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Sample records for europe integrating genetic

  1. The introduction history of invasive garden ants in Europe: integrating genetic, chemical and behavioural approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line; Drijfhout, Falko; Kronauer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is the most recently detected pest ant and the first known invasive ant able to become established and thrive in the temperate regions of Eurasia. In this study, we aim to reconstruct the invasion history of this ant in Europe analysing 14...... between populations could be predicted from their genetic and chemical distance, and two major clusters of non-aggressive groups of populations were found. However, populations of L. neglectus did not separate into clear supercolonial associations, as is typical for other invasive ants. CONCLUSIONS...... started through introductions from other invasive populations. This indicates that existing introduced populations have a very high invasive potential when the ants are inadvertently spread by human transport....

  2. Wolf population genetics in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Remm, Jaanus; Pilot, Malgorzata

    2017-01-01

    , resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial. This review serves as an analytical summary of the main findings from wolf population...... genetic studies in Europe, covering major studies from the ‘pre-genomic era’ and the first insights of the ‘genomics era’. We analyse, summarize and discuss findings derived from analyses of three compartments of the mammalian genome with different inheritance modes: maternal (mitochondrial DNA), paternal...... (Y chromosome) and biparental [autosomal microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. To describe large-scale trends and patterns of genetic variation in European wolf populations, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the results of previous microsatellite studies and also included...

  3. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    is to provide a systematic analysis of the spectrum of these initiatives in Europe in terms of patterns of organisation, participants, resources, problems, and landscape values addressed. This review collects examples of integrated landscape initiatives from all over Europe through systematic internet key word...... (acting in multifunctional landscapes and combining different objectives), the involvement and coordination of different sectors and stakeholders at many levels, and the role as agents of awareness raising and learning hubs. Integrated landscape initiatives mainly depend on impulses of local civil society...

  4. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fu, Q.; Posth, C.; Hajdinjak, M.; Petr, M.; Mallick, S.; Fernandes, D.; Furtwängler, A.; Haak, W.; Meyer, M.; Mittnik, A.; Nickel, B.; Peltzer, A.; Rohland, N.; Slon, V.; Talamo, S.; Lazaridis, I.; Lipson, M.; Mathieson, I.; Schiffels, S.; Skoglund, P.; Derevianko, A. P.; Drozdov, N.; Slavinsky, V.; Tsybankov, A.; Cremonesi, R. G.; Mallegni, F.; Gély, B.; Vacca, E.; Morales, M. R. G.; Straus, L. G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Ch.; Teschler-Nicola, M.; Constantin, S.; Moldovan, O. T.; Benazzi, S.; Peresani, M.; Coppola, D.; Lari, M.; Ricci, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Valentin, F.; Thevenet, C.; Wehrberger, K.; Grigorescu, D.; Rougier, H.; Crevecoeur, I.; Flas, D.; Semal, P.; Mannino, M. A.; Cupillard, Ch.; Bocherens, H.; Conard, N. J.; Harvati, K.; Moiseyev, V.; Drucker, D. G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, M. P.; Caramelli, D.; Pinhasi, R.; Kelso, J.; Patterson, N.; Krause, J.; Pääbo, S.; Reich, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 534, č. 7606 (2016), s. 200-205 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : genetics * Pleistocene * Europe * modern humans * Neanderthal Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  5. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–...

  6. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  7. The economic and political integration of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers issues concerning US coal and mineral exports to Europe in the wake of the economic and political integration of Europe. Topics addressed include: The European Energy Charter; the implications of the European Energy Charter for coal companies; and tax issues, coal development and the European Common Market

  8. Does Integrating Europe Need Polylingualism and Multiculturalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bilovesky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process is not happening away from us. The issue of integration is currently one of the subjects most widely discussed. It affects all of us. We have not fully come to terms the effects of integration yet. The article discusses it within the context of language diversity in Europe

  9. Provision of genetic services in Europe: current practices and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, Béatrice; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Coviello, Domenico; Aymé, Ségolène

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the social, ethical and legal issues that impact on the provision of genetic services in Europe. Many aspects have been considered, such as the definition and the aims of genetic services, their organization, the quality assessment, public education, as well as the partnership with patients support groups and the multicultural aspects. The methods was primarily the analysis of professional guidelines, legal frameworks and other documents related to the organization of genetic services, mainly from Europe, but also from USA and international organizations. Then, the method was to examine the background data emerging from an updated report produced by the Concerted Action on Genetic Services in Europe, as well as the issues debated by 43 experts from 17 European countries invited to an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Helsinki, Finland, 8 and 9 September 2000. Some conclusions were identified from the ESHG workshop to arrive at outlines for optimal genetic services. Participants were concerned about equal accessibility and effectiveness of clinical genetic services, quality assessment of services, professional education, multidisciplinarity and division of tasks as well as networking. Within European countries, adherence to the organizational principles of prioritization, regionalization and integration into related health services would maximize equal accessibility and effectiveness of genetic actions. There is a need for harmonization of the rules involved in financial coverage of DNA tests in order to make these available to all Europeans. Clear guidelines for the best practice will ensure that the provision of genetic services develops in a way that is beneficial to its customers, be they health professionals or the public, especially since the coordination of clinical, laboratory and research perspectives within a

  10. Coming of Age in an Integrating Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne; Ginnerskov Hansen, Mette

    Over the last decades there has been an increase in cross-border student mobility in Europe (Teichler 2009). More than 3 million students from EU and EEA have participated in EU's Erasmus exchange program, a growing number of 'free-moving' young Europeans pursue tertiary education abroad...... University in Denmark as a meeting place (Green 2009) where students from all over Europe meet, interact, construct identities and negotiate distinctions between 'self' and 'other' we look at the various ways that students motivate mobility, how they construct network and friendships and how...... and scholarship opportunities available to students from EU's "neighbourhood" enable young people from across EU's border to study in the European Union. This paper aims at exploring how students from different parts of Europe make sense of themselves as young Europeans in an integrating Europe. Viewing Aarhus...

  11. Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, Eric T; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices. (topical review)

  12. Genetics of healthy aging in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschi, Claudio; Bezrukov, Vladyslav; Blanché, Hélène

    2007-01-01

    age in good cognitive and physical function and in the absence of major age-related diseases. To achieve this aim a coherent, tightly integrated program of research that unites demographers, geriatricians, geneticists, genetic epidemiologists, molecular biologists, bioinfomaticians, and statisticians......DNA). The genetic analysis will be performed by 9 high-throughput platforms, within the framework of centralized databases for phenotypic, genetic, and mtDNA data. Additional advanced approaches (bioinformatics, advanced statistics, mathematical modeling, functional genomics and proteomics, molecular biology......, molecular genetics) are envisaged to identify the gene variant(s) of interest. The experimental design will also allow (a) to identify gender-specific genes involved in healthy aging and longevity in women and men stratified for ethnic and geographic origin and apoE genotype; (b) to perform a longitudinal...

  13. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  14. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...... that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress...

  15. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock market s * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath- international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  16. Measuring and monitoring immigrant integration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl & Arjen Verweij

    2012-01-01

    In this book we investigate the prevailing views on integration in 17 European countries, how those views are translated into national policy, and what efforts countries are making to monitor the integration processes of migrants and track them over time. The book describes the degree to which

  17. Detailed genetic structure of European bitterling populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bartáková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus is a small cyprinid fish whose populations declined markedly between 1950 and 1980. However, its range currently expands, partly due to human-assisted introductions. We determined the genetic variability and detailed spatial structure among bitterling populations in Central Europe and tested alternative hypotheses about colonization of this area. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci on a large sample of 688 individuals had been used to analyse genetic variability and population structure. Samples originated from 27 localities with emphasis on area of the Czech Republic where three major sea drainages (Black, Baltic, and Northern Sea meet. Highly variable level of intrapopulation genetic variability had generally been detected and a recent decrease in numbers (“bottleneck” had been indicated by genetic data among six populations. High level of interpopulation differentiation was identified even within the basins. There was a significant role of genetic drift and indications of low dispersal ability of R. amarus. Surprisingly, the Odra River was inhabited by two distinct populations without any genetic signatures of a secondary contact. Czech part of the Odra (Baltic basin was colonized from the Danubian refugium (similarly to adjacent Danubian basin rivers including the Morava, while Polish part of the Odra was genetically similar to the populations in the Vistula River (Baltic basin, that has been colonized by a different (Eastern phylogeographic lineage of R. amarus. Most Czech R. amarus populations were colonized from the Danubian refugium, suggesting potential for a human-mediated colonization of the Odra or Elbe Rivers by R. amarus. One Elbe basin population was genetically mixed from the two (Danubian and Eastern phylogeographic lineages. In general the Czech populations of R. amarus were genetically stable except for a single population which has probably been recently introduced. This research

  18. Working-class formation in Europe and forms of integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    support among the agrarian population. Provided labor had considerable national political power, this turned out to be an effective policy; otherwise this organizational expansion would be confronted with violent opposition. Early industrialization often went hand in hand with liberal political domination......, political organization and state structure that best explains different forms of working-class integration in Europe....

  19. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  20. Population genetic structure of Orchesella cincta (Collembola; Hexapoda) in NW Europe, as revealed by microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Gols, R.; Ernsting, G.; Straalen, van N.M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied genetic variation and population differentiation in the springtail Orchesella cincta L. An earlier approach, using allozymes, revealed extremely low variation among and within populations from NW Europe. Microsatellite marker analysis showed higher genetic variation than allozymes, and

  1. Migrant integration policies and health inequalities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Giannoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on socio-economic determinants of migrant health inequalities has produced a large body of evidence. There is lack of evidence on the influence of structural factors on lives of fragile groups, frequently exposed to health inequalities. The role of poor socio-economic status and country level structural factors, such as migrant integration policies, in explaining migrant health inequalities is unclear. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of migrant socio-economic status and the impact of migrant integration policies on health inequalities during the recent economic crisis in Europe. Methods Using the 2012 wave of Eurostat EU-SILC data for a set of 23 European countries, we estimate multilevel mixed-effects ordered logit models for self-assessed poor health (SAH and self-reported limiting long-standing illnesses (LLS, and multilevel mixed-effects logit models for self-reported chronic illness (SC. We estimate two-level models with individuals nested within countries, allowing for both individual socio-economic determinants of health and country-level characteristics (healthy life years expectancy, proportion of health care expenditure over the GDP, and problems in migrant integration policies, derived from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX. Results Being a non-European citizen or born outside Europe does not increase the odds of reporting poor health conditions, in accordance with the “healthy migrant effect”. However, the country context in terms of problems in migrant integration policies influences negatively all of the three measures of health (self-reported health status, limiting long-standing illnesses, and self-reported chronic illness in foreign people living in European countries, and partially offsets the “healthy migrant effect”. Conclusions Policies for migrant integration can reduce migrant health disparities.

  2. Migrant integration policies and health inequalities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Margherita; Franzini, Luisa; Masiero, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Research on socio-economic determinants of migrant health inequalities has produced a large body of evidence. There is lack of evidence on the influence of structural factors on lives of fragile groups, frequently exposed to health inequalities. The role of poor socio-economic status and country level structural factors, such as migrant integration policies, in explaining migrant health inequalities is unclear. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of migrant socio-economic status and the impact of migrant integration policies on health inequalities during the recent economic crisis in Europe. Using the 2012 wave of Eurostat EU-SILC data for a set of 23 European countries, we estimate multilevel mixed-effects ordered logit models for self-assessed poor health (SAH) and self-reported limiting long-standing illnesses (LLS), and multilevel mixed-effects logit models for self-reported chronic illness (SC). We estimate two-level models with individuals nested within countries, allowing for both individual socio-economic determinants of health and country-level characteristics (healthy life years expectancy, proportion of health care expenditure over the GDP, and problems in migrant integration policies, derived from the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX). Being a non-European citizen or born outside Europe does not increase the odds of reporting poor health conditions, in accordance with the "healthy migrant effect". However, the country context in terms of problems in migrant integration policies influences negatively all of the three measures of health (self-reported health status, limiting long-standing illnesses, and self-reported chronic illness) in foreign people living in European countries, and partially offsets the "healthy migrant effect". Policies for migrant integration can reduce migrant health disparities.

  3. The genetic legacy of multiple beaver reintroductions in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Christiane; Kraus, Robert H S; Angst, Christof; Allgöwer, Rainer; Michaux, Johan; Teubner, Jana; Nowak, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20) were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted.

  4. Integration of electricity markets in Europe. Relevant issues for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creti, Anna; Fumagalli, Eileen; Fumagalli, Elena

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the current trend towards a higher degree of market integration in Europe and identify those aspects that are particularly relevant for Italy. The Italian involvement in this process appears comparatively modest. A welfare analysis, which focuses specifically on the integration of the Italian market, will certainly be a useful support to any policy decision. We argue that, given the peculiarities of the Italian market design, a volume coupling solution could avoid, at the moment, the costs of what could be a significant harmonization effort and, in the end, it might constitute the best short-term strategy. This proposal should be adequately considered, taking into account the complexity of designing an efficient volume-only coordination procedure. (author)

  5. Low genetic diversity despite multiple introductions of the invasive plant species Impatiens glandulifera in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Hülskötter, Jennifer; Acharya, Kamal Prasad; Brunet, Jörg; Chabrerie, Olivier; Cousins, Sara A O; Dar, Pervaiz A; Diekmann, Martin; De Frenne, Pieter; Hermy, Martin; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Kolb, Annette; Lemke, Isgard; Plue, Jan; Reshi, Zafar A; Graae, Bente Jessen

    2015-08-20

    Invasive species can be a major threat to native biodiversity and the number of invasive plant species is increasing across the globe. Population genetic studies of invasive species can provide key insights into their invasion history and ensuing evolution, but also for their control. Here we genetically characterise populations of Impatiens glandulifera, an invasive plant in Europe that can have a major impact on native plant communities. We compared populations from the species' native range in Kashmir, India, to those in its invaded range, along a latitudinal gradient in Europe. For comparison, the results from 39 other studies of genetic diversity in invasive species were collated. Our results suggest that I. glandulifera was established in the wild in Europe at least twice, from an area outside of our Kashmir study area. Our results further revealed that the genetic diversity in invasive populations of I. glandulifera is unusually low compared to native populations, in particular when compared to other invasive species. Genetic drift rather than mutation seems to have played a role in differentiating populations in Europe. We find evidence of limitations to local gene flow after introduction to Europe, but somewhat less restrictions in the native range. I. glandulifera populations with significant inbreeding were only found in the species' native range and invasive species in general showed no increase in inbreeding upon leaving their native ranges. In Europe we detect cases of migration between distantly located populations. Human activities therefore seem to, at least partially, have facilitated not only introductions, but also further spread of I. glandulifera across Europe. Although multiple introductions will facilitate the retention of genetic diversity in invasive ranges, widespread invasive species can remain genetically relatively invariant also after multiple introductions. Phenotypic plasticity may therefore be an important component of the

  6. HTR System Integration in Europe and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, Ferry; Ruer, J.; Cuadrado Garcia, P.; Cetnar, J.; Knoche, D.; Lapins, J.; Kasselman, S.; Stoker, P.; Fütterer, M.

    2014-01-01

    An HTR can be used for production of electricity and process heat. When these two applications are combined, a multitude of systems and components are needed. Whilst meeting the end user needs, this multitude of systems and components has to operate safely and economically. Therefore, within the framework of the European 7th framework program ARCHER project, a design schematic of a nuclear cogeneration system connected to a European and a South African industrial process is established and assessed. In order to provide an objective overview of the different indicators important for decision makers, the main characteristics with respect to the HTR system, the environment, safety, and economics are identified and compared to the characteristics of a modern gas turbine plant. In addition, a gap and SWOT analysis of a nuclear cogeneration system in Europe and South Africa are presented. In order to enable technical analysis of such a nuclear cogeneration system, a multitude of computer codes will be needed. Therefore, a code inventory is established of codes being used in Europe and South Africa for which the requirements for integration, development and qualification are assessed. (author)

  7. Financial services liberalization and international integration in South Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prica Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper analyses the regulatory framework for international trade in financial services within the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO, with special attention paid to the open issues including the scope of prudential measures and capital mobility limitations. The process of the international integration of the South Eastern Europe (SEE countries is mainly dictated by their goal of EU integration. With regard to the services' sectors, a major liberalization step on the way is WTO accession. Of the countries in the region only Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro are still not WTO members and in order to become members significant liberalization commitments will be demanded of them. For this reason the second part of the paper deals with concrete financial liberalization commitments undertaken by the original WTO members in SEE and the newly WTO acceded SEE member countries. The last part of the paper provides a quantitative analysis of these commitments by means of the measurement of liberalization indices in the banking sectors in SEE countries. This is to provide a general idea of the scope of liberalization that may be required from a SEE country in order to achieve WTO membership on the road to EU integration.

  8. Cryopreservation Strategies for Farm Animal Genetic Resources in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    European countries have developed national strategies and action plans implementing the Global Plan of Action for animal genetic resources. National action plans include development and implementation of cryopreservation strategies for animal genetic resources. Although some cross-border

  9. Integrating Genetics and Social Science: Genetic Risk Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Israel, Salomon

    2014-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome and the advent of low-cost genome-wide assays that generate millions of observations of individual genomes in a matter of hours constitute a disruptive innovation for social science. Many public-use social science datasets have or will soon add genome-wide genetic data. With these new data come technical challenges, but also new possibilities. Among these, the lowest hanging fruit and the most potentially disruptive to existing research programs is the ability to measure previously invisible contours of health and disease risk within populations. In this article, we outline why now is the time for social scientists to bring genetics into their research programs. We discuss how to select genetic variants to study. We explain how the polygenic architecture of complex traits and the low penetrance of individual genetic loci pose challenges to research integrating genetics and social science. We introduce genetic risk scores as a method of addressing these challenges and provide guidance on how genetic risk scores can be constructed. We conclude by outlining research questions that are ripe for social science inquiry. PMID:25343363

  10. Integration of strong motion networks and accelerometric data in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, L.; Clinton, J. F.; Akkar, S.; Sleeman, R.; Van Eck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Efforts for an organized collection of strong motion data in Europe started during the Fourth Framework Program granted by the European Union, with the first release of the European Strong Motion database. Subsequently other attempts were made, but the initiatives were carried out within a project by a single or few institutions, often isolated from data providers. During the Seventh Framework Program, in the context of the project NERA, parallel to the establishment of infrastructures, major efforts were devoted on the improvement of networking among strong-motion data providers in the broader European countries. Two major infrastructures for storing and disseminating accelerometric data and metadata were built: a. The Rapid-Raw Strong Motion (RRSM) database that automatically delivers strong motion products in near-real time. The system collects and uses all relevant, unrestricted waveform data from the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) within minutes after an earthquake (M>=3.5) in the European- Mediterranean region. The RRSM web interface is available at http://orfeusdev.knmi.nl:8080/opencms/rrsm b. A prototype of strong-motion database (Engineering Strong Motion database, ESM) that contains an initial core formed by the accelerograms recorded by Italian and Turkish strong-motion data providers. ESM is structured to contain not only the data available in EIDA but also off-line data; earthquake and strong-motion metadata contain more detailed information than the corresponding metadata in RRSM. A Working Group (WG5 - acceleration and strong motion data), operating under ORFEUS, has been created to build the basis for the sustainable integrated pan-European accelerometric data distribution. The responsibilities and duties of the WG5 are envisaged as follows: 1. Setting rules for data dissemination; 2. Establishing MoU's with data providers; 3. Collaborating with the European project EPOS for the preparation of projects; 4. Contacting similar

  11. Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botigué, Laura R.; Henn, Brenna M.; Gravel, Simon; Maples, Brian K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Corona, Erik; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry; Flores, Carlos; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic diversity in southern Europe is higher than in other regions of the continent. This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. Using SNP data from 2,099 individuals in 43 populations, we show that estimates of recent shared ancestry between Europe and Africa are substantially increased when gene flow from North Africans, rather than Sub-Saharan Africans, is considered. The gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Sub-Saharan Africa and is independent of recent gene flow from the Near East. The source of genetic diversity in southern Europe has important biomedical implications; we find that most disease risk alleles from genome-wide association studies follow expected patterns of divergence between Europe and North Africa, with the principal exception of multiple sclerosis. PMID:23733930

  12. Integrated analysis of genetic data with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic data are now widely available. There is, however, an apparent lack of concerted effort to produce software systems for statistical analysis of genetic data compared with other fields of statistics. It is often a tremendous task for end-users to tailor them for particular data, especially when genetic data are analysed in conjunction with a large number of covariates. Here, R http://www.r-project.org, a free, flexible and platform-independent environment for statistical modelling and graphics is explored as an integrated system for genetic data analysis. An overview of some packages currently available for analysis of genetic data is given. This is followed by examples of package development and practical applications. With clear advantages in data management, graphics, statistical analysis, programming, internet capability and use of available codes, it is a feasible, although challenging, task to develop it into an integrated platform for genetic analysis; this will require the joint efforts of many researchers.

  13. An integrated system for genetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Xiao

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genetic mapping projects require data management systems that can handle complex phenotypes and detect and correct high-throughput genotyping errors, yet are easy to use. Description We have developed an Integrated Genotyping System (IGS to meet this need. IGS securely stores, edits and analyses genotype and phenotype data. It stores information about DNA samples, plates, primers, markers and genotypes generated by a genotyping laboratory. Data are structured so that statistical genetic analysis of both case-control and pedigree data is straightforward. Conclusion IGS can model complex phenotypes and contain genotypes from whole genome association studies. The database makes it possible to integrate genetic analysis with data curation. The IGS web site http://bioinformatics.well.ox.ac.uk/project-igs.shtml contains further information.

  14. The Temporal and Spatial Invasion Genetics of the Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in Southern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Lemic

    Full Text Available This study describes the genetics of the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte in southern Europe during the introduction (1996-2001 and establishment/spread (2002-2011 phases of its invasion. The Diabrotica microsatellite core-set was used to perform traditional population genetics analyses. Our results indicated that during the introduction phase genetic diversity and population genetic structure were lower overall as compared to the establishment/spread phase. Unusually high genetic differentiation was found between the Italy and southern Europe comparisons, including high differentiation between Italian populations separated by a short distance during the establishment/spread phase. STRUCTURE analysis revealed two genetic clusters during the introduction phase and two genetic clusters during the establishment/spread phase. However, bottlenecked populations were only detected during the invasion phase. A small but significant isolation by distance effect was noted in both phases. Serbia was the geographic source of WCR to Croatia and Hungary in the introduction phase, while the United States of America was the possible source of WCR to Italy in 2001. These introductory populations were the subsequent source of individuals sampled during the establishment/spread phase. Repeated introductions and admixture events in southern Europe may have resulted in genetically diverse WCR populations that have attained 83% of all known alleles worldwide.

  15. Integration, Identity and Participation in a Changing Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tătar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the prospects of building European identity in the changing environment of the EU enlargements. Drawing on data from Eurobarometer surveys, the study specifically looks at citizens’ perceptions and images of EU and their availability to participate in European affairs. The article points out different views about the meanings and expectations regarding the EU project. Although both national and international contexts play a significant role in fostering specific representations of EU, there is no clear-cut divide between the citizens of “old” and “new” Member States (MS. Instead, one can notice a more complex picture in terms of identification with the EU. In general, people from different MS tend to feel on average more attachment to their country (and sometimes to their own village/town/city than to the EU. Moreover, individuals from “old” MS do not necessarily have higher levels of attachment to the symbols of EU than those living in “new” MS. In addition, the level of effective knowledge on how EU actually works remains at relatively low rates throughout Europe, regardless of a country’s date of accession to the EU. Consequently, the socialization effects of the European integration process seem to remain weak in terms of fostering the emergence of European identity.

  16. Lactase persistence and milk consumption in Europe: an interdisciplinary approach involving genetics and archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Leonardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to digest milk during adulthood (lactase persistence is a genetically determined trait present only in humans. Its origin and diffusion are correlated with the development of pastoralism and the consumption of fresh milk. This work will present the genetic and archaeologi- cal data that allow the reconstruction of the co-evolutionary process between dairying culture and lactase persistence, as well as a discussion of the chronology and the way lactase persistence spread in Europe.

  17. Genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes at a continental scale in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Knapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar echinococcosis (AE is a severe helminth disease affecting humans, which is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE represents a serious public health issue in larger regions of China, Siberia, and other regions in Asia. In Europe, a significant increase in prevalence since the 1990s is not only affecting the historically documented endemic area north of the Alps but more recently also neighbouring regions previously not known to be endemic. The genetic diversity of the parasite population and respective distribution in Europe have now been investigated in view of generating a fine-tuned map of parasite variants occurring in Europe. This approach may serve as a model to study the parasite at a worldwide level.The genetic diversity of E. multilocularis was assessed based upon the tandemly repeated microsatellite marker EmsB in association with matching fox host geographical positions. Our study demonstrated a higher genetic diversity in the endemic areas north of the Alps when compared to other areas.The study of the spatial distribution of E. multilocularis in Europe, based on 32 genetic clusters, suggests that Europe can be considered as a unique global focus of E. multilocularis, which can be schematically drawn as a central core located in Switzerland and Jura Swabe flanked by neighbouring regions where the parasite exhibits a lower genetic diversity. The transmission of the parasite into peripheral regions is governed by a "mainland-island" system. Moreover, the presence of similar genetic profiles in both zones indicated a founder event.

  18. Toward an integrated Volcanic Ash Observing System in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Lisk, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic ash from the Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April and May of 2010 resulted in the decision by many northern European countries to impose significant restrictions on the use of their airspace. The eruption, extent and persistence of the ash revealed how reliant society now is on a safe and efficient air transport system and the fragility of that system when affected by the impact of complex natural hazards. As part of an EC framework programme, the 2011-2013 WEZARD (WEather HaZARD for aeronautics) consortium conducted a cross-industry volcanic ash capability and gap analyses, with the EUMETNET (network of 29 National Meteorological Services) led Work Package 3 focussing on a review of observational and monitoring capabilities, atmospheric dispersion modelling and data exchange. The review has revealed a patchwork of independent observing capabilities for volcanic ash, with some countries investing and others not at all, and most existing networks focus on space-based products. Existing capabilities do not provide the necessary detail on the geographical and vertical extent of volcanic ash and associated levels of contamination, which decision makers in the aviation industry require in order to decide where it is safe to fly. A resultant high priority was identified by WEZARD Work Package 3 for an enhanced observational network of complementary monitoring systems needed to initialise, validate and verify volcanic ash dispersion model output and forecasts. Thus a key recommendation is to invest in a major pre-operational demonstrator "European volcanic ash observing network", focussing on distal monitoring, and aiming to a) fill R&D gaps identified in instrumentation and algorithms and b) integrate data, where possible in near-real-time, from a range of ground-based, airborne and space-based techniques. Here we present a key WEZARD recommendation toward an integrated volcanic ash observing system in Europe, in context with other related projects

  19. Symboler og myter er vigtige for europæisk integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Søby, Christine; Manners, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Samfundsvidenskabelige forskere bør betragte symboler og myter som væsentlige for konkrete politiske processer og beslutninger i EU. De påvirker nemlig den europæiske integration......Samfundsvidenskabelige forskere bør betragte symboler og myter som væsentlige for konkrete politiske processer og beslutninger i EU. De påvirker nemlig den europæiske integration...

  20. CARE Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe: integrating activity implemented as integrated infrastructure initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksan, R

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the CARE project was to generate a structured and integrated European area in the field of accelerator research and related R&D. A set of integrating activities involving the largest European infrastructure laboratories and their user communities “active in accelerator R&D”, including industrial partners was established with the following general objectives: 1) To optimise the use of existing infrastructures for improving the European knowledge on accelerator physics  By promoting a coherent and coordinated utilization and development of infrastructures and to facilitate the access to accelerators and test facilities for carrying accelerator studies  By understanding accelerator operation and reliability issues 2) To tackle new or state-of-the-art technologies in a more co-ordinated and collaborative approach  By developing a coherent and coordinated accelerator R&D program in Europe and carrying out joint R&D projects allowing one to enhance the existing (or...

  1. Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, L R; Schepers, H T A M; Hermansen, A

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to potato production in northwestern Europe. Before 1980, the worldwide population of P. infestans outside Mexico appeared to be asexual and to consist of a single clonal lineage of A1 mating type characterized by a single...... genotype. It is widely believed that new strains migrated into Europe in 1976 and that this led to subsequent population changes including the introduction of the A2 mating type. The population characteristics of recently collected isolates in NW Europe show a diverse population including both mating types......, sexual reproduction and oospores, although differences are observed between regions. Although it is difficult to find direct evidence that new strains are more aggressive, there are several indications from experiments and field epidemics that the aggressiveness of P. infestans has increased in the past...

  2. Epidemiology and integrated control of Potato Late Blight in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.J.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Hermansen, A.; Bain, R.; Bradshaw, N.; Ritchie, F.; Shaw, D.S.; Evenhuis, A.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Wander, J.G.N.; Andersson, B.; Hansen, J.G.; Hannukkala, A.; Naerstad, R.; Nielsen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to potato production in northwestern Europe. Before 1980, the worldwide population of P. infestans outside Mexico appeared to be asexual and to consist of a single clonal lineage of A1 mating type characterized by a single

  3. Coordination and integration of primary care in Western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet-Paap, J.C. van; Boerma, W.; Kringos, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to ageing a larger proportion of the population suffers from multiple and complex health problems that need treatment from more than one health care provider. Fragmentation of care is a critical development that all health care systems in Europe need to cope with. To improve the

  4. Role of genetics in adapting forests under climate change: lessons learned from common garden experiments in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive management aiming at reducing vulnerability and enhancing the resilience of forested ecosystems is a key to preserving the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services under climate change. Planting alternative or non native tree species adapted to future conditions and also utilizing the genetic variation within tree species has also been suggested as an important adaptive management strategy under climate change. Therefore, knowledge on suitable provenances/populations is a key issue. Provenance trial experiments, where several populations of a species are planted in a particular climate or throughout an appropriate climatic gradient offers a great opportunity to understand adaptive genetic variation within a tree species. These trials were primarily established, for identifying populations with desired growth and fitness characteristics. Due to the increasing interest in climate change, such trials were revisited to understand the relation between growth performance and climate and to recommend suitable populations for future conditions. Here we present the lessons learned from provenance trials of Norway spruce and Douglas -fir in central Europe. With data from provenance trials planted across a wide range of environmental conditions in central Europe we developed multivariate models, Universal Response Functions (URFs). The URFs predict growth performance as a function of climate of planting locations (i.e. environmental factors) and provenance/ population origin (i.e. genetic factors). The flexibility of the URFs as a decision making tool is remarkable. The model can be used as to identify suitable planting material for a give site, and vice versa and also as a species distribution model (SDM) with integrated genetic variation. Under current and climate change scenarios, the URFs were applied to predict populations with higher growth performance in central Europe and also as species distribution models for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

  5. Population genetic structure in natural and reintroduced beaver (Castor fiber populations in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautenburger, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758 is the only indigenous species of the genus Castor in Europe and Asia. Due to extensive hunting until the beginning of the 20th century, the distribution of the formerly widespread Eurasian beaver was dramatically reduced. Only a few populations remained and these were in isolated locations, such as the region of the German Elbe River. The loss of genetic diversity in small or captive populations throughgenetic drift and inbreeding is a severe conservation problem. However, the reintroduction of beaver populations from several regions in Europe has shown high viability and populations today are growing fast. In the present study we analysed the population genetic structure of a natural and two reintroduced beaver populations in Germany and Austria. Furthermore, we studied the genetic differentiation between two beaver species, C. fiber and the American beaver (C. canadensis, using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA as a genetic marker. The reintroduced beaver populations of different origins and the autochthonous population of the Elbe River showed a similar low genetic heterogeneity. There was an overall high genetic similarity in the species C. fiber, and no evidence was found for a clear subspecific structure in the populations studied.

  6. Empirical study regarding the integrated reporting practices in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Bratu

    2017-01-01

    Integrated reporting is a practice which seeks to communicate an organization’s value through a holistic picture integrating both financial and non-financial information. This process is in its incipient phase, with many companies unsure of how prepare a truly integrated report. With the aim of providing a better understanding on integrated reporting and its benefits, a common framework, was developed by The International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC). The m...

  7. Assessing policies towards sustainable transport in Europe: an integrated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2005-01-01

    A transport simulation and forecast model is presented, which is designed for the assessment of policy options aiming to achieve sustainability in transportation. Starting from a simulation of the economic behaviour of consumers and producers within a microeconomic optimisation framework and the resulting calculation of the modal split, the allocation of the vehicle stock into vintages and technological groups is modelled. In a third step, a technology-oriented algorithm, which incorporates the relevant state-of-the-art knowledge in Europe, calculates emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases as well as appropriate indicators for traffic congestion, noise and road accidents. The paper outlines the methodology and the basic data sources used in connection with work done so far in Europe, presents the outlook according to a 'reference case' run for the 15 current European Union Member States up to 2030, displays aggregate results from a number of alternative scenarios and outlines elements of future work

  8. Coordination and integration of primary care in Western Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Riet-Paap, J.C. van; Boerma, W.; Kringos, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to ageing a larger proportion of the population suffers from multiple and complex health problems that need treatment from more than one health care provider. Fragmentation of care is a critical development that all health care systems in Europe need to cope with. To improve the responsiveness of patient care there is a need for coherent and well coordinated provision of health care services. Methods: On the basis of a systematic review of the literature on primary care (PC) a...

  9. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Schueler, Silvio; Falk, Wolfgang; Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Bozzano, Michele; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C.

    2014-01-01

    A transnational network of genetic conservation units for forest trees was recently documented in Europe aiming at the conservation of evolutionary processes and the adaptive potential of natural or man-made tree populations. In this study, we quantified the vulnerability of individual conservation units and the whole network to climate change using climate favourability models and the estimated velocity of climate change. Compared to the overall climate niche of the analysed target species p...

  10. Integrative Medicine and Tourism Clusters. Perspectives in Europe and Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Horia Liviu Popa

    2012-01-01

    Integrative medicine or integrative health is a neologism coined by practitioners to describe the combination of practices and methods of alternative medicine with conventional medicine. Some global advanced universities and hospitals have integrative-medicine departments. In European Union and North America networks of cluster initiatives (clusters of clusters) in Integrative Medicine and Tourism have become a widespread approach to the expansion of Life Science industries. The purpose of th...

  11. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  12. The genetic prehistory of domesticated cattle from their origin to the spread across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheu, Amelie; Powell, Adam; Bollongino, Ruth; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Tresset, Anne; Çakırlar, Canan; Benecke, Norbert; Burger, Joachim

    2015-05-28

    Cattle domestication started in the 9(th) millennium BC in Southwest Asia. Domesticated cattle were then introduced into Europe during the Neolithic transition. However, the scarcity of palaeogenetic data from the first European domesticated cattle still inhibits the accurate reconstruction of their early demography. In this study, mitochondrial DNA from 193 ancient and 597 modern domesticated cattle (Bos taurus) from sites across Europe, Western Anatolia and Iran were analysed to provide insight into the Neolithic dispersal process and the role of the local European aurochs population during cattle domestication. Using descriptive summary statistics and serial coalescent simulations paired with approximate Bayesian computation we find: (i) decreasing genetic diversity in a southeast to northwest direction, (ii) strong correlation of genetic and geographical distances, iii) an estimated effective size of the Near Eastern female founder population of 81, iv) that the expansion of cattle from the Near East and Anatolia into Europe does not appear to constitute a significant bottleneck, and that v) there is evidence for gene-flow between the Near Eastern/Anatolian and European cattle populations in the early phases of the European Neolithic, but that it is restricted after 5,000 BCE. The most plausible scenario to explain these results is a single and regionally restricted domestication process of cattle in the Near East with subsequent migration into Europe during the Neolithic transition without significant maternal interbreeding with the endogenous wild stock. Evidence for gene-flow between cattle populations from Southwestern Asia and Europe during the earlier phases of the European Neolithic points towards intercontinental trade connections between Neolithic farmers.

  13. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP) ...

  14. High genetic similarity of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna eKovač

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the leading zoonosis in the European Union with the majority of cases attributed to Campylobacter jejuni. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, some severe cases need to be treated with antibiotics, primarily macrolides and quinolones. However, the resistance to the latter is reaching alarming levels in most of the EU countries. To shed light on the expansion of antibiotic resistance in central Europe, we have investigated genetic similarity across 178 ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni mostly isolates in Slovenia, Austria and Germany. We performed comparative genetic similarity analyses using allelic types of seven MLST housekeeping genes, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms of quinolone resistance determining region located within the DNA gyrase subunit A gene. This analysis revealed high genetic similarity of isolates from clonal complex ST-21 that carry gyrA allelic type 1 in all three of these central-European countries, suggesting these ciprofloxacin resistant isolates arise from a recent common ancestor.

  15. Challenges and opportunities for integrated pest management in Europe: A telling example of minor uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Arendse, Wilma; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke

    2015-01-01

    of view, is vital for both human health and European economies. For minor crops, this sustainability can only be realized by the continued availability of crop protection solutions for pest control. The number of minor crops in Europe without viable solutions for plant protection has increased in recent...... years. This is mainly due to the lack of pesticides in certain crops, as a number of previously authorized pesticides has not been re-authorized due to a stricter regulation. Also the introduction of tropical or sub-tropical crops and their pests into Europe has contributed to the problem of minor crops...... state of the art of minor crops in Europe and elucidate ongoing efforts to address such problems through Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The information reported is expected to provide relevance of minor crops in Europe and encourage the development and implementation of effective IPM solutions....

  16. Integration Policies and Immigrants’ Labor Market Outcomes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.

  17. Genetic diversity and landscape genetic structure of otter (Lutra lutra) populations in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mucci, N.; Arrendal, J.; Ansorge, H.; Bailey, M.; Bodner, M.; Delibes, M.; Ferrando, A.; Fournier, P.; Fournier, C.; Godoy, J. A.; Hájková, Petra; Hauer, S.; Heggberget, T. M.; Heidecke, D.; Kirjavainen, H.; Krueger, H.-H.; Kvaloy, K.; Lafontaine, L.; Lanszki, J.; Lemarchand, C.; Liukko, U.-M.; Loeschcke, V.; Ludwig, G.; Madsen, A. B.; Mercier, L.; Ozolins, J.; Paunovic, M.; Pertoldi, C.; Piriz, A.; Prigioni, C.; Santos-Reis, M.; Luis, T. S.; Stjernberg, T.; Schmid, H.; Suchentrunk, F.; Teubner, J.; Tornberg, R.; Zinke, O.; Randi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2010), s. 583-599 ISSN 1566-0621 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930804; GA MŽP SP/2D4/16/08 Grant - others:European Science Foundation(XE) ConGen program Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Eurasian otter * Mitochondrial DNA * Microsatellites * Bayesian clustering * Spatial genetic structure * Landscape genetics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.255, year: 2010

  18. Project INTEGRATE - a common methodological approach to understand integrated health care in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Cash-Gibson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of case studies in health services research has proven to be an excellent methodology for gaining in-depth understanding of the organisation and delivery of health care. This is particularly relevant when looking at the complexity of integrated healthcare programmes, where multifaceted interactions occur at the different levels of care and often without a clear link between the interventions (new and/or existing and their impact on outcomes (in terms of patients health, both patient and professional satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Still, integrated care is seen as a core strategy in the sustainability of health and care provision in most societies in Europe and beyond. More specifically, at present, there is neither clear evidence on transferable factors of integrated care success nor a method for determining how to establish these specific success factors. The drawback of case methodology in this case, however, is that the in-depth results or lessons generated are usually highly context-specific and thus brings the challenge of transferability of findings to other settings, as different health care systems and different indications are often not comparable. Project INTEGRATE, a European Commission-funded project, has been designed to overcome these problems; it looks into four chronic conditions in different European settings, under a common methodology framework (taking a mixed-methods approach to try to overcome the issue of context specificity and limited transferability. The common methodological framework described in this paper seeks to bring together the different case study findings in a way that key lessons may be derived and transferred between countries, contexts and patient-groups, where integrated care is delivered in order to provide insight into generalisability and build on existing evidence in this field.Methodology: To compare the different integrated care experiences, a mixed-methods approach has

  19. [Opposition to Myriad Genetics patents and their total or partial revocation in Europe: early conclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, Maurice; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    The proceedings instituted against three European patents held by the US company Myriad Genetics, on the BRCA1 gene and the breast cancer diagnosis gene, resulted in the total or partial revocation of these patents. These decisions put an end to the legal monopoly claimed by Myriad Genetics on the BRCA1 gene and on breast cancer gene tests, and left the field open to European geneticists to develop and implement their test methods within the framework of a clinical not-for-profit organization. The opposition procedure, through which any actor is allowed to challenge European patents, was used by geneticists doctors in Europe to refuse the emergence of an industrial monopoly on a medical service offered in a clinical context. The decision to revoke or strongly limit these patents was based on the European Patent Office's refusal to establish an invention priority on a sequence that had errors at the time the application was filed by the patent holder, in September 1994. The patent holder was granted an invention priority only on 24 March 1995, when it filed an application for a corrected sequence of the gene. But by then the BRCA1 gene sequence had already been divulged in a public data base, Genbank, from October 1994, notably by Myriad. Myriad Genetics' patents were thus victims of the patent race that prompted the firm to file multiple patent applications on insufficiently validated sequences, and of the conflict between diffusion in the public domain and the novelty requirement. Opposition to the patents, undertaken by a coalition of medical institutions, human genetic societies, two States, Holland and Austria, an environmental protection organization (Greenpeace), and the Swiss Labour Party, made it possible to preserve and develop the clinical economy of genetic tests in Europe. It resulted in amendments to intellectual property laws in France and thus extended the possibility of using compulsory licences for public health purposes to in vitro diagnosis.

  20. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: France--National Description 2003/04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…

  1. Research network on capital markets and financial integration in Europe : results and experience after two years

    OpenAIRE

    European Central Bank ; Center for Financial Studies (CFS)

    2008-01-01

    In April 2002 the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Center for Financial Studies (CFS) launched the ECB-CFS Research Network to promote research on “Capital Markets and Financial Integration in Europe”. The ECB-CFS research network aims at stimulating top-level and policy-relevant research, significantly contributing to the understanding of the current and future structure and integration of the financial system in Europe and its international linkages with the United States and Japan. This...

  2. Migrant integration policies and health inequalities in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Giannoni, Margherita; Franzini, Luisa; Masiero, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on socio-economic determinants of migrant health inequalities has produced a large body of evidence. There is lack of evidence on the influence of structural factors on lives of fragile groups, frequently exposed to health inequalities. The role of poor socio-economic status and country level structural factors, such as migrant integration policies, in explaining migrant health inequalities is unclear. The objective of this paper is to examine the role of migrant socio-eco...

  3. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and the genetic history of Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Susanne; Prost, Stefan; Stiller, Mathias; Makowiecki, Daniel; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Benecke, Norbert; Pucher, Erich; Hufthammer, Anne K; Schouwenburg, Charles; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    After centuries of human hunting, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber had disappeared from most of its original range by the end of the 19th century. The surviving relict populations are characterized by both low genetic diversity and strong phylogeographical structure. However, it remains unclear whether these attributes are the result of a human-induced, late Holocene bottleneck or already existed prior to this reduction in range. To investigate genetic diversity in Eurasian beaver populations during the Holocene, we obtained mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 48 ancient beaver samples and added 152 modern sequences from GenBank. Phylogeographical analyses of the data indicate a differentiation of European beaver populations into three mitochondrial clades. The two main clades occur in western and eastern Europe, respectively, with an early Holocene contact zone in eastern Europe near a present-day contact zone. A divergent and previously unknown clade of beavers from the Danube Basin survived until at least 6000 years ago, but went extinct during the transition to modern times. Finally, we identify a recent decline in effective population size of Eurasian beavers, with a stronger bottleneck signal in the western than in the eastern clade. Our results suggest that the low genetic diversity and the strong phylogeographical structure in recent beavers are artefacts of human hunting-associated population reductions. While beaver populations have been growing rapidly since the late 19th century, genetic diversity within modern beaver populations remains considerably reduced compared to what was present prior to the period of human hunting and habitat reduction.

  4. Vestiges of an Ancient Border in the Contemporary Genetic Diversity of North-Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu M Neuvonen

    Full Text Available It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.

  5. Feedback of Individual Genetic Results to Research Participants: Is It Feasible in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Deborah; Soini, Sirpa; Machado, Helena; Kaye, Jane; Bentzen, Heidi Beate; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; D'Abramo, Flavio; Witt, Michał; Schamps, Geneviève; Katić, Višnja; Krajnovic, Dusanca; Harris, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing consensus that individual genetic research results that are scientifically robust, analytically valid, and clinically actionable should be offered to research participants. However, the general practice in European research projects is that results are usually not provided to research participants for many reasons. This article reports on the views of European experts and scholars who are members of the European COST Action CHIP ME IS1303 (Citizen's Health through public-private Initiatives: Public health, Market and Ethical perspectives) regarding challenges to the feedback of individual genetic results to research participants in Europe and potential strategies to address these challenges. Materials and Methods: A consultation of the COST Action members was conducted through an email survey and a workshop. The results from the consultation were analyzed following a conventional content analysis approach. Results: Legal frameworks, professional guidelines, and financial, organizational, and human resources to support the feedback of results are largely missing in Europe. Necessary steps to facilitate the feedback process include clarifying legal requirements to the feedback of results, developing harmonized European best practices, promoting interdisciplinary and cross-institutional collaboration, designing educational programs and cost-efficient IT-based platforms, involving research ethics committees, and documenting the health benefits and risks of the feedback process. Conclusions: Coordinated efforts at pan-European level are needed to enable equitable, scientifically sound, and socially robust feedback of results to research participants. PMID:27082461

  6. European Integration and Outward FDI from Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.

    2015-01-01

    countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15...... of host country location factors. In particular, we investigate to what extent knowledge-seeking is a relevant investment motive, which has been documented as a key determinant for OFDI from other emerging economies. We apply a discrete choice approach to model foreign location choice of firms from CEE...... is positively associated with knowledge-seeking. It also plays a role for technology-intensive industries and larger firms...

  7. Genetic and phenotypic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus in southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing concern that global climate change will affect the potential for pathogen transmission by insect species that are vectors of human diseases. One of these species is the former European malaria vector, Anopheles atroparvus. Levels of population differentiation of An. atroparvus from southern Europe were characterized as a first attempt to elucidate patterns of population structure of this former malaria vector. Results are discussed in light of a hypothetical situation of re-establishment of malaria transmission. Methods Genetic and phenotypic variation was analysed in nine mosquito samples collected from five European countries, using eight microsatellite loci and geometric morphometrics on 21 wing landmarks. Results Levels of genetic diversity were comparable to those reported for tropical malaria vectors. Low levels of genetic (0.004 FST An. atroparvus populations spanning over 3,000 km distance. Genetic differentiation (0.202 FST An. atroparvus and Anopheles maculipennis s.s. Differentiation between sibling species was not so evident at the phenotype level. Conclusions Levels of population differentiation within An. atroparvus were low and not correlated with geographic distance or with putative physical barriers to gene flow (Alps and Pyrenées. While these results may suggest considerable levels of gene flow, other explanations such as the effect of historical population perturbations can also be hypothesized.

  8. Transport corridors as a factor of integration in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of opening the state borders with the stress on its integration function through the constitution of cross-border regions cannot be achieved without a synchronized transport development. For South Eastern European countries, the top priority project would be the formation of pan-European transport corridors defined on Crete in 1994 and amended later on in Helsinki in 1997. Six of ten corridors pass through the territory of South Eastern Europe. Due to their transport and geographical locations, the capitals of the region should represent the key nodes on the main transport directions. Corridor X with its technical, economic and functional characteristics represents the axis of the entire transport network in SE Europe. Formation of this network has as its ultimate goal the functional inter-regional integration with simplified and accelerated transport lines. This also means the open barriers but at the same time, improved and harmonized transport infrastructures and services.

  9. The status and prospects for genetically modified food in Europe and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada KNEEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last sixteen years worldwide production of genetically modified (GM crops has been increased sharply. At the same time, consumer?s attitudes toward food products made from GM ingredients have been largely negative. This review considers the global production of GM plants in 2011 and consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods in Europe and Croatia. While planted areas of GM crops grow worldwide, data from European surveys shows generally negative consumer?s perception towards GM food. Eurobarometer survey from 2010 was especially pointed out, where Croatian consumers were included in research for first time. It has been shown that the Croatian, even more than Europeans, do not approve the use of genetically modified food in human consumption. This aversion to GM crops is based on the personal attitude of consumers, whereas the two main risks cited are: potential health risk and preference for natural food, and social risks which include possible adverse effects of GM plants on the environment. Research has shown that the perceived level of risk by consumers can be mitigated if the confidence is built in state institutions and scientific research.

  10. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  11. An integrated assessment of regional air pollution and climate change in Europe: findings of the AIR-CLIM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcamo, J.; Mayerhofer, P.; Guardans, R.; Harmelen, T. van; Minnen, J. van; Onigkeit, J.; Posch, M.; Vries, B. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of an assessment of the linkages between regional air pollution and climate change in Europe (the AIR-CLIM Project). The main research tool was an integrated modeling framework and the main product was a consistent set of long-term scenarios covering Europe between 1995

  12. Genetic comparison of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolates from North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, K.H.; Higman, K.H.; Arakawa, C.K.; de Kinkelin, P.; Jorgensen, P.E.V.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is the cdusative agent of a serious rhabdoviral d~sease of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus myklss in Europe The first isolation of the vlrus in North Amenca occurred In the fall of 1988 when it was recovered from adult chinook 0 tshawytscha and coho 0 klsutch salmon returning to 2 hatcher~es in the state of Washington, USA The following year, VHSV was isolated from adult coho salmon at 2 other hatcher~es in northwestern Washington In 1990 and 1991, VHSV was recovered from Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus caught in Pnnce Willlam Sound, Alaska Genetic vanation among the 4 isolates from salmon and the 1990 ~solate from Pacific cod was determ~ned uslng T1 nbonuclease finqerprlnt~ng In addition, 4 d~verse isolates from Europe were lncluded for companson The North Amencan isolates of VHSV formed a slngle fingerprint group In which the 4 isolates from salmonids were h~ghly similar to each other and the isolate from Pacific cod was related but less s~milar The 4 European ~solates which included an isolate from Atlantic cod G morhua, formed a second fingerpnnt group The genetic d~vers~ty among the isolates within each fingerpnnt group was estimated to be less than 5 % whlle the North Amencan and European strains of the virus were judged to differ by more than 5% The results indicate that the North Amerlcan isolates of VHSV are not of European ongln and that the virus may be enzootic wlthin the manne environment.

  13. Vulnerability of dynamic genetic conservation units of forest trees in Europe to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Silvio; Falk, Wolfgang; Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Bozzano, Michele; Hubert, Jason; Kraigher, Hojka; Longauer, Roman; Olrik, Ditte C

    2014-05-01

    A transnational network of genetic conservation units for forest trees was recently documented in Europe aiming at the conservation of evolutionary processes and the adaptive potential of natural or man-made tree populations. In this study, we quantified the vulnerability of individual conservation units and the whole network to climate change using climate favourability models and the estimated velocity of climate change. Compared to the overall climate niche of the analysed target species populations at the warm and dry end of the species niche are underrepresented in the network. However, by 2100, target species in 33-65 % of conservation units, mostly located in southern Europe, will be at the limit or outside the species' current climatic niche as demonstrated by favourabilities below required model sensitivities of 95%. The highest average decrease in favourabilities throughout the network can be expected for coniferous trees although they are mainly occurring within units in mountainous landscapes for which we estimated lower velocities of change. Generally, the species-specific estimates of favourabilities showed only low correlations to the velocity of climate change in individual units, indicating that both vulnerability measures should be considered for climate risk analysis. The variation in favourabilities among target species within the same conservation units is expected to increase with climate change and will likely require a prioritization among co-occurring species. The present results suggest that there is a strong need to intensify monitoring efforts and to develop additional conservation measures for populations in the most vulnerable units. Also, our results call for continued transnational actions for genetic conservation of European forest trees, including the establishment of dynamic conservation populations outside the current species distribution ranges within European assisted migration schemes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Croatian Air Traffic in the Integration Process of the Countries of 21st Century Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Steiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the guidelines regarding air traffic developmentin Croatia within the context of integration processesof the European countries, which has been articulated bythe EATCHIP and EATMS project as a unique European airtraffic management. The positive projection of the developmentis based on the re-integration of the intemational airroutes (overflights with the Croatian interests from thegeotraffic aspect mostly overlapping with the interests ofSlovenia and Bosnia and He1zegovina. As conclusion, a conceptof common strategies of these countries is suggested, in requilingthe operationalisation of air conidors in this part of Europe.

  15. Computing patient data in the cloud: practical and legal considerations for genetics and genomics research in Europe and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár-Gábor, Fruzsina; Lueck, Rupert; Yakneen, Sergei; Korbel, Jan O

    2017-06-20

    Biomedical research is becoming increasingly large-scale and international. Cloud computing enables the comprehensive integration of genomic and clinical data, and the global sharing and collaborative processing of these data within a flexibly scalable infrastructure. Clouds offer novel research opportunities in genomics, as they facilitate cohort studies to be carried out at unprecedented scale, and they enable computer processing with superior pace and throughput, allowing researchers to address questions that could not be addressed by studies using limited cohorts. A well-developed example of such research is the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes project, which involves the analysis of petabyte-scale genomic datasets from research centers in different locations or countries and different jurisdictions. Aside from the tremendous opportunities, there are also concerns regarding the utilization of clouds; these concerns pertain to perceived limitations in data security and protection, and the need for due consideration of the rights of patient donors and research participants. Furthermore, the increased outsourcing of information technology impedes the ability of researchers to act within the realm of existing local regulations owing to fundamental differences in the understanding of the right to data protection in various legal systems. In this Opinion article, we address the current opportunities and limitations of cloud computing and highlight the responsible use of federated and hybrid clouds that are set up between public and private partners as an adequate solution for genetics and genomics research in Europe, and under certain conditions between Europe and international partners. This approach could represent a sensible middle ground between fragmented individual solutions and a "one-size-fits-all" approach.

  16. Analyses of historical and current populations of black grouse in Central Europe reveal strong effects of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segelbacher, G.; Strand, T.M.; Quintela, M.; Axelsson, T.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Koelewijn, H.P.; Hoglund, J.

    2014-01-01

    Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) in Central Europe have undergone a severe contraction of their range in recent decades with only a few small isolated remaining populations. Here we compare genetic diversity of two contemporary isolated populations (Sallandse Heuvelrug, Netherlands and Luneburger Heide,

  17. Integrated scenarios of acidification and climate change in Asia and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, Maximilian; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Alcamo, Joseph; Krol, Maarten

    1996-01-01

    Two integrated assessment models, one for climate change on a global scale (IMAGE 2) and another for the regional analysis of the impacts of acidifying deposition (RAINS), have been linked to assess the impacts of reducing sulphur emission on ecosystems in Asia and Europe. While such reductions have the beneficial effect of reducing the deposition of acidifying compounds and thus the excedance of critical loads of ecosystems, they also reduce the global level of sulphate aerosols and thus enhance the impact of increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and consequently increase the risk of potential vegetation changes. The calculations indicate that about 70% of the ecosystems in Asia would be affected by either acid deposition or climate change in the year 2100 (up from 20% in 1990) for both sulphur emission scenarios (controlled and uncontrolled), whereas in Europe the impacted area would remain at a level of about 50%, with a dip early next century. (author)

  18. Electrifying integration Electricity production and the South East Europe regional energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Elizabeth; Medvedev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the generation of electricity in 10 countries in South East Europe during 1995-2004. Using the latest available statistics, we explore the potential of the nascent integration of the electricity markets in South East Europe. We conduct a cross-country analysis of electricity production based on different types of fuel used. The region has a low level of gasification combined with few nuclear power generation facilities, while some countries heavily rely on hydro electric generation. Differences in countries' resource endowment and the possibility of intertemporal substitution between electricity generated from various fuels could stimulate a regional trade in electricity. As an alternative to nationally independent energy policy, regional trade could displace a proportion of the substantial investment in generation facilities required to avert serious supply shortages. Finally, we consider the environmental impact of electricity generation, and identify some of the key trade-offs between different policy objectives. (author)

  19. Klinefelter syndrome - integrating genetics, neuropsychology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravholt, Claus H; Chang, Simon; Wallentin, Mikkel; Fedder, Jens; Moore, Philip; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2018-02-09

    Although first identified over 70 years ago, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) continue to pose significant diagnostic challenges, as many patients are still misdiagnosed, or remain undiagnosed. In fact, as few as 25% of KS patients are accurately diagnosed, and most of these diagnoses are not made until adulthood. Classic characteristics of KS include small testes, infertility, hypergonadothropic hypogonadism, and cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiology behind KS is not well understood, although genetic effects are also thought to play a role. For example, recent developments in genetics and genomics point to a fundamental change in our understanding of KS, with global epigenetic and RNA expression changes playing a central role for the phenotype.KS is also associated with more general health markers, including higher morbidity and mortality rates, and lower socio-economic status (which likely affects both morbidity and mortality). In addition, hypogonadism is associated with greater risk of of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and extragonadal germ cell tumors. Medical treatment typically focuses on testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), although the effects of this therapy has not been studied rigorously, and future studies need to evaluate the effects of TRT on metabolic risk and neurocognitive outcomes.This review presents a comprehensive, interdisciplinary examination of recent developments in genetic, endocrine and neurocognitive science, including the study of animal models regarding KS. It also provides a number of recommendations for improving the effectiveness of research and clinical practice, including neonatal KS screening programs, and a multidisciplinary approach to KS treatment from childhood until senescence. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  20. KEYNOTE INVOLVEMENT OF GENETICS IN KNOWLEDGE, STOCK MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUTY-GROSSET C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past, conservation programmes for a given species consisted in restoring the habitat and in translocating individuals without knowledge of their taxonomic status. Even if managers wanted to be informed, the “traditional taxonomy”, based on morphological characters, was discouraging because it could indicate several types of classification. This is the case for Austropotamobius pallipes, considered as a species complex. Today, conservation genetics aims to maintain, on one hand, the genetic specificity of populations (genetic integrity principle and, on the other hand, the genetic diversity within and between populations (biodiversity principle, these basic principles being considered both at the level of protection measures and management measures. As an endangered species, A. pallipes is subjected to a loss of genetic diversity, a result of deterioration of water quality responsible for habitat fragmentation, with populations being confined to headwaters of the catchments. Consequently a certain degree of genetic variability must be maintained within the species because it governs the adaptation potential: the populations must be capable of responding to new environmental conditions. In A. pallipes, recent studies from several countries attempt to first describe the distribution of the present natural populations and secondly, by studying mitochondrial DNA, to clarify the taxonomy (number and identification of the present species and subspecies by phylogenetic inferences and to assess the biogeographical history. These two preliminary steps are fundamental before defining conservation units and working at the catchment level, using highly polymorphic nuclear markers. The new approach has provided a good framework for research, with more frequent dialogues between geneticists and managers.

  1. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Kusza

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia. We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1 clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023 and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002. SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1 north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2 Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3 Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  2. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  3. The potential of landscape labelling approaches for integrated landscape management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Plieninger, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This paper combines conceptual thinking and empirical analysis of landscape labelling as a new governance approach. With the help of a literature review and qualitative interviews, we (1) explore the conceptual orientation of landscape labelling, (2) analyse existing approaches in Europe and (3......) elaborate its potential for integrated landscape management on a regional scale. Governance analysis to identify fostering and hindering factors is carried out for regional brands in biosphere reserves in Germany, geographic indication in Spain, organic agriculture in France and a community forest...... approach within policy mixes that depend on supportive governance structures and stakeholders....

  4. Wolf population genetics in Europe: a systematic review, meta-analysis and suggestions for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Remm, Jaanus; Pilot, Malgorzata; Godinho, Raquel; Stronen, Astrid Vik; Baltrūnaité, Laima; Czarnomska, Sylwia D; Leonard, Jennifer A; Randi, Ettore; Nowak, Carsten; Åkesson, Mikael; López-Bao, José Vicente; Álvares, Francisco; Llaneza, Luis; Echegaray, Jorge; Vilà, Carles; Ozolins, Janis; Rungis, Dainis; Aspi, Jouni; Paule, Ladislav; Skrbinšek, Tomaž; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-08-01

    The grey wolf (Canis lupus) is an iconic large carnivore that has increasingly been recognized as an apex predator with intrinsic value and a keystone species. However, wolves have also long represented a primary source of human-carnivore conflict, which has led to long-term persecution of wolves, resulting in a significant decrease in their numbers, genetic diversity and gene flow between populations. For more effective protection and management of wolf populations in Europe, robust scientific evidence is crucial. This review serves as an analytical summary of the main findings from wolf population genetic studies in Europe, covering major studies from the 'pre-genomic era' and the first insights of the 'genomics era'. We analyse, summarize and discuss findings derived from analyses of three compartments of the mammalian genome with different inheritance modes: maternal (mitochondrial DNA), paternal (Y chromosome) and biparental [autosomal microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. To describe large-scale trends and patterns of genetic variation in European wolf populations, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the results of previous microsatellite studies and also included new data, covering all 19 European countries for which wolf genetic information is available: Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Belarus, Russia, Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Spain and Portugal. We compared different indices of genetic diversity in wolf populations and found a significant spatial trend in heterozygosity across Europe from south-west (lowest genetic diversity) to north-east (highest). The range of spatial autocorrelation calculated on the basis of three characteristics of genetic diversity was 650-850 km, suggesting that the genetic diversity of a given wolf population can be influenced by populations up to 850 km away. As an important outcome of this synthesis, we

  5. Current practice for genetic counselling by nurses: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennieffer A; Tsai, Lily P; Welch, Anthony; Faradz, Sultana M H; Lane-Krebs, Katrina; Howie, Virginia; Hillman, Wendy

    2018-02-20

    To examine current practice of genetic counselling by nurses. Recent debate argues that genetic counselling is a specialist advanced practice role, whilst others argue it is the role of all nurses. Current evidence is required to determine if genetic counselling could be included in all nurses' scope of practice. Integrative literature review. A search of electronic databases (CINHAL, Medline, PubMed, Scopus), and reference lists published between January 2012 and March 2017, was undertaken. Studies were critically appraised for methodological quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Data from each study were extracted and categorized according to their primary findings. The inclusion criteria were met in 10 studies. Main findings were identified: role of genetic counselling, current knowledge, need for further education, and client satisfaction with nurse genetic counsellors. This paper concludes that some nurses do engage in genetic counselling, but how they engage is not consistent, nor is there consensus about what should be the scope of practice. Further investigation into credentialing, role recognition support and education for nurse genetic counselling are strongly recommended. As nurses are widely available, nurses can make a significant contribution to supporting those affected by genetic problems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. International market integration for natural gas? A cointegration analysis of prices in Europe, North America and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siliverstovs, Boriss; L'Hegaret, Guillaume; Neumann, Anne; Hirschlausen, Christian von

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree of integration of natural gas markets in Europe, North America and Japan in the time period between the early 1990s and 2004. The relationship between international gas market prices and their relation to the oil price are explored through principal components analysis and Johansen likelihood-based cointegration procedure. Both of them show a high level of natural gas market integration within Europe, between the European and Japanese markets as well as within the North American market. At the same time the obtained results suggest that the European (respectively, Japanese) and the North American markets were not integrated. (Author)

  7. Integration of Capital Markets from Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra HOROBET

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the extent of capital market co-movements between three emerging markets Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland and three developed markets from the European Union – Austria, France and Germany. We test whether an increase in correlations between the six markets took place in recent years, as revealing higher integration of capital markets in the region. We find a statistically significant positive trend in cross-market correlations between 1999 and 2008, before the emergence of the global financial crisis. Movements in national stock markets are not fully synchronized, but increases in market volatilities lead to increases in cross-country correlations. There is a long-term relationship between some of these countries capital markets, and information is transmitted from one market to the other. Our findings confirm previous studies and lead to the conclusion that stock markets from Central and Eastern Europe became more integrated with the developed markets in European Union.

  8. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  9. An integrated Korean biodiversity and genetic information retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeongheui; Bhak, Jong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Chang-Bae; Park, Yong-Ha; Paek, Woon Kee

    2008-12-12

    On-line biodiversity information databases are growing quickly and being integrated into general bioinformatics systems due to the advances of fast gene sequencing technologies and the Internet. These can reduce the cost and effort of performing biodiversity surveys and genetic searches, which allows scientists to spend more time researching and less time collecting and maintaining data. This will cause an increased rate of knowledge build-up and improve conservations. The biodiversity databases in Korea have been scattered among several institutes and local natural history museums with incompatible data types. Therefore, a comprehensive database and a nation wide web portal for biodiversity information is necessary in order to integrate diverse information resources, including molecular and genomic databases. The Korean Natural History Research Information System (NARIS) was built and serviced as the central biodiversity information system to collect and integrate the biodiversity data of various institutes and natural history museums in Korea. This database aims to be an integrated resource that contains additional biological information, such as genome sequences and molecular level diversity. Currently, twelve institutes and museums in Korea are integrated by the DiGIR (Distributed Generic Information Retrieval) protocol, with Darwin Core2.0 format as its metadata standard for data exchange. Data quality control and statistical analysis functions have been implemented. In particular, integrating molecular and genetic information from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases with NARIS was recently accomplished. NARIS can also be extended to accommodate other institutes abroad, and the whole system can be exported to establish local biodiversity management servers. A Korean data portal, NARIS, has been developed to efficiently manage and utilize biodiversity data, which includes genetic resources. NARIS aims to be integral in maximizing

  10. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    in professional education and regulation between European countries, setting curricula may not be practical. Core competences are used as a basis for health professional education in many fields and settings. An Expert Group working under the auspices of the EuroGentest project and European Society of Human......The use of genetics and genomics within a wide range of health-care settings requires health professionals to develop expertise to practise appropriately. There is a need for a common minimum standard of competence in genetics for health professionals in Europe but because of differences...... health professionals and patient groups. Sets of competences for practitioners working in primary, secondary and tertiary care have been agreed and were approved by the European Society of Human Genetics. The competences provide an appropriate framework for genetics education of health professionals...

  11. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in central and eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgorski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Javor, Andras; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  12. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    The use of genetics and genomics within a wide range of health-care settings requires health professionals to develop expertise to practise appropriately. There is a need for a common minimum standard of competence in genetics for health professionals in Europe but because of differences in profe...... and professions has resulted in an adaptable framework for both pre-registration and continuing professional education. This competence framework has the potential to improve the quality of genetic health care for patients globally....... in professional education and regulation between European countries, setting curricula may not be practical. Core competences are used as a basis for health professional education in many fields and settings. An Expert Group working under the auspices of the EuroGentest project and European Society of Human...... Genetics Education Committee agreed that a pragmatic solution to the need to establish common standards for education and practice in genetic health care was to agree to a set of core competences that could apply across Europe. These were agreed through an exhaustive process of consultation with relevant...

  13. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe.

  14. Population genomic analysis of ancient and modern genomes yields new insights into the genetic ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the genetic structure of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sikora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, including genome sequence data from over 400 Sardinians and two ancient Thracians from Bulgaria, to investigate this result in greater detail and determine its implications for the genetic structure of Neolithic Europe. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we confirm that the Iceman is, indeed, most closely related to Sardinians. Furthermore, we show that this relationship extends to other individuals from cultural contexts associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition, in contrast to individuals from a hunter-gatherer context. We hypothesize that this genetic affinity of ancient samples from different parts of Europe with Sardinians represents a common genetic component that was geographically widespread across Europe during the Neolithic, likely related to migrations and population expansions associated with the spread of agriculture.

  15. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  16. West Nile virus surveillance in Europe: moving towards an integrated animal-human-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Céline M; Marrama, Laurence; Carson, Marianne; Allerberger, Franz; Calistri, Paolo; Dilaveris, Dimitrios; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Morgan, Dilys; Nowotny, Norbert; Paty, Marie-Claire; Pervanidou, Danai; Rizzo, Caterina; Roberts, Helen; Schmoll, Friedrich; Van Bortel, Wim; Gervelmeyer, Andrea

    2017-05-04

    This article uses the experience of five European countries to review the integrated approaches (human, animal and vector) for surveillance and monitoring of West Nile virus (WNV) at national and European levels. The epidemiological situation of West Nile fever in Europe is heterogeneous. No model of surveillance and monitoring fits all, hence this article merely encourages countries to implement the integrated approach that meets their needs. Integration of surveillance and monitoring activities conducted by the public health authorities, the animal health authorities and the authorities in charge of vector surveillance and control should improve efficiency and save resources by implementing targeted measures. The creation of a formal interagency working group is identified as a crucial step towards integration. Blood safety is a key incentive for public health authorities to allocate sufficient resources for WNV surveillance, while the facts that an effective vaccine is available for horses and that most infected animals remain asymptomatic make the disease a lesser priority for animal health authorities. The examples described here can support other European countries wishing to strengthen their WNV surveillance or preparedness, and also serve as a model for surveillance and monitoring of other (vector-borne) zoonotic infections. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  17. From collision to collaboration - Integrating informal recyclers and re-use operators in Europe: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Nesić, Jelena; Savain, Rachel; Luppi, Pietro; Sinnott, Portia; Petean, Flaviu; Pop, Flaviu

    2016-09-01

    The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems.This review focuses on the period from 2004 through the first half of 2016. The 78 sources on European (and neighbouring) informal recycling and re-use are contextualised with global sources and experience. The articles focus on informal recovery in and at the borders of the European Union, document the conflicts and collisions, and elaborate some constructive approaches towards legalisation, integration, and reconciliation. The overarching recommendation, to locate the issue of informal recovery and integration in the framework of the European circular economy package, is supported by four specific pillars of an integration strategy: Documentation, legalisation, occupational and enterprise recognition, and preparation for structural integration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Esparza, Mireia; Sjøvold, Torstein; González-José, Rolando; Santos, Mauro; Hernández, Miquel; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2012-04-01

    It has long been unclear whether the different derived cranial traits of modern humans evolved independently in response to separate selection pressures or whether they resulted from the inherent morphological integration throughout the skull. In a novel approach to this issue, we combine evolutionary quantitative genetics and geometric morphometrics to analyze genetic and phenotypic integration in human skull shape. We measured human skulls in the ossuary of Hallstatt (Austria), which offer a unique opportunity because they are associated with genealogical data. Our results indicate pronounced covariation of traits throughout the skull. Separate simulations of selection for localized shape changes corresponding to some of the principal derived characters of modern human skulls produced outcomes that were similar to each other and involved a joint response in all of these traits. The data for both genetic and phenotypic shape variation were not consistent with the hypothesis that the face, cranial base, and cranial vault are completely independent modules but relatively strongly integrated structures. These results indicate pervasive integration in the human skull and suggest a reinterpretation of the selective scenario for human evolution where the origin of any one of the derived characters may have facilitated the evolution of the others. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus in Europe and the Caucasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rutkowski

    Full Text Available In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus, we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the geographical grouping of samples corresponded with genetic groups. Our analysis revealed low levels of genetic diversity, reflecting the unique history of the golden jackal among Europe's native carnivores. The results suggest ongoing gene flow between south-eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with both contributing to the Baltic population, which appeared only recently. The population from the Peloponnese Peninsula in southern Greece forms a common genetic cluster with samples from south-eastern Europe (ΔK approach in STRUCTURE, Principal Components Analysis [PCA], although the results based on BAPS and the estimated likelihood in STRUCTURE indicate that Peloponnesian jackals may represent a distinct population. Moreover, analyses of population structure also suggest either genetic distinctiveness of the island population from Samos near the coast of Asia Minor (BAPS, most STRUCTURE, PCA, or possibly its connection with the Caucasus population (one analysis in STRUCTURE. We speculate from our results that ancient Mediterranean jackal populations have persisted to the present day, and have merged with jackals colonising from Asia. These data also suggest that new populations of the golden jackal may be founded by long-distance dispersal, and thus should not be treated as an invasive alien species, i.e. an organism that is "non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health". These insights into the

  20. Deutschlands Baltikumpolitik – Zwischen europäischer Integration und Annäherung an Russland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Dauchert

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s low-key approach towards Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania gave way to the suspicion that unified Germany had chosen to prioritise a Russia-oriented realpolitik over its traditional policy based on ethical norms. The following article rejects this interpretation. The underlying reason for Germany’s constant aloofness towards the Baltic states was its plan to create a peaceful and integrated post-Cold War Europe that led the German government into a predicament: Its role as an EU-integration deepener proofed to be incompatible with its role as an advocate of the eastern-enlargement of the EU. Further-more, its commitment towards a broad and functioning co-operation with Russia was opposed by the CEE-states. As a result, German politicians decided to adjourn EU- and NATO-enlargement and to reduce the number of applicants. For that reason Germany abstained from advocating the Baltic states’ integration into the Euro-Atlantic organisations.

  1. Europe; Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Three articles are gathered in this data sheet whose titles are 1)the key issues for the LPG industry in Brussels 2)Lisbon welcomes the LPG industry 3)Lisbon: overview of the exhibition. Today, 75% of national laws have their origin in the European Union's laws. Thus, the LPG industry has to intervene at the institutional triangle - the Commission, the Council and the Parliament - to protect its interests. This must be done through a modern, efficient and balanced lobbying strategy. This was underlined at the Lisbon AEGPL Conference by Vicky Marissen (Clan Public Affairs, Brussels) and by Patrick Segarra (Managing Director of AEGPL). Here are published some excerpts of their presentation. The 2005 AEGPL Congress, held in Lisbon from 25 to 27 May, was a great moment for the LPG industry in Europe in terms of the level of interest of the talks, the diversity of the products on view at the Exhibition and the number of participants. (authors)

  2. Inequalities by immigrant status in depressive symptoms in Europe: the role of integration policy regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Palència, Laia; Ikram, Umar Z; Kunst, Anton E; Borrell, Carme

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to study whether country integration policy models were related to inequalities by immigrant status in depressive symptoms in Europe. This is a cross-sectional study using data from 17 countries in the sixth wave of the European Social Survey (2012), comparing subjects born either in the country of residence (non-immigrants, N = 28,333) or in a country not classified as "advanced economy" by the IMF (immigrants, N = 2041). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Countries were grouped into three integration policy regimes (inclusive, assimilationist, and exclusionist). Linear regressions were fitted adjusting first by age, sex, and education level, then sequentially by citizenship, perceived discrimination, and socio-economic variables. In all integration regimes, immigrants report significantly more depressive symptoms than non-immigrants. The gap is the largest in exclusionist countries (immigrants score 1.16, 95% CI 0.65-1.68, points higher than non-immigrants in the depression scale), followed by assimilationist countries (0.85 and 0.57-1.13) and inclusive countries (0.60 and 0.36-0.84). Financial strain explains all the associations in inclusive countries, most of it in assimilationist countries, but only a small part in exclusionist countries. Across most European countries, immigrants seem to experience more depressive symptoms than the population born in the country, mostly reflecting their poorer socio-economic situation. Inequalities are larger in countries with more restrictive policies. Despite some limitations, this study adds new evidence to suggest that immigrants' health is shaped by integration policies in their host country.

  3. Risk assessment of soil-pest damage to grain maize in Europe within the framework of Integrated Pest Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Vasileiadis, Vasileios P.; Chiarini, Francesca; Huiting, Hilfred; Leskovšek, Robert; Razinger, Jaka; Holb, Imre J.; Sartori, Erica; Urek, Gregor; Verschwele, Arnd

    2017-01-01

    The management of soil-pests relies largely on conventional insecticides. Within the framework of the EU's PURE project, data were collected to assess the risk of soil-pest damage to grain maize in Europe in order to implement Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of soil-pests in a more practical and

  4. Genetic species identification in weatherfish and first molecular confirmation of Oriental Weatherfish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor, 1842 in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belle Christina C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Oriental Weatherfish is considered a globally invasive fish species. In Europe, several reported feral populations of Oriental Weatherfish display an overlapping distribution range with native weatherfish Misgurnus fossilis, a declining species of international conservation and aquatic management concern. Morphologically distinguishing the different weatherfish species can be difficult, as their coloration is highly variable, many species reveal high phenotypic plasticity, and morphological traits like coloration might be not obvious or might be degraded during field sampling and after preservation. Herein, we analysed suspicious weatherfish specimens from southern Germany, demonstrating the usefulness of molecular genetic species identifications in this genus. We present the first molecular genetic species record of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in Central Europe, and confirm the range expansion of Oriental Weatherfish into the river Inn catchment in southern Germany. As accurate species identification is crucial both in the context of monitoring and conserving native endangered species, and in early detection and prevention of biological invasion, we suggest the standard use of genetic species identification if morphological traits are not obvious.

  5. Genetics, Host Range, and Molecular and Pathogenic Characterization of Verticillium dahliae From Sunflower Reveal Two Differentiated Groups in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín-Sanz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt and leaf mottle of sunflower, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae (Vd has become a major constraint to sunflower oil production in temperate European countries. Information about Vd from sunflower is very scarce despite genetics, molecular traits and pathogenic abilities of fungal strains affecting many other crops being widely known. Understanding and characterizing the diversity of Vd populations in those countries where sunflowers are frequent and severely affected by the fungus are essential for efficient breeding for resistance. In this study, we have analyzed genetic, molecular and pathogenic traits of Vd isolates affecting sunflower in European countries. When their genetics was investigated, almost all the isolates from France, Italy, Spain, Argentina, and Ukraine were assigned to vegetative compatibility group (VCG 2B. In Bulgaria, Turkey, Romania, and Ukraine, some isolates were assigned to VCG6, but some others could not be assigned to any VCG. Genotyping markers used for Vd affecting crops other than sunflower showed that all the isolates were molecularly identified as race 2 and that markers of defoliating (D and non-defoliating (ND pathotypes distinguished two well-differentiated clusters, one (E grouping those isolates from Eastern Europe and the other (W all those from the Western Europe and Argentina. All the isolates in cluster W were VCG2B, while the isolates in cluster E belonged to an unknown VCG or to VCG6. When the host range was investigated in the greenhouse, the fungus was highly pathogenic to artichoke, showing the importance of farming alternatives in the management of Verticillium attacks. Sunflower genotypes were inoculated with a selection of isolates in two experiments. Two groups were identified, one including the isolates from Western Europe, Argentina, and Ukraine, and the other including isolates from Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Three pathogenic races were differentiated: V1, V2-EE

  6. The Determinants of FDI in the Central and Eastern Europe: The Impact of the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Makhavikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The amount of FDI inflows to the Central and Eastern Europe increased dramatically during the last two decades. This article is aimed at identifying the ability of the Central Eastern European countries to attract FDI in the context of European integration, and at estimating the most important factors that influence the decision of foreign investors to invest in the region. Despite the broad research has been devoted to define the FDI determinants, the literature dealing in particular with the role of the European Union in the mobilization of FDI is rather scarce, and these findings are very discrepant. In order to understand factors that influence the location of FDI, we employ an empirical model for the period of 1992-2013 for twenty CEE countries. This study reveals that the most important determinants of FDI in CEECs are the market size, cost of labor and the European integration. The results of the research can be used to estimate the effect on FDI inflows from a prospective additional Eastern expansion of the EU by the countries currently not within the EU.

  7. Political Representation and Political Integration in Europe: Is it possible to square the circle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhard Wessels

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ongoing making of a European polity the character of political representation and the role of national parliaments is changing. Europe is more and more facing a situation where input legitimacy is produced at the national level whereas binding political decisions are taken at the supranational level. This is why there is an ongoing debate about the democratic deficit. The paper takes up this discussion from a particular perspective: how do the members of national parliaments of eleven member states and the members of the European Parliament perceive the future of European integration, to which degree do they support further competence shift, and which kind of future political order of the EU do they prefer? The impact of several factors on support for further integration are explored including policy character, exposure to economic globalization, and national institutional settings. Results show that the ideas about institutional reform and future political order do differ considerably between MPs of different nations, ideologies as well as the national and European level partly due to the mentioned factors. The necessary consensus about the future order seems to be far from feasible.

  8. An integrated approach for increasing breeding efficiency in apple and peach in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurens, Francois; Aranzana, Maria José; Arus, Pere; Bassi, Daniele; Bink, Marco; Bonany, Joan; Caprera, Andrea; Corelli-Grappadelli, Luca; Costes, Evelyne; Durel, Charles-Eric; Mauroux, Jehan-Baptiste; Muranty, Hélène; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pascal, Thierry; Patocchi, Andrea; Peil, Andreas; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Rossini, Laura; Stella, Alessandra; Troggio, Michela; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Despite the availability of whole genome sequences of apple and peach, there has been a considerable gap between genomics and breeding. To bridge the gap, the European Union funded the FruitBreedomics project (March 2011 to August 2015) involving 28 research institutes and private companies. Three complementary approaches were pursued: (i) tool and software development, (ii) deciphering genetic control of main horticultural traits taking into account allelic diversity and (iii) developing plant materials, tools and methodologies for breeders. Decisive breakthroughs were made including the making available of ready-to-go DNA diagnostic tests for Marker Assisted Breeding, development of new, dense SNP arrays in apple and peach, new phenotypic methods for some complex traits, software for gene/QTL discovery on breeding germplasm via Pedigree Based Analysis (PBA). This resulted in the discovery of highly predictive molecular markers for traits of horticultural interest via PBA and via Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) on several European genebank collections. FruitBreedomics also developed pre-breeding plant materials in which multiple sources of resistance were pyramided and software that can support breeders in their selection activities. Through FruitBreedomics, significant progresses were made in the field of apple and peach breeding, genetics, genomics and bioinformatics of which advantage will be made by breeders, germplasm curators and scientists. A major part of the data collected during the project has been stored in the FruitBreedomics database and has been made available to the public. This review covers the scientific discoveries made in this major endeavour, and perspective in the apple and peach breeding and genomics in Europe and beyond.

  9. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonization and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe, and beyond. This continually evolving field requires communication between the clinical genetics and IVF teams and patients to ensure that they are fully informed and can make well-considered choices. Funding was received from ESHRE, ESHG and EuroGentest2 European Union Coordination Action project (FP7 - HEALTH-F4-2010-26146) to support attendance at this meeting. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Farming system design for innovative crop-livestock integration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraine, M; Duru, M; Nicholas, P; Leterme, P; Therond, O

    2014-08-01

    The development of integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) is a major challenge for the ecological modernisation of agriculture but appears difficult to implement at a large scale. A participatory method for ICLS design has been developed and implemented in 15 case studies across Europe, representing a range of production systems, challenges, constraints and resources for innovation. Local stakeholders, primarily farmers, but also cooperatives, environmental-association representatives and natural-resource managers, were involved in the identification of challenges and existing initiatives of crop-livestock integration; in the design of new options at field, farm and territory levels; and then in qualitative multicriteria assessment of these options. A conceptual framework based on a conceptual model (crops, grasslands, animals) was developed to act as a boundary object in the design step and invite innovative thinking in 'metabolic' and 'ecosystemic' approaches. A diversity of crops and grasslands interacting with animals appeared central for designing sustainable farming systems at the territory level, providing and benefitting from ecosystem services. Within this diversity, we define three types of integrated systems according to their degrees of spatial and temporal coordination: complementarity, local synergy, territorial synergy. Moreover, the options for cooperation and collective organisation between farmers and other stakeholders in territories to organise and manage this diversity of land use revealed opportunities for smart social innovation. The qualitative multicriteria assessment identified farmer workload as the main issue of concern while demonstrating expected benefits of ICLS simultaneously for economic, agronomic, environmental and social criteria. This study concludes that participatory design of ICLS based on a generic multi-level and multi-domain framework and a methodology to deal with a local context can identify new systems to be tested

  11. Integration project of regional markets in Europe (European directive); Proyecto de integracion de mercados regionales en Europa (Directva europea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    The article presents the current situation of the Day-Ahead electricity markets in the different countries and Regions along West Europe. It describes the different possibilities applied to congestion management in the borders between countries and price areas, and the options employed to couple Day-ahead markets to form regional markets in Europe. Finally, it presents the initiative to Price couple Regional markets (PCR) that is being developed by Nord pool spot, EPEX Spot and OMEL with the objective to advance towards the integration of the markets that they operate in the internal Electricity Market. (Author)

  12. Genetic education and nongenetic health professionals: educational providers and curricula in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challen, K.; Harris, H.J.; Julian-Reynier, C.; Kate, L.P. ten; Kristoffersson, U.; Nippert, I.; Schmidtke, J.; Benjamin, C.; Harris, R

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Advances in and diffusion of genetic technology mean that nongeneticist health professionals have an increasing need to develop and maintain genetic competencies. This has been recognized by patient support groups and the European Commission. As the first phase of the GenEd (Genetic

  13. Integrating economic parameters into genetic selection for Large White pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Bekezela; Mulugeta, Sendros D; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to integrate economic parameters into genetic selection for sow productivity, growth performance and carcass characteristics in South African Large White pigs. Simulation models for sow productivity and terminal production systems were performed based on a hypothetical 100-sow herd, to derive economic values for the economically relevant traits. The traits included in the study were number born alive (NBA), 21-day litter size (D21LS), 21-day litter weight (D21LWT), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), age at slaughter (AGES), dressing percentage (DRESS), lean content (LEAN) and backfat thickness (BFAT). Growth of a pig was described by the Gompertz growth function, while feed intake was derived from the nutrient requirements of pigs at the respective ages. Partial budgeting and partial differentiation of the profit function were used to derive economic values, which were defined as the change in profit per unit genetic change in a given trait. The respective economic values (ZAR) were: 61.26, 38.02, 210.15, 33.34, -21.81, -68.18, 5.78, 4.69 and -1.48. These economic values indicated the direction and emphases of selection, and were sensitive to changes in feed prices and marketing prices for carcasses and maiden gilts. Economic values for NBA, D21LS, DRESS and LEAN decreased with increasing feed prices, suggesting a point where genetic improvement would be a loss, if feed prices continued to increase. The economic values for DRESS and LEAN increased as the marketing prices for carcasses increased, while the economic value for BFAT was not sensitive to changes in all prices. Reductions in economic values can be counterbalanced by simultaneous increases in marketing prices of carcasses and maiden gilts. Economic values facilitate genetic improvement by translating it to proportionate profitability. Breeders should, however, continually recalculate economic values to place the most appropriate emphases on the respective

  14. Genetic control of flowering time in rice: integration of Mendelian genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Matsubara, Kazuki; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-12-01

    Integration of previous Mendelian genetic analyses and recent molecular genomics approaches, such as linkage mapping and QTL cloning, dramatically strengthened our current understanding of genetic control of rice flowering time. Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits for seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). It is controlled mainly by genes associated with photoperiod sensitivity, particularly in short-day plants such as rice. Since the early twentieth century, rice breeders and researchers have been interested in elucidating the genetic basis of flowering time because its modification is important for regional adaptation and yield optimization. Although flowering time is a complex trait controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTLs), classical genetic studies have shown that many associated genes are inherited in accordance with Mendelian laws. Decoding the rice genome sequence opened a new era in understanding the genetic control of flowering time on the basis of genome-wide mapping and gene cloning. Heading date 1 (Hd1) was the first flowering time QTL to be isolated using natural variation in rice. Recent accumulation of information on rice genome has facilitated the cloning of other QTLs, including those with minor effects on flowering time. This information has allowed us to rediscover some of the flowering genes that were identified by classical Mendelian genetics. The genes characterized so far, including Hd1, have been assigned to specific photoperiod pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies that led to an in-depth understanding of the genetic control of flowering time in rice, and of the current state of improving and fine-tuning this trait for rice breeding.

  15. Ice ages leave genetic diversity 'hotspots' in Europe but not in Eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumibao, Candice Y; Hoban, Sean M; McLachlan, Jason

    2017-11-01

    After the last glacial cycle, temperate European trees migrated northward, experiencing genetic bottlenecks and founder effects, which left high haplotype endemism in southern populations and clines in genetic diversity northward. These patterns are thought to be ubiquitous across temperate forests, and are therefore used to anticipate the potential genetic consequences of future warming. We compared existing and new phylogeographic data sets (chloroplast DNA) from 14 woody taxa in Eastern North America (ENA) to data sets from 21 ecologically similar European species to test for common impacts of Quaternary climate swings on genetic diversity across diverse taxa and between continents. Unlike their European counterparts, ENA taxa do not share common southern centres of haplotype endemism and they generally maintain high genetic diversity even at their northern range limits. Differences between the genetic impacts of Quaternary climate cycles across continents suggest refined lessons for managing genetic diversity in today's warming world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Genetic diversity of Bartonella genotypes found in the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraljik, Jasna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Miklisová, Dana; Blaňarová, Lucia; Mošanský, Ladislav; Bona, Martin; Stanko, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of Bartonella in Apodemus agrarius, an important rodent of peri-domestic habitats, which has spread into Europe in the past 1000 years. Spleen samples of 344 A. agrarius from Eastern Slovakia were screened for the presence of Bartonella spp. using 16S-23S rRNA internal

  17. The genetic prehistory of domesticated cattle from their origin to the spread across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheu, Amelie; Powell, Adam; Bollongino, Ruth; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Tresset, Anne; Çakirlar, Canan; Benecke, Norbert; Burger, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Background Cattle domestication started in the 9th millennium BC in Southwest Asia. Domesticated cattle were then introduced into Europe during the Neolithic transition. However, the scarcity of palaeogenetic data from the first European domesticated cattle still inhibits the accurate reconstruction

  18. Temporal genetic variation of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, across western Europe and the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Soulsbury, Carl D.; Statham, Mark J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Wall, Dave; Dolf, Gaudenz; Iossa, Graziella; Baker, Phillip J.; Harris, Stephen; Sacks, Benjamin N.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic fluctuations have had profound effects on the phylogeographic structure of many species. Classically, species were thought to have become isolated in peninsular refugia, but there is limited evidence that large, non-polar species survived outside traditional refugial areas. We examined the phylogeographic structure of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), a species that shows high ecological adaptability in the western Palaearctic region. We compared mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region) from 399 modern and 31 ancient individuals from across Europe. Our objective was to test whether red foxes colonised the British Isles from mainland Europe in the late Pleistocene, or whether there is evidence that they persisted in the region through the Last Glacial Maximum. We found red foxes to show a high degree of phylogeographic structuring across Europe and, consistent with palaeontological and ancient DNA evidence, confirmed via phylogenetic indicators that red foxes were persistent in areas outside peninsular refugia during the last ice age. Bayesian analyses and tests of neutrality indicated population expansion. We conclude that there is evidence that red foxes from the British Isles derived from central European populations that became isolated after the closure of the landbridge with Europe.

  19. Approaches to the conservation of forest genetic resources in Europe in the context of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleher, Colin T.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Baliuckas, Virgilijus

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, forests have been expanding in terms of area and timber stock over the past 50 years and subsequently they have acted as a carbon sink while they have been recovering from previous eras of deforestation. National adaptation strategies to climate change and other policies have been

  20. High genetic diversity among community-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolo, Joana; Miragaia, Maria; Turlej-Rogacka, Agata

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the epidemiology of community-associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) in Europe; nonetheless, a comprehensive perspective remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to describe the population structure of CA-SA and to shed light on the origin of methicillin-resistant S....... aureus (MRSA) in this continent....

  1. Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Maria E.; Chen, Shann-Ching; Andersson, Anna K.; Phillips, Letha A.; Li, Yushan; Sotzen, Jason; Kundu, Mondira; Downing, James R.; Melnick, Ari; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the commonest childhood malignancy and is characterized by recurring structural genetic alterations. Previous studies of DNA methylation suggest epigenetic alterations may also be important, but an integrated genome-wide analysis of genetic and epigenetic alterations in ALL has not been performed. We analyzed 137 B-lineage and 30 T-lineage childhood ALL cases using microarray analysis of DNA copy number alterations and gene expression, and genome-wide cytosine methylation profiling using the HpaII tiny fragment enrichment by ligation-mediated PCR (HELP) assay. We found that the different genetic subtypes of ALL are characterized by distinct DNA methylation signatures that exhibit significant correlation with gene expression profiles. We also identified an epigenetic signature common to all cases, with correlation to gene expression in 65% of these genes, suggesting that a core set of epigenetically deregulated genes is central to the initiation or maintenance of lymphoid transformation. Finally, we identified aberrant methylation in multiple genes also targeted by recurring DNA copy number alterations in ALL, suggesting that these genes are inactivated far more frequently than suggested by structural genomic analyses alone. Together, these results demonstrate subtype- and disease-specific alterations in cytosine methylation in ALL that influence transcriptional activity, and are likely to exert a key role in leukemogenesis. PMID:23921123

  2. An integrated genetic, physical, and transcriptional map of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, H.; Kooy, R.F.; Wijngaard, A. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    In this study a genetic map containing 20 markers and typed in 40 CEPH families is presented. It includes 7 thusfar untyped microsatellite markers, 7 that have previously been mapped on a subset of 8 CEPH families, one reference marker, D13S71, and three telomeric VNTR markers. Also, 4 intragenic RB1 markers were typed. The markers have an average heterozygosity of 73% (80%, excluding the three RFLPs). The total sex average length of the map is 140 cM. The mean female to male ratio is 1.54. For the non-telomeric part of the chromosome between the markers D13S221 in 13q12 and D13S173 in 13q33-q34, this ratio is 1.99. This ratio is reversed in the telomeric part of the chromosome between D13S173 and D13S234 in distal 13q34, where it is 0.47. A high new mutation frequency of 1% was detected in the (CTTT(T)){sub n} repeat in intron 20 of the RB1 gene. The map has been integrated with 7 microsatellite markers and 2 RFLP markers from CEPH database version 7.0, resulting in a map with 32 markers (28 loci) of chromosome 13q. In addition, a deletion hybrid breakpoint map ordering 50 markers in 18 intervals is constructed. It includes 32 microsatellite markers, 4 genes, 5 STSs, and 9 ESTs. Each of 18 intervals contains at least one microsatellite marker included in the extended genetic map. These data allow a correlation between the genetic and physical map of chromosome 13. New ESTs are currently being identified and localized at this integrated map.

  3. Rebuilding Socio-Economic Cooperation in South East Europe and the Black Sea for Restarting European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris Zarotiadis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Feraios Revised: Inter-Regional Trans-National Socioeconomic Cooperation in South and Eastern Europe”, published in International Relations and Diplomacy Journal (December 2014, we analyzed the prospects of an inter-regional cross-national cooperation (in economic, social and political patterns in South and Eastern Europe through the structural reorganization of the existing institutions (local, national or cross-national in the area and we expressed the need for the reintroduction of Rigas Feraios’ perspective of socioeconomic and ultimately of political integration in this region. The present paper is an attempt to explain the reasons why working on the regional socioeconomic cooperation and integration constitutes a necessary condition before going into a wider amalgamation. Contemporary systemic, global crisis brought out internal and transnational aberrations and the fact of the asymmetrical financial integration of the EU countries. The Union consists of a multilevel system were social conflicts, different rates of economic development and various demographic dynamics dominate. The increasing territorial inequalities in the enlarged Europe and the “suspended step” of a monetary unification might establish the need to revert to regional socioeconomic cooperation, on the basis of the existing cultural, economic and historical bonds, like those of South-East Europe and the Black Sea, for restarting European integration and succeed inter-union stability and prosperity.

  4. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  5. Postglacial recolonization shaped the genetic diversity of the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy C. Andersen; Nathan P. Havill; Adalgisa Caccone; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2017-01-01

    Changes in climate conditions, particularly during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, have long been recognized to be important for shaping patterns of species diversity. For species residing in the western Palearctic, two commonly observed genetic patterns resulting from these cycles are as follows: (1) that the numbers and distributions of genetic lineages...

  6. Population genetic differentiation of height and body mass index across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Hemani, Gibran; Medina-Gomez, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Across-nation differences in the mean values for complex traits are common(1-8), but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Here we find that many independent loci contribute to population genetic differences in height and body mass index (BMI) in 9,416 individuals across 14 European...... countries. Using discovery data on over 250,000 individuals and unbiased effect size estimates from 17,500 sibling pairs, we estimate that 24% (95% credible interval (CI) = 9%, 41%) and 8% (95% CI = 4%, 16%) of the captured additive genetic variance for height and BMI, respectively, reflect population...... genetic differences. Population genetic divergence differed significantly from that in a null model (height, P genetic correlation for tall and slender individuals (r = -0.80, 95% CI = -0.95, -0.60), consistent with correlated selection...

  7. An active role for the elderly in the process for an integrated Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios López-Liria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European project entitled "Integrating adults and the elderly towards a Europe of knowledge", coordinated by the University of Almería, within the actions of "Grundtvig learning partnerships for adult education", has carried out the assessment of an educational program for people over 55 years in five countries. The aim of the learning partnership was “to encourage the development of innovative practices in education of older people and their transfer between countries”. Methods: Some of the following teaching tools and methods were used to promote intercultural communication skills: simulation activities, followed by reflective discussion and/or written analysis; guided group activities; local visits to contact people from other countries; ethnographic projects. Results: The courses provide knowledge and understanding about culture, institutions and different ways of life in diverse communities, and encourage reflection about their own cultural behaviour, practices and attitudes, as well as those of others. Old people enhance communication in their community, by means of meetings in which they talk about their common concerns. This can help the elderly to overcome problems and reduce feelings of loneliness. The courses also help old people acquire new knowledge and skills in a rapidly changing world. Conclusions: Participants’ motivation increased as the sessions were developed, since the contents of the classes agreed with their own interests, with a constant widening of knowledge. Everybody had an active role in the discussions. This training has shown some aspects about ageing, such as the removal of the image of the idle retired person; at the same time it promotes active retirement, intergenerational relationships and independence, and improves social and personal skills.

  8. HLA-C molecular characterization of a Lebanese population and genetic structure of 39 populations from Europe to India-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, S; Megarbane, A; Lefranc, G; Tiercy, J-M; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2006-07-01

    Lebanon is located at a continental crossroad between Europe, Africa, and Asia. This region has been the center of wide-scale movements of populations as well as the theater of genetic and cultural trade off among neighboring populations. In this study, HLA-C alleles were characterized by a PCR-SSOP (sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes) hybridization protocol in a sample of 97 Lebanese. A total of 23 alleles were identified with four predominant, Cw*0401, Cw*0602, Cw*0701/06, and Cw*1203, accounting for almost 60% of HLA-C allele frequencies. We included the Lebanese data into a broad analysis of the HLA-C genetic structure of a large set of populations located in Europe, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Our results indicate that Lebanese exhibit an intermediate genetic profile among the populations from the Middle East, which constitute a rather homogeneous genetic group. In Europe, a high correlation coefficient is found between genetic and geographic distances. In this continent, we also identified a significant genetic frontier following a north-east to south-west axis. This frontier cuts through the Alps and the Pyrenees, thus separating the north-western European populations from those located in the eastern and Mediterranean areas. Finally, the populations from India - Pakistan are very heterogeneous, particularly the Dravidians. Their differentiation has probably been caused by rapid genetic drift under complex influences of cultural, linguistic, and/or religious barriers. Overall, the results show that the HLA-C genetic patterns of these three geographic regions, i.e., the Middle East, Europe, and India-Pakistan, have been shaped by very different genetic histories.

  9. A global economic integration zone in Central Europe? Vienna-Bratislava-Györ as a laboratory for EU territorial cohesion policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatzberger, G.

    2006-01-01

    Central Europe is facing dramatic changes and huge challenges since the 40 years closed borders opened up. As part of central Europe the Vienna-Bratislava-Gyor area that straddles Austria, Hungary and Slovakia, faces new opportunities for co-operation and integration. The book gives a fascinating

  10. Youth labour market integration across Europe: The impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M. de; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Young people in Europe face great difficulties nowadays when entering the labour market. Unemployment and temporary employment are high among youth, although considerable differences exist between European countries. In this article, we study to what extent cyclical, structural, and institutional

  11. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  12. Genetic diversity and landscape genetic structure of otter (Lutra lutra) populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucci, Nadia; Arrendal, Johanna; Ansorge, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Eurasian otter populations strongly declined and partially disappeared due to global and local causes (habitat destruction, water pollution, human persecution) in parts of their continental range. Conservation strategies, based on reintroduction projects or restoration of dispersal corridors......, should rely on sound knowledge of the historical or recent consequences of population genetic structuring. Here we present the results of a survey performed on 616 samples, collected from 19 European countries, genotyped at the mtDNA control-region and 11 autosomal microsatellites. The mtDNA variability...

  13. Alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe: the ARCAGE project: study samples and data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-02-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include those of the oral cavity, pharynx (other than nasopharynx), larynx, and esophagus. Tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages are established causes of UADT cancers, whereas reduced intake of vegetables and fruits are likely causes. The role of genetic predisposition and possible interactions of genetic with exogenous factors, however, have not been adequately studied. Moreover, the role of pattern of smoking and drinking, as well as the exact nature of the implicated dietary variables, has not been clarified. To address these issues, the International Agency for Research on Cancer initiated in 2002 the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility (ARCAGE) in Europe project, with the participation of 15 centers in 11 European countries. Information and biological data from a total of 2304 cases and 2227 controls have been collected and will be used in a series of analyses. A total of 166 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 76 genes are being studied for genetic associations with UADT cancers. We report here the methodology of the ARCAGE project, main demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the cases and controls, as well as the distribution of cases by histology and subsite. About 80% of cases were males and fewer than 20% of all cases occurred before the age of 50 years. Overall, the most common subsite was larynx, followed by oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus and hypopharynx. Close to 90% of UADT cancers were squamous cell carcinomas. A clear preponderance of smokers and alcohol drinkers among UADT cases compared with controls was observed.

  14. Classification, genetic variation and pathogenicity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates from Asia, Europe, and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Harrison; Melody A. Keena; Daniel L. Rowley

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) has been formulated and applied to control outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To classify and determine the degree of genetic variation among isolates of L. dispar NPVs from different parts of the range of the gypsy moth, partial sequences of the

  15. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, J.M.; Keane, M.G.; Kenny, D.A.; Cromie, A.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation

  16. Off-Label Prescription of Genetically Modified Organism Medicines in Europe : Emerging Conflicts of Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, Frederik H. E.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Hospers, Geke A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product

  17. Quality assurance practices in Europe: a survey of molecular genetic testing laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Fanning, Katrina; Morris, Michael A; Barton, David E; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    In the 2000s, a number of initiatives were taken internationally to improve quality in genetic testing services. To contribute to and update the limited literature available related to this topic, we surveyed 910 human molecular genetic testing laboratories, of which 291 (32%) from 29 European countries responded. The majority of laboratories were in the public sector (81%), affiliated with a university hospital (60%). Only a minority of laboratories was accredited (23%), and 26% was certified. A total of 22% of laboratories did not participate in external quality assessment (EQA) and 28% did not use reference materials (RMs). The main motivations given for accreditation were to improve laboratory profile (85%) and national recognition (84%). Nearly all respondents (95%) would prefer working in an accredited laboratory. In accredited laboratories, participation in EQA (Pquality assurance (Pquality implementation score (QIS), we showed that accredited laboratories (average score 92) comply better than certified laboratories (average score 69, Pquality indicators. We conclude that quality practices vary widely in European genetic testing laboratories. This leads to a potentially dangerous situation in which the quality of genetic testing is not consistently assured. PMID:22739339

  18. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; McAtear, J.; Recuero, E.; Ziermann, J.M.; Ohler, A.; Alphen, van J.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate

  19. Spatial genetic structure of a symbiotic beetle-fungal system: toward multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M A James

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of genetic variation in interacting species can identify shared features that are important to gene flow and can elucidate co-evolutionary relationships. We assessed concordance in spatial genetic variation between the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae and one of its fungal symbionts, Grosmanniaclavigera, in western Canada using neutral genetic markers. We examined how spatial heterogeneity affects genetic variation within beetles and fungi and developed a novel integrated landscape genetics approach to assess reciprocal genetic influences between species using constrained ordination. We also compared landscape genetic models built using Euclidean distances based on allele frequencies to traditional pair-wise Fst. Both beetles and fungi exhibited moderate levels of genetic structure over the total study area, low levels of structure in the south, and more pronounced fungal structure in the north. Beetle genetic variation was associated with geographic location while that of the fungus was not. Pinevolume and climate explained beetle genetic variation in the northern region of recent outbreak expansion. Reciprocal genetic relationships were only detectedin the south where there has been alonger history of beetle infestations. The Euclidean distance and Fst-based analyses resulted in similar models in the north and over the entire study area, but differences between methods in the south suggest that genetic distances measures should be selected based on ecological and evolutionary contexts. The integrated landscape genetics framework we present is powerful, general, and can be applied to other systems to quantify the biotic and abiotic determinants of spatial genetic variation within and among taxa.

  20. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in Europe: diversity of legislation a challenge to the community and its citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, S

    2007-06-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) aims to safeguard the reproductive confidence of couples who have an increased risk of having a child with a serious hereditary disease. Non-directive genetic counselling is an essential part of PGD. Lately, performance of PGD for some new and non-medical indications, such as selecting for a tissue-matching embryo for a saviour sibling, or sex-selection for family-balancing, has raised ethical concerns. Who decides when to perform PGD, and for which conditions? The European member states have very diverse regulation on PGD. Some countries totally ban PGD, while the others keep close track of the new applications. The people in need of PGD seek it in the other member states. These cross-border treatments cause psychological stress and pose many so far unresolved legal questions. The individuals need more information about all the aspects of PGD. This article analyses contemporary indications for PGD in Europe and relevant ethical discussion, and second, shows the diversity in regulation and reflects the consequences thereof.

  1. Low population genetic structuring of two cryptic bat species suggests their migratory behaviour in continental Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Kaňuch, Peter; Fornůsková, Alena; Bartonička, T.; Řehák, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 1 (2009), s. 103-114 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : colony structure * dispersal * gene flow * microsatellites * relatedness Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.040, year: 2009 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121575281/PDFSTART

  2. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  3. Integration, Disintegration and Trade in Europe : Evolution of Trade Relations during the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidrmuc, J.; Fidrmuc, J.

    2000-01-01

    The gravity model of trade is used to assess the economic consequences of new borders, which arose in the wake of break-ups of multinational federations in Eastern Europe. The intensity of trade relations among the constituent parts of Czechoslovakia, Soviet Union and the Baltics was very high

  4. Fatwas for European muslims: the minority fiqh project and the integration of Islam in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos Caeiro, A.

    2011-01-01

    Discussions about the necessity of creating a “European Islam” have become ubiquitous across Europe today. State actors and public intellectuals across the political spectrum frequently emphasize the need to adapt Islam to the West in order to counter the threat of terrorism, prevent the

  5. Perceived Discrimination and Health among Immigrants in Europe According to National Integration Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Bartoll, Xavier; Ikram, Umar; Malmusi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination harms immigrants' health. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between perceived discrimination and health outcomes among first and second generation immigrants from low-income countries living in Europe, while accounting for sex and the national policy on

  6. Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Europe 2004 : Economic Integration and Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bourguignon, Francois; Jacquet, Pierre; Pleskovic, Boris

    2007-01-01

    To address these broad questions: How to analyze the impact of globalization? What is the effect of rich countries' policies on developing ones? How to redefine the development agenda and scale-up the aid effort? The European Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE-Europe) focused on some of the problematic features of globalization and discussed the global impact of developed countries...

  7. The recent situation of technology exchange in Europe: On-the spot study on movement toward integration of EC market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Jun'ichi; Hyoki, Yasuyoshi

    The political and economic environment of EC has been changing drastically aiming at the EC market integration in 1992. Economy in EC has been stagnant among free economy world covering U.S., Japan and Europe, which is due to lag in the structural adjustment as well as decline in international competitive ability. EC recognizes that development of science and technology of which core is highly advanced technology is driving force for activating economy within the Community. This is the first motivation for EC to take one step forward toward the market integration. Such EC's determination is reflected in pushing forward conception of European technological community represented by EUREKA Project. Products Exhibitions, Science and Technology Trade Fairs and so on, which are held in EC countries, emphasize "Europe characterized by Technology" being conscious of the market integration three and a half years ahead. EC is also eager to construct database networks both inside and outside the Community to catch up with the progress in technology.

  8. Can we be certain about future land use change in Europe? A multi-scenario, integrated-assessment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, I P; Brown, C; Janes, V; Sandars, D

    2017-02-01

    The global land system is facing unprecedented pressures from growing human populations and climatic change. Understanding the effects these pressures may have is necessary to designing land management strategies that ensure food security, ecosystem service provision and successful climate mitigation and adaptation. However, the number of complex, interacting effects involved makes any complete understanding very difficult to achieve. Nevertheless, the recent development of integrated modelling frameworks allows for the exploration of the co-development of human and natural systems under scenarios of global change, potentially illuminating the main drivers and processes in future land system change. Here, we use one such integrated modelling framework (the CLIMSAVE Integrated Assessment Platform) to investigate the range of projected outcomes in the European land system across climatic and socio-economic scenarios for the 2050s. We find substantial consistency in locations and types of change even under the most divergent conditions, with results suggesting that climate change alone will lead to a contraction in the agricultural and forest area within Europe, particularly in southern Europe. This is partly offset by the introduction of socioeconomic changes that change both the demand for agricultural production, through changing food demand and net imports, and the efficiency of agricultural production. Simulated extensification and abandonment in the Mediterranean region is driven by future decreases in the relative profitability of the agricultural sector in southern Europe, owing to decreased productivity as a consequence of increased heat and drought stress and reduced irrigation water availability. The very low likelihood (productivity as a route to agricultural and forestry viability.

  9. TradeWind. Integrating wind. Developing Europe's power market for the large-scale integration of wind power. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-15

    Based on a single European grid and power market system, the TradeWind project explores to what extent large-scale wind power integration challenges could be addressed by reinforcing interconnections between Member States in Europe. Additionally, the project looks at the conditions required for a sound power market design that ensures a cost-effective integration of wind power at EU level. In this way, the study addresses two issues of key importance for the future integration of renewable energy, namely the weak interconnectivity levels between control zones and the inflexibility and fragmented nature of the European power market. Work on critical transmission paths and interconnectors is slow for a variety of reasons including planning and administrative barriers, lack of public acceptance, insufficient economic incentives for TSOs, and the lack of a joint European approach by the key stakeholders. (au)

  10. The EuroSITES network: Integrating and enhancing fixed-point open ocean observatories around Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; EuroSITES Consortium

    2010-05-01

    EuroSITES is a 3 year (2008-2011) EU collaborative project (3.5MEuro) with the objective to integrate and enhance the nine existing open ocean fixed point observatories around Europe (www.eurosites.info). These observatories are primarily composed of full depth moorings and make multidisciplinary in situ observations within the water column as the European contribution to the global array OceanSITES (www.oceansites.org). In the first 18 months, all 9 observatories have been active and integration has been significant through the maintenance and enhancement of observatory hardware. Highlights include the enhancement of observatories with sensors to measure O2, pCO2, chlorophyll, and nitrate in near real-time from the upper 1000 m. In addition, some seafloor missions are also actively supported. These include seafloor platforms currently deployed in the Mediterranean, one for tsunami detection and one to monitor fluid flow related to seismic activity and slope stability. Upcoming seafloor science missions in 2010 include monitoring benthic biological communities and associated biogeochemistry as indicators of climate change in both the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. EuroSITES also promotes the development of innovative sensors and samplers in order to progress capability to measure climate-relevant properties of the ocean. These include further developing current technologies for autonomous long-term monitoring of oxygen consumption in the mesopelagic, pH and mesozooplankton abundance. Many of these science missions are directly related to complementary activities in other European projects such as EPOCA, HYPOX and ESONET. In 2010 a direct collaboration including in situ field work will take place between ESONET and EuroSITES. The demonstration mission MODOO (funded by ESONET) will be implemented in 2010 at the EuroSITES PAP observatory. Field work will include deployment of a seafloor lander system with various sensors which will send data to shore in real

  11. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  12. Regulating the advertising of genetic tests in Europe: a balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokairinou, Louiza; Borry, Pascal; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests (GT) have provoked criticism over their potential adverse impact on public health. The European Parliament called for a ban on DTC advertising of GT during the debate for the adoption of a European Regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices. This proposal, however, was not ultimately retained in the final text. Instead, the regulation includes an article prohibiting misleading claims for this kind of advertising. These two different approaches raise questions about the optimal degree of regulation. Herein, we provide an overview of the ways GT have been advertised and related ethical issues. Subsequently, the laws regulating the advertising of GT at the European Union and national level are examined. Finally, recent regulatory developments are discussed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The Palliative Care Challenge: Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities to Integrate Palliative Care in Europe in the View of National Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centeno, C.; Garralda, E.; Carrasco, J.M.; Eerden, M.E. van der; Aldridge, M.; Stevenson, D.; Meier, D.E.; Hasselaar, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Palliative care (PC) development is diverse and lacks an effective integration into European healthcare systems. This article investigates levels of integrated PC in European countries. METHODS: A qualitative survey was undertaken for the 2013 EAPC Atlas of PC in Europe with boards of

  14. Genetic Variability of the Grey Wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in Comparison with Europe and the Middle East: Distinct or Intermediary Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Dąbrowski, Michał J.; Hayrapetyan, Vahram; Yavruyan, Eduard G.; Kopaliani, Natia; Tsingarska, Elena; Bujalska, Barbara; Kamiński, Stanisław; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control region, microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNP genotypes (obtained for a subset of the samples), and found similar or higher levels of genetic diversity at all these types of loci as compared with other Eurasian populations. Although we found no evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck, genome-wide linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest a long-term demographic decline in the Caucasian population – a trend consistent with other Eurasian populations. Caucasian wolves share mtDNA haplotypes with both Eastern European and West Asian wolves, suggesting past or ongoing gene flow. Microsatellite data also suggest gene flow between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. We found evidence for moderate admixture between the Caucasian wolves and domestic dogs, at a level comparable with other Eurasian populations. Taken together, our results show that Caucasian wolves are not genetically isolated from other Eurasian populations, share with them the same demographic trends, and are affected by similar conservation problems. PMID:24714198

  15. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Bayefsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  16. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  17. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2017-01-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe. PMID:28959787

  18. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  19. Off-label prescription of genetically modified organism medicines in europe: emerging conflicts of interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagen, Frederik H E; Hoeben, Rob C; Hospers, Geke A P

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product is intended. Within this use, the application of the GMO medicine is permitted, without the need for the institution to obtain a specific permit. In practice, however, medicinal products are also frequently prescribed for treatment outside the registered therapeutic use, a practice that is referred to as "off-label use." While off-label use of conventional medicines is permitted and has been very useful, the off-label use of GMO medicines is not covered in the European Union (EU) legislation or guidelines and falls under each member state's national environmental legislation. This implies that in the Netherlands and most other EU member states, an environmental permit will be required for any institution that uses the GMO medicine outside the registered application(s). In the Netherlands, this permit is identical to the permits required for the execution of clinical trials involving nonregistered GMOs. The application procedure for such permit is time-consuming. This process can therefore limit the therapeutic options for medical professionals. As a consequence, desired treatment regimens could be withheld for certain patient (groups). To make future off-label use of GMO medicines permissible in a way that is acceptable for all stakeholders, regulators should adopt a proactive attitude and formulate transparent legislative procedures for this. Only then the field can maintain the public acceptance of GMO medicines, while maintaining the freedom to operate of medical professionals.

  20. An overview of posttraumatic stress disorder genetic studies by analyzing and integrating genetic data into genetic database PTSDgene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kunlin; Qu, Susu; Chang, Suhua; Li, Gen; Cao, Chengqi; Fang, Kechi; Olff, Miranda; Wang, Li; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric syndrome with complex etiology. Studies aiming to explore genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers of PTSD have been increasing. However, the results are limited and highly heterogeneous. To understand the genetic study

  1. Integrating demographic and genetic approaches in plant conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Luijten, S.H.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We summarize the problems that populations of formerly common plants may encounter when habitat fragmentation isolates them and reduces population size. Genetic erosion, inbreeding depression, Allee-effects on reproductive success, catastrophes and environmental stochasticity are illustrated with

  2. Forecasting day-ahead electricity prices in Europe : The importance of considering market integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lago Garcia, J.; De Ridder, Fjo; Vrancx, Peter; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing integration among electricity markets, in this paper we propose two different methods to incorporate market integration in electricity price forecasting and to improve the predictive performance. First, we propose a deep neural network that considers features from

  3. Living arrangements, family bonds and the regional context affecting social integration of older adults in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter investigates the extent to which older adults in Western and Eastern European countries are socially integrated, or lonely, and the factors that enable or place barriers to social integration of older adults. In doing so, the data of the Generations and Gender Surveys (wave 1) are

  4. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödder Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (recolonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i Morocco, (ii Tunisia, (iii Sicily, (iv Italy and southern France, (v eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source

  5. [Opportunity for the integration of the gender perspective in health research and innovation in Europe: COST Network genderSTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Madariaga, Inés; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The European Commission supports several routes for incorporating the gender perspective. The Commission currently supports the new Horizon 2020 program, and also funds projects such as "gendered innovations", which show how gender innovations increase the quality of research and professional practice for health and welfare. One of the policy instruments is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation. Against this background, the international European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment) was created, which seeks to: 1) promote structural changes in institutions to increase the number of women researchers; 2) identify the gender dimensions relevant to the environment; and 3) improve the integration of a gender perspective in research and technology. COST GenderSTE supports networking and the dissemination of knowledge with a gender perspective. All these tools provide an opportunity to incorporate a gender perspective in research in Europe. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Perri, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49......,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs......, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog's wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds...

  7. Genetic regulation of immunoglobulin E level in different pathological states: integration of mouse and human genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gusareva, Elena; Kurey, Irina; Grekov, Igor; Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 375-405 ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/1697; GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Genetic control of complex diseases * Immunoglobulin E * Epistasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.670, year: 2014

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer patients: results of the EPAAC survey on integrative oncology centres in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Vita, Alessandra; Baccetti, Sonia; Di Stefano, Mariella; Voller, Fabio; Zanobini, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    The Region of Tuscany Health Department was included as an associated member in WP7 "Healthcare" of the European Partnership for Action Against Cancer (EPAAC), initiated by the EU Commission in 2009. The principal aim was to map centres across Europe prioritizing those that provide public health services and operating within the national health system in integrative oncology (IO). A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used to collect data. A questionnaire was elaborated concerning integrative oncology therapies to be administered to all the national health system oncology centres or hospitals in each European country. These institutes were identified by convenience sampling, searching on oncology websites and forums. The official websites of these structures were analysed to obtain more information about their activities and contacts. Information was received from 123 (52.1 %) out of the 236 centres contacted until 31 December 2013. Forty-seven out of 99 responding centres meeting inclusion criteria (47.5 %) provided integrative oncology treatments, 24 from Italy and 23 from other European countries. The number of patients seen per year was on average 301.2 ± 337. Among the centres providing these kinds of therapies, 33 (70.2 %) use fixed protocols and 35 (74.5 %) use systems for the evaluation of results. Thirty-two centres (68.1 %) had research in progress or carried out until the deadline of the survey. The complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) more frequently provided to cancer patients were acupuncture 26 (55.3 %), homeopathy 19 (40.4 %), herbal medicine 18 (38.3 %) and traditional Chinese medicine 17 (36.2 %); anthroposophic medicine 10 (21.3 %); homotoxicology 6 (12.8 %); and other therapies 30 (63.8 %). Treatments are mainly directed to reduce adverse reactions to chemo-radiotherapy (23.9 %), in particular nausea and vomiting (13.4 %) and leucopenia (5 %). The CAMs were also used to reduce pain and fatigue (10.9

  9. Managing multimorbidity: profiles of integrated care approaches targeting people with multiple chronic conditions in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, M.; Hujala, A.; Ginneken, E. van; Melchiorre, M.G.; Groenewegen, P.; Schellevis, F.

    2018-01-01

    In response to the growing populations of people with multiple chronic diseases, new models of care are currently being developed in European countries to better meet the needs of these people. This paper aims to describe the occurrence and characteristics of various types of integrated care

  10. Analysing "Migrant" Membership Frames through Education Policy Discourse: An Example of Restrictive "Integration" Policy within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Shaik, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes combining discourse theory and perspectives on political membership developments in Western European societies. It combines theories and examples of policy discourses about "migrant integration" in the Swiss national context in the sphere of education. This examination aims to deconstruct specific membership framing…

  11. Geodesign: integrating geographical sciences and creative design in envisioning a'New Urban Europe'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, E.S.; Linde, M.; Scholten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the emerging concept of geodesign (a technological integration of spatial design and geographic and information sciences) and how it can be used to promote visionary goals for urban development. It moves on to review the recently proposed research agenda for urban studies,

  12. Integrating population genetics and conservation biology in the era of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouborg, N Joop

    2010-02-23

    As one of the final activities of the ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, a conference entitled 'Integrating Population Genetics and Conservation Biology' was held at Trondheim, Norway, from 23 to 26 May 2009. Conference speakers and poster presenters gave a display of the state-of-the-art developments in the field of conservation genetics. Over the five-year running period of the successful ESF-CONGEN Networking programme, much progress has been made in theoretical approaches, basic research on inbreeding depression and other genetic processes associated with habitat fragmentation and conservation issues, and with applying principles of conservation genetics in the conservation of many species. Future perspectives were also discussed in the conference, and it was concluded that conservation genetics is evolving into conservation genomics, while at the same time basic and applied research on threatened species and populations from a population genetic point of view continues to be emphasized.

  13. Integrative genetic analysis suggests that skin color modifies the genetic architecture of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulur, Imge; Skol, Andrew D; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Onel, Kenan

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and presents a significant health care burden in many countries. In addition to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, the main causal factor for melanoma, genetic factors also play an important role in melanoma susceptibility. Although genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with melanoma, little is known about the proportion of disease risk attributable to these loci and their distribution throughout the genome. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of melanoma in 1,888 cases and 990 controls of European non-Hispanic ancestry. We estimated the overall narrow-sense heritability of melanoma to be 0.18 (P < 0.03), indicating that genetics contributes significantly to the risk of sporadically-occurring melanoma. We then demonstrated that only a small proportion of this risk is attributable to known risk variants, suggesting that much remains unknown of the role of genetics in melanoma. To investigate further the genetic architecture of melanoma, we partitioned the heritability by chromosome, minor allele frequency, and functional annotations. We showed that common genetic variation contributes significantly to melanoma risk, with a risk model defined by a handful of genomic regions rather than many risk loci distributed throughout the genome. We also demonstrated that variants affecting gene expression in skin account for a significant proportion of the heritability, and are enriched among melanoma risk loci. Finally, by incorporating skin color into our analyses, we observed both a shift in significance for melanoma-associated loci and an enrichment of expression quantitative trait loci among melanoma susceptibility variants. These findings suggest that skin color may be an important modifier of melanoma risk. We speculate that incorporating skin color and other non-genetic factors into genetic studies may allow for an improved understanding of melanoma

  14. Developing integrated health and social care services for older persons in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Leichsenring

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is to distribute first results of the EU Fifth Framework Project ‘Providing integrated health and social care for older persons—issues, problems and solutions’ (PROCARE—http://www.euro.centre.org/procare/. The project's first phase was to identify different approaches to integration as well as structural, organisational, economic and social-cultural factors and actors that constitute integrated and sustainable care systems. It also served to retrieve a number of experiences, model ways of working and demonstration projects in the participating countries which are currently being analysed in order to learn from success—or failure—and to develop policy recommendations for the local, national and European level. Theory: The paper draws on existing definitions of integrated care in various countries and by various scholars. Given the context of an international comparative study it tries to avoid providing a single, ready-made definition but underlines the role of social care as part and parcel of this type of integrated care in the participating countries. Methods: The paper is based on national reports from researchers representing ten organisations (university institutes, consultancy firms, research institutes, the public and the NGO sector from 9 European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. Literature reviews made intensive use of grey literature and evaluation studies in the context of at least five model ways of working in each country. Results: As a result of the cross-national overview an attempt to classify different approaches and definitions is made and indicators of relative importance of the different instruments used in integrating health and social care services are provided. Conclusions: The cross-national overview shows that issues concerning co-ordination and integration of services are high on the agenda in most countries. Depending on

  15. A search for genetic diversity among Italian Greyhounds from Continental Europe and the USA and the effect of inbreeding on susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Leonard, Angela; Griffioen, Layle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies documented the problem of inbreeding among Italian Greyhounds (IG) from the USA and its possible role in a multiple autoimmune disease syndrome. The present study is an extension of these earlier experiments and had two objectives: 1) to identify pockets of additional genetic diversity that might still exist among IG from the USA and Continental Europe, and 2) to determine how loss of genetic diversity within the genome and in the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex relates to the problem of autoimmune disease in IG from the USA. Genetic testing was conducted using 33 short tandem repeat (STR) loci across 25 chromosomes and 7 STR loci that associated with specific dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II haplotypes. Standard genetic assessment tests based on allele frequencies and internal relatedness (IR) were used as measures of breed-wide and individual heterozygosity. The results of these tests demonstrated that IG from the USA and Continental Europe belonged to a single breed but were genetically distinguishable by genomic allele frequencies, DLA class I and II haplotypes, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). In the second part of the study, 85 IG from the USA that had suffered various autoimmune disorders (case) and 104 healthy dogs (control) of comparable age were studied for genetic associations with disease. Case dogs were found to be significantly more homozygous in the DLA regions than control dogs. Principal coordinate analysis did not differentiate case from control populations. No specific STR-associated DLA-class I or II haplotype was associated with increased autoimmune disease risks. Reasons for the loss of genetic diversity and increased homozygosity among IG from the USA were studied using registration data and deep pedigrees. The breed in the USA started from a small number of founders from Europe and has remained relatively isolated and small in numbers, limiting breeding choices especially in the period before modern

  16. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  17. Germany's nuclear power plant closures and the integration of electricity markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Lilian M. de; Houllier, Melanie A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the potential implications of national policies that lead to a sudden increase of wind power in the electricity mix for interconnected European electricity markets. More specifically, it examines market integration before and after the closures of eight nuclear power plants that occurred within a period of a few months in Germany during 2011. The short- and- long run interrelationships of daily electricity spot prices, from November 2009 to October 2012, in: APX-ENDEX, BELPEX, EPEX-DE, EPEX-FR, NORDPOOL, OMEL and SWISSIX; and wind power in the German system are analysed. Two MGARCH (Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity) models with dynamic correlations are used to assess spot market behaviour in the short run, and a fractional cointegration analysis is conducted to investigate changes in the long-run behaviour of electricity spot prices. Results show: positive time-varying correlations between spot prices in markets with substantial shared interconnector capacity; a negative association between wind power penetration in Germany and electricity spot prices in the German and neighbouring markets; and, for most markets, a decreasing speed in mean reversion. -- Highlights: •Associations between spot prices and wind power are time-varying. •Greater spot price and volatility associations across markets are observed. •In the long run, the German market is less integrated with neighbouring markets. •Policies on a local electricity mix can affect spot prices in connected markets

  18. Integrative Laser Medicine and High-Tech Acupuncture at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litscher, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, modernization of acupuncture has a high priority. On the traditional side, acupuncture has only recently been awarded the status of Intangible Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO. On the innovative side, high-tech acupuncture is a registered trademark in Austria. Acupuncture has been used for medical treatment for thousands of years. A large number of empirical data are available but the technical quantification of effects was not possible up to now. Using electroacupuncture, needle, or laser stimulation and modern biomedical techniques, it was possible for the first time to quantify changes in biological activities caused by acupuncture. This paper which serves as introduction for the special issue “High-Tech Acupuncture and Integrative Laser Medicine” of the present journal, focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. Special emphasis is given to new methodological and technical investigations, for example, results obtained from all kinds of acupuncture innovations (e.g., teleacupuncture) and integrative laser medicine. PMID:22570669

  19. Applied simulations and integrated modelling for the understanding of toxic and harmful algal blooms (ASIMUTH): Integrated HAB forecast systems for Europe's Atlantic Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Julie; Cusack, Caroline; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Silke, Joe; McElligott, Deirdre; Davidson, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Reasons for the emergent interest in HABs are abundant, including concerns associated with human health, adverse effects on biological resources, economic losses attributed to recreation, tourism and seafood related industries, and the cost of maintaining public advisory services and monitoring programs for shellfish toxins and water quality. The impact of HABs can potentially be mitigated by early warning of their development. In this regard the project ASIMUTH (Applied Simulations and Integrated Modelling for the Understanding of Toxic and Harmful algal blooms) was borne in order to develop short term HAB alert systems for Atlantic Europe. This was achieved using information on the most current marine conditions (weather, water characteristics, toxicity, harmful algal presence etc.) combined with high resolution local numerical predictions. This integrated, multidisciplinary, trans-boundary approach to the study of HABs developed during ASIMUTH led to a better understanding of the physical, chemical and ecological factors controlling these blooms, as well as their impact on human activities. The outcome was an appropriate alert system for an effective management of areas that are usually associated with HAB events and where these episodes may have a more significant negative impact on human activities. Specifically for the aquaculture industry, the information provided enabled farmers to adapt their working practices in time to prevent mortalities in finfish farms and/or manage their shellfish harvest more effectively. This paper summarises the modelling and alert developments generated by the ASIMUTH project. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New Integration Period? Changing Tendencies of the Urban Network in South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilárd Rácz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have brought basic changes in the whole Balkan Peninsula, where spatial structures and settlement network were not devoid of changes either. Due to the change of the economic, political and social regime and the new borders spatial structures became differentiated along new factors. Cooperation programs of the Euro-Atlantic integration hold many new challenges and opportunities. Historical and political literature studying the single countries’ transformation is large and far reaching, however, a settlement network and spatial structure focused overview has been, so far, missing from the range of researches. The aim of this study is to examine the urban features and the spatial transition of the Balkan states.

  1. Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus population in north-eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Hindrikson

    Full Text Available Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canislupus population in north-eastern Europe. We genotyped 16 microsatellite loci in 166 individuals sampled from the wolf population in Estonia and Latvia that has been under strong and continuous hunting pressure for decades. Our analysis demonstrated that this relatively small wolf population is represented by four genetic groups. We also used a novel methodological approach that uses linear interpolation to statistically test the spatial separation of genetic groups. The new method, which is capable of using program STRUCTURE output, can be applied widely in population genetics to reveal both core areas and areas of low significance for genetic groups. We also used a recently developed spatially explicit individual-based method DResD, and applied it for the first time to microsatellite data, revealing a migration corridor and barriers, and several contact zones.

  2. The changing landscape of genetic testing and its impact on clinical and laboratory services and research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Ros; de Wert, Guido; Fowler, Brian; Krawczak, Michael; Vermeulen, Eric; Bakker, Egbert; Borry, Pascal; Dondorp, Wybo; Nijsingh, Niels; Barton, David; Schmidtke, Jörg; van El, Carla G; Vermeesch, Joris; Stol, Yrrah; Carmen Howard, Heidi; Cornel, Martina C

    2012-09-01

    The arrival of new genetic technologies that allow efficient examination of the whole human genome (microarray, next-generation sequencing) will impact upon both laboratories (cytogenetic and molecular genetics in the first instance) and clinical/medical genetic services. The interpretation of analytical results in terms of their clinical relevance and the predicted health status poses a challenge to both laboratory and clinical geneticists, due to the wealth and complexity of the information obtained. There is a need to discuss how to best restructure the genetic services logistically and to determine the clinical utility of genetic testing so that patients can receive appropriate advice and genetic testing. To weigh up the questions and challenges of the new genetic technologies, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) held a series of workshops on 10 June 2010 in Gothenburg. This was part of an ESHG satellite symposium on the 'Changing landscape of genetic testing', co-organized by the ESHG Genetic Services Quality and Public and Professional Policy Committees. The audience consisted of a mix of geneticists, ethicists, social scientists and lawyers. In this paper, we summarize the discussions during the workshops and present some of the identified ways forward to improve and adapt the genetic services so that patients receive accurate and relevant information. This paper covers ethics, clinical utility, primary care, genetic services and the blurring boundaries between healthcare and research.

  3. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, J.; Geraedts, J.; Borry, P.; Cornel, M.C.; Dondorp, W.J.; Gianaroli, L.; Harton, G.; Milachich, T.; Kaariainen, H.; Liebaers, I.; Morris, M.; Sequeiros, J.; Sermon, K.; Shenfield, F.; Skirton, H.; Soini, S.; Spits, C.; Veiga, A.; Vermeesch, J.R.; Viville, S.; de Wert, G.; Macek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study question: How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? Summary answer: The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more

  4. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Louise B; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis...... to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured...

  5. INTEGRATING NEW TESTS OF SPERM GENETIC INTEGRITY INTO SEMEN ANALYSIS: BREAKOUT GROUP DISCUSSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The First International Conference on Male-Mediated Developmental Toxicity, held in September 1992, reported that the spermatozoon can bring genetic damage into the oocyte at fertilization and thereby contribute to subsequent abnormal pregnancy outcomes. At that time, laboratory ...

  6. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in leafy kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) landraces, cultivars and wild populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, G.

    2011-01-01

    AFLP markers were used to characterize diversity and asses the genetic structure among 17 accessions of kale landraces, cultivars and wild populations from Europe. The range of average gene diversity in accessions was 0.11–0.27. Several landraces showed higher levels of diversity than the wild...... populations and one cultivar had the lowest diversity measures. The landraces that were most genetically diverse were from areas where kales are known to be extensively grown, suggesting in situ conservation in these areas as a supplement to storage of seeds in gene banks. An analysis of molecular variance...... the relationship among them is due to seed dispersal through human interactions. Our results indicate that a kale population found in a natural habitat in Denmark was probably not truly wild but most likely an escape from a cultivated Danish kale that had subsequently become naturalized....

  7. TRANSCULTURALIZATION, IMMIGRANTS AND INTEGRATION – OUTLINING NEW SOCIAL PARADIGMS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Petkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the concept of transculturalization in contemporary society there is an establishment of cultural communities, which do not coincide with the borders of the national states but exist beyond and often against them. The transcultural identities, such as the identities of the ethnic diasporas and religious groups, are deteritorialized. This means that they do not have particular territories, such as the territories of the local and national communities. Thus, new cultural borders appear, which, in comparison with the traditional borders, are spiritual and non-material and are related to specific traditions, customs, languages and values, maintained in the frames of the cultural community. Although they cannot be seen on the geographical map, they are strong enough to determine and frame the social space of the community. Together with this they are not fixed but can easily move within space and time. In such a way, autonomous cultural groups appear. Although they exist within the territory of the national state, in reality they surpass its borders. Moreover, the culture of the immigrants not only forge transcultural identities but it challenges some of the most important European values and ideals. In analyzing the processes of transculturalization and of the rise of the religious consciousness, this paper discusses some of the problems related to the integration of immigrants and refugees on the European continent.

  8. AtlantOS WP2, Enhancement of ship-based observing networks - Bathymetric integration and visualization of Europe's data holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Devey, Colin; Augustin, Nico

    2017-04-01

    The European Horizon 2020 research and innovation project AtlantOS - Optimising and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing Systems - aims to improve the present-day ocean observing activities in the Atlantic Ocean by establishing a sustainable, efficient and integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System. 62 partners from 18 countries are working on solutions I) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, II) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, III) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, IV) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality and authority of ocean information, V) to strengthen the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and to sustain observing systems that are critical for the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and its applications and VI) to contribute to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. The Work Package 2 of the AtlantOS project focuses on improving, expanding, integrating and innovating ship-based observations. One of the tasks is the provision of Europe's existing and future bathymetric data sets from the Atlantic Ocean in accessible formats enabling easy processing and visualization for stakeholders. Furthermore, a new concept has recently been implemented, where three large German research vessels continuously collect bathymetric data during their transits. All data sets are gathered and processed with the help of national data centers and partner institutions and integrated into existing open access data systems, such as Pangaea in Germany, EMODnet at European level and GMRT (Global Multi-Resolution Topography synthesis) at international level. The processed data will be linked to the original data holdings, that can easily be accessed if required. The overall aim of this task is to make bathymetric data publicly available for specialists and non-specialists both

  9. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  10. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  11. Shared genetic variance between obesity and white matter integrity in Mexican-americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Spieker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that may also lead to reduced white matter integrity, potentially due to shared genetic risk factors. Genetic correlation analyses were conducted in a large cohort of Mexican American families in San Antonio (N=761, 58% females, ages 18-81y; 41.3±14.5 from the Genetics of Brain Structure and Function Study. Shared genetic variance was calculated between measures of adiposity ((body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC; in and whole-brain and regional measurements of cerebral white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy. Whole-brain average and regional fractional anisotropy values for ten major white matter tracts were calculated from high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging data (DTI; 1.7×1.7×3 mm; 55 directions. Additive genetic factors explained intersubject variance in BMI (heritability, h2=0.58, WC (h2=0.57, and FA (h2=0.49. FA shared significant portions of genetic variance with BMI in the genu (ρG = -0.25, body (ρG = -0.30, and splenium (ρG = -0.26 of the corpus callosum, internal capsule (ρG = -0.29, and thalamic radiation (ρG = -0.31 (all p’s = .043. The strongest evidence of shared variance was between BMI/WC and FA in the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (ρG = -0.39, p = .020; ρG = -0.39, p = .030, which highlights region-specific variation in neural correlates of obesity. This may suggest that increase in obesity and reduced white matter integrity share common genetic risk factors.

  12. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Drygala

    Full Text Available The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  13. [Dignity or integrity - does the genetic modification of animals require new concepts in animal ethics?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Animal genetic engineering seems to point at a normative gap beyond pathocentric welfare theories in animal ethics. Recently developed approaches aim to bridge this gap by means of new normative criteria such as animal dignity and animal integrity. The following comparison of dignity and integrity in the context of animal ethics shows that the dignity concept faces serious problems because of its necessarily anthroporelational character and the different functions of contingent and inherent dignity within ethical reasoning. Unlike animal dignity the concept of animal integrity could prove to be a useful enhancement for pathocentric approaches.

  14. Integrated screening concept in women with genetic predisposition for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, U.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is in 5% of cases due to a genetic disposition. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are by far the most common breast cancer susceptibility genes. For a woman with a genetic predisposition, the individual risk of developing breast cancer sometime in her life is between 70 and 90%. Compared to the spontaneous forms of breast cancer, woman with a genetic predisposition often develop breast cancer at a much younger age. This is why conventional screening programs on the basis of mammography alone cannot be applied without modification to this high-risk group. In this article, an integrated screening concept for women with genetic prodisposition for breast cancer using breast self-examination, clinical examination, ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging is introduced. (orig.) [de

  15. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  16. An integrative study of Necremnus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with invasive pests in Europe and North America: taxonomic and ecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gebiola, Marco; Bernardo, Umberto; Ribes, Antoni; Gibson, Gary A P

    2015-01-01

    The species of Necremnus attacking two invasive pests of tomato and canola in Europe and North America, respectively, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been revised using an integrative taxonomy approach. Molecular data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I and the nuclear D2 expansion region of the 28S ribosomal subunit and internal transcribed spacer 2, the discovery of new morphologica...

  17. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, J.C.; Geraedts, J.; Borry, P.; Cornel, M.C.; Dondorp, W.; Gianaroli, L.; Harton, G.; Milachich, T.; Kaariainen, H.; Liebaers, I.; Morris, M.; Sequeiros, J.; Sermon, K.; Shenfield, F.O.; Skirton, H.; Soini, S.; Spits, C.; Veiga, A.; Vermeesch, J.R.; Viville, S.; de Wert, G.; Macek, M.

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two

  18. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  19. The Palliative Care Challenge: Analysis of Barriers and Opportunities to Integrate Palliative Care in Europe in the View of National Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Carlos; Garralda, Eduardo; Carrasco, José Miguel; den Herder-van der Eerden, Marlieke; Aldridge, Melissa; Stevenson, David; Meier, Diane E; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2017-11-01

    Palliative care (PC) development is diverse and lacks an effective integration into European healthcare systems. This article investigates levels of integrated PC in European countries. A qualitative survey was undertaken for the 2013 EAPC Atlas of PC in Europe with boards of national associations, eliciting opinions on opportunities for, and barriers to, PC development. Barriers and opportunities directly related to PC integration were identified and analyzed thematically according (1) to the dimensions of the World Health Organization (WHO) public health model and (2) by the degree of service provision in each country. A frequency analysis of dimensions and level of provision was also conducted. In total, 48/53 (91%) European countries responded to the survey. A total of 43 barriers and 65 opportunities were identified as being related to PC integration. Main barriers were (1) lack of basic PC training, with a particular emphasis on the absence of teaching at the undergraduate level; (2) lack of official certification for professionals; (3) lack of coordination and continuity of care for users and providers; (4) lack of PC integration for noncancer patients; (5) absence of PC from countries' regulatory frameworks; and (6) unequal laws or regulations pertaining to PC within countries. Innovations in education and new regulatory frameworks were identified as main opportunities in some European countries, in addition to opportunities around the implementation of PC in home care, nursing home settings, and the earlier integration of PC into patients' continuum of care. With increasing provision of services, more challenges for the integration are detected (p integration has been identified across Europe, by national associations, offering a barometer against which to check the challenge of integration across countries.

  20. Inferring genetic architecture of complex traits using Bayesian integrative analysis of genome and transcriptiome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Alireza; Sørensen, Peter; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    -modal distribution of genomic values collapses, when gene expressions are added to the model Conclusions With increased availability of various -omics data, integrative approaches are promising tools for understanding the genetic architecture of complex traits. Partitioning of explained variances at the chromosome......Background To understand the genetic architecture of complex traits and bridge the genotype-phenotype gap, it is useful to study intermediate -omics data, e.g. the transcriptome. The present study introduces a method for simultaneous quantification of the contributions from single nucleotide...

  1. Bayesian network model for identification of pathways by integrating protein interaction with genetic interaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhe; Deng, Su; Jin, Guangxu; Wang, Xinxin; Yu, Zu-Guo

    2017-09-21

    Molecular interaction data at proteomic and genetic levels provide physical and functional insights into a molecular biosystem and are helpful for the construction of pathway structures complementarily. Despite advances in inferring biological pathways using genetic interaction data, there still exists weakness in developed models, such as, activity pathway networks (APN), when integrating the data from proteomic and genetic levels. It is necessary to develop new methods to infer pathway structure by both of interaction data. We utilized probabilistic graphical model to develop a new method that integrates genetic interaction and protein interaction data and infers exquisitely detailed pathway structure. We modeled the pathway network as Bayesian network and applied this model to infer pathways for the coherent subsets of the global genetic interaction profiles, and the available data set of endoplasmic reticulum genes. The protein interaction data were derived from the BioGRID database. Our method can accurately reconstruct known cellular pathway structures, including SWR complex, ER-Associated Degradation (ERAD) pathway, N-Glycan biosynthesis pathway, Elongator complex, Retromer complex, and Urmylation pathway. By comparing N-Glycan biosynthesis pathway and Urmylation pathway identified from our approach with that from APN, we found that our method is able to overcome its weakness (certain edges are inexplicable). According to underlying protein interaction network, we defined a simple scoring function that only adopts genetic interaction information to avoid the balance difficulty in the APN. Using the effective stochastic simulation algorithm, the performance of our proposed method is significantly high. We developed a new method based on Bayesian network to infer detailed pathway structures from interaction data at proteomic and genetic levels. The results indicate that the developed method performs better in predicting signaling pathways than previously

  2. TC-OSEM: An integrated set of training courses for off-site emergency management in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, A.; Landman, C.; Pasler-Sauer, J.; Raskob, W.

    2003-01-01

    Following the lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident, the whole concept of off-site nuclear accident management has been reviewed in depth at international, European and national levels during the last decade. The primary purpose has been to define an intervention philosophy based on internationally recognised and accepted principles. Several international organisations were at the forefront of these modifications, e. g. the ICRP, the IAEA and the EC. As a result, a sect of European directives and regulations have been adopted for endorsement by the national governments within the European Union. In line with the above, one of the main objectives and achievements of the radiation protection research through the EC's Nuclear Fission Safety Programmes was the development of an operational and comprehensive real-time on-line support system for off-site nuclear emergency management in Europe (RODOS), allowing to realise the visison of a more coherent and timely response to nuclear emergencies in Europe on local, regional, national and international level. Under sponsorship of the EC DG RTD's Fifth Framework project TC-OSEM (Training Courses for Off-site Emergency Management) a set of three integrated training courses has been worked out with the aim to for disseminate in a didactically optimised approach the latest knowledge, principles and insight in off-site accident management to those involved in decision making on interventions. The first training course (TCI) on Off-site Emergency Planning and Response to Nuclear Accidents, developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), gives a highly quality comprehensive overview of the current principles of intervention, planning and organisational aspects of off-site accident management, radiological evaluation and decision aiding techniques in case of nuclear accidents, beneficial to those playing and active role in this domain. The European dimension is stressed (e. g. Community legislation, ECURIE and

  3. The prediction and management of aquatic nitrogen pollution across Europe: an introduction to the Integrated Nitrogen in European Catchments project (INCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Wade

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess nitrogen in soils, fresh water, estuarine and marine systems contributes to nutrient enrichment in key ecosystems throughout Europe, often leading to detrimental environmental impacts, such as soil acidification or the eutrophication of water bodies. The Integrated Nitrogenmodel for European Catchments (INCA project aims to develop a generic version of the Integrated Nitrogen in Catchments (INCA model to simulate the retention and transport of nitrogen within river systems, thereby providing a tool to aid the understanding of nitrogen dynamics and for river-basin management/policy-making. To facilitate the development of the model, 10 partners have tested the INCA model with data collected in study sites located in eight European countries as part of the INCA project. This paper summarises the key nitrogen issues within Europe, describes the main aims and methodology of the INCA project, and sets the project in the context of the current major research initiatives at a European level. Keywords: Europe, European Union, nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, river basin management, modelling, water chemistry, acidification, eutrophication, Water Framework Directive, INCA.

  4. Romanian maize (Zea mays inbred lines as a source of genetic diversity in SE Europe, and their potential in future breeding efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Şuteu

    Full Text Available Maize has always been under constant human selection ever since it had been domesticated. Intensive breeding programs that resulted in the massive use of hybrids nowadays have started in the 60s. That brought significant yield increases but reduced the genetic diversity at the same time. Consequently, breeders and researchers alike turned their attention to national germplasm collections established decades ago in many countries, as they may hold allelic variations that could prove useful for future improvements. These collections are mainly composed of inbred lines originating from well-adapted local open pollinated varieties. However, there is an overall lack of data in the literature about the genetic diversity of maize in SE Europe, and its potential for future breeding efforts. There are no data, whatsoever, on the nutritional quality of the grain, primarily dictated by the zein proteins. We therefore sought to use the Romanian maize germplasm as an entry point in understanding the molecular make-up of maize in this part of Europe. By using 80 SSR markers, evenly spread throughout the genome, on 82 inbred lines from various parts of the country, we were able to decipher population structure and the existing relationships between those and the eight international standards used, including the reference sequenced genome B73. Corroborating molecular data with a standardized morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization of all 90 inbred lines, this is the first comprehensive such study on the existing SE European maize germplasm. The inbred lines we present here are an important addition to the ever-shrinking gene pool that the breeding programs are faced-with, because of the allelic richness they hold. They may serve as parental lines in crosses that will lead to new hybrids, characterized by a high level of heterosis, nationwide and beyond, due to their existing relationship with the international germplasm.

  5. Genetic strain modification of a live rabies virus vaccine widely used in Europe for wildlife oral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Picard Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, the main reservoir and vector of rabies has been the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Oral immunization of foxes with live vaccines, using attenuated rabies strains (SAD B19, SAD Bern), apathogenic mutants of an attenuated strain (SAG2) and the vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein recombinant virus vaccine (V-RG), has been shown to be the most effective method for the control and elimination of rabies. Among all vaccines currently used for wildlife oral vaccination, one vaccine (marketed as SAD Bern strain) has been widely used in Europe since 1992 with the distribution of 17million of baits in 2011. Because of the potential environmental safety risk of a live virus which could revert to virulence, the full genome sequencing of this vaccine was undertaken and the sequence was characterized and compared with those of referenced rabies viruses. The vaccine showed higher similarity to the strains belonging to the SAD B19 vaccine virus strains than to the SAD Bern vaccines. This study is the first one reporting on virus strain identity changes in this attenuated vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic organisation, mobility and predicted functions of genes on integrated, mobile genetic elements in sequenced strains of Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S M Brouwer

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in the US and Europe. Recently the incidence of C. difficile-associated disease has risen dramatically and concomitantly with the emergence of 'hypervirulent' strains associated with more severe disease and increased mortality. C. difficile contains numerous mobile genetic elements, resulting in the potential for a highly plastic genome. In the first sequenced strain, 630, there is one proven conjugative transposon (CTn, Tn5397, and six putative CTns (CTn1, CTn2 and CTn4-7, of which, CTn4 and CTn5 were capable of excision. In the second sequenced strain, R20291, two further CTns were described.CTn1, CTn2 CTn4, CTn5 and CTn7 were shown to excise from the genome of strain 630 and transfer to strain CD37. A putative CTn from R20291, misleadingly termed a phage island previously, was shown to excise and to contain three putative mobilisable transposons, one of which was capable of excision. In silico probing of C. difficile genome sequences with recombinase gene fragments identified new putative conjugative and mobilisable transposons related to the elements in strains 630 and R20291. CTn5-like elements were described occupying different insertion sites in different strains, CTn1-like elements that have lost the ability to excise in some ribotype 027 strains were described and one strain was shown to contain CTn5-like and CTn7-like elements arranged in tandem. Additionally, using bioinformatics, we updated previous gene annotations and predicted novel functions for the accessory gene products on these new elements.The genomes of the C. difficile strains examined contain highly related CTns suggesting recent horizontal gene transfer. Several elements were capable of excision and conjugative transfer. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes and genes predicted to promote adaptation to the intestinal environment suggests that CTns play a role in the interaction of C

  7. An Extended Genetic Algorithm for Distributed Integration of Fuzzy Process Planning and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed integration of process planning and scheduling (DIPPS aims to simultaneously arrange the two most important manufacturing stages, process planning and scheduling, in a distributed manufacturing environment. Meanwhile, considering its advantage corresponding to actual situation, the triangle fuzzy number (TFN is adopted in DIPPS to represent the machine processing and transportation time. In order to solve this problem and obtain the optimal or near-optimal solution, an extended genetic algorithm (EGA with innovative three-class encoding method, improved crossover, and mutation strategies is proposed. Furthermore, a local enhancement strategy featuring machine replacement and order exchange is also added to strengthen the local search capability on the basic process of genetic algorithm. Through the verification of experiment, EGA achieves satisfactory results all in a very short period of time and demonstrates its powerful performance in dealing with the distributed integration of fuzzy process planning and scheduling (DIFPPS.

  8. A New Approach to the Economic Integration between South and North Korea: A Comparative Study with the Transition Economies in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Chul Cho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this thesis is to find the enlightenment that the experience of state system transition in Eastern Europe offers to the economic integration of Korea and DPRK if leave DPRK as an independent economic area to seek its economic transition in a certain period, when the political structure breaks down. The transition policies of economic system of Eastern Europe states could be roughly divided into four types, the policies of liberalization, the policies of stabilization of the macro economy, the policies of privatization and financial reform. This thesis is trying to analyze how to use these types of polices in DPRK. According to the situation in Eastern Europe, compared to the fact that whether the speed of the transition of economic system is radical or gradual, the result of the transition of economic system depends on the condition of the preliminary stage of the transition of economic system and how consistently and ardently the states which plan to change their system promote all kinds of reform policy. The way to minimize the side-effect which the Eastern Europe suffered after the transition is to minimize the cost of the unity of Korea as much as possible. Therefore, the following policies coordination must be carried out. First, do not launch the stabilization policy mainly by restraining the aggregate demand as the Eastern Europe states. Appropriate policy adjustment should follow that. Second, the fruit of the economic reform should be distributed to the class or group which has got the acquired right. Third, appropriate income policy is needed in order to allay the controversy between economic growth and stabilization policy.

  9. An integrative view of phylogenetic comparative methods: connections to population genetics, community ecology, and paleobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Matthew W; Harmon, Luke J

    2013-06-01

    Recent innovations in phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs) have spurred a renaissance of research into the causes and consequences of large-scale patterns of biodiversity. In this paper, we review these advances. We also highlight the potential of comparative methods to integrate across fields and focus on three examples where such integration might be particularly valuable: quantitative genetics, community ecology, and paleobiology. We argue that PCMs will continue to be a key set of tools in evolutionary biology, shedding new light on how evolutionary processes have shaped patterns of biodiversity through deep time. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Genetic education and the challenge of genomic medicine: development of core competences to support preparation of health professionals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skirton, Heather; Lewis, Celine; Kent, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    health professionals and patient groups. Sets of competences for practitioners working in primary, secondary and tertiary care have been agreed and were approved by the European Society of Human Genetics. The competences provide an appropriate framework for genetics education of health professionals...... across national boundaries, and the suggested learning outcomes are available to guide development of curricula that are appropriate to the national context, educational system and health-care setting of the professional involved. Collaboration between individuals from many European countries...... and professions has resulted in an adaptable framework for both pre-registration and continuing professional education. This competence framework has the potential to improve the quality of genetic health care for patients globally....

  11. A dense genetic linkage map for common carp and its integration with a BAC-based physical map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. RESULTS: The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. CONCLUSION: We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for

  12. Safe genetic modification of cardiac stem cells using a site-specific integration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feng; Liu, Junwei; Narsinh, Kazim H; Hu, Shijun; Han, Leng; Lee, Andrew S; Karow, Marisa; Nguyen, Patricia K; Nag, Divya; Calos, Michele P; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2012-09-11

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) are a promising cell source for regenerative repair after myocardial infarction. Exploitation of their full therapeutic potential may require stable genetic modification of the cells ex vivo. Safe genetic engineering of stem cells, using facile methods for site-specific integration of transgenes into known genomic contexts, would significantly enhance the overall safety and efficacy of cellular therapy in a variety of clinical contexts. We used the phiC31 site-specific recombinase to achieve targeted integration of a triple fusion reporter gene into a known chromosomal context in hCPCs and human endothelial cells. Stable expression of the reporter gene from its unique chromosomal integration site resulted in no discernible genomic instability or adverse changes in cell phenotype. Namely, phiC31-modified hCPCs were unchanged in their differentiation propensity, cellular proliferative rate, and global gene expression profile when compared with unaltered control hCPCs. Expression of the triple fusion reporter gene enabled multimodal assessment of cell fate in vitro and in vivo using fluorescence microscopy, bioluminescence imaging, and positron emission tomography. Intramyocardial transplantation of genetically modified hCPCs resulted in significant improvement in myocardial function 2 weeks after cell delivery, as assessed by echocardiography (P=0.002) and MRI (P=0.001). We also demonstrated the feasibility and therapeutic efficacy of genetically modifying differentiated human endothelial cells, which enhanced hind limb perfusion (P<0.05 at day 7 and 14 after transplantation) on laser Doppler imaging. The phiC31 integrase genomic modification system is a safe, efficient tool to enable site-specific integration of reporter transgenes in progenitor and differentiated cell types.

  13. Metabologenomics of Phaeochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: An Integrated Approach for Personalised Biochemical and Genetic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Klink, Barbara; Richter, Susan; Lenders, Jacques Wm; Robledo, Mercedes

    2017-04-01

    The tremendous advances over the past two decades in both clinical genetics and biochemical testing of chromaffin cell tumours have led to new considerations about how these aspects of laboratory medicine can be integrated to improve diagnosis and management of affected patients. With germline mutations in 15 genes now identified to be responsible for over a third of all cases of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, these tumours are recognised to have one of the richest hereditary backgrounds among all neoplasms. Depending on the mutation, tumours show distinct differences in metabolic pathways that relate to or even directly impact clinical presentation. At the same time, there has been improved understanding about how catecholamines are synthesised, stored, secreted and metabolised by chromaffin cell tumours. Although the tumours may not always secrete catecholamines it has become clear that almost all continuously produce and metabolise catecholamines. This has not only fuelled changes in laboratory medicine, but has also assisted in recognition of genotype-biochemical phenotype relationships important for diagnostics and clinical care. In particular, differences in catecholamine and energy pathway metabolomes can guide genetic testing, assist with test interpretation and provide predictions about the nature, behaviour and imaging characteristics of the tumours. Conversely, results of genetic testing are important for guiding how routine biochemical testing should be employed and interpreted in surveillance programmes for at-risk patients. In these ways there are emerging needs for modern laboratory medicine to seamlessly integrate biochemical and genetic testing into the diagnosis and management of patients with chromaffin cell tumours.

  14. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: a systems approach to integrating genetics, nutrition, and metabolic efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P

    2012-06-01

    The role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients for humans. We must select and manage cows with the goal of reaching the greatest possible efficiency for any given environment. We have increased efficiency tremendously over the years, yet the variation in productive and reproductive efficiency among animals is still quite large. In part this is because of a lack of full integration of genetic, nutritional, and reproductive biology into management decisions. However, integration across these disciplines is increasing as biological research findings show more specific control points at which genetics, nutrition, and reproduction interact. An ordered systems biology approach that focuses on why and how cells regulate energy and N use and on how and why organs interact by endocrine and neurocrine mechanisms will speed improvements in efficiency. More sophisticated dairy managers will demand better information to improve the efficiency of their animals. Using genetic improvement and proper animal management to improve milk productive and reproductive efficiency requires a deeper understanding of metabolic processes during the transition period. Using existing metabolic models, we can design experiments specifically to integrate new data from transcriptional arrays into models that describe nutrient use in farm animals. A systems modeling approach can help focus our research to make faster and large advances in efficiency and show directly how this can be applied on the farms.

  15. “How Grand is Our Design For Europe?”: Integration Plans of The Great Britain in the Late of 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Khakhalkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK European Union membership referendum 2016 and its results actualized the study of the British initiatives in the sphere of integration before the entry into the European Economic Community in 1973. The article is devoted to the little-known in Russian historiography "Grand Design"of H. Macmillan, nominated in the wake of the failure of the Suez operation against Egypt in 1956. Plan with such bright and eye-catching name suggested the creation of a broad integration group in Europe as alternative with Britain as a leader to the preparing for the establishment of projects of the European Economic Community and the European Atomic energy community. The project was designed to restore the prestige of the Conservative Party and to strengthen the shaky position of Britain in NATO and European affairs after Suez Crisis. At the same time the emergence of the plan reflected the desire of the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan to weaken the struggle inside political establishment between supporters and opponents of the country's full-fledged participation in the European integration and take the lead in the integration movement from France. Analysis of the content of the project and attempts to implement it within the framework of a Free Trade Area (FTA reveals the essence of the "special position" of the UK towards supranational integration and the British vision of the future of European integration. Modern United Kingdom appeared in the new European realities after the Referendum on the country’s membership in the European Union and returns to the starting point on the path of supranational integration and to the search for its place in Europe. In these circumstances, the ideas expressed by British politicians more than half a century ago, may again prove to be demanded and relevant.

  16. Genetic differentiation in Gammarus fossarum and G. caparti (Crustacea, Amphipoda) with reference to G. pulex pulex in northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, Maarten; Dalfsen, van Jan

    1989-01-01

    Genetic differentiation among G. fossarum Koch, 1835 from different stations in Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and northern France, and the closely related Belgian form G. caparti Pètre-Stroobants, 1980 was investigated by electrophoresis at 20 enzyme loci. Although morphologically variable,

  17. Integrating environmental and genetic effects to predict responses of tree populations to climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongli; O'Neill, Gregory A; Aitken, Sally N

    2010-01-01

    Climate is a major environmental factor affecting the phenotype of trees and is also a critical agent of natural selection that has molded among-population genetic variation. Population response functions describe the environmental effect of planting site climates on the performance of a single population, whereas transfer functions describe among-population genetic variation molded by natural selection for climate. Although these approaches are widely used to predict the responses of trees to climate change, both have limitations. We present a novel approach that integrates both genetic and environmental effects into a single "universal response function" (URF) to better predict the influence of climate on phenotypes. Using a large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) field transplant experiment composed of 140 populations planted on 62 sites to demonstrate the methodology, we show that the URF makes full use of data from provenance trials to: (1) improve predictions of climate change impacts on phenotypes; (2) reduce the size and cost of future provenance trials without compromising predictive power; (3) more fully exploit existing, less comprehensive provenance tests; (4) quantify and compare environmental and genetic effects of climate on population performance; and (5) predict the performance of any population growing in any climate. Finally, we discuss how the last attribute allows the URF to be used as a mechanistic model to predict population and species ranges for the future and to guide assisted migration of seed for reforestation, restoration, or afforestation and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

  18. Contrasting Patterns of Genetic Structuring in Natural Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata Subsp. petraea across Different Regions in Northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Lundemo, Sverre; Ansell, Stephen W.; Stenøien, Hans K.

    2014-01-01

    Level and partitioning of genetic diversity is expected to vary between contrasting habitats, reflecting differences in strength of ecological and evolutionary processes. Therefore, it is necessary to consider processes acting on different time scales when trying to explain diversity patterns in different parts of species' distributions. To explore how historical and contemporary factors jointly may influence patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation, we compared genetic composition in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea from the northernmost parts of its distribution range on Iceland to that previously documented in Scandinavia. Leaf tissue and soil were sampled from ten Icelandic populations of A. lyrata. Seedlings were grown from soil samples, and tissue from above-ground and seed bank individuals were genotyped with 21 microsatellite markers. Seed bank density in Icelandic populations was low but not significantly different from that observed in Norwegian populations. While within-population genetic diversity was relatively high on Iceland (HE = 0.35), among-population differentiation was low (FST = 0.10) compared to Norwegian and Swedish populations. Population differentiation was positively associated with geographical distance in both Iceland and Scandinavia, but the strength of this relationship varied between regions. Although topography and a larger distribution range may explain the higher differentiation between mountainous Norwegian relative to lowland populations in Sweden, these factors cannot explain the lower differentiation in Icelandic compared to Swedish populations. We propose that low genetic differentiation among Icelandic populations is not caused by differences in connectivity, but is rather due to large historical effective population sizes. Thus, rather than contemporary processes, historical factors such as survival of Icelandic lineages in northern refugia during the last glacial period may have

  19. Genetic counselors' views and experiences with the clinical integration of genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machini, Kalotina; Douglas, Jessica; Braxton, Alicia; Tsipis, Judith; Kramer, Kate

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, new sequencing technologies known as next generation sequencing (NGS) have provided scientists the ability to rapidly sequence all known coding as well as non-coding sequences in the human genome. As the two emerging approaches, whole exome (WES) and whole genome (WGS) sequencing, have started to be integrated in the clinical arena, we sought to survey health care professionals who are likely to be involved in the implementation process now and/or in the future (e.g., genetic counselors, geneticists and nurse practitioners). Two hundred twenty-one genetic counselors- one third of whom currently offer WES/WGS-participated in an anonymous online survey. The aims of the survey were first, to identify barriers to the implementation of WES/WGS, as perceived by survey participants; second, to provide the first systematic report of current practices regarding the integration of WES/WGS in clinic and/or research across the US and Canada and to illuminate the roles and challenges of genetic counselors participating in this process; and third to evaluate the impact of WES/WGS on patient care. Our results showed that genetic counseling practices with respect to WES/WGS are consistent with the criteria set forth in the ACMG 2012 policy statement, which highlights indications for testing, reporting, and pre/post test considerations. Our respondents described challenges related to offering WES/WGS, which included billing issues, the duration and content of the consent process, result interpretation and disclosure of incidental findings and variants of unknown significance. In addition, respondents indicated that specialty area (i.e., prenatal and cancer), lack of clinical utility of WES/WGS and concerns about interpretation of test results were factors that prevented them from offering this technology to patients. Finally, study participants identified the aspects of their professional training which have been most beneficial in aiding with the integration of

  20. Integrative review of indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invas...

  1. PREPARE. Innovative integrated tools and platforms for radiological emergency preparedness and post-accident response in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duranova, T.; Bohunova, J.; Raskob, W.; Schneider, T.; Gering, F.; Charron, S.; Zhelezniak, M.; Andronopoulo, S.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Camps, J.

    2014-01-01

    The PREPARE project that started February 2013 and will end beginning of 2016, aims to close gaps that have been identified in nuclear and radiological preparedness in Europe following the first evaluation of the Fukushima disaster. In this abstract the PREPARE project is described. (authors)

  2. Integrating sexual and reproductive health in primary health care in Europe: position paper of the European Forum for Primary Care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketting, E.; Esin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual health and reproductive health are relatively new concepts in Europe. They were introduced and recommended during and after the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, 1994. At the ICPD a 20-year Programme of Action was adopted by the vast majority of world

  3. Genetic Diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei in Central Europe and Its Comparison with Australian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Komínková, E. (Eva); Dreiseitl, A.; Malečková, E. (Eva); Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Valárik, M. (Miroslav)

    2016-01-01

    Population surveys of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), a causal agent of more than 50% of barley fungal infections in the Czech Republic, have been traditionally based on virulence tests, at times supplemented with non-specific Restriction fragment length polymorphism or Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. A genomic sequence of Bgh, which has become available recently, enables identification of potential markers suitable for population genetics studies. Two major strategies relyin...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei in Central Europe and Its Comparison with Australian Population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komínková, Eva; Dreiseitl, A.; Malečková, Eva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0167099. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14105 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : barley powdery mildew * f.sp hordei * isozyme variation * ssr markers * virulence * pathogen * complexity * france * frequencies * resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  5. Structural Equation Modelling of Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Food (GM) in the Mediterranean Europe: Spain, Greece and Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Font, Montserrat; Gil, Jose Maria

    2007-01-01

    The inception of genetic modification (GM) techniques in food production conveys both opportunities - improve food production technologies and/or product differentiation - and risks - dread of a change of the technological status quo, ambiguity in the food properties.. . Hence, some research has been devoted a careful understanding of consumer's reactions towards to GM food. However, unavoidably individual's perceptions involve taking into account several factors at a time that cannot be take...

  6. Invasion genetics of a freshwater mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in eastern Europe: high gene flow and multiple introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, T W; Orlova, M I; Docker, M F; Macisaac, H J; Heath, D D

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, the quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, native to the Dnieper and Bug Limans of the northern Black Sea, has been dispersed by human activities across the basin, throughout much of the Volga River system, and to the Laurentian Great Lakes. We used six published microsatellite markers to survey populations throughout its native and introduced range to identify relationships among potential source populations and introduced ones. Mussels from 12 sites in Eurasia, including the central Caspian Sea and one in North America (Lake Erie), were sampled. Field surveys in the Volga River basin suggested that the species first colonized the middle reach of the river near Kubyshev Reservoir, and thereafter spread both upstream and downstream. Evidence of considerable gene flow among populations was observed and genetic diversity was consistent with a larger, metapopulation that has not experienced bottlenecks or founder effects. We propose that high gene flow, possibly due to multiple invasions, has facilitated establishment of quagga mussel populations in the Volga River system. The Caspian Sea population (D. rostriformis rostriformis (=distincta)) was genetically more distinct than other populations, a finding that may be related to habitat differences. The geographical pattern of genetic divergence is not characteristic of isolation-by-distance but, rather, of long-distance dispersal, most likely mediated by commercial ships' ballast water transfer.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in Central Europe and Its Comparison with Australian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Komínková

    Full Text Available Population surveys of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, a causal agent of more than 50% of barley fungal infections in the Czech Republic, have been traditionally based on virulence tests, at times supplemented with non-specific Restriction fragment length polymorphism or Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. A genomic sequence of Bgh, which has become available recently, enables identification of potential markers suitable for population genetics studies. Two major strategies relying on transposable elements and microsatellites were employed in this work to develop a set of Repeat junction markers, Single sequence repeat and Single nucleotide polymorphism markers. A resolution power of the new panel of markers comprising 33 polymorphisms was demonstrated by a phylogenetic analysis of 158 Bgh isolates. A core set of 97 Czech isolates was compared to a set 50 Australian isolates on the background of 11 diverse isolates collected throughout the world. 73.2% of Czech isolates were found to be genetically unique. An extreme diversity of this collection was in strong contrast with the uniformity of the Australian one. This work paves the way for studies of population structure and dynamics based on genetic variability among different Bgh isolates originating from geographically limited regions.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in Central Europe and Its Comparison with Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komínková, Eva; Dreiseitl, Antonín; Malečková, Eva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Population surveys of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), a causal agent of more than 50% of barley fungal infections in the Czech Republic, have been traditionally based on virulence tests, at times supplemented with non-specific Restriction fragment length polymorphism or Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. A genomic sequence of Bgh, which has become available recently, enables identification of potential markers suitable for population genetics studies. Two major strategies relying on transposable elements and microsatellites were employed in this work to develop a set of Repeat junction markers, Single sequence repeat and Single nucleotide polymorphism markers. A resolution power of the new panel of markers comprising 33 polymorphisms was demonstrated by a phylogenetic analysis of 158 Bgh isolates. A core set of 97 Czech isolates was compared to a set 50 Australian isolates on the background of 11 diverse isolates collected throughout the world. 73.2% of Czech isolates were found to be genetically unique. An extreme diversity of this collection was in strong contrast with the uniformity of the Australian one. This work paves the way for studies of population structure and dynamics based on genetic variability among different Bgh isolates originating from geographically limited regions.

  9. Integrated genetic and epigenetic prediction of coronary heart disease in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeshanthini V Dogan

    Full Text Available An improved method for detecting coronary heart disease (CHD could have substantial clinical impact. Building on the idea that systemic effects of CHD risk factors are a conglomeration of genetic and environmental factors, we use machine learning techniques and integrate genetic, epigenetic and phenotype data from the Framingham Heart Study to build and test a Random Forest classification model for symptomatic CHD. Our classifier was trained on n = 1,545 individuals and consisted of four DNA methylation sites, two SNPs, age and gender. The methylation sites and SNPs were selected during the training phase. The final trained model was then tested on n = 142 individuals. The test data comprised of individuals removed based on relatedness to those in the training dataset. This integrated classifier was capable of classifying symptomatic CHD status of those in the test set with an accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 78%, 0.75 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, a model using only conventional CHD risk factors as predictors had an accuracy and sensitivity of only 65% and 0.42, respectively, but with a specificity of 0.89 in the test set. Regression analyses of the methylation signatures illustrate our ability to map these signatures to known risk factors in CHD pathogenesis. These results demonstrate the capability of an integrated approach to effectively model symptomatic CHD status. These results also suggest that future studies of biomaterial collected from longitudinally informative cohorts that are specifically characterized for cardiac disease at follow-up could lead to the introduction of sensitive, readily employable integrated genetic-epigenetic algorithms for predicting onset of future symptomatic CHD.

  10. INTEGRATED CLINICAL AND GENETIC APPROACH FOR DIAGNOSIS OF RETT SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Yurov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome represents one of the most important neuropsychiatric genetic diseases. It affects generally girls with the incidence 1:10000–1:15000. Mutations in clinked gene mecp2 are considered as the main cause of the disease. The particular patterns of chromosome x replication (type C are observed in affected females allowing the cytogenetic technique application for the diagnosis. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies carried out in the present work allowed us to propose an integrated approach for the diagnosis of this disease. A clinical description, cytogenetic analyses (assessment of an abnormal chromosome X replication type in affected females as well as chromosome complement abnormalities in affected males, molecular cytogenetic assays using DNA probes specific for mecp2 gene region, studying mecp2 mutations, and x chromosome inactivation pattern studies were combined in order to provide the efficient clinical and genetic diagnosis of RTT as well as counseling of family with affected children. The data obtained have shown to increase significantly the efficiency of the diagnosis as well as genetic counseling of families with Rett syndrome affected children.Key words: Rett syndrome, x-chromosome inactivation, mecp2 mutations, replication of chromosome x, children.

  11. Association between genetic variation in a region on chromosome 11 and schizophrenia in large samples from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, M; Mattheisen, M; Degenhardt, F

    2012-01-01

    the recruitment of very large samples of patients and controls (that is tens of thousands), or large, potentially more homogeneous samples that have been recruited from confined geographical areas using identical diagnostic criteria. Applying the latter strategy, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS...... an additional 2569 SCZ patients and 4088 controls (from Germany, The Netherlands and Denmark). Genetic variation in a region on chromosome 11 that contains the candidate genes AMBRA1, DGKZ, CHRM4 and MDK was significantly associated with SCZ in the combined sample (n=11 540; P=3.89 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR)=1...

  12. Strategies for Integrated Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Gene Expression Variation in Cancer: Addressing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Louise Bruun; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes

    2016-01-01

    The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. H......—making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.......The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis....... However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction...

  13. Strategies for integrated analysis of genetic, epigenetic and gene expression variation in cancer: addressing the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Bruun Thingholm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction to integration strategies used for analyzing genetic risk factors for cancer. We critically examine the ability of these strategies to handle the complexity of the human genome and also accommodate information about the biological and functional interactions between the elements that have been measured – making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.

  14. Application of genetic algorithms to integrated optimization of safety system availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaso, Vinicius Correa; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Melo, Paulo F.F. Frutuoso e

    2005-01-01

    Experience gained on systems design, operation, and maintenance, with the increasing degree of complexity, and the growth of computational processing capacity, makes it possible the development of integrated optimization techniques, which take into account the interaction of all involved phases in systems operation. However, such a broad approach, which describes in an integrated way, the involved factors, from the conception of the structure to maintenance policies, makes the problem more complex. Generally, the original problem is cast into a simpler one, by imposing some degree of linearity, which allows for a more conventional treatment. The effect of this linear approach is a sensible increase in the number of variables and constraints to be treated. Another shortcoming is related to the fact that as long as the description of some parameters is allowed to undergo modifications, the resulting model becomes less realistic. This paper presents an integrated optimization method of system performance based on genetic algorithms. The aim is to maximize the benefits from operating a simplified system, where different features, like the structure itself, its design, reliability, redundancy allocation, test and maintenance actions scheduling, and costs, are simultaneously taken into account in an integrated way. The availability model treats the original problem without performing any transformation. The set of solutions generated allows a decision-making support for which budgetary and safety constraints must be considered. The results show that the integrated approach used for optimizing the system is much more convenient and should be applied to more complex systems. (author)

  15. The Recently Discovered Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus: Insights Into Its Genetic Heterogeneity and Spatial Distribution in Europe and the Population Genetics of Its Primary Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerbauer, Elisa; Troupin, Cécile; Passior, Karsten; Pfaff, Florian; Höper, Dirk; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Haberl, Stephanie; Bouchier, Christiane; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Bourhy, Hervé; Müller, Thomas; Dacheux, Laurent; Freuling, Conrad M

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, a novel lyssavirus named Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) was isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) in Germany. Two further viruses were isolated in the same country and in France in recent years, all from the same bat species and all found in moribund or dead bats. Here we report the description and the full-length genome sequence of five additional BBLV isolates from Germany (n=4) and France (n=1). Interestingly, all of them were isolated from the Natterer's bat, except one from Germany, which was found in a common Pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus), a widespread and abundant bat species in Europe. The latter represents the first case of transmission of BBLV to another bat species. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two different lineages among this lyssavirus species: lineages A and B. The spatial distribution of these two lineages remains puzzling, as both of them comprised isolates from France and Germany; although clustering of isolates was observed on a regional scale, especially in Germany. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene from positive Natterer's bat did not suggest a circulation of the respective BBLV sublineages in specific Natterer's bat subspecies, as all of them were shown to belong to the M. nattereri sensu stricto clade/subspecies and were closely related (German and French positive bats). At the bat host level, we demonstrated that the distribution of BBLV at the late stage of the disease seems large and massive, as viral RNA was detected in many different organs. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integration of genetic and demographic data to assess population risk in a continuously distributed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.

    2017-01-01

    The identification and demographic assessment of biologically meaningful populations is fundamental to species’ ecology and management. Although genetic tools are used frequently to identify populations, studies often do not incorporate demographic data to understand their respective population trends. We used genetic data to define subpopulations in a continuously distributed species. We assessed demographic independence and variation in population trends across the distribution. Additionally, we identified potential barriers to gene flow among subpopulations. We sampled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) leks from across their range (≈175,000 Km2) in Wyoming and amplified DNA at 14 microsatellite loci for 1761 samples. Subsequently, we assessed population structure in unrelated individuals (n = 872) by integrating results from multiple Bayesian clustering approaches and used the boundaries to inform our assessment of long-term population trends and lek activity over the period of 1995–2013. We identified four genetic clusters of which two northern ones showed demographic independence from the others. Trends in population size for the northwest subpopulation were statistically different from the other three genetic clusters and the northeast and southwest subpopulations demonstrated a general trend of increasing proportion of inactive leks over time. Population change from 1996 to 2012 suggested population growth in the southern subpopulations and decline, or neutral, change in the northern subpopulations. We suggest that sage-grouse subpopulations in northern Wyoming are at greater risk of extirpation than the southern subpopulations due to smaller census and effective population sizes and higher variability within subpopulations. Our research is an example of incorporating genetic and demographic data and provides guidance on the identification of subpopulations of conservation concern.

  17. Communicating European Integration in the Age of the World Wars: Print Media Discourses on the Unity of Europe, 1914-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Greiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the communication of European integration by the media did not begin with the European unification process after 1950. It draws upon a broad definition of the term “European integration” favoured by modern historiography, and in so doing shows that in the first half of the 20th century journalists communicated various notions of the unity of Europe to their readers. By linking media history and discourse analysis, the article examines three different facets of mediating European integration in German, British and American newspapers between 1914 and 1945. It traces “integrational thinking” in press coverage in three different sectors in particular, namely politics, economy and culture. Although discourses on continental unity were of course ambivalent and far from pointing straight towards European integration in the sense of a present-day European Union, they played an important role in the age of the World Wars. The article thus conceptualises a long-term historical perspective on communicating European integration.

  18. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan

    2015-01-01

    . The eQTL mapping resulted in 987 cis-eQTLs and 73 trans-eQTLs (false discovery rate metabolic pathways. We reduced the eQTL search space by focusing on differentially expressed and co-expressed genes and disease-associated single nucleotide...... the transcriptome, and may reveal novel genes affecting complex diseases. Integration of genomic and transcriptomic variation (expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL] mapping) has identified causal variants that affect complex diseases. We integrated transcriptomic data from adipose tissue and genomic data from...... a porcine model to investigate the mechanisms involved in obesity using a systems genetics approach. METHODS: Using a selective gene expression profiling approach, we selected 36 animals based on a previously created genomic Obesity Index for RNA sequencing of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differential...

  19. Postcolonial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How has European identity been shaped through its colonial empires? Does this history of imperialism influence the conceptualisation of Europe in the contemporary globalised world? How has coloniality shaped geopolitical differences within Europe? What does this mean for the future of Europe......? Postcolonial Europe: Comparative Reflections after the Empires brings together scholars from across disciplines to rethink European colonialism in the light of its vanishing empires and the rise of new global power structures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the postcolonial European legacy the book...... argues that the commonly used nation-centric approach does not effectively capture the overlap between different colonial and postcolonial experiences across Europe....

  20. Genetic use restriction technologies and possible applications in the integrated pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliardi Dalazen

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs were developed to preserve the intellectual property of genetically modified crops (GM and ensure the return of investments made by industry to obtain technology delivered through seeds. The aims of this review are to discuss the GURTs and analyze their possible applications in integrated management of agricultural pests. There are two classes of GURTs: T-GURTs (trait-based GURTs, wherein the generated seed are viable, but the next generation does not express the trait of agronomic interest, and V-GURT (variety-based GURTs, in which plants produce non viable seeds. However, beyond the seed protection purpose, the GURTs could have also other application to solve agronomic problems. One of the most important is the use of GURTs as a tool to restrict gene flow of GM traits to relative weeds. In addition, it is proposed the use of this technology in integrated weed management by preventing the GMs seed germination, which produces volunteer plants that compete with the crop of interest. Also, these volunteer plants may serve as alternative hosts for insects and pathogens in between crop seasons. The GURTs could contribute to the control of undesirable agents in agricultural systems, reducing the use of pesticides and increasing crop yields.

  1. Integration of epigenetic and genetic controls of seed size by cytokinin in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Nie, Xin; Tan, Jeanie Li Hui; Berger, Frédéric

    2013-09-17

    The development of seeds in flowering plants is placed under complex interactions between maternal tissues, the embryo, and the endosperm. The endosperm plays a major role in the regulation of seed size. In Arabidopsis thaliana, endosperm size depends on the coordination of the genetic pathway HAIKU (IKU) with epigenetic controls comprising genome dosage, DNA methylation, and trimethylated lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) deposition. However, the effectors that integrate these pathways have remained unknown. Here, we identify a target of the IKU pathway, the cytokinin oxidase CKX2, that affects cytokinin signaling. CKX2 expression is activated by the IKU transcription factor WRKY10 directly and promotes endosperm growth. CKX2 expression also depends on H3K27me3 deposition, which fluctuates in response to maternal genome dosage imbalance and DNA demethylation of male gametes. Hence, the control of endosperm growth by CKX2 integrates genetic and epigenetic regulations. In angiosperms, cytokinins are highly active in endosperm, and we propose that IKU effectors coordinate environmental and physiological factors, resulting in modulation of seed size.

  2. Intervention, integration and translation in obesity research: Genetic, developmental and metaorganismal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A; Stotz, Karola

    2011-01-28

    Obesity is the focus of multiple lines of inquiry that have -- together and separately -- produced many deep insights into the physiology of weight gain and maintenance. We examine three such streams of research and show how they are oriented to obesity intervention through multilevel integrated approaches. The first research programme is concerned with the genetics and biochemistry of fat production, and it links metabolism, physiology, endocrinology and neurochemistry. The second account of obesity is developmental and draws together epigenetic and environmental explanations that can be embedded in an evolutionary framework. The third line of research focuses on the role of gut microbes in the production of obesity, and how microbial activities interact with host genetics, development and metabolism. These interwoven explanatory strategies are driven by an orientation to intervention, both for experimental and therapeutic outcomes. We connect the integrative and intervention-oriented aspects of obesity research through a discussion of translation, broadening the concept to capture the dynamic, iterative processes of scientific practice and therapy development. This system-oriented analysis of obesity research expands the philosophical scrutiny of contemporary developments in the biosciences and biomedicine, and has the potential to enrich philosophy of science and medicine.

  3. A programmed cell division delay preserves genome integrity during natural genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergé, Matthieu J; Mercy, Chryslène; Mortier-Barrière, Isabelle; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Grangeasse, Christophe; Polard, Patrice; Campo, Nathalie

    2017-11-20

    Competence for genetic transformation is a differentiation program during which exogenous DNA is imported into the cell and integrated into the chromosome. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, competence develops transiently and synchronously in all cells during exponential phase, and is accompanied by a pause in growth. Here, we reveal that this pause is linked to the cell cycle. At least two parallel pathways impair peptidoglycan synthesis in competent cells. Single-cell analyses demonstrate that ComM, a membrane protein induced during competence, inhibits both initiation of cell division and final constriction of the cytokinetic ring. Competence also interferes with the activity of the serine/threonine kinase StkP, the central regulator of pneumococcal cell division. We further present evidence that the ComM-mediated delay in division preserves genomic integrity during transformation. We propose that cell division arrest is programmed in competent pneumococcal cells to ensure that transformation is complete before resumption of cell division, to provide this pathogen with the maximum potential for genetic diversity and adaptation.

  4. Investigation of the feasibility of an international integrated demonstration: Joint demonstration of environmental cleanup technologies in Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe (EE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) republics have areas that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The Westinghouse Hanford Company is exploring the feasibility of establishing a collaborative effort with various US agencies to establish an International Integrated Demonstration (IID). Westinghouse manages the waste management and cleanup programs at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the IID would be to (1) facilitate assistance to EE/FSU cleanup efforts, (2) provide hands-on management and operational assistance to EE/FSU countries, (3) provide a basis for evaluating opportunities for and establishing future collaborations, and (4) evaluate the applicability of US technologies to both US and EE/FSU cleanup efforts. The DOE's Integrated Demonstration Programs are currently providing the conduit for development and demonstration and transfer and deployment of innovative technologies to meet DOE's cleanup need for hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Integrated Demonstrations are focused on all facets of environmental restoration including characterization, remediation, monitoring, site closure, regulatory compliance, and regulatory and public acceptance. Innovative technologies are being tested and demonstrated at host sites across the country to provide the necessary performance data needed to deploy these technologies. The IID concept would be to conduct an Integrated Demonstration at one or more EE/FSU host sites

  5. An integrated genome research network for studying the genetics of alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Bartsch, Dusan; Brors, Bendikt; Dahmen, Norbert; Deussing, Jan; Eils, Roland; Ende, Gabriele; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Jäger, Willi; Mann, Karl; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus; Rietschel, Marcella; Sartorius, Alexander; Schütz, Günther; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Sprengel, Rolf; Walter, Henrik; Wichmann, Erich; Wienker, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Alcohol drinking is highly prevalent in many cultures and contributes to the global burden of disease. In fact, it was shown that alcohol constitutes 3.2% of all worldwide deaths in the year 2006 and is linked to more than 60 diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular diseases, liver cirrhosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, injuries and foetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism, which has been proven to have a high genetic load, is one potentially fatal consequence of chronic heavy alcohol consumption, and may be regarded as one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. The aim of the integrated genome research network 'Genetics of Alcohol Addiction'--which is a German inter-/trans-disciplinary life science consortium consisting of molecular biologists, behavioural pharmacologists, system biologists with mathematicians, human geneticists and clinicians--is to better understand the genetics of alcohol addiction by identifying and validating candidate genes and molecular networks involved in the aetiology of this pathology. For comparison, addictive behaviour to other drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine) is studied as well. Here, we present an overview of our research consortium, the current state of the art on genetic research in the alcohol field, and list finally several of our recently published research highlights. As a result of our scientific efforts, better insights into the molecular and physiological processes underlying addictive behaviour will be obtained, new targets and target networks in the addicted brain will be defined, and subsequently, novel and individualized treatment strategies for our patients will be delivered. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. The economic and environmental value of genetic improvements in fattening pigs: An integrated dynamic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, J K; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Stygar, A H; Partanen, K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of animals for improved performance affects the profitability of pig fattening and has environmental consequences. The goal of this paper was to examine how changes in genetic and market parameters impact the biophysical (feeding patterns, timing of slaughter, nitrogen excretion) and economic (return per pig space unit) results describing pig fattening in a Finnish farm. The analysis can be viewed as focusing on terminal line breeding goals. An integrated model using recursive stochastic dynamic programming and a biological pig growth model was used to estimate biophysical results and economic values. Combining these models allowed us to provide more accurate estimates for the value of genetic improvement and, thus, provide better feedback to animal breeding programs than the traditional approach, which is based on fixed management patterns. Besides the benchmark scenario, the results were simulated for 5 other scenarios. In each scenario, genotype was improved regarding daily growth potential, carcass lean meat content, or the parameters of the Gompertz growth curve (maturing rate [], adult weight of protein [α], and adult weight of lipid mass []). The change in each parameter was equal to approximately 1 SD genetic improvement (ceteris paribus). Increasing , , daily growth potential, or carcass lean meat content increased the return on pig space unit by €12.60, €7.60, €4.10, or €2.90 per year, respectively, whereas an increase in decreased the return by €3.10. The genetic improvement in and resulted in the highest decrease in nitrogen excretion calculated in total or per kilogram of carcass gain but only under the optimal feeding pattern. Simulated changes in the Gompertz growth function parameters imply greater changes in ADG and lean meat content than changes in scenarios focusing on improving ADG and lean meat content directly. The economic value of genetic improvements as well as the quantity of nitrogen excreted during the fattening

  7. From national to regional plans – the Integrated Drought Management Programme of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bokal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades it has become evident that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE are affected by droughts which are becoming more and more lasting and severe. The region׳s vulnerability to this natural hazard alerted the public, governments, and operational agencies to the many socio-economic problems accompanying water shortage and to the need for drought mitigation measures. In addition, climate change amplifies the frequency and severity of droughts in the region. In this context, the CEE region of the Global Water Partnership (GWP recently launched the regional Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP as part of the global joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GWP IDMP. The purpose of this paper is to present the work plan of the GWP CEE IDM Programme which is being implemented in the years 2013–2015. The planning process for this Programme carried out in 2012 included national and regional reviews of existing drought risks, policies and strategies. The programme inception phase was summarized in October 2012 by a regional workshop organized jointly by GWP and WMO, with the participation of representatives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Secretariat, the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE, the EU Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and the European Drought Centre. The Programme was launched in February 2013 and involves more than 40 organizations from 9 CEE countries. The basic four elements of the Programme include policy advice, demonstration projects, capacity building knowledge management and regional cooperation (from national to regional plans. The major output, building upon national initiatives, shall be a coordinated regional framework for drought monitoring, early warning, prediction and management, accompanied by a set of guidelines and tools for the development of regional, national and local

  8. Integration of population genetic structure and plant response to climate change: sustaining genetic resources through evaluation of projected threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Marcus V. Warwell; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    To assess threats or predict responses to disturbances, or both, it is essential to recognize and characterize the population structures of forest species in relation to changing environments. Appropriate management of these genetic resources in the future will require (1) understanding the existing genetic diversity/variation and population structure of forest trees...

  9. Systematic analysis, comparison, and integration of disease based human genetic association data and mouse genetic phenotypic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S Alex

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic contributions to human common disorders and mouse genetic models of disease are complex and often overlapping. In common human diseases, unlike classical Mendelian disorders, genetic factors generally have small effect sizes, are multifactorial, and are highly pleiotropic. Likewise, mouse genetic models of disease often have pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes. Moreover, phenotypic descriptions in the literature in both human and mouse are often poorly characterized and difficult to compare directly. Methods In this report, human genetic association results from the literature are summarized with regard to replication, disease phenotype, and gene specific results; and organized in the context of a systematic disease ontology. Similarly summarized mouse genetic disease models are organized within the Mammalian Phenotype ontology. Human and mouse disease and phenotype based gene sets are identified. These disease gene sets are then compared individually and in large groups through dendrogram analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results Human disease and mouse phenotype gene sets are shown to group into disease and phenotypically relevant groups at both a coarse and fine level based on gene sharing. Conclusion This analysis provides a systematic and global perspective on the genetics of common human disease as compared to itself and in the context of mouse genetic models of disease.

  10. Evaluation design of Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE): preventive integrated health and social care for community-dwelling older persons in five European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franse, Carmen B; Voorham, Antonius J J; van Staveren, Rob; Koppelaar, Elin; Martijn, Rens; Valía-Cotanda, Elisa; Alhambra-Borrás, Tamara; Rentoumis, Tasos; Bilajac, Lovorka; Marchesi, Vanja Vasiljev; Rukavina, Tomislav; Verma, Arpana; Williams, Greg; Clough, Gary; Garcés-Ferrer, Jorge; Mattace Raso, Francesco; Raat, Hein

    2017-09-11

    Older persons often have interacting physical and social problems and complex care needs. An integrated care approach in the local context with collaborations between community-, social-, and health-focused organisations can contribute to the promotion of independent living and quality of life. In the Urban Health Centres Europe (UHCE) project, five European cities (Greater Manchester, United Kingdom; Pallini (in Greater Athens Area), Greece; Rijeka, Croatia; Rotterdam, the Netherlands; and Valencia, Spain) develop and implement a care template that integrates health and social care and includes a preventive approach. The UHCE project includes an effect and process evaluation. In a one-year pre-post controlled trial, in each city 250 participants aged 75+ years are recruited to receive the UHCE approach and are compared with 250 participants who receive 'care as usual'. Benefits of UHCE approach in terms of healthy life styles, fall risk, appropriate medication use, loneliness level and frailty, and in terms of level of independence and health-related quality of life and health care use are assessed. A multilevel modeling approach is used for the analyses. The process evaluation is used to provide insight into the reach of the target population, the extent to which elements of the UHCE approach are executed as planned and the satisfaction of the participants. The UHCE project will provide new insight into the feasibility and effectiveness of an integrated care approach for older persons in different European settings. ISRCTN registry number is ISRCTN52788952 . Date of registration is 13/03/2017.

  11. European Integration and the Transition of Eastern European States. The New Central Europe and Romania's Interest in Regional Cooperation in the Black Sea - Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore POP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This short article presents the most important directions of the evolution of Central and Eastern Europe during the second half of the 20th century during the period marked by the coming into power and then the downfall of the communism. One could also note that the Central and Eastern European countries have undergone several political and economic transitions- and for Romania’s case- the burdening heritage of the austerity economic policy that has been implemented during the years will affect the economic development of the countries on the long term. The transition towards market economy was realized upon the political decision of political accession to the free market principle. The new beginning of the regional integration process made the countries in the Danube-Black Sea region, sign new agreements for political and economic cooperation. The emergence of new countries on European and Asian maps opens new opportunities for regional cooperation, especially for environmental issues, which brings new dimensions for the global process of European integration and of the integration of the regional economies into the global economies.

  12. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salvador-Carulla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe.Method: The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a Population Data; (b the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES Index; (c the Mental Health System Checklist; (d the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e Geographical Data.Expected results: The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain.Discussion: The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.

  13. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salvador-Carulla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. Method: The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a Population Data; (b the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES Index; (c the Mental Health System Checklist; (d the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e Geographical Data. Expected results: The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. Discussion: The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.

  14. Developing a tool for mapping adult mental health care provision in Europe: the REMAST research protocol and its contribution to better integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Amaddeo, Francesco; Gutiérrez-Colosía, Mencia R; Salazzari, Damiano; Gonzalez-Caballero, Juan Luis; Montagni, Ilaria; Tedeschi, Federico; Cetrano, Gaia; Chevreul, Karine; Kalseth, Jorid; Hagmair, Gisela; Straßmayr, Christa; Park, A-La; Sfetcu, Raluca; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Garcia-Alonso, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe. The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool) combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS) to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a) Population Data; (b) the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES) Index; (c) the Mental Health System Checklist; (d) the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e) Geographical Data. The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain. The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.

  15. Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT): Integrated System Design Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Steincamp, James W.; Stewart, Eric T.; Patton, Bruce W.; Pannell, William P.; Newby, Ronald L.; Coffman, Mark E.; Qualls, A. L.; Bancroft, S.; Molvik, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Electric Vehicle Optimization Toolset (NEVOT) optimizes the design of all major Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) vehicle subsystems for a defined mission within constraints and optimization parameters chosen by a user. The tool uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) search technique to combine subsystem designs and evaluate the fitness of the integrated design to fulfill a mission. The fitness of an individual is used within the GA to determine its probability of survival through successive generations in which the designs with low fitness are eliminated and replaced with combinations or mutations of designs with higher fitness. The program can find optimal solutions for different sets of fitness metrics without modification and can create and evaluate vehicle designs that might never be conceived of through traditional design techniques. It is anticipated that the flexible optimization methodology will expand present knowledge of the design trade-offs inherent in designing nuclear powered space vehicles and lead to improved NEP designs.

  16. Genetic networks of liver metabolism revealed by integration of metabolic and transcriptional profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine T Ferrara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL influencing disease-related phenotypes have been detected through gene mapping and positional cloning, identification of the individual gene(s and molecular pathways leading to those phenotypes is often elusive. One way to improve understanding of genetic architecture is to classify phenotypes in greater depth by including transcriptional and metabolic profiling. In the current study, we have generated and analyzed mRNA expression and metabolic profiles in liver samples obtained in an F2 intercross between the diabetes-resistant C57BL/6 leptin(ob/ob and the diabetes-susceptible BTBR leptin(ob/ob mouse strains. This cross, which segregates for genotype and physiological traits, was previously used to identify several diabetes-related QTL. Our current investigation includes microarray analysis of over 40,000 probe sets, plus quantitative mass spectrometry-based measurements of sixty-seven intermediary metabolites in three different classes (amino acids, organic acids, and acyl-carnitines. We show that liver metabolites map to distinct genetic regions, thereby indicating that tissue metabolites are heritable. We also demonstrate that genomic analysis can be integrated with liver mRNA expression and metabolite profiling data to construct causal networks for control of specific metabolic processes in liver. As a proof of principle of the practical significance of this integrative approach, we illustrate the construction of a specific causal network that links gene expression and metabolic changes in the context of glutamate metabolism, and demonstrate its validity by showing that genes in the network respond to changes in glutamine and glutamate availability. Thus, the methods described here have the potential to reveal regulatory networks that contribute to chronic, complex, and highly prevalent diseases and conditions such as obesity and diabetes.

  17. A service-oriented architecture for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study of biological networks has led to the development of increasingly large and detailed models. Computer tools are essential for the simulation of the dynamical behavior of the networks from the model. However, as the size of the models grows, it becomes infeasible to manually verify the predictions against experimental data or identify interesting features in a large number of simulation traces. Formal verification based on temporal logic and model checking provides promising methods to automate and scale the analysis of the models. However, a framework that tightly integrates modeling and simulation tools with model checkers is currently missing, on both the conceptual and the implementational level. Results We have developed a generic and modular web service, based on a service-oriented architecture, for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks. The architecture has been implemented in the context of the qualitative modeling and simulation tool GNA and the model checkers NUSMV and CADP. GNA has been extended with a verification module for the specification and checking of biological properties. The verification module also allows the display and visual inspection of the verification results. Conclusions The practical use of the proposed web service is illustrated by means of a scenario involving the analysis of a qualitative model of the carbon starvation response in E. coli. The service-oriented architecture allows modelers to define the model and proceed with the specification and formal verification of the biological properties by means of a unified graphical user interface. This guarantees a transparent access to formal verification technology for modelers of genetic regulatory networks. PMID:20042075

  18. Cross-tissue integration of genetic and epigenetic data offers insight into autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Shan V; Ellis, Shannon E; Bakulski, Kelly M; Sheppard, Brooke; Croen, Lisa A; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Newschaffer, Craig J; Feinberg, Andrew P; Arking, Dan E; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Fallin, M Daniele

    2017-10-24

    Integration of emerging epigenetic information with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genetic results may elucidate functional insights not possible via either type of information in isolation. Here we use the genotype and DNA methylation (DNAm) data from cord blood and peripheral blood to identify SNPs associated with DNA methylation (meQTL lists). Additionally, we use publicly available fetal brain and lung meQTL lists to assess enrichment of ASD GWAS results for tissue-specific meQTLs. ASD-associated SNPs are enriched for fetal brain (OR = 3.55; P < 0.001) and peripheral blood meQTLs (OR = 1.58; P < 0.001). The CpG targets of ASD meQTLs across cord, blood, and brain tissues are enriched for immune-related pathways, consistent with other expression and DNAm results in ASD, and reveal pathways not implicated by genetic findings. This joint analysis of genotype and DNAm demonstrates the potential of both brain and blood-based DNAm for insights into ASD and psychiatric phenotypes more broadly.

  19. SPRACHLICHE UND KULTURELLE INTEGRATION VON FLÜCHTLINGEN – NEUE HERAUSFORDERUNGEN FÜR DIE ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN EUROPA DES XXI. JAHRHUNDERTS / LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL INTEGRATION OF REFUGEES – NEW CHALLENGES FOR ADULT EDUCATION IN XXIST CENTURY EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hamburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following study deals with the chances of integrating immigrants into European culture. Therefore several aspects are to be analysed like: is there any linguistic and above all cultural integration possible at all, which are the factors potentially playing an important role in this respect, what are the plans for accomplishing the assimilation process, what kind of tools are there or should be developed for measuring the degree of success in integrating immigrants, what is the planned time frame for the whole project? Having a didactic approach the study tries to answer to all of the above questions and to propose methods or tools for supporting the integration process and enhancing its expected outcomes. There are numerous studies upon cultural, economic and overall integration of immigrants in Europe analysing the situation for the last five to six decades, i.e. measuring the integration rate of respective people until the end of the first decade of the XXIst century. Although these studies come to the conclusion that second-generation immigrants mostly present a native-like behaviour as a sign for successful integration, only Muslim people having some deficiencies in this respect, these findings are not by all means valid for the new wave of immigrants with mainly Muslim background flooding in Europe since 2015. Thus according to my opinion an optimistic view upon the success of the integration of newly come people is not founded at all. From the various factors supporting integration present study deals with motivation and intermarriage. The internal motivation of each individual to language acquisition necessary for every day and professional life and to adopt a behaviour pattern according to European values could be enhanced by external motivation resulting from political-institutional measures. In immigrants’ integration process not only linguistic, but above all cultural integration should play a crucial role because integration cannot

  20. Religious participation and the integration of immigrants. A reflection between America and Europe, between history and present times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ambrosini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After having been neglected for a long time in migration research, religion has come back in contemporary theories of immigrants’ integration in receiving societies. The paper explores this issue starting from an analysis of past and current North American experience, with a focus upon two specific aspects: a it is wrong considering North American society as one that has always been open and tolerant in respect of immigrants’ religious belongings; b in a context characterized by high levels of hostility and discrimination, religion has always represented a resource for the social integration of catholic and jewish immigrants. In the last part, the article deals with the European experience, discussing the reasons why the expression of a religious identity (especially if Islamic is considered an obstacle to the immigrant minorities’ integration

  1. Teenagers and young adults with cancer in Europe: from national programmes to a European integrated coordinated project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D; Bielack, S; Brugieres, L; Dirksen, U; Duarte, X; Dunn, S; Erdelyi, D J; Grew, T; Hjorth, L; Jazbec, J; Kabickova, E; Konsoulova, A; Kowalczyk, J R; Lassaletta, A; Laurence, V; Lewis, I; Monrabal, A; Morgan, S; Mountzios, G; Olsen, P R; Renard, M; Saeter, G; van der Graaf, W T; Ferrari, A

    2016-05-01

    Over 14 000 patients aged 15-24 are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer in the European Union (EU) each year. Teenagers and young adults (TYA) often fall down gaps between children's and adults cancer services. The specific challenges of providing optimal care to them are described, but we present a summary of recent progress. Progress to overcome these challenges is happening at different rates across Europe. We summarise the European national projects in this field but more recently we have seen the beginnings of European coordination. Within the EU 7th Funding Programme (FP7) European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents programme (ENCCA), a specific European Network for Teenagers and Young Adults with Cancer has held a series of scientific meetings, including professionals, patients and caregivers. This group has proposed unanswered research questions and agreed key features of a high-quality service that can improve outcomes for TYA with cancer, including the primacy of collaboration between adult and paediatric services to eliminate the gap in the management of TYA with cancer. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System (ISCCS) using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghernejad, A.; Yaghoubi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We applied thermoeconomic concept for optimization of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System (ISCCS) using genetic algorithm. → Optimization process improves the total performance of the system in a way that the objective function is decreased by 10.98%, the exergetic efficiency of the system is increased from about 43.79% to 46.8% and the rate of fuel cost is decreased by 7.23%. → Cost of electricity produced by steam turbine and gas turbine in the optimum design condition of the ISCCS are about 7.1% and 1.17% lower with respect to the base case. → Increasing solar field operation periods from 1000 to 2000 hours per year reduces the unit cost of electricity produced by steam turbine about 14%. → The unit cost of electricity has a linear and remarkable increase with fuel cost. Also by increasing the system construction period from 3 to 6 years, the unit cost of electricity produced by steam turbine increased about 13%. -- Abstract: In this study, thermoeconomic concept is applied using genetic algorithm for optimization of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System (ISCCS) that produces 400 MW of electricity. Attempt is made to minimize objective function including investment cost of equipments and cost of exergy destruction. Optimization process carried out by using exergoeconomic principles and genetic algorithm. The developed code first validated with a thermal system and good comparison is observed. Then the analysis is made for the ISCCS, and it shows that objective function for the optimum operation reduced by about 11%. Also cost of electricity produced by steam turbine and gas turbine in the optimum design of the ISCCS are about 7.1% and 1.17% lower with respect to the base case. These objectives are achieved with 13.3% increase in capital investment. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the effect of changes in the unit cost of electricity for the system important parameters such as interest rate, plant

  3. Benefici, problemi e prospettive dell’integrazione monetaria in Europa (Benefits, issues and future of monetary integration in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Panico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European monetary integration, recalling the benefits and the costs of the euro for the Member States. It reviews the policies adopted in the wake of the financial crisis and discusses the associated challenges. An outlook on the possible long-term design of monetary policy is provided, mainly in terms of EU coordination processes.

  4. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Likelihood of getting certain diseases Mental abilities Natural talents An abnormal trait (anomaly) that is passed down ... one of them has a genetic disorder. Information Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes . These consist ...

  5. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  6. Benefici, problemi e prospettive dell’integrazione monetaria in Europa (Benefits, issues and future of monetary integration in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Panico

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European monetary integration, recalling the benefits and the costs of the euro for the Member States. It reviews the policies adopted in the wake of the financial crisis and discusses the associated challenges. An outlook on the possible long-term design of monetary policy is provided, mainly in terms of EU coordination processes.  JEL codes: E42, E44, G01

  7. Integrating social science and behavioral genetics: testing the origin of socioeconomic disparities in depression using a genetically informed design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Myers, John M; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2013-10-01

    We tested 3 hypotheses-social causation, social drift, and common cause-regarding the origin of socioeconomic disparities in major depression and determined whether the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and major depression varied by genetic liability for major depression. Data were from a sample of female twins in the baseline Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders interviewed between 1987 and 1989 (n = 2153). We used logistic regression and structural equation twin models to evaluate these 3 hypotheses. Consistent with the social causation hypothesis, education (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.93; P social mobility was associated with lower risk of depression. There was no evidence that childhood SES was related to development of major depression (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.09; P > .1). Consistent with a common genetic cause, there was a negative correlation between the genetic components of major depression and education (r(2) = -0.22). Co-twin control analyses indicated a protective effect of education and income on major depression even after accounting for genetic liability. This study utilized a genetically informed design to address how social position relates to major depression. Results generally supported the social causation model.

  8. The role of Italian FDI in Southeast Europe's international integration. A focus on investors from the Marche region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cutrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast European countries have experienced significant economic integration into the world economy since 2000, through international capital flows and especially foreign direct investment (FDI. The work sheds light on recent trends in Italy-Western Balkans economic integration through FDI and other non-equity modes (NEMs. The methodology applied is based on country-level analysis, enriched by a case study approach. Main trends, characteristics and motivation of investments in the area are investigated. Based on this evidence, we suggest that the phenomenon of Italian integration in the Western Balkans is broader than official statistics would indicate, since Italian firms often set up subsidiaries through various non-equity arrangements. The surge in FDI in the area is recent, therefore it is not surprising that the main determinants are cost reductions and new market opportunities. What is interesting in this context is that local entrepreneurs regard efficiency-seeking investments as profitable only if they are connected to market-seeking goals. We find evidence also of localized industrial development stimulated by the entry of Italian firms, which is activating subcontracting relationships with existing companies in the host region. Further and in depth studies are needed to investigate the phenomenon

  9. Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  10. Recovery patterns, histological observations and genetic integrity in Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using droplet vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A droplet-vitrification procedure is described for cryopreservation of Malus shoot tips. Survival patterns, recovery types, histological observations, and genetic integrity were compared for Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using this droplet-vitrification procedure and an encapsulation-dehydration pr...

  11. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  12. Wool quality in Gentile di Puglia sheep breed as measure of genetic integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gentile di Pugliais a breed created in the 15th century by crossing Merino Spanish rams and “gentile” ewes reared in some areas of Southern Italy, mainly Apulia and Basilicata. The crisis of the wool industry, the poor quantity of milk, the inadequacy of Gentile di Pugliato be milked by machine and the passage from transhumant to permanent rearing caused a dramatic reduction of this population, which was largely crossed with other breeds and declined from about one million heads in the sixties to 5,000 at the present time. In order to save the ancient typical Gentile di Pugliabreed, the aim of this work was to estimate the “genetic integrity” of the remaining Gentile di Pugliapopulation by means of an analysis of wool quality measured through the diameter of the fibre and the homogeneity of the fleece. Our hypothesis was that the animals originated from outcrosses to other Merino derived breeds specialised for meat would show larger diameters of the fibres and a reduced homogeneity of the fleece. The research was carried out using Herd Book registered animals from 9 farms: 1 from Isernia, 2 from Campobasso and 6 from Foggia province. The statistical analysis on the diameter of the fibre was carried out on a dataset of 38,200 observations (200 records x 191 animals divided in four classes (ultrafine, fine, croisè, ordinary. The high frequencies of ultrafine and fine fibre classes show that the quality of the wool is still good in the population. This consideration can be extended to all the farms involved in the study that could therefore be suitable in the conservation programs for this breed. The homogeneity of the fleece was also good in provid- ing further evidence of the genetic integrity of the population. Other analysis carried out on the quality of the wool in relation to the body size confirmed that the observed Gentile di Pugliais well representative of the ancient breed.

  13. Perceived Changes to Obstetric Care and the Integration of Personal and Professional Life as a Pregnant Prenatal Genetic Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietzler, Jennifer L; Birkeland, Laura E; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2018-02-08

    The impact of practicing as a prenatal genetic counselor while pregnant is unclear given the limited amount of published literature on this issue. To address this gap in knowledge, a total of 215 current and past prenatal genetic counselors provided insights regarding this personal yet professional juncture through completion of an online survey that allowed for both close-ended and open-ended responses. While participants agreed that experiencing pregnancy affected their perspectives and counseling in several ways, this paper focuses on one particular finding-that of the changes in their own obstetric care perceived by genetic counselors while working within the prenatal setting and being pregnant themselves. As a result of these changes, considerations about when to disclose a pregnancy to colleagues along with how to integrate personal and professional needs as a pregnant prenatal genetic counselor surfaced. Additional findings, practice implications, and research recommendations are discussed.

  14. A Modified Integrated Genetic Model for Risk Prediction in Younger Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Caroline E; Luskin, Marlise R; Boccuti, Anne M; Sehgal, Alison R; Zhao, Jianhua; Daber, Robert D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Luger, Selina M; Bagg, Adam; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Carroll, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although cytogenetics-based prognostication systems are well described in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), overall survival (OS) remains highly variable within risk groups. An integrated genetic prognostic (IGP) model using cytogenetics plus mutations in nine genes was recently proposed for patients ≤60 years to improve classification. This model has not been validated in clinical practice. We retrospectively studied 197 patients with newly diagnosed de novo AML. We compared OS curves among the mutational profiles defined by the IGP model. The IGP model assigned patients with intermediate cytogenetics as having favorable, intermediate or unfavorable mutational profiles. The IGP model reassigned 50 of 137 patients with intermediate cytogenetics to favorable or unfavorable mutational profiles. Median OS was 2.8 years among 14 patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles (mutant NPM1 and mutant IDH1 or IDH2) and 1.3 years among patients with intermediate mutational profiles. Among patients with intermediate cytogenetics labeled as having unfavorable mutational profiles, median OS was 0.8 years among 24 patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes (trisomy 8, TET2 and/or DNMT3A) and 1.7 years among 12 patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations (TET2, ASXL1 and/or PHF6). OS for patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles was similar to OS for patients with favorable cytogenetics (p = 0.697) and different from patients with intermediate cytogenetics and intermediate mutational profiles (p = 0.028). OS among patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes was similar to patients with unfavorable cytogenetics (p = 0.793) and different from patients with intermediate IGP profile (p = 0.022). Patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations, defined as 'unfavorable' in the IGP model, had OS similar to patients with intermediate IGP profile (p = 0

  15. A Modified Integrated Genetic Model for Risk Prediction in Younger Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Sloan

    Full Text Available Although cytogenetics-based prognostication systems are well described in acute myeloid leukemia (AML, overall survival (OS remains highly variable within risk groups. An integrated genetic prognostic (IGP model using cytogenetics plus mutations in nine genes was recently proposed for patients ≤60 years to improve classification. This model has not been validated in clinical practice.We retrospectively studied 197 patients with newly diagnosed de novo AML. We compared OS curves among the mutational profiles defined by the IGP model. The IGP model assigned patients with intermediate cytogenetics as having favorable, intermediate or unfavorable mutational profiles. The IGP model reassigned 50 of 137 patients with intermediate cytogenetics to favorable or unfavorable mutational profiles. Median OS was 2.8 years among 14 patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles (mutant NPM1 and mutant IDH1 or IDH2 and 1.3 years among patients with intermediate mutational profiles. Among patients with intermediate cytogenetics labeled as having unfavorable mutational profiles, median OS was 0.8 years among 24 patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes (trisomy 8, TET2 and/or DNMT3A and 1.7 years among 12 patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations (TET2, ASXL1 and/or PHF6. OS for patients with intermediate cytogenetics and favorable mutational profiles was similar to OS for patients with favorable cytogenetics (p = 0.697 and different from patients with intermediate cytogenetics and intermediate mutational profiles (p = 0.028. OS among patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML and high-risk genetic changes was similar to patients with unfavorable cytogenetics (p = 0.793 and different from patients with intermediate IGP profile (p = 0.022. Patients with FLT3-ITD negative AML and high-risk mutations, defined as 'unfavorable' in the IGP model, had OS similar to patients with intermediate IGP profile (p

  16. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  17. metabolicMine: an integrated genomics, genetics and proteomics data warehouse for common metabolic disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Mike; Smith, Richard N; Lyne, Rachel; Aleksic, Jelena; Hu, Fengyuan; Kalderimis, Alex; Stepan, Radek; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    Common metabolic and endocrine diseases such as diabetes affect millions of people worldwide and have a major health impact, frequently leading to complications and mortality. In a search for better prevention and treatment, there is ongoing research into the underlying molecular and genetic bases of these complex human diseases, as well as into the links with risk factors such as obesity. Although an increasing number of relevant genomic and proteomic data sets have become available, the quantity and diversity of the data make their efficient exploitation challenging. Here, we present metabolicMine, a data warehouse with a specific focus on the genomics, genetics and proteomics of common metabolic diseases. Developed in collaboration with leading UK metabolic disease groups, metabolicMine integrates data sets from a range of experiments and model organisms alongside tools for exploring them. The current version brings together information covering genes, proteins, orthologues, interactions, gene expression, pathways, ontologies, diseases, genome-wide association studies and single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although the emphasis is on human data, key data sets from mouse and rat are included. These are complemented by interoperation with the RatMine rat genomics database, with a corresponding mouse version under development by the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) group. The web interface contains a number of features including keyword search, a library of Search Forms, the QueryBuilder and list analysis tools. This provides researchers with many different ways to analyse, view and flexibly export data. Programming interfaces and automatic code generation in several languages are supported, and many of the features of the web interface are available through web services. The combination of diverse data sets integrated with analysis tools and a powerful query system makes metabolicMine a valuable research resource. The web interface makes it accessible to first

  18. Air pollution policies in Europe: efficiency gains from integrating climate effects with damage costs to health and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollefsen, Petter; Rypdal, Kristin; Torvanger, Asbjorn; Rive, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants cause damage to health and crops, but several air pollutants also have an effect on climate through radiative forcing. We investigate efficiency gains achieved by integrating climate impacts of air pollutants into air quality strategies for the EU region. The pollutants included in this study are SO 2 , NH 3 , VOC, CO, NO x , black carbon, organic carbon, PM 2.5 , and CH 4 . We illustrate the relative importance of climate change effects compared to damage to health and crops, as well as monetary gains of including climate change contributions. The analysis considers marginal abatement costs and compares air quality and climate damage in Euros. We optimize abatement policies with respect to both climate and health impacts, which imply implementing all measures that yield a net benefit. The efficiency gains of the integrated policy are in the order of 2.5 billion Euros, compared to optimal abatement based on health and crop damage only, justifying increased abatement efforts of close to 50%. Climate effect of methane is the single most important factor. If climate change is considered on a 20- instead of a 100-year time-scale, the efficiency gain almost doubles. Our results indicate that air pollution policies should be supplemented with climate damage considerations.

  19. Europe as a Symbol: The Struggle for Democracy and the Meaning of European Integration in Post-Franco Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Gómez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effect that some political actors’ behaviours had on the image of the European integration process in Spain during General Franco’s dictatorship and its influence on the country’s European policy during the democratic transition and the adhesion to the European Economic Community (hereafter EEC. The EEC’s condemnation of the Spanish political regime and the pro-European stances assumed by the democratic opposition created a strong bond between the ideas of European integration and democratization in the eyes of the Spanish public. After Franco’s death in 1975, joining the EEC was seen as a natural move of the transition to democracy by all political actors and received an overwhelming support from civil society. Consequently, between 1977 and 1985, Spain negotiated its adhesion. Yet, the decision to join the EEC was not just a rational choice in political or economic terms; it was understood as a means to fulfil recognition of the democratization of the country.

  20. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  1. Integration of internet-based genetic databases into the medical school pre-clinical and clinical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Darrel J; Martin, Christa Lese

    2006-06-01

    Over the past several years, the field of medical genetics has continued to expand and is now impacting a broad range of medical care, mainly due to rapid advances in genetic technology and information generated by the Human Genome Project. Physicians from multiple disciplines will need to become familiar with genetic principles, and the availability of genetic databases on the internet is a valuable resource for medical students and physicians. To integrate these tools into medical student training, the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine set out to develop multiple, interactive, case-based, educational sessions in the pre-clinical and clinical curriculum, designed to reinforce basic principles taught in the pre-clinical genetics class and demonstrate the usefulness of genetic information accessible via the internet in the clinical setting. Two interactive sessions and a self-assessment exercise were developed. The sessions took place in a computer classroom where each student had access to the internet and could work independently. The sessions used case-based scenarios to help students become familiar with internet based resources and demonstrate how genetic information can affect medical care. The sessions were well received by the student participants with 99% agreeing that the material was useful and important to clinical medicine. In a follow-up questionnaire 1/3 of the students reported using the databases presented during class in a clinical setting.

  2. Integration of genetic algorithm, computer simulation and design of experiments for forecasting electrical energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Tarverdian, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents an integrated algorithm for forecasting monthly electrical energy consumption based on genetic algorithm (GA), computer simulation and design of experiments using stochastic procedures. First, time-series model is developed as a benchmark for GA and simulation. Computer simulation is developed to generate random variables for monthly electricity consumption. This is achieved to foresee the effects of probabilistic distribution on monthly electricity consumption. The GA and simulated-based GA models are then developed by the selected time-series model. Therefore, there are four treatments to be considered in analysis of variance (ANOVA) which are actual data, time series, GA and simulated-based GA. Furthermore, ANOVA is used to test the null hypothesis of the above four alternatives being equal. If the null hypothesis is accepted, then the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) value is used to select the best model, otherwise the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) method of paired comparison is used to select the optimum model, which could be time series, GA or simulated-based GA. In case of ties the lowest MAPE value is considered as the benchmark. The integrated algorithm has several unique features. First, it is flexible and identifies the best model based on the results of ANOVA and MAPE, whereas previous studies consider the best-fit GA model based on MAPE or relative error results. Second, the proposed algorithm may identify conventional time series as the best model for future electricity consumption forecasting because of its dynamic structure, whereas previous studies assume that GA always provide the best solutions and estimation. To show the applicability and superiority of the proposed algorithm, the monthly electricity consumption in Iran from March 1994 to February 2005 (131 months) is used and applied to the proposed algorithm

  3. Integrating age information from different localities for stratigraphic marker beds: discussion of the Eltville Tephra age (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeden, Christian; Zens, Joerg; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Stratigraphic marker beds are often used in geosciences for regional and global correlation. For various reasons dating those layers directly proves to be difficult sometimes. In such cases ages from above and below such a horizon represent minimum- and maximum-ages. If these ages are determined from more than one location, it is possible to combine these ages, test their consistency and finally derive an age in agreement with the findings from most localities. Several approaches to integrate the age information from different localities are discussed, resulting in combined ages consistent with both stratigraphy and most of the dating results. All approach rely on assumptions, most importantly the correctness of ages and their reported uncertainty. The Eltville Tephra originates from an unknown eruption in the Eifel volcanic field is an important maker bed in Rhine-Meuse Area nearby the boundary between the deposition of reworked and primary loess during the LGM (ca. 20 ka). The Eltville Tephra is usually imbedded in loess; dates from directly above and below come almost exclusively from luminescence dating. As different luminescence dating techniques were applied to samples over- and underlying the Eltville Tephra a systematic bias of the sum of these techniques seems unlikely, but may be present due to the fact that most ages are feldspar ages uncorrected for fading. The results of several statistical approaches to deal with ages from various localities are compared, and their chances and shortcomings using well understood artificial data are discussed. These are also used to obtain an integrated datum for the Eltville Tephra including a reproducible uncertainty. This has the potential to improve on existing dates for various other stratigraphic marker beds especially in the terrestrial realm, where often dates for (or around) correlative sediments are obtained from various localities.

  4. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  5. Integrated decision making model for urban disaster management: A multi-objective genetic algorithm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Esmaeili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decays, there has been an extensive improvement in technology and knowledge; hence, human societies have started to fortify their urban environment against the natural disasters in order to diminish the context of vulnerability. Local administrators as well as government officials are thinking about new options for disaster management programs within their territories. Planning to set up local disaster management facilities and stock pre-positioning of relief items can keep an urban area prepared for a natural disaster. In this paper, based on a real-world case study for a municipal district in Tehran, a multi-objective mathematical model is developed for the location-distribution problem. The proposed model considers the role of demand in an urban area, which might be affected by neighbor wards. Integrating decision-making process for a disaster helps to improve a better relief operation during response phase of disaster management cycle. In the proposed approach, a proactive damage estimation method is used to estimate demands for the district based on worst-case scenario of earthquake in Tehran. Since such model is designed for an entire urban district, it is considered to be a large-scale mixed integer problem and hence, a genetic algorithm is developed to solve the model.

  6. Integrating text mining, data mining, and network analysis for identifying genetic breast cancer trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurca, Gabriela; Addam, Omar; Aksac, Alper; Gao, Shang; Özyer, Tansel; Demetrick, Douglas; Alhajj, Reda

    2016-04-26

    Breast cancer is a serious disease which affects many women and may lead to death. It has received considerable attention from the research community. Thus, biomedical researchers aim to find genetic biomarkers indicative of the disease. Novel biomarkers can be elucidated from the existing literature. However, the vast amount of scientific publications on breast cancer make this a daunting task. This paper presents a framework which investigates existing literature data for informative discoveries. It integrates text mining and social network analysis in order to identify new potential biomarkers for breast cancer. We utilized PubMed for the testing. We investigated gene-gene interactions, as well as novel interactions such as gene-year, gene-country, and abstract-country to find out how the discoveries varied over time and how overlapping/diverse are the discoveries and the interest of various research groups in different countries. Interesting trends have been identified and discussed, e.g., different genes are highlighted in relationship to different countries though the various genes were found to share functionality. Some text analysis based results have been validated against results from other tools that predict gene-gene relations and gene functions.

  7. INTEGRATING ROMA IN MODERN EUROPEAN SOCIETY. NEW CHALLENGES, NEW OPPORTUNITIES. AN OVERVIEW OF THEIR PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN THE LIGHT OF AN ENLARGED EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu COSTACHIE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Roma population, with approximately 10 million people, is the largest minority of Europe. Since the end of the communist era in Eastern Europe, mass emigration has occurred, mainly to Western Europe. Today across Western Europe the Roma still face huge problems in regard of discrimination and exclusion. A general change in the way they are perceived is necessary. In the last years, the European Union have put the Roma questions on the forefront of their discussions. Nevertheless, the situation of the minority is still very precarious and demands more concrete research and action.

  8. Is keep/refer decision making an integral part of national guidelines for the physiotherapy profession within Europe? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackenbauer, Wolfgang; Janssen, Jessie; Roddam, Hazel; Selfe, James

    2017-12-01

    Keep/refer decision as the ability to independently determine whether a patient's condition is suitable for physiotherapy management (keep) or not (refer), is regarded as an core element in the World Confederation of Physical Therapists' (WCPT) Guideline for Standards of Physical Therapy Practice. However, it is currently unknown how individual European countries have implemented this in their national guidelines. To determine if keep/refer decision making abilities are an integral part of national guidelines for the physiotherapy profession of member countries of the European Network of Physiotherapy in Higher Education (ENPHE). A review was performed including medical databases, the grey literature and personal correspondence with professional ENPHE member associations. To gain the information of interest, all eligible documents were reviewed. 11 national guidelines for the physiotherapy profession could be obtained. Two additional member associations use European guidelines as their national ones. Despite the fact that in the WCPT guidelines keep/refer decision making abilities are clearly described as a core element, there exists huge inconsistency as to how various European (with direct and non direct access systems) countries have included them in their national guidelines. Despite the fact that most ENPHE member countries deem a close collaboration between health care professionals important and that physiotherapists should know the limitation of their expertise, keep/refer decision making abilities as explicitly stated in the WCPT guidelines were not included in the majority of guidelines that were reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrative study of Necremnus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with invasive pests in Europe and North America: taxonomic and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebiola, Marco; Bernardo, Umberto; Ribes, Antoni; Gibson, Gary A P

    2015-02-01

    The species of Necremnus attacking two invasive pests of tomato and canola in Europe and North America, respectively, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been revised using an integrative taxonomy approach. Molecular data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I and the nuclear D2 expansion region of the 28S ribosomal subunit and internal transcribed spacer 2, the discovery of new morphological features, and study of type material resulted in the delineation of three species groups, the Necremnus artynes , Necremnus cosconius , and Necremnus tidius groups, the discovery of four new species, and the resurrection of three taxa from synonymy. Lectotypes have been designated for 13 species originally described in Eulophus by Walker. Although Necremnus has not been revised, an illustrated key is given to differentiate 23 recognized European species. The key, type images, and treatments of the three species groups will enable more accurate identification of the valid species of Necremnus in the future. They will also benefit biological control practitioners of pest species. The ecological consequences of the new taxonomic concepts are discussed.

  10. Changes in air temperature means and interannual variability over Europe in simulations by ALADIN-Climate/CZ: dependence on the size of the integration domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crhová, Lenka; Holtanová, Eva; Kalvová, Jaroslava; Farda, Aleš

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of two simulations by regional climate model (RCM) ALADIN-Climate/CZ with different sizes of integration domain and their driving simulation of global climate model (GCM) ARPÉGE-Climat over central Europe during the period 1961-2010. After a brief evaluation of seasonal means of air temperature characteristics (daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature) and their variability, we focus on the ability of the simulations to represent observed changes in seasonal mean air temperature and its variability. We distinguish between intrinsic and trend-induced variability. Moreover, the dependence on the size of the integration domain and the improvement brought about by the nested RCM compared to the driving GCM are analysed. Both the evaluation of temperature means and variability and the evaluation of their changes confirm that RCM simulation on a larger domain often differs more considerably from driving GCM than simulation on a smaller domain. The larger domain simulation usually produces smaller biases for mean temperature but has worse agreement with observations in terms of variability. Further, the areas with the greatest discrepancies are often in the south-eastern region. In addition, noticeable differences between RCM and GCM simulations mostly emerge for the Alpine region and eastern regions. A possible explanation is the complex terrain and larger distance from domain boundaries. Moreover, it was analysed whether removing of the linear trend enhances the representation of changes in variability. This was not generally confirmed. Only in summer the simulations underestimated the observed increase in intrinsic variability less considerably than for total variability. However, biases were still considerable in many cases.

  11. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  12. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Damos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  13. Genetic integrity of the human Y chromosome exposed to groundwater arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a known human carcinogen reported to cause chromosomal deletions and genetic anomalies in cultured cells. The vast human population inhabiting the Ganges delta in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh is exposed to critical levels of arsenic present in the groundwater. The genetic and physiological mechanism of arsenic toxicity in the human body is yet to be fully established. In addition, lack of animal models has made work on this line even more challenging. Methods Human male blood samples were collected with their informed consent from 5 districts in West Bengal having groundwater arsenic level more than 50 μg/L. Isolation of genomic DNA and preparation of metaphase chromosomes was done using standard protocols. End point PCR was performed for established sequence tagged sites to ascertain the status of recombination events. Single nucleotide variants of candidate genes and amplicons were carried out using appropriate restriction enzymes. The copy number of DYZ1 array per haploid genome was calculated using real time PCR and its chromosomal localization was done by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH. Results We studied effects of arsenic exposure on the human Y chromosome in males from different areas of West Bengal focusing on known recombination events (P5-P1 proximal; P5-P1 distal; gr/gr; TSPY-TSPY, b1/b3 and b2/b3, single nucleotide variants (SNVs of a few candidate Y-linked genes (DAZ, TTY4, BPY2, GOLGA2LY and the amplicons of AZFc region. Also, possible chromosomal reorganization of DYZ1 repeat arrays was analyzed. Barring a few microdeletions, no major changes were detected in blood DNA samples. SNV analysis showed a difference in some alleles. Similarly, DYZ1 arrays signals detected by FISH were found to be affected in some males. Conclusions Our Y chromosome analysis suggests that the same is protected from the effects of arsenic by some unknown mechanisms maintaining its structural and functional

  14. Dissolving Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    When the performance Living Dead premiered in Denmark in 2016, its reception was characterized by an equal amount of praise and unease. Written and directed by Christian Lollike, Living Dead dealt with the increasing number of refugees coming to Europe from Africa and the Middle East. Controversi......When the performance Living Dead premiered in Denmark in 2016, its reception was characterized by an equal amount of praise and unease. Written and directed by Christian Lollike, Living Dead dealt with the increasing number of refugees coming to Europe from Africa and the Middle East....... Controversially, it was a “horror performance” focusing on the fear, anxiety, and potential dissolution of Europe. The article examines the agency of the performance. How does it engage our senses and sensibilities? How does the affective and intensive elements of horror relate to the representation...

  15. Transnational Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2016-01-01

    -productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation...... in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute...

  16. THEORY OF CREATION AND THE GENETIC INTEGRITY OF THE WORLD – THE FUTURE OF HUMANITY BASIS OF IDEOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Astafyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes one of the most difficult problems – the Theory of genetic energy-information unity of the World, according to which the World is the single entity hierarchically organized and directed by the World Creator, appearance of the Creator and creation by Him the Basic Genome of the World (BGW. The integral-dynamic formula of the BGW is described. The World Genome manifests the basic idea of the evolution: it is the code for structural and functional organization and evolution of all entities. The World Genome forms the General Laws of the World. The Theory of genetic energy-information unity of the World is proved the general idea – modern crisis can be transformed by realization of genetic energyinformation unity of the World-Natura-Man.

  17. Genetic regulation of colony social organization in fire ants: an integrative overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzek, Dietrich; Ross, Kenneth G

    2007-09-01

    Expression of colony social organization in fire ants appears to be under the control of a single Mendelian factor of large effect. Variation in colony queen number in Solenopsis invicta and its relatives is associated with allelic variation at the gene Gp-9, but not with variation at other unlinked genes; workers regulate queen identity and number on the basis of Gp-9 genotypic compatibility. Nongenetic factors, such as prior social experience, queen reproductive status, and local environment, have negligible effects on queen numbers which illustrates the nearly complete penetrance of Gp-9. As predicted, queen number can be manipulated experimentally by altering worker Gp-9 genotype frequencies. The Gp-9 allele lineage associated with polygyny in South American fire ants has been retained across multiple speciation events, which may signal the action of balancing selection to maintain social polymorphism in these species. Moreover, positive selection is implicated in driving the molecular evolution of Gp-9 in association with the origin of polygyny. The identity of the product of Gp-9 as an odorant-binding protein suggests plausible scenarios for its direct involvement in the regulation of queen number via a role in chemical communication. While these and other lines of evidence show that Gp-9 represents a legitimate candidate gene of major effect, studies aimed at determining (i) the biochemical pathways in which GP-9 functions; (ii) the phenotypic effects of molecular variation at Gp-9 and other pathway genes; and (iii) the potential involvement of genes in linkage disequilibrium with Gp-9 are needed to elucidate the genetic architecture underlying social organization in fire ants. Information that reveals the links between molecular variation, individual phenotype, and colony-level behaviors, combined with behavioral models that incorporate details of the chemical communication involved in regulating queen number, will yield a novel integrated view of the

  18. From the Lisbon Strategy to EUROPE 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke; Lorenz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the Lisbon Strategy and the EUROPE 2020 Strategy. It demonstrates while none of the two strategies are sufficient as support for the monetary integration and the Euro-collaboration.......This article compares the Lisbon Strategy and the EUROPE 2020 Strategy. It demonstrates while none of the two strategies are sufficient as support for the monetary integration and the Euro-collaboration....

  19. Phelan-McDermid syndrome data network: Integrating patient reported outcomes with clinical notes and curated genetic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik; Wack, Maxime; Hassen-Khodja, Claire; Finan, Sean; Savova, Guergana; O'Boyle, Megan; Bliss, Geraldine; Cornell, Andria; Horn, Elizabeth J; Davis, Rebecca; Jacobs, Jacquelyn; Kohane, Isaac; Avillach, Paul

    2017-09-01

    The heterogeneity of patient phenotype data are an impediment to the research into the origins and progression of neuropsychiatric disorders. This difficulty is compounded in the case of rare disorders such as Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) by the paucity of patient clinical data. PMS is a rare syndromic genetic cause of autism and intellectual deficiency. In this paper, we describe the Phelan-McDermid Syndrome Data Network (PMS_DN), a platform that facilitates research into phenotype-genotype correlation and progression of PMS by: a) integrating knowledge of patient phenotypes extracted from Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) data and clinical notes-two heterogeneous, underutilized sources of knowledge about patient phenotypes-with curated genetic information from the same patient cohort and b) making this integrated knowledge, along with a suite of statistical tools, available free of charge to authorized investigators on a Web portal https://pmsdn.hms.harvard.edu. PMS_DN is a Patient Centric Outcomes Research Initiative (PCORI) where patients and their families are involved in all aspects of the management of patient data in driving research into PMS. To foster collaborative research, PMS_DN also makes patient aggregates from this knowledge available to authorized investigators using distributed research networks such as the PCORnet PopMedNet. PMS_DN is hosted on a scalable cloud based environment and complies with all patient data privacy regulations. As of October 31, 2016, PMS_DN integrates high-quality knowledge extracted from the clinical notes of 112 patients and curated genetic reports of 176 patients with preprocessed PRO data from 415 patients. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Full-genome sequencing of porcine circovirus 3 field strains from Denmark, Italy and Spain demonstrates a high within-Europe genetic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzo, G.; Legnardi, M.; Hjulsager, C. K.

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a new species of the Circovirus genus, which has recently been associated with different clinical syndromes. Its presence has been reported in different countries of North and South America, Asia and recently also Europe (Poland). However, different from the other...

  1. Development of an integrated genome informatics, data management and workflow infrastructure: A toolbox for the study of complex disease genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burren Oliver S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic dissection of complex disease remains a significant challenge. Sample-tracking and the recording, processing and storage of high-throughput laboratory data with public domain data, require integration of databases, genome informatics and genetic analyses in an easily updated and scaleable format. To find genes involved in multifactorial diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D, chromosome regions are defined based on functional candidate gene content, linkage information from humans and animal model mapping information. For each region, genomic information is extracted from Ensembl, converted and loaded into ACeDB for manual gene annotation. Homology information is examined using ACeDB tools and the gene structure verified. Manually curated genes are extracted from ACeDB and read into the feature database, which holds relevant local genomic feature data and an audit trail of laboratory investigations. Public domain information, manually curated genes, polymorphisms, primers, linkage and association analyses, with links to our genotyping database, are shown in Gbrowse. This system scales to include genetic, statistical, quality control (QC and biological data such as expression analyses of RNA or protein, all linked from a genomics integrative display. Our system is applicable to any genetic study of complex disease, of either large or small scale.

  2. Rewilding Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, A.; Jong, de R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Rewilding is discussed here as a relatively new but contested discourse and practice in Europe. Rewilding represents an additional, entrepreneurial and somewhat bold strategy in biodiversity conservation, which aims for a return to more natural processes in places that have predominantly become

  3. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer

  4. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  5. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jiménez, Laura; Vásquez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; Léon, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; López, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-03-16

    Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving its quality. Cassava is threatened by several pathogens, but the mechanisms of defense are far from being understood. Besides, there has been a lack of information about the number of genes related to immunity as well as their distribution and genomic organization in the cassava genome. A high dense genetic map of cassava containing 2,141 SNPs has been constructed. Eighteen linkage groups were resolved with an overall size of 2,571 cM and an average distance of 1.26 cM between markers. More than half of mapped SNPs (57.4%) are located in coding sequences. Physical mapping of scaffolds of cassava whole genome sequence draft using the mapped markers as anchors resulted in the orientation of 687 scaffolds covering 45.6% of the genome. One hundred eighty nine new scaffolds are anchored to the genetic cassava map leading to an extension of the present cassava physical map with 30.7 Mb. Comparative analysis using anchor markers showed strong co-linearity to previously reported cassava genetic and physical maps. In silico based searching for conserved domains allowed the annotation of a repertory of 1,061 cassava genes coding for immunity-related proteins (IRPs). Based on physical map of the corresponding sequencing scaffolds, unambiguous genetic localization was possible for 569 IRPs. This is the first study reported so far of an integrated high density genetic map using SNPs with integrated genetic and physical localization of newly annotated immunity related genes in cassava. These data build a

  6. Genetic tests in major psychiatric disorders-integrating molecular medicine with clinical psychiatry-why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkow, U; Wolańczyk, T

    2017-06-13

    With the advent of post-genomic era, new technologies create extraordinary possibilities for diagnostics and personalized therapy, transforming todays' medicine. Rooted in both medical genetics and clinical psychiatry, the paper is designed as an integrated source of information of the current and potential future application of emerging genomic technologies as diagnostic tools in psychiatry, moving beyond the classical concept of patient approach. Selected approaches are presented, starting from currently used technologies (next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarrays), followed by newer options (reverse phenotyping). Next, we describe an old concept in a new light (endophenotypes), subsequently coming up with a sophisticated and complex approach (gene networks) ending by a nascent field (computational psychiatry). The challenges and barriers that exist to translate genomic research to real-world patient assessment are further discussed. We emphasize the view that only a paradigm shift can bring a fundamental change in psychiatric practice, allowing to disentangle the intricacies of mental diseases. All the diagnostic methods, as described, are directed at uncovering the integrity of the system including many types of relations within a complex structure. The integrative system approach offers new opportunity to connect genetic background with specific diseases entities, or concurrently, with symptoms regardless of a diagnosis. To advance the field, we propose concerted cross-disciplinary effort to provide a diagnostic platform operating at the general level of genetic pathogenesis of complex-trait psychiatric disorders rather than at the individual level of a specific disease.

  7. Genetic tests in major psychiatric disorders—integrating molecular medicine with clinical psychiatry—why is it so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkow, U; Wolańczyk, T

    2017-01-01

    With the advent of post-genomic era, new technologies create extraordinary possibilities for diagnostics and personalized therapy, transforming todays’ medicine. Rooted in both medical genetics and clinical psychiatry, the paper is designed as an integrated source of information of the current and potential future application of emerging genomic technologies as diagnostic tools in psychiatry, moving beyond the classical concept of patient approach. Selected approaches are presented, starting from currently used technologies (next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarrays), followed by newer options (reverse phenotyping). Next, we describe an old concept in a new light (endophenotypes), subsequently coming up with a sophisticated and complex approach (gene networks) ending by a nascent field (computational psychiatry). The challenges and barriers that exist to translate genomic research to real-world patient assessment are further discussed. We emphasize the view that only a paradigm shift can bring a fundamental change in psychiatric practice, allowing to disentangle the intricacies of mental diseases. All the diagnostic methods, as described, are directed at uncovering the integrity of the system including many types of relations within a complex structure. The integrative system approach offers new opportunity to connect genetic background with specific diseases entities, or concurrently, with symptoms regardless of a diagnosis. To advance the field, we propose concerted cross-disciplinary effort to provide a diagnostic platform operating at the general level of genetic pathogenesis of complex-trait psychiatric disorders rather than at the individual level of a specific disease. PMID:28608853

  8. Mainstreaming cancer genetics: A model integrating germline BRCA testing into routine ovarian cancer clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentwell, Maira; Dow, Eryn; Antill, Yoland; Wrede, C David; McNally, Orla; Higgs, Emily; Hamilton, Anne; Ananda, Sumitra; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Scott, Clare L

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the rapid increase in clinical need, we aimed to implement and review the performance of a mainstreaming model of germline BRCA1/2 genetic testing in eligible women with high grade non-mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer via a Genetic Counselor embedded in the gynecology oncology clinic. The model implemented involved a specialized referral form, weekly genetics-lead multidisciplinary review of referrals, and pre- and post-test genetic counseling provided by an embedded genetic counselor during chemotherapy chair time. Performance and outcomes were retrospectively audited over the following two consecutive one year periods, including survey data on medical specialist comfort with mainstreaming and the model. Sixty-four women underwent mainstreamed BRCA1/2 testing over the two year post-implementation period with a rate of detection of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants of 17%. The referral rate for eligible women significantly increased to over 90% (pgenetic testing results was less than five months, with >90% of patients receiving results during first line chemotherapy. Genetic counseling time decreased from 120 to 54min. Cancer specialists were comfortable with the model. The mainstreaming model proved effective, increasing uptake of genetic testing in eligible patients to over 90%; it was efficient for patients, genetic counselors and cancer specialists and acceptable to cancer specialists. It facilitated co-location of genetic and oncology service delivery but separation of clinical responsibility for genetic testing to a specialist genetics service, ensuring accurate and robust patient-centred care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An integrated map of genetic variation from 1.092 human genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    By characterizing the geographic and functional spectrum of human genetic variation, the 1000 Genomes Project aims to build a resource to help to understand the genetic contribution to disease. Here we describe the genomes of 1,092 individuals from 14 populations, constructed using a combination ...

  10. Missing Links in Genes to Traits: Toward Teaching for an Integrated Framework of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Iglika V.; Kreher, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetics, one of the most influential fields, underlies all of biology and produces discoveries that are in the news daily. However, many students leave introductory biology and genetics courses lacking a coherent framework of knowledge to use in their daily lives. We identify substantial "missing links" in the teaching of foundational…

  11. Integrating Quantitative Genetics and Practical Aspects in a Fish Breeding Network in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kristian; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    simulations are given to show how different practical aspects of a breeding plan can be optimized. By combining quantitative genetic theory with current breeding practice we are able to optimize different breeding plans increasing genetic gain while controlling the level of inbreeding and building up...

  12. Flow-based market coupling. A joint ETSO-EuroPEX proposal for cross-border congestion management and integration of electricity markets in Europe. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    ETSO and EuroPEX have previously published separate proposals for congestion management and market operation across borders in Europe. ETSO has described a 'vision' in which Transmission System Operators (TSOs) would support trade between a variety of different markets by taking explicit account of the physical flows of electricity between them ('flow-based modelling'). EuroPEX has described 'Decentralized Market Coupling' as a method to integrate regional energy markets with cross-border congestion management. In most respects the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals are consistent and complementary. In particular, both organisations agree that market-based congestion management mechanisms should be used at all borders wherever possible, and that they should be co-ordinated to take account of the interdependence of physical flows. Furthermore, both ETSO and EuroPEX recognize that integrated markets are in general more efficient than separate ones, but accept that coupling of regional markets is the most realistic way of achieving efficiency benefits in the short and medium term. The commonalty between the ETSO and EuroPEX proposals has been noted by the 'Florence' Regulators' Forum, which has therefore encouraged ETSO and EuroPEX to work together to develop joint proposals. They have responded by setting up a Joint Working Group, which has produced this report to describe its progress to date. Currently, there exists a wide variety of organisational structures and operational practices in Europe. Consequently, ETSO and EuroPEX agreed at an early stage that, although a joint vision of a flow-based market coupling (FMC) model should be developed, it was equally important to identify how the current arrangements could evolve towards it in a series of practical steps. The work is not yet complete. This is an interim report designed to expose ideas at an early stage to enable Regulators, Users and other interested parties to join the debate and provide feedback. In particular

  13. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  14. TriMEDB: A database to integrate transcribed markers and facilitate genetic studies of the tribe Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Takuhiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent rapid accumulation of sequence resources of various crop species ensures an improvement in the genetics approach, including quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis as well as the holistic population analysis and association mapping of natural variations. Because the tribe Triticeae includes important cereals such as wheat and barley, integration of information on the genetic markers in these crops should effectively accelerate map-based genetic studies on Triticeae species and lead to the discovery of key loci involved in plant productivity, which can contribute to sustainable food production. Therefore, informatics applications and a semantic knowledgebase of genome-wide markers are required for the integration of information on and further development of genetic markers in wheat and barley in order to advance conventional marker-assisted genetic analyses and population genomics of Triticeae species. Description The Triticeae mapped expressed sequence tag (EST database (TriMEDB provides information, along with various annotations, regarding mapped cDNA markers that are related to barley and their homologues in wheat. The current version of TriMEDB provides map-location data for barley and wheat ESTs that were retrieved from 3 published barley linkage maps (the barley single nucleotide polymorphism database of the Scottish Crop Research Institute, the barley transcript map of Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, and HarvEST barley ver. 1.63 and 1 diploid wheat map. These data were imported to CMap to allow the visualization of the map positions of the ESTs and interrelationships of these ESTs with public gene models and representative cDNA sequences. The retrieved cDNA sequences corresponding to each EST marker were assigned to the rice genome to predict an exon-intron structure. Furthermore, to generate a unique set of EST markers in Triticeae plants among the public domain, 3472 markers were

  15. Europe and the integration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Shehu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the presentation of two case studies this paper aims to engage the theoretical debate on the persistence of public space in the contemporary city, and focuses the attention on the way people practice these spaces and on the policies which are regulating their uses. Starting from the description of different ways in which some urban spaces in Rome (Italy are used by two different communities of people, one mainly composed by immigrants and the other by young city users, and the diverse ways in which their different practices are seen and tolerated, the aim of this paper is to reflect on public spaces. Observing how city users practice public spaces, and analysing the way in which these practices are considered, are particularly exciting perspectives that can offer an interesting vision of the spatial and social reality of the city and of hegemonic relations which govern it.

  16. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  17. Fortress Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    lookouts, as they are on the front line of the migration route between Europe and Africa. In effect, one of the most relevant contributions that this book aims to bring is to connect the study of the border in Ceuta and Melilla with the European dimension, that is, with the European policies that affect...... these enclaves interesting visual manifestations of the ‘Fortress Europe’ metaphor. This book comprehensively explores the economic, historical, European and Moroccan dimensions of these unique European Fortresses....

  18. Toward an integrated genetic model for vent-distal SEDEX deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, D. F.

    2018-04-01

    Although genetic models have been proposed for vent-proximal SEDEX deposits, an equivalent model for vent-distal deposits has not yet appeared. In view of this, it is the object of this paper to present a preliminary integrated vent-distal genetic model through exploration of four major components: (i) nature of the ore-forming fluid, (ii) role of density of the unconsolidated host sediments, (iii) dynamics of sulfate reduction and (iv) depositional environment. Two sub-groups of SEDEX Pb-Zn deposits, vent-proximal and vent-distal, are widely recognized today. Of the two, the latter is by far the largest in terms of metal content with each of the 13 largest containing in excess of 7.5 M (Zn+Pb) metal. In contrast, only one vent-proximal deposit (Sullivan) falls within this size range. Vent-proximal deposits are characteristically underlain by local networks of sulfide-filled veins (commonly regarded as feeder veins) surrounded by a discordant complex of host rock alteration. These attributes are missing in vent-distal deposits, which has led to the widespread view that vent-distal ore-forming fluids have migrated unknown distances away from their vent sites. Because of the characteristic fine grain size of ore minerals, critical fluid inclusion data are lacking for vent-distal ore-stage sulfides. Consequently, hypothetical fluids such as those which formed MVT deposits (120 °C, 20% NaCl equiv.) are considered to represent vent-distal fluids as well. Such high-salinity fluids are capable of carrying significant concentrations of Pb and Zn as chloride complexes while the relatively low temperatures preclude high Cu contents. Densities of such metalliferous brines result in bottom-hugging fluids that collect in shallow saucer-shaped depressions (collector basins). Lateral metal zoning in several deposits reveals the direction from which the brines came. Relative densities of the ore-forming fluid and sediment determine whether the ore-forming fluid stabilizes on top

  19. Toward an integrated genetic model for vent-distal SEDEX deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, D. F.

    2017-07-01

    Although genetic models have been proposed for vent-proximal SEDEX deposits, an equivalent model for vent-distal deposits has not yet appeared. In view of this, it is the object of this paper to present a preliminary integrated vent-distal genetic model through exploration of four major components: (i) nature of the ore-forming fluid, (ii) role of density of the unconsolidated host sediments, (iii) dynamics of sulfate reduction and (iv) depositional environment. Two sub-groups of SEDEX Pb-Zn deposits, vent-proximal and vent-distal, are widely recognized today. Of the two, the latter is by far the largest in terms of metal content with each of the 13 largest containing in excess of 7.5 M (Zn+Pb) metal. In contrast, only one vent-proximal deposit (Sullivan) falls within this size range. Vent-proximal deposits are characteristically underlain by local networks of sulfide-filled veins (commonly regarded as feeder veins) surrounded by a discordant complex of host rock alteration. These attributes are missing in vent-distal deposits, which has led to the widespread view that vent-distal ore-forming fluids have migrated unknown distances away from their vent sites. Because of the characteristic fine grain size of ore minerals, critical fluid inclusion data are lacking for vent-distal ore-stage sulfides. Consequently, hypothetical fluids such as those which formed MVT deposits (120 °C, 20% NaCl equiv.) are considered to represent vent-distal fluids as well. Such high-salinity fluids are capable of carrying significant concentrations of Pb and Zn as chloride complexes while the relatively low temperatures preclude high Cu contents. Densities of such metalliferous brines result in bottom-hugging fluids that collect in shallow saucer-shaped depressions (collector basins). Lateral metal zoning in several deposits reveals the direction from which the brines came. Relative densities of the ore-forming fluid and sediment determine whether the ore-forming fluid stabilizes on top

  20. Multitrait genetic evaluation of Jersey type with integrated accounting for heterogeneous (co) variances

    OpenAIRE

    Gengler, Nicolas; Dusseldorf, T.; Wiggans, G.R.; Wright, J.R.; Druet, Tom

    2000-01-01

    February 1998, a multitrait animal model with canonical transformation was implemented for genetic evaluation of type traits for US Jerseys (Gengler et al., 1999). The method includes multiple diagonalization (Misztal et al., 1995), which is a generalization of canonical transformation to several random effects rather than only additive genetic effects; an expectation-maximization algorithm that permits the use of this approach even if observations for some traits are missing for some cows (D...

  1. Integration of Genetic and Phenotypic Data in 48 Lineages of Philippine Birds Shows Heterogeneous Divergence Processes and Numerous Cryptic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kyle K; Braile, Thomas; Winker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Philippine Islands are one of the most biologically diverse archipelagoes in the world. Current taxonomy, however, may underestimate levels of avian diversity and endemism in these islands. Although species limits can be difficult to determine among allopatric populations, quantitative methods for comparing phenotypic and genotypic data can provide useful metrics of divergence among populations and identify those that merit consideration for elevation to full species status. Using a conceptual approach that integrates genetic and phenotypic data, we compared populations among 48 species, estimating genetic divergence (p-distance) using the mtDNA marker ND2 and comparing plumage and morphometrics of museum study skins. Using conservative speciation thresholds, pairwise comparisons of genetic and phenotypic divergence suggested possible species-level divergences in more than half of the species studied (25 out of 48). In speciation process space, divergence routes were heterogeneous among taxa. Nearly all populations that surpassed high genotypic divergence thresholds were Passeriformes, and non-Passeriformes populations surpassed high phenotypic divergence thresholds more commonly than expected by chance. Overall, there was an apparent logarithmic increase in phenotypic divergence with respect to genetic divergence, suggesting the possibility that divergence among these lineages may initially be driven by divergent selection in this allopatric system. Also, genetic endemism was high among sampled islands. Higher taxonomy affected divergence in genotype and phenotype. Although broader lineage, genetic, phenotypic, and numeric sampling is needed to further explore heterogeneity among divergence processes and to accurately assess species-level diversity in these taxa, our results support the need for substantial taxonomic revisions among Philippine birds. The conservation implications are profound.

  2. Integrated screening concept in women with genetic predisposition for breast cancer; Integriertes Frueherkennungskonzept bei Frauen mit genetischer Praedisposition fuer Brustkrebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, U. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    1997-08-01

    Breast cancer is in 5% of cases due to a genetic disposition. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are by far the most common breast cancer susceptibility genes. For a woman with a genetic predisposition, the individual risk of developing breast cancer sometime in her life is between 70 and 90%. Compared to the spontaneous forms of breast cancer, woman with a genetic predisposition often develop breast cancer at a much younger age. This is why conventional screening programs on the basis of mammography alone cannot be applied without modification to this high-risk group. In this article, an integrated screening concept for women with genetic prodisposition for breast cancer using breast self-examination, clinical examination, ultrasound, mammography and magnetic resonance imaging is introduced. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mammakarzinome sind in etwa 5% auf eine genetische Disposition zurueckzufuehren. Am haeufigsten finden sich Mutationen im Bereich der Gene BRCA1 und BRCA2. Frauen mit einer genetischen Disposition erkranken in etwa 70-90% im Laufe ihres Lebens an einem Mammakarzinom. Das Erkrankungsalter bei diesen Frauen liegt in der Regel deutlich niedriger als bei den spontanen Formen des Mammakarzinoms, so dass vorhandene Frueherkennungskonzepte auf der Basis eines Mammographiescrennings nicht ohne weiteres auf dieses Hochrisikokollektiv uebertragbar sind. Im folgenden wird ein integriertes Konzept zur Frueherkennung bei Frauen mit genetischer Praedisposition fuer ein Mammakarzinom auf der Basis von Brustselbstuntersuchung, klinischer Untersuchung, Sonographie, Mammographie und Magnetresonanztomographie vorgestellt. (orig.)

  3. Critical need for family-based, quasi-experimental designs in integrating genetic and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lahey, Benjamin B; Turkheimer, Eric; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Researchers have identified environmental risks that predict subsequent psychological and medical problems. Based on these correlational findings, researchers have developed and tested complex developmental models and have examined biological moderating factors (e.g., gene-environment interactions). In this context, we stress the critical need for researchers to use family-based, quasi-experimental designs when trying to integrate genetic and social science research involving environmental variables because these designs rigorously examine causal inferences by testing competing hypotheses. We argue that sibling comparison, offspring of twins or siblings, in vitro fertilization designs, and other genetically informed approaches play a unique role in bridging gaps between basic biological and social science research. We use studies on maternal smoking during pregnancy to exemplify these principles.

  4. Energetic integration of discontinuous processes by means of genetic algorithms, GABSOBHIN; Integration energetique de procedes discontinus a l'aide d'algorithmes genetiques, GABSOBHIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacher, P.; Renaud, B.; Marechal, F.; Favrat, D.

    2001-07-01

    This report presents a new methodological approach for the optimal design of energy-integrated batch processes. The main emphasis is put on indirect and, to some extend, on direct heat exchange networks with the possibility of introducing closed or open storage systems. The study demonstrates the feasibility of optimising with genetic algorithms while highlighting the pros and cons of this type of approach. The study shows that the resolution of such problems should preferably be done in several steps to better target the expected solutions. Demonstration is made that in spite of relatively large computer times (on PCs) the use of genetic algorithm allows the consideration of both continuous decision variables (size, operational rating of equipment, etc.) and integer variables (related to the structure at design and during operation). Comparison of two optimisation strategies is shown with a preference for a two-steps optimisation scheme. One of the strengths of genetic algorithms is the capacity to accommodate heuristic rules, which can be introduced in the model. However, a rigorous modelling strategy is advocated to improve robustness and adequate coding of the decision variables. The practical aspects of the research work are converted into a software developed with MATLAB to solve the energy integration of batch processes with a reasonable number of closed or open stores. This software includes the model of superstructures, including the heat exchangers and the storage alternatives, as well as the link to the Struggle algorithm developed at MIT via a dedicated new interface. The package also includes a user-friendly pre-processing using EXCEL, which is to facilitate to application to other similar industrial problems. These software developments have been validated both on an academic and on an industrial type of problems. (author)

  5. MARRVEL: Integration of Human and Model Organism Genetic Resources to Facilitate Functional Annotation of the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julia; Al-Ouran, Rami; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Seon-Young; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Wangler, Michael F; Yamamoto, Shinya; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Comjean, Aram; Mohr, Stephanie E; Perrimon, Norbert; Liu, Zhandong; Bellen, Hugo J

    2017-06-01

    One major challenge encountered with interpreting human genetic variants is the limited understanding of the functional impact of genetic alterations on biological processes. Furthermore, there remains an unmet demand for an efficient survey of the wealth of information on human homologs in model organisms across numerous databases. To efficiently assess the large volume of publically available information, it is important to provide a concise summary of the most relevant information in a rapid user-friendly format. To this end, we created MARRVEL (model organism aggregated resources for rare variant exploration). MARRVEL is a publicly available website that integrates information from six human genetic databases and seven model organism databases. For any given variant or gene, MARRVEL displays information from OMIM, ExAC, ClinVar, Geno2MP, DGV, and DECIPHER. Importantly, it curates model organism-specific databases to concurrently display a concise summary regarding the human gene homologs in budding and fission yeast, worm, fly, fish, mouse, and rat on a single webpage. Experiment-based information on tissue expression, protein subcellular localization, biological process, and molecular function for the human gene and homologs in the seven model organisms are arranged into a concise output. Hence, rather than visiting multiple separate databases for variant and gene analysis, users can obtain important information by searching once through MARRVEL. Altogether, MARRVEL dramatically improves efficiency and accessibility to data collection and facilitates analysis of human genes and variants by cross-disciplinary integration of 18 million records available in public databases to facilitate clinical diagnosis and basic research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integration of Physical, Genetic, and Cytogenetic Mapping Data for Cellulose Synthase (CesA Genes in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Y. Yurkevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., is a valuable multi-purpose plant, and currently, its genome is being extensively investigated. Nevertheless, mapping of genes in flax genome is still remaining a challenging task. The cellulose synthase (CesA multigene family involving in the process of cellulose synthesis is especially important for metabolism of this fiber crop. For the first time, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH-based chromosomal localization of the CesA conserved fragment (KF011584.1, 5S, and 26S rRNA genes was performed in landrace, oilseed, and fiber varieties of L. usitatissimum. Intraspecific polymorphism in chromosomal distribution of KF011584.1 and 5S DNA loci was revealed, and the generalized chromosome ideogram was constructed. Using BLAST analysis, available data on physical/genetic mapping and also whole-genome sequencing of flax, localization of KF011584.1, 45S, and 5S rRNA sequences on genomic scaffolds, and their anchoring to the genetic map were conducted. The alignment of the results of FISH and BLAST analyses indicated that KF011584.1 fragment revealed on chromosome 3 could be anchored to linkage group (LG 11. The common LG for 45S and 5S rDNA was not found probably due to the polymorphic localization of 5S rDNA on chromosome 1. Our findings indicate the complexity of integration of physical, genetic, and cytogenetic mapping data for multicopy gene families in plants. Nevertheless, the obtained results can be useful for future progress in constructing of integrated physical/genetic/cytological maps in L. usitatissimum which are essential for flax breeding.

  7. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  8. Towards systems genetic analyses in barley: Integration of phenotypic, expression and genotype data into GeneNetwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druka Arnis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A typical genetical genomics experiment results in four separate data sets; genotype, gene expression, higher-order phenotypic data and metadata that describe the protocols, processing and the array platform. Used in concert, these data sets provide the opportunity to perform genetic analysis at a systems level. Their predictive power is largely determined by the gene expression dataset where tens of millions of data points can be generated using currently available mRNA profiling technologies. Such large, multidimensional data sets often have value beyond that extracted during their initial analysis and interpretation, particularly if conducted on widely distributed reference genetic materials. Besides quality and scale, access to the data is of primary importance as accessibility potentially allows the extraction of considerable added value from the same primary dataset by the wider research community. Although the number of genetical genomics experiments in different plant species is rapidly increasing, none to date has been presented in a form that allows quick and efficient on-line testing for possible associations between genes, loci and traits of interest by an entire research community. Description Using a reference population of 150 recombinant doubled haploid barley lines we generated novel phenotypic, mRNA abundance and SNP-based genotyping data sets, added them to a considerable volume of legacy trait data and entered them into the GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. GeneNetwork is a unified on-line analytical environment that enables the user to test genetic hypotheses about how component traits, such as mRNA abundance, may interact to condition more complex biological phenotypes (higher-order traits. Here we describe these barley data sets and demonstrate some of the functionalities GeneNetwork provides as an easily accessible and integrated analytical environment for exploring them. Conclusion By

  9. Integration within the Felsenstein equation for improved Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in population genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Jody; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Carlo methods, have been developed to find approximate solutions. Here, we describe an approach in which Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations are used to integrate over the space of genealogies, whereas other parameters are integrated out analytically. The result is an approximation to the full joint...

  10. AN INTEGRATED MAP OF HUMAN-CHROMOSOME-13 ALLOWING REGIONAL LOCALIZATION OF GENETIC-MARKERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOY, RF; WIJNGAARD, A; VERLIND, E; SCHEFFER, H; BUYS, CHCM

    1995-01-01

    37 CA repeats, 5 STSs, 9 ESTs, and 4 genes were mapped to 19 different intervals of chromosome 13 determined by the cytogenetic breakpoints of 19 different cell lines with interstitial deletions or translocations involving various parts of chromosome 13. A framework genetic linkage map was

  11. An integrated physical, genetic and cytogenetic map around the sunn locus of Medicago truncatula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, E.; Kulikova, O.; Penmetsa, R.V.; Bisseling, T.; Cook, D.R.; Frugoli, J.

    2003-01-01

    The sunn mutation of Medicago truncatula is a single-gene mutation that confers a novel supernodulation phenotype in response to inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti. We took advantage of the publicly available codominant PCR markers, the high-density genetic map, and a linked cytogenetic map to

  12. Grand challenges in evolutionary and population genetics: The importance of integrating epigenetics, genomics, modeling, and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-01-01

    This is a time of explosive growth in the fields of evolutionary and population genetics, with whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics driving a transformative paradigm shift (Morozova and Marra, 2008). At the same time, advances in epigenetics are thoroughly transforming our understanding of evolutionary processes and their implications for populations, species and...

  13. Tasting Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC): A New Integrative Genetics Lab with an Old Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Robert B.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Slatko, Barton; Weiner, Michael P.; Ingram, Jessica; Sciarra, Kristianna; Weiner, Evan

    2008-01-01

    First reported in the early 1930s, variation in the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) has since become one of the most widely studied of all human genetic traits. Guo and Reed (2001) provide an excellent review of work on this polymorphism prior to the identification and sequencing of the PTC gene by Kim et al. (2003), and Wooding (2006)…

  14. An integrated biochemistry and genetics outreach program designed for elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Eric D; Lee, Sarah K; Radebaugh, Catherine A; Stargell, Laurie A

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to genetic and biochemical experiments typically occurs late in one's academic career. By the time students have the opportunity to select specialized courses in these areas, many have already developed negative attitudes toward the sciences. Given little or no direct experience with the fields of genetics and biochemistry, it is likely that many young people rule these out as potential areas of study or career path. To address this problem, we developed a 7-week (~1 hr/week) hands-on course to introduce fifth grade students to basic concepts in genetics and biochemistry. These young students performed a series of investigations (ranging from examining phenotypic variation, in vitro enzymatic assays, and yeast genetic experiments) to explore scientific reasoning through direct experimentation. Despite the challenging material, the vast majority of students successfully completed each experiment, and most students reported that the experience increased their interest in science. Additionally, the experiments within the 7-week program are easily performed by instructors with basic skills in biological sciences. As such, this program can be implemented by others motivated to achieve a broader impact by increasing the accessibility of their university and communicating to a young audience a positive impression of the sciences and the potential for science as a career.

  15. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Franke, Lude; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about the

  16. Genetic structure of the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina: evidence for isolation by distance in Europe and recent founder effects overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrès, Benoît; Halkett, Fabien; Dutech, Cyril; Andrieux, Axelle; Pinon, Jean; Frey, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Dispersal has a great impact on the genetic structure of populations, but remains difficult to estimate by direct measures. In particular, gradual and stochastic dispersal are often difficult to assess and to distinguish, although they have different evolutionary consequences. Plant pathogens, especially rust fungi, are suspected to display both dispersal modes, though on different spatial scales. In this study, we inferred dispersal capacities of the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina by examining the genetic diversity and structure of 13 populations from eight European and two overseas countries in the Northern hemisphere. M. larici-populina was sampled from both cultivated hybrid poplars and on the wild host, Populus nigra. The populations were analyzed with 11 microsatellite and 8 virulence markers. Although isolates displayed different virulence profiles according to the host plant, neutral markers revealed little population differentiation with respect to the type of host. This suggests an absence of reproductive isolation between populations sampled from cultivated and wild poplars. Conversely, studying the relationship between geographic and genetic structure allowed us to distinguish between isolation by distance (IBD) patterns and long distance dispersal (LDD) events. The European populations exhibited a significant IBD pattern, suggesting a regular and gradual dispersal of the pathogen over this spatial scale. Nonetheless, the genetic differentiation between these populations was low, suggesting an important gene flow on a continental scale. The two overseas populations from Iceland and Canada were shown to result from rare LDD events, and exhibited signatures of strong founder effects. Furthermore, the high genetic differentiation between both populations suggested that these two recent introductions were independent. This study illustrated how the proper use of population genetics methods can enable contrasted dispersal modes to be revealed.

  17. Integrated Analysis of Genetic and Proteomic Data Identifies Biomarkers Associated with Adverse Events Following Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex clinical outcomes, such as adverse reaction to vaccination, arise from the concerted interactions among the myriad components of a biological system. Therefore, comprehensive etiological models can be developed only through the integrated study of multiple types of experi...

  18. An integrated rock-magnetic and geochemical approach to loess/paleosol sequences from Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic): Implications for the Upper Pleistocene paleoenvironment in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, J.; Hambach, U.; Lisá, Lenka; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Horáček, I.; Meszner, S.; Knésl, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 418, 15 January (2015), s. 344-358 ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : loess/paleosols sequences * rock-magnetism * geochemical proxies * Upper Pleistocene * paleoclimate * Central Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; DD - Geochemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.525, year: 2015

  19. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Measures to Foster Communication with Immigrant Families and Heritage Language Teaching for Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    This document talks about immigrant children, who are defined here as either children born in another country (within or outside Europe) or children whose parents or grandparents were born in another country. So the term "immigrant children" used here covers various situations, which can be referred to in other contexts as…

  20. Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: Integrating scalable psychological interventions in 8 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, M.; Acarturk, C.; Bird, M.; Bryant, R.A.; Burchert, S.; Carswell, K.; Dinesen, C.; Dawson, K.; Chammay, R.E.; van Ittersum, L.; de Jong, J.; Jordans, M.; Knaevelsrud, C.; McDaid, D.; Morina, N.; Miller, K.; Park, A.L.; Roberts, B.; van Son, Y.; Sondorp, E.; Pfaltz, M.C.; Ruttenberg, L.; Schick, M.; Schnyder, U.; van Ommeren, M.; Ventevogel, P.; Weissbecker, I.; Weitz, E.; Wiedemann, N.; Whitney, C.; Cuijpers, P.

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria’s neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not

  1. Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato: integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A; Hamilton, John P; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J

    2013-11-06

    The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker-based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal "pseudomolecules".

  2. Infection control, genetic assessment of drug resistance and drug susceptibility testing in the current management of multidrug/extensively-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, Graham H.; Lange, Christoph; Albrecht, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan......-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing. RESULTS: 68/105 responses gave valid information and were from countries within the WHO...... widely available (88%), even in lower income and especially in high incidence countries. Molecular tests for other first line and second line drugs were less accessible (76 and 52% respectively). A third of physicians considered that drug susceptibility results were delayed by > 2 months. CONCLUSION...

  3. Predictors of physical health: toward an integrated model of genetic and environmental antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Krueger, Robert F

    2005-03-01

    People in higher-income groups tend to experience better physical health, yet this does not appear to be the direct result of access to medical care. This has prompted a search for psychological factors more likely to be present in high-income environments that might help to explain the relationship. Physical health has been associated with a number of such psychological measures including positive affect and well-being, negative affect and neuroticism, positive social relationships, and perceived control. Building from recent findings of moderation of genetic variance in physical health by income and perceived control, we explore the genetic and environmental relationships among all these variables in a nationwide U.S. twin sample. These relationships suggest possible mechanisms by which psychological characteristics, behaviors, physical health, and environmental circumstances could be influenced by common groups of genes with varying degrees of activity in different environments. We discuss the implications of such mechanisms for differential expression of genetic variation in the population and suggest ways in which consideration of such effects can inform gerontology research.

  4. Sinbase: an integrated database to study genomics, genetics and comparative genomics in Sesamum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas. It belongs to the gigantic order Lamiales, which includes many well-known or economically important species, such as olive (Olea europaea), leonurus (Leonurus japonicus) and lavender (Lavandula spica), many of which have important pharmacological properties. Despite their importance, genetic and genomic analyses on these species have been insufficient due to a lack of reference genome information. The now available S. indicum genome will provide an unprecedented opportunity for studying both S. indicum genetic traits and comparative genomics. To deliver S. indicum genomic information to the worldwide research community, we designed Sinbase, a web-based database with comprehensive sesame genomic, genetic and comparative genomic information. Sinbase includes sequences of assembled sesame pseudomolecular chromosomes, protein-coding genes (27,148), transposable elements (372,167) and non-coding RNAs (1,748). In particular, Sinbase provides unique and valuable information on colinear regions with various plant genomes, including Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max, Vitis vinifera and Solanum lycopersicum. Sinbase also provides a useful search function and data mining tools, including a keyword search and local BLAST service. Sinbase will be updated regularly with new features, improvements to genome annotation and new genomic sequences, and is freely accessible at http://ocri-genomics.org/Sinbase/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. PhenoDB: an integrated client/server database for linkage and population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K H; Nadkarni, P; Silverstein, S; Kidd, J R; Pakstis, A J; Miller, P; Kidd, K K

    1996-08-01

    In this paper we describe PhenoDB, an Internet-accessible client/server database application for population and linkage genetics. PhenoDB stores genetic marker data on pedigrees and populations. A database for population and linkage genetics requires two core functions: data management tasks, such as interactive validation during data entry and editing, and data analysis tasks, such as generating summary population statistics and performing linkage analyses. In PhenoDB we attempt to make these tasks as easy as possible. The client/server architecture allows efficient management and manipulation of large datasets via an easy-to-use graphical interface. PhenoDB data (73 populations, 34 pedigrees, approximately 4200 individuals, and close to 80,000 typings) are stored in a generic format that can be readily exported to (or imported from) the file formats required by various existing analysis programs such as LIPED and Lathrop and Lalouel's Multipoint Linkage. PhenoDB allows performance of complex ad-hoc queries and can generate reports for use in project management. Finally, PhenoDB can produce statistical summaries such as allele frequencies, phenotype frequencies, and Chi-square tests of Hardy-Weinberg ratios of population/pedigree data.

  6. Activity Analysis of Water Rescue Services in Europe Compared with the Water Rescue Service of the Czech Red Cross as a Component of the Integrated Rescue System of the Czech Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    PROCHÁSKA, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to describe the role of the Water Rescue Service of the Czech Red Cross as a component of the Integrated Rescue System, and also to analyze and compare its activities with activities, skills and the material-technical equipment with other three randomly selected Water Rescue Services in Europe (Slovak Red Cross - Water Rescue Service, Irish Water Safety, The Royal Life Saving Society UK). One of the major benefits of the diploma thesis was a proposal how to improve th...

  7. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; McGregor, Cecilia; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Cai, Wantao; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yong

    2014-01-20

    Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over previous watermelon genetic maps. A

  8. An integrated genetic map based on four mapping populations and quantitative trait loci associated with economically important traits in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) cultivars share a narrow genetic base due to many years of selection for desirable horticultural qualities. Wild subspecies within C. lanatus are important potential sources of novel alleles for watermelon breeding, but successful trait introgression into elite cultivars has had limited success. The application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in watermelon is yet to be realized, mainly due to the past lack of high quality genetic maps. Recently, a number of useful maps have become available, however these maps have few common markers, and were constructed using different marker sets, thus, making integration and comparative analysis among maps difficult. The objective of this research was to use single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) anchor markers to construct an integrated genetic map for C. lanatus. Results Under the framework of the high density genetic map, an integrated genetic map was constructed by merging data from four independent mapping experiments using a genetically diverse array of parental lines, which included three subspecies of watermelon. The 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel), 36 structure variation (SV) and 386 SNP markers from the four maps were used to construct an integrated map. This integrated map contained 1339 markers, spanning 798 cM with an average marker interval of 0.6 cM. Fifty-eight previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 12 traits in these populations were also integrated into the map. In addition, new QTL identified for brix, fructose, glucose and sucrose were added. Some QTL associated with economically important traits detected in different genetic backgrounds mapped to similar genomic regions of the integrated map, suggesting that such QTL are responsible for the phenotypic variability observed in a broad array of watermelon germplasm. Conclusions The integrated map described herein enhances the utility of genomic tools over

  9. Living Apart Together in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. van Aubel; F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA couple of years ago Joschka Fischer, the German minister of Foreign Affairs articulated his European dream, calling for a specification of the 'Finalität', that is the ultimate goal of the process of European integration. It came at a moment that Europe is challenged by two conflicting

  10. Cooperative associations. Europe's Third Way?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, F.B.A. (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    The main stream literature on social justice and European integration distinguishes between three models of providing social justice in Europe: the family, the market and the state. Markets have demonstrated their limitations in the current economic crises, and New Public Management quickly

  11. Population genetics of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Europe reveal source-sink dynamics and secondary dispersal to the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Sören; Fuentes, Veronica; Haslob, Holger

    2013-01-01

    in population structure during a 3-yr interval using 7 highly polymorphic microsatellites (representing 191 alleles). A second goal was to reconstruct routes of recent invasive range expansion into the Mediterranean Sea. During the study period (2008-2010) populations in North Sea and Western Baltic Sea...... maintained their allelic composition with virtually unchanged levels of genetic diversity and between-population differentiation. This demonstrates that gene flow between the two regions was limited and indicates successful reproduction in both areas. In contrast, at the eastern distribution limit...... in the central Baltic (Bornholm Basin) the same measures fluctuated between years and genetic diversity decreased from 2008-2010. In concordance with prior ecological observations, this supports the view that here M. leidyi formed a sink population. In the area of recent range expansion (Mediterranean Sea) we...

  12. Improving influenza virological surveillance in Europe: strain-based reporting of antigenic and genetic characterisation data, 11 European countries, influenza season 2013/14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Eeva; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Prosenc, Katarina; Daniels, Rod; Guiomar, Raquel; Ikonen, Niina; Kossyvakis, Athanasios; Pozo, Francisco; Puzelli, Simona; Thomas, Isabelle; Waters, Allison; Wiman, Åsa; Meijer, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data are crucial for influenza vaccine composition decision making. Previously, aggregate data were reported to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control by European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. A system for collecting case-specific influenza antigenic and genetic characterisation data was established for the 2013/14 influenza season. In a pilot study, 11 EU/EEA countries reported through the new mechanism. We demonstrated feasibility of reporting strain-based antigenic and genetic data and ca 10% of influenza virus-positive specimens were selected for further characterisation. Proportions of characterised virus (sub)types were similar to influenza virus circulation levels. The main genetic clades were represented by A/StPetersburg/27/2011(H1N1)pdm09 and A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2). A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were more prevalent in age groups (by years) viruses were most prevalent in those ≥ 65 years (62%*; p = 0.0012). Hospitalised patients in the age groups 6–19 years (67%; p = 0.0494) and ≥ 65 years (52%; p = 0.0005) were more frequently infected by A/Texas/50/2012 A(H3N2)-like viruses compared with hospitalised cases in other age groups. Strain-based reporting enabled deeper understanding of influenza virus circulation among hospitalised patients and substantially improved the reporting of virus characterisation data. Therefore, strain-based reporting of readily available data is recommended to all reporting countries within the EU/EEA. PMID:27762211

  13. Genes mirror geography within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novembre, John; Johnson, Toby; Bryc, Katarzyna; Kutalik, Zoltán; Boyko, Adam R; Auton, Adam; Indap, Amit; King, Karen S; Bergmann, Sven; Nelson, Matthew R; Stephens, Matthew; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2008-11-06

    Understanding the genetic structure of human populations is of fundamental interest to medical, forensic and anthropological sciences. Advances in high-throughput genotyping technology have markedly improved our understanding of global patterns of human genetic variation and suggest the potential to use large samples to uncover variation among closely spaced populations. Here we characterize genetic variation in a sample of 3,000 European individuals genotyped at over half a million variable DNA sites in the human genome. Despite low average levels of genetic differentiation among Europeans, we find a close correspondence between genetic and geographic distances; indeed, a geographical map of Europe arises naturally as an efficient two-dimensional summary of genetic variation in Europeans. The results emphasize that when mapping the genetic basis of a disease phenotype, spurious associations can arise if genetic structure is not properly accounted for. In addition, the results are relevant to the prospects of genetic ancestry testing; an individual's DNA can be used to infer their geographic origin with surprising accuracy-often to within a few hundred kilometres.

  14. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  15. Integrative taxonomic approach to the cryptic diversity of Diplostomum spp. in lymnaeid snails from Europe with a focus on the ‘Diplostomum mergi’ species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selbach, C.; Soldánová, Miroslava; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Sures, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, JUN 3 2015 (2015), s. 300 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14198S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ‘Diplostomum mergi’ species complex * Diplostomum parviventosum * Diplostomum pseudospathaceum * Diplostomum spathaceum, * Radix auricularia * Lymnaea stagnalis * Stagnicola palustris * Cercariae * cox1 * ITS * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  16. Genetics of borderline personality disorder: systematic review and proposal of an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amad, Ali; Ramoz, Nicolas; Thomas, Pierre; Jardri, Renaud; Gorwood, Philip

    2014-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most common mental disorders and is characterized by a pervasive pattern of emotional lability, impulsivity, interpersonal difficulties, identity disturbances, and disturbed cognition. Here, we performed a systematic review of the literature concerning the genetics of BPD, including familial and twin studies, association studies, and gene-environment interaction studies. Moreover, meta-analyses were performed when at least two case-control studies testing the same polymorphism were available. For each gene variant, a pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using fixed or random effects models. Familial and twin studies largely support the potential role of a genetic vulnerability at the root of BPD, with an estimated heritability of approximately 40%. Moreover, there is evidence for both gene-environment interactions and correlations. However, association studies for BPD are sparse, making it difficult to draw clear conclusions. According to our meta-analysis, no significant associations were found for the serotonin transporter gene, the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 gene, or the serotonin 1B receptor gene. We hypothesize that such a discrepancy (negative association studies but high heritability of the disorder) could be understandable through a paradigm shift, in which "plasticity" genes (rather than "vulnerability" genes) would be involved. Such a framework postulates a balance between positive and negative events, which interact with plasticity genes in the genesis of BPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic differentiation of populations of the threatened saproxylic beetle Rosalia longicorn, Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Central and South-east Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drag, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Bérces, S.; Michalcewicz, J.; Šerić Jelaska, L.; Aurenhammer, S.; Čížek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 4 (2015), s. 911-925 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-168/2013/P; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : beech * conservation * Natura 2000 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12624/epdf

  18. PV-PCM integration in glazed building. Co-simulation and genetic optimization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elarga, Hagar; Dal Monte, Andrea; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2017-01-01

    The study describes a multi-objective optimization algorithm for an innovative integration of forced ventilated PV-PCM modules in glazed façade buildings: the aim is to identify and optimize the parameters that most affect thermal and energy performances. 1-D model, finite difference method FDM......, thermal resistances technique and enthalpy method were applied to describe different façade solutions and transient thermal performance of PCM. The coupling between the PV-PCM façade code implemented in MATLAB and the TRNSYS software was developed to estimate the dynamic thermal energy profiles....... An exploratory step has also been considered prior to the optimization algorithm: it evaluates the energy profiles before and after the application of PCM to PV module integrated in glazed building. The optimization analysis investigate parameters such as ventilation flow rates and time schedule to obtain...

  19. Secondary Analysis and Integration of Existing Data to Elucidate the Genetic Architecture of Cancer Risk and Related Outcomes, R01 | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) encourages applications that propose to conduct secondary data analysis and integration of existing datasets and database resources, with the ultimate aim to elucidate the genetic architecture of cancer risk and related outcomes. The goal of this initiative is to address key scientific questions relevant to cancer epidemiology by supporting the analysis of existing genetic or genomic datasets, possibly in combination with environmental, outcomes, behavioral, lifestyle, and molecular profiles data.

  20. Secondary Analysis and Integration of Existing Data to Elucidate the Genetic Architecture of Cancer Risk and Related Outcomes, R21 | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) encourages applications that propose to conduct secondary data analysis and integration of existing datasets and database resources, with the ultimate aim to elucidate the genetic architecture of cancer risk and related outcomes. The goal of this initiative is to address key scientific questions relevant to cancer epidemiology by supporting the analysis of existing genetic or genomic datasets, possibly in combination with environmental, outcomes, behavioral, lifestyle, and molecular profiles data.

  1. Destination Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjef Ederveen; Paul Dekker; Albert van der Horst; Wink Joosten; Tom van der Meer; Paul Tang; Marcel Coenders; Marcel Lubbers; Han Nicolaas; Peer Scheepers; Arno Sprangers; Johan van der Valk

    2004-01-01

    Immigration and integration have been important topics in Dutch society and politics in recent years. Problems and experiences abroad have been looked at on a few occasions, but generally this went no further than the neighbouring countries, and the European dimensions of the phenomena received

  2. MolabIS--an integrated information system for storing and managing molecular genetics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Cong V C; Groeneveld, Linn F; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Groeneveld, Eildert

    2011-10-31

    Long-term sample storage, tracing of data flow and data export for subsequent analyses are of great importance in genetics studies. Therefore, molecular labs do need a proper information system to handle an increasing amount of data from different projects. We have developed a molecular labs information management system (MolabIS). It was implemented as a web-based system allowing the users to capture original data at each step of their workflow. MolabIS provides essential functionality for managing information on individuals, tracking samples and storage locations, capturing raw files, importing final data from external files, searching results, accessing and modifying data. Further important features are options to generate ready-to-print reports and convert sequence and microsatellite data into various data formats, which can be used as input files in subsequent analyses. Moreover, MolabIS also provides a tool for data migration. MolabIS is designed for small-to-medium sized labs conducting Sanger sequencing and microsatellite genotyping to store and efficiently handle a relative large amount of data. MolabIS not only helps to avoid time consuming tasks but also ensures the availability of data for further analyses. The software is packaged as a virtual appliance which can run on different platforms (e.g. Linux, Windows). MolabIS can be distributed to a wide range of molecular genetics labs since it was developed according to a general data model. Released under GPL, MolabIS is freely available at http://www.molabis.org.

  3. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  4. Refinement of genetic and structural models of the Úrkút manganese ore deposit (W-Hungary, Europe) using statistical evaluation of archive data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Lóránt; Polgári, Márta; Tóth, Tivadar; Vigh, Tamás

    2012-09-01

    Although the Úrkút manganese ore deposit in western placecountry-regionHungary has been exploited for at least 90 years, there are still numerous open questions concerning ore genetics as well as structure and geometry of the ore body. A large set of available archive data for the deposit have been reviewed and evaluated in order to solve some of the most crucial problems. For processing, besides diverse GIS approaches, univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used on the created unified database. The main aims of the mathematical treatment were giving a classification scheme for the wide spectrum of Mn-ores based on their chemical composition (Mn, Fe, Si, P) as well as evaluation of their spatial distribution. For the ore characterization and understanding the genetic processes, cluster and discriminant function analyses were used. Results of the multivariate treatment verified the existence of different ore types and provided an exact chemical definition for all of them. It alsoinferred that the main geochemical processes that took place in ore genesis were similar for all sample groups (ore types) with significantly different weights in each case. A 3D evaluation of the Úrkút mine heading map system shows that the ore body covers the footwall surface as a stratiform sheet throughout the study area. Palaeo-relief studies suggest a significant difference between the footwall and hanging wall morphologies which clearly implies tectonic activity following ore deposition. The deposit was affected by an E-W compression stress field near the Aptian-Albian transition causing folding of the Mn deposit.

  5. Toward allotetraploid cotton genome assembly: integration of a high-density molecular genetic linkage map with DNA sequence information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fiber and a significant oilseed crop. Decoding cotton genomes will provide the ultimate reference and resource for research and utilization of the species. Integration of high-density genetic maps with genomic sequence information will largely accelerate the process of whole-genome assembly in cotton. Results In this paper, we update a high-density interspecific genetic linkage map of allotetraploid cultivated cotton. An additional 1,167 marker loci have been added to our previously published map of 2,247 loci. Three new marker types, InDel (insertion-deletion) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) developed from gene information, and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism), were used to increase map density. The updated map consists of 3,414 loci in 26 linkage groups covering 3,667.62 cM with an average inter-locus distance of 1.08 cM. Furthermore, genome-wide sequence analysis was finished using 3,324 informative sequence-based markers and publicly-available Gossypium DNA sequence information. A total of 413,113 EST and 195 BAC sequences were physically anchored and clustered by 3,324 sequence-based markers. Of these, 14,243 ESTs and 188 BACs from different species of Gossypium were clustered and specifically anchored to the high-density genetic map. A total of 2,748 candidate unigenes from 2,111 ESTs clusters and 63 BACs were mined for functional annotation and classification. The 337 ESTs/genes related to fiber quality traits were integrated with 132 previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci, which demonstrated the important roles in fiber quality of these genes. Higher-level sequence conservation between different cotton species and between the A- and D-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton was found, indicating a common evolutionary origin for orthologous and paralogous loci in Gossypium. Conclusion This study will serve as a valuable genomic resource

  6. Integrative Genetic and Epigenetic Analysis Uncovers Regulatory Mechanisms of Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Parisa; Huang, Hailiang; Cotsapas, Chris

    2017-07-06

    Genome-wide association studies in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (AID) have uncovered hundreds of loci mediating risk. These associations are preferentially located in non-coding DNA regions and in particular in tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs). While these analyses clearly demonstrate the overall enrichment of disease risk alleles on gene regulatory regions, they are not designed to identify individual regulatory regions mediating risk or the genes under their control, and thus uncover the specific molecular events driving disease risk. To do so we have departed from standard practice by identifying regulatory regions which replicate across samples and connect them to the genes they control through robust re-analysis of public data. We find significant evidence of regulatory potential in 78/301 (26%) risk loci across nine autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and we find that individual genes are targeted by these effects in 53/78 (68%) of these. Thus, we are able to generate testable mechanistic hypotheses of the molecular changes that drive disease risk. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of a novel integration-deficient lentivector technology that incorporates genetic and posttranslational elements to target human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareen, Semih U; Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Nicolai, Christopher J; Cassiano, Linda A; Nelson, Lisa T; Slough, Megan M; Vin, Chintan D; Odegard, Jared M; Sloan, Derek D; Van Hoeven, Neal; Allen, James M; Dubensky, Thomas W; Robbins, Scott H

    2014-03-01

    As sentinels of the immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in regulating cellular immune responses. One of the main challenges of developing DC-targeted therapies includes the delivery of antigen to DCs in order to promote the activation of antigen-specific effector CD8 T cells. With the goal of creating antigen-directed immunotherapeutics that can be safely administered directly to patients, Immune Design has developed a platform of novel integration-deficient lentiviral vectors that target and deliver antigen-encoding nucleic acids to human DCs. This platform, termed ID-VP02, utilizes a novel genetic variant of a Sindbis virus envelope glycoprotein with posttranslational carbohydrate modifications in combination with Vpx, a SIVmac viral accessory protein, to achieve efficient targeting and transduction of human DCs. In addition, ID-VP02 incorporates safety features in its design that include two redundant mechanisms to render ID-VP02 integration-deficient. Here, we describe the characteristics that allow ID-VP02 to specifically transduce human DCs, and the advances that ID-VP02 brings to conventional third-generation lentiviral vector design as well as demonstrate upstream production yields that will enable manufacturing feasibility studies to be conducted.

  8. Functional properties and synaptic integration of genetically labelled dopaminergic neurons in intrastriatal grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas Toft; Thompson, Lachlan; Kirik, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    , the electrophysiological properties grafted cells need to have in order to induce substantial functional recovery are poorly defined. It has not been possible to prospectively identify and record from dopaminergic neurons in fetal transplants. Here we used transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under control...... of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of endogenous and grafted dopaminergic neurons. We transplanted ventral mesencephalic tissue from E12.5 transgenic mice into striatum of neonatal rats with or without lesions of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The transplanted...... in the dopamine-depleted striatum than of those in the intact striatum. Our findings define specific electrophysiological characteristics of transplanted fetal dopaminergic neurons, and we provide the first direct evidence of functional synaptic integration of these neurons into host neural circuitries....

  9. Promoting similarity of model sparsity structures in integrative analysis of cancer genetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Liu, Jin; Yi, Huangdi; Shia, Ben-Chang; Ma, Shuangge

    2017-02-10

    In profiling studies, the analysis of a single dataset often leads to unsatisfactory results because of the small sample size. Multi-dataset analysis utilizes information of multiple independent datasets and outperforms single-dataset analysis. Among the available multi-dataset analysis methods, integrative analysis methods aggregate and analyze raw data and outperform meta-analysis methods, which analyze multiple datasets separately and then pool summary statistics. In this study, we conduct integrative analysis and marker selection under the heterogeneity structure, which allows different datasets to have overlapping but not necessarily identical sets of markers. Under certain scenarios, it is reasonable to expect some similarity of identified marker sets - or equivalently, similarity of model sparsity structures - across multiple datasets. However, the existing methods do not have a mechanism to explicitly promote such similarity. To tackle this problem, we develop a sparse boosting method. This method uses a BIC/HDBIC criterion to select weak learners in boosting and encourages sparsity. A new penalty is introduced to promote the similarity of model sparsity structures across datasets. The proposed method has a intuitive formulation and is broadly applicable and computationally affordable. In numerical studies, we analyze right censored survival data under the accelerated failure time model. Simulation shows that the proposed method outperforms alternative boosting and penalization methods with more accurate marker identification. The analysis of three breast cancer prognosis datasets shows that the proposed method can identify marker sets with increased similarity across datasets and improved prediction performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For

  11. Geographical and genetic factors do not account for significant differences in the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis in southern europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Boiardi, Luigi; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Amor-Dorado, Juan C; Salvarani, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    To investigate whether genetic and geographical differences may influence the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis (GCA), we compared the demographic and clinical features of patients with biopsy-proven GCA from Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy) and Lugo (Northwest Spain) during a 15-year period. We performed a retrospective review of the case records of all patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven GCA at Hospital Xeral-Calde (Lugo, Spain) and Hospital Santa Maria Nuova (Reggio Emilia, Italy) between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 2001. Both hospitals are the only referral centers for populations living in central Galicia and central Emilia Romagna, respectively. During the period of study, 194 Lugo residents and 126 Reggio Emilia residents were diagnosed with biopsy proven GCA. Reggio Emilia patients were more likely to be female (74% vs 54%; p = 0.0001). Although Lugo patients complained of headache (86%) more commonly than did those from Reggio Emilia (77%), the difference was only marginally significant (p = 0.05). The proportion of patients with visual manifestations or visual loss was remarkably similar (22% for visual manifestations and 17% for visual loss in Lugo and 29% and 21% for Reggio Emilia residents). The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate prior to the onset of therapy was also similar. Apart from differences in sex, the clinical spectrum of GCA in these 2 Southern European regions was similar.

  12. "Return" migration intentions among second-generation Turks in Europe: the effect of integration and transnationalism in a cross-national perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Data from The Integration of the European Second Generation (TIES) project were used to examine the determinants of ‘return’ intentions among the Turkish second generation in several European cities. Theory-derived hypotheses on the effects of economic and socio-cultural integration and

  13. How the effects of aging and stresses of life are integrated in mortality rates: insights for genetic studies of human health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, Anatoliy I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Arbeeva, Liubov S; Wu, Deqing; Akushevich, Igor; Kovtun, Mikhail; Yashkin, Arseniy; Kulminski, Alexander; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Li, Miaozhu; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V

    2016-02-01

    Increasing proportions of elderly individuals in developed countries combined with substantial increases in related medical expenditures make the improvement of the health of the elderly a high priority today. If the process of aging by individuals is a major cause of age related health declines then postponing aging could be an efficient strategy for improving the health of the elderly. Implementing this strategy requires a better understanding of genetic and non-genetic connections among aging, health, and longevity. We review progress and problems in research areas whose development may contribute to analyses of such connections. These include genetic studies of human aging and longevity, the heterogeneity of populations with respect to their susceptibility to disease and death, forces that shape age patterns of human mortality, secular trends in mortality decline, and integrative mortality modeling using longitudinal data. The dynamic involvement of genetic factors in (i) morbidity/mortality risks, (ii) responses to stresses of life, (iii) multi-morbidities of many elderly individuals, (iv) trade-offs for diseases, (v) genetic heterogeneity, and (vi) other relevant aging-related health declines, underscores the need for a comprehensive, integrated approach to analyze the genetic connections for all of the above aspects of aging-related changes. The dynamic relationships among aging, health, and longevity traits would be better understood if one linked several research fields within one conceptual framework that allowed for efficient analyses of available longitudinal data using the wealth of available knowledge about aging, health, and longevity already accumulated in the research field.

  14. Ankle bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft survivorship and integration: transplanted tissue genetic typing and phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Simona; Vannini, Francesca; Desando, Giovanna; Grigolo, Brunella; Ruffilli, Alberto; Buda, Roberto; Facchini, Andrea; Giannini, Sandro

    2013-10-16

    Fresh osteochondral allografts represent a treatment option for early ankle posttraumatic arthritis. Transplanted cartilage survivorship, integration, and colonization by recipient cells have not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of recipient cells to colonize the allograft cartilage and to assess allograft cell phenotype. Seventeen ankle allograft samples were studied. Retrieved allograft cartilage DNA from fifteen cases was compared with recipient and donor constitutional DNA by genotyping. In addition, gene expression was evaluated on six allograft cartilage samples by means of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to support molecular observations. Of fifteen genotyped allografts, ten completely matched to the host, three matched to the donor, and two showed a mixed profile. Gene expression analysis showed that grafted cartilage expressed cartilage-specific markers. The rare persistence of donor cells and the prevailing presence of host DNA in retrieved ankle allografts suggest the ingrowth of recipient cells into the allograft cartilage, presumably migrating from the subchondral bone, in accordance with morphological findings. The expression of chondrogenic markers in some of the samples argues for the acquisition of a chondrocyte-like phenotype by these cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the colonization of ankle allograft cartilage by host cells showing the acquisition of a chondrocyte-like phenotype.

  15. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Xu, Pei; Cao, Peijian; Wan, Hongjian; Lv, Xiaonan; Xu, Shengchun; Wang, Gangjun; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng

    2018-01-01

    Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE) but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1), down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2), up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS) and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3), and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4). We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA) signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  16. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1, down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2, up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3, and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4. We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  17. Editorial: Modern Challenges for International Business in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek KLICH

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation,  integration,  regionalisation  or  integration  processes  are  indeed  very crucial for local businesses, which more and more often think globally and act locally (Kefalas, 1998), especially in Europe, thus globalisation and Europeanisation processes are currently key contemporary challenges for international businesses in Europe.

  18. Editorial: Modern Challenges for International Business in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek KLICH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation,  integration,  regionalisation  or  integration  processes  are  indeed  very crucial for local businesses, which more and more often think globally and act locally (Kefalas, 1998, especially in Europe, thus globalisation and Europeanisation processes are currently key contemporary challenges for international businesses in Europe.

  19. Prevalence of microcephaly in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Rankin, Judith; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of microcephaly in Europe, determine if the diagnosis of microcephaly is consistent across Europe, and evaluate whether changes in prevalence would be detected using the current European surveillance performed by EUROCAT (the European...... Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies). DESIGN: Questionnaire and population based observational study. SETTING: 24 EUROCAT registries covering 570 000 births annually in 15 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Cases of microcephaly not associated with a genetic condition among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks......' gestation, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly at any gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of microcephaly (1 Jan 2003-31 Dec 2012) analysed with random effects Poisson regression models to account for heterogeneity across registries. RESULTS: 16 registries responded to the questionnaire...

  20. The Enhanced Locating Performance of an Integrated Cross-Correlation and Genetic Algorithm for Radio Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tang Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of wireless broadband communication technology has affected the location accuracy of worldwide radio monitoring stations that employ time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA location technology. In this study, TDOA-based location technology was implemented in Taiwan for the first time according to International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication (ITU-R recommendations regarding monitoring and location applications. To improve location accuracy, various scenarios, such as a three-dimensional environment (considering an unequal locating antenna configuration, were investigated. Subsequently, the proposed integrated cross-correlation and genetic algorithm was evaluated in the metropolitan area of Tainan. The results indicated that the location accuracy at a circular error probability of 50% was less than 60 m when a multipath effect was present in the area. Moreover, compared with hyperbolic algorithms that have been applied in conventional TDOA-based location systems, the proposed algorithm yielded 17-fold and 19-fold improvements in the mean difference when the location position of the interference station was favorable and unfavorable, respectively. Hence, the various forms of radio interference, such as low transmission power, burst and weak signals, and metropolitan interference, was proved to be easily identified, located, and removed.

  1. Process modeling and optimization of industrial ethylene oxide reactor by integrating support vector regression and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Lahiri, S.; Khalfe, N. [National Inst. of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-02-15

    Process modeling and optimization strategies that integrate support vector regression (SVR) with differential evolution were used to model and optimize the commercial catalytic process for ethylene oxide (EO). EO is produced commercially in a shell and tube type EO reactor by reacting oxygen and ethylene at high temperature and pressure in the presence of a silver-based catalyst. The oxidation of ethylene involves a main reaction producing EO and an undesirable side reaction producing carbon dioxide. In this study, a process model was developed using an SVR method and genetic algorithms (GAs) that maximize the process performance. The optimized solutions, when verified in an actual industrial plant, resulted in a significant improvement in the EO production rate and catalyst selectivity. In the SVR-GA approach, an SVR model was constructed for correlating process data comprising values of operating and performance variables. Next, model inputs describing process operating variables were optimized using GAs to maximize the process performance. The GA has some unique advantages over the commonly used gradient-based deterministic optimization algorithms. The major advantage of the SVR-GA strategy is that modeling and optimization can be conducted exclusively from the historic process data wherein the detailed knowledge of reaction mechanism or kinetics is not required. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. A fuzzy-random programming for integrated closed-loop logistics network design by using priority-based genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Kamandanipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of used products has steadily become interesting issue for research due to economic reasons and growing environmental or legislative concern. This paper presents a closed-loop logistics network design based on reverse logistics models. A mixed integer linear programming model is implemented to integrate logistics network design in order to prevent the sub-optimality caused by the separate design of the forward and reverse networks. The study presents a single product and multi-stage logistics network problem for the new and return products not only to determine subsets of logistics centers to be opened, but also to determine transportation strategy, which satisfies demand imposed by facilities and minimizes fixed opening and total shipping costs. Since the deterministic estimation of some parameters such as demand and rate of return of used products in closed loop logistics models is impractical, an uncertain programming is proposed. In this case, we assume there are several economic conditions with predefined probabilities calculated from historical data. Then by means of expert's opinion, a fuzzy variable is offered as customer's demand under each economic condition. In addition, demand and rate of return of products for each customer zone is presented by fuzzy-random variables, similarly. Therefore, a fuzzy-random programming is used and a priority-based genetic algorithm is proposed to solve large-scale problems.

  3. An integrated portfolio optimisation procedure based on data envelopment analysis, artificial bee colony algorithm and genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Ming

    2014-12-01

    Portfolio optimisation is an important issue in the field of investment/financial decision-making and has received considerable attention from both researchers and practitioners. However, besides portfolio optimisation, a complete investment procedure should also include the selection of profitable investment targets and determine the optimal timing for buying/selling the investment targets. In this study, an integrated procedure using data envelopment analysis (DEA), artificial bee colony (ABC) and genetic programming (GP) is proposed to resolve a portfolio optimisation problem. The proposed procedure is evaluated through a case study on investing in stocks in the semiconductor sub-section of the Taiwan stock market for 4 years. The potential average 6-month return on investment of 9.31% from 1 November 2007 to 31 October 2011 indicates that the proposed procedure can be considered a feasible and effective tool for making outstanding investment plans, and thus making profits in the Taiwan stock market. Moreover, it is a strategy that can help investors to make profits even when the overall stock market suffers a loss.

  4. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-03-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5'-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Universal Aspirations - The Muslim Brotherhood In Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood has advocated a holistic vision of Islam as being both a political ideology and a social doctrine. This vision is now also propagated in Europe, where members and sympathizers of the Brotherhood form a largely informal but nevertheless quite influential movement. The author argues that the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe, while encouraging citizenship and integration within European societies, still promotes the totalizing discourse of the day...

  6. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  7. Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: integrating scalable psychological interventions in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria's neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees.

  8. Strengthening mental health care systems for Syrian refugees in Europe and the Middle East: integrating scalable psychological interventions in eight countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Acarturk, Ceren; Bird, Martha; Bryant, Richard A; Burchert, Sebastian; Carswell, Kenneth; de Jong, Joop; Dinesen, Cecilie; Dawson, Katie S.; El Chammay, Rabih; van Ittersum, Linde; Jordans, Mark; Knaevelsrud, Christine; McDaid, David; Miller, Kenneth; Morina, Naser; Park, A-La; Roberts, Bayard; van Son, Yvette; Sondorp, Egbert; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Ruttenberg, Leontien; Schick, Matthis; Schnyder, Ulrich; van Ommeren, Mark; Ventevogel, Peter; Weissbecker, Inka; Weitz, Erica; Wiedemann, Nana; Whitney, Claire; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis in Syria has resulted in vast numbers of refugees seeking asylum in Syria’s neighbouring countries as well as in Europe. Refugees are at considerable risk of developing common mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most refugees do not have access to mental health services for these problems because of multiple barriers in national and refugee specific health systems, including limited availability of mental health professionals. To counter some of challenges arising from limited mental health system capacity the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a range of scalable psychological interventions aimed at reducing psychological distress and improving functioning in people living in communities affected by adversity. These interventions, including Problem Management Plus (PM+) and its variants, are intended to be delivered through individual or group face-to-face or smartphone formats by lay, non-professional people who have not received specialized mental health training, We provide an evidence-based rationale for the use of the scalable PM+ oriented programmes being adapted for Syrian refugees and provide information on the newly launched STRENGTHS programme for adapting, testing and scaling up of PM+ in various modalities in both neighbouring and European countries hosting Syrian refugees. PMID:29163867

  9. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Europe: Research Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Mehrsprachigkeit in Schule und Unterricht. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Stephan, Ed.; Viebrock, Britta, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning has received a strong tailwind in European educational and language policies. It is on the verge of becoming a mainstream phenomenon. However, an overly speedy implementation of "CLIL for all" might bear a number of risks for all groups of stakeholders. The purpose of this book is to link the…

  10. The dominance of the Lisbon agreement as a barrier for an environmentally oriented transport policy in Europe : The gap between theory and implementation in policy integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, H.; Van der Sluis-van Meijeren, M.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for policy integration in a number of policy areas. This is also the case when it comes to the ambition to realize a sustainable transport system, where seemingly contrasting issues such as economic growth and the related negative effects, increasing emissions for

  11. CĂTĂLIN NICOLAE POPA, SIMON STODDART (EDS., FINGERPRINTING THE IRON AGE. APPROACHES TO IDENTITY IN THE EUROPEAN IRON AGE – INTEGRATING SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE INTO THE DEBATE, OXFORD – PHILADELPHIA, OXBOW BOOKS, 2014, 428 PP., ISBN 978-1-78297-675-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hent Alin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cătălin Nicolae Popa, Simon Stoddart (eds., Fingerprinting the Iron Age. Approaches to Identity in the European Iron Age – Integrating South-Eastern Europe into the Debate, Oxford – Philadelphia, Oxbow Books, 2014, 428 pp., ISBN 978-1-78297-675-2

  12. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This document is a summary of the key technical inputs for the modelling of the heat strategy for Europe outlined in the latest Heat Roadmap Europe studies [1, 2]. These studies quantify the impact of alternative heating strategies for Europe in 2030 and 2050. The study is based on geographical...... information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... to model increased penetrations of district heating in the EU energy system in other energy planning tools, such as the PRIMES and JRC-EU-TIMES tools. The key results from the Heat Roadmap Europe studies are that:  Heat savings have a key role to play, but there is a socio-economic limit: after reducing...

  13. Horizontal integration of OMIM across the medical school preclinical curriculum for early reinforcement of clinical genetics principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Adam C; Reader, Lauren; Hamosh, Ada; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2015-02-01

    With the relentless expansion of genetics into every field of medicine, stronger preclinical and clinical medical student education in genetics is needed. The explosion of genetic information cannot be addressed by simply adding content hours. We proposed that students be provided a tool to access accurate clinical information on genetic conditions and, through this tool, build life-long learning habits to carry them through their medical careers. Surveys conducted at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine revealed that medical students in all years lacked confidence when approaching genetic conditions and lacked a reliable resource for accurate genetic information. In response, the school created a horizontal thread that stretches across the first-year curriculum and is devoted to teaching students how to use Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) (http://omim.org) and the databases to which it links as a starting point for approaching genetic conditions. The thread improved the first-year students' confidence in clinical genetics concepts and encouraged use of OMIM as a primary source for genetic information. Most students showed confidence in OMIM as a learning tool and wanted to see the thread repeated in subsequent years. Incorporating OMIM into the preclinical curriculum improved students' confidence in clinical genetics concepts.

  14. Biogas/fossil gas options. The future for integration of biogas in the natural gas sector in Denmark and in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biering Jensen, A. [Naturgas Midt-Nord, Viborg (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    Naturgas Midt-Nord is a company with the purpose of distributing and selling natural gas. The company is owned by 73 municipalities in the 4 counties in the northern part of Jutland. In this respect we cover almost 50% of the Danish farming areas. Since the company was established in 1983, almost 775 kilometres or 40 bar high-pressure pipes and 3,500 kilometres of 4 bar low-pressure pipes have been built. From time to time we have discussed the matter of biogas in the company. In relation to the distribution of natural gas, the integration of biogas could either be seen as a threat or a possibility to expand our business. It is still not quite clear for us, what part we should play with regards to biogas integration. (au)

  15. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...

  16. Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis identifies haplotype-specific methylation in the FTO type 2 diabetes and obesity susceptibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Bell

    Full Text Available Recent multi-dimensional approaches to the study of complex disease have revealed powerful insights into how genetic and epigenetic factors may underlie their aetiopathogenesis. We examined genotype-epigenotype interactions in the context of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D, focussing on known regions of genomic susceptibility. We assayed DNA methylation in 60 females, stratified according to disease susceptibility haplotype using previously identified association loci. CpG methylation was assessed using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation on a targeted array (MeDIP-chip and absolute methylation values were estimated using a Bayesian algorithm (BATMAN. Absolute methylation levels were quantified across LD blocks, and we identified increased DNA methylation on the FTO obesity susceptibility haplotype, tagged by the rs8050136 risk allele A (p = 9.40×10(-4, permutation p = 1.0×10(-3. Further analysis across the 46 kb LD block using sliding windows localised the most significant difference to be within a 7.7 kb region (p = 1.13×10(-7. Sequence level analysis, followed by pyrosequencing validation, revealed that the methylation difference was driven by the co-ordinated phase of CpG-creating SNPs across the risk haplotype. This 7.7 kb region of haplotype-specific methylation (HSM, encapsulates a Highly Conserved Non-Coding Element (HCNE that has previously been validated as a long-range enhancer, supported by the histone H3K4me1 enhancer signature. This study demonstrates that integration of Genome-Wide Association (GWA SNP and epigenomic DNA methylation data can identify potential novel genotype-epigenotype interactions within disease-associated loci, thus providing a novel route to aid unravelling common complex diseases.

  17. A genetic map of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with integrated physical mapping of immunity-related genes

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Johana Carolina; Ortiz, Juan Felipe; Perlaza-Jim?nez, Laura; V?squez, Andrea Ximena; Lopez-Lavalle, Luis Augusto Becerra; Mathew, Boby; L?on, Jens; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Ballvora, Agim; L?pez, Camilo Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Background Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, is one of the most important crops world-wide representing the staple security for more than one billion of people. The development of dense genetic and physical maps, as the basis for implementing genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the rate of genetic gains in breeding program represents a significant challenge. A reference genome sequence for cassava has been made recently available and community efforts are underway for improving it...

  18. Kanonisk sikkerhed og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Vibe; Øland, Trine

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer, med indragelse af den lignende debat i andre europæiske lande, kulturkanonen i forhold til integration......Artiklen diskuterer, med indragelse af den lignende debat i andre europæiske lande, kulturkanonen i forhold til integration...

  19. Identification of cultural determinants of antibiotic use cited in primary care in Europe: a mixed research synthesis study of integrated design "Culture is all around us".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul-Lundgren, Pia; Jensen, Siri; Drai, Johann; Lindbæk, Morten

    2015-09-17

    Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, particularly for respiratory tract infections (RTI) in ambulatory care, has become a worldwide public health threat due to resulting antibiotic resistance. In spite of various interventions and campaigns, wide variations in antibiotic use persist between European countries. Cultural determinants are often referred to as a potential cause, but are rarely defined. To our knowledge, so far no systematic literature review has focused on cultural determinants of antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to identify cultural determinants, on a country-specific level in ambulatory care in Europe, and to describe the influence of culture on antibiotic use, using a framework of cultural dimensions. A computer-based systematic literature review was conducted by two research teams, in France and in Norway. Eligible publications included studies exploring antibiotic use in primary care in at least two European countries based on primary study results, featuring a description of cultural determinants, and published between 1997 and 2015. Quality assessment was conducted independently by two researchers, one in each team, using appropriate checklists according to study design. Each included paper was characterized according to method, countries involved, sampling and main results, and cultural determinants mentioned in each selected paper were extracted, described and categorized. Finally, the influence of Hofstede's cultural dimensions associated with antibiotic consumption within a primary care setting was described. Among 24 eligible papers, 11 were rejected according to exclusion criteria. Overall, 13 papers meeting the quality assessment criteria were included, of which 11 used quantitative methods and two qualitative or mixed methods. The study participants were patients (nine studies) and general practitioners (two studies). This literature review identified various cultural determinants either patient-related (illness perception

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Dupuytren contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 60 develop the disorder. Studies suggest that a genetic predisposition to develop this disorder may have been spread through northern Europe and Britain by the Vikings. Dupuytren contracture is less common in ... information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  1. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Eastern Europe, Interior's agreement, Political Health, Refugee, WOrking People, Saving Banks, Radio Telephones, Budget Draft, Reduced Inflation Rate, New Land, Land Management, Real Estate Laws...

  2. JPRS Report, East Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: East Europe, Party Activities, Socialist Party, Freedom Fighters, Education, Youth Training, Historian, Death Penalty, Peace Making Duties, Socialism, Communism, Economics, Restructuring...

  3. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This document contains articles about Western Europe. Some topics discussed are socialism, political parties, international relations, foreign policy, sociology, consumerism, economics, military operations, commerce, industries, energy, trade, private...

  4. West Europe Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Western Europe, Austria, Finland, Greece, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, Greenland, Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany, France and Italy, contains articles on Politics...

  5. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  6. Integrated morphological and molecular identification of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis) vectoring Rickettsia felis in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Andrea L; Hii, Sze-Fui; Jirsová, Dagmar; Panáková, Lucia; Ionică, Angela M; Gilchrist, Katrina; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D; Webb, Cameron E; Traub, Rebecca J; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-06-15

    Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides are the most common ectoparasites infesting dogs and cats world-wide. The species Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis are competent vectors for zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. Improved knowledge on the diversity and phylogenetics of fleas is important for understanding flea-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Fleas infesting privately owned dogs and cats from the Czech Republic (n=97) and Romania (n=66) were subjected to morphological and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis. There were a total of 59 (60.82%) cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis felis), 30 (30.93%) dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis), 7 (7.22%) European chicken fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) and 1 (1.03%) northern rat flea (Nosopsyllus fasciatus) collected in the Czech Republic. Both C. canis and C. felis felis were identified in Romania. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing at the cox1 gene on a cohort of 40 fleas revealed the cosmopolitan C. felis felis clade represented by cox1 haplotype 1 is present in the Czech Republic. A new C. felis felis clade from both the Czech Republic and Romania is also reported. A high proportion of C. canis was observed from dogs and cats in the current study and phylogeny revealed that C. canis forms a sister clade to the oriental cat flea Ctenocephalides orientis (syn. C. felis orientis). Out of 33 fleas tested, representing C. felis felis, C. canis and Ce. gallinae, 7 (21.2%) were positive for R. felis using diagnostic real-time PCR targeting the gltA gene and a conventional PCR targeting the ompB gene. No samples tested positive for Bartonella spp. using a diagnostic real-time PCR assay targeting ssrA gene. This study confirms high genetic diversity of C. felis felis globally and serves as a foundation to understand the implication for zoonotic disease carriage and transmission by the flea genus Ctenocephalides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A genetic predictive model for canine hip dysplasia: integration of Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS and candidate gene approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Bartolomé

    Full Text Available Canine hip dysplasia is one of the most prevalent developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs worldwide. Unfortunately, the success of eradication programs against this disease based on radiographic diagnosis is low. Adding the use of diagnostic genetic tools to the current phenotype-based approach might be beneficial. The aim of this study was to develop a genetic prognostic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. To develop our DNA test, 775 Labrador Retrievers were recruited. For each dog, a blood sample and a ventrodorsal hip radiograph were taken. Dogs were divided into two groups according to their FCI hip score: control (A/B and case (D/E. C dogs were not included in the sample. Genetic characterization combining a GWAS and a candidate gene strategy using SNPs allowed a case-control population association study. A mathematical model which included 7 SNPs was developed using logistic regression. The model showed a good accuracy (Area under the ROC curve = 0.85 and was validated in an independent population of 114 dogs. This prognostic genetic test represents a useful tool for choosing the most appropriate therapeutic approach once genetic predisposition to hip dysplasia is known. Therefore, it allows a more individualized management of the disease. It is also applicable during genetic selection processes, since breeders can benefit from the information given by this test as soon as a blood sample can be collected, and act accordingly. In the authors' opinion, a shift towards genomic screening might importantly contribute to reducing canine hip dysplasia in the future. In conclusion, based on genetic and radiographic information from Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia, we developed an accurate predictive genetic test for early diagnosis of hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers. However, further research is warranted in order to evaluate the validity of this genetic test in other dog breeds.

  8. Urban scaling in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  9. Integrating Fisheries Dependent and Independent Approaches to assess Fisheries, Abundance, Diversity, Distribution and Genetic Connectivity of Red Sea Elasmobranch Populations

    KAUST Repository

    Spaet, Julia L.

    2014-05-01

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a global hotspot of marine biodiversity. Ongoing overfishing, however, is threatening this unique ecosystem, recently leading to the identification of the Red Sea as one of three major hotspots of extinction risk for sharks and rays worldwide. Elasmobranch catches in Saudi Arabian Red Sea waters are unregulated, often misidentified and unrecorded, resulting in a lack of species-specific landings information, which would be vital for the formulation of effective management strategies. Here we employed an integrated approach of fisheries dependent and independent survey methods combined with molecular tools to provide biological, ecological and fisheries data to aid in the assessment of the status of elasmobranch populations in the Red Sea. Over the course of two years, we conducted market surveys at the biggest Saudi Arabian fish market in Jeddah. Market landings were dominated by, mostly immature individuals - implying both recruitment and growth overfishing. Additionally, we employed baited remote underwater video (BRUVS) and longline surveys along almost the entire length of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia as well as at selected reef systems in Sudan. The comparison of catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for Saudi Arabian Red Sea BRUVS and longline surveys to published data originating from non-Red Sea ocean systems revealed CPUE values several orders of magnitude lower for both survey methods in the Red Sea compared to other locations around the world. Finally, we infered the regional population structure of four commercially important shark species between the Red Sea and the Western Indian Ocean.We genotyped nearly 2000 individuals at the mitochondrial control region as well as a total of 20 microsatellite loci. Genetic homogeneity could not be rejected for any of the four species across the spatial comparison. Based on high levels of region-wide exploitation, we suggest that, for management purposes, the population

  10. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2 and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3–5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 μg m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most

  11. Integration of remote sensing data and surface observations to estimate the impact of the Russian wildfires over Europe and Asia during August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, L.; Xue, Y.; de Leeuw, G.; Guang, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Xu, H.; Yang, L.; Hou, T.; He, X.; Wu, C.; Dong, J.; Chen, Z.

    2011-12-01

    A series of wildfires broke out in Western Russia starting in late July of 2010. Harmful particulates and gases released into the local Russian atmosphere have been reported, as have possible negative consequences for the global atmosphere. In this study, an extremely hazy area and its transport trajectory on Russian wildfires were analysed using aerosol optical depth (AOD) images retrieved via the synergy method from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. In addition, we used trace gases (NO2 and SO2) and CO2 products measured using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data, vertical distribution of AOD data retrieved from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data, the mass trajectory analyses, synoptic maps from a HYSPLIT model simulation and ground-based data, including AERONET (both AOD and Ångström exponent) data and PM2.5. First, an Optimal Smoothing (OS) scheme was used to develop more precise and reliable AOD data based on multiple competing predictions made using several AOD retrieval models; then, integrated AOD and PM2.5 data were related using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), and the integrated AOD and visibility data were related using the 6S radiative transfer code. The results show that the PM2.5 concentration is enhanced by a factor of 3-5 as determined from both satellite and in situ observations with peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 500 μg m3. Also, the visibility in many parts of Russia, for instance in Moscow, was less than 100 m; in some areas, the visibility was less than 50 m. Additionally, the possible impact on neighbouring countries due to long-transport was analysed for 31 July and 15 August 2010. A comparison of the satellite aerosol products and ground observations from the neighbouring countries suggests that wildfires in Western Russian had little impact on most european and asian countries, the exceptions being Finland, Estonia, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

  12. Event specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified MON863 maize based on the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Xu, Songci; Pan, Aihu; Yin, Changsong; Zhang, Kewei; Wang, Zhenying; Zhou, Zhigang; Zhang, Dabing

    2005-11-30

    Because of the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) labeling policies issued in many countries and areas, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were developed for the execution of GMO labeling policies, such as screening, gene specific, construct specific, and event specific PCR detection methods, which have become a mainstay of GMOs detection. The event specific PCR detection method is the primary trend in GMOs detection because of its high specificity based on the flanking sequence of the exogenous integrant. This genetically modified maize, MON863, contains a Cry3Bb1 coding sequence that produces a protein with enhanced insecticidal activity against the coleopteran pest, corn rootworm. In this study, the 5'-integration junction sequence between the host plant DNA and the integrated gene construct of the genetically modified maize MON863 was revealed by means of thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR, and the specific PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed based upon the revealed 5'-integration junction sequence; the conventional qualitative PCR and quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR detection methods employing these primers and probes were successfully developed. In conventional qualitative PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1% for MON863 in 100 ng of maize genomic DNA for one reaction. In the quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR assay, the LOD and the limit of quantification were eight and 80 haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, three mixed maize samples with known MON863 contents were detected using the established real-time PCR systems, and the ideal results indicated that the established event specific real-time PCR detection systems were reliable, sensitive, and accurate.

  13. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola. Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH. Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs, 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.

  14. The Genetic Integrity of the Ex Situ Population of the European Wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) Is Seriously Threatened by Introgression from Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzenberger, Kathrin A.; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the genetic diversity and relatedness of zoo populations are crucial for implementing successful breeding programmes. The European wildcat, Felis s. silvestris, is subject to intensive conservation measures, including captive breeding and reintroduction. We here present the first systematic genetic analysis of the captive population of Felis s. silvestris in comparison with a natural wild population. We used microsatellites and mtDNA sequencing to assess genetic diversity, structure and integrity of the ex situ population. Our results show that the ex situ population of the European wildcat is highly structured and that it has a higher genetic diversity than the studied wild population. Some genetic clusters matched the breeding lines of certain zoos or groups of zoos that often exchanged individuals. Two mitochondrial haplotype groups were detected in the in situ populations, one of which was closely related to the most common haplotype found in domestic cats, suggesting past introgression in the wild. Although native haplotypes were also found in the captive population, the majority (68%) of captive individuals shared a common mtDNA haplotype with the domestic cat (Felis s. catus). Only six captive individuals (7.7%) were assigned as wildcats in the STRUCTURE analysis (at K = 2), two of which had domestic cat mtDNA haplotypes and only two captive individuals were assigned as purebred wildcats by NewHybrids. These results suggest that the high genetic diversity of the captive population has been caused by admixture with domestic cats. Therefore, the captive population cannot be recommended for further breeding and reintroduction. PMID:25162450

  15. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  16. Western Europe's America Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…

  17. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  18. Islam in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007.......A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007....

  19. Towards a New Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    This article raises two questions: What are the challenges for an understanding of Europe and European future? How can we rethink literary history so that it reflects the present historical and political moment of Europe? The aim of bringing these two concerns together is to argue that European...

  20. WetVegEurope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landucci, Flavia; Řezníčková, Marcela; Šumberová, Kateřina; Hennekens, S.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    WetVegEurope is a research project (http://www.sci.muni.cz/botany/vegsci/wetveg) whose goal is to provide a synthesized formalized classification of the aquatic and marsh vegetation across Europe at the level of phytosociological associations. In order to achieve the project objective, a

  1. Leishmaniosis of companion animals in Europe: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia

    2015-02-28

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne zoonotic disease endemic in southern Europe, but which is spreading northwards. Millions of dogs, cats and other non-conventional companion animals susceptible to L. infantum, living in European households, may develop a severe disease and contribute to the spread of leishmaniosis because of travelling or re-homing. Dogs are the main reservoir but other new reservoirs have recently been incriminated. Sand flies remain the sole proven vector and non-vectorial transmission has been reported at individual level and in areas where the vector is absent. Clinical disease affects only a proportion of infected dogs and a complex genetic background of immune response is responsible for this susceptibility. There is a wide range of serological and parasitological diagnostic tools available whose cost-effective use depends on a reasoned approach. Clinical response to treatment of sick dogs is variable. Clinical cure is often obtained but clinical recurrence can occur and post-therapy follow up should be maintained life-long. In Europe, vaccination can be combined with individual protection with pyrethroids as part of an integrated approach to prevention. L. infantum is the only species isolated from cats in Europe and xenodiagnosis substantiated that infected cats are infectious for sand flies. Feline infection may be frequent in endemic areas, but prevalence is generally lower than in dogs. When cats are tested by both serological and molecular techniques discordant results are often observed. Feline cases have been reported from endemic areas in Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, but four cases were also diagnosed in Switzerland in cats that had travelled to or been imported from Spain. Half of the cases were diagnosed in cats with impaired immune responses. Clinical manifestations compatible with feline leishmaniosis include lymph node enlargement, skin and mucocutaneous lesions, ocular lesions, chronic

  2. MOOCs in Europe: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian; Donovan, Maria Margaret O

    2015-01-01

    “MOOCS in Europe: A Literature Review” is an integrated part of the Exploitation work package of the HOME project: Higher education Online: MOOCs the European way. It has been carried out in order to compare the results from the HOME project with the ongoing European and International discussions...

  3. Teaching about Western Europe. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    Recent historical events have made it increasingly important to strengthen the study of Western Europe in U.S. schools. With full integration of the European Community after 1992, with the unification of the two Germanys, and with the newly democratic states of the old Soviet bloc seeking some form of association with the European Economic…

  4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, which genes? Which functions? Which pathways? An integrated holistic view regarding OCD and its complex genetic etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Ali; Ghadirivasfi, Mohammad; Shahsavand Ananloo, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obtrusive and repetitive acts typically occurred following anxiety. In the last two decades, studies done on the gene sequences, large-scale and point mutations and gene-gene, gene-environment and gene-drug interactions have led to the discovery of hundreds of genes associated with OCD. Although each gene in turn is a part of the etiology of this disorder; however, OCD, like other mental disorders is complex and a comprehensive and integrated view is necessary to understand its genetic basis. In this study, through an extensive review of existing published studies, all genes associated with OCD were found. Then, in order to integrate the results, all the interactions between these genes were explored and the achievement was represented as an interactive genetic network. Furthermore, the reconstructed network was analyzed. It was found that GRIN2A, GRIN2B and GRIA2 are the most central nodes in the network. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis showed that glutamate-related pathways are the main deficient systems in patients with OCD. By studying genes shared between OCD and other diseases, it was cleared that OCD, epilepsy and some types of cancer have the most number of shared genes. The results of this study, in addition to reviewing the available results as a comprehensive and integrated manner, provide new hypotheses for future studies.

  5. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  6. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Yash Paul; Saxena, Maneesha S; Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  7. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Branicki, Wojciech; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Goszczyński, Jacek; Jedrzejewska, Bogumiła; Dykyy, Ihor; Shkvyrya, Maryna; Tsingarska, Elena

    2010-04-21

    While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  8. Modelling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2006-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodiversity were

  9. Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape

  10. Storage and executive components of working memory: integrating cognitive psychology and behavior genetics in the study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, William S; Xian, Hong; Jacobson, Kristen C; Eaves, Lindon J; Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew S; Eisen, Seth A; Crider, Andrew; Lyons, Michael J

    2008-03-01

    We combined experimental cognitive and behavior genetic methods to investigate storage and executive components of working memory in 663 middle-aged male twins. A single latent factor model indicated that digits forward (storage) and two-digit transformation (executive + storage) scores were influenced by the same genes. Additional executive demands in digit transformation appeared to increase the variance of individual genetic differences from 25% for digits forward to 48% and 53% for the digit transformation scores. Although it was not the best model, a two-factor model also provided a good fit to the data. This model suggested the possibility of a second set of genes specifically influencing the executive component. We discuss the findings in the context of research suggesting that new genetic influences come into play if demand continues to increase beyond a certain threshold, a threshold that may change with task difficulty and with age.

  11. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental ‘peppermint’ shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Baeza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers, that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi, an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni. Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here.

  12. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental ‘peppermint’ shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Donald C.

    2017-01-01

    The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers), that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi, an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni. Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs) capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here. PMID:28948100

  13. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental 'peppermint' shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J Antonio; Behringer, Donald C

    2017-01-01

    The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers), that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi , an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni . Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs) capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here.

  15. World review: Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of Europe in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Belgium, Czech Republic, France, the former Soviet Union, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. It is suggested that in E. Europe, the demand for gas could triple by 2020, in S. Europe the market for gas will double in the next ten years and the Mediterranean will continue to be a developing global refinery into the 21st century

  16. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...... representation in both countries, and potentially across Europe, appears to rely....

  17. Integration of genetic and physical maps of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome using flow-sorted chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zatloukalová, Pavlína; Hřibová, Eva; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Šimková, Hana; Adoración, C.; Kahl, G.; Millán, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2011), s. 729-739 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : BAC-FISH * Chromosome isolation * Flow cytometric sorting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.087, year: 2011

  18. Socio-spatial organization and kin structure in ocelots from integration of camera trapping and noninvasive genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodgers, T.W.; Giacalone, J.; Heske, E.J.; Janecka, J.E.; Jansen, P.A.; Phillips, C.A.; Schooley, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that under certain conditions animals will tolerate related individuals in their home ranges. We examined the relationship between spatiotemporal overlap and genetic relatedness in ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) to determine if kin selection plays a role in structuring

  19. Integrating Genetic Studies of Nicotine Addiction into Public Health Practice: Stakeholder Views on Challenges, Barriers and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingel, M.J.; Hicks, A.D.; Robinson, M.E.; Koenig, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Will emerging genetic research strengthen tobacco control programs? In this empirical study, we interview stakeholders in tobacco control to illuminate debates about the role of genomics in public health. Methods: The authors performed open-ended interviews with 86 stakeholders from 5 areas of tobacco control: basic scientists, clinicians, tobacco prevention specialists, health payers, and pharmaceutical industry employees. Interviews were qualitatively analyzed using standard techniques. Results: The central tension is between the hope that an expanding genomic knowledge base will improve prevention and smoking cessation therapies and the fear that genetic research might siphon resources away from traditional and proven public health programs. While showing strong support for traditional public health approaches to tobacco control, stakeholders recognize weaknesses, specifically the difficulty of countering the powerful voice of the tobacco industry when mounting public campaigns and the problem of individuals who are resistant to treatment and continue smoking. Conclusions: In order for genetic research to be effectively translated into efforts to minimize the harm of smoking-related disease, the views of key stakeholders must be voiced and disagreements reconciled. Effective translation requires honest evaluation of both the strengths and limitations of genetic approaches. PMID:21757875

  20. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  1. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  2. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... an expanding role in public debates about science policy and school curricula. In this, the first comprehensive history of creationism in Europe, leading historians, philosophers, and scientists narrate the rise of—and response to—scientific creationism, creation science, intelligent design, and organized...... antievolutionism in countries and religions throughout Europe. Providing a unique map of creationism in Europe, the authors chart the surprising history of creationist activities and strategies there. Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus...

  3. EPA Collaboration with Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    By working together to achieve common goals, the U.S. and Europe can enhance our respective environmental protection efforts while creating a cleaner environment on both continents and around the world.

  4. Christian identity of secular Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other things, intensification of process of European integrations has imposed the need for realization and strengthening of common European cultural identity, that is for creating a new set of values, which would be common to all European citizens and which would be the basis for their permanent feeling of community and an experience of belonging to Europe as a common area. What are the chances of such a project since, on one hand, Islam is appearing in Europe as a religion that does not know secularity and, on the other hand, an important part of European inhabitants is showing the rise of anti-immigrant and , especially, anti-Islamic feelings, opposition to the presence of foreigners, fear of majorization and the loss of one's own identity and the values of European culture? The existing conflict with Islam is, most often, described as a conflict between secularized West where religion is a matter of private choice and religious (primarily Islamic world where religion is regulating every aspect of life. However, innumerable examples all around us (starting with the fact that the time is counted according to the Christian calendar, Christian holidays and iconography, Biblical myths, moral codes, architecture, toponims-to mention only few constantly reminds how much Christianity (primarily as a cultural tradition is strongly present in the lives of the secular Europeans, how much is that secular context in fact permeated with Christian story. Vestiges of that past, which are all around us, are not in fact perceived as a Christian story - in meeting with European secularism such recognition comes only to "others" to whom that story is not familiar. On what premises then can such a common forum be created on which all would really feel equally at home? In this work I will try to consider possible directions in which, considering the existing circumstances, Europe could move in search of the new common denominator. Since nations, according to

  5. The Great Orange Hope: Ukraine, NATO, and the Dilemma of European Integration After the Orange Revolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cramer, Clarke

    2005-01-01

    ...." The extraordinary election of Victor Yushchenko became a powerful catalyst for Ukrainian integration efforts into Europe and amplified Ukraine's geopolitical plight between Europe and Eurasia...

  6. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-22

    INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Dnc QUALETS rasesQESffl I to Scfi West Europe JPRS- WER-88-045 CONTENTS 22 A UGUST1988 POLITICAL... Europe (without arms or with restrictions on arms). "This latter line, which omits the claim for a nuclear-free zone, expresses a realistic and...notorious person allegedly involved in much-discussed corrupt practices related to the procurement of military equipment. According to certain

  7. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-31

    064 31 JULY 1987 WEST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL BELGIUM Brugge’s Mayor Van Acker’s Views, Position Examined (Jos Grobben; KNACK, 20 May 87...87) 83 NORWAY Europe Report: Country Must Adapt to EC Internal Market (AFTENPOSTEN, various dates) 88 - c - Country Must Increase Ties...split the party if the executive committee insisted that he be overturned. "He only needs to find a weakling in the group and to bribe him with a

  8. Nuclear Safety in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of nuclear safety in Western and Eastern Europe is described, focusing on the French and German approaches. The paper starts with an overview of the historical development and proceeds with recent trends in monitoring and improving the safety status of current plants, the approach to accident management, and the objectives of the development of future reactor concepts. Furthermore, important problems of nuclear safety in Central and Eastern Europe are discussed. 1 fig

  9. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ahmad; Kia, Reza; Komijan, Alireza Rashidi

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a novel integrated mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented for designing a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) considering machine layout and part scheduling problems simultaneously as interrelated decisions. The integrated CMS model is formulated to incorporate several design features including part due date, material handling time, operation sequence, processing time, an intra-cell layout of unequal-area facilities, and part scheduling. The objective function is to minimize makespan, tardiness penalties, and material handling costs of inter-cell and intra-cell movements. Two numerical examples are solved by the Lingo software to illustrate the results obtained by the incorporated features. In order to assess the effects and importance of integration of machine layout and part scheduling in designing a CMS, two approaches, sequentially and concurrent are investigated and the improvement resulted from a concurrent approach is revealed. Also, due to the NP-hardness of the integrated model, an efficient genetic algorithm is designed. As a consequence, computational results of this study indicate that the best solutions found by GA are better than the solutions found by B&B in much less time for both sequential and concurrent approaches. Moreover, the comparisons between the objective function values (OFVs) obtained by sequential and concurrent approaches demonstrate that the OFV improvement is averagely around 17 % by GA and 14 % by B&B.

  10. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

  11. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin country....... On the other hand, an origin-based general consumption tax is neutral in a European context and it can be combined with destination-based taxation in third countries in a non-distortionary way. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of capital mobility does not affect the neutrality of an origin...

  12. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    . On the other hand, an origin-based general consumption tax is neutral in a European context and it can be combined with destination-based taxation in third countries in a non-distortionary way. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of capital mobility does not affect the neutrality of an origin......The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin country......-based consumption tax. Finally, the paper addresses the administrative and political implications of a switch to the origin principle in the European Community...

  13. Integrating home care services in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.; Katalin, E.; Boerma, W.; Hutchinson, A.; Garms-Homolova, V.; Naiditch, M.; Lamura, G.; Chlabicz, S.; Gulácsi, L.; Fagerstrom, C.; Bolibar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A key feature of home care is its divided nature. Conditions for coordination are poor. A variety of professionals provides a coherent mix of services. The social care system is in general local, less professionalised and usually more poorly financed than the health care system. These

  14. An integrative genetic study of rice metabolism, growth and stochastic variation reveals potential C/N partitioning loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic...... on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we......Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused...

  15. Temporal change in genetic integrity suggests loss of local adaptation in a wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population following introgression by farmed escapees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, V; O'Reilly, P T; Carr, J W; Berg, P R; Bernatchez, L

    2011-03-01

    In some wild Atlantic salmon populations, rapid declines in numbers of wild returning adults has been associated with an increase in the prevalence of farmed salmon. Studies of phenotypic variation have shown that interbreeding between farmed and wild salmon may lead to loss of local adaptation. Yet, few studies have attempted to assess the impact of interbreeding at the genome level, especially among North American populations. Here, we document temporal changes in the genetic makeup of the severely threatened Magaguadavic River salmon population (Bay of Fundy, Canada), a population that might have been impacted by interbreeding with farmed salmon for nearly 20 years. Wild and farmed individuals caught entering the river from 1980 to 2005 were genotyped at 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and/or eight microsatellite loci, to scan for potential shifts in adaptive genetic variation. No significant temporal change in microsatellite-based estimates of allele richness or gene diversity was detected in the wild population, despite its precipitous decline in numbers over the last two decades. This might reflect the effect of introgression from farmed salmon, which was corroborated by temporal change in linkage-disequilibrium. Moreover, SNP genome scans identified a temporal decrease in candidate loci potentially under directional selection. Of particular interest was a SNP previously shown to be strongly associated with an important quantitative trait locus for parr mark number, which retained its genetic distinctiveness between farmed and wild fish longer than other outliers. Overall, these results indicate that farmed escapees have introgressed with wild Magaguadavic salmon resulting in significant alteration of the genetic integrity of the native population, including possible loss of adaptation to wild conditions.

  16. Integration of sequence data from a Consanguineous family with genetic data from an outbred population identifies PLB1 as a candidate rheumatoid arthritis risk gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Okada

    Full Text Available Integrating genetic data from families with highly penetrant forms of disease together with genetic data from outbred populations represents a promising strategy to uncover the complete frequency spectrum of risk alleles for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Here, we demonstrate that rare, low-frequency and common alleles at one gene locus, phospholipase B1 (PLB1, might contribute to risk of RA in a 4-generation consanguineous pedigree (Middle Eastern ancestry and also in unrelated individuals from the general population (European ancestry. Through identity-by-descent (IBD mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we identified a non-synonymous c.2263G>C (p.G755R mutation at the PLB1 gene on 2q23, which significantly co-segregated with RA in family members with a dominant mode of inheritance (P = 0.009. We further evaluated PLB1 variants and risk of RA using a GWAS meta-analysis of 8,875 RA cases and 29,367 controls of European ancestry. We identified significant contributions of two independent non-coding variants near PLB1 with risk of RA (rs116018341 [MAF = 0.042] and rs116541814 [MAF = 0.021], combined P = 3.2 × 10(-6. Finally, we performed deep exon sequencing of PLB1 in 1,088 RA cases and 1,088 controls (European ancestry, and identified suggestive dispersion of rare protein-coding variant frequencies between cases and controls (P = 0.049 for C-alpha test and P = 0.055 for SKAT. Together, these data suggest that PLB1 is a candidate risk gene for RA. Future studies to characterize the full spectrum of genetic risk in the PLB1 genetic locus are warranted.

  17. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    community to evaluate genetic findings for this complex multifactorial disorder in an integrated format. AGD provides a genome browser and a web based query client for conveniently selecting features of interest. Access to AGD is freely available at http://wren.bcf.ku.edu/.

  18. Autism Genetic Database (AGD): a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, Gregory; Talebizadeh, Zohreh

    2009-09-24

    Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD) was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs) associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research community to evaluate genetic findings for this complex

  19. Genetic and phenotypic variation in central and northern European populations of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francuski, Ljubinka; Milankov, Vesna; Ludoški, Jasmina; Krtinić, Bosiljka; Lundström, Jan O; Kemenesi, Gábor; Ferenc, Jakab

    2016-06-01

    The floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans can be a massive nuisance in the flood plain areas of mainland Europe, and is the vector of Tahyna virus and a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis. This epidemiologically important species forms three subspecies worldwide, of which Aedes vexans arabiensis has a wide distribution in Europe and Africa. We quantified the genetic and phenotypic variation in Ae. vexans arabiensis in populations from Sweden (northern Europe), Hungary, and Serbia (central Europe). A landscape genetics approach (FST , STRUCTURE, BAPS, GENELAND) revealed significant differentiation between northern and southern populations. Similar to genetic data, wing geometric morphometrics revealed two different clusters, one made by Swedish populations, while another included Hungarian and Serbian populations. Moreover, integrated genetic and morphometric data from the spatial analysis suggested groupings of populations into three clusters, one of which was from Swedish and Hungarian populations. Data on spatial analysis regarding an intermediate status of the Hungarian population was supported by observed Isolation-by-Distance patterns. Furthermore, a low proportion of interpopulation vs intrapopulation variance revealed by AMOVA and low-to-moderate FST values on a broader geographical scale indicate a continuous between-population exchange of individuals, including considerable gene flow on the regional scale, are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the observed population similarity in Aе. vexans. We discussed data considering population structure in the light of vector control strategies of the mosquito from public health importance. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Integrating genetic maps in bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.] and their syntenic relationships among closely related legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai Kuan; Chai, Hui Hui; Kendabie, Presidor; Ahmad, Nariman Salih; Jani, Jaeyres; Massawe, Festo; Kilian, Andrzej; Mayes, Sean

    2017-02-20

    Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.] is an indigenous legume crop grown mainly in subsistence and small-scale agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa for its nutritious seeds and its tolerance to drought and poor soils. Given that the lack of ex ante sequence is often a bottleneck in marker-assisted crop breeding for minor and underutilised crops, we demonstrate the use of limited genetic information and resources developed within species, but linked to the well characterised common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genome sequence and the partially annotated closely related species; adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and mung bean (Vigna radiata). From these comparisons we identify conserved synteny blocks corresponding to the Linkage Groups (LGs) in bambara groundnut genetic maps and evaluate the potential to identify genes in conserved syntenic locations in a sequenced genome that underlie a QTL position in the underutilised crop genome. Two individual intraspecific linkage maps consisting of DArTseq markers were constructed in two bambara groundnut (2n = 2x = 22) segregating populations: 1) The genetic map of Population IA was derived from F 2 lines (n = 263; IITA686 x Ankpa4) and covered 1,395.2 cM across 11 linkage groups; 2) The genetic map of Population TD was derived from F 3 lines (n = 71; Tiga Nicuru x DipC) and covered 1,376.7 cM across 11 linkage groups. A total of 96 DArTseq markers from an initial pool of 142 pre-selected common markers were used. These were not only polymorphic in both populations but also each marker could be located using the unique sequence tag (at selected stringency) onto the common bean, adzuki bean and mung bean genomes, thus allowing the sequenced genomes to be used as an initial 'pseudo' physical map for bambara groundnut. A good correspondence was observed at the macro synteny level, particularly to the common bean genome. A test using the QTL location of an agronomic trait in one of the bambara groundnut maps

  1. Genetic integrity of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. 1758 within the Vienne River drainage basin after five decades of stockings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Persat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European grayling of the upper Vienne River drainage basin represent the westernmost populations inside the natural distribution of the species. Since the 19th century, their extension across this sub-basin has been dramatically reduced by the harnessing of the river network for dams, initially serving mills but then hydroelectric power generation. Since the 1960s, local fishing authorities have attempted to compensate for these declines with stocking programs, but the efficiency of these efforts have never been accurately monitored. We aim to evaluate the genetic imprints of these stocking programs and thus provide an indirect measure of the long-term survival of stocked fish. Three target populations were analyzed at both mtDNA (Control Region and nDNA levels (12 µSats, and compared to populations representative of surrounding drainage basins or fish farm facilities. Among 37 "wild" fish sequenced, only three control region haplotypes were identified, all belonging to the highly divergent Loire basin lineage. Two were specific to the Upper Vienne area, and one was observed in some individuals of the most downstream location, but previously described from the upper Allier sub-drainage. Microsatellite analysis of 87 "wild" fish also demonstrated a rather low diversity within each population (but typical for the Loire drainage with all Upper Vienne individuals belonging to a single diagnosable unit. This genetic cluster was clearly distinct from all other samples including hatchery strains, which strongly supports its native origin. The only piece of evidence of a possible stocking contribution was the occurrence of the Allier haplotype, but it cannot be excluded that this haplotype was also native to this reach of river. The total lack of genetic impact of five decades of stocking deeply questions the efficacy of this management approach, at least in a regional context.

  2. Performance-Oriented Design of Large Passive Solar Roofs : A method for the integration of parametric modelling and genetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Von Buelow, P.; Stouffs, R.M.F.; Kilian, A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper addresses the design of large roof structures for semi outdoor spaces through an investigation of a type of performance-oriented design, which aims at integrating performance evaluations in the early stages of the design process. Particularly, aiming at improving daylight and thermal

  3. Hybrid Fuzzy-Genetic Approach Integrating Peak Identification and Spectrum Fitting for Complex Gamma-Ray Spectra Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2015-06-01

    A novel hybrid approach for analysis of complex gamma-ray spectra of various origins is described and the test results using spectra obtained from a sodium iodide detector (NaI) are presented. This novel approach exploits the synergism of two artificial intelligence tools; fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms, where the two are merged to identify isotopes and their respective contribution in a given spectrum. The fuzzy logic module focuses on identifying isotopes in the spectrum, while the genetic algorithm (GA) fits and subsequently computes the fractional abundances of the identified isotopes. The fitting of the spectrum is controlled by an assessment procedure based on the test for significance of abundance coefficients, and on the computation of Theil coefficients. This unique synergism between fuzzy logic and GA presents a novel mechanism for automated selection of isotopes for use in spectrum fitting, and as a result eliminates manually-based fitting and/or user intervention. A variety of test cases-including NaI real measured spectra-are used to benchmark this new approach. In addition, the performance of the hybrid method is compared to the multiple linear regression (MLR) fitting approach, along with the combination of fuzzy logic with MLR. This comparison demonstrates a slight superiority of this novel approach regarding accuracy, precision and number of reported false detections.

  4. Soft sensor development and optimization of the commercial petrochemical plant integrating support vector regression and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Lahiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft sensors have been widely used in the industrial process control to improve the quality of the product and assure safety in the production. The core of a soft sensor is to construct a soft sensing model. This paper introduces support vector regression (SVR, a new powerful machine learning methodbased on a statistical learning theory (SLT into soft sensor modeling and proposes a new soft sensing modeling method based on SVR. This paper presents an artificial intelligence based hybrid soft sensormodeling and optimization strategies, namely support vector regression – genetic algorithm (SVR-GA for modeling and optimization of mono ethylene glycol (MEG quality variable in a commercial glycol plant. In the SVR-GA approach, a support vector regression model is constructed for correlating the process data comprising values of operating and performance variables. Next, model inputs describing the process operating variables are optimized using genetic algorithm with a view to maximize the process performance. The SVR-GA is a new strategy for soft sensor modeling and optimization. The major advantage of the strategies is that modeling and optimization can be conducted exclusively from the historic process data wherein the detailed knowledge of process phenomenology (reaction mechanism, kinetics etc. is not required. Using SVR-GA strategy, a number of sets of optimized operating conditions were found. The optimized solutions, when verified in an actual plant, resulted in a significant improvement in the quality.

  5. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  6. An integration of historical records and genetic data to the assessment of global distribution and population structure in Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eDe Luca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 is one of the most widely distributed species belonging to the genus Octopus as well as an important commercially harvested species and a model organism for behavioral biology of invertebrates. It has been described for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea but it is considered a cosmopolitan species inhabiting the temperate and tropical sea of the northern and southern hemispheres. In the last few years, several species previously considered as O. vulgaris have been recognized as new species, limiting the distributional range of vulgaris and reinforcing the thesis of a species complex. Where it is an important fishery resource, numerous studies have been conducted in order to define its genetic structure with the purpose of managing different stocks. However, many locations are still poorly investigated from this point of view and others are under taxonomic revision to exclude or confirm its occurrence. Here we provide a summary of the current status of knowledge on distribution and genetic structure in this species in the different oceanic regions.

  7. An Integrative Genetic Study of Rice Metabolism, Growth and Stochastic Variation Reveals Potential C/N Partitioning Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Huai, Dongxin; Zhou, Yongming; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-07-01

    Studying the genetic basis of variation in plant metabolism has been greatly facilitated by genomic and metabolic profiling advances. In this study, we use metabolomics and growth measurements to map QTL in rice, a major staple crop. Previous rice metabolism studies have largely focused on identifying genes controlling major effect loci. To complement these studies, we conducted a replicated metabolomics analysis on a japonica (Lemont) by indica (Teqing) rice recombinant inbred line population and focused on the genetic variation for primary metabolism. Using independent replicated studies, we show that in contrast to other rice studies, the heritability of primary metabolism is similar to Arabidopsis. The vast majority of metabolic QTLs had small to moderate effects with significant polygenic epistasis. Two metabolomics QTL hotspots had opposing effects on carbon and nitrogen rich metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic variation for metabolism than was found in Arabidopsis. Thus, it is possible that domestication has differentially impacted stochastic metabolite variation more than average metabolite variation.

  8. Regulation of migration in Mythimna separata (Walker) in China: a review integrating environmental, physiological, hormonal, genetic, and molecular factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingfu; Luo, Lizhi; Zhang, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W; Hu, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Each year the Mythimna separate (Walker), undertakes a seasonal, long-distance, multigeneration roundtrip migration between southern and northern China. Despite its regularity, the decision to migrate is facultative, and is controlled by environmental, physiological, hormonal, genetic, and molecular factors. Migrants take off on days 1 or 2 after eclosion, although the preoviposition period lasts ≈7 d. The trade-offs among the competing physiological demands of migration and reproduction are coordinated in M. separata by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." Larvae that experience temperatures above or below certain thresholds accompanied by appropriate humidity, short photoperiod, poor nutrition, and moderate density tend to develop into migrants. However, there is a short window of sensitivity within 24 h after adult eclosion when migrants can be induced to switch to reproductive residents if they encounter extreme environmental factors including starvation, low temperature and long photoperiod. Juvenile hormone (JH) titer is low before migration but high titers are associated with termination of migratory behavior and the switch to reproduction. Early release of JH by the corpora allata in environmentally stressed 1-d old adults, otherwise destined by larval conditions to be migrants, switches them to residents. Offspring inherit parental additive genetic effects governing migratory behavior. However, they also retain flexibility in expression of both flight and reproductive life history traits. The insect neuropeptide, allatotropin, which activates corpora allata to synthesize JH, controls adult flight and reproduction. Future research directions to better understand regulation of migration in this species are discussed.

  9. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...

  10. Generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aveline, Michelle; Mason, Laura.

    1994-01-01

    Information for this document has been collected from a range of primary sources which include annual reports, strategy statements and company information leaflets. The first part consists of profiles for each of the countries of Western Europe and selected countries in Eastern Europe. In each case an overview of the organization of the electricity industry is given and information where available on interconnections, new projects, ongoing work at existing plant, environmental issues and details of plant and closures. In the second part, details are given of some of the largest power generating companies in Europe listed in alphabetical order. The most up-to-date figures available have been used in all cases and the companies have been invited to comment on the text. (UK)

  11. Smart Energy Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in excess of 80% are possible in the electricity sector. Hence, this approach is one potential solution that will enable the European energy system to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. In this study, the Smart Energy System approach is applied to Europe, which achieves two key objectives: firstly......, it demonstrates the type of technical changes required in the EU energy system by presenting the technologies and their synergies in the Smart Energy System approach and secondly, this study quantifies the scale of each technology required to achieve a 100% renewable energy system in Europe. The results indicate...... that a 100% renewable energy system is technically feasible in Europe using the Smart Energy System approach, assuming technologies develop according to industry’s current expectations. Furthermore, the results show that the 100% renewable Smart Energy System will have similar costs as a fossil fuel...

  12. Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, Thomas; Konrad, H

    2008-04-01

    Genetic diversity is indispensable for long-term forest sustainability and is therefore mentioned in numerous binding and nonbinding political covenants calling for action. Nevertheless, there are significant obstacles to the conservation of forest genetic resources. We discuss hindrances to genetic conservation, mainly in Europe. We identified impediments by reviewing the literature and on the basis of the experiences of the authors in this field and their participation in related political processes. The impediments include (1) difficulties in assessing and monitoring genetic erosion and human impacts (e.g., by the lack of markers showing adaptive variation and the lack of record keeping on the use and transfer of forest-tree germplasm), (2) complexities of European national structures that make the development of a common strategy toward forest genetic conservation problematic, (3) lack of effective forest governance in many parts of the world, (4) the general unattractiveness of genes as flagships in raising public awareness, (5) lack of integration of genetic aspects into biodiversity conservation, and (6) the fact that scientists and politicians are often at cross-purposes. To overcome these impediments, forest geneticists and their peers in species conservation have to participate more actively in decision making. In doing so, they must be prepared to face challenges on 2 fronts: participating in political processes and the provision of significant research findings to ensure that decisions with respect to forest genetic diversity are politically implementable and effectively address targets.

  13. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genetic engineering for the purification of the endogenous integrator complex from mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillat, David; Russell, William K; Wagner, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    The Integrator Complex (INT) is a large multi-subunit protein complex, containing at least 14 subunits and a host of associated factors. These protein components have been established through pulldowns of overexpressed epitope tagged subunits or by using antibodies raised against specific subunits. Here, we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology to introduce N-terminal FLAG epitope tags into the endogenous genes that encode Integrator subunit 4 and 11 within HEK293T cells. We provide specific details regarding design, approaches for facile screening, and our observed frequency of successful recombination. Finally, using silver staining, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS we compare the components of INT of purifications from CRISPR derived lines to 293T cells overexpressing FLAG-INTS11 to define a highly resolved constituency of mammalian INT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investment in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, C.

    1998-01-01

    The role of the European Investment Bank (EIB) in the financing of oil refining projects in the European Union is discussed. The EIB has done much to support the competitiveness of the energy industries in Europe, secure supply and contribute to conservation of the environment. Its track record is reviewed. How the EIB operates in appraising proposals, providing funding, and figures for funding, are all given. In 1997 the EIB's lending was 26.2 billion ECU. Challenges (such as low profit margins and environmental compliance) facing refining in Europe are also discussed. (UK)

  15. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community....

  16. East Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-07

    111030 JPRS-EER-87-003 7 JANUARY 1987 East Europe Report < ’Approved for public i’«sio*£se; . ttetrifavtion Unlimited »niiim .... n »I...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-EER-87-003 7 JANUARY 1987 EAST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS AGRICULTURE HUNGARY Success of...that is, as long as the one who offers and pays a bribe remains liable to punishment. [Sentence as published] What is your opinion? [Krupauer] I do

  17. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik; Braeckman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our article is threefold. First, we present and discuss the extant literature on creationism in Europe (the “facts”). Within this section, we offer a review of the literature as well as an overview of the most remarkable developments and events recorded therein. Second, we indicate...... which material is missing from the literature (the “gaps”) and signal which gaps we think should first be filled. Third, on the basis of a forthcoming international historical study, we outline the possible factors that affect the popularity of creationism in Europe (the “prospects”). We also sketch how...

  18. Severe malaria in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurth, Florian; Develoux, Michel; Mechain, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malaria remains one of the most serious infections for travellers to tropical countries. Due to the lack of harmonized guidelines a large variety of treatment regimens is used in Europe to treat severe malaria. METHODS: The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health (Trop......Net) conducted an 8-year, multicentre, observational study to analyse epidemiology, treatment practices and outcomes of severe malaria in its member sites across Europe. Physicians at participating TropNet centres were asked to report pseudonymized retrospective data from all patients treated at their centre...

  19. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should...... be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  20. GENETIC ALGORITHM SOLUTION FOR MULTI-PERIOD TWO-ECHELON INTEGRATED COMPETITIVE/UNCOMPETITIVE FACILITY LOCATION PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    XUE-FENG WANG; XIAO-MING SUN; YANG FANG

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the multi-period two-echelon integrated competitive/uncompetitive facility location problem in a distribution system design that involves locating regional distribution centers (RDCs) and stores, and determining the best strategy for distributing the commodities from a central distribution center (CDC) to RDCs and from RDCs to stores. The goal is to determine the optimal numbers, locations and capacities of RDCs and stores so as to maximize the total profit of the distrib...

  1. A Pseudo-Parallel Genetic Algorithm Integrating Simulated Annealing for Stochastic Location-Inventory-Routing Problem with Consideration of Returns in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facility location, inventory control, and vehicle routes scheduling are three key issues to be settled in the design of logistics system for e-commerce. Due to the online shopping features of e-commerce, customer returns are becoming much more than traditional commerce. This paper studies a three-phase supply chain distribution system consisting of one supplier, a set of retailers, and a single type of product with continuous review (Q, r inventory policy. We formulate a stochastic location-inventory-routing problem (LIRP model with no quality defects returns. To solve the NP-hand problem, a pseudo-parallel genetic algorithm integrating simulated annealing (PPGASA is proposed. The computational results show that PPGASA outperforms GA on optimal solution, computing time, and computing stability.

  2. Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2014-06-01

    In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bridging the phenotypic and genetic data useful for integrated breeding through a data annotation using the Crop Ontology developed by the crop communities of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary eShrestha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Crop Ontology (CO of the Generation Challenge Program (GCP (http://cropontology.org/ is developed for the Integrated Breeding Platform (https://www.integratedbreeding.net/ by several centers of The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR: Bioversity, CIMMYT, CIP, ICRISAT, IITA, and IRRI. Integrated breeding necessitates that breeders access genotypic and phenotypic data related to a given trait. The Crop Ontology provides validated trait names used by the crop communities of practice for harmonizing the annotation of phenotypic and genotypic data and thus supporting data accessibility and discovery through web queries. The trait information is completed by the description of the measurement methods and scales, and images. The trait dictionaries used to produce the Integrated Breeding (IB fieldbooks are synchronized with the Crop Ontology terms for an automatic annotation of the phenotypic data measured in the field. The IB fieldbook provides breeders with direct access to the CO to get additional descriptive information on the traits. Ontologies and trait dictionaries are online for cassava, chickpea, common bean, groundnut, maize, Musa, potato, rice, sorghum and wheat. Online curation and annotation tools facilitate (http://cropontology.org direct maintenance of the trait information and production of trait dictionaries by the crop communities. An important feature is the cross referencing of CO terms with the Crop database trait ID and with their synonyms in Plant Ontology and Trait Ontology. Web links between cross referenced terms in CO provide online access to data annotated with similar ontological terms, particularly the genetic data in Gramene (University of Cornell or the evaluation and climatic data in the Global Repository of evaluation trials of the Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security programme (CCAFS. Cross-referencing and annotation will be further applied in the Integrated Breeding Platform.

  4. International Relations in China and Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The international relations (IR) discipline is known as an ‘American Social Science’ dominated by scholars and theories from the US core. This paper compares IR in two noncore settings, China and Europe. It shows that there is a growing institutional and intellectual integration into global...... Anglophone, mostly American, IR in both Europe and China. Both Chinese and European IR communities have established top Anglophone journals like the European Journal of International Relations and the Chinese Journal of International Politics to spearhead their integration into mainstream Anglophone IR...... and carve out a space for regional thinking. Yet, the analysis of their publication and citation patterns shows that IR outside the American core communicates through a hub-and-spokes system where there is always a connection to the American core but rarely very strong linkages to other peripheral regions...

  5. Toward a Predictive Framework for Convergent Evolution: Integrating Natural History, Genetic Mechanisms, and Consequences for the Diversity of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A

    2017-08-01

    A charm of biology as a scientific discipline is the diversity of life. Although this diversity can make laws of biology challenging to discover, several repeated patterns and general principles govern evolutionary diversification. Convergent evolution, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes, has been at the heart of one approach to understand generality in the evolutionary process. Yet understanding when and why organismal traits and strategies repeatedly evolve has been a central challenge. These issues were the focus of the American Society of Naturalists Vice Presidential Symposium in 2016 and are the subject of this collection of articles. Although naturalists have long made inferences about convergent evolution and its importance, there has been confusion in the interpretation of the pattern of convergence. Does convergence primarily indicate adaptation or constraint? How often should convergence be expected? Are there general principles that would allow us to predict where and when and by what mechanisms convergent evolution should occur? What role does natural history play in advancing our understanding of general evolutionary principles? In this introductory article, I address these questions, review several generalizations about convergent evolution that have emerged over the past 15 years, and present a framework for advancing the study and interpretation of convergence. Perhaps the most important emerging conclusion is that the genetic mechanisms of convergent evolution are phylogenetically conserved; that is, more closely related species tend to share the same genetic basis of traits, even when independently evolved. Finally, I highlight how the articles in this special issue further develop concepts, methodologies, and case studies at the frontier of our understanding of the causes and consequences of convergent evolution.

  6. A High-Density Integrated DArTseq SNP-Based Genetic Map of Pisum fulvum and Identification of QTLs Controlling Rust Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Barilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pisum fulvum, a wild relative of pea is an important source of allelic diversity to improve the genetic resistance of cultivated species against fungal diseases of economic importance like the pea rust caused by Uromyces pisi. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to this fungal disease, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population was generated from a cross between two P. fulvum accessions, IFPI3260 and IFPI3251, and genotyped using Diversity Arrays Technology. A total of 9,569 high-quality DArT-Seq and 8,514 SNPs markers were generated. Finally, a total of 12,058 markers were assembled into seven linkage groups, equivalent to the number of haploid chromosomes of P. fulvum and P. sativum. The newly constructed integrated genetic linkage map of P. fulvum covered an accumulated distance of 1,877.45 cM, an average density of 1.19 markers cM−1 and an average distance between adjacent markers of 1.85 cM. The composite interval mapping revealed three QTLs distributed over two linkage groups that were associated with the percentage of rust disease severity (DS%. QTLs UpDSII and UpDSIV were located in the LGs II and IV respectively and were consistently identified both in adult plants over 3 years at the field (Córdoba, Spain and in seedling plants under controlled conditions. Whenever they were detected, their contribution to the total phenotypic variance varied between 19.8 and 29.2. A third QTL (UpDSIV.2 was also located in the LGIVand was environmentally specific as was only detected for DS % in seedlings under controlled conditions. It accounted more than 14% of the phenotypic variation studied. Taking together the data obtained in the study, it could be concluded that the expression of resistance to fungal diseases in P. fulvum originates from the resistant parent IFPI3260.

  7. Social cohesion in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nol Reverda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the current discussions and policies towards social exclusion and cohesion in Europe. In a first section will briefly be identified how the wording in the social work discourse changed from originally the thinking in terms of poverty to the ideas of social cohesion nowadays.

  8. Disasters in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Journal Editors

    2000-01-01

    Every year, suddenly, large-scale threats of health or disasters occur across Europe. There are many types of them: explosions, legionellose and other epidemics of infectious diseases, large-scale traffic accidents, unsafe food, and large-scale air pollution.

  9. Disasters in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Journal Editors

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, suddenly, large-scale threats of health or disasters occur across Europe. There are many types of them: explosions, legionellose and other epidemics of infectious diseases, large-scale traffic accidents, unsafe food, and large-scale air pollution.

  10. The Europe 2020 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  11. Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    applying the approach to an example. In each part one of the terms is explored as a means of illustrating how such a transdisciplinary approach may contribute to understanding Europe. Part one examines three different approaches to normative ethics - ‘virtues', ‘deontology', and ‘consequentialism...

  12. Nuclear developments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillebois, C.

    2011-01-01

    The main topics of the presentation: FORATOM’s Mission and vision, Nuclear overview in Europe before and after Fukushima; post-Fukushima political decisions; European Council conclusions; European nuclear industry’s response; EU “Stress Tests” specifications; What will the consequences of Fukushima be?

  13. Underground laboratories in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, E

    2006-01-01

    The only clear evidence today for physics beyond the standard model comes from underground experiments and the future activity of underground laboratories appears challenging and rich. I review here the existing underground research facilities in Europe. I present briefly the main characteristics, scientific activity and perspectives of these Laboratories and discuss the present coordination actions in the framework of the European Union

  14. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  15. Populism in Europe: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, J.; Birdwell, J.; de Lange, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nationalist populist parties and movements are growing in support throughout Europe. These groups are known for their opposition to immigration, their ‘anti-establishment’ views and their concern for protecting national culture. Their rise in popularity has gone hand-in-hand with the advent of

  16. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Andrei; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Averfalk, Helge

    2017-01-01

    The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document that suc......The Heat Roadmap Europe (HRE) studies estimated a potential increase of the district heating (DH) share to 50% of the entire heat demand by 2050, with approximately 25–30% of it being supplied using large-scale electric heat pumps. This study builds on this potential and aims to document......, refrigerants, efficiency and types of operation of 149 units with 1580 MW of thermal output, the study further uses this data to analyze if the deployment of this technology on a large-scale is possible in other locations in Europe. It finally demonstrates that the technical level of the existing heat pumps...... is mature enough to make them suitable for replication in other locations in Europe....

  17. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-17

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 , VmR ...U..ON 3TA.... A East Europe JPRS-EER-90-105 CONTENTS 17 July 1990 POLITICAL INTRABLOC PNUC...achieve, to [MTI [Hungarian Telegraph Agency] report: "In Japan use the language of sports , a track on which each com- They Picked Esztergom"] petitor

  18. Shadows at Europe's heart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide sisepoliitilistest konfliktidest, ebakompetentsuse ning korruptsiooni ilmingutest valitsustes. Toomas Hendrik Ilves kui positiivne näide Brüsselist kodumaale naasnud poliitikust. Vt. ka lk. 13-14: Europe's fraying fringe

  19. A Europe of science

    CERN Multimedia

    Banda, E

    2000-01-01

    The GDP of the EU is roughly equivalent to that of the USA but the EU invests $60 billion less a year in research and development. To ensure that Europe can remain competitive it is vital that the EU increases investment in R&D and renews its mechanisms for collaboration (1 page).

  20. Rickettsioses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; García-Álvarez, Lara; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Orientia (family rickettsiaceae, order rickettsiales) cause rickettsioses worldwide, and are transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites. In Europe, only Rickettsia spp. cause rickettsioses. With improvement of hygiene, the risk of louse-borne rickettsiosis (epidemic typhus) is low in Europe. Nevertheless, recrudescent form of Rickettsia prowazekii infection persists. There could be an epidemic typhus outbreak if a body lice epidemic occurs under unfavorable sanitary conditions. In Europe, endemic typhus or Rickettsia typhi infection, transmitted by rats and fleas, causes febrile illness. At the beginning of this century, flea-borne spotted fever cases caused by Rickettsia felis were diagnosed. Flea-borne rickettsiosis should be suspected after flea bites if fever, with or without rash, is developed. Tick-borne rickettsioses are the main source of rickettsia infections in Europe. Apart from Rickettsia conorii, the Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) agent, other Rickettsia spp. cause MSF-like: Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia massiliae or Rickettsia aeschlimannii. In the 1990s, two 'new' rickettsioses were diagnosed: Lymphangitis Associated Rickettsiosis (LAR) caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, and Tick-Borne Lymphadenopathy/Dermacentor-Borne-Necrosis-Erythema-Lymphadenopathy/Scalp Eschar Neck Lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA/DEBONEL/SENLAT), caused by Rickettsia slovaca, Candidatus Rickettsia rioja and Rickettsia raoultii. Lastly, European reports about mite-borne rickettsiosis are scarce. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.