and Denmark produce 75 per cent of wind energy in Europe, while 75 per cent of Europe's hydroelectricity is produced in Norway, Sweden, France, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Germany has also made significant contributions in developing biomass energy. The article emphasized that the development of renewable energy sources is limited by the fact that it cannot keep up with growing energy demands. In addition, renewable energies cannot yet replace all fossil fuel consumption in Europe because of the variation in development from one country to another. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Postgraduate education in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses recent developments in doctoral education in business studies in Europe. Six key dilemmas relating to fundamental differences between two generic approaches in contemporary doctoral education have been identified. The theoretical basis of the paper is borrowed from institutio...... institutional theory. In closing implications for educators, managers and other decision makers affected by this problem will be addressed....

  12. Shadows at Europe's heart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide sisepoliitilistest konfliktidest, ebakompetentsuse ning korruptsiooni ilmingutest valitsustes. Toomas Hendrik Ilves kui positiivne näide Brüsselist kodumaale naasnud poliitikust. Vt. ka lk. 13-14: Europe's fraying fringe

  13. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  14. Nuclear developments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillebois, C.

    2011-01-01

    The main topics of the presentation: FORATOM’s Mission and vision, Nuclear overview in Europe before and after Fukushima; post-Fukushima political decisions; European Council conclusions; European nuclear industry’s response; EU “Stress Tests” specifications; What will the consequences of Fukushima be?

  15. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  16. Harmonisation of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Crick, M.; Reed, J.; Winkler, G. L.; Martincic, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under its Technical Co-operation programme the International Atomic Energy Agency has implementing a Regional Project RER/9/050:- Harmonisation of Regional Nuclear Emergency Preparedness for its Member States in the Europe region since 1997. The background of the project together with its achievements and future plans are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Project summary, 116-B-6-1 crib ISV [in situ vitrification] demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The 116-B Crib Demonstration Project is intended to demonstrate the emerging in situ vitrification (ISV) technology to immobilize or destroy hazardous and radioactive chemicals at an actual site. In situ vitrification is the conversion of contaminated soil into a durable glass and crystalline product through joule heating. The 116-B crib site was chosen for the demonstration because it contains both radioactive and hazardous chemicals (e.g., chromium) and presents a potential threat to environment. The project will involve sampling and analysis of the soil beneath the crib, a small-scale ISV test to verify operating parameters, vitrification of the crib, and analysis of the vitrified soil. 5 figs

  18. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...... that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress...

  19. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  20. Gas crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The gas crisis in Europe is getting more evident. Basing his discussion on BP's annual statistical review of world energy, 2002, the author concludes that an increasing number of the major European consumers of natural gas may acquire a supply- and safety problem and become more dependent on imported gas for operating power stations. This is going to be most dramatic for France, Germany and Italy. Great Britain have gas reserves that will last for about seven years. Spain is an interesting ''phenomenon'' in the European gas market; they have trebled their gas consumption during the last decade. Europe's dependence on a high production rate on the Norwegian Shelf has become stronger from year to year

  1. Atomic war field Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, N.

    1980-01-01

    Progressive atomic weapons, results of a perfect and perfidious technology face each other in the centre of a possible crisis - in Europe. The strategists of the Warszhaw Pact and of Nato seem very optimistic, which they owe to their professions, the population's increasing fear of a war, however, can no longer be denied. Nervous military personnel, political and religions fanatics and perplexed politicians sit at the switches of fear - without a concept and without alternatives. Despite this alarming conditions, Nigel Calder who has investigated in the USA and in the USSR, and in Europe, managed to remain a calm spectator of the imminent apocalypse. Without compromises and clearly he analyses the nearly hopeless consequences resulting from the changed world-political situation, the tremendously fast development of the arms technology, and the crazy strategical doctrines in East and West and in the Third World. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B. V.

    2016-01-01

    is presented in terms of energy (primary energy supply), environment (carbon dioxide emissions), and economy (total annual socio-economic cost). The steps are ordered in terms of their scientific and political certainty as follows: Decommissioning nuclear power, implementing a large amount of heat savings......This study presents one scenario for a 100% renewable energy system in Europe by the year 2050. The transition from a business-as-usual situation in 2050, to a 100% renewable energy Europe is analysed in a series of steps. Each step reflects one major technological change. For each step, the impact......, converting the private car fleet to electricity, providing heat in rural areas with heat pumps, providing heat in urban areas with district heating, converting fuel in heavy-duty vehicles to a renewable electrofuel, and replacing natural gas with methane. The results indicate that by using the Smart Energy...

  3. Electricity in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1985-01-01

    European electricity consumption and demand is summarized in Chapter 1. The relationship between government and electricity producers is touched on. Five further chapters examine aspects of electricity in Europe. Chapter 2 discusses the electricity trade (import and export of electricity). The next looks at the current status of nuclear power in individual European countries. The environmental impact of generating electricity (eg acid rain, radioactive waste disposal) is assessed next and then the price of electricity in Europe is reviewed (with comparisons between the countries). Profiles of the situation in each country are presented in the last chapter. There are 72 tables presenting the facts and figures on which the text is based. (U.K.)

  4. Energy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsonby, F.E.N.; Normanton, T.; Osborn, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: foreword; conclusion; summary; the need for energy and an energy policy; the challenges for energy policy makers; the energy situation in the European Community; evolving an energy policy for the European Community; Europe and the energy needs of the developing countries; coal for the European Community; the need of the European Community for nuclear power (the public debate, peaceful use of nuclear energy, why does the world need nuclear power, nuclear fuel supplies, reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, siting of nuclear power stations, reactor safety, decommissioning, the fast breeder reactor); oil and gas for the European Community; additional energy for Europe (district heating, geothermal of energy, solar energy, fusion power, wind - wave- and tidal-power, hydraulic power); conclusions. (UK)

  5. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...... for microscopically confirmed severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria according to the 2006 WHO criteria. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2014 a total of 185 patients with severe malaria treated in 12 European countries were included. Three patients died, resulting in a 28-day survival rate of 98.4%. The majority of infections...

  6. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  7. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different sources of energy, how hey are

  8. Chem Gems & Joules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-09-01

    Learn about the chemistry (and some physics) of optical discs such as CDs, CD-ROMs, and DVDs from David Birkett (p 1081). Beginning on p 1088, Johnson and Yalkowsky present some neat models (commercial or build-yourself) that assemble of their own accord into appropriate structures for liquid and solid water. Do you need a low-cost, small-scale heating device? How about adapting a soldering iron as described on p 1109? If you are interested in cooperative learning, the comparison with lecturing that begins on p 1131 will provide useful information. The latest in our series commemorating the centenary of the Nobel Prizes begins on p 1055. The many interconnections among the research of prizewinners described in this series provides interesting tidbits to humanize chemical kinetics. Do you have hydrogen peroxide, sulfur, or potassium chromate in your lab or chemical storage area? Learn about hazards of these substances from the letter to the editor on p 1070 and the CLIPs on p 1063, p 1064, and p 1065. Finally, keep up with chemical education news at the ACS and the NSF by reading the statements of candidates for the ACS presidency (p 1036 and p 1037) and the commentary by Ellis on p 1034.

  9. Climate Adaptation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, M.; McGlade, J.; Verschoor, M.; Isoard, S.; Anema, K.; Boer, J.; Cowan, C.; Collins, R.; Smeets, M.

    2009-01-01

    At the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen, Denmark, December 7-18, 2009 Change Magazine will present a special issue on 'Climate Adaptation in Europe'. The magazine contains articles on climate policy strategies in European countries and cross-border studies on climate change, articles on climate adaptation in the Alps, on water quality as a bottleneck for the agricultural sector, and drought in the mediterranean countries. How will member countries in the European Union tackle the climate crisis?.

  10. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays....... It will be of interest to students and scholars in the history and philosophy of science, religious studies, and evolutionary theory, as well as policy makers and educators concerned about the spread of creationism in our time....

  11. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  12. EUROPE IN CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    greater they are at risk to be radicalized by ISIS fighters either infiltrating through camps or through social media avenues. Socio-economic...Anglais in Nice during Bastille Day in 2016 killing 86 while injuring 200 more, a state of emergency has existed in France while tourism , normally robust...of states to provide social and health benefits along with paying pensions. Free flow of capital, people, and goods in Europe due to 10

  13. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    Outokumpu’s inter- ests in Chile , as well as those towns that maintain contacts with Romanian towns to recognize oppression where it exists, and to draw...operating program. And CASA [ Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A.] has won the maintenance contract for the American "F-15’s" deployed in Europe. The...back a broad grin and Soviet Deputy Premier Vladimir Kamentsev cracked jokes between his statements. En route to Polvijarvi, Foreign Minister Sorsa

  14. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik; Braeckman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    which material is missing from the literature (the “gaps”) and signal which gaps we think should first be filled. Third, on the basis of a forthcoming international historical study, we outline the possible factors that affect the popularity of creationism in Europe (the “prospects”). We also sketch how...... a sustained study of European creationism can contribute to other research domains such as the study of cultural evolution and the relation between science and religion....

  15. Bio fuels in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    His, St.

    2004-01-01

    Resulting from programs launched in the late 1970 to help compensate for oil related constraints, biofuels now have been under industrial development for over 20 years. Still handicapped by high costs, their future once again looks promising because they might be able to help reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. This is especially true in Europe, where recently approved directives contain ambitious production volume targets encouraging member states to develop biofuels. (author)

  16. Sea Wind Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The first and defining step towards European leadership in renewable energy must be the successful setting of an ambitious EU renewable energy target for 2020. This will set out the vision and create the framework within which our clean energy future can be delivered. Sea Wind Europe offers a clear blueprint of how to achieve its vision and outlines concrete policy measures that will give European renewables the foundation they need for success on a giant scale

  17. Bio fuels in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    His, St

    2004-07-01

    Resulting from programs launched in the late 1970 to help compensate for oil related constraints, biofuels now have been under industrial development for over 20 years. Still handicapped by high costs, their future once again looks promising because they might be able to help reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. This is especially true in Europe, where recently approved directives contain ambitious production volume targets encouraging member states to develop biofuels. (author)

  18. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the center of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks...... within this field and to answer the question: From an empirical point of view, what is known and what is not known about radicalization connected to militant Islamism in Europe?...

  19. Work Absence in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Bonato; Lusine Lusinyan

    2004-01-01

    Work absence is a part of an individual's decision concerning hours worked. This paper focuses on sickness absence in Europe and builds on an analytical framework in which absence enters both labor supply and demand considerations, with sickness insurance provisions and labor market institutions affecting the costs of absence. The results from a panel of 18 European countries indicate that absence is higher under generous insurance systems and where employers bear little responsibility for th...

  20. Nuclear steelmaking in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The European Nuclear Steelmaking Club has decided initially to pursue the concept of a steel works separated from the nuclear reactor generating the gases needed for reducing the iron ore. The energy requirements for the various alternative process routes and the issues involved in the selection of the optimum reforming temperature are discussed, taking into account the availability of the various hydrocarbon feedstocks within Europe. A scenario for the eventual introduction of nuclear steelmaking is outlined. (author)

  1. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  2. Europe's nuclear dominos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, J.

    1993-01-01

    As long as the United States continues to play a leading role in NATO, the incentive for European powers to acquire independent nuclear weapons is virtually zero. Most European power, however, have relatively sophisticated nuclear establishments and could easily manufacture nuclear explosives if they judged that their security required an independent capability. They might judge so if the United States pulls out of Europe and out of NATO. It is the opinion of the author that if the United States withdraws, and if France and Britain insist on maintaining their current status as independent nuclear weapons powers, they will encourage proliferation by example. The likelihood of different countries deciding to manufacture nuclear weapons under these cicumstances is evaluated. The future of NATO is assessed. The conclusions of and future structure of the Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE) is discussed. The impact of United Nations involvement in preventing proliferation is evaluated. Recommendations are proposed for the utilization of existing organizations to deter proliferation in Europe

  3. The Alternatives of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei MARGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The specialised investigations in the last century and a half have led us to thecomprehensive understanding of Europe as a culture that was set up and has developed beingnurtured by three major sources: Jerusalem, Athens and Rome, plus other numerous sources. Thetriangle of the three cultural metropolitan cities in history, which have essentially given us thereligion and the vision upon the human fate, science and philosophy, law and civil dignity, remainthe most adequate metaphor to summarise the decisive sources of Europe. The destiny of Europecannot be thematised without examining these sources.Europeans today live in captivity with the present, with a culture somehow amputated by thelived dimension of the future.For this reason, the future has to become again a priority objective in democratic societies,and philosophy has the opportunity to develop a concept of rationality that includes science in anintegrative understanding, which clarifies its meaning, without preventing the success of scientificaction.Such a reason may set Europe in motion again with everything that is specific to it.

  4. Solar-driven Joule cycle reciprocating Ericsson engines for small scale applications. From improper operation to high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, Dorin; Bădescu, Viorel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New dynamic model for parabolic trough collector (PTC) coupled to Ericsson engine (EE). • Design procedure of the PTC-EE system which avoid malfunction. • Variation of PTC-EE system performance during a day for different engine rotation speeds. • Strategy to switch between different rotation speeds to maximize daily output work. - Abstract: The paper focuses on a Joule cycle reciprocating Ericsson engine (JCREE) coupled with a solar parabolic trough collector (PTC). A small scale application located at mid Northern Hemisphere latitude (44°25″N) is considered. A new dynamic (time-dependent) model is developed and used to design the geometry and estimate the performance of the PTC-JCREE system under the most favorable weather conditions (i.e. summer day and clear sky). The paper brings two main contributions. First, specific constraints on the design parameters have been identified in order to avoid improper JCREE operation, such as gas under-compression in the compressor cylinder and gas over-compression and/or over-expansion in the expander cylinder. Second, increasing the work generated per day requires using a proper strategy to switch between different rotation speeds. Specific results are as follows. For the (reference) constant engine rotation speed 480 rpm, the output work per day is 39,270 kJ and the overall efficiency is 0.134. The output work decreases by increasing the rotation speed, since the operation interval during a day diminishes. A better operation strategy is to switch among three rotation speed values, namely 480, 540 and 600 rpm. In this case the output work is 40,322 kJ and the overall efficiency is 0.137. The performance improvement is quite small and the reference constant rotation speed 480 rpm may be a suitable choice, easier to use in practice. For both the constant and variable rotation speed strategies, the overall efficiency is almost constant along the effective operation time interval, which is from 8:46 to

  5. Study on fabrication methods of composite structures (1st. report); Joule effect curing of CFRP composite structures and its application to bonding and repair. Fukugo zai kozo no seikei kako ho ni kansuru kenkyu (Dai 1po); CFRP kozo no Joule koka wo riyo shita cure ho to setsugoter dot hoshu e no oyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, K. (The National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-07-05

    A method for curing CFRP composite structures by using Joule effect is presented. Due to the presence of fiber to fiber contact, CFRP composites and their prepregs exhibit electrical conductivity in the direction transverse to fibers as well as in the fiber direction, and they can be considered as electrically homogeneous on a gross scale. Therefore, passing an electric current through a CFRP prepreg, it is self-heated due to the Joule effect. Feedback current control maintains the prepreg temperature at a desired level and makes the prepreg be cured by a specified cure cycle. Experimental verifiactions have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the present technique. The applications to the bonding of CFRP components and to the patch repairs of effective CFRP structure are also described. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-01-01

    contains. Silver is widely used as an additive in glass making. However, its solubility is known to be limited in borosilicate glasses. Further, silver, which is present as a nitrate salt in the waste, can be easily reduced to molten silver in the melting process. Molten silver, if formed, would be difficult to reintroduce into the glass matrix and could pose operating difficulties for the glass melter. This will place a limitation on the waste loading of the melter feed material to prevent the separation of silver from the waste within the melter. If the silver were recovered in the MOx fabrication process, which is currently under consideration, the composition of the glass would likely be limited only by the thermal heat load from the incorporated 241 Am. The resulting mass of glass used to encapsulate the waste could then be reduced by a factor of approximately three. The vitrification process used to treat the waste stream is proposed to center on a joule-heated ceramic lined slurry fed melter. Glass furnaces of this type are used in the United States to treat high-level waste (HLW) at the: Defense Waste Processing Facility, West Valley Demonstration Project, and to process the Hanford tank waste. The waste will initially be blended with glass-forming chemicals, which are primarily sand and boric acid. The resulting slurry is pumped to the melter for conversion to glass. The melter is a ceramic lined metal box that contains a molten glass pool heated by passing electric current through the glass. Molten glass from the melter is poured into canisters to cool and solidify. They are then sealed and decontaminated to form the final waste disposal package. Emissions generated in the melter from the vitrification process are treated by an off-gas system to remove radioactive contamination and destroy nitrogen oxides (NOx)

  7. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.1: Identification and characterization of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defense related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subject of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Planning for environmental restoration of radioactively contaminated sites in central and eastern Europe. V.1: Identification and characterization of contaminated sites. Proceedings of a workshop held within the technical co-operation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The radioactive contaminant materials resulting from diverse activities in relation to the nuclear fuel cycle, defense related operations, and various industries in addition to medical and research facilities represent perhaps the most severe and immense pollution left from a past era. The political changes in central and eastern Europe (CEE) not only brought some disclosure of the radioactively contaminated sites, but also resulted in a political condition in which this region became receptive to co-operation from a range of outside countries. The subject of the first workshop held in Budapest, 4-8 October 1993, was the identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites in the region. Refs, figs and tabs.

  9. Bill project authorizing the approval of the convention related to the construction and the exploitation of an infrastructure for the research on anti-protons and ions in Europe - Impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This impact study first indicates the objectives of the convention related to the construction and the exploitation of an infrastructure for the research on anti-protons and ions in Europe (creation of the FAIR company in a similar way as the one retained for the XFEL installation). It discusses the scientific, economic, financial, social, environmental, legal and administrative consequences of this convention, and also evokes the elements of international context. It briefly recalls the history of negotiations which started in 2004 after internal preliminary studies performed in Germany. It indicates the countries who signed the convention

  10. The international thermonuclear reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project is a 6-year collaborative effort involving the U.S., Europe, Japan, and the Russian Federation to produce a detailed engineering design for the next-step fusion device

  11. Europe in the Balkan mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the three dominant, Europe-wide, constructions of Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and claims that all three found their proponents in the Balkans in the same period, while no specifically Balkan construction of Europe can be identified. The discourses which constructed Europe were transnational, and every search for national discourses must recognize that they are always fractured and contradictory, composed of various elements originating in Europe-wide discourses on Europe. Throughout this period the dominant discourse of Europe was shaped by the discourse of modernity and modernization, not only in Europe but in other parts of the globe as well. Several commentators have already noted that the current challenge of the interwar construction of Europe - peace, prosperity, democracy and human rights - mirrors the crisis of Yugoslavia, and many examples point to the unsustainability of this construction at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Gadamer’s hermeneutics offers a valuable lesson in humility and defines the oft-repeated phrase of “belonging together” as listening to the other in the belief that the other may be right, which should be taken as a starting point for any future construction of Europe.

  12. SCOPE: a scorecard for osteoporosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis, J A; Borgström, F; Compston, J; Dreinhöfer, K; Nolte, E; Jonsson, L; Lems, W F; McCloskey, E V; Rizzoli, R; Stenmark, J

    2013-01-01

    The scorecard summarises key indicators of the burden of osteoporosis and its management in each of the member states of the European Union. The resulting scorecard elements were then assembled on a single sheet to provide a unique overview of osteoporosis in Europe. The scorecard for osteoporosis in Europe (SCOPE) is an independent project that seeks to raise awareness of osteoporosis care in Europe. The aim of this project was to develop a scorecard and background documents to draw attention to gaps and inequalities in the provision of primary and secondary prevention of fractures due to osteoporosis. The SCOPE panel reviewed the information available on osteoporosis and the resulting fractures for each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). The information researched covered four domains: background information (e.g. the burden of osteoporosis and fractures), policy framework, service provision and service uptake e.g. the proportion of men and women at high risk that do not receive treatment (the treatment gap). There was a marked difference in fracture risk among the EU27. Of concern was the marked heterogeneity in the policy framework, service provision and service uptake for osteoporotic fracture that bore little relation to the fracture burden. For example, despite the wide availability of treatments to prevent fractures, in the majority of the EU27, only a minority of patients at high risk receive treatment for osteoporosis even after their first fracture. The elements of each domain in each country were scored and coded using a traffic light system (red, orange, green) and used to synthesise a scorecard. The resulting scorecard elements were then assembled on a single sheet to provide a unique overview of osteoporosis in Europe. The scorecard will enable healthcare professionals and policy makers to assess their country's general approach to the disease and provide indicators to inform future provision of healthcare.

  13. Oceans of Opportunity. Harnessing Europe's largest domestic energy resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichaux, N.; Wilkes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Europe's offshore wind potential is enormous and able to power Europe seven times over. Over 100 GW of offshore wind projects are already in various stages of planning. If realised, these projects would produce 10% of the EU's electricity whilst avoiding 200 million tonnes of CO2 emissions each year. EWEA has a target of 40 GW of offshore wind in the EU by 2020, implying an average annual market growth of 28% over the coming 12 years. The EU market for onshore wind grew by an average 32% per year in the 12-year period from 1992-2004 - what the wind energy industry has achieved on land can be repeated at sea. EWEA's proposed offshore grid builds on the 11 offshore grids currently operating and 21 offshore grids currently being considered by the grid operators in the Baltic and North Seas to give Europe a truly pan-European electricity super highway. Strong political support and action from Europe's policy-makers will allow a new, multi-billion euro industry to be built. This new industry will deliver thousands of green collar jobs and a new renewable energy economy and establish Europe as world leader in offshore wind power technology. A single European electricity market with large amounts of wind power will bring affordable electricity to consumers, reduce import dependence, cut CO2 emissions and allow Europe to access its largest domestic energy source.

  14. Europe is going to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    for future exploration. ESA is now able to afford Mars Express because it will be built more quickly and cheaply than any other comparable mission. It will be the first of the Agency's new flexible missions, based on maximum reuse of technology off-the-shelf and from other missions (the Rosetta cometary mission in this case). Mars Express will explore the extent to which innovative working practices, now made possible by the maturity of Europe's space industry, can cut mission costs and the time from concept to launch : a new kind of relationship with industrial partners is starting. "We are adopting a new approach to management by delegating to Matra Marconi Space (the prime contractor) responsibility for the whole project. This means we can reduce the ESA's management costs" says Bonnet. Despite the knock-down price, however, the future of Mars Express has hung in the balance because of the steady erosion of ESA's space science budget since 1995. Last November, the SPC said the mission could go ahead only if it could be afforded without affecting missions already approved, especially the FIRST infra-red observatory and the Planck mission to measure the cosmic microwave background. On 19/20 May, the SPC, which has the ultimate decision over the Agency's science missions, agreed that the level of resources allowed was just sufficient to allow Mars Express to go ahead. "To do such an ambitious mission for so little money is a challenge and we have decided to meet", says Balsiger.

  15. Nuclear weapons in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this introduction to ''Nuclear Weapons in Europe'', the author summarized the views of two Americans and two Europeans, whose articles make up the volume. The introduction explains the different assumptions of the four authors before discussing their views on the military and political rationales for a nuclear force in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the debate over battlefield nuclear weapons, conventional defense, and arms control proposals and talks. The four contributors whose views are analyzed are William G. Hyland, Lawrence D. Freeman, Paul C. Warnke, and Karstan D. Voight. The introduction notes that the agreements and differences do not fall strictly on American versus European dividing lines

  16. Europe and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosciusko-Morizet, Nathalie; Reydellet, Daniel; Colliquet, David; Prevot, Henri; Bucaille, Alain; Sire, Didier; Mandil, Claude; Gressier, Claude; Mocilnikar, Antoine-Tristan; Lamy, Jean; Aladjidi, Gregoire

    2007-01-01

    This special dossier 'Europe and energie' is made of 8 contributions dealing with: a federating policy (Daniel Reydellet); presentation of the dossier (David Colliquet); for a new European cooperation between free-organizing countries (Henri Prevot); Industrialists looking for a policy direction, interview of Alain Bucaille and Didier Sire; we must combine energy efficiency and diversification of energy sources (Claude Mandil); a European policy of 'sustainable' transports (Claude Gressier); a global answer to climate and energy questions (Antoine-Tristan Mocilnikar, Jean Lamy); a growing role for venture capital and entrepreneurs (Gregoire Aladjidi); more from the Internet

  17. Market Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Market Power Europe (MPE) constitutes an important contribution to the literature on the global role and actorness of the EU. In order to develop MPE as a theory, this contribution provides an assessment of how Russia, the USA and China have converged towards three EU trade policies in 2013....... The analysis finds that MPE fails to account for important dynamics related to externalization in the three cases. In order to improve MPE analytically, the article suggests that MPE should include three intervening variables to account for the EU’s ability to externalize its policies and act as MPE...

  18. Rainfall Erosivity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall is one the main drivers of soil erosion. The erosive force of rainfall is expressed as rainfall erosivity. Rainfall erosivity considers the rainfall amount and intensity, and is most commonly expressed as the Rfactor in the USLE model and its revised version, RUSLE. At national...... and continental levels, the scarce availability of data obliges soil erosion modellers to estimate this factor based on rainfall data with only low temporal resolution (daily, monthly, annual averages). The purpose of this study is to assess rainfall erosivity in Europe in the form of the RUSLE R-factor, based...

  19. Stranger/Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leerssen Joep

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the working methods of imagology, this article surveys the way in which an implicit or tacit European self-image has taken shape over the centuries through contrast with two non-European Others: the New World and the Mediterranean. The article shows how these two others merge into a self-image of European alienation and moral perplexity following the devastations of the Second World War: the European cities have become kasbahs, Europe has become its own Other.

  20. Electrokinetically driven continuous-flow enrichment of colloidal particles by Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing in a convergent-divergent microfluidic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cunlu; Ge, Zhengwei; Song, Yongxin; Yang, Chun

    2017-09-07

    Enrichment of colloidal particles in continuous flow has not only numerous applications but also poses a great challenge in controlling physical forces that are required for achieving particle enrichment. Here, we for the first time experimentally demonstrate the electrokinetically-driven continuous-flow enrichment of colloidal particles with Joule heating induced temperature gradient focusing (TGF) in a microfluidic convergent-divergent structure. We consider four mechanisms of particle transport, i.e., advection due to electroosmosis, electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis and, and further clarify their roles in the particle enrichment. It is experimentally determined and numerically verified that the particle thermophoresis plays dominant roles in enrichment of all particle sizes considered in this study and the combined effect of electroosmosis-induced advection and electrophoresis is mainly to transport particles to the zone of enrichment. Specifically, the enrichment of particles is achieved with combined DC and AC voltages rather than a sole DC or AC voltage. A numerical model is formulated with consideration of the abovementioned four mechanisms, and the model can rationalize the experimental observations. Particularly, our analysis of numerical and experimental results indicates that thermophoresis which is usually an overlooked mechanism of material transport is crucial for the successful electrokinetic enrichment of particles with Joule heating induced TGF.