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Sample records for europa portugal espanha

  1. Fronteira Portugal-Espanha e individualidade territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carminda Cavaco

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available PORTUGAL-SPAIN BORDER AREA AND ITS CREATIVE TENSION - The text evokes several nuances of the concept of the Portugal-Spain border: its shades of solidarity, complicity, opposition, agitation, confrontation and abandonment. At times, the border has been the zone of tension and separation, whereas at other periods in history, the border has been very permeable and there has been free exchange and mutual cooperation. The borders will be subjected to yet another interpretation as a new area emerges with the active participation of both Iberian countries in the European Union and the cooperative efforts initiated in the programs of INTERREG I and II

  2. Políticas da cultura em Portugal e Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Anico

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the subject of cultural politics, combining two key concepts for the social sciences: culture and power. Despite de decrease in the public investment in social politics, the analysis of the cultural field reveals an increase in its presence in both national and international spheres. There are many reasons that account for the public intervention of states in culture, which are mainly concerned with the assumption that it is a collective good that should be shared and accessed by all citizens. This results in the production of social and political discourses concerning the benefits of culture regarding social cohesion, development and progress, as shown by this analysis of the cultural politics of both Portugal and Spain.

  3. RELATO DE SUSTENTABILIDADE DE EMPRESAS DA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL EM PORTUGAL E ESPANHA

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    Dina da Costa Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O relatório de sustentabilidade é a prática de medir e divulgar através de um relatório, o desempenho económico, social e ambiental de uma organização empresarial. O processo de divulgação é voluntário, no entanto verifica-se um gradual crescimento na divulgação desta informação. Este estudo pretende caracterizar as práticas de divulgação de sustentabilidade no setor da construção civil em Portugal e em Espanha referente aos anos de 2009 a 2011 que efetuem relatório de sustentabilidade de acordo com a estrutura de divulgação da Global Reporting Initiative. Para recolha dos dados necessários ao estudo utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. Analisou-se então, os relatórios e contas e relatórios de sustentabilidade da população em estudo.

  4. CONSTRUINDO O ESTADO CORPORATIVO: AS EXPERIÊNCIAS HISTÓRICAS DE PORTUGAL E ESPANHA

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    Paula Borges Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste dossier reúnem-se artigos de algumas comunicações apresentadas ao Congresso Internacional A Era do Corporativismo – Regime, Representações e Debates, realizado entre 13 e 15 de Janeiro de 2015, na Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, promovido pelo Instituto de Instituto de História Contemporânea da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (IHCUNL, pelo Departamento de Historia Contemporánea, Facultad de Geografía e Historia da Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (FGH-UNED, pelo Centro de Estudos Interdisciplinares do Século XX da Universidade de Coimbra (CEISXX – UC, pelo Centro Studi sull’Europa Mediterranea da Università degli Studi della Tuscia (CSEM-UST, e pelo Departamento de História, Faculdade de Filosofia e de Ciências Humanas da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Rio Grande do Sul (FFCH-PUCRS.

  5. Pensar o homem como corpo: a cunhagem Simbólica em Portugal e Espanha (século 19) - Thinking man as body: symbolic coinage in Portugal and Spain (19th century)

    OpenAIRE

    José Viegas Brás; Maria Leal Gonçalves; José Hernandez Dias, Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Neste artigo investigamos a construção do corpo pelos manuais de civilidade publicados em Portugal e em Espanha no século 19. Os manuais de civilidade constituíram um mecanismo de poder-saber disciplinador da burguesia em ascensão eque marcaram certo processo de subjectivação. A partir do corpo estabeleceu-se uma nova ordem, que elevou o orgânico ao funcional e simbólico, em sintonia com a classe burguesa em ascensão, e que buscou orientar cada indivíduo a constituir-se como um sujeito moral,...

  6. Notas feministas sobre o marco jurídico da migração e do tráfico de mulheres na Europa e Espanha

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    Claudia Mayorga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2012v9n1p278   Neste trabalho, buscamos compreender aspectos do marco jurídico da migração, tráfico de mulheres e prostituição na Europa de forma geral e na Espanha de forma específica a partir de uma análise das principais regulamentações vigentes entre 2005/2007 nesses contextos. Para isso, buscamos conhecer como a legislação e a tendência ao fechamento de fronteiras oferecem brechas que levam a situações de exploração e vulnerabilização para mulheres migrantes que estão na Espanha exercendo a prostituição. Foram analisados os seguintes documentos: Protocolo para prevenir, reprimir e sancionar o tráfico de pessoas, especialmente mulheres e crianças, do ano 2000, que complementa a Convenção das Nações Unidas contra a delinqüência organizada internacional; Protocolo contra o tráfico ilícito de migrantes por terra, mar e ar, que complementa a Convenção das Nações Unidas contra a delinqüência organizada internacional e a Lei de Migração espanhola de 1985. A política sobre o tráfico de mulheres e as posições mais conservadoras sobre a migração na União Européia tem tido conseqüências específicas para as mulheres. Os tratados e leis enfatizam, sobremaneira, as medidas de controle de fronteiras e repressão aos Possíveis delitos cometidos. Tal perspectiva deixa em segundo plano os direitos dos/as migrantes e das pessoas vitimas do tráfico (é importante ressaltar que os textos dos tratados e leis dão margem para que se identifique tráfico de mulheres com migração para a prostituição. Com relação à prostituição, o direito espanhol não penaliza, mas também não regulamenta, o exercício da prostituição; deixa tal atividade em uma situação de completa alegalidade, o que acaba por incrementar a vulnerabilização das prostitutas frente abusos e explorações de todos os tipos.

  7. Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik

    2000-01-01

    Artiklen behandler, hvordan Europa blev centrum for den globale økonomiske udvikling, og hvilken rolle nationalstaterne har spillet for Europas udvikling. Derudover behandles det, hvordan den europæiske integrationsproces kan ses som et forsøg på at genskabe Europas centrale politiske og økonomis...

  8. Pensar o homem como corpo: a cunhagem Simbólica em Portugal e Espanha (século 19 - Thinking man as body: symbolic coinage in Portugal and Spain (19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Viegas Brás

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo investigamos a construção do corpo pelos manuais de civilidade publicados em Portugal e em Espanha no século 19. Os manuais de civilidade constituíram um mecanismo de poder-saber disciplinador da burguesia em ascensão eque marcaram certo processo de subjectivação. A partir do corpo estabeleceu-se uma nova ordem, que elevou o orgânico ao funcional e simbólico, em sintonia com a classe burguesa em ascensão, e que buscou orientar cada indivíduo a constituir-se como um sujeito moral, dando-lhe distinção e prestígio.Palavras-chave: corpo, história, manuais, civilidade.THINKING MAN AS BODY: SYMBOLIC COINAGE IN PORTUGAL AND SPAIN (19TH CENTURYAbstractIn this paper, we study the construction of the body through civility course books published in Portugaland Spainin the 19th century. The civility course books were a mechanism of power-knowledge relationship disciplinary of the rising bourgeoisie which un le as he da certain process of subjectivity. From the body a new order was set up, which raised the organic to functional and symbolic-in line with the growing bourgeois class-and guide de ach individual to establish him/herself as a moral subject, giving him/her distinction and prestige.Key-words: body, history, manuals, civility.PENSANDO EN EL HOMBRE COMO CUERPO: INVENCIÓN SIMBÓLICAEN PORTUGAL Y ESPAÑA (SIGLO 19ResumenEn este trabajo, investigamos la construcción del cuerpo a través de los manuales de civilidad publicado en Portugal y en España en el siglo 19. Los manuales de civilidad eran un mecanismo de poder-saber disciplinador de la burguesía naciente que marcaron cierto proceso de subjetividad. Partiendo del cuerpo, si establece un nuevo orden que eleva el orgánico al funcional y simbólico, según la naciente burguesía, y que guío a cada individuo para constituirse como sujeto moral, dándole prestigio y distinción.Palabras-clave: cuerpo, historia, manuales, civilidad.PENSER L'HOMME COMME CORPS

  9. Penachos de ideias. A Guerra de Sucessão da Espanha e a formação de Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal, 3o conde de Assumar

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    David Martín Marcos

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aborda a atuação de Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal (1688-1756 na Guerra de Sucessão da Espanha (1701-1714, em meio à embaixada de seu pai, João de Almeida Portugal, 2o conde de Assumar, junto às forças aliadas a Carlos de Habsburgo. Realiza um balanço historiográfico da participação portuguesa no conflito, considera os relatos de batalhas sobre a participação do jovem nobre, e analisa a vida social em Barcelona na estada de pai e filho. A experiência nos âmbitos guerreiro e cortesão contribuiu para a formação do governador da capitania de São Paulo e Minas do Ouro a partir de 1717. Divulgar os feitos de sua casa nobre, representar a monarquia portuguesa numa terra distante, a concepção hierática de sociedade e a erudição conjugada à apologia da violência são posturas e aspectos presentes em escritos atribuídos ao futuro 3o conde de Assumar.

  10. FORMACIÓN DEL PROFESORADO DE MÚSICA EN EUROPA MERIDIONAL: CHIPRE, GRECIA, MALTA Y PORTUGAL

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    Juan José Carmona Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo informa y reflexiona sobre los planes de estudios de formación del profesorado de música en países de Europa Septentrional: Chipre, Grecia, Malta y Portugal. La metodología de análisis utilizada es común para todos los países estudiados, correspondientes al Proyecto ALFA al que se hace referencia en el editorial de este monográfico. En Chipre hablaremos sobre tres universidades con planes de estudio musicales; en Grecia distinguiremos cuatro tipos de docentes dependiendo del nivel educativo en el que impartan docencia (Infantil, Primaria y Secundaria; en tercer lugar hablaremos sobre las peculiaridades del sistema de la universidad de Malta; se procederá al análisis de Portugal donde contamos con un número mayor de universidades; y, por último, aportaremos nuestra reflexión sobre los planes de estudios analizados y sus implicaciones para la formación del profesorado de música.

  11. Acolhimento familiar em Portugal e Espanha : Uma investigação comparada sobre a satisfação dos acolhedores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, Paulo; López, Mónica; Carvalho, João; Del Valle, Jorge F.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a comparison of satisfaction of the carers with foster care in Portugal and Spain, aiming to improve implementation and development of this social response. The foster care processes depend on historical and cultural factors that have significant differences in various

  12. Acessibilidade e utilização dos espaços verdes urbanos nas cidades de Coimbra (Portugal e Salamanca (Espanha

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    Alejandro Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ACCESSIBILITY AND USE OF URBAN GREEN SPACES IN THE CITIES OF COIMBRA (PORTUGAL AND SALAMANCA (SPAIN. In a society that values more and more wellbeing, health and free time, the introduction of urban green spaces (UGS next to residential areas has become a citizen’s right and requirement. This paper analyses the distribution and accessibility of UGS in the cities of Coimbra and Salamanca and evaluates their influence on the needs of the resident populations, in terms of users’ age, frequency of usage, as well as of motivation and ways to enjoy the facilities. In Coimbra there is a concentration of UGS, whereas in Salamanca there is a dispersion of such spaces, which has resulted in the different usage that people make of them. In fact, although Coimbra offers more urban green space (per inhabitant, their usage is reduced as people go there mainly by car, contrary to what happens in Salamanca. Consequently, Coimbra’s inhabitants choose these green spaces because of the activities they can be used for, whereas Salamanca’s inhabitants choose them for their proximity.

  13. O império das imagens de Hitler: o projeto de expansão internacional do modelo de cinema nazi-fascista na Europa e na América Latina (1933-1955)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Pinheiro Pereira

    2008-01-01

    O propósito principal desta tese de doutorado é desenvolver um estudo de histórias conectadas sobre a expansão internacional do modelo de cinema nazista na Europa e na América Latina, durante as décadas de 1930 e 1950. A influência da Alemanha nazista sobre as indústrias de cinema e as produções cinematográficas da Itália fascista, de Portugal salazarista, da Espanha franquista, do Brasil varguista e da Argentina peronista, representou a tentativa de Berlim tornar-se a Nova Hollywood Mundial ...

  14. Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  15. Perfil tecnológico das bibliotecas no brasil e na europa: estudo sobre a democratização do acesso à informação e ao conhecimento em bibliotecas do brasil, espanha e alemanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cleide Rodrigues Bernardino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A biblioteca pública é uma instituição que se fundamenta por sua forte função social, que por sua vez encontra amparo nos desdobramentos educativos, culturais, econômicos e políticos, em observância ao Manifesto da UNESCO que determina que a mesma seja um centro local de informação prontamente acessível a todos os seus usuários em qualquer suporte ou gênero, porta de acesso local ao conhecimento. Para o êxito dessa função na sociedade da informação faz-se necessário o uso e a manipulação de tecnologias digitais. Esta investigação se dá no âmbito brasileiro, espanhol e alemão, com um recorte para a utilização de mídias digitais de democratização da informação, que permitam o acesso à informação, como direito básico do cidadão na sociedade da informação. A pesquisa de cunho exploratório e delineamento quali-quantitativo utiliza-se do instrumento questionário enviado por correio eletrônico e análise do discurso para a avaliação dos dados coletados. Neste sentido, será traçado um perfil tecnológico da biblioteca pública na Europa e no Brasil a fim de delinear os encaminhamentos para a sociedade da informação.

  16. O lunar de Sepé e a derradeira migração: a educação jesuítica entre as coroas de Espanha e Portugal - O lunar de Sepé and the ultimate migration: the jesuitic education between the spanish and portuguese crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval Saviani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objeto do trabalho é a grande migração determinada pelo Tratado de Madri, celebrado entre Espanha e Portugal em 1750. Seu objetivo é examinar o modelo educativo das reduções jesuíticas, cuja ação pedagógica gerou um "habitus" que opôs os povos das missões às coroas de Espanha e Portugal. O estudo se baseou em fontes literárias (poema "O Lunar de Sepé", recolhido por Simões Lopes em "Contos gauchescos e lendas do Sul" e poema épico "O Uraguay", de Basílio da Gama e em fontes documentais (alvarás de expulsão dos jesuítas, Tratado de Madri e carta enviada ao Marquês de Bucareli pelos índios guaranis remanescentes das Missões. Entre as fontes secundárias utilizadas destaca-se o livro de Claude Lugon, "A República ‘comunista’ cristã dos guaranis". Palavras-chave: pedagogia jesuítica; reduções guaranis; educação e migrações.   "O LUNAR DE SEPÉ" AND THE ULTIMATE MIGRATION: THE JESUITIC EDUCATION BETWEEN THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE CROWNS Abstract The object of this paper is the large migration determined by the Treaty of Madri, between Spain and Portugal, in 1750. Its aim is to examine the education model of the jesuitic reductions, whose pedagogical action created an "habitus" that opposed the people of the missions to the Spanish and Portuguese crowns. The study was based on literary sources (poem "O Lunar de Sepé", by Simões Lopes in "Contos gauchescos e lendas do Sul" and the epic poem "O Uraguay", by Basílio da Gama and on documental sources (jesuitic expulsion charters, Treaty of Madri and letter sent to Marquis of Bucareli by the remaining guarani indians in the Missions. Among the secondary sources, the book "A República ‘comunista’ cristã dos guaranis" by Claude Lugon is highlighted. Keywords: jesuitic pedagogy; guarani reductions; education and igrations.   EL LUNAR DE SEPÉ Y LA DEFINITIVA MIGRACIÓN: LA EDUCACIÓN JESUÍTICA ENTRE LAS CORONAS DE ESPAÑA Y PORTUGAL Resumen El objeto

  17. Portugal; Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This short report summarizes the main lines of the energy policy of Portugal. It presents the main energy companies and utilities (EDP, CPPE, REN, Petrogal, GDP, Galp SGPS) of the country, the energy supplies (resources, electricity, petroleum, coal, natural gas), the prices and pricing policy, the global energy consumption per sector, the stakes and perspectives of the energy market (forecasts, contracts). (J.S.)

  18. Memória e conhecimento do mundo: coleções de objetos, impressos e manuscritos nas livrarias de Portugal e Espanha, séculos XV-XVII

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    Ana Paula Torres Megiani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a period of time when the concept of specialized collecting did not yet exist (15th¿17th century, when text and image, form and content were to be found together in one ensemble. In the Wunderkammer (Chambers of Wonders and Wunderkabinett (Cabinets of Wonders of the Late Modern Age, exotic objects, stuffed animals, paintings, prints, printed matter and manuscripts were gathered in the same space, reflecting an attempt to grasp the knowledge of the world. Men like Manoel Severim de Faria in Portugal and Jerônimo de Mascarenhas in Spain, both contemporaries of the Iberian Union, are among those who owned private libraries. Such men represented a kind of Renaissance scholar that disappeared with the advent of classification and scientific methods used in "collecting" and disseminated as of the second half of the 17th century.

  19. Atlas nacional da Espanha, demografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Théry

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Calvo Palacios J.L., Pueyo Campos Á. (2008, Atlas nacional de España, Demografía. Madrid: Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, 386 p. ISBN: 978-8-4416-0685-2.O volume, que faz parte da série Monografias do Atlas Nacional de Espanha, inclui 420 mapas, 91 dos quais apresentam informações por município que dão uma visão global, concisa e muito completa da realidade da população espanhola e da sua evolução (em alguns casos analisada desde 1857. Seus diretores científicos são José Luis Cal...

  20. Espanha: Turismo Mundial em Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Toledo Solha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Relato de três eventos técnicos cientificos ocorridos na Espanha, no início de 2010. o Exceltur – 5º Foro de Liderazgo Turístico, a Feira Internacional de Turismo – FITUR, uma reunião da Organização Mundial de Turismo – OMT e uma reunião da Associação dos Experts Científicos en Investigación Turística – AECIT, uma excelente oportunidade de conhecer e compreender o panorama  atual do turismo neste país, a partir de abordagens distintas tanto do mundo  empresarial, quanto da academia.

  1. Maspex Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. H., Jr.; Brockwell, T.; McGrath, M. A.; McKinnon, W. B.; Shock, E.; Bolton, S. J.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Teolis, B. D.; Sephton, M. A.; Mousis, O.; Zolotov, M. Y.; Lewis, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    MASPEX Europa is a space borne mass spectrometer that will use unprecedented sensitivity and mass resolution to measure and characterize the exosphere of Europa. This talk will demonstrate how MASPEX plans to use this information to study the composition of the surface, near surface, and interior ocean of Europa.

  2. Relato de sustentabilidade – práticas no setor financeiro emportugal e espanha

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Sebastião Duarte

    2016-01-01

    A presente dissertação discute as práticas de relato de sustentabilidade no setor financeiro em Portugal e em Espanha nos anos 2012 a 2014. O objetivo geral do presente estudo é contribuir para a revisão da literatura, sobre o relato de Sustentabilidade aplicado ao setor financeiro. Para o efeito, o estudo foi aplicado a bancos portugueses e espanhóis nos anos de 2012 a 2014, procurando estudar as práticas de divulgação voluntária de responsabilidade social empresarial, incluíd...

  3. Compromisso Desportivo: Passado, presente e futuro em Espanha e Portugal

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    Catarina Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como principales objetivos establecer los orígenes y abordar los principales resultados d ella investigación desarrollada en el campo del compromiso deportivo, fundamentalmente referido a la península Ibérica, y tratar de sugerir algunos de los principales desafíos futuros que aparecen en esta área de conocimiento. En este sentido, se explica la actual formulación del Modelo de Compromiso Deportivo, desarrollado por Tara Scanlan y su equipo de la UCLA, en el ámbito del Sport Commitment International Scale Development Project, con la intención de explicar porque los deportistas continúan en su práctica deportiva a lo largo del tiempo, presentando el instrumento elaborado por esos autores para poner a prueba el modelo sugerido, y posteriormente adoptado por la mayor parte de los investigadores ene este campo, e.g., el Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ. Además, se explica el proceso de desarrollo de la versión revisada y mejorada de ese instrumento (el Sport Commitment Questionnaire-2; SCQ-2,basado en le método de-centering, que facilita la traducción y adaptación a diferentes idiomas buscando obtener un instrumento válido y fiable, y que se halla actualmente adaptándose a las realidades portuguesa y española. Finalmente, se indican los que se consideran más importantes desafíos para la investigación en esta área: 1 adaptar el SCQ-2 a otros idiomas; 2 investigador el compromiso deportivo en relación a la edad, el género y el nivel competitivo de los deportistas; 3 adaptar el SCQ-2 a diferentes contextos y agentes deportivos; 4 analizar la relación del compromiso deportivo con otras variables, y 5 desarrollar un instrumento de observación del compromiso deportivo.

  4. Pensar Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Reverter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Como dijo el profesor Fernando Montero "hay que reconocer que Europa es una extraña entidad, a mitad camino entre los seres reales y las ficciones". Desde el mismo mito de Europa, como princesa fenicia raptada por Zeus convertido en un toro blanco y llevada a Creta, hasta el discurso actual que promueve una idea de Europa como entidad transnacional, nos hallamos frente a la realidad de Europa como cuna de ideas e idea ella misma. La reflexividad que caracteriza al pensamiento filosófico y a la racionalidad crítica vuelve su mirada hacia la misma razón que se piensa, por tanto, a sí misma. Y es en ese punto en el que la cultura europea se ha destacado y tal vez debamos admitir también, se ha desgastado. Europa, desde la racionalidad de los griegos hasta la crisis de la razón actual ha pensado sobre sí misma al preguntarse por la razón misma. Podemos decir, de alguna manera, que Europa se piensa a sí misma al pensar en la razón humana. En este número monográfico de Recerca presentamos precisamente eso, una reflexión de Europa, que es a su vez una reflexión sobre algunos de los temas no sólo abiertos en ese quehacer constante que Europa se ha convertido, sino de gran calado para lo que Europa en un futuro pueda ser.

  5. Un lugar en Europa y en el Mundo. Portugal y la geopolítica internacional durante la regencia de Pedro de Braganza (1668-1683

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martín Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A menudo el Portugal «post-restaurado» ha sido visto como un escenario donde los poderes del continente entablaron una lucha por ganarse un aliado. Esa idea se ha visto alimentada por la imagen del regente don Pedro, supuestamente inestable e incapaz de optar por un posicionamiento franco en el continente. Este artículo trata de demostrar que detrás de la apariencia de un príncipe débil que ofrecieron muchos de sus coetáneos, se escondió una estrategia para asegurar la propia pervivencia de Portugal. Como se verá, en esa circunstancia tuvo mucho que ver las peculiaridades de su regencia, muy diferente de los modelos clásicos en que el poder de sus titulares suele tener de antemano una fecha límite. Defendemos, pues, que el hecho de estar llamado a ocupar el trono regio a la muerte de su hermano, favoreció un poder, débil inicialmente, que se afianzó con el paso del tiempo.«Post-Restoration» Portugal has been traditionally considered a scenario where European powers entered a race to find an ally. This idea has been fed by the image of Regent Peter, supposedly instable and unable to take a clear stand in Europe. This article aims to show that, behind the appearance of a weak prince given by many of his contemporaries, there was a strategy to ensure Portuguese’s survival. As will be discussed later, this circumstance was strongly related to the peculiarities of Peter of Braganza’s Regency —too distant from classical models, in which holders are characterized by having a cut-off date—. In this case, the fact that Peter was the first in the line to the throne encouraged him over time to mitigate his weaknesses.

  6. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  7. The Rotation of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrard, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    We present a semi-analytical theory of the rotation of Europa the Galilean satellite of Jupiter. The theory is semi-analytical in the sense that it is based on a synthetic theory of the orbit of Europa developed by Lainey. The theory is developed in the framework of Hamiltonian mechanics, using Andoyer variables and assumes that Europa is a rigid body. We consider this theory as a first step toward the modelization of a non rigid Europa covered by an ocean.

  8. Europa Tide Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Europa Tide Movie In this movie Europa is seen in a cutaway view through two cycles of its 3.5 day orbit about the giant planet Jupiter. Like Earth, Europa is thought to have an iron core, a rocky mantle and a surface ocean of salty water. Unlike on Earth, however, this ocean is deep enough to cover the whole moon, and being far from the sun, the ocean surface is globally frozen over. Europa's orbit is eccentric, which means as it travels around Jupiter, large tides, raised by Jupiter, rise and fall. Jupiter's position relative to Europa is also seen to librate, or wobble, with the same period. This tidal kneading causes frictional heating within Europa, much in the same way a paper clip bent back and forth can get hot to the touch, as illustrated by the red glow in the interior of Europa's rocky mantle and in the lower, warmer part of its ice shell. This tidal heating is what keeps Europa's ocean liquid and could prove critical to the survival of simple organisms within the ocean, if they exist.

  9. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  10. Karin Wall e Lígia Amâncio (orgs.), Família e Género em Portugal e na Europa, Lisboa, Imprensa de Ciências

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Ana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Esta obra assume como objectivo primeiro a análise das atitudes sociais ao nível da vida familiar e relativamente aos papéis de género em Portugal e noutros países europeus, mediante uma comparação sistemática entre os mesmos, tendo como fonte principal os resultados do inquérito “Family and Gender Roles”, bem como o projecto “Families, Employment and Work-life integration”. Na introdução Karin Wall desde logo alerta para a dificuldade de que se reveste uma comparação entre países, dada a eve...

  11. Farvel til Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Brexit-konsekvens. Da det gik ned ad bakke for Italien efter 1492, fortsatte venezianerne med at fejre deres berømte karneval, som tiltrak besøgende fra hele Europa. Det samme kan ske for os i EU i dag. Det er heller ikke så ringe, men vi i Europa kan bare ikke påtvinge verden vores normer. Heller...

  12. Atendimento educacional para alunos com necessidades educativas especiais na Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete de Mattos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A construção do artigo está baseada no contraste entre análise documental e observação direta do atendimento educacional para estudantes com necessidades educativas especiais na Espanha, país que tem sido reconhecido como referência na reflexão crítica e na organização de modelos de atendimento para a escola inclusiva. Partindo-se de breve exposição sobre o Sistema Educacional espanhol, o trabalho recupera aspectos relevantes sobre a ordem jurídico-institucional que estrutura a inclusão na escola, analisando os recursos humanos disponibilizados para cumprir as funções especializadas e os aspectos referentes à gestão escolar, tanto no que se refere ao planejamento como à operação prática das rotinas de atendimento.

  13. Portugal ante la Guerra Civil Española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Gómez de las Heras Hernández

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el 17 de julio de 1936 dos naciones de segundo orden, España y Portugal, van a aparecer como protagonistas en el escenarlo internacional de Europa para pernnanecer como constante pesadilla a lo largo de tres años en las relaciones exteriores de las potencias mundiales.

  14. Repúblicas laicas en Europa y América: la separación de la Iglesia y el Estado en Portugal vista desde México, 1910 - 1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Francisco Rosas Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de la relación bilateral entre México y Portugal,en el periodo de 1910 a 1913, a partir de un caso concreto: las reacciones que produjoen México la proclamación de la República Portuguesa y, posteriormente, la noticiade la separación Iglesia-Estado en abril de 1911. En el análisis se evidencia que elgobierno mexicano, con base en la información enviada por el poeta y diplomáticoBalbino Dávalos encargado de negocios de México en Lisboa, tuvo una reacciónambivalente ante la instauración del régimen republicano y la laicidad del Estadoportugués. Por una parte, se aceptó y se apoyó el cambio de sistema de gobierno, puesalgunos consideraron que esta medida permitiría estrechar la relación entre ambasnaciones, al compartir el mismo régimen político y una misma relación frente a laIglesia. De otro lado, en los círculos diplomáticos y en las elites locales, la caída dela monarquía fue asumida como una interrupción a la paz, el orden y la estabilidad,similar a la Revolución Mexicana que entre 1910 y 1911 provocó el fin del régimende Porfirio Díaz y el inicio del gobierno de Francisco León de la Barra y Francisco I.Madero.

  15. Macula on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa, an icy satellite of Jupiter about the size of the Earth's Moon, was obtained from a range of 7415 miles (11933 kilometers) by the Galileo spacecraft during its fourth orbit around Jupiter and its first close pass of Europa. The image spans 30 miles by 57 miles (48 km by 91 km) and shows features as small as 800 feet (240 meters) across. The large circular feature centered in the upper middle of the image is called a macula, and could be the scar of a large meteorite impact. The surface of Europa is composed mostly of water ice, so large impact craters on Europa could look different from large bowl-shaped depressions formed by impact into rock, such as on the Moon. On Europa's icy surface, the original impact crater has been modified into a central zone of rugged topography surrounded by circular fractures which reflect adjustments to stress in the surrounding icy crust.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Active Cryovolcanism on Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, W. B.; Cracraft, M.; Deustua, S. E [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schmidt, B. E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); McGrath, M. A. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hand, K. P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spencer, J. R., E-mail: sparks@stsci.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Evidence for plumes of water on Europa has previously been found using the Hubble Space Telescope using two different observing techniques. Roth et al. found line emission from the dissociation products of water. Sparks et al. found evidence for off-limb continuum absorption as Europa transited Jupiter. Here, we present a new transit observation of Europa that shows a second event at the same location as a previous plume candidate from Sparks et al., raising the possibility of a consistently active source of erupting material on Europa. This conclusion is bolstered by comparison with a nighttime thermal image from the Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer that shows a thermal anomaly at the same location, within the uncertainties. The anomaly has the highest observed brightness temperature on the Europa nightside. If heat flow from a subsurface liquid water reservoir causes the thermal anomaly, its depth is ≈1.8–2 km, under simple modeling assumptions, consistent with scenarios in which a liquid water reservoir has formed within a thick ice shell. Models that favor thin regions within the ice shell that connect directly to the ocean, however, cannot be excluded, nor modifications to surface thermal inertia by subsurface activity. Alternatively, vapor deposition surrounding an active vent could increase the thermal inertia of the surface and cause the thermal anomaly. This candidate plume region may offer a promising location for an initial characterization of Europa’s internal water and ice and for seeking evidence of Europa’s habitability.

  17. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K.; Tan-Wang, G.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Pappalardo, R.; Van Houten, T.; Yan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, Galileo supplied fascinating new insights into that satellite's secrets. The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international mission with orbiters developed by NASA, ESA and possibly JAXA. JEO would address a very important subset of the complete EJSM science objectives and is designed to function alone or in conjunction with ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO).

  18. Pwyll Crater on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This enhanced color image of the region surrounding the young impact crater Pwyll on Jupiter's moon Europa was produced by combining low resolution color data with a higher resolution mosaic of images obtained on December 19, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. This region is on the trailing hemisphere of the satellite, centered at 11 degrees South and 276 degrees West, and is about 1240 kilometers across. North is toward the top of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east.The 26 kilometer diameter impact crater Pwyll, just below the center of the image, is thought to be one of the youngest features on the surface of Europa. The diameter of the central dark spot, ejecta blasted from beneath Europa's surface, is approximately 40 kilometers, and bright white rays extend for over a thousand kilometers in all directions from the impact site. These rays cross over many different terrain types, indicating that they are younger than anything they cross. Their bright white color may indicate that they are composed of fresh, fine water ice particles, as opposed to the blue and brown tints of older materials elsewhere in the image.Also visible in this image are a number of the dark lineaments which are called 'triple bands' because they have a bright central stripe surrounded by darker material. Scientists can use the order in which these bands cross each other to determine their relative ages, as they attempt to reconstruct the geologic history of Europa.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  19. Europa i forandring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Morten; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Wind, Marlene

    perspektiver i EU's udvikling, herunder perspektiverne i Brexit. EUROPA I FORANDRING er båret af den overbevisning, at man for at forstå EU må forstå den uløseligt tætte sammenhæng mellem ret og politik. Det europæiske samarbejde er baseret på en unik retsorden, som er afgørende for politikken i EU. Man kan...

  20. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  1. Europa: Processes and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.

    Europa may be a habitable world. Evidence points strongly to a subsurface ocean beneath an ice shell about 20 km thick. Europa's surface geology as viewed by Galileo imaging suggests a thin brittle lithosphere above a warm ice layer that is at least in part convecting, in turn situated above a liquid water ocean. This configuration is consistent with thermal and geochemical modeling, and with Galileo magnetometer results. Dynamical modeling and visible crater density suggests a surface age of ˜60 million years, implying that Europa is probably still geologically active today. Large shallow craters and multi-ringed structures imply impact into low-viscosity (warm) subsurface material. The satellite's bright plains are crossed by narrow troughs and double ridges (paired ridges separated by a medial trough); a morphological sequence exists from isolated troughs to double ridges to wider and more complex ridge morphologies. Troughs are inferred as widened fractures formed though tensile and shear failure in response to global stressing of the ice shell above liquid water. Several models exist to explain ridges, but the most promising is one in which localized shear heating triggers upwelling of warm ice along fracture zones. Ruddy diffuse ruddy ridge may have formed through thermal alteration and/or partial melting of briny ice. Wider pull-apart bands represent complete separation and spreading of the icy lithosphere, in a manner broadly analogous to terrestrial sea-floor spreading. Europa's global lineament pattern implies that nonsynchronous rotation and orbital flexing ("diurnal" stressing) have worked together to deform the surface. Diurnal stressing can explain Europa's enigmatic cycloid ridge and fracture patterns, and may drive rapid strike-slip faulting along ridges. Because significant tidal amplitude is necessary to produce significant diurnal stressing, this argues strongly for a subsurface liquid layer. Extremely slow nonsynchronous rotation of the ice

  2. Consejo de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Fernández, Francisco José

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La génesis, evolución estructura, funcionamiento, financiación y una sucinta relación de actividades del Consejo de Europa es el contenido resumido de este trabajo. La importancia del Consejo es que se encuentran representados en él todos los países europeos a diferencia de la Unión donde por el momento solo están de pleno derecho los admitidos y las competencias son notablemente diferentes aquí son más sociales y mucho menos económicas

  3. Mælk i Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2012-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i et forskningsprojekt om forskelle og ligheder i forståelser og brug af drikkemælk i Europa, lavet sammen med Ann-Christina Lauring Knudsen og studerende ved Europastudier på Aarhus Universitet, giver artiklen indblik i hvordan mælk indgår i kosten rundt omkring i Europa og hvor...

  4. Dark Bands on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Dark crisscrossing bands on Jupiter's moon Europa represent widespread disruption from fracturing and the possible eruption of gases and rocky material from the moon's interior in this four-frame mosaic of images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft. These and other features suggest that soft ice or liquid water was present below the ice crust at the time of disruption. The data do not rule out the possibility that such conditions exist on Europa today. The pictures were taken from a distance of 156,000 kilometers (about 96,300 miles) on June 27, 1996. Many of the dark bands are more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) long, exceeding the length of the San Andreas fault of California. Some of the features seen on the mosaic resulted from meteoritic impact, including a 30- kilometer (18.5 mile) diameter crater visible as a bright scar in the lower third of the picture. In addition, dozens of shallow craters seen in some terrains along the sunset terminator zone (upper right shadowed area of the image) are probably impact craters. Other areas along the terminator lack craters, indicating relatively youthful surfaces, suggestive of recent eruptions of icy slush from the interior. The lower quarter of the mosaic includes highly fractured terrain where the icy crust has been broken into slabs as large as 30 kilometers (18.5 miles) across. The mosaic covers a large part of the northern hemisphere and includes the north pole at the top of the image. The sun illuminates the surface from the left. The area shown is centered on 20 degrees north latitude and 220 degrees west longitude and is about as wide as the United States west of the Mississippi River. The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Hand, K.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Pappalardo, R.; van Houten, T.; Yan, T.

    2011-08-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, the Galileo spacecraft supplied fascinating new insights into this satellite of Jupiter. Now, an international team is proposing a return to the Jupiter system and Europa with the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Currently, NASA and ESA are designing two orbiters that would explore the Jovian system and then each would settle into orbit around one of Jupiter's icy satellites, Europa and Ganymede. In addition, the Japanese Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is considering a Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Russian Space Agency is investigating a Europa lander.The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the EJSM; JEO would address a very important subset of the complete EJSM science objectives and is designed to function alone or in conjunction with ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission concept uses a single orbiter flight system that would travel to Jupiter by means of a multiple-gravity-assist trajectory and then perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months.The JEO mission would investigate various options for future surface landings. The JEO mission science objectives, as defined by the international EJSM Science Definition Team, include:Europa's ocean: Characterize the extent of the ocean and its relation to the deeper interior.Europa's ice shell: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange.Europa's chemistry: Determine global surface compositions and chemistry, especially as related to habitability.Europa's geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ

  6. El problema de la deuda soberana en el Sur de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene dos partes claramente diferenciadas. En la primera, se da un resumen de la opinión de Martín y Waller sobre la crisis financiera que afecta a Europa, motivadora del presente artículo. En la segunda parte se estudian los datos de la deuda pública de España, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia y Portugal, como panel de datos, y se aplican los modelos desarrollados para su estudio.

  7. O reino de Portugal na Chronica Adephonsi Imperatoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ao arrepio tanto da tradição historiográfica portuguesa, que pretendeu ver em Afonso VII um temível adversário de Portugal, como de alguma opinião espanhola, que se foi lamentando pela profunda perda que a autonomia portuguesa teria representado para a Espanha, a presente leitura da questão portuguesa na Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris põe em relevo a benevolência com que os meios da época ideologicamente afectos ao Imperador encararam o reino de Portugal e a realeza dos seus governantes, como se a existência do reino ocidental fizesse parte de um plano político conjunto cujo objectivo principal era a derrota muçulmana.À rebours aussi bien de la tradition historiographique portugaise, qui a fait d'Alphonse VII un redoutable ennemi du Portugal, que d’une certaine perspective espagnole, qui a si longtemps déploré la perte que la sécession portugaise aurait représentée pour l’Espagne, cette étude de la représentation de la question portugaise dans la Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris met en évidence le regard bienveillant dont les milieux contemporains idéologiquement proches de la cour impériale ont considéré l’avènement du Portugal et la souveraineté de ses gouvernants, comme si l’existence de ce royaume faisait partie d’un plan politique commun dont le but aurait été la défaite ultime du pouvoir musulman.

  8. Ridges on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is the highest resolution picture ever taken of the Jupiter moon, Europa. The area shown is about 5.9 by 9.9 miles (9.6 by 16 kilometers) and the smallest visible feature is about the size of a football field. In this view, the ice-rich surface has been broken into a complex pattern by cross-cutting ridges and grooves resulting from tectonic processes. Sinuous rille-like features and knobby terrain could result from surface modifications of unknown origins. Small craters of possible impact origin range in size from less than 330 feet (100 meters) to about 1300 feet (400 meters) across are visible.This image was taken by the solid state imaging television camera aboard the Galileo during its fourth orbit around Jupiter, at a distance of 2060 miles (3340 kilometers). The picture is centered at 325 degrees West, 5.83 degrees North. North is toward the top of this image, with the sun shining from the right.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  9. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  10. Europa: Initial Galileo Geological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Klemaszewski, J.; Homan, K.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Veverka, J.; Clark, B.E.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Belton, M.; Moore, J.; Asphaug, E.; Carr, M.H.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Chapman, C.R.; Pilcher, C.B.; Geissler, P.E.; Greenberg, R.; Tufts, R.

    1998-01-01

    Images of Europa from the Galileo spacecraft show a surface with a complex history involving tectonic deformation, impact cratering, and possible emplacement of ice-rich materials and perhaps liquids on the surface. Differences in impact crater distributions suggest that some areas have been resurfaced more recently than others; Europa could experience current cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Global-scale patterns of tectonic features suggest deformation resulting from non-synchronous rotation of Europa around Jupiter. Some regions of the lithosphere have been fractured, with icy plates separated and rotated into new positions. The dimensions of these plates suggest that the depth to liquid or mobile ice was only a few kilometers at the time of disruption. Some surfaces have also been upwarped, possibly by diapirs, cryomagmatic intrusions, or convective upwelling. In some places, this deformation has led to the development of chaotic terrain in which surface material has collapsed and/or been eroded. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  11. O PROCESSO DE IMPLANTAÇÃO DE NORMAS DE DESEMPENHO NA CONSTRUÇÃO: UM COMPARATIVO ENTRE A ESPANHA (CTE E BRASIL (NBR 15575/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Parisi Kern

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com o desempenho das edificações é uma tendência mundial. No Brasil, em 2010, foi proposta a NBR 15.575, sob o título geral de Edifícios habitacionais até cinco pavimentos – Desempenho. Embora esteja em vigor as iniciativas de utilização do documento por profissionais da construção ainda são incipientes, tendo em vista a complexidade das questões que envolvem o conceito de desempenho e desafiam especialmente arquitetos e engenheiros projetistas. Por outro lado, na Europa é comum o uso de leis, normas ou códigos baseados no conceito de desempenho. Por exemplo, o Código Técnico das Edificações (CTE da Espanha que estabelece desempenho e durabilidade às edificações, em vigor desde 2007, relativamente bem sucedido. Esse artigo tem o objetivo de discutir o processo de implantação do CTE e comparar ao da NBR 15.575/2010. Como contribuições são apontadas algumas estratégias utilizadas na implantação do CTE que poderiam ser consideradas no Brasil tais como a implantação gradual, a criação de meio de comunicação entre responsáveis pela Norma e usuários, a definição de documentos e conteúdos para o cumprimento da norma para projetistas, programas de divulgação e discussão com principais fornecedores de cada área envolvida, e, por fim, a consideração de parâmetros da NBR 15.575/2010 na aprovação dos projetos pelo Município, no Brasil, Códigos de obras.

  12. Inmigraciones en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrián, Juan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interval of only six decades 1950-2010, we have witnessed the five centuries old emigration process interruption that has shaped modern European history. At the end of World War II begins an intense opposite migration flow from former European colonies to their historic metropolis, which had also incorporated other areas that never had that relationship of dependency. This phenomenon is undoubtedly the most important contemporary social process that has taken place in Europe. Such a transformation could only occur by the confluence of important complementary factors. In separate sections of this article we present the main causes of recent immigrations in Europe and what flows within Europe and from other continents can be identified. Second, we explore the key aspects of immigration: demographics, gender and labor market. Then, we study the problems of integration in the host societies and immigration policies that facilitate it. We ended our discussion with references to the singular case of Spain.

    En un intervalo de sólo seis décadas 1950-2010, hemos sido testigos de la interrupción del proceso multisecular emigratorio que ha marcado toda la historia moderna europea. Al término de la Segunda Guerra Mundial comienza un intenso reflejo de movilidad opuesta, desde las antiguas colonias europeas hacia su metrópoli histórica, que se ha contagiado también a otras áreas que nunca tuvieron esa relación de dependencia. Este fenómeno constituye, sin duda, el proceso social contemporáneo más importante que ha tenido lugar en Europa. Una transformación así sólo ha podido ocurrir por la confluencia de importantes factores complementarios. En diferentes apartados de este artículo exponemos las principales causas de la inmigración reciente en Europa y qué flujos intraeuropeos y procedentes de otros continentes pueden identificarse. En segundo término, nos interesamos por los aspectos claves del fenómeno inmigratorio

  13. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  14. Criando fluxos de investigações efervescentes entre Espanha e Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Acaso, María; Pillar, Analice Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Neste texto, María Acaso, coordenadora do coletivo Pedagogías Invisibles (Espanha) e Analice Pillar, coordenadora do Grupo de Pesquisa em Educação e Arte (GEARTE – Brasil), compartilham as principais linhas de pesquisa desses coletivos com a intenção de criar redes de intercâmbio entre ambas as comunidades para mesclar, contaminar e, portanto, transformar os dois grupos. O texto busca apontar afinidades entre os trabalhos que estão sendo realizados nos referidos grupos transdisciplinares e tr...

  15. Biosystems Engineering in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques da Silva, José Rafael; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Cruz,Vasco Fitas

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives the definition of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; Possible revisions of the core curriculum presented in the FEANI report; the current situation of Biosystems Engineering in Portugal; The impacts of the transition to Biosystems Engineering; The need for a transition to Biosystems Engineering;Opportunities to the Biosystems Engineer in the labour market.

  16. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  17. The early days of pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection in the central region of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duque

    2010-11-01

    pandémica (H1N1 2009, foi confirmada laboratorialmente em 255 casos. A idade média foi de 23 anos e 42,7% foram incluídos na categoria dos 20 aos 29 anos. A infecção em doentes com menos de 2 anos ou mais de 50 anos foi um acontecimento raro. Os primeiros casos foram importados da Europa: França, Espanha e Inglaterra. Numa segunda fase, a infecção foi adquirida no sul de Portugal (Algarve. A taxa de incidência de infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 foi de 10,7 por 100 000 pessoas e foi diferente consoante o distrito. Foi mais elevado no distrito de Coimbra e da Guarda onde estão as principais estradas de conexão com a Europa. O período de incubação calculado para a infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 foi de 2 dias. A duração das manifestações clínicas até os doentes procurarem observação médica teve um valor mediano de 2 dias. Todos os casos foram de gravidade ligeira a moderada, sem casos de morte. Conclusões: Os dias iniciais da infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009, foram caracterizados por casos de doença com gravidade ligeira a moderada, na nossa região. Os mais afectados foram os jovens adultos, com as idades extremas da vida poupadas. O diagnóstico precoce, o isolamento estrito e o tratamento podem ter diminuído a disseminação da infecção. Keywords: Influenza, H1N1, Pandemics, 2009, Palavras-chave: Gripe, influenza, H1N1, Pandemia, 2009

  18. Europa Imaging Highlights during GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    During the two year Galileo Europa Mission (GEM), NASA's Galileo spacecraft will focus intensively on Jupiter's intriguing moon, Europa. This montage shows samples of some of the features that will be imaged during eight successive orbits. The images in this montage are in order of increasing orbit from the upper left (orbit 11) to the lower right (orbit 19).DESCRIPTIONS AND APPROXIMATE RESOLUTIONSTriple bands and dark spots1.6 kilometers/pixelConamara Chaos1.6 kilometers/pixelMannan'an Crater1.6 kilometers/ pixelCilix1.6 kilometers/pixelAgenor Linea and Thrace Macula2 kilometers/pixelSouth polar terrain2 kilometers/pixelRhadamanthys Linea1.6 kilometers/pixelEuropa plume search7 kilometers/pixel1. Triple bands and dark spots were the focus of some images from Galileo's eleventh orbit of Jupiter. Triple bands are multiple ridges with dark deposits along the outer margins. Some extend for thousands of kilometers across Europa's icy surface. They are cracks in the ice sheet and indicate the great stresses imposed on Europa by tides raised by Jupiter, as well as Europa's neighboring moons, Ganymede and Io. The dark spots or 'lenticulae' are spots of localized disruption.2. The Conamara Chaos region reveals icy plates which have broken up, moved, and rafted into new positions. This terrain suggests that liquid water or ductile ice was present near the surface. On Galileo's twelfth orbit of Jupiter, sections of this region with resolutions as high as 10 meters per picture element will be obtained.3. Mannann'an Crater is a feature newly discovered by Galileo in June 1996. Color and high resolution images (to 40 meters per picture element) from Galileo's fourteenth orbit of Jupiter will offer a close look at the crater and help characterize how impacts affect the icy surface of this moon.4. Cilix, a large mound about 1.5 kilometers high, is the center of Europa's coordinate system. Its concave top and what may be flow like features to the southwest of the mound are

  19. Síntese da história da Evolução Holocénica do Parque Nacional de Doñana (Espanha): evolução paleoambiental, influência climática, eventos energéticos extremos e registro de foraminíferos

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, L.; Veiga-Pires, C.; Ruiz, F.; Abad, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objectivo realizar uma síntese da evolução paleogeográfica do Parque Nacional de Doñana, através de uma compilação da informação previamente publicada sobre o assunto, incluindo a descrição geral das variações climáticas tardi-holocénicas na Península Ibérica. Dados sedimentológicos e de microfauna de dois cores e o registo histórico de eventos energéticos extremos em Portugal e Espanha são igualmente combinados e discutidos no que diz respeit...

  20. Nobreza indígena da Nova Espanha: alianças e conquistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Raminelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As alianças entre os castelhanos e os chefes indígenas renderam aos primeiros, vitórias e aos segundos, a preservação de seus domínios. Para viabilizar a administração da Nova Espanha, a Coroa reconheceu os valores aristocráticos e o governo hereditário indígenas, vigentes antes da chegada dos conquistadores. Se esta estratégia fora empregada nas primeiras décadas, ao passar do tempo, os administradores coloniais destituíram as antigas chefias e empossaram novos caciques, mais adequados aos interesses da monarquia Hispânica.

  1. Docentes resilientes em contextos precários: Estudo de casos em Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Silva Sousa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo centra-se sobre docentes que enfrentam grandes desafios, em contextos socioeconómicos e culturais muito precários, na Província de Granada, Espanha, em que os alunos apresentam muitas diferenças quanto às suas necessidades e aspirações educativas. Os docentes destas escolas acabam por atuar numa perspetiva mais social e moral do que académica e as famílias demonstram pouca participação e interesse, junto às instituições de ensino nas quais os seus filhos estudam. As respostas obtidas com a recolha de dados são únicos para cada contexto social e educacional e seria errado extrapola-las, a partir de um centro para outro, porque cada centro tem a sua própria realidade, apesar do elevado envolvimento dos docentes para o sucesso das suas escolas.

  2. Evolution und Kreationismus in Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Dittmar; Lammers, Christoph

    Das Phänomen der Ablehnung des wissenschaftlichen Faktums der Evolution wird als Kreationismus von vielen Europäern in erster Linie jenseits des Atlantiks in den USA verortet. In der europäischen Presse wird beispielsweise immer einmal wieder über Gerichtsverhandlungen berichtet, in denen darüber gestritten wird, ob das Thema Kreationismus in seinen verschiedenen Spielarten Teil des Biologieunterrichts sein darf. In der Tat sind diese gerichtlichen Auseinandersetzungen über Schulstoff in Europa weit weniger verbreitet als in den USA, wo sie Konsequenz aus der amerikanischen Verfassung sind, nach der in öffentlichen Schulen kein Religionsunterricht erteilt werden darf.

  3. Megaregions i benestar a Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Boix, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    En aquest article s’ofereix per primer cop una evidencia de la relació entre benestar i megaregions a Europa. Creuant la base de dades de benestar de l’OCDE per als anys 2000 i 2013 amb la definició de les megaregions europees, s’elabora una base de dades sobre benestar a les megaregions europees, que permet donar una primera evidència sobre si els nivells de benestar són majors a les megaregions que fora d’elles, i si el benestar ha millorat o empitjorat a les megaregions entre els anys 2000...

  4. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo; Bengenal; Bar; Bills; Blankenship; Connerney; Kurth; McGrath; Moore; Prockter; hide

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability, as an overarching science goal, will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes, The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (1EO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options, In its preliminary findings (May, 2011), the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives, An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing, This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources, More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, that is better situated to handle larger masses and higher data volumes, and which aims to limit radiation exposure, Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over mUltiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile, Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission

  5. Near Surface Water on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Gooch, B. T.; Patterson, G.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Europa's chaos terrains are generally agreed upon to have formed through disruption of the ice shell and interaction with water, but the exact details are debated. Thrace Macula, one of the largest chaos features, was initially considered to be an extrusive flow due its dark coloration and raised topography. Upon closer inspection, the volcanic interpretation was dismissed, in favor of suggestions that motion of brines through the ice, akin to brine drainage in sea ice, would explain the dark coloration. However no model has clearly explained how both the color and topography of the feature are produced, nor the large ice rafts at its center. In this presentation, we will show that disruption of the surface ice after emplacement of a subsurface water lense can reproduce all of the observations of Thrace Macula if the ice in the upper few kilometers is highly fractured or porous. We will demonstrate with simple hydrologic models that hydraulic gradients within the surrounding ice are sufficient to produce a shallow brine zone that migrates through the ice and creates a distributed network of brine-soaked and refrozen ice. These results suggest that liquid water was still present at Thrace Macula at the time of Galileo, and that future observations of this region may reveal significant changes. Such observations have important implications for crustal recycling, material transport and the long-term habitability of Europa's subsurface and ocean.

  6. The Planned Europa Clipper Mission: Exploring Europa to Investigate its Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Senske, David A.; Korth, Haje; Blaney, Diana L.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Christensen, Philip R.; Kempf, Sascha; Raymond, Carol Anne; Retherford, Kurt D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Waite, J. Hunter; Westlake, Joseph H.; Collins, Geoffrey; Gudipati, Murthy; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Paty, Carol; Rathbun, Julie A.; Roberts, James; E Schmidt, Britney; Soderblom, Jason M.; Europa Clipper Science Team

    2017-10-01

    A key driver of planetary exploration is to understand the processes that lead to habitability across the solar system. In this context, the science goal of the planned Europa Clipper mission is: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. Following from this goal are three Mission Objectives: 1) Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; 2) Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and 3) Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize localities of high science interest. Folded into these three objectives is the desire to search for and characterize any current activity.To address the Europa science objectives, a highly capable and synergistic suite of nine instruments comprise the mission's scientific payload. This payload includes five remote-sensing instruments that observe the wavelength range from ultraviolet through radar, specifically: Europa UltraViolet Spectrograph (Europa-UVS), Europa Imaging System (EIS), Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE), Europa THErMal Imaging System (E-THEMIS), and Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON). In addition, four in-situ instruments measure fields and particles: Interior Characterization of Europa using MAGnetometry (ICEMAG), Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration (MASPEX), and SUrface Dust Analyzer (SUDA). Moreover, gravity science can be addressed via the spacecraft's telecommunication system, and scientifically valuable engineering data from the radiation monitoring system would augment the plasma dataset. Working together, the planned Europa mission’s science payload would allow testing of hypotheses relevant to the composition, interior, and geology of Europa, to address the potential habitability of this

  7. O cerimonial na construção do Estado Moderno Portugal no concerto europeu (1640-1704)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, João Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, História das Relações Internacionais, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2013 Depois do Primeiro de Dezembro de 1640, assumir um lugar na Europa tornou-se um verdadeiro imperativo nacional. Portugal tinha tido um estatuto internacional independente que a monarquia dual (1580-1640) lhe havia negado. Mas o Reino português, encabeçado pelo seu próprio Rei tinha um lugar na Europa. Um lugar que transcendia a sua localização no extremo ocidental do Velho Continente, ...

  8. Portugal, a Brazil Colony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cid, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    ... a new America, in fact, some say that this new vague of migrants towards the terrinha, as Brazilians like to call Portugal, is connected to the strong barriers imposed by the US government, in recent years, to Brazilian citizens willing to enter the United States and to the rippling tide of anti-American feeling in Brazil, right now. Apart from...

  9. ATRIBUTOS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS E ACEITABILIDADE DOS FRUTOS DE FIGUEIRAS CULTIVADAS NA ESPANHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Euzébio de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais dos frutos de quatro variedades de figueira (Colar, San Antonio, Cuello de Dama Negro e Tiberio cultivadas no sudeste da Espanha. Para este estudo foram utilizados figos oriundos de uma área experimental da Escola Politécnica Superior de Orihuela da Universidade Miguel Hernández de Elche/Espanha. Os frutos foram avaliados no Laboratório de Pós-Colheita da Universidade Politécnica de Cartagena/Espanha. Foram mensuradas características como firmeza, pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, polifenóis totais, capacidade antioxidante e a análise sensorial dos frutos de quatro variedades de figueiras. Foram considerados 4 tratamentos (variedades e 3 repetições por tratamento, para cada repetição foram utilizados 5 frutos. Os frutos da variedade Tiberio mostraram menor firmeza e baixa qualidade sensorial, indicando menor aceitabilidade. As variedades Colar e Cuello de Dama Negro apresentaram frutos com maiores teores de polifenóis totais e capacidade antioxidante. Palavras-chave: Ficus carica L, qualidade, análise sensorial.   PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND ACCEPTABILITY OF FIG FRUITS CULTIVATED IN SPAIN ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of four fig fruits varieties grown in southeast Spain. For this study were used fig fruits coming from the experimental area of Orihuela Polytechnic School, University Miguel Hernández of Elche/Spain. After harvesting the fruits were brought to the Postharvest laboratory of Cartagena Polytechnic University/ Spain, where the weight characterization, longitudinal and equatorial diameter, ostiole diameter (morphological, consistency, pH,  soluble solids,  sugars, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (physico-chemical , , was performed, and sensory analysis of four fig fruits varieties (Colar, San Antonio, Cuello de Dama Negro and Tiberio

  10. Acidentes de trabalho em Barcelona (Espanha, no período de 1992-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana F. Sampaio

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As estatísticas dos acidentes de trabalho, como qualquer outro sistema de notificação, devem servir de base para determinar prioridades e decidir quais medidas preventivas devem ser adotadas. Neste contexto, o objetivo do estudo é aprofundar a análise dos acidentes de trabalho através da utilização de técnicas estatísticas descritivas que permitam estabelecer a relação entre o número de acidentes de trabalho ocorridos em Barcelona (Espanha e as variáveis tipo de acidente, setor econômico, tamanho da empresa e tipo de contrato. MÉTODO: Como fonte de dados foi utilizado o sistema de notificação de acidentes graves e mortais ocorridos na cidade de Barcelona (Espanha, entre 1992 e 1993. Foram examinados 848 registros de acidentes de trabalho em trabalhadores do sexo masculino e a partir desses dados efetuou-se uma análise mediante modelos log-lineares. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados evidenciam que os acidentes traumáticos e o setor de construção têm uma associação positiva, verificada, da mesma forma, entre os acidentes de trânsito e o setor de serviços. Os acidentes traumáticos e de trânsito apresentaram uma associação com as pequenas empresas e os acidentes não traumáticos demonstraram associar-se com as grandes empresas. Verificou-se, ainda, associação entre os trabalhadores temporais e o setor da construção frente aos trabalhadores com contrato fixo, em que se constatou uma associação com os setores de indústria e de serviços. Foi verificada associação positiva entre os acidentes ocorridos com os trabalhadores temporais e as pequenas e médias empresas.

  11. A simulated magnetic induction investigation of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, B. G.; Khurana, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    We will present results of a simulated magnetic induction experiment designed to measure the electrical conductivity structure within Europa, as seen from a series of spacecraft flyby encounters. As Europa moves in its orbit about Jupiter, it experiences a time varying magnetic field, which induces electrical currents in any conductive layers. These currents produce induced magnetic fields, whose spatio-temporal pattern is diagnostic of Europa's internal conductivity structure. The main frequencies at which the imposed magnetic field changes at Europa are low order integer linear combinations of Jupiter's rotation (9.925 hour period) and Europa's orbit (85.228 hour period). Longer period oscillations penetrate more deeply, as they have more time to diffuse into the interior. At each forcing period, we define the admittance as the amplitude ratio (induced/imposed) of the associated magnetic fields. Each measurement of the admittance constrains the conductance (product of conductivity and thickness) of the main internal conductor, at the appropriate period. With measurements at multiple periods, a low frequency magnetic tomography inversion becomes possible. A spacecraft orbiting Europa could almost certainly constrain ice shell thickness, and both the depth extent and salinity of the ocean. The main challenge of a flyby version of that experiment is to have a sampling cadence which adequately separates the main signal frequencies. The magnetometer on Galileo has already detected an induction signal which is consistent with the presence of a salty ocean. However, the low number of flybys restricts the ability of that data-set to say more. We have simulated a time series of magnetometer measurements which could be acquired by the Europa Clipper mission concept, along a hypothetical planning trajectory, which would involve a total of 45 encounters with Europa. This trajectory has been designed to satisfy numerous instrument requirements, including that it encounter

  12. Dynamics of Artificial Satellites around Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paulo dos Santos Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planetary satellite of interest at the present moment for the scientific community is Europa, one of the four largest moons of Jupiter. There are some missions planned to visit Europa in the next years, for example, Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO, NASA and Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE, ESA. In this paper, we search for orbits around Europa with long lifetimes. Here, we develop the disturbing potential in closed form up to the second order to analyze the effects caused on the orbital elements of an artificial satellite around Europa. The equations of motion are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in power series of the eccentricity and inclination. We found polar orbits with long lifetimes. This type of orbits reduces considerably the maintenance cost of the orbit. We show a formula to calculate the critical inclination of orbits around Europa taking into account the disturbing potential due to the nonspherical shape of the central body and the perturbation of the third body.

  13. El puente Europa en Innsbruck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available To link up the Central Europe and the Southern Europe road system across the Alps, a road bridge has been recently built, which runs 190 m above the bottom of the valley of the Sill river. This structure has been named the Europa Bridge. The Brenner Pass is very suitable for winter traffic by road, in spite of its height of 1370 m above sea level. The bridge deck consists of a metallic box girder. The total length of 657 ms has been divided into six spans. Three of them are 91 m long, two are 108 m long, and the central span is 198 m long. The main features of this bridge are its supports, which rise to a height far above anything so far previously attempted. The highest pile is 160 m long, from the ground to the deck. The piles are hollow inside, and have been internally divided by means of two partitions, which extend throughout the total height. Horizontal thrust is allowed for by a series of horizontal diaphragms, spaced every 20 m. Due to the accumulation, on the surface of the valley, of thick layers of surface soil carried down by the river, the foundations have had to be established at a great depth. The piles have been built with the aid of sliding formwork. The design and erection of the bridge has been done by the Vereinigte Osterreichische Eisen un Stahlwerke, AG., and the work was directed by Ing. Dipl. Josef Gruber.Para unir la red viaria de Europa Central con el Sur del Continente a través del Paso del Brenner, en los Alpes austro-italianos, se ha construido recientemente un puente para carretera—con una altura de 190 m sobre el fondo del valle del río Sill—denominado Puente de Europa. El paso trasalpino del Brenner presenta condiciones muy favorables para la circulación por carretera en invierno, a pesar de sus 1.370 m de altitud. El tablero está constituido por una viga, cajón metálica. Los 657 m de longitud total del puente propiamente dicho se han subdividido en seis tramos: tres de 81, dos de 108 y uno central de

  14. Oceans, Ice Shells, and Life on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The four large satellites of Jupiter are famous for their planet-like diversity and complexity, but none more so than ice-covered Europa. Since the provocative Voyager images of Europa in 1979, evidence has been mounting that a vast liquid water ocean may lurk beneath the moon's icy surface. Europa has since been the target of increasing and sometimes reckless speculation regarding the possibility that giant squid and other creatures may be swimming its purported cold, dark ocean. No wonder Europa tops everyone's list for future exploration in the outer solar system (after the very first reconnaissance of Pluto and the Kuiper belt, of course). Europa may be the smallest of the Galilean moons (so-called because they were discovered by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century) but more than makes up for its diminutive size with a crazed, alien landscape. The surface is covered with ridges hundreds of meters high, domes tens of kilometers across, and large areas of broken and disrupted crust called chaos. Some of the geologic features seen on Europa resemble ice rafts floating in polar seas here on Earth-reinforcing the idea that an ice shell is floating over an ocean on this Moon-size satellite. However, such features do not prove that an ocean exists or ever did. Warm ice is unusually soft and will flow under its own weight. If the ice shell is thick enough, the warm bottom of the shell will flow, as do terrestrial glaciers. This could produce all the observed surface features on Europa through a variety of processes, the most important of which is convection. (Convection is the vertical overturn of a layer due to heating or density differences-think of porridge or sauce boiling on the stove.) Rising blobs from the base of the crust would then create the oval domes dotting Europa's surface. The strongest evidence for a hidden ocean beneath Europa's surface comes from the Galileo spacecraft's onboard magnetometer, which detected fluctuations in Jupiter's magnetic

  15. Viol?ncia Policial contra minorias sociais no Brasil e na Espanha: Justificativas para o posicionamento de estudantes universit?rios

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Thiago Morais

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo geral desta tese ? investigar se a viol?ncia policial ? mais tolerada quando a v?tima ? membro de uma minoria social (e.g. negro no Brasil e imigrantes marroquinos e ciganos romenos na Espanha). Esta ?, portanto, uma tese sobre o preconceito e a discrimina??o racial no Brasil e a xenofobia e a discrimina??o na Espanha. Os objetivos espec?ficos foram: a) analisar o papel moderador de um conjunto de vari?veis psicossociais na tomada de posi??o, frente ?s a??es extrajudiciais (e.g. Pr...

  16. La Barraca Teatro Universitário : reflexões sobre encenação (Espanha 1931-1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Simone Aparecida dos

    2015-01-01

    A PROTAGONISTA DESTE trabalho é uma companhia de teatro chamada La Barraca Teatro Universitario, ela se caracterizou por ser uma trupe itinerante que atuou na Espanha na primeira metade do século XX entre os anos de 1931 e 1936. A direção desta esteve a cargo de Federico García Lorca, atividade que exerceu de forma voluntária como idealizador, encenador e ator. Nossa discussão envereda pela consideração de que na gerência de seus ideais importando a experiência política, estética e pedagógica...

  17. Featured Image: Active Cryovolcanism on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    Nighttime thermal image from the Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer, revealing a thermal anomaly around the region where the plumes were observed. [Sparks et al. 2017]This image shows a 1320 900 km, high-resolution Galileo/Voyager USGS map of the surface of Europa, one of Jupiters moons. In March 2014, observations of Europa revealed a plume on its icy surface coming from somewhere within the green ellipse. In February 2016, another plume was observed, this time originating from somewhere within the cyan ellipse. In addition, a nighttime thermal image from the Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer has revealed a thermal anomaly a region of unusually high temperature near the same location. In a recent study led by William Sparks (Space Telescope Science Institute), a team of scientists presents these observations and argues that they provide mounting evidence of active water-vapor venting from ongoing cryovolcanism beneath Europas icy surface. If this is true, then Europas surface is active and provides access to the liquid water at depth boosting the case for Europas potential habitability and certainly making for an interesting target point for future spacecraft exploration of this moon. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationW. B. Sparks et al 2017 ApJL 839 L18. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa67f8

  18. Tecnologias verdes para um mundo autossustentável: um olhar sobre Brasil e Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Macedo Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute sobre as tecnologias verdes no âmbito do processo de inovação, com base na análise das patentes verdes solicitadas em nível global e, mais particularmente, no estudo das patentes de prioridade Brasil e Espanha. Patentes verdes aqui entendidas como patentes com foco em tecnologias verdes, ou seja, tecnologias adaptativas e mitigadores das mudanças do clima, o que compreende redução da emissão de carbono e poluição, aumento da eficiência energética e de recursos e a redução da perda de biodiversidade e dos ecossistemas. Do ponto de vista metodológico, formulou-se uma estratégia de busca com base nas tabelas Green Technology Manual Codes. Para a constituição do corpus de 224.673 registros de patentes extraídas da base de dados Derwent World Patents Index – período de cobertura 2004-2013 – o foco foram as tecnologias verdes estabelecidas pela Convenção Marco das Nações Unidas sobre a Mudança Climática. Os resultados do estudo demonstraram a amplitude da mobilização de esforços, ora sob a égide da economia verde, no propósito da mudança do modelo de produção tradicional, não como uma opção, mas como uma tendência imperativa da economia mundial.

  19. Portugal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vera

    2007-06-01

    In the 14th and 15th centuries, Portugal went discovering and conquering sea and land all over the world. History was forever changed by the courage and bravery of one people. The Portuguese navy introduced new techniques of navigation, using astronomical instruments like the astrolabe. In this paper, some episodes of the Portuguese relation with astronomy and space will be highlighted. These refer not only to governmental measures and decisions, but also to initiatives of the society at large, telling of the important role that this subject has played in the Portuguese society throughout the years.

  20. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  1. An ice crystal model for jupiter's moon Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; schmidt, Karen Guldbae

    2003-01-01

    A simple model for crystal growth in the ice shell of Europa has been made in order to estimate the size of ice crystals at Europa's surface. If mass is lost from the surface of Europa due to sputtering processes, and the ice thickness is constant in time, ice crystals will be transported upwards...

  2. New observations on the crustacean fauna of Europa Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Crustacea Decapoda of Europa Island have been inventoried during the BIORECIE fieldwork conducted from 7-12 November 2011. Previous records for Europa Island have been also compiled and an updated documented checklist of the species is proposed. In total, 175 decapods are reported for Europa Island, ...

  3. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  4. DETERMINANTES DA DIVULGAÇÃO DOS INDICADORES DE DESEMPENHO DA GRI NAS EMPRESAS DO BRASIL E DA ESPANHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Diógenes Góis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo investigar os fatores determinantes da divulgação dos indicadores de desempenho de sustentabilidade da GRI nas empresas listadas nas bolsas do Brasil e da Espanha. Para tanto, foram analisados os dados de 94 empresas de capital aberto dos dois países que publicaram relatórios anuais e/ou de sustentabilidade, referentes a 2011, no padrão GRI-G3. A pesquisa é descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa dos dados, utilizando-se a Regressão Linear Múltipla para quatro modelos de disclosure (econômico, ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade. Os resultados mostram que as empresas da Espanha apresentam um nível de disclosure de sustentabilidade mais elevado, e que o nível de evidenciação geral, considerando o conjunto das dimensões da sustentabilidade (econômica, social e ambiental, corresponde a 72,7%. Quanto ao resultado dos modelos de regressão, observa-se que as variáveis independentes (Tamanho, Rentabilidade, Endividamento, Auditoria, Setor de Impacto Ambiental e Idade não explicam o disclosure econômico; porém, quanto aos disclosures ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade, as variáveis Tamanho e Idade são fatores determinantes.

  5. O Brasil e a Espanha na dinâmica das migrações internacionais: um breve panorama da situação dos emigrantes brasileiros na Espanha Brasil y España en la dinámica de las migraciones internacionales: un breve panorama de la situación de los emigrantes brasileños en España Brazil and Spain in the dynamics of international migrations: a brief description of the situation of Brazilian immigrants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Masanet Ripoll

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Paralelamente à inversão migratória no Brasil durante a década de 80, quando passou a ser um país de emigração, iniciou-se na Espanha o processo contrário, de país de destino da imigração estrangeira. Em pouco tempo, presenciou-se na Espanha uma importante afluência de imigrantes procedentes de um leque geográfico, cultural e étnico cada vez mais amplo, de tal modo que este país tem se convertido, na atualidade, num dos principais destinos dos estrangeiros não comunitários que querem se estabelecer na Europa. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo oferecer um panorama sobre a realidade social do coletivo de imigrantes brasileiros estabelecidos na Espanha, a partir de dados secundários procedentes de diversas fontes oficiais espanholas. Assim, é feita uma descrição das características sociodemográficas básicas da população imigrante na Espanha (volume, distribuição geográfica, sexo, idade, etc., centrando-se no coletivo brasileiro. Da mesma forma, aborda-se o contexto de recepção econômico-laboral da população imigrante na Espanha, visando compreender melhor como se produz a inserção da população imigrante extracomunitária no mercado de trabalho espanhol, e apresentam-se alguns dados socioeconômicos deste segmento e sua comparação com a população brasileira.Paralelamente a la inversión migratoria en Brasil durante la década del 80, cuando pasó a ser un país de emigración, se inició en España el proceso contrario, de país de destino de la inmigración extranjera. En poco tiempo, se presenció en España una importante afluencia de inmigrantes procedentes de un abanico geográfico, cultural y étnico cada vez más amplio, de tal modo que este país se ha convertido en la actualidad, en uno de los principales destinos de los extranjeros no comunitarios que quieren establecerse en Europa. El presente trabajo tiene como principal objetivo ofrecer un panorama sobre la realidad social del

  6. Forschung weltweit anerkannt: lernen von Europa

    CERN Multimedia

    Lorbeere, K

    2006-01-01

    Europa is better than its reputation. On one hand, the old continent, with the CERN, has the most modern research center for particle physics of the world; in addition, international groupings of companies as Microsoft use the research laboratories in Europe and thus use the know-how of the European scientists

  7. L'Europa accelera sul progetto Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Il consorzio pan-europeo Egee sta pilotando a Bruxelles la complessa operazione che dotera' l'Europa di un mercato comune delle risorse di calcolo sulla base del modello Grid (griglia di calcolo, trasporto e distribuzione di dati)" (1 page).

  8. A Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janelle Leonard, Erin; Patthoff, Donald Alex; Senske, David A.; Collins, Geoffrey

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the global scale geology of Europa is paramount to gaining insight into the potential habitability of this icy world. To this end, work is ongoing to complete a global geological map at the scale of 1:15 million that incorporates data at all resolutions collected by the Voyager and Galileo missions. The results of this work will aid the Europa Clipper mission, now in formulation, by providing a framework for collaborative and synergistic science investigations.To understand global geologic and tectonic relations, a total of 10 geologic units have been defined. These include: Low Albedo Ridge Material (lam)—low albedo material that irregularly surrounds large (>20 km) ridge structures; Ridged plains (pr)—distributed over all latitudes and characterized by subparallel to cross-cutting ridges and troughs visible at high resolution (Depression Margins, Dome Margins and Troughs. We also introduce a point feature (at the global scale), Microchaos, to denote small (<10 km) patches of discontinuous chaos material. The completed map will constrain the distribution of different Europa terrains and provide a general stratigraphic framework to assess the geologic history of Europa from the regional to the global scale.

  9. Os dias iniciais da infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 na região centro de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duque

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: O primeiro caso de infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 foi diagnosticado na região centro de Portugal no dia 16 de Junho de 2009, numa mulher infectada no Canadá. Métodos: O nosso estudo tem por objectivos, em primeiro lugar caracterizar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de todos os doentes que tiveram manifestações clínicas incluídas na definição de caso para investigação com amostras submetidas para diagnóstico da infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009; em segundo lugar, avaliar a precisão da definição de caso para investigação de acordo com a presença ou ausência de febre no momento da observação clinica. Efectuámos a revisão dos registos médicos de todos os doentes classificados como caso para investigação e analisaram-se os primeiros casos de doentes infectados com o novo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009, diagnosticados na região centro de Portugal durante o período pandémico compreendido entre Junho e Agosto de 2009.Foi utilizado o método da reacção em cadeia da polimerase de retrotranscripção em tempo real para confirmação da infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009. A colheita de dados foi efectuada de forma padronizada em suporte de papel de acordo com as normas da Direcçào Geral de Saúde. Resultados e discussão: A infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 foi confirmada laboratorialmente em 255 casos. A idade média foi de 23 anos e 42,7 % foram incluídos na categoria dos 20 aos 29 anos. A infecção em doentes com menos de 2 anos ou mais de 50 anos foi um acontecimiento raro. Os primeiros casos foram importados da Europa: Franca, Espanha e Inglaterra. Numa segunda fase, a infecção foi adquirida no sul de Portugal (Algarve. A taxa de incidência de infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009 foi de 10,7 por 100 000 pessoas e foi diferente consoante o distrito. Foi mais elevado no distrito de

  10. Energetic particle fluxes in vicinity of Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzolko, Mikhail; Getselev, Igor; Gubar, Yuriy; Veselovsky, Igor

    Currently several projects of sending research space vehicles to Jupiter and its Galilean moons in 2020 are being developed. In particular, Russian Space Agency proposed the project of Europa lander. During the mission the spacecraft will be affected by charged particles of various origins. The greatest hazard will originate from powerful Jupiter's radiation belts, especially during the time of spacecraft operation near Europa and on its surface. The absorbed radiation dose during 2 months in Europa's orbit under shielding compared to that for "Galileo" spacecraft will amount to almost 1 megarad, the major contribution to it will originate from relativistic electrons. However, near Europa part of the charged particle flux will be shaded by the moon. Obviously, fluxes of particles of all energies on its surface will be lower by at least 2 times, than in the same point of space without Europa. But furthermore, the reduction of the fluxes in vicinity of Europa is nonuniform, and differs for the surface and the low-altitude orbit. This is caused by several factors: the complexity of particle trajectories near Europa and in Jupiter's magnetosphere in general, difference of Europa's orbital plane from Jupiter's geomagnetic equator plane, certain disturbance of Jupiter's magnetic field in vicinity of Europa, possible influence of electric fields and Europa's tenuous atmosphere. In the current study computations of energetic particle flux distribution near Europa and on its surface are made, taking into account several of the above-mentioned factors.

  11. Uso de las redes sociales en el sur de Europa. Género y adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Málaga Pescador, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Investigamos en esta tesis el uso de las redes sociales virtuales entre los adolescentes (de 12 a 18 años) de tres países del sur de Europa: España, Italia y Portugal. En concreto se van a estudiar el nivel de penetración de estas redes, su utilización concreta, las pautas de acceso a internet y el uso del teléfono móvil, sus hábitos como clientes o consumidores y el papel de las redes en las actividades de socialización. La información proviene de una encuesta que se aplicó a una muestra de ...

  12. Migraciones y agricultura en Europa del Sur: Emergencia de un nuevo proletariado internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro AVALLONE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años ochenta, una parte de las investigaciones sociales se han centrado en las transformaciones estructurales y en las condiciones sociales y subjetivas de los trabajadores migrantes en la agricultura de la Europa meridional (Portugal, España, Italia y Grecia. Los estudios realizados constituyen la base de este artículo, en el que se revisan, de manera comparativa, los aspectos comunes a los distintos contextos, para delinear las características de la condición laboral y social de los trabajadores inmigrantes. En conclusión, el artículo indica que el trabajo migrante se ha conver - tido en el factor central en la estructura agrícola local; sin embargo, los trabajadores han permanecido al margen de las políticas públicas y de las sociedades locales, constituyendo un nuevo proletariado internacional.

  13. Europa the ocean moon : search for an alien biosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Europa - The Ocean Moon tells the story of the Galileo spacecraft probe to Jupiter's moon, Europa. It provides a detailed description of the physical processes, including the dominating tidal forces that operate on Europa, and includes a comprehensive tour of Europa using images taken by Galileo's camera. The book reviews and evaluates the interpretative work carried out to date, providing a philosophical discussion of the scientific process of analyzing results and the pitfalls that accompany it. It also examines the astrobiological constraints on this possible biosphere, and implications for future research, exploration and planetary biological protection. Europa - The Ocean Moon provides a unique understanding of the Galileo images of Europa, discusses the theory of tidal processes that govern its icy ridged and disrupted surface, and examines in detail the physical setting that might sustain extra-terrestrial life in Europa's ocean and icy crust.

  14. Arte, nación y estilo: la Exposición Universal de París de 1867 y el arte neomanuelino en Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Becerril Crespo, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN El estilo manuelino es el arte que se desarrolló en Portugal durante el reinado de don Manuel I de Portugal (1495-1521). Se trata de una variante portuguesa del tardogótico. En el siglo XIX, después de las invasiones napoleónicas, Europa intentará configurar un nuevo orden político con el objetivo de establecer la paz. Paralelamente, comienza un proceso en el que los países europeos van a competir entre sí por hacerse con la hegemonía europea. En este marco se encuadra la exposición u...

  15. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  16. The Geology and Astrobiology of Europa (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, C. F.; Hand, K. P.

    2009-12-01

    Galileo’s discovery of the jovian moons was a crucial step in the process, completed by Newton, that overthrew the Aristotelian dichotomy between the physics of the terrestrial realm and the physics of the heavens. Now, 400 years later, we know of one kind of biology, Earth biology (DNA-protein life) and have glimpses of other possibilities more closely or distantly related (e.g., the RNA world). The galilean satellite Europa is one of the most likely venues in our solar system for presenting us with another example of life, and life likely from an entirely separate origin. Europa therefore gives us a chance to extend our understanding of biology beyond Earth biology to a more generalized biology, providing a biological counterpart to the galilean/newtonian revolution. This possibility is the reason that Europa is one of the highest priorities in solar system exploration. It is a still entirely speculative but credible possibility, because of Europa’s extraordinary geophysics and chemistry. First, radiogenic decay and tidal energy appear sufficient to maintain a subsurface liquid water ocean on Europa that resides between an ice shell and a rocky mantle. Gravity measurements confirm this differentiation, and magnetometer measurements seem to confirm the liquidity of the ocean. Magnetometer measurements further put strong limits on the thickness of the ice shell overlying the ocean and on the salinity of the ocean itself. Because the ocean is covered by kilometers of ice, the enormous free energy of sunlight is rarely available for chemistry or possible biology, but radiolytic chemistry at the surface ice may provide a powerful oxidizing arrow for the ocean that, coupled with deep hydrothermal activity, maintains a supply of electron acceptor and donor pairs that could be used by life. The details of this scenario depend on surface impact gardening and sputtering rates, and on the interaction of the ice shell with the ocean. Current estimates based on cratering

  17. Imagem e Tempo. Representações do poder na "Crónica Geral de Espanha"

    OpenAIRE

    Peixeiro, Horácio Augusto

    2009-01-01

    A "Crónica Geral de Espanha", códice pertencente à Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, desde 1879, é uma cópia quatrocentista da Crónica de 1344 de D. Pedro Afonso, conde de Barcelos. A sua abundante iluminura é vestígio maior duma produção laica ligada à corte de Avis, em que o cultivo das letras, a par da constituição de livrarias, desde D. João I, mostram um apreço pelo livro que irá continuar no período manuelino. Este interesse revela-nos uma imagem da realeza que se encontra bem exemplific...

  18. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  19. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  20. Portugal: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Simoes, Jorge; Augusto, Goncalo Figueiredo; Fronteira, Ines; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    This analysis of the Portuguese health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Overall health indicators such as life expectancy at birth and at age 65 years have shown a notable improvement over the last decades. However, these improvements have not been followed at the same pace by other important dimensions of health: child poverty and its consequences, mental health and quality of life after 65. Health inequalities remain a general problem in the country. All residents in Portugal have access to health care provided by the National Health Service (NHS), financed mainly through taxation. Out-of-pocket payments have been increasing over time, not only co-payments, but particularly direct payments for private outpatient consultations, examinations and pharmaceuticals. The level of cost-sharing is highest for pharmaceutical products. Between one-fifth and one-quarter of the population has a second (or more) layer of health insurance coverage through health subsystems (for specific sectors or occupations) and voluntary health insurance (VHI). VHI coverage varies between schemes, with basic schemes covering a basic package of services, whereas more expensive schemes cover a broader set of services, including higher ceilings of health care expenses. Health care delivery is by both public and private providers. Public provision is predominant in primary care and hospital care, with a gate-keeping system in place for access to hospital care. Pharmaceutical products, diagnostic technologies and private practice by physicians constitute the bulk of private health care provision. In May 2011, the economic crisis led Portugal to sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Monetary Fund, the European Commission and the European Central Bank, in exchange for a loan of 78 billion euros. The agreed Economic and Financial Adjustment Programme included

  1. Women in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  2. Tides on Europa: the membrane paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a thin icy crust which is decoupled from the mantle by a subsurface ocean. The crust thus responds to tidal forcing as a deformed membrane, cold at the top and near melting point at the bottom. In this paper I develop the membrane theory of viscoelastic shells with depth-dependent rheology with the dual goal of predicting tidal tectonics and computing tidal dissipation. Two parameters characterize the tidal response of the membrane: the effective Poisson's ratio $\\bar\

  3. Assessment of Alternative Europa Mission Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaier, Jerry; Elliott, John; Clark, Karla; Pappalardo, Robert; Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the science merit, technical risk and qualitative assessment of relative cost of alternative architectural implementations as applied to a first dedicated mission to Europa. The objective was accomplished through an examination of mission concepts resulting from previous and ongoing studies. Key architectural elements that were considered include moon orbiters, flybys (single flybys like New Horizons and multiple flybys similar to the ongoing Jupiter System Observer study), sample return and in situ landers and penetrators.

  4. Praga, el Hollywood de Europa Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sorrosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar la industria fílmica checa, tuvieron que aliarse el mundo poscomunista y el capitalismo. Praga se ha convertido en "El Hollywood de Europa del Este" o en la Meca fílmica. Los estudios Barrandov después de la caída del comunismo y el proceso de transformación económico pasaron por la privatización.

  5. Continued evolution of Europa subsurface exploration technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Lane, A. L.; Mogensen, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Galileo results convincingly indicate that Europa has a deep salty ocean covered by a shell of water ice a few tens of kilometers thick; this physical description gives rise to a host of thoughtful speculation as to the nature of the ocean, its seafloor, and the likelihood of microbial life within it. We argue that this situation points to the high desirability of a series of in-situ missions to examine the ice and, ultimately, the ocean.

  6. Europa Propulsion Valve Seat Material Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addona, Brad M.

    2017-01-01

    The Europa mission and spacecraft design presented unique challenges for selection of valve seat materials that met the fluid compatibility requirements, and combined fluid compatibility and high radiation exposure level requirements. The Europa spacecraft pressurization system valves will be exposed to fully saturated propellant vapor for the duration of the mission. The effects of Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellant vapors on heritage valve seat materials, such as Vespel SP-1 and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), were evaluated to determine if an alternate material is required. In liquid system applications, Teflon is the only available compatible valve seat material. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an air or vacuum environment has been previously documented. Radiation exposure data for Teflon in an oxidizer environment such as NTO, was not available, and it was unknown whether the effects would be similar to those on air-exposed samples. Material testing was conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to determine the effects of propellant vapor on heritage seat materials for pressurization valve applications, and the effects of combined radiation and NTO propellant exposure on Teflon. The results indicated that changes in heritage pressurization valve seat materials' properties rendered them unsuitable for the Europa application. The combined radiation and NTO exposure testing of Teflon produced results equivalent to combined radiation and air exposure results.

  7. Seismic signal and noise on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark; Stähler, Simon; Bills, Bruce; Castillo Castellanos, Jorge; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Husker, Allen; Kedar, Sharon; Lorenz, Ralph; Pike, William T.; Schmerr, Nicholas; Tsai, Victor; Vance, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Seismology is one of our best tools for detailing interior structure of planetary bodies, and a seismometer is included in the baseline and threshold mission design for the upcoming Europa Lander mission. Guiding mission design and planning for adequate science return, though, requires modeling of both the anticipated signal and noise. Assuming ice seismicity on Europa behaves according to statistical properties observed in Earth catalogs and scaling cumulative seismic moment release to the moon, we can simulate long seismic records and estimate background noise and peak signal amplitudes (Panning et al., 2017). This suggests a sensitive instrument comparable to many broadband terrestrial instruments or the SP instrument from the InSight mission to Mars will be able to record signals, while high frequency geophones are likely inadequate. We extend this analysis to also begin incorporation of spatial and temporal variation due to the tidal cycle, which can help inform landing site selection. We also begin exploration of how chaotic terrane at the bottom of the ice shell and inter-ice heterogeneities (i.e. internal melt structures) may affect anticipated seismic observations using 2D numerical seismic simulations.M. P. Panning, S. C. Stähler, H.-H. Huang, S. D. Vance, S. Kedar, V. C. Tsai, W. T. Pike, R. D. Lorenz, “Expected seismicity and the seismic noise environment of Europa,” J. Geophys. Res., in revision, 2017.

  8. Europa Exploration: Science and Mission Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Phillips, C. B.; Green, J. R.; Wu, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Tamppari, L. K.; Terrile, R. J.; Johnson, R. E.; Eraker, J. H.; Makris, N. C.

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys the present state of knowledge for Europa and recommends key science objectives and spacecraft missions for the next decade of 2003 - 2013 and beyond. The highest priority initial objective is to confirm the presence of a subsurface water ocean, for which the evidence from multiple observations is already very compelling but not yet definitive. This should be addressed by a coupled set of gravity, altimetry, and magnetic field measurements in Europa orbit. Other related objectives include remote surveys for recent ocean-associated activity on the surface, the determination of chemical composition for Europa's surface, atmosphere, and dust ring, global mapping of energy flux and composition for magnetospheric particles incident at the surface, and the search for biochemical markers of any organisms originating from habitats below the visible surface. These objectives can partly be addressed by the same initial orbiter with addition of a moderate suite of remote-sensing and in-situ analysis instruments. Alternatively, a flyby mission with return to Earth of atmosphere and dust ring samples for chemical and isotopic analysis could achieve some of the compositional objectives. Science and engineering development are needed to support planning for lander missions in future decades.

  9. A educação do corpo fora da escola: as origens das colônias de férias na Espanha Education of the body outside the school: the origins of school holiday camps in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Moreno Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As colônias de férias, gestadas na Suíça em 1876, experimentariam uma difusão rápida pela Europa e seriam introduzidas no começo do século XX em outros continentes. Neste texto são analisados os primórdios do movimento internacional pelas colônias de férias e, com ênfase especial no caso espanhol, os contextos sociais, a incipiente ação pública a favor da proteção à infância, bem como, os princípios pedagógicos e higiênicos que lhes deram suporte. São estudados os processos da recepção e propagação das colônias de férias na Espanha durante o período entre 1887 e 1936, as mudanças operadas nas ideias que as fundamentavam, as normas que as regulavam, o alcance e a evolução de tais iniciativas, assim como os fatores políticos e ideológicos que condicionaram o seu devir histórico.School holiday camps began in Switzerland in 1876 and rapidly spread throughout Europe until, by the early twentieth century, they had reached other continents. The text analyses the beginnings of this international movement, with special attention paid to Spain, social contexts, the incipient public actions aimed at child protection and also to the pedagogical and hygienist principals which lay behind the camps. The article looks at the reception and propagation processes of school camps in Spain from 1887 to 1936 and reflects on the changes to the original ideas, the rules which governed the camps and scope and development of these initiatives. Political and ideological factors which shaped the historical progress of the summer camps are also covered.

  10. A ESPANHA NA DIPLOMACIA COMERCIAL PORTUGUESA NA SEGUNDA METADE DO SÉC. XIX E O TRATADO DE COMÉRCIO E NAVEGAÇÃO DE 1893

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa NUNES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo analisa a diplomacia comercial portuguesa face à Espanha, no decurso da segunda metade do séc. XIX. Pretende, especialmente, acompanhar as várias negociações comerciais desenvolvidas entre os países ibéricos, nas décadas de 1860, 70, 80 e 90, as quais culminaram na celebração do tratado de comércio e navegação de 1893. Procura, igualmente, avaliar as tendências políticas nacionais sobre os aspectos positivos e negativos associados ao fortalecimento das ligações econômicas com a Espanha. Neste exercício, é possível identificar um papel renovado da Espanha na geopolítica portuguesa, como nas perspectivas de crescimento econômico subsequentes ao Ultimatum (1890 e à denúncia dos tratados de comércio e navegação celebrados com a Inglaterra (1842/1878.

  11. A highly integrated payload suite for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M.; Kraft, S.; Steiger, R.; Varlet, F.; Voigt, D.; Falkner, P.; Peacock, A.

    The four Galilean moons have always held a public and scientific fascination due to their diverse and dynamic nature. Amongst the moons, Europa holds a special place for its potential liquid water ocean, beneath its icy crust. This prospect of water places Europa on a par with Mars in terms of its viability for harbouring life. The first hints of Europa's icy surface came from early telescopic observations, which noted an unusually high albedo. Ground based spectroscopy then demonstrated absorption features of relatively pure water ice. Imagery from Pioneer, Voyager, and more recently Galileo confirm this, with the kilometre scale resolution of Galileo showing what appear to be ice flows. The lack of cratering, pointing to a geologically recent surface, furthermore suggests that liquid water could well exist today. The Galileo Europa Mission (GEM) provided much more extensive data during its 8 close orbits, including limited areas of extremely high resolution imaging (6 m), and radio science that confirmed the differentiated nature of Europa. However, many fundamental questions remain that can best be answered by a dedicated orbiter. For example: - Does a liquid water ocean exist? What it its extent vertically and laterally? - What is the composition of the crust? - What are the geological processes operating? The importance of these most basic questions have inspired mission proposals from all of the major space agencies. In Europe, ESA have performed a study into a mission called the "Jupiter Minisat Explorer" in order to identify the key technologies that would have to be developed [1]. The key technological challenges are caused by the harsh Jovian radiation environment, the lack of solar energy available and the thermal problems of such a cold environment. Last, but not least, a payload must be designed that satisfies these requirements and is both low power and low mass. All of these factors dictate the use of a Highly Integrated Payload Suite (HIPS). Such a

  12. Thera and Thrace Macula on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa's southern hemisphere was obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on board NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit of Jupiter. The upper left portion of the image shows the southern extent of the 'wedges' region, an area that has undergone extensive disruption. South of the wedges, the eastern extent of Agenor Linea (nearly 1000 kilometers in length) is also visible. Thera and Thrace Macula are the dark irregular features southeast of Agenor Linea. This image can be used by scientists to build a global map of Europa by tying such Galileo images together with images from 1979 during NASA's Voyager mission. Such lower resolution images also provide the context needed to interpret the higher resolution images taken by the Galileo during both its nominal mission and the upcoming Europa mission. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the right. The image, centered at -40 latitude and 180 longitude, covers an area approximately 675 by 675 kilometers. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3.3 kilometers across. The images were taken on Feb 20, 1997 at 12 hours, 55 minutes, 34 seconds Universal Time when the spacecraft was at a range of 81,707 kilometers.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  13. BIZANCIO, LOS ESLAVOS Y EUROPA ORIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marín Riveros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: en este estudio, se presenta una reflexión acerca del concepto de Europa Oriental y, luego, una revisión de la historiografía acerca del origen de los eslavos, discutiendo las tesis tradicionales, la de Pritsak y la de Curta, según la etnogénesis, la etnonimia y la etnicidad.in this article, the author presents an analytical view about de concept "East Europe" and, then, an historiographical revision about the origin of the Slavic people, discussing the traditional thesis, Pritsak's thesis and Curta's thesis, i.e., commenting the ideas of ethnogenesis, ethnonimia and ethnicity.

  14. Europa Science Platforms and Kinetic Energy Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, C. C.; Klein, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will outline a proposed mission for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The mission outlined will concentrate on an examination of Europa. Some of the primary science goals for the JIMO mission are: 1) to answer broad science questions, 2) improved knowledge of Jovian system; specifically, lunar geological and geophysical properties, 3) chemical composition of Jovian lunar surfaces and subterranean matter, and 4) the search for life. In order to address these issues, the experiment proposed here will deploy orbiting, surface, and subterranean science platforms.

  15. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  16. Trajectory Design for the Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Europa is one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for extant life. As such, NASA has funded the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to jointly determine and develop the best mission concept to explore Europa in the near future. The result of nearly 4 years of work--the Europa Clipper mission concept--is a multiple Europa flyby mission that could efficiently execute a number of high caliber science investigations to meet Europa science priorities specified in the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, and is capable of providing reconnaissance data to maximize the probability of both a safe landing and access to surface material of high scientific value for a future Europa lander. This paper will focus on the major enabling component for this mission concept--the trajectory. A representative trajectory, referred to as 13F7-A21, would obtain global-regional coverage of Europa via a complex network of 45 flybys over the course of 3.5 years while also mitigating the effects of the harsh Jovian radiation environment. In addition, 5 Ganymede and 9 Callisto flybys would be used to manipulate the trajectory relative to Europa. The tour would reach a maximum Jovicentric inclination of 20.1 deg. have a deterministic (Delta)V of 164 m/s (post periapsis raise maneuver), and a total ionizing dose of 2.8 Mrad (Si).

  17. Energiebelasting in de glastuinbouw in Noordwest-Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der N.J.A.; Smit, P.X.

    2016-01-01

    In Europa wordt belasting geheven op energie. De belastingen voor de belangrijkste energiesoorten in
    de glastuinbouw in de landen in Noordwest-Europa zijn onderzocht. In de afzonderlijke landen worden
    door de glastuinbouw verschillende brandstoffen ingezet, warmte en elektriciteit ingekocht

  18. Sex education in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  19. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  20. Textiles and Training in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrez, Jaime Serrao; Dias, Mario Caldeira

    Analyzing the role of vocational training in an economic sector that is declining in Portugal, this document consists of five chapters, a bibliography, and a list of training organizations. An introduction tells why the study is important and explains that the major obstacles to development of the Portuguese textile and clothing sector are the…

  1. El comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval : rutas y papel económico

    OpenAIRE

    François Soyer

    2010-01-01

    Actualmente existen muy pocos estudios acerca de la esclavitud musulmana en Portugal. Cuando se trata el comercio de los esclavos en la historia portuguesa, generalmente los trabajos se refieren al comercio de los esclavos africanos que los navegantes portugueses comenzaron traer de vuelta a Europa desde el año 1441 en adelante, a pesar de que desde el siglo XI existía una pobulación de esclavos musulmanes —los llamados mouros cativos—. En este artículo propongo estudiar, de la forma la más d...

  2. O olhar cirúrgico de Ransome-Wallis sobre o caminhode-Ferro do Monte (Madeira, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bonito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ransome-Wallis foi um dos fotógrafos entusiasta, a título individual, na época áurea da fotografia ferroviária da década de 1920 na Europa. Passou pela ilha da Madeira, fotografando o Comboio do Monte na cidade do Funchal. Neste trabalho dá-se conta de vivências relatadas pelo fotógrafo e revelam-se fotografias suas pouco conhecidas, contribuindo para a construção da história do caminho de ferro em Portugal.

  3. El comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval : rutas y papel económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Soyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen muy pocos estudios acerca de la esclavitud musulmana en Portugal. Cuando se trata el comercio de los esclavos en la historia portuguesa, generalmente los trabajos se refieren al comercio de los esclavos africanos que los navegantes portugueses comenzaron traer de vuelta a Europa desde el año 1441 en adelante, a pesar de que desde el siglo XI existía una pobulación de esclavos musulmanes —los llamados mouros cativos—. En este artículo propongo estudiar, de la forma la más detallada posible, las características y dinámicas del comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino cristiano de Portugal durante la Edad Media, tratando de responder a preguntas relevantes, como las de cuál era el origen y el papel económico de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval, qué sabemos del comercio de los esclavos en aquel reino, o a la cuestión de si Portugal fue un país exportador o importador de esclavos.Whilst the presence of Muslim slaves in medieval Spain has attracted considerable scholarly attention from historians both inside and outside of the Iberian Peninsula, the same cannot be said of the history of Muslim slaves in the medieval Christian kingdom of Portugal. Most studies of slavery in Portugal focus on captives from sub-Saharan Africa brought back by Portuguese slavers to Europe from 1441 onwards even though Muslim slaves were present in Portugal from the eleventh century at the very least. We know next-to-nothing about these Muslim slaves. This article proposes to examine in as much detail as possible the characteristics and dynamics of the commerce of Muslim slaves in medieval Portugal. It addresses problematic questions regarding the origins and economic role of Muslim slaves in premodern Portugal, the nature of slave trading and whether Portugal was an importer or exporter of slaves.

  4. Thermal probe design for Europa sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Mera F.

    2018-01-01

    The planned lander missions to the surface of Europa will access samples from the subsurface of the ice in a search for signs of life. A small thermal drill (probe) is proposed to meet the sample requirement of the Science Definition Team's (SDT) report for the Europa mission. The probe is 2 cm in diameter and 16 cm in length and is designed to access the subsurface to 10 cm deep and to collect five ice samples of 7 cm3 each, approximately. The energy required to penetrate the top 10 cm of ice in a vacuum is 26 Wh, approximately, and to melt 7 cm3 of ice is 1.2 Wh, approximately. The requirement stated in the SDT report of collecting samples from five different sites can be accommodated with repeated use of the same thermal drill. For smaller sample sizes, a smaller probe of 1.0 cm in diameter with the same length of 16 cm could be utilized that would require approximately 6.4 Wh to penetrate the top 10 cm of ice, and 0.02 Wh to collect 0.1 g of sample. The thermal drill has the advantage of simplicity of design and operations and the ability to penetrate ice over a range of densities and hardness while maintaining sample integrity.

  5. The Europa Imaging System (EIS): Investigating Europa's geology, ice shell, and current activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Thomas, Nicolas; Fletcher, Leigh; Hayes, Alexander; Ernst, Carolyn; Collins, Geoffrey; Hansen, Candice; Kirk, Randolph L.; Nimmo, Francis; McEwen, Alfred; Hurford, Terry; Barr Mlinar, Amy; Quick, Lynnae; Patterson, Wes; Soderblom, Jason

    2016-07-01

    NASA's Europa Mission, planned for launch in 2022, will perform more than 40 flybys of Europa with altitudes at closest approach as low as 25 km. The instrument payload includes the Europa Imaging System (EIS), a camera suite designed to transform our understanding of Europa through global decameter-scale coverage, topographic and color mapping, and unprecedented sub- meter-scale imaging. EIS combines narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras to address these science goals: • Constrain the formation processes of surface features by characterizing endogenic geologic structures, surface units, global cross-cutting relationships, and relationships to Europa's subsurface structure and potential near-surface water. • Search for evidence of recent or current activity, including potential plumes. • Characterize the ice shell by constraining its thickness and correlating surface features with subsurface structures detected by ice penetrating radar. • Characterize scientifically compelling landing sites and hazards by determining the nature of the surface at scales relevant to a potential lander. EIS Narrow-angle Camera (NAC): The NAC, with a 2.3°° x 1.2°° field of view (FOV) and a 10-μμrad instantaneous FOV (IFOV), achieves 0.5-m pixel scale over a 2-km-wide swath from 50-km altitude. A 2-axis gimbal enables independent targeting, allowing very high-resolution stereo imaging to generate digital topographic models (DTMs) with 4-m spatial scale and 0.5-m vertical precision over the 2-km swath from 50-km altitude. The gimbal also makes near-global (>95%) mapping of Europa possible at ≤50-m pixel scale, as well as regional stereo imaging. The NAC will also perform high-phase-angle observations to search for potential plumes. EIS Wide-angle Camera (WAC): The WAC has a 48°° x 24°° FOV, with a 218-μμrad IFOV, and is designed to acquire pushbroom stereo swaths along flyby ground-tracks. From an altitude of 50 km, the WAC achieves 11-m pixel scale over a 44-km

  6. Europa Clipper Mission Concept Preliminary Planetary Protection Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Melissa; Schubert, Wayne; Newlin, Laura; Cooper, Moogega; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Ellyin, Raymond; Vaishampayan, Parag; Crum, Ray

    2016-07-01

    The science objectives of the proposed Europa Clipper mission consist of remotely characterizing any water within and beneath Europa's ice shell, investigating the chemistry of the surface and ocean, and evaluating geological processes that may permit Europa's ocean to possess the chemical energy necessary for life. The selected payload supporting the science objectives includes: Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG), Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE), Europa Imaging System (EIS), Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON), Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS), MAss SPectrometer for Planetary EXploration/Europa (MASPEX), Ultraviolet Spectrograph/Europa (UVS), and SUrface DUst Mass Analyzer (SUDA). Launch is currently baselined as 2022. Pending the yet to be selected launch vehicle, the spacecraft would either arrive to the Jovian system on a direct trajectory in 2025 or an Earth-Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assist interplanetary trajectory arriving in 2030. The operational concept consists of multiple low-altitude flybys of Europa to obtain globally distributed regional coverage of the Europan surface. According to COSPAR Policy, it is currently anticipated that the Europa Clipper mission would be classified as a Category III mission. That is, the mission is to a body "of significant interest relative to the process of chemical evolution and/or the origin of life or for which scientific opinion provides a significant chance of contamination which could jeopardize a future biological experiment." Therefore, the expected driving planetary protection requirement for the mission is that the probability of inadvertent contamination of an ocean or other liquid water body shall be less than 1x10-4 per mission. This requirement applies until final disposition of the spacecraft, however in practice, would only apply until the spacecraft is

  7. Regulamentação da internet: perspectiva comparada entre Brasil, Chile, Espanha, EUA e França

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Segurado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A governança global ocupa lugar privilegiado na agenda de debates sobre o funcionamento da rede mundial de computadores, e o Brasil assumiu um papel de destaque nesse processo, principalmente após a aprovação do Marco Civil da Internet (lei n.12.965, de 23 de abril de 2014, que contém princípios, garantias, direitos e deveres para internautas e provedores no país. O estudo comparado foi desenvolvido a partir da seleção de categorias consideradas fundamentais para a análise: a neutralidade de rede, o direito à privacidade dos cidadãos internautas e a discussão sobre direitos autorais sob a lógica da propriedade intelectual. Foram esses os aspectos centrais que utilizamos para a análise das regulamentações em cinco países, Brasil, Chile, Espanha, EUA e França.

  8. Plume and surface feature structure and compositional effects on Europa's global exosphere: Preliminary Europa mission predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teolis, B. D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Bouquet, A.; Magee, B. A.; Waite, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    A Europa plume source, if present, may produce a global exosphere with complex spatial structure and temporal variability in its density and composition. To investigate this interaction we have integrated a water plume source containing multiple organic and nitrile species into a Europan Monte Carlo exosphere model, considering the effect of Europa's gravity in returning plume ejecta to the surface, and the subsequent spreading of adsorbed and exospheric material by thermal desorption and re-sputtering across the entire body. We consider sputtered, radiolytic and potential plume sources, together with surface adsorption, regolith diffusion, polar cold trapping, and re-sputtering of adsorbed materials, and examine the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the exospheric density and composition. These models provide a predictive basis for telescopic observations (e.g. HST, JWST) and planned missions to the Jovian system by NASA and ESA. We apply spacecraft trajectories to our model to explore possible exospheric compositions which may be encountered along proposed flybys of Europa to inform the spatial and temporal relationship of spacecraft measurements to surface and plume source compositions. For the present preliminary study, we have considered four cases: Case A: an equatorial flyby through a sputtered only exosphere (no plumes), Case B: a flyby over a localized sputtered 'macula' terrain enriched in non-ice species, Case C: a south polar plume with an Enceladus-like composition, equatorial flyby, and Case D: a south polar plume, flyby directly through the plume.

  9. Migración y cambio social: efectos y retos de la inmigración en Europa del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Peixoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea consideraciones teóricas sobre la relación entre migraciones y cambio social. Se expone que las migraciones combinan características banales y radicales, ya que son al mismo tiempo comunes e inquietantes en términos personales y sociales. Más adelante muestra la experiencia reciente de los países del sur de Europa, en concreto España, Italia y Portugal. Se presentan algunas cifras sobre la inmigración internacional reciente hacia estos países, que muestran los patrones generales de entradas extranjeras. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre el impacto y los retos derivados de la migración internacional en el sur de Europa. En algunos aspectos las entradas se adaptan y refuerzan estructuras tradicionales ya existentes en esos contextos. En otros sentidos producen características completamente nuevas y anuncian la forma del mundo del futuro.In this paper, some theoretical considerations are made regarding the relationship between migration and social change. It is argued that migration combine a trivial and a radical character, since it is at the same time common and disturbing in personal and societal terms. Next, the recent experience of the Southern European countries, namely Spain, Italy and Portugal, is recalled. Some figures about recent international immigration to these countries are presented, displaying the main patterns of foreign inflows. Finally, some reflections are made about the impacts and challenges deriving from international migration in Southern Europe. In some aspects, inflows adapt and reinforce traditional structures already existing in those contexts. In other aspects, they produce entirely new traits, and announce the shape of the world to come. 

  10. Lineament and polygon patterns on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    A classification scheme is presented for the lineaments and associated polygonal patterns observed on the surface of Europa, and the frequency distribution of the polygons is discussed in terms of the stress-relief fracturing of the surface. The lineaments are divided on the basis of albedo, morphology, orientation and characteristic geometry into eight groups based on Voyager 2 images taken at a best resolution of 4 km. The lineaments in turn define a system of polygons varying in size from small reticulate patterns the limit of resolution to 1,000,000 sq km individuals. Preliminary analysis of polygon side frequency distributions reveals a class of polygons with statistics similar to those found in complex terrestrial terrains, particularly in areas of well-oriented stresses, a class with similar statistics around the antijovian point, and a class with a distribution similar to those seen in terrestrial tensional fracture patterns. Speculations concerning the processes giving rise to the lineament patterns are presented.

  11. Europa: Perspectives on an Ocean World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Khurana, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    Europa possesses an outer icy shell; this much has been clear since Voyager. That Europa’s shell is also floating is now generally accepted as well, thanks to observations by Galileo. The existence of a low density outer “H2O” layer, 80-170 km in thickness, seems well established. Magnetic induction evidence strongly suggests a conducting near-surface layer and/or interior — a saline ocean. Cycloidal ridges, originating as tidally driven cycloidal fractures, apparently formed in a stress regime dominated by diurnal tides, but could not form in a tidally flexing ice shell grounded to the silicate interior — again supporting decoupling by an ocean. These points are not seriously in contention. Beyond this there is less agreement, especially as to the thickness of the shell overlying the ocean, the icy shell’s composition and rheology, and whether the icy shell more-or-less responds passively to tidal strains and heating from Europa’s interior, or whether it plays a more active role by means of solid state convection. Europa poses many important scientific questions, but in short, how have Europa’s icy shell and ocean and rocky interior evolved through geological time, and most fundamentally, what astrobiological potential do the icy shell and ocean below possess? Impact crater counts indicate that Europa’s surface is youthful, with a nominal age of just 40-90 Myr, based on cometary bombardment models. Thus, if geological evidence suggests an ocean at the time Europa’s surface features formed, the ocean is probably still there today. Improvements in modeling of ice rheology, of convection, and of tidal heating now suggest that a convecting ice shell is compatible with an underlying ocean. Thermal models and geological observations (such as pit, uplift and small chaos diameters and depths or heights) both point to an ice shell ~20 km thick, with observational evidence for both a change in tectonic style and a secular decrease in geological activity

  12. Il volto cosmopolita dell’Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Taglioli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio intende leggere l’Europa attraverso il concetto di cosmopolitismo che ne riflette la natura, la storia e le possibilità future. Idea e ideale etico-normativo di comunanza e di apertura alla differenza la nozione si trasforma in modalità ibride nel corso della storia europea e permette di visualizzare le dinamiche di resistenza e di mutamento che vanno componendo il percorso di unificazione. Da imperativo e progetto razionale il cosmopolitismo va riconfigurandosi come nuova modalità percettiva, acquista un valore empirico-analitico in una realtà che sembra farsi strutturalmente cosmopolita e apre la riflessione sulle trasformazioni democratiche dell’Unione e sul ruolo che è chiamata ad assolvere per rispondere alla sfide della contemporaneità.

  13. The topography of chaos terrain on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.; Prockter, L. M.; Schenk, P.

    2010-12-01

    Chaos terrain and lenticulae are commonly observed surface features unique to the Galilean satellite Europa. Chaos terrain occurs as discrete regions of the satellite’s surface 10s to 100s of km in size that are disrupted into isolated plates surrounded by hummocky matrix material. Lenticulae occur as positive- or negative-relief domes km to 10s of km in diameter that can disrupt the original surface in a manner similar to chaos terrain. Evidence suggests that they each form via an endogenic process involving the interaction of a mobile substrate with the brittle surface and it has been proposed that ice shell thinning or surface yielding coupled with brine production represents the most plausible mechanism for the formation of these features. These similarities in morphology and formation mechanism indicate they may represent a continuum process. We explore whether larger chaos terrain represent the coalescence of smaller lenticulae by examining topography within chaos to determine whether it contains domes on length scales similar to lenticulae. Schenk and Pappalardo (2004) alluded to the presence of several prominent domes within Conamara Chaos and we have previously shown that at least 4 and as many as 9 domes with length scales similar to lenticulae are present within and along the margins of the feature. This was accomplished by using Fourier analysis to decompose the topographic signature of Conamara Chaos and the surrounding terrain into discrete wavelength components. A low-pass filter was then used to strip away shorter wavelength components of the topography associated with the region and determine if longer wavelength features were present within the terrain. Here we present new work identifying the presence, size, and distribution of domes within the boundaries of other chaos terrains across the surface of Europa and discuss implications for chaos formation.

  14. Portugal—Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Portugal reviews a set of issues of relevance to the regime change implied by European Monetary Union participation. It presents an empirical investigation of the business cycle in Portugal. The paper attempts to obtain a quantitative sense of the impact of monetary policy on the Portuguese economy, utilizing an unrestricted vector autoregression methodology to characterize the monetary transmission mechanism. It also examines some key forces at work in Portugalâ...

  15. Putting Portugal on the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferrão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the need to “put Portugal on the map” in a double sense: in a prospective way, in order to place the country on the required map(s, something which entails strategic vision and capacity for action; and in an analytical way – to enable us to understand Portugal from the map(s it is part of, which presupposes a capacity to analyse and understand the current state of affairs. By drawing inspiration from the polymorphic vision on the spatialities of contemporary societies and economies defended by Jessop, Brenner and Jones (2008, we propose the creation of a unifying reference framework to “put Portugal on the map”, using a combination of five elements: territory as a geographic location; territory as a unit of reference of the nation-state; places; geographic scales; and networks. The polymorphic nature of the spatialities that characterize, or should characterize, Portugal’s place in the world reflects several, and even contradictory, ethical values, interests, preferences, and options. Accordingly, the supported polymorphic spatialities ought to stir up controversy based on knowledge and arguments that are solid from a theoretical and empirical stance, and should make explicit the objectives and values they are based on.

  16. Joint Europa Mission (JEM). A Multiscale Study of Europa to Characterize its Habitability and Search for Extant Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, M.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; André, N.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; T. JEM Team

    2017-09-01

    We propose that ESA works with NASA, which presently leads the way towards in situ exploration of Europa, to design and fly jointly an ambitious and exciting planetary mission to characterize biosignatures in the environment of Europa (surface, subsurface and exosphere), while we also want to address a more general question: how does life develop in a specific habitable environment, and what are the evolutional properties of a habitable planet or satellite and of its host planetary/satellite system which make the development of life possible. The Joint Europa Mission was proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision call for M5 missions in October 2016.

  17. As Comisiones Obreras (CCOO da Espanha e a Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT do Brasil. Esboço de um estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Tumolo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta um esboço de estudo comparativo entre as Comisiones Obreras (CCOO da Espanha e a Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT do Brasil, as duas maiores e mais importantes centrais sindicais de seus respectivos países. Destaca que, apesar de várias diferenças em suas trajetórias históricas, elas nasceram como organizações sindicais combativas e de esquerda, com um perfil classista e anticapitalista e se converteram em Centrais sindicais reformistas, negociadoras e amoldadas à lógica capitalista

  18. PHOTOMETRY OF IO AND EUROPA DURING SL9 IMPACT FLASHES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains digitized photometry of the reflections off Io and Europa of the impact fireballs produced as the D, E, K, and N fragments of comet...

  19. Ice collapse over trapped water bodies on Enceladus and Europa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. C; Schmidt, B. E

    2015-01-01

    .... We find that for Europa's likely trapped water pockets below chaos terrains and a localized sea below Enceladus' South Polar Terrain, these models can reproduce observed geology of both features...

  20. Energy cycling and hypothetical organisms in Europa's ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N

    2002-01-01

    While Europa has emerged as a leading candidate for harboring extraterrestrial life, the apparent lack of a source of free energy for sustaining living systems has been argued. In this theoretical analysis, we have quantified the amount of energy that could in principle be obtained from chemical cycling, heat, osmotic gradients, kinetic motion, magnetic fields, and gravity in Europa's subsurface ocean. Using reasonable assumptions based on known organisms on Earth, our calculations suggest that chemical oxidation-reduction cycles in Europa's subsurface ocean could support life. Osmotic and thermal gradients, as well as the kinetic energy of convection currents, also represent plausible alternative sources of energy for living systems at Europa. Organisms thriving on these gradients could interact with each other to form the complex energy cycling necessary for establishing a stable ecosystem.

  1. The Europa Seismic Package (ESP): 2. Meeting the Environmental Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Pike, W. T.; Standley, I. M.; Calcutt, S. B.; Bowles, N.; Blaes, B.; Irom, F.; Mojarradi, M.; Vance, S. D.; Bills, B. G.

    2016-10-01

    We outline a pathway for adapting the SP microseismometer delivered to InSight to provide a Europa Seismic Package that overcomes the three significant challenges in the environmental conditions, specifically gravity, temperature and radiation.

  2. Europa Nostra medal Tartusse / Karin Hallas-Murula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas-Murula, Karin, 1957-

    2002-01-01

    Alvar Aalto projekteeritud Tammekannu villa (1932) Tartus pälvis Europa Nostra medali, mis antakse eriti õnnestunult renoveeritud objektile. Villa renoveeriti soome arhitekti Tapani Mustoneni projekti järgi

  3. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) on The Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Joseph H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Kasper, Justin C.; Case, Anthony W.; Grey, Matthew P.; Kim, Cindy K.; Battista, Corina C.; Rymer, Abigail; Paty, Carol S.; Jia, Xianzhe; Stevens, Michael L.; Khurana, Krishan; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje H.; Smith, Howard T.; Krupp, Norbert; Roussos, Elias; Saur, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    The Europa Clipper mission is equipped with a sophisticated suite of 9 instruments to study Europa's interior and ocean, geology, chemistry, and habitability from a Jupiter orbiting spacecraft. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) on Europa Clipper is a Faraday Cup based plasma instrument whose heritage dates back to the Voyager spacecraft. PIMS will measure the plasma that populates Jupiter's magnetosphere and Europa's ionosphere. The science goals of PIMS are to: 1) estimate the ocean salinity and thickness by determining Europa's magnetic induction response, corrected for plasma contributions; 2) assess mechanisms responsible for weathering and releasing material from Europa's surface into the atmosphere and ionosphere; and 3) understand how Europa influences its local space environment and Jupiter's magnetosphere and vice versa.Europa is embedded in a complex Jovian magnetospheric plasma, which rotates with the tilted planetary field and interacts dynamically with Europa's ionosphere affecting the magnetic induction signal. Plasma from Io's temporally varying torus diffuses outward and mixes with the charged particles in Europa's own torus producing highly variable plasma conditions at Europa. PIMS works in conjunction with the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG) investigation to probe Europa's subsurface ocean. This investigation exploits currents induced in Europa's interior by the moon's exposure to variable magnetic fields in the Jovian system to infer properties of Europa's subsurface ocean such as its depth, thickness, and conductivity. This technique was successfully applied to Galileo observations and demonstrated that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, due to limitations in the observations the results raised major questions that remain unanswered. PIMS will greatly refine our understanding of Europa's global liquid ocean by

  4. Presence of the nearctic water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis (Fieber, 1851 (Heteroptera, Corixidae in the Algarve region (S Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix, D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the presence of the nearctic water boatman Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis in southern Portugal. This species has been cited recently for the first time in Europe from individuals captured in southern Spain. This species, native to Atlantic coast of America, has also been cited from New Caledonia and South Africa, and has been found in the open sea. Two kinds of introduction are reported for this species: involuntary introduction with exotic fish, and passive dispersion through marine currents and severe storms. The possibility of this kind of introduction in Europe is discussed.Esta nota describe la presencia del coríxido neártico Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis en el sur de Portugal. Recientemente, esta especie ha sido citada por primera vez en Europa de ejemplares capturados en el sur de España. Esta especie, nativa de la costa atlántica americana, también ha sido citada en Nueva Caledonia y África del Sur, y se ha encontrado en mar abierto. Se conocen dos vías de introducción de esta especie: introducción involuntaria a través de peces exóticos y dispersión pasiva a través de corrientes marinas y fuertes tormentas. Se discuten las posibilidades de estas dos vías de introducción en Europa.

  5. Las relaciones financieras entre España y Portugal, 1563-1580

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar LUCAS VILLANUEVA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las economías de Castilla y Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVI estaban estrechamente ligadas por vínculos financieros. Un espacio económico en desarrollo, el del Atlántico septentrional, comprendía ambos territorios y se organizaba a partir de los grandes centros feriales de Amberes, Lyon y Medina. El gran tráfico mercantil transoceánico se hacía presente en este escenario europeo gracias a la intervención de España y Portugal, pero con papeles bien distintos: España, incontinente, drenando el oro y la plata americanos hacia Europa, Portugal suministrando las apreciadas mercancías orientales. Las ferias de Medina del Campo y los mercaderes castellanos como Simón Ruiz se convierten en colaboradores necesarios de los mercaderes portugueses, pues a través de éstos negociaban los reembolsos o inversiones financieras en las plazas europeas; sin embargo, para ello era preciso un buen conocimiento de los negocios cambiarlos y su oportunidad, atendiendo a la cotización de las distintas monedas y a demanda de dinero en las ferias europeas. De la mano del mercader medinense entran los lisboetas en las grandes finanzas y la concertación de asientos con la Corona, aunque tal vez sin la pujanza que Felipe II hubiese deseado.ABSTRACT: The correspondence studied shows the importance that had, for this period of time (1563-1580, the relationship between Castille and Portugal. The vigorous economic space of the Northern Atlantic, the space in which were inscribed both territories, was organised from the three great market centres of Amberes, Lyon and Medina del Campo. The big transoceanic commercial trade was present in this European scenery thanks to the supervision of Spain an Portugal, but playing a very different role: Spain, draining gold and silver to Europe; and Portugal, supplying the appreciated oriental goods. The fairs of Medina and the Castilian merchants, like Simon Ruiz, were converted in necessary

  6. Student Mobility in Portugal: Grappling with Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Neave, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The article examines how far the key Bologna objective of student mobility has been achieved in Portuguese higher education institutions and the main factors shaping it. It analyzes credit mobility, outgoing and incoming, between Portugal and Europe. Although mobility overall has risen, incoming mobility has grown faster, making Portugal an…

  7. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  8. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...

  9. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  10. Elektronische Citizen Cards in Deutschland und Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Bernd

    Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren, der Bedarf an elektronischen Identitäten entsteht durch die wachsende Mobilität der Gesellschaft bei einem gleichzeitig steigenden Bedarf an Onlinepräsenz. Diese elektronischen Identitäten machen natürlich auch vor den staatlichen Ausweisen nicht halt, wie zum Beispiel dem Reisepass, aber auch dem Personalausweis und weiteren Ausweisdokumenten. Wobei es bei den staatlich herausgegebenen oder kontrollierten Ausweisen immer um zwei verschiedene Dinge geht: Einmal um die hoheitliche Funktion, wie zum Beispiel beim Reisepass. Hier geht es zum Beispiel darum, in einem Europa mit gefallenen Grenzen und bei freiem Reiseverkehr für alle Personen, die in diesem Raum wohnen, insbesondere auch im Schengener Raum, die Möglichkeit zu schaffen, auch künftig noch Personenkontrollen durchzuführen. Auch der Reiseverkehr über die europäischen Grenzen hinaus ist insofern ein Problem, da die Identitätenprüfung an den Grenzkontrollen immer schwieriger wird. Deswegen braucht man an dieser Stelle Möglichkeiten, um eine Personenüberprüfung durchzuführen, um feststellen zu können, dass diese Person auch zum Dokument gehört.

  11. Europa Composition Using Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Diana L.; Dalton, J. B.; Green, R. O.; Hibbits, K.; McCord, T.; Murchie, S.; Piccioni, G.; Tosi, F.

    2010-10-01

    One of the major goals of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) is to understand the chemistry of Europa's inorganic and organic materials. Europa's surface material composition is controlled by the original materials forming Europa and by their differentiation and chemical alterations. Material is probably still being transported to the surface by active processes in the interior. At the surface, the material is exposed to the effects of vacuum and temperature, irradiated by solar UV, and bombarded by material entrained in Jupiter's magnetic field. The materials on the surface and their distributions are evidence of the processes operating, both endogenic and exogenic. These processes include effects of a subsurface liquid ocean and its chemistry; the mechanisms of material emplacement from below; and photolysis and radiolysis. Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared (VSWIR) spectroscopy is a well-understood technique for mapping key inorganic, organic, and volatile compositions on remote surfaces such as Europa. Key spectral absorption features have been detected in both the icy and the non-icy Europa materials and many important constituents of the surface have been identified or proposed (e.g. hydrated salts, sulfuric acid hydrate, organics, CO2, H2O2, SO2). The determination of planetary surface composition from remote infrared spectroscopy depends upon adequate signal-to-noise, spectral resolution, and spatial scale to distinguish the diagnostic spectral features of the compounds of interest. For icy satellites, laboratory reference spectra obtained at the temperatures of the target bodies are also required. We have compared diagnostic spectral features in cryogenic laboratory spectra of hydrated salts relevant to Europa in order to optimize detection of these materials under realistic mission conditions. Effects of spectral resolution, signal to noise ratio, and areal mixtures are explored to determine the impacts on detection. This work was carried out at the Jet

  12. O Manejo Clínico da Asma em 1999: Uma Visão e a Realidade da Asma na Europa (Estudo AIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Rabe

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: As recomen dações sobre o manejo clfnico da asma fomecem orientações para urn controlo 6ptimo da asma. Esta investigação, avaliaua pelos niveis actuais do contwlo J a asma pelus doentes, ern parte retlete ate que pontu as recomendações sao implementadas.Doentes actuais com asma foram identificados por telefone e111 73 HHO residencias em 7 pafses europeus (França. Alemanha, ltalia, llolanua, Espanha, Suícia c lnglat crra. A entrevista consistiu na ava li ação da uti lizac;iio de serviços Lie saúde, gravidade de sintomas, limitação das actividades e controlo da asma.Foram identificados 3 488 doentes actuais com asma, e 2 803 (80.4% completaram o inquetito, 46% dos J oemes refeliram sintomas diaries e 30% perturbac;oes relacionadas com a asma durante o sono, pelo menos uma vez por sernana.Nos ultimos 12 meses, 25% dos doentes referiram o recurso mio e perado a uma consulta urgente, 10% uma ou mais visitas á urgencia e 7% hospitalizção noctuma devida a asma.Nas (iltimas 4 semanas, mais doentes (63% uti lizaram medicação aliviadora que corticóides inalados (23%. A percepção do controlo da asma pelos doentes nao coinciuia cum a sua gravidade de sintomas; c aproximadamente 50% dos doentes com sintomas persistentes moderados ou graves consideravam a sua asma bem ou total mente controlada.O nível actual do controlo da asrna na Europa está Ionge de ati ngir os objectives do tratamento a Iongo prazo. A percepção do controlo da asma pelos doentes e diferente do seu controlo da asma actual.

  13. Climate change projections for precipitation in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, C.; Santos, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The strong irregularity of precipitation in Portugal, which may e.g. trigger severe/extreme droughts and floods, results in a high vulnerability of the country to precipitation inter-annual variability and to its extremes. Furthermore, dryer future climates are projected for Portugal, though there has also been some growing evidence for a strengthening of precipitation extremes. Due to the central role played byprecipitation on many socio-economic sectors and environmental systems, regional climate change assessments for precipitation in Portugal are necessary. This study is focused on analyzing climate change projections for seasonal (3-month) precipitation totals and their corresponding extremes over mainland Portugal. Taking into account the strong seasonality of the precipitation regimes in Portugal, winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are considered separately. Precipitation datasets generated by a 16-member ensemble of regional climate model experiments from the ENSEMBLES project are used. Percentile-based indices of precipitation are computed and analyzed for a recent past period (1961-2000) and for a near future period (2041-2070). Results for the R5p, R50p and R95p indices highlight significant projected changes in precipitation, with a clear distinction between northwestern Portugal and the rest of the country in both seasons. Overall, precipitation is projected to decrease in both seasons, particularly over northwestern Portugal in winter, despite some significant regional differences. Although precipitation is projected to decrease in most cases, extremely high seasonal precipitations (above the 95th percentile)areexpected to increase in winter.

  14. As arquitecturas de Cister em Portugal: a actualidade das suas reabilitações e a sua inserção no território

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Maria Tavares Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    La elección del tema recae en su actualidad así como en el creciente interés que ha sido y que sigue siendo demostrado y desarrollado a la escala mundial. El legado cisterciense en Portugal forma parte de algo más vasto como el plan integral de las arquitecturas del Císter en toda Europa estándose desarrollando un programa integrado de recuperación y rehabilitación del patrimonio cisterciense. Este plan integrado no solo tiene por fin la recuperación, rehabilitación y valoración del patrimoni...

  15. Terrain on Europa under Changing Lighting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    These images obtained by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft show the same region of Europa under different lighting conditions. The upper image was obtained on June 28th, 1996 during Galileo's first orbit around Jupiter under 'high-sun' conditions -- the equivalent of taking a picture from a high altitude at noon (with the sun directly overhead). Note that albedo (light/dark) features are emphasized. Compare this to the lower image containing a higher-resolution inset. This (inset) image was taken on November 6th, 1996 during the spacecraft's third orbit under 'low-sun' illumination -- the equivalent of taking a picture from a high altitude at sunrise or sunset. Note that in this image the albedo features are not readily apparent. Instead, the topography of the terrain is emphasized. Planetary geologists use information from images acquired under a variety of lighting conditions to identify different types of structures and interpret how they formed. Note that the bright linear features in the upper image are seen to be ridges in the lower image. The circular feature on the right side of both images, Cilix, is approximately 25 kilometers (15 miles) across.The area seen in the upper image is 312 kilometers (187 miles) by 570 kilometers (342 miles) across; the area covered by the inset is 36 kilometers (22 miles) by 315 kilometers (190 miles) across. Both of these images are centered near 2 South latitude, 185 West longitude. North is to the top of the frames.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Dark and Bright Ridges on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Jupiter's moon Europa, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft camera, shows dark, relatively smooth region at the lower right hand corner of the image which may be a place where warm ice has welled up from below. The region is approximately 30 square kilometers in area. An isolated bright hill stands within it. The image also shows two prominent ridges which have different characteristics; youngest ridge runs from left to top right and is about 5 kilometers in width (about 3.1 miles). The ridge has two bright, raised rims and a central valley. The rims of the ridge are rough in texture. The inner and outer walls show bright and dark debris streaming downslope, some of it forming broad fans. This ridge overlies and therefore must be younger than a second ridge running from top to bottom on the left side of the image. This dark 2 km wide ridge is relatively flat, and has smaller-scale ridges and troughs along its length.North is to the top of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the upper left. This image, centered at approximately 14 degrees south latitude and 194 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 15 kilometers by 20 kilometers (9 miles by 12 miles). The resolution is 26 meters (85 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 1300 kilometers (800 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  17. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) for the Europa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, J. H.; McNutt, R. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Rymer, A. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Jia, X.; Paty, C.; Khurana, K. K.; Kivelson, M. G.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, H. T.; Korth, H.; Krupp, N.; Roussous, E.; Saur, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) selected for the Europa Mission. We specifically address how PIMS plasma measurements will improve the accuracy of magnetic sounding of Europa's subsurface ocean.

  18. The Europa Seismic Package (ESP): 1. Selecting a Broadband Microseismometer for Ocean Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Standley, I. M.; Calcutt, S. B.; Kedar, S.; Vance, S. D.; Bills, B. G.

    2016-10-01

    We summarize the requirements that would enable a seismic system to provide a probe of the habitability of Europa and introduce a candidate microseismometer for a Europa Seismic Package, comparing to potential competitor technologies.

  19. CRISIS DE LA DEMOCRACIA EN EUROPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Estévez Araujo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, nos encontramos en una situación en que los ciudadanos de Portugal, Francia, España o Grecia parecen carecer de medios para incidir en la toma de decisiones que les afectan. Se están adoptando medidas contrarias a los intereses de la mayoría. Esas decisiones suscitan el rechazo mayoritario de la ciudadanía. Sin embargo son adoptadas por instituciones consideradas como “democráticas”. ¿Cómo hemos llegado a esa situación de discrepancia entre la voluntad del pueblo y la de sus supuestos “representantes”? Para responder a esa pregunta es necesario entender los procesos de “des-democratización” que han sido resultado de la globalización neoliberal. En el caso de los Estados europeos, especialmente los de la Eurozona es preciso también analizar los procesos de “des-democratización” que ha conllevado la integración europea. A ese objetivo se dedicarán los dos primeros apartados de este artículo. En el último, se explorarán algunas líneas de actuación que permitirían revertir los procesos desdemocratizadores y devolver poder de decisión a los ciudadanos.

  20. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  1. Combined Effects of Diurnal and Nonsynchronous Surface Stresses on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempel, M. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Wahr, J.; Barr, A. C.

    2004-01-01

    To date, modeling of the surface stresses on Europa has considered tidal, nonsynchronous, and polar wander sources of stress. The results of such models can be used to match lineament orientations with candidate stress patterns. We present a rigorous surface stress model for Europa that will facilitate comparison of principal stresses to lineament orientation, and which will be available in the public domain. Nonsynchronous rotation and diurnal motion contribute to a stress pattern that deforms the surface of Europa. Over the 85-hour orbital period, the diurnal stress pattern acts on the surface, with a maximum magnitude of approximately 0.1 MPa. The nonsynchronous stress pattern sweeps over the surface due to differential rotation of the icy shell relative to the tidally locked interior of the moon. Nonsynchronous stress builds cumulatively with approximately 0.1 MPa per degree of shell rotation.

  2. Portugal e Brasil em foco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuel Baptista

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outline of analytical elements about the Contemporaneous State according to its insertion in a money-oriented civilization where the focus goes to the study of the relation State/Culture, having as empirical reference the European scenario, highlighting Portugal and the Brazilian setting. The discussions have as a leading thread the contradictions in the fabric of the State, aiming at superseding traditional interpretations that are founded on dichotomies. The Contemporaneous State is analyzed at the point where processes of democratization and adjustment to the world order of the capital under a globalization trend meet, exploring a thesis that contrasts aspects between State/Civil Society seen within the dynamics of public policies. It highlights the proposition issued by the cultural democracy as a challenge of our times.

  3. Towards a Global Unified Model of Europa's Tenuous Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, Christina; Cassidy, Tim A.; Shematovich, Valery I.; Milillo, Anna; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Roth, Lorenz; Galli, André; Rubin, Martin; Blöcker, Aljona; Brandt, Pontus C.; Crary, Frank; Dandouras, Iannis; Jia, Xianzhe; Grassi, Davide; Hartogh, Paul; Lucchetti, Alice; McGrath, Melissa; Mangano, Valeria; Mura, Alessandro; Orsini, Stefano; Paranicas, Chris; Radioti, Aikaterini; Retherford, Kurt D.; Saur, Joachim; Teolis, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Despite the numerous modeling efforts of the past, our knowledge on the radiation-induced physical and chemical processes in Europa's tenuous atmosphere and on the exchange of material between the moon's surface and Jupiter's magnetosphere remains limited. In lack of an adequate number of in situ observations, the existence of a wide variety of models based on different scenarios and considerations has resulted in a fragmentary understanding of the interactions of the magnetospheric ion population with both the moon's icy surface and neutral gas envelope. Models show large discrepancy in the source and loss rates of the different constituents as well as in the determination of the spatial distribution of the atmosphere and its variation with time. The existence of several models based on very different approaches highlights the need of a detailed comparison among them with the final goal of developing a unified model of Europa's tenuous atmosphere. The availability to the science community of such a model could be of particular interest in view of the planning of the future mission observations (e.g., ESA's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, and NASA's Europa Clipper mission). We review the existing models of Europa's tenuous atmosphere and discuss each of their derived characteristics of the neutral environment. We also discuss discrepancies among different models and the assumptions of the plasma environment in the vicinity of Europa. A summary of the existing observations of both the neutral and the plasma environments at Europa is also presented. The characteristics of a global unified model of the tenuous atmosphere are, then, discussed. Finally, we identify needed future experimental work in laboratories and propose some suitable observation strategies for upcoming missions.

  4. Wind power costs in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleiro, C. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Biological Engineering (Portugal); Araujo, M.; Ferreira, P. [Univ. of Minho, Dept. of Production and Systems (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    In a way to reduce the external energy dependence, increasing also the investments in renewable energy sources and aiming for the concretization of the European renewable objectives, the Portuguese government defined a goal of 5100 MW of installed wind power, up to 2012. If the drawn objectives are accomplished, by 2010 the wind power share may reach values comparable to leading countries like Denmark, Germany or Spain. The Portuguese forecasts also indicate a reinforcement of the natural gas fired generation in particular through the use of the combined cycle technology, following the European tendency. This analysis sets out to evaluate the total generating cost of wind power and CCGT in Portugal. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted, including investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs and external costs of emissions, for each type of technology. For the evaluation of the externalities ExternE values were used. The results show that presently the wind power production cost is higher than the CCGT one, at least from the strictly financial point of view. CCGT costs increase significantly when charges for externalities are included. However, they only reach levels higher than the equivalents for wind power for high externality costs estimations. This partially results from the low load factor of the wind farms in Portugal and also from the low emission levels of the gas fired technology used in the comparison. A sensitive analysis of the technical and economical parameters was also conducted. Particular attention was given to the natural gas prices due to the possible increase over time. The fuel escalation rate is the parameter that has larger effects on the final costs. It was verified that the total cost of wind plant is more influenced by the load factor than the total cost of CCGT. (au)

  5. Sulfuric acid on Europa and the radiolytic sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Johnson, R. E.; Anderson, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of laboratory spectra with Galileo data indicates that hydrated sulfuric acid is present and is a major component of Europa's surface. In addition, this moon's visually dark surface material, which spatially correlates with the sulfuric acid concentration, is identified as radiolytically altered sulfur polymers. Radiolysis of the surface by magnetospheric plasma bombardment continuously cycles sulfur between three forms: sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and sulfur polymers, with sulfuric acid being about 50 times as abundant as the other forms. Enhanced sulfuric acid concentrations are found in Europa's geologically young terrains, suggesting that low-temperature, liquid sulfuric acid may influence geological processes.

  6. Occurrence and Detectability of Thermal Anomalies on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Christensen, Philip R.; Spencer, John R.; Abramov, Oleg; Howett, Carly; Mellon, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Piqueux, Sylvain; Rathbun, Julie A.

    2017-10-01

    Endogenic activity is likely on Europa, given its young surface age of and ongoing tidal heating by Jupiter. Temperature is a fundamental signature of activity, as witnessed on Enceladus, where plumes emanate from vents with strongly elevated temperatures. Recent observations suggest the presence of similar water plumes at Europa. Even if plumes are uncommon, resurfacing may produce elevated surface temperatures, perhaps due to near-surface liquid water. Detecting endogenic activity on Europa is one of the primary mission objectives of NASA’s planned Europa Clipper flyby mission.Here, we use a probabilistic model to assess the likelihood of detectable thermal anomalies on the surface of Europa. The Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS) investigation is designed to characterize Europa’s thermal behavior and identify any thermal anomalies due to recent or ongoing activity. We define “detectability” on the basis of expected E-THEMIS measurements, which include multi-spectral infrared emission, both day and night.Thermal anomalies on Europa may take a variety of forms, depending on the resurfacing style, frequency, and duration of events: 1) subsurface melting due to hot spots, 2) shear heating on faults, and 3) eruptions of liquid water or warm ice on the surface. We use numerical and analytical models to estimate temperatures for these features. Once activity ceases, lifetimes of thermal anomalies are estimated to be 100 - 1000 yr. On average, Europa’s 10 - 100 Myr surface age implies a resurfacing rate of ~3 - 30 km2/yr. The typical size of resurfacing features determines their frequency of occurrence. For example, if ~100 km2 chaos features dominate recent resurfacing, we expect one event every few years to decades. Smaller features, such as double-ridges, may be active much more frequently. We model each feature type as a statistically independent event, with probabilities weighted by their observed coverage of Europa’s surface. Our results

  7. Unmasking Europa the search for life on Jupiter's ocean moon

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter's ice moon Europa is widely regarded as the most likely place to find extraterrestrial life. This book tells the engaging story of Europa, the oceanic moon. It features a large number of stunning images of the ocean moon's surface, clearly displaying the spectacular crack patterns, extensive rifts and ridges, and refrozen pools of exposed water filled with rafts of displaced ice. Coverage also features firsthand accounts of Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons. The book tells the rough and tumble inside story of a very human enterprise in science that lead to the discovery of a f

  8. Evolución humana en Europa: registro y debates

    OpenAIRE

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Martínez, Ignacio; Carretero Díaz, José Miguel; Gracia Téllez, Ana; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bermúdez de Castro, José María

    1996-01-01

    Tres son los principales debates en los estudios de evolución humana en Europa: primer poblamiento de nuestro continente, patrón evolutivo durante el Pleistoceno medio, origen del Hombre moderno y su relación con los neandertales. Hasta la fecha, no existe consenso en admitir la presencia humana en Europa antes del episodio isotópico 13, pero el reciente hallazgo de fósiles humanos e industria lítica en ni veles del Pleistoceno inferior del yacimiento Gran Dolina (S ierra de Atapuerca), permi...

  9. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  10. El Consejo de Europa y la abolición total de la pena de muerte en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2002-01-01

    1. Introducción.- 2. La parca reglamentación de la pena de muerte.- 3. La superación práctica de una mala disposición.- 3.1 .Por el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos.- 3.2. Por la práctica de los Estados Miembros del Consejo de Europa.- 3.3. Por la práctica de los órganos del Consejo de Europa.- 4. La abolición de iure de la pena de muerte en Europa.- 4.1. La prohibición de la pena de muerte en tiempo de paz.- 4.2. La abolición de la pena de muerte en todas las circunstancias:- 5. Consider...

  11. A política fiscale a contabilidade municipal na espanha: instrumentos de controle dos recursos locais: 1745-1899

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Lucena, María Soledad

    2011-01-01

    A política fiscal espanhola sofreu uma transformação fundamental do Antigo ao Novo Regime. Esta transformação tinha motivações tanto internas devido ao déficit crônico que vinha sofrendo a Fazenda Pública e que se agravaram ao final do século XIX, como externas devido à influência de uma ideologia liberal que se estendia pela Europa naquela época. Tudo isso deu lugar a uma perda de autonomia fiscal por parte das prefeituras em cujas finanças o Estado viu a solução para seus problemas financei...

  12. Una rete nell’Europa medievale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Brambilla Pisoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La diffusione del libro nel Medioevo potrebbe essere riletta alla luce di una metafora attuale sebbene non scevra di aspetti dialettici: quella della “rete”. All’ubicazione spazio-temporale del libro nei monasteri medievali, contraddistinta da fisicità e permanenza, si sotituisce oggi un formato digitale e virtuale, che porta ad una sorta di decontestualizzazione e alla continuità del flusso di informazioni, contribuendo alla diffusione capillare del sapere. L’ottica di universalità e globalità accomuna tuttavia entrambe le epoche. Alcuni concetti-chiave dell’informatica potrebbero infatti declinarsi in ambito medievale: Server-Client per la raccolta, la conservazione e la trasmissione delle conoscenze da parte dei monasteri, quali centri del sapere in Europa, agli uomini di cultura; Firewall, per alludere alla necessità di tutelare i manoscritti, mediante la copiatura e la diffusione dei codici; Community, ad indicare non solo la comunità religiosa o monastica in senso stretto, bensì l’apertura ad una costruzione del sapere mediante un’azione partecipativa. I problemi dell’autenticità delle fonti, dell’acriticità delle informazioni e la pratica delle citazioni trovano un precedente significativo nelle Sententiae di Pietro Lombardo: una sorta di “biblioteca virtuale” grazie alla collezione di passi dalla Sacra Scrittura e da fonti latine e greche, paragonabile a un moderno modello enciclopedico di sapere. The diffusion of the book in the Middle Ages could be critically read through a modern metaphor: the “net”. The space-temporal coordinates of the book shift from being physical and permanent in the Medieval monasteries, to being de-contextualized and continue in the flow of information of digital and virtual format. However the universal and global perspective is common to the contemporary and the Medieval periods. In fact some key-words of computer science could be applied to the Medieval context: Server

  13. Os invasores:as ameaças que representam as migrações subsaariana na Espanha e haitiana no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Tadeu Ribeiro de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os processos que envolvem a migração subsaariana para Espanha e a haitiana para o Brasil, passando pelos fatores que impulsionam os deslocamentos, as rotas migratórias utilizadas, a inserção social e laboral desses migrantes e o momento das políticas migratórias em cada um dos países de destino, ressaltando as semelhanças e algumas diferenças em cada um desses processos. O objetivo é demonstrar que longe de se constituírem numa ameaça invasora, mais bem são vítimas de um sistema que produz exclusão e exploração, que nos casos de subsaarianos e haitianos se amplifica pelos componentes da discriminação e racismo.

  14. Sulfuric Acid on Europa's Surface and the Radiolytic Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R.; Johnson, R.; Anderson, M.

    1999-01-01

    Galileo infrared spectra of Europa's surface show distorted water bands that have been attributed to hydrated evaporite salts (McCord et al., J. Geophys. Res. 104, 11827, 1999) or to the scattering properties of ice (Dalton and Clark, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 30, 1081, 1998).

  15. CRISI E RINASCITA DELL'EUROPA: ECHI DEL DIBATTITO FENOMENOLOGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Lenoci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio, attraverso un'analisi delle riflessioni di Husserl e Scheler, si propone di esaminare la loro concezione sull'Europa e la tradizione culturale europea, mettendo in rilievo l'evoluzione e lo sviluppo delle loro posizioni avanti e dopo la prima Guerra mondiale.

  16. La apatridia y la crisis de refugiados en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Berényi, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    La Unión Europea debe emitir una directiva sobre estándares comunes para los procedimientos de determinación de la apatridia para así mitigar los impactos particulares de esta condición en el contexto de la continua crisis de refugiados en Europa.

  17. Impact Crater Morphology and the Structure of Europa's Ice Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Brandon C.

    2017-12-01

    We performed numerical simulations of impact crater formation on Europa to infer the thickness and structure of its ice shell. The simulations were performed using iSALE to test both the conductive ice shell over ocean and the conductive lid over warm convective ice scenarios for a variety of conditions. The modeled crater depth-diameter is strongly dependent on the thermal gradient and temperature of the warm convective ice. Our results indicate that both a fully conductive (thin) shell and a conductive-convective (thick) shell can reproduce the observed crater depth-diameter and morphologies. For the conductive ice shell over ocean, the best fit is an approximately 8 km thick conductive ice shell. Depending on the temperature (255-265 K) and therefore strength of warm convective ice, the thickness of the conductive ice lid is estimated at 5-7 km. If central features within the crater, such as pits and domes, form during crater collapse, our simulations are in better agreement with the fully conductive shell (thin shell). If central features form well after the impact, however, our simulations suggest that a conductive-convective shell (thick shell) is more likely. Although our study does not provide a firm conclusion regarding the thickness of Europa's ice shell, our work indicates that Valhalla class multiring basins on Europa may provide robust constraints on the thickness of Europa's ice shell.

  18. Europa Cinemas auhindas Sõpruse kino / Katrin Rajasaare ; interv. Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa ja Vahemere regiooni kinopidajaid ühendav organisatsioon Europa Cinemas kuulutas Sõpruse kino aasta parimaks noorsooürituste korraldamise kategoorias. Oma tööst räägib Sõpruse juht, kes käis ka 18. nov. Budapestis auhinda vastu võtmas

  19. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS): Enabling Required Plasma Measurements for the Exploration of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, J. H.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Kasper, J. C.; Case, A. W.; Rymer, A. M.; Khurana, K. K.; Stevens, M. L.; Jia, X.; Slavin, J. A.; Paty, C. S.; Smith, H. T.; Kivelson, M.; Saur, J.; Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Korth, H.

    2015-12-01

    Europa exists in a complicated plasma environment where the tilt of Jupiter's magnetic field and rapid rotation rate leads to a dynamic interaction with Europa's ionospheric plasma. While understanding this plasma interaction is interesting in its own right, it is crucial for successfully magnetically sounding Europa's subsurface ocean. . In magnetic sounding, currents induced in Europa by the changing Jovian plasma produce a detectable secondary magnetic field that reflects properties of Europa's subsurface ocean such as depth and conductivity. This technique was successfully employed with Galileo observations of Europa to demonstrate that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean containing more liquid water than Earth's oceans. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, the results raised major questions that remain unanswered, in part due to the large uncertainties in the ice shell thickness, ocean depth, and ocean salinity due to limitations in the observations. Here we present the scientific goals of the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), one of the 9 instruments selected for the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission. We specifically address how PIMS plasma measurements will transform the accuracy of magnetic sounding of Europa's subsurface oceans. We also present synergistic science with other Europa instrumentation such as the ultraviolet spectrometer, mass spectrometer, and the radar.

  20. Surface composition of Europa based on VLT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, N.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a global salty ocean under an 80-170 km thick outer layer consisting of an icy crust (Anderson et al. 1998). Meanwhile, the 10-50 My old surface, dated by cratering rates (Pappalardo et al. 1999) implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing that could result in tectonic activity (Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface could thus exhibit fingerprints of chemical species, as minerals characteristics of an ocean-mantle interaction and/or organics of exobiological interest, directly originating from the subglacial ocean. In order to re-investigate the composition of Europa's surface, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) and large signal noise ratio in comparison to previous observations are adequate to detect sharp absorptions in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. In addition, the spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s ( 35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Several icy and non-icy compounds were detected and mapped at salts (chloride, chlorate, and perchlorate) is supported by linear spectral modeling of the data, while the presence of sulfate salts is challenged. The distribution of some of these species is inconsistent with exogenic processes mainly impacting the trailing orbital hemisphere. These species may be traces of endogenous processes occurring on Europa.

  1. Climate index for Portugal - Methodology; Indices climatique Portugal methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Portugal. (J.S.)

  2. Prática e Receção da Música Improvisada em Portugal: 1960 a 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Manuel António Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Musicais, variante de Etnomusicologia Esta dissertação versa a prática e receção de música improvisada, em Portugal, nas décadas de 1960 a 1980, referindo-se particularmente ao conceito de música improvisada, inicialmente denominada improvisação livre, que emergiu em meados do século XX, nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por via das influências do free jazz e da música contemporânea d...

  3. Phyllosilicates and Cometary Impacts on the Surface of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, J. H.; Kamp, L. W.; Dalton, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared imaging of Jupiter's moon Europa obtained during the Galileo Mission reveals a 30-km-diameter multi-ring structure near Europa's equator at ~100° W longitude, near the orbital leading-side apex (http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02561). Spectral absorption features of phyllosilicate minerals are detected in a discontinuous annulus of lower-albedo materials located at a mean distance of ~120 km from the center of the feature. Other diagnostic spectral absorption features are detected in possible impact melt deposits that line the putative crater floor. Transport to the surface of hydrated layer silicate minerals from Europa's interior is unlikely, due to the ~100-km-thick watery barrier that separates Europa's surface from its rocky mantle. However, two complementary mechanisms exist whereby cometary impacts may account for the presence and areal distribution of phyllosilicates and related materials within our study area. Oblique impacts of active or inactive cometary nuclei may disperse fragmented but chemically unaltered phyllosilicates from the least-shocked portions of the body of the impactor (Pierazzo and Melosh 2000; Met. Plan. Sci. 35, 117). The high temperatures and pressures attained during cometary impacts will in addition vaporize silicates from more highly shocked leading-edge locations within the impactor, to thereafter yield hydrated impact glasses and their alteration products, plausibly including phyllosilicates and other materials. Impact modeling (after Kraus et al. 2011; Icarus 214, 724) provides quantitative support for delivery and emplacement of material sufficient to account for the near-infrared signatures observed, while the nuclei of Jupiter family comets such as Halley and Tempel 1 exhibit compositions with the requisite abundance of silicates. Successful delivery by impacts of solid-phase phyllosilicates to the surface of Europa raises the possibility that carbonaceous materials from the impactor may likewise

  4. Millipedes (Diplopoda) from caves of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Millipedes play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter in the subterranean environment. Despite the existence of several cave-adapted species of millipedes in adjacent geographic areas, their study has been largely ignored in Portugal. Over the last decade, intense fieldwork...... in caves of the mainland and the island of Madeira has provided new data about the distribution and diversity of millipedes. A review of millipedes from caves of Portugal is presented, listing fourteen species belonging to eight families, among which six species are considered troglobionts....... The distribution of millipedes in caves of Portugal is discussed and compared with the troglobiont biodiversity in the overall Iberian Peninsula and the Macaronesian archipelagos....

  5. Enoturismo em Portugal: as Rotas de Vinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Orlando

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1993, as supported by the Dyonisios program of the European Union, the wine routes have been the most visible face of the wine tourism practice in Portugal. Since these thematic routes have no specific rules, they usually depend on the initiative of the promoters, namely through the creation of adherent/promoters associations or other institutions, like the Regional Viticulture Commissions, and Tourism Regions. This article aims at analysing the basis for the development of wine tourism in Portugal and its structure around wine routes. The socioeconomics traits of both the vineyards and wine, are analysed. The existing routes in Portugal are presented and their strengths and limitations are identi-fied.

  6. Enoturismo em Portugal: as Rotas de Vinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Simões

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1993, as supported by the Dyonisios program of the European Union, the wine routes have been the most visible face of the wine tourism practice in Portugal. Since these thematic routes have no specific rules, they usually depend on the initiative of the promoters, namely through the creation of adherent/promoters associations or other institutions, like the Regional Viticulture Commissions, and Tourism Regions. This article aims at analysing the basis for the development of wine tourism in Portugal and its structure around wine routes. The socioeconomics traits of both the vineyards and wine, are analysed. The existing routes in Portugal are presented and their strengths and limitations are identified.

  7. Muslim Slaves and Freedmen in Medieval Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Soyer, François

    2007-01-01

    The study of slavery in medieval Portugal has focused almost exclusively on the status and fate of the sub-Saharan Africans who started to arrive in the kingdom from 1441 onwards. The work of A. C. de C. M Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982) has been particularly important in this respect. In stark contrast to this, the fate of the substantial number of Muslim slaves who lived and worked in Portuga...

  8. Racism in Portugal; the recent research

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, João Filipe

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the theoretical and empirical diversity we can find some common features in the results of the investigations on racism in Portugal. Firstly, all investigations have in common the fact that they have made clear that the «myth» of the Portuguese «non racism», so widespread among the population is nothing but a myth – there is racism in Portugal. But this national myth became a sort of «self fulfilling prophecy» since, apparently, it has prevented the entry of racism into the politi...

  9. Perfil logístico de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Johanna Marcela

    2014-01-01

    El presente documento ofrece un estudio del perfil logístico de Portugal, abarcando diferentes aspectos que afectan la competitividad y el desempeño de la cadena logística de un país, con la finalidad de conocer a uno de los socios comerciales con los cuáles Colombia se encuentra negociando, en este caso Portugal, uno de los 28 países que hace parte del reciente tratado de libre comercio aprobado con la Unión Europea, es preciso estudiar las ventajas competitivas que poseen dichos socios, a l...

  10. Ganymede and Europa and their Jovian polar footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejkora, N.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.

    2017-09-01

    The interactions between the Galilean moons Europa and Ganymede and the Jovian magnetosphere are studied. The focus lies on the satellites' auroral footprints observable in the polar regions of Jupiter. The work encompasses case studies of UV observations, obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), showing auroral features potentially triggered by either Europa or Ganymede. For those situations the footprint lead angles are determined, using different magnetic field models. The aim is to estimate the relationship between satellite longitude and lead angle. The delay between the local interaction at the satellite and the resulting auroral emission, which is implied by the obtained lead angles, is compared to the travel time of an Alfvén wave along a magnetic field line from the satellite to the planet.

  11. Svensk korttegner trak Europas grænse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Historisk set. At Europa slutter ved Ural var et vilkårligt valg til et politisk formål på et bestemt tidspunkt i historien. Men siden Moskva-fyrstendømmet i 1552 ekspanderede ind i Sibirien, har Rusland både været europæisk og asiatisk.......Historisk set. At Europa slutter ved Ural var et vilkårligt valg til et politisk formål på et bestemt tidspunkt i historien. Men siden Moskva-fyrstendømmet i 1552 ekspanderede ind i Sibirien, har Rusland både været europæisk og asiatisk....

  12. Formation of lenticulae on Europa by saucer-shaped sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Michael; Michaut, Chloé

    2017-04-01

    Europa's surface contains numerous quasi-elliptical features called pits, domes, spots and small chaos. We propose that these features, collectively referred to as lenticulae, are the surface expression of saucer-shaped sills of liquid water in Europa's ice shell. In particular, the inclined sheets of water that surround a horizontal inner sill limit the lateral extent of intrusion, setting the lateral dimension of lenticulae. Furthermore, the inclined sheets disrupt the ice above the intrusion allowing the inner sill to thicken to produce the observed relief of lenticulae and to fracture the crust to form small chaos. Scaling relationships between sill depth and lateral extent imply that the hypothesized intrusions are, or were, 1-5 km below the surface. Liquid water is predicted to exist presently under pits and for a finite time under chaos and domes.

  13. Índices bursátiles en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    La realización de este Trabajo Fin de Grado: "Índices bursátiles en Europa", tiene como objeto realizar un estudio descriptivo sobre 18 índices bursátiles de Europa, de los cuales 17 son índices de referencia del mercado de valores de sus respectivos países y un último índice -el Eurostoxx50- que engloba las principales compañías europeas. El periodo de análisis se extiende entre los años 2007 y 2013, periodo caracterizado por la reciente crisis económica y financiera. En él, se analizarán lo...

  14. Patterns of fracture and tidal stresses on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of dark band, triple band, and cuspate ridge orientations with the fracture patterns predicted for tidal distortion due to orbital recession and eccentricity is undertaken, to test the hypothesized identification of Europa's lineaments as tidal distortion and planetary volume change fractures. Short, reticule dark bands near the anti-Jove point could be tension cracks caused by orbital eccentricity. Long, arcuate dark bands and triple bands peripheral to the anti-Jove point may be strike-slip faults due to orbital recession. The orientation and distribution of cuspate ridges, if they are compressional, suggests their formation in response to a combination of orbital recession and planetary volume decrease. If surface fracturing is due to tidal deformation, important constraints are exerted by it on Europa's orbital evolution.

  15. Filogeografia di alcune specie di mammiferi in Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Randi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La filogeografia si occupa dello studio della distribuzione geografica delle linee genetiche che sono presenti nelle popolazioni all'interno di una specie o in gruppi di specie filogeneticamente vicine. In Europa la distribuzione geografica della diversità genetica viene interpretata nel contesto dei cambiamenti climatici del Pleistocene, assumendo che i ripetuti cicli glaciali ed interglaciali abbiano determinato profonde trasformazioni nella distribuzione delle comunità e delle singole specie. Evidenze paleoecologiche e molecolari suggeriscono che le popolazioni di specie adattate ai climi temperati siano sopravissute alle glaciazioni in aree rifugio meridionali (sia nelle regioni Mediterranee che in Europa orientale, acquisendo caratteristiche genetiche peculiari. Nel corso dei periodi interglaciali, queste popolazioni hanno ricolonizzato l'Europa centrale e settentrionale, seguendo vie di dispersione che sono ricostruibili tramite l'analisi di specifici marcatori genetici. L'analisi filogeografica indica che ogni specie ha la propria storia. Tuttavia è possibile individuare alcuni "modelli" di filogeografia dei mammiferi in Europa: il modello classico dei rifugi meridionali (esemplificato dal caso del riccio, Erinaceus europaeus; un modello caratterizzato da successive fasi di colonizzazione da aree di speciazione in Eurasia (come nel caso del camoscio, Rupicapra, un modello caratterizzato dalla dislocazione settentrionale di intere popolazioni che scompaiono completamente dalle aree rifugio (come è avvenuto in alcune specie di chirotteri e di specie di ungulati a distribuzione settentrionale. Esistono, infine, casi di apparente mancanza di struttura filogeografica, come, ad esempio, nel caso del lupo e di altre specie ad elevato potenziale di dispersione e di flusso genico. L'analisi filogeografica consente di identificare alcune popolazioni di mammiferi distribuite nelle presunte aree di rifugio, comprendenti l

  16. Charlotte Perriand. Un mestizaje Japón-Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Fernández, Marta

    2013-01-01

    El artículo aborda la trayectoria arquitectónica de Charlotte Perriand antes de su primer viaje a Japón en 1940, como personaje emblemático del intercambio cultural y arquitectónico Europa-Japón a lo largo de la primera mitad del siglo XX, que acaba teniendo resonancia en la arquitectura doméstica contemporánea japonesa.

  17. Penetrators for in situ subsurface investigations of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, R. A.; Smith, A.; Fortes, A. D.; Barber, S.; Brown, P.; Church, P.; Collinson, G.; Coates, A. J.; Collins, G.; Crawford, I. A.; Dehant, V.; Chela-Flores, J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Grindrod, P. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Hagermann, A.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Jones, A. P.; Joy, K. H.; Karatekin, O.; Miljkovic, K.; Palomba, E.; Pike, W. T.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Raulin, F.; Sephton, M. A.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M.; Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Ambrosi, R.; Fielding, J.; Fraser, G.; Gao, Y.; Jones, G. H.; Kargl, G.; Karl, W. J.; Macagnano, A.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, J. P.; Phipps, A.; Pullan, D.; Richter, L.; Sohl, F.; Snape, J.; Sykes, J.; Wells, N.

    2011-08-01

    We present the scientific case for inclusion of penetrators into the Europan surface, and the candidate instruments which could significantly enhance the scientific return of the joint ESA/NASA Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Moreover, a surface element would provide an exciting and inspirational mission highlight which would encourage public and political support for the mission.Whilst many of the EJSM science goals can be achieved from the proposed orbital platform, only surface elements can provide key exploration capabilities including direct chemical sampling and associated astrobiological material detection, and sensitive habitability determination. A targeted landing site of upwelled material could provide access to potential biological material originating from deep beneath the ice.Penetrators can also enable more capable geophysical investigations of Europa (and Ganymede) interior body structures, mineralogy, mechanical, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties. They would provide ground truth, not just for the orbital observations of Europa, but could also improve confidence of interpretation of observations of the other Jovian moons. Additionally, penetrators on both Europa and Ganymede, would allow valuable comparison of these worlds, and gather significant information relevant to future landed missions. The advocated low mass penetrators also offer a comparatively low cost method of achieving these important science goals.A payload of two penetrators is proposed to provide redundancy, and improve scientific return, including enhanced networked seismometer performance and diversity of sampled regions.We also describe the associated candidate instruments, penetrator system architecture, and technical challenges for such penetrators, and include their current status and future development plans.

  18. The Plasma Environment at Enceladus and Europa Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Abigail; Persoon, Ann; Morooka, Michiko; Heuer, Steven; Westlake, Joseph H.

    2017-10-01

    The plasma environment near Enceladus is complex, as revealed during 16 encounters of the Cassini spacecraft. The well documented Enceladus plumes create a dusty, asymmetric exosphere in which electrons can attach to small ice particles - forming anions, and negatively charged nanograins and dust - to the extent that cations can be the lightest charged particles present and, as a result, the dominant current carriers. Several instruments on the Cassini spacecraft are able to measure this environment in both expected and unexpected ways. Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) is designed and calibrated to measure the thermal plasma ions and electrons and also measures the energy/charge of charged nanograins when present. Cassini Radio Plasma Wave Sensor (RPWS) measures electron density as derived from the ‘upper hybrid frequency’ which is a function of the total free electron density and magnetic field strength and provides a vital ground truth measurement for Cassini calibration when the density is sufficiently high for it to be well measured. Cassini Langmuir Probe (LP) measures the electron density and temperature via direct current measurement, and both CAPS and LP can provide estimates for the spacecraft potential which we compare. The plasma environment near Europa is similarly complex and, although not so comprehensively equipped and hampered by the non-deployment of its high gain antenna, the Galileo spacecraft made similar measurements during 9 Europa flybys and recent observations have suggested that, like Enceladus, Europa might have active plume activity. We present a detailed comparison of data from the Cassini and Galileo sensors in order to assess the plasma environment observed by the different instruments, discuss what is consistent and otherwise, and the implications for the plasma environment at Enceladus and Europa in the context of work to date as well as implications for future studies.

  19. Radar signal propagation through the ionosphere of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grima, Cyril; Blankenship, Donald D.; Schroeder, Dustin M.

    2015-11-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of the Europan plasma environment, its effects on radio wave propagation, and its impact on the performance and design of future radar sounders for the exploration of Europa's ice crust. The Europan ionosphere is produced in two independently-rotating hemispheres by photo-ionization of the neutral exosphere and interaction with the Io plasma torus, respectively. This combination is responsible for temporal and longitudinal ionospheric heterogeneities not well constrained by observations. When Europa's ionosphere is active, the maximum cut-off frequency is 1 MHz at the surface. The main impacts on radar signal propagation are dispersive phase shift and Faraday rotation, both a function of the total electron content (up to 4×1015 m-2) and the Jovian magnetic field strength at Europa (~420 nT). The severity of these impacts decrease with increasing center frequency and increase with altitude, latitude, and bandwidth. The 9 MHz channels on the Radar for Icy Moons Exploration (RIME) and proposed Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON) will be sensitive to the Europan ionosphere. For these or similar radar sounders, the ionospheric signal distortion from dispersive phase shift can be corrected with existing techniques, which would also enable the estimation of the total electron content below the spacecraft. At 9 MHz, the Faraday fading is not expected to exceed 6 dB under the worst conditions. At lower frequencies, any active or passive radio probing of the ice shell exploration would be limited to frequencies above 1-8 MHz (depending on survey configuration) below which Faraday rotation angle would lead to signal fading and detection ambiguity. Radar instruments could be sensitive to neutrals and electrons added in the exosphere from any plume activity if present.

  20. Expected Seismicity and the Seismic Noise Environment of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark P.; Stähler, Simon C.; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Vance, Steven D.; Kedar, Sharon; Tsai, Victor C.; Pike, William T.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2018-01-01

    Seismic data will be a vital geophysical constraint on internal structure of Europa if we land instruments on the surface. Quantifying expected seismic activity on Europa both in terms of large, recognizable signals and ambient background noise is important for understanding dynamics of the moon, as well as interpretation of potential future data. Seismic energy sources will likely include cracking in the ice shell and turbulent motion in the oceans. We define a range of models of seismic activity in Europa's ice shell by assuming each model follows a Gutenberg-Richter relationship with varying parameters. A range of cumulative seismic moment release between 1016 and 1018 Nm/yr is defined by scaling tidal dissipation energy to tectonic events on the Earth's moon. Random catalogs are generated and used to create synthetic continuous noise records through numerical wave propagation in thermodynamically self-consistent models of the interior structure of Europa. Spectral characteristics of the noise are calculated by determining probabilistic power spectral densities of the synthetic records. While the range of seismicity models predicts noise levels that vary by 80 dB, we show that most noise estimates are below the self-noise floor of high-frequency geophones but may be recorded by more sensitive instruments. The largest expected signals exceed background noise by ˜50 dB. Noise records may allow for constraints on interior structure through autocorrelation. Models of seismic noise generated by pressure variations at the base of the ice shell due to turbulent motions in the subsurface ocean may also generate observable seismic noise.

  1. Optimising the science orbits for the Joint Europa Mission (JEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprats, William; Balmino, Georges; Laurent-Varin, Julien; Russell, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    JEM (a proposed NASA-ESA Joint Europa Mission) will be assigned the following overarching goal: Understand Europa as a complex system responding to Jupiter system forcing, characterize the habitability of its potential biosphere, and search for life in its surface, sub-surface and exosphere. The JEM observation strategy to address these goals will include measurements on a high-latitude, low-latitude Europan orbit providing a continuous and global mapping of planetary fields (magnetic and gravity) and of the neutral and charged environment during a period of three months, which will itself follow a sequence of science operations in halo orbit around the L1 Lagrangian point of the Europa-Jupiter system which will also be used to relay the data from the JEM lander. We will present a detailed mission analysis study by which the two successive sequences of science orbits have been optimized to best cover the JEM scientific objectives while satisfactorily fulfilling the mission constraints related to the lander delivery and relay functions.

  2. Space Weathering Perspectives on Europa Amidst the Tempest of the Jupiter Magnetospheric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C.; Cassidy, T. A.; Ip. W.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Europa resides within a "perfect storm" tempest of extreme external field, plasma, and energetic particle interactions with the magnetospheric system of Jupiter. Missions to Europa must survive, functionally operate, make useful measurements, and return critical science data, while also providing full context on this ocean moon's response to the extreme environment. Related general perspectives on space weathering in the solar system are applied to mission and instrument science requirements for Europa.

  3. Validation of four AIDS-case definitions in HIV-infected intravenous drug users in Barcelona, Spain Validação de quatro definições de caso de aids em usuários de drogas injetáveis em Barcelona, Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio C. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    penitenciário para homens e de um centro de tratamento de usuários de drogas de Barcelona, Espanha, entre Outubro/1993 e Abril 1994. Um protocolo, incluindo variáveis demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais, foi usado pelo mesmo médico e os testes laboratoriais, necessários à investigação, realizados na mesma instituição. Em seguida, os pacientes da amostra foram classificados nas 4 definições de Caso de Aids usados pelo estudo. Como padrão foi usada a contagem de CD4+. O número de casos de Aids variou entre 31 e 84 segundo a definição de Caso de aids utilizada. O uso de Definição CDC-93 implicou no aumento de 170,9% no número de casos com relação a Definição CDC-87. As sensibilidades das definições de Caso de Aids - CDC-87, CDC-93, Europa-93 e Caracas Revisada foram respectivamente, 34,2, 88,6, 45,6 e 56,9%, enquanto as especificidades foram, respectivamente, 93,0, 75,4, 75,4 e 77,2%. Os valores predictivos positivos estiveram entre 72,0% (Definição Europa-93 e 87,1% ("CDC-87" e os valores predictivos negativos se apresentaram entre 50,0% ("Europa-93 e 82,7% ("CDC-93". Os autores concluíram que a Definição Epidemiológica de Caso de Aids "Caracas Revisada" apresentou melhor sensibilidade e especificidade que as apresentadas pela Definição de Caso de Aids "Europa-93". Por este motivo, a Definição de Caso "Caracas Revisada" pode ser útil em países e situação onde a contagem de células CD4+; por razões técnicas ou econômicas, não é disponível.

  4. Lessons from wind policy in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, Ivonne; L. Azevedo, Inês; Marcelino Ferreira, Luís António Fialho

    2017-04-01

    Wind capacity and generation grew rapidly in several European countries, such as Portugal. Wind power adoption in Portugal began in the early 2000s, incentivized by a continuous feed-in tariff policy mechanism, coupled with public tenders for connection licenses in 2001, 2002, and 2005. These policies led to an enormous success in terms of having a large share of renewables providing electricity services: wind alone accounts today for ~23.5% of electricity demand in Portugal. We explain the reasons wind power became a key part of Portugal's strategy to comply with European Commission climate and energy goals, and provide a detailed review of the wind feed-in tariff mechanism. We describe the actors involved in wind power production growth. We estimate the environmental and energy dependency gains achieved through wind power generation, and highlight the correlation between wind electricity generation and electricity exports. Finally, we compare the Portuguese wind policies with others countries' policy designs and discuss the relevance of a feed-in tariff reform for subsequent wind power additions.

  5. Social housing in Portugal and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia; Andersen, Hans Thor

    The social housing sector has become increasingly residualized and segregated in Portugal and Denmark. Whilst there is a considerable difference between the systems in these two countries, as regards issues of management and governance, dominant rent regimes (cost rent, social rent) or eligibility...

  6. Portugal's experience with public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Akintoye, A.; Beck, M.; Kumaraswamy, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the Portuguese experience in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs). Since 1993, Portugal has been using PPPs intensively, mainly for highway construction and in the health sector. This has enabled the country to close the infrastructure gap and avoid the budget constraints at the

  7. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  8. Neo-Lamarckism in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaça, Carlos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Darwinism was championed in Portugal by the University and progressionist political parties from the 1860's on. Neo-Darwinism was neglected in its proper time and so the acceptance of the inheritance of acquired characters continued over the first decades of the 20th century. Men of medical education who were professors of Biology at the University of Oporto supported neo-Lamarckian theories in early 20th century. The first one has been Américo Pires de Lima (1886-1966, professor of Botany, whose doctoral dissertation sustaining early Darwinism and neo-Lamarckism was presented in 1912. This thesis, as well as a few neo-Lamarckian publications with antropological significance, are commented and discussed in the present paper.



    El Darwinismo fue defendido en Portugal en la Universidad y por los partidos políticos progresistas durante la década de los años 60 del siglo XIX. El neo-darwinismo fue ignorado en su tiempo y así continuó la aceptación de la herencia de los caracteres adquiridos a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Los profesores de biolog

  9. Universidades populares en España y su relación con la universidad suramericana Universidades populares em Espanha e sua relação com a universidade sul-americana Popular Universities in Spain and their Relationship with South American Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio López-Núñez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presenta las claves para entender el Proyecto Universidad Popular, iniciado en España en 1901. Tras analizar brevemente su pasado, se explica su presente a través de la educación de adultos como filosofía de fondo, y se hace ver que en la actualidad no deja de estar vigente en nuestra sociedad. La principal nota característica de este proyecto es su organización en red, no solo a nivel nacional, sino que sus relaciones con otras universidades populares, sobre todo de Suramérica, constituyen su principal fuente de trabajo. A pesar de sus más de cien años de existencia en Europa y Suramérica, en la actualidad el proyecto es toda una institución de educación de adultos, por su peculiar oferta formativa, totalmente adaptada a las necesidades de sus alumnos.Este trabalho apresenta a clave para compreender o Projeto Universidade Popular, que começou em Espanha em 1901. Depois analisar seu passado, explica-se seu presente através da educação de adultos como filosofia de fundo, e descobre-se que na atualidade é em vigor na nossa sociedade. A característica principal deste projeto é sua organização em rede nacional. Suas relações com outras universidades populares, especialmente da América do Sul, são sua fonte de trabalho fundamental. No entanto sua antigüidade de mais de cem anos em Europa e América do Sul, na atualidade o projeto é uma instituição de educação de adultos por sua particular forma de oferta de formação, adaptada as necessidades dos alunos.This study outlines the aspects that are crucial to understanding the Popular University Project begun in Spain in 1901. After a brief historical analysis, its present situation is explained against the backdrop of adult education as an in-depth philosophy, and the project is shown to be valid even today, in our society. The primary feature of the project is its organization in the form of a network, not only nationwide, but in terms of its relationship with

  10. Muslim Slaves and Freedmen in Medieval Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyer, François

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of slavery in medieval Portugal has focused almost exclusively on the status and fate of the sub-Saharan Africans who started to arrive in the kingdom from 1441 onwards. The work of A. C. de C. M Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982 has been particularly important in this respect. In stark contrast to this, the fate of the substantial number of Muslim slaves who lived and worked in Portugal during the medieval period has to a large extent been overlooked. Using documentary evidence obtained from the national Portuguese archives, this article proposes to analyse in detail the origins of these slaves, their economic and social role and the laws that were promulgated to control them and their owners. The status of freedmen and manumission practices are also closely studied.

    El estudio de la esclavitud en el Portugal medieval ha sido dominado por estudios sobre los esclavos oriundos del África subsahariana que comenzaron a ser importados en aquel reino desde 1441. La obra de A. C. de C. M. Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982 ha sido particularmente importante a este respecto. En contraste con esta situación, se sabe relativamente poco de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino medieval de Portugal. Utilizando nuevas fuentes documentales del archivo nacional portugués, este artículo se propone examinar los orígenes de estos esclavos musulmanes y su posición económica y social en el Portugal del medievo, así como las leyes reales que fueron promulgadas para controlar a los esclavos y a sus dueños. La posición social de los libertos y las prácticas de manumisión serán también estudiadas.

  11. Paradigmas administrativos, ética e intervenção do Estado na economia: o caso de Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bilhim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Muita atenção tem sido dada na literatura administrativa e organizacional aos valores que guiam o comportamento organizacional e de gestão pública e privada. Todavia, o separador de águas entre a gestão pública e a privada manteve-se ao longo do tempo, com altos e baixos, como ponto controverso na literatura específica da administração e políticas públicas e do direito administrativo. A influência da Nova Gestão Pública (NGP na reforma administrativa em Portugal é amplamente reconhecida em Portugal. Foram muitos os governos que, nos países da oecd, tomaram iniciativas idênticas. Há porém uma diferença acentuada entre a reforma administrativa dos países anglófonos e a dos países da Europa continental. Ora, tal diferença parece radicar no papel que o direito administrativo tem nestes países europeus e que não tem nos sistemas de Common Law. Este artigo quer contribuir para o debate da existência de dois paradigmas administrativos onde a separação entre gestão privada e pública parece colocar-se de forma diferenciada e a ética assume distinta ponderação.

  12. Gerir a dissidência: vencedores e vencidos na espanha franquista Managing dissent: winners and losers in Franco’s Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ampudia de Haro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objectivo do artigo é oferecer uma perspectiva geral acerca da dicotomia “vencedor/vencido” como resultado do novo equilíbrio de poder que emerge em Espanha após a guerra civil. A administração deste equilíbrio por parte do regime franquista inclui a gestão do contingente dos vencidos. Argumenta-se que a distinção “vencedor/vencido” proporciona o fundamento sociológico necessário que converte a metáfora meta-histórica das “duas Espanhas” numa realidade social durante o franquismo.The aim of this paper is to offer a general perspective on the “victor/vanquished” dichotomy as a result of the new power balance in the period following the Spanish Civil war. The power balance administered by the Franco regime includes, inevitably, the “vanquished” management. I argue that the “victor/vanquished” distinction provides a sociological background to speak about the “two Spains” meta-historical metaphor as a social reality during Francoism.

  13. Melhoramento ético das práticas em saúde: Comitês de Bioética em Espanha e Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Gomes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O compartilhamento solidário de experiências entre Brasil e Espanha reposiciona a importância de novos espaços democráticos de participação cidadã e debate ético-político, suscitando questões como: a participação em Comitês Bioéticos pode ir em direção às necessiades-interesses sociais presentes na singularidade da relação profissional-paciente e equipe de saúde? No Brasil, a participação dos profissionais em fóruns construídos para ampliação do controle social e debate da ética, avança como permanente desafio. A ampliação da deliberação em coletivos de debate e equipes de saúde, precisa assumir novo sentido público social na construção da relação profissional-usuário-sistema de saúde-sociedade.

  14. Endurance: The rewards and challenges of landing a spacecraft on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, C.; Rager, A.; Balint, T.; Santiago, D.; Anderson, J.; Cassidy, T.; Chavez-Clemente, D.; Corbett, B. M.; Hammerstein, H.; Hanley, T. R.; Letcher, A.; McGowan, E. M.; McMenamin, D. S.; Murphy, N.; Obland, M. D.; Parker, J. S.; Perron, T.; Petro, N.; Pulupa, M.; Schofield, R.; Sizemore, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The possibility that a water ocean exists beneath Europa's icy shell makes Europa one of the most likely places in our solar system for life to have formed and prospered. In this study, we discuss ``Endurance,'' a proposed lander mission to Europa, and the issues involved in landing a spacecraft on the surface of Europa. Our lander was designed to meet the science objectives laid out in the JIMO SDT Report, namely to: 1) assess the habitability of the environment beneath the surface of Europa; 2) assess the geochemical and physical structure of the surface of Europa and provide ground truth for orbital studies; and 3) provide ground based geophysical studies of Europa's icy shell. Additionally, the mission is designed to assess surface conditions, such as surface structure and radiation levels, for future Europa lander missions. To achieve these objectives, our proposed science payload includes a seismometer, magnetometer, panoramic camera with multispectral imager, surface grinder (to assess the surface strength), microscopic imager, geochemical analysis device (i.e., GC-MS, PEPE), and radiation sensor. We selected the landing site of Castalia Macula suggested by Prockter and Schenk (2004) because its smooth, dark terrain indicates a young surface that may have resulted from recent interactions with the subsurface ocean. Although much can be learned from this mission, landing on Europa presents many challenges such as radiation, extreme cold, and the need to decontaminate the spacecraft to meet planetary protection requirements. The radiation at the surface of Europa requires that all instruments, with the exception of the magnetometer and the radiation detector, be shielded or contained within a vault. A controlled descent and smart landing software would be required to avoid obstacles, however the propellant required to land this mission significantly reduces the payload mass from the lander's mass allocation. Despite the harsh environment, the Endurance lander

  15. Tidal reorientation and the fracturing of Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The most striking characteristic of Europa is the network of long linear albedo markings over the surface, suggestive of global-scale tectonic processes. Various explanations for the fractures have been proposed: Freezing and expansion of an early liquid water ocean1, planetary expansion due to dehydration of hydrated silicates2, localization by weak points in the crust generated by impacts3, and a combination of stresses due to planetary volume change and tidal distortions from orbital recession and orbital eccentricity4,5. Calculations by Yoder6 and Greenberg and Weidenschilling7 have shown that Europa may rotate slightly more rapidly than the synchronous rate, with a rotation period (reorientation through 360??) ranging from 20 to >103 yr if a liquid mantle is present, or up to 1010 yr if the satellite is essentially solid7. Helfen-stein and Parmentier8 modelled the stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation, and concluded that this could explain the long fractures in part of the anti-jovian hemisphere. In this note, I present a global map of lineaments with long arc lengths (>20?? or 550 km), and compare the lineament orientations to the tensile stress trajectories due to tidal distortions (changes in the lengths of three principal semiaxes) and to nonsynchronous rotation (longitudinal reorientation of two of the principal semiaxes). An excellent orthogonal fit to the lineaments is achieved by the stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation with the axis radial to Jupiter located 25?? east of its present position. This fit suggests that nonsynchronous rotation occurred at some time in Europa's history. ?? 1986 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Constraints on the detection of cryovolcanic plumes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Prockter, Louise M.; Patterson, G. Wesley

    2013-09-01

    Surface venting is a common occurrence on several outer solar system satellites. Spacecraft have observed plumes erupting from the geologically young surfaces of Io, Triton and Enceladus. Europa also has a relatively young surface and previous studies have suggested that cryovolcanic eruptions may be responsible for the production of low-albedo deposits surrounding lenticulae and along triple band margins and lineae. Here, we have used the projected thicknesses of these deposits as constraints to determine the lifetimes of detectable cryovolcanic plumes that may have emplaced them. In an effort to explore the feasibility of detection of the particle component of plumes by spacecraft cameras operating at visible wavelengths, we present a conservative model to estimate plume characteristics such as height, eruption velocity, and optical depth under a variety of conditions. We find that cryovolcanic plumes on Europa are likely to be fairly small in stature with heights between 2.5 and 26 km, and eruption velocities between 81 and 261 m/s, respectively. Under these conditions and assuming that plumes are products of steady eruptions with particle radii of 0.5 μm, our model suggests that easily detectable plumes will have optical depths, τ, greater than or equal to 0.04, and that their lifetimes may be no more than 300,000 years. Plume detection may be possible if high phase angle limb observations and/or stereo imaging of the surface are undertaken in areas where eruptive activity is likely to occur. Cameras with imaging resolutions greater than 50 m/pixel should be used to make all observations. Future missions could employ the results of our model in searches for plume activity at Europa.

  17. Epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Esteve

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El tabaco es la causa de mortalidad prevenible más importante en los países europeos, en los que da cuenta de más de medio millón de muertes anuales. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa, atendiendo a la visión de conjunto sobre el impacto del tabaquismo, a la prevalencia del consumo y a su evolución en la última década, así como revisar otras características relacionadas con la difusión y mantenimiento del tabaquismo: la producción y los precios del tabaco. Treinta de cada 100 europeos adultos fuma cigarrillos a diario. En los países de la Unión Europea se estima que 1 de cada 10 adultos fumadores morirá a causa de los efectos del tabaco, razón que se eleva a 1 de cada 5 en los países del este de Europa. La prevalencia de fumadores desciende entre los hombres adultos en algunos países de la Unión Europea, mientras que aumenta en las mujeres, sobre todo jóvenes, del sur y del este de Europa. Se debe insistir en las medidas para controlar el consumo de tabaco y prevenirlo, tales como la prohibición del consumo en lugares públicos, la prohibición real de la publicidad directa e indirecta, la reducción del cultivo, o el incremento de precios. Estas acciones se deben diseñar, coordinar y desarrollar en y desde los diferentes sectores involucrados en la lucha contra el tabaco, con la participación de redes civiles impulsadas desde los diferentes niveles administrativos (local, regional, nacional con la decisiva participación de organismos y organizaciones supranacionales.

  18. Human Missions to Europa and Titan - Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality was formulated. The proposed Development Plan, entitled Theseus, is the outcome of a recent multinational study by a group of students in the framework of the Master of Space Studies (MSS) 2004 course at the International Space University (ISU). The Theseus Program includes the necessary development strategies in key scientific and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analysed throughout the plan include: scientific observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term spaceflight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientific and technological aspects of the Theseus Program, it was recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this chapter, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to four possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. The final chapter of the report builds upon the foundations set by Theseus through a case study. This study illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence

  19. Lecciones de la islamofobia en Europa: las responsabilidades mutuas

    OpenAIRE

    LATHION, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Desde principios del siglo xxi, la sobremediatización del islam y de los musulmanes en Europa solo ha empeorado la percepción que se tiene sobre ellos y las relaciones con estas comunidades. Los medios de comunicación han estigmatizado a dichas comunidades debido a comportamientos inapropiados atribuibles a muchos actores en juego. Este temor al islam (la islamofobia) se ha transformado cada vez más en una actitud de rechazo hacia este «Otro»,paradójicamente cercano y distante, que se ha conv...

  20. Tether-mission design for multiple flybys of moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Charro, M. C.; Sanchez-Arriaga, G. S. A.; Sanchez-Torres, A. S. T.

    2015-10-01

    A tether mission to carry out multiple flybys of Jovian moon Europa is here presented. There is general agreement on elliptic-orbit flybys of Europa resulting in cost to attain given scientific goals lower than if actually orbiting the moon, tethers being naturally fit to fly-by rather than orbit moons1. The present mission is similar in this respect to the Clipper mission considered by NASA, the basic difference lying in location of periapsis, due to different emphasis on mission-challenge metrics. Clipper minimizes damaging radiation-dose by avoiding the Jupiter neighborhood and its very harsh environment; periapsis would be at Europa, apoapsis as far as moon Callisto. As in all past outer-planet missions, Clipper faces, however, critical power and propulsion needs. On the other hand, tethers can provide both propulsion and power, but must reach near the planet to find high plasma density and magnetic field values, leading to high induced tether current, and Lorentz drag and power. The bottom line is a strong radiation dose under the very intense Radiation Belts of Jupiter. Mission design focuses on limiting dose. Perijove would be near Jupiter, at about 1.2-1.3 Jovian radius, apojove about moon Ganymede, corresponding to 1:1 resonance with Europa, so as to keep dose down: setting apojove at Europa, for convenient parallel flybys, would require two perijove passes per flyby (the Ganymede apojove, resulting in high eccentricity, about 0.86, is also less requiring on tether operations). Mission is designed to attain reductions in eccentricity per perijove pass as high as Δe ≈ - 0.04. Due the low gravity-gradient, tether spinning is necessary to keep it straight, plasma contactors placed at both ends taking active turns at being cathodic. Efficiency of capture of the incoming S/C by the tether is gauged by the ratio of S/C mass to tether mass; efficiency is higher for higher tape-tether length and lower thickness and perijove. Low tether bowing due to the Lorentz

  1. Strategy for modeling putative multilevel ecosystems on Europa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Louis N; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    A general strategy for modeling ecosystems on other worlds is described. Two alternative biospheres beneath the ice surface of Europa are modeled, based on analogous ecosystems on Earth in potentially comparable habitats, with reallocation of biomass quantities consistent with different sources of energy and chemical constituents. The first ecosystem models a benthic biosphere supported by chemoautotrophic producers. The second models two concentrations of biota at the top and bottom of the subsurface water column supported by energy harvested from transmembrane ionic gradients. Calculations indicate the plausibility of both ecosystems, including small macroorganisms at the highest trophic levels, with ionotrophy supporting a larger biomass than chemoautotrophy.

  2. La migración de estudiantes chinos hacia Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Christof Van Mol

    2008-01-01

    La experiencia ha demostrado que el capital humano es uno de los factores clave para el desarrollo económico. China tiene una política que intenta incrementar la capacidad intelectual de su población, favoreciendo el retorno de sus estudiantes y profesionales que residen en el extranjero. Una de las características más destacables de la migración de China a Europa ha sido el crecimiento sustancial en el número de migrantes cualificados y estudiantes atraídos sobre todo por Euro...

  3. La TDT en Europa: modelos de programación

    OpenAIRE

    García Muñoz, Nuria; Larrègola Bonastre, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo muestra los modelos de programación de la TDT en Europa a partir del estudio de 110 canales de Alemania, España, Francia, Italia y Reino Unido, Los resultados se centran en tres factores: titularidad, modelo de programación y ‘targetización'. This article presents the programming model of the TDT in Europe from the study of 110 channels of Germany, Spain, France, Italy and United Kingdom. The results are focused on three factors: ownership, programming model and target.

  4. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Cynthia B.; Molaro, Jamie; Hand, Kevin P.

    2017-10-01

    The surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa’s leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry.Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted “chaos-type” terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features.In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa’s surface area.Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age (~50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the

  5. La trampa estructural de Japón: lecciones para Europa y Estados Unidos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ubide, Angel

    2003-01-01

    ... a la situación actual de Europa y Estados Unidos se concluye que Europa experimentara todavía un largo de periodo de estable pero lento crecimiento, mientras que Estados Unidos pasara por un periodo de crecimiento volátil que terminara, en el mejor de los casos, con alta inflación.

  6. Trends in lung cancer mortality in Portugal (1955–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While the rate of smoking and lung cancer mortality has been decreasing in western Europe, there was no decline in lung cancer mortality in Portugal until 1998. Aim: To describe lung cancer mortality trends in Portugal. Methods: Lung cancer mortality rates (International Disease Classification 10: C33-34 in Portugal 1955–2005 by gender and 5-year age groupings were provided by the World Health Organization and the National Institute of Statistics. Standard mortality rates (direct method, world population were calculated for the 35–74, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 year-old age groups. Joinpoint regression was used to calculate the annual percent change (APC in mortality and to identify any inflection points. Results: Between 1955 and 2005 we observed a stabilisation in lung cancer mortality in men aged 35–74 years old, varying 3.77%/year (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.53–4.01 in 1955–1986 and −0.15%/year (95%CI: −0.99–0.69 in 1996–2005. We observed negative APC point estimates (with none significantly below zero in the most recent trends except for the 45–54 age group, where we only noted an APC deceleration since 1981. The mortality increased 1.60%/year (95%CI: 1.40–1.77 in women aged 35–74 years old 1955–2005. Conclusion: In the last two decades we observed a lung cancer mortality stabilisation in males, whereas mortality in females increased continuously. These results place Portugal at the end of the third stage of the smoking epidemic. Resumo: Introdução: A prevalência de fumadores tem diminuído na Europa Ocidental, observando-se já o declínio da mortalidade por cancro do pulmão. Contudo, até 1998 não se observava ainda um decréscimo da frequência deste cancro em Portugal. Objectivo: Descrever a tendência secular da mortalidade por cancro do pulmão em Portugal. Métodos: As taxas de mortalidade por

  7. Medicines Compliance and Reimbursement Level in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Constantino Portela, Maria da Concei??o; Campos Fernandes, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    During a severe financial crisis, it is a priority to use scientific evidence to identify factors that enable therapeutic compliance by patients. This study aimed to evaluate a possible association between the number of patients who attended a medical appointment and had medicine prescribed and the number of these same patients who purchased the prescribed medicine and whether the level of reimbursement was a deciding factor. We perform a correlation analysis at primary care centers in Portug...

  8. Contractual medical liability in Portugal and Macao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Miguel Prista Patrício Cascão

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liability of healthcare providers can be framed under the theory of contract in the law of Portugal and Macao, to obtain compensation for injury suffered by aggrieved patients, as a result of medical adverse events. However, shortcomings in the law, court practice and literature lead to some uncertainty in adjudication. This article aims at reducing said uncertainty, setting forward a clear-cut adjudication paradigm, while recommending legal reform.

  9. Equine infection with Leishmania in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolão N.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first case of equine leishmaniasis in Portugal. Leishmania infection was detected in one animal, which presented an ulcerated skin lesion. Diagnosis was based on serology by CIE, and parasite DNA detection by real-time PCR using a probe specific for L. infantum. This finding requests further leishmaniasis equine surveys in order to clarify the role of the horse as reservoir host in european endemic areas.

  10. Two decades of organic farming in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cabo, Paula; Matos, Alda; Ribeiro, Maria Isabel; Fernandes, António

    2016-01-01

    Organic farming is a high potential strategic activity for the Portuguese agricultural sector. It generates differentiated value-added products increasingly demanded by consumers, based on environmentally friendly production techniques, thus sustainably managing rural development. Portugal enjoys a renewed interest in organic farming as result of the current economic crisis, the existence of young generations with strong environmental awareness and facing difficulties in finding employment in...

  11. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  12. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus villosus from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Salgueiro, Lígia R.; Vila, Roser; Tomàs, Xavier; Cañigueral, Salvador; Paiva, Jorge; Cunha, António Proença da; Adzet, Tomàs

    2000-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils of four populations of Thymus villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss.) Coutinho from Portugal was investigated by GC and GC-MS. To study the chemical polymorphism the results obtained from GC analyses of the volatile oils from individual plants from four populations were submited to Principal Component and Cluster analyses. A comparision with the essential oil of T. villosus subsp. villosus, previously studied by us was done. Important differences with regard...

  13. Port wine characterisation and positioning in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Norberto; Fernandes, Paula O.

    2011-01-01

    Port wine is a fortified wine produced in the demarcated region of Douro. This region is situated in the northeast of Portugal, in the Douro hydrographical basin, surrounded by mountains that give it exclusive mesologic, climacteric and agrologic characteristics that enable the production of quality wines. Port wine is the most successful of all Portuguese wines throughout the years, home and abroad. This article aims at characterizing and analysing the positioning of the Port Wine brand i...

  14. Semi-subsistence farms in Portugal: key concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria José Palma Lampreia dos

    2014-01-01

    Drawing principally on the literature and in primary data we analyze the farm structure in Portugal and explain the duality agrarian system between Southern and Northern of the country, introduce a new concept semi-subsistence farms in Portugal. After we analyze the main reasons for agricultural households in Portugal which possess a large subsistence and semi-subsistence farming sector. The study indicates that the contribution of subsistence farming to household incomes, social and rural de...

  15. Desafios e oportunidades do uso da tecnologia para a formação contínua de professores: uma revisão em torno do TPACK em Portugal, Brasil e Espanha

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Fernanda; Universidade de Coimbra; Pessoa, Teresa; Universidade de Coimbra; Gallego, Maria-Jesus; Universidade de Granada

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Uma educação de qualidade que permita sustentar o desenvolvimento de uma nação exige um corpo docente cada vez mais qualificado e capaz de se adaptar às mudanças de um mundo tecnológico, em particular de fazer um uso pedagógico da tecnologia disponível. A formação contínua tem assumido um papel cada vez mais importante no quadro das políticas internacionais na medida em que esta modalidade de formação se constitui como uma ferramenta de formação e atualização dos profissionais em exer...

  16. Comportamentos e perceções acerca da participação pública em ciência e tecnologia e nas alterações climáticas: os casos de Portugal e Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly number of reports (eg. IPCC, 2007, 2013, 2014a, IPCC, 2014b and scholars (eg. Caride & Meira, 2004; O’Neill & Nicholson-Cole, 2009; Lakoff, 2010; Phillips et al., 2012 have called attention to the urgency of deepening public engagement in debates and decision-making processes on climate change. However, the participation of Portuguese and Spanish citizens on the issue has been basically fulfilled through non-dialogical initiatives and their action is often limited to energy saving behaviours and recycling. Based on an exploratory survey study with 227 Portuguese and Spanish citizens, the article analyses behaviours, perceptions and constraints related to participation in climate change. The main factors that influence citizens’ engagement in debates and decision-making processes are identified, and the importance that they award to participation in decisions that involve science-related matters is analised. Data suggest some concern and a good degree of interest in climate change, and especially its effects, by citizens in both countries. The majority of respondents stated that they felt reasonably well-informed about these themes. Inquired citizens consider that public consultation on science and technology issues is insufficient, although the majority states that they have not been actively involved in such processes. They also recognize that they have little participation in these matters, in particular climate change, and point out, as relevant constraints, their scientific illiteracy and lack of interest for scientific issues, the resistance displayed by decision-makers to democratizing these kinds of debates and implementing participatory mechanisms, the difficulty in accessing information and difficulties in the communication between scientists and citizens.

  17. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda of Portugal

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    Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodiversity patterns. Twenty-seven species, belonging to 15 genera and six families, are known, of which 16 species are considered to be exclusively from subterranean ecosystems, i.e., troglobionts. Trichoniscidae is the most diverse family. Seven species in the family Trichoniscidae and one species in the family Styloniscidae are described as new (all with Reboleira & Taiti as authors: Trichoniscoides bellesi sp. nov. from the Montejunto Massif; T. sicoensis sp. nov. from the Sicó Massif; Metatrichoniscoides salirensis sp. nov. from the typhonic valley of Caldas da Rainha; Troglonethes olissipoensis sp. nov. from the Lisbon Peninsula; T. arrabidaensis sp. nov. from the Arrábida Massif; Miktoniscus longispina sp. nov. from the Sicó Massif and Cesaredas Plateau; Moserius inexpectatus sp. nov. from the Estremenho Massif; and Cordioniscus lusitanicus sp. nov. from Alentejo and Algarve, the southernmost provinces of Portugal. The subgenus Trogleluma Vandel, 1946 (Armadillidiidae is raised to genus level. In this geographic region terrestrial isopods are the richest group of cave-adapted animals.

  19. Feminismo(s e psicologia em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da longa história em comum entre Brasil e Portugal, também existem muitas diferenças e, principalmente, muito desconhecimento. A proposta deste artigo é apresentar uma contextualização do modo como as questões de gênero têm sido tartadas Portugal e, a partir disto, estimular maiores laços de cooperação entre os dois países. Iniciamos com uma retomada da história do país e das reformas instauradas após o fim do regime fascista (1974, especialmente o surgimento da psicologia como campo científico e profissional marcado pelo paradigma positivista e, por muito tempo, alheio às transformações e questionamentos presentes em outros contextos. Da mesma forma, o percurso do movimento feminista e sua inserção no contexto acadêmico da psicologia foi marcado por avanços e entraves, os quais apresentamos a seguir. Por fim, tratamos das políticas públicas para a igualdade de oportunidades para as mulheres em Portugal

  20. Joint Europa Mission (JEM) : A multi-scale study of Europa to characterize its habitability and search for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel; Prieto Ballesteros, Olga; Andre, Nicolas; Cooper, John F.

    2017-04-01

    Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to perform a comprehensive characterization of habitability and search for extant life. We propose that NASA and ESA join forces to design an ambitious planetary mission we call JEM (for Joint Europa Mission) to reach this objective. JEM will be assigned the following overarching goal: Understand Europa as a complex system responding to Jupiter system forcing, characterize the habitability of its potential biosphere, and search for life in its surface, sub-surface and exosphere. Our observation strategy to address these goals will combine three scientific measurement sequences: measurements on a high-latitude, low-latitude Europan orbit providing a continuous and global mapping of planetary fields (magnetic and gravity) and of the neutral and charged environment during a period of three months; in-situ measurements at the surface, using a soft lander operating during 35 days, to search for bio-signatures at the surface and sub-surface and operate a geophysical station; measurements of the chemical composition of the very low exosphere and plumes in search for biomolecules. The implementation of these three observation sequences will rest on the combination of two science platforms equipped with the most advanced instrumentation: a soft lander to perform all scientific measurements at the surface and sub-surface at a selected landing site, and a carrier/relay/orbiter to perform the orbital survey and descent sequences. In this concept, the orbiter will perform science operations during the relay phase on a carefully optimized halo orbit of the Europa-Jupiter system before moving to its final Europan orbit. The design of both orbiter and lander instruments will have to accommodate the very challenging radiation mitigation and Planetary Protection issues. The proposed lander science platform is composed of a geophysical station and of two complementary astrobiology facilities dedicated to bio

  1. Pebble Accretion at the Origin of Water in Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnet, Thomas; Mousis, Olivier; Vernazza, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the observed gradient in water content among the Galilean satellites is globally consistent with a formation in a circum-Jovian disk on both sides of the snowline, the mechanisms that led to a low water mass fraction in Europa (˜8%) are not yet understood. Here, we present new modeling results of solids transport in the circum-Jovian disk accounting for aerodynamic drag, turbulent diffusion, surface temperature evolution, and sublimation of water ice. We find that the water mass fraction of pebbles (e.g., solids with sizes of 10-2-1 m) as they drift inward is globally consistent with the current water content of the Galilean system. This opens the possibility that each satellite could have formed through pebble accretion within a delimited region whose boundaries were defined by the position of the snowline. This further implies that the migration of the forming satellites was tied to the evolution of the snowline so that Europa fully accreted from partially dehydrated material in the region just inside of the snowline.

  2. Seguridad energética rusa: entre Europa y China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la seguridad energética rusa aparece como una debilidad importante la concentración de recursos en unos pocos clientes, en concreto en la UE. Por este motivo, las autoridades rusas están tratando de diversificar destinos de venta, tratando de abrir otros mercados, en especial en extremo oriente y, en particular en China. Esto acrecienta su seguridad energética, pero debilita la europea en caso de que la UE no adopte medidas activas. El abastecimiento a Europa desde Rusia, especialmente de gas, depende también de tres grandes limitaciones. En primer lugar, que existan nuevos yacimientos y su posibilidad de movilizarlos conforme aumenten las necesidades europeas. En segundo lugar, aparece el problema del surgimiento de competidores por el gas ruso y, en particular, recientemente se ha subrayado el papel de China como futuro cliente de gas ruso. En tercer lugar, se encuentra la posibilidad de que Rusia pueda ejercer un control especial sobre la oferta de gas mundial, que condicione en cantidad o/y precio el abastecimiento a Europa.

  3. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and

  4. The Mousterian complex in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís CARDOSO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Considering the available data, the Mousterian period is the only techno-complex from the Middle Paleolithic identified and characterized in Portugal. However, some of the sites referred in this work should be simply attributed to the Middle Paleolithic due to the lack of detailed elements. The site of Vale do Forno 8 probably represents the transition between the final Upper Paleolithic and the early Middle Paleolithic.The open-air sites such as the ones in the outskirts of Lisbon and on the left margin of the Tagus estuary, where vestiges are extremely abundant and the permanence for long periods correspond to sites of residential character.None of these sites were subject to extensive excavations in order to confirm this type of settlement and further knowledge of the social organization of the inhabited spaces. Other open-air sites located in fluvial terraces present smaller areas of occupation and were probably related to game activities, maybe seasonal in nature. This was the case of Santo Antão do Tojal, were elephants and horses were eventually captured, of Foz do Enxarrique were red deer was almost exclusive and of Vilas Ruivas, were faunal remains were not preserved but remains of wind-breaks or hunting blind structures were found associated with fireplaces and post-holes. Fireplaces were also found in Gruta da Buraca Escura and on the open-air site of Santa Cita.Caves such as Gruta da Oliveira and the Gruta Nova da Columbeira show long stratigraphic sequences and prolonged settlements, of residential type, though a few other caves also show temporary settlements related to game activities or the exploitation of geological resources. In most cases, there is an alternance of the cave occupation by humans and large carnivores. Food subsistence of humans was non-specialized, capturing large, mid and also small preys such as the rabbit, an abundant endemic species. The terrestrial turtle was also captured, especially in Gruta

  5. A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF THE EUROPA ATMOSPHERE AND LIMITS ON GEOPHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemansky, D. E.; Liu, X.; Yoshii, J. [Planetary and Space Science Division, Space Environment Technologies, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Yung, Y. L. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Hansen, C. J. [Planetary Science Institute, 109 S. Puerto Drive, Ivins, UT 84738 (United States); Hendrix, A. R. [Planetary Science Institute, Los Angeles, CA 91001 (United States); Esposito, L. W., E-mail: dshemansky@spacewx.com [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, CO 80303 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Deep extreme ultraviolet spectrograph exposures of the plasma sheet at the orbit of Europa, obtained in 2001 using the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph experiment, have been analyzed to determine the state of the gas. The results are in basic agreement with earlier results, in particular with Voyager encounter measurements of electron density and temperature. Mass loading rates and lack of detectable neutrals in the plasma sheet, however, are in conflict with earlier determinations of atmospheric composition and density at Europa. A substantial fraction of the plasma species at the Europa orbit are long-lived sulfur ions originating at Io, with ∼25% derived from Europa. During the outward radial diffusion process to the Europa orbit, heat deposition forces a significant rise in plasma electron temperature and latitudinal size accompanied with conversion to higher order ions, a clear indication that mass loading from Europa is very low. Analysis of far ultraviolet spectra from exposures on Europa leads to the conclusion that earlier reported atmospheric measurements have been misinterpreted. The results in the present work are also in conflict with a report that energetic neutral particles imaged by the Cassini ion and neutral camera experiment originate at the Europa orbit. An interpretation of persistent energetic proton pitch angle distributions near the Europa orbit as an effect of a significant population of neutral gas is also in conflict with the results of the present work. The general conclusion drawn here is that Europa is geophysically far less active than inferred in previous research, with mass loading of the plasma sheet ≤4.5 × 10{sup 25} atoms s{sup –1} two orders of magnitude below earlier published calculations. Temporal variability in the region joining the Io and Europa orbits, based on the accumulated evidence, is forced by the response of the system to geophysical activity at Io. No evidence for the direct injection of H{sub 2}O

  6. Europa frente a lo extraño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Waldenfels

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "Pensar Europa en sus fronteras", como ya en 1992 proponían un grupo de filósofos de la Universidad de Estrasburgo -Denis Guénoun, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Jean-Luc Nancy, Daniel Payot-, significa considerar qué es eso de la "geofilosofía de Europa" como una cuestión imprescindible que conlleva toda reflexión veraz en torno a la idea de Europa. El debate al que invitaron a una serie diversa de colegas y amigos, procedentes de diferentes naciones, planteaba la posibilidad misma de una identificación de Europa, así como la profundidad, esto es, la misma violencia que esta posibilidad (o imposibilidad conlleva, como los hechos de la más reciente y rabiosa actualidad han confirmado una y otra vez desde aquellas fechas. La propuesta era todo menos fútil. En efecto, como es bien sabido y ellos mismos expresaron unos meses después, en julio de 1993, lo bien cierto es que ha habido terribles furores desencadenados y atroces desgarramientos tanto intra como extraeuropeos, que como mínimo nos urgen a pensar si el proyecto de lo que merece llamarse un 'mundo' puede o no puede confundirse con la exclusiva exportación de aquello que Europa habría inventado, producido e identificado. El futuro parece atenazado por dos figuras mórbidas, dos pesadillas simétricas, la mítica de un planeta homogéneo, como una gigantesca Europa que se extendiera por doquier, y la de una Europa recluida, encerrada en sus imprecisas e inciertas fronteras, una especie de barricadas o trincheras aislantes para que ella devorase en solitario el espejismo de su supuesto bienestar. Esta deplorable alternativa concita parte de nuestras responsabilidades, pues los escenarios del futuro se alimentan necesariamente de formas y de proposiciones de pensamiento, que vale la pena tratar de sopesar y de comprender. A este reto respondió la reflexión del profesor Bernhard Waldenfeis con una memorable intervención, publicada primero en  francés de

  7. Porosity and Salt Content Determine if Subduction Can Occur in Europa's Ice Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brandon C.; Sheppard, Rachel Y.; Pascuzzo, Alyssa C.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Wiggins, Sean E.

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recent evidence for subduction in Europa's ice shell, we explore the geophysical feasibility of this process. Here we construct a simple model to track the evolution of porosity and temperature within a slab that is forced to subduct. We also vary the initial salt content in Europa's ice shell and determine the buoyancy of our simulated subducting slab. We find that porosity and salt content play a dominant role in determining whether the slab is nonbuoyant and subduction in Europa's ice shell is actually possible. Generally, we find that initially low porosities and high salt contents within the conductive lid are more conducive to subduction. If salt contents are laterally homogenous, and Europa has a reasonable surface porosity of ϕ0 = 0.1, the conductive portion of Europa's shell must have salt contents exceeding 22% for subduction to occur. However, if salt contents are laterally heterogeneous, with salt contents varying by a few percent, subduction may occur for a surface porosity of ϕ0 = 0.1 and overall salt contents of 5%. Thus, we argue that under plausible conditions, subduction in Europa's ice shell is possible. Moreover, assuming that subduction is actively occurring or has occurred in Europa's recent past provides important constraints on the structure and composition of the ice shell.

  8. Insights Into Ice-Ocean Interactions on Earth and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Winslow, L.; Doran, P. T.; Kim, S.; Walker, C. C.; Buffo, J.; Skidmore, M. L.; Soderlund, K. M.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bramall, N. E.; Johnson, A.; Rack, F. R.; Stone, W.; Kimball, P.; Clark, E.

    2016-12-01

    Europa and Earth appear to be drastically different worlds, yet below their icy crusts the two likely share similar oceanic conditions including temperatures, pressures (relatively), and salinity. Earth's ice shelves provide an important analog for the physiochemical, and potentially microbial, characteristics of icy worlds. NASA's ASTEP program funded Sub-Ice Marine and PLanetary-analog Ecosystems (SIMPLE) to help address the fundamental processes occurring at ice ocean interfaces, the extent and limitations of life in sub-ice environments, and how environmental properties and biological communities interact. The relationships between currents, temperature, and salinity with physical processes such as melt, freeze, and marine ice accretion at the basal surfaces of ice shelves influence habitability yet are poorly understood even on Earth. Resultant processes such as the inclusion of ocean-derived material in ice shelves and the transport of biotics from the interface towards the surface via ablation, convection, and diapirism also have important astrobiological implications for Europa.Here, we present results from CTD and imaging data gathered at multiple locations beneath the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) to highlight how the ice and ocean interact in a Europan analog environment. Over the course of three years, the SIMPLE team observed heterogeneity in the water column and basal ice beneath the MIS. During the recent 2015 field season we deployed ARTEMIS, an AUV capable of characterizing the interface over multiple kilometer missions, and conducted daily CTD casts to 480 m (bottom depth 529 m) in November adjacent to the terminus of the MIS to capture temporal variation in the water column. These casts show the presence of transient water masses related to the tidal period, each containing a single or double temperature minimum (down to -1.97 °C from -1.93 °C) between 60 to 150 m depth. Further comparisons between years and sampling locations demonstrate the

  9. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  10. Design for CubeSat-based dust and radiation studies at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ashish; Krishnamoorthy, Siddharth; Swenson, Travis; West, Stephen; Li, Alan; Crew, Alexander; Phillips, Derek James; Screve, Antoine; Close, Sigrid

    2017-07-01

    Europa is one of the icy moons of Jupiter and the possibility of an ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust makes it one of the most fascinating destinations for exploration in the solar system. NASA's Europa Multiple Flyby Mission (EMFM, formerly Europa Clipper) is slated to visit the icy moon in a timeframe near the year 2022 to study the habitability of Europa. CubeSats carried along by the primary mission can supplement the measurements made, at a relatively low cost, and with the added benefits of involving students at universities in this challenging endeavor. Further, such a mission holds the key to extending the applicability of CubeSats to interplanetary missions. In this paper, we present the design of the Europa Radiation and Dust Observation Satellite (ERDOS), a 3U CubeSat designed to be deployed by the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission to carry out measurements of the radiation and dust environment, before impacting Europa's surface. We present a detailed design for a CubeSat-based secondary mission, and discuss the science goals that may be accomplished by such a mission. Further, we discuss results from a comprehensive analysis of various engineering challenges associated with an interplanetary CubeSat mission, such as radiation shielding and thermal environment control. Our results show that a short duration CubeSat-based flyby mission is feasible when the CubeSat is carried on board the primary mission until the Jovian system is reached. Such a flyby mission can provide important supplementary information to the primary mission about Europa's environment at a closer range and lead to a substantial increase in scientific knowledge about surface processes on Europa.

  11. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. New records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lech Bortowiec; Sebastian Salata

    2017-01-01

    Forty two species of ants have been collected in Algarve and Baixo Alentejo regions (southern Portugal). Goniomma baeticum, Myrmoxenus kraussei and Temnothorax luteus are new to the fauna of Portugal, 11 species are new to Algarve and three are new to Baixo Alentejo regions.

  13. Espanha e o Vice-Reinado do Rio da Prata: a consolidação do Comércio Livre no triênio 1787-1789

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellotto, Manoel Lelo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    [pt] O tema Comércio Livre constitui peça importante na análise histórica das relações entre Espanha e América nos momentos que antecederam ao processo de emancipação das colônias hispano-americanas. Para compreensão da aplicação da sistemática do comércio livre e para percepção dos problemas decorrentes, optou-se por proceder à análise do documento normativo do sistema, isto é, o Reglamento y Aranceles Reales para el Comercio Libre de España a Indias, de 12 de outubro de 1778, e pela demonstração, a partir de dados concretos levantados no Archivo General de Indias, de Sevilla, da prática resultante. A ordenação dos referidos dados, no entanto, restringiu-se ao movimento comercial no sentido América-Espanha, isto é, entre os portos de Buenos Aires e Montevidéo e os portos espanhóis habilitados ao comércio livre pelo Regulamento de 1778, no triênio 1787-1789.

  14. Portugal takes step back on abortion legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    According to international press reports, a law that would have allowed Portuguese women abortions through the 10th week of pregnancy and into the 16th week if their physical or mental health was at risk has been rescinded after a referendum to determine the statute's future was voided because of low voter turnout. Passed in February, the law was a liberalization of Portugal's strict anti-abortion laws, which ban all abortions except for narrowly defined medical reasons or in the case of rape (and those are permitted only until the 12th week of pregnancy). Because the issue is such a controversial one, politicians had turned to a national referendum asking Portuguese voters to overturn or ratify the new law. The referendum was the first in the country since the end of its right-wing dictatorship in 1974, and 50% participation was required. Only 31.5% of the country's 8.5 million eligible voters went to the polls on June 28. Of those voting, 50.9% voted against the liberalized new legislation. Sunny weather and World Cup soccer matches were both pointed to as reasons for the low turnout. Officials estimate there are some 20,000 illegal abortions annually in Portugal. Abortion-rights activists in the mostly Roman-Catholic country say hospitals see roughly 10,000 women a year suffering from complications from illegal abortions, and that at least 800 women die each year from the procedure. In the next day's Diario de Noticias, a daily paper in Portugal, the entire front page was filled with a giant question mark. "What now, lawmakers?" the headline read. full text

  15. Ion Irradiation of Sulfuric Acid: Implications for its Stability on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) detected regions on Europa's surface containing distorted H2O bands. This distortion likely indicates that there are other molecules mixed with the water ice. Based on spectral comparison, some of the leading possibilities are sulfuric acid, salts. or possibly H3O(+). Previous laboratory studies have shown that sulfuric acid can be created by irradiation of H2OSO2 mixtures, and both molecules are present on Europa. In this project, we were interested in investigating the radiation stability of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and determining its lifetime on the surface of Europa.

  16. Incumprimento do contrato de trabalho em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Bruno Miguel Simões

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Direito das Empresas Esta tese tem, como objectivo principal, analisar e caracterizar o conceito de contrato de trabalho e as suas tipologias de incumprimento em Portugal. A metodologia consiste na pesquisa bibliográfica nacionalmente aceite, webgrafia, e recurso a dados do INE, DGSI e DGPJ, de modo a elaborar uma análise quantitativa dos tipos de incumprimento do contrato de trabalho e consequentes litígios jurídico/laborais. As hipóteses são: Existe alguma r...

  17. Conscientious objection: reflections for nursing in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Paço

    Full Text Available Objective: to discuss conscientious objection in nursing, identifying the ethic and legal basis for this decision-making. Methodology: qualitative study in which the methodology used was ethical reflection based on a legal analysis of the laws in question, proceeding to a bibliographical and documentary research Conclusions: Portuguese law and ethical pillars that form the basis of the Code of Ethics of nurses in Portugal defend the freedom of conscience as a professional practice. However, the obligation to protect human life, which imposes the need for coordination between this protection and the exercise of the right to conscientious objection on the part of the nurse, is also clear.

  18. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending.

  19. La familia en Europa y el cambio social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN DÍEZ NICOLÁS

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los cambios experimentados en la estructura familiar y los modelos de vida familiar en los 21 países miembros del Consejo de Europa, usando fuentes variadas. Las tendencias básicas observadas son : descenso del número de matrimonios, incremento de las relaciones prematrimoniales y la cohabitación, matrimonios cada vez más tardíos, incremento de los divorcios, incremento de hogares monoparentales, aumento de los nacimientos ilegítimos, descenso de la natalidad, disminución del número de hijos por matrimonio, concepción más tardía e incremento del tiempo transcurrido entre una concepción y otra., e incremento de los abortos voluntarios.

  20. El "refarming" de las bandas GSM en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Ovando Chico, María Catalina; Moral Caballero, Antolín; Perez Martinez, Jorge Enrique

    2010-01-01

    La política de gestión del espectro radioeléctrico en Europa se encuentra en un proceso de adecuación a los cambios tecnológicos actuales. La liberalización de las bandas GSM, habitualmente denominada Refarming, junto con la aparición de nuevas bandas de frecuencias designadas a la banda ancha móvil juega un papel central en dicho proceso. El propósito de este artículo es presentar, mediante un análisis descriptivo, las políticas públicas que los países Europeos han considerado, o están consi...

  1. España en Europa 2004-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Barbé, Esther; Costa, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    En marzo de 2004 el Observatorio de Política Exterior Europea publicó, en versión digital, un monográfico especial sobre España en Europa (1996-2004). Su objetivo era analizar la agenda y la estrategia de España durante el período de José María Aznar en materia de relaciones internacionales. Como bien indicaba el título de aquella publicación, uno de los supuestos de partida del análisis era la europeización de la actividad internacional de España. ¿Era así?, ¿la España de Aznar veía el mundo...

  2. Tidal Love numbers of membrane worlds: Europa, Titan, and Co

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Under tidal forcing, icy satellites with subsurface oceans deform as if the surface were a membrane stretched around a fluid layer. `Membrane worlds' is thus a fitting name for these bodies and membrane theory provides the perfect toolbox to predict tidal effects. I describe here a new membrane approach to tidal perturbations based on the general theory of viscoelastic-gravitational deformations of spherically symmetric bodies. The massive membrane approach leads to explicit formulas for viscoelastic tidal Love numbers which are exact in the limit of zero crust thickness. The accuracy on $k_2$ and $h_2$ is better than one percent if the crust thickness is less than five percents of the surface radius, which is probably the case for Europa and Titan. The new approach allows for density differences between crust and ocean and correctly includes crust compressibility. This last feature makes it more accurate than the propagation matrix method. Membrane formulas factorize shallow and deep interior contributions, ...

  3. Lesiones de la Copa de Europa de Atletismo

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Fernández, María; Sánchez Arjona, Consuelo; Melero Romero, Carlos; Navarro Sanz, Ana; Ruiz Martínez, Yolanda; Elena Gamboa, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos: La Copa de Europa se debe a Bruno Zauli. Este año se celebró en Málaga. Conocer las patologías producidas y su frecuencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio estadístico, descriptivo, prospectivo. Se utilizó una historia clínica, el programa Excel y una búsqueda bibliográfica. Resultados: Durante estos días tuvieron lugar 23 intervenciones: 10 atletas y 13 no deportistas. Según su rol: el 18,59% eran jueces; el 24,79% organización; el 8,68% prensa, y el 47,94% atletas. P...

  4. Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Patricio H; Greeley, Ronald; Neuer, Susanne; Irwin, Louis; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the astrobiological potential of the major classes of geologic units on Europa with respect to possible biosignatures preservation on the basis of surface geology observations. These observations are independent of any formational model and therefore provide an objective, though preliminary, evaluation. The assessment criteria include high mobility of material, surface concentration of non-ice components, relative youth, textural roughness, and environmental stability. Our review determined that, as feature classes, low-albedo smooth plains, smooth bands, and chaos hold the highest potential, primarily because of their relative young age, the emplacement of low-viscosity material, and indications of material exchange with the subsurface. Some lineaments and impact craters may be promising sites for closer study despite the comparatively lower astrobiological potential of their classes. This assessment will be expanded by multidisciplinary examination of the potential for habitability of specific features.

  5. Geology and origin of Europa's "Mitten" feature (Murias Chaos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P.H.; Chuang, F.C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R.L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  6. Galileo's Multiinstrument Spectral View of Europa's Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.; McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Carlson, R.; Matson, D.; Ocampo, A.; Kamp, L.; Smythe, W.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Geissler, P.; Barth, C.; Hendrix, A.; Clark, B.; Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Belton, M.J.S.; Becker, K.; Becker, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have combined spectral reflectance data from the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment, the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) in an attempt to determine the composition and implied genesis of non-H2O components in the optical surface of Europa. We have considered four terrains: (1) the "dark terrains" on the trailing hemisphere, (2) the "mottled terrain," (3) the linea on the leading hemisphere, and (4) the linea embedded in the dark terrain on the trailing hemisphere. The darker materials in these terrains exhibit remarkably similar spectra in both the visible and near infrared. In the visible, a downturn toward shorter wavelengths has been attributed to sulfur. The broad concentrations of dark material on the trailing hemisphere was originally thought to be indicative of exogenic sulfur implantation. While an exogenic cause is still probable, more recent observations by the UVS team at higher spatial resolution have led to their suggestions that the role of the bombardment may have primarily been to sputter away overlying ice and to reveal underlying endogenic non-H2O contaminants. If so, this might explain why the spectra in all these terrains are so similar despite the fact that the contaminants in the linea are clearly endogenic and those in the mottled terrain are almost certainly so. In the near infrared, all these terrains exhibit much more asymmetrical bands at 1.4 and 2.0 ??m at shorter wavelengths than spectra from elsewhere on Europa. It has been argued that this is because the water molecules are bound in hydrated salts. However, this interpretation has been challenged and it has also been argued that pure coarse ice can exhibit such asymmetric bands under certain conditions. The nature of this controversy is briefly discussed, as are theoretical and experimental studies bearing on this problem. ?? 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Mapping the Ice Depth of Europa with Ultrahigh Energy Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Wolf, A.; Naudet, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    There has been recent interest in applying radio emission of ultra-high energy neutrinos interacting in the ice of Europa. The idea was first described by Gorham (2004)[1] in the context of ultra-high energy particle detection. Shoji, Kurita, and Tanaka (2011)[2] proposed a technique for measuring ice depth using the radio intensity distribution of radio impulses emitted by interactions deep in the Europan ice. Miller, Schaefer, and Sequeira (2012)[3] follow up this study with a simulation of a radio detector mission to constrain the ice depth of Europa. The radio signal results from an effect proposed by Askar'yan (1962)[4] where the particle shower induced by the neutrino interaction accumulates a charge excess traveling faster than the speed of light in the medium and produces a coherent Cherenkov pulse at radio frequencies. We evaluate the feasibility of such a mission given the current state of knowledge of ultra-high energy particle detection and radio pulse production. References [1] Gorham (2004), Planet-sized Detectors for Ultra-high Energy Neutrinos & Cosmic Rays, NASA Advanced Planning Office's Capability Roadmap Public Workshop, Nov. 30, 2004, astro-ph/0411510 [2] Shoji, Kurita, and Tanaka (2011), Constraint of Europan ice thickness by measuring electromagnetic emissions induced by neutrino interaction, Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L08202 [3] Miller, Shaefer, Sequeira, PRIDE (Passive Radio [frequency] Ice Depth Experiment): An instrument to passively measure ice depth from a Europan orbiter using neutrinos, Icarus 220 877-888 [4] Askar'yan (1962), Excess negative charge of an electron photon shower and its coherent radiation originating from it. Radio recording of showers under the ground and on the Moon, Sov. Phys. JETP, 14, 441-443.

  8. Tidal Love numbers of membrane worlds: Europa, Titan, and Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2015-09-01

    Under tidal forcing, icy satellites with subsurface oceans deform as if the surface were a membrane stretched around a fluid layer. 'Membrane worlds' is thus a fitting name for these bodies and membrane theory provides the perfect toolbox to predict tidal effects. I describe here a new membrane approach to tidal perturbations based on the general theory of viscoelastic-gravitational deformations of spherically symmetric bodies. The massive membrane approach leads to explicit formulas for viscoelastic tidal Love numbers which are exact in the limit of zero crust thickness. Formulas for load Love numbers come as a bonus. The accuracy on k2 and h2 is better than one percent if the crust thickness is less than five percents of the surface radius, which is probably the case for Europa and Titan. The new approach allows for density differences between crust and ocean and correctly includes crust compressibility. This last feature makes it more accurate than the incompressible propagator matrix method. Membrane formulas factorize shallow and deep interior contributions, the latter affecting Love numbers mainly through density stratification. I show that a screening effect explains why ocean stratification typically increases Love numbers instead of reducing them. For Titan, a thin and dense liquid layer at the bottom of a light ocean can raise k2 by more than ten percents. The membrane approach can also deal with dynamical tides in a non-rotating body. I show that a dynamical resonance significantly decreases the tilt factor and may thus lead to underestimating Europa's crust thickness. Finally, the dynamical resonance increases tidal deformations and tidal heating in the crust if the ocean thickness is of the order of a few hundred meters.

  9. Geology and Origin of Europa's Mitten Feature (Murias Chaos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Chuang, F. C.; Rathbun, J.; Kirk, R. L.; Greeley, R.

    2002-01-01

    The "Mitten" (provisionally named Murias Chaos by the International Astronomical Union) is a region of elevated chaos-like terrain in the leading hemisphere of Europa. Its origin had been explained under the currently debated theories of melting through a thin lithosphere or convection within a thick one. Galileo observations reveal several characteristics that suggest that the Mitten is distinct from typical chaos terrain and point to a different formational process. Photoclinometric elevation estimates suggest that the Mitten is slightly elevated with respect to the surrounding terrain; geologic relations indicate that it must have raised significantly from the plains in its past, resembling disrupted domes on Europa's trailing hemisphere. Moreover, the Mitten material appears to have extruded onto the plains and flowed for tens of kilometers. The area subsequently subsided as a result of isostatic adjustment, viscous relaxation, and/or plains loading. Using plate flexure models, we estimated the elastic lithosphere in the area to be several kilometers thick. We propose that the Mitten originated by the ascent and extrusion of a large thermal diapir. Thermal-mechanical modeling shows that a Mitten-sized plume would remain sufficiently warm and buoyant to pierce through the crust and flow unconfined on the surface. Such a diapir probably had an initial radius between 5 and 8 km and an initial depth of 20-40 km, consistent with a thick-lithosphere model. In this scenario the Mitten appears to represent the surface expression of the rare ascent of a large diapir, in contrast to lenticulae and chaos terrain, which may form by isolated and clustered small diapirs, respectively.

  10. Las torres Puerta de Europa, Madrid-España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez del Castillo, Tomás

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The functionality is the main aspect of the urban area of the twin towers located at the end of the "Paseo de la Castellana" (Madrid. With a tilting of 15º over the vertical and crossing directions, such architectonic area is detached for its place and design of facilities and installations. The structural system is very complex due to the high technology applied for its construction, what made very difficult the ending of project. The "Puerta de Europa" towers will be used for office rental and they are (due to the structural system and quality of construction materials used one of the most important buildings due to not only to the quality of materials and design, but also due to their security and control centralized systems.

    La funcionalidad preside el conjunto urbanístico formado por las dos torres situadas al final del Paseo de la Castellana. Con una inclinación de 15º sobre su vertical y hacia un punto común, dicho conjunto arquitectónico destaca, sobre todo, por su ubicación, diseño de instalaciones y servicios. Se destaca la complejidad de su sistema estructural que, unida a la alta tecnología empleada en su construcción, dificultaron la consecución del proyecto. Las torres Puerta de Europa, destinadas al alquiler de oficinas, son unos edificios cuya terminación -con la diversidad de materiales constructivos empleados- constituye, en sí misma, una de las de más alta calidad del momento, con sistemas de control y seguridad centralizados e integrados.

  11. La Iglesia Universal del Reino de Dios en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Cezar Pereira Pinto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso por el cual la Iglesia Universal del Reino de Dios (IURD se ha expandido por decenas de países, incluso Portugal e Inglaterra, es un capítulo importante de una de las principales transformaciones religiosas de finales del siglo XX: la transformación del petencostalismo en religión global y el cambio del centro, no sólo numérico, sino también del impulso expansionista internacional, para regiones distantes de los centros históricos del protestantismo._____________ABSTRACT:The process by which the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (IURD has spreaded in dozens of countries, including Portugal and England, is an important part of a major religious transformation of the late twentieth century: the transformation of petencostalism in Global religion and the creation of more centres. It is also analized the international expansionist impulse toward regions far away from the historical centers of Protestantism.

  12. Los estudios de pedagogía en Europa en el contexto de la implantación del proceso de Bolonia y la situación de la Educación Comparada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan María Senent Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo nos presenta un análisis comparativo de la situación de los estudios superiores de carácter pedagógico en 23 países de Europa que han sido agrupados en 5 bloques: a Países anglofónos o de influencia británica: Reino Unido, Irlanda y Malta. b Escandinavia: Noruega, Finlandia, Dinamarca y Holanda. c Países de lengua o influencia alemana: Alemania, Austria y Eslovenia. d Europa del Este: República Checa, Eslovaquia y Polonia. e Países francófonos: Francia, Belgica, Luxemburgo y Suiza romance. . f Países meridionales: Portugal, España, Italia, Grecia y Chipre. El análisis se basa en la presencia de los estudios pedágógicos en los "grados" y "postgrados" de ese país, la estructura adoptada, las características del del programa de formación y su situación respecto a la adaptación al proceso de Bolonia. El artículo termina con la presentación de las conclusiones del informe, así como un breve análisis de la situación de la Educación Comparada en las universidades europeas, tanto como disciplina que como método de trabajo.

  13. Weed management in Solanaceae crops in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, M Júlia

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has very good climatic-edafic conditions for Solanaceae crops, regarding to either yield quality or quantity. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) are the most social-economically important Solanaceae and aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) area of cultivation is increasing. Tomato is cultivated for fresh consumption and, primarily, for industrial processing. Is one of the most profitable vegetable crop and the main vegetable for industry. Potato is the annual vegetable crop with the largest cultivated area. Pepper is one of the main crops for vegetable frozen industry. Tomato, pepper and aubergine are cultivated in the field (outdoor) in Spring-Summer season. In greenhouses, they're also grown during other months and, at the southmost region (Algarve), during the whole year. Potato is cultivated almost the whole year through. Weed management is essential to achieve yield rentability and, for crops growing in the field, herbicides play an important role, due to their efficacy or inherent limitations of other control measures. This paper presents the state of art, in Portugal, regarding to some cultural and social-economical aspects of these crops (e.g., cultivated areas, productions, main producer regions), main weeds, weed control methods and, in particular, registered herbicides, with indication of their usage conditions (application timings and spectrum of weeds controlled) according to the principles of Good Plant Protection Practice and Integrated Weed Management.

  14. Sexology in Portugal: Narratives by Portuguese Sexologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Violeta; Beato, Ana; Almeida, Joana; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the emergence and development of modern sexology in Portugal through the analysis of Portuguese sexologists' narratives, to explore how they commit to a professional identity as sexologists, and to discuss how they integrate their professional role into the vast multidisciplinary field of sexology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 key professionals, purposefully recruited to guarantee heterogeneity concerning generation, gender, training, and practice. Content analysis focused on highlighting differences and articulations among the main professionals making up the field. The findings indicate that sexology is not seen as a full-fledged profession but rather as a specialization or a secondary field of action. The sexual medicine perspective is prevalent and more visible among physicians, thus reflecting the gap between psychosocial and biomedical approaches. A close link between clinical work and research and a gap between clinical work and health promotion were found. Despite the multidisciplinary nature of sexology being acknowledged, it is not fully implemented by the experts in the field. However, it is this characteristic that permitted sexology to institutionalize and to legitimate itself as a discourse of truth about sex, in Portugal as in other countries.

  15. Cryogenic Ice Penetration Mechanics for Investigating the Existence of Life on the Jupiter Moon Europa Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key challenge is that ice properties at the temperatures that exist on Europa are not well characterized. Our previous studies have shown that hardness as well as...

  16. Hydrated salt minerals on Europa's surface from the Galileo near‐infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCord, Thomas B; Hansen, Gary B; Matson, Dennis L; Johnson, Torrence V; Crowley, James K; Fanale, Fraser P; Carlson, Robert W; Smythe, William D; Martin, Patrick D; Hibbitts, Charles A; Granahan, James C; Ocampo, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    We reported evidence of heavily hydrated salt minerals present over large areas of Europa's surface from analysis of reflectance spectra returned by the Galileo mission near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) [ McCord et al...

  17. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  18. ¿Una Europa excluyente? El Islam y el resurgimiento del nacionalismo cívico

    OpenAIRE

    Spektorowski, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Los debates acerca de la inclusión del Islam y las comunidades Musulmanes en Europa han servido de marco para el resurgirmiento del nacionalismo en Europa. Este articulo introduce un planteamiento critico a los debates que rodean a este levantamiento civi The fierce debates surrounding the 'emergence' of Muslim communities in Europe ensued in the resurgence of nationalism. The current article introduces an original criticism to the ongoing debates surrounding the return of Europe's nationa...

  19. Eighth Planta Europa Conference «Save Plants for Earth's Future» (Kiev, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Tashev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information about the Eighth Planta Europa Conference (Save plants for Earth's future (22–26 May 2017, Kiev, Ukraine. We presented brief data on the history of previous Planta Europa meetings. We presented general information about the main events of the Conference, its thematic areas represented by oral and poster presentations. Brief data on the number of participants, presentations and excursions into botanical gardens of Kiev are presented.

  20. Divergência genética entre progênies de pessegueiro em Zaragoza, Espanha Genetic divergence among peach tree progenies from Zaragoza, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética entre 17 populações de pessegueiro, discriminando os caracteres mais importantes na avaliação da divergência genética de características de qualidade do fruto com base em procedimentos multivariados. Os trabalhos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Aula Dei do Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (EEAD-CSIC, Zaragoza - Espanha. Foram analisados 687 indivíduos, pertencentes a 17 populações de pessegueiro. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: produção; número de frutos por planta; peso por fruto; coloração da epiderme; firmeza de polpa; diâmetros sutural, equatorial e polar; relação diâmetro polar/diâmetro sutural; teor de sólidos solúveis totais dos frutos; pH; acidez total titulável; relação entre teor de sólidos solúveis totais da polpa e acidez total titulável. Das características avaliadas, as que mais contribuíram para a divergência genética foram produção, número de frutos por planta e peso por fruto. Recomendou-se a realização de cruzamentos entre os genótipos superiores da população VADAC 0055 com os das populações VADAC 0027, VADAC 0036, VADAC 0063 e VADAC 0065.This work aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity among seventeen peach progenies and 687 seedlings. The most important characteristics in the genetic divergence evaluation of fruit quality traits were calculated by using a multivariate analysis. Trials were carried out at the Experimental Station of Aula Dei (CSIC, Zaragoza - Spain. Traits such as yield, fruit number per tree, fruit weight, epidermis coloration, firmness, fruit height, suture diameter (SD, cheek diameter (CD, CD/SD ratio, soluble solids content (SSC, ºBrix, pH, titratable acidity (TA and SSC/TA index, were evaluated. Yield, fruit number per tree and fruit weight were the characteristics that contributed the most for genetic divergence. Based on this evaluation, hybridizations

  1. A dualidade na inserção política, social e familiar do idoso: estudo comparado dos casos de Brasil, Espanha e Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inez Machado Telles Walter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo apresenta um estudo comparado da situação social, política, econômica e de saúde da população idosa do Brasil, Espanha e Estados Unidos. Foi feita uma discussão sobre o processo de mudança na estrutura de idades a partir da literatura dos três países. As análises de dados confirmaram as melhorias nas condições de vida do idoso e as mudanças em sua inserção social e em posições morais e políticas. Indicaram também que não há semelhanças ou diferenças entre os países que possam ser atribuídas à sua condição econômica ou à tradição cultural. A dualidade expressa uma transição nesse segmento, tradicionalmente visto negativamente e, hoje, considerado também como apoio econômico e familiar. Espera-se que se consolide a tendência de privilegiar o papel social positivo do idoso pela naturalização do envelhecimento e o estabelecimento de referências analíticas na própria velhice.Abstract: The paper presents a comparative study of social, political, economical, and health situation of aged population of Brazil, Spain, and United States. A discussion was made about changing process in age structure base don literature of the three countries. Data analysis confirmed improvements in aged people life conditions, and changing on social insertion and political and moral attitudes. Data indicated also that there are no similarities or differences among the countries which can be attributed to economic conditions, nor to cultural traditions. The duality expresses a transition in this segment, traditionally viewed in a negative way and, nowadays, also considered as economic and familiar support. The perspectives are that the aged people positive social role will be emphasized by naturalization of aging and by establishing de analytic references on aging itself.

  2. CHINESE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN PORTUGAL: TRADITIONAL ETHNIC STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Reis Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal in recent decades, just like in other welcoming countries, immigrants have reached levels of entrepreneurial activity that are higher than those of autochthonous citizens. However, a deeper analysis of the official data shows that not all immigrant groups have the same tendency to become entrepreneurs. In this respect, the Chinese stand out as being the group with the highest ratio of entrepreneurial activity in Portugal, despite the fact that their migration is a relatively recent phenomenon. What factors can explain the Chinese community’s disproportionate rate of entrepreneurial initiative? Do they possess any particular resources that make them more enterprising than the autochthonous population, or than other groups of immigrants? Does the context of Portugal hamper certain opportunities or in some way limit their economic integration into the job market? Do we find similar business strategies among other Chinese entrepreneurs residing in welcoming societies apart from that of Portugal? Why did Chinese business initiative grow at such an exceptional rate in Portugal in the late 1990s? By seeking answers to these questions, this article attempts to examine Chinese business strategies in Portugal, as well as their exceptional success rate in comparison with other entrepreneurial immigrants. To that end, the author has analysed the data gathered in a survey carried out on 309 Chinese entrepreneurs resident in Portugal (see Oliveira, 2005.

  3. Dynamics of the global meridional ice flow of Europa's icy shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Sayag, Roiy; Tziperman, Eli

    2018-01-01

    Europa is one of the most probable places in the solar system to find extra-terrestrial life1,2, motivating the study of its deep ( 100 km) ocean3-6 and thick icy shell3,7-11. The chaotic terrain patterns on Europa's surface12-15 have been associated with vertical convective motions within the ice8,10. Horizontal gradients of ice thickness16,17 are expected due to the large equator-to-pole gradient of surface temperature and can drive a global horizontal ice flow, yet such a flow and its observable implications have not been studied. We present a global ice flow model for Europa composed of warm, soft ice flowing beneath a cold brittle rigid ice crust3. The model is coupled to an underlying (diffusive) ocean and includes the effect of tidal heating and convection within the ice. We show that Europa's ice can flow meridionally due to pressure gradients associated with equator-to-pole ice thickness differences, which can be up to a few km and can be reduced both by ice flow and due to ocean heat transport. The ice thickness and meridional flow direction depend on whether the ice convects or not; multiple (convecting and non-convecting) equilibria are found. Measurements of the ice thickness and surface temperature from future Europa missions18,19 can be used with our model to deduce whether Europa's icy shell convects and to constrain the effectiveness of ocean heat transport.

  4. Epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El tabaco es la causa de mortalidad prevenible más importante en los países europeos, en los que da cuenta de más de medio millón de muertes anuales. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa, atendiendo a la visión de conjunto sobre el impacto del tabaquismo, a la prevalencia del consumo y a su evolución en la última década, así como revisar otras características relacionadas con la difusión y mantenimiento del tabaquismo: la producción y los precios del tabaco. Treinta de cada 100 europeos adultos fuma cigarrillos a diario. En los países de la Unión Europea se estima que 1 de cada 10 adultos fumadores morirá a causa de los efectos del tabaco, razón que se eleva a 1 de cada 5 en los países del este de Europa. La prevalencia de fumadores desciende entre los hombres adultos en algunos países de la Unión Europea, mientras que aumenta en las mujeres, sobre todo jóvenes, del sur y del este de Europa. Se debe insistir en las medidas para controlar el consumo de tabaco y prevenirlo, tales como la prohibición del consumo en lugares públicos, la prohibición real de la publicidad directa e indirecta, la reducción del cultivo, o el incremento de precios. Estas acciones se deben diseñar, coordinar y desarrollar en y desde los diferentes sectores involucrados en la lucha contra el tabaco, con la participación de redes civiles impulsadas desde los diferentes niveles administrativos (local, regional, nacional con la decisiva participación de organismos y organizaciones supranacionales.Tobacco is the most important preventable cause of mortality in European countries, accounting for over half a million deaths per year. A review is presented on the epidemiology of tobacco smoking in Europe, using a comprehensive approach on the health effects of smoking, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and its evolution in the past decade. Tobacco industry efforts to promote and maintain smoking through

  5. Europa Spacecraft Configuration Optimization for the Solar Powered Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Matthew D.; Eremenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A mission to Europa has been on the minds of NASA and JPL for many years. After the Galileo mission to Jupiter in the 1990s there have been various proposals for missions to the Jovian moon. The most recent proposal, previously named the Europa Clipper, has gone through numerous iterations of spacecraft configurations on its road to becoming an official NASA project in June of 2015. Most of these configurations included options for either multi mission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (MMRTGs) or solar power. In 2014, the decision was made to focus on solar arrays as the source for spacecraft power. The decision to move forward with a baseline design that utilized only solar arrays as its power system meant that some configuration choices had to be re- evaluated. Initially, a configuration was adapted to keep as much of the previous spacecraft design the same while replacing MMRTGs with solar panels. This proved to be difficult as the arrays presented a slew of new challenges that the nuclear vehicle was not optimized for. The solar arrays needed to be large due to Jupiter's substantial distance from the Sun. This meant that many of the instrument and radiator FOVs would now be obstructed, or would receive reflected light and heat from the large panel s. Also, the mass of the panels meant that mounting near the bottom of the spacecraft would be sub-optimal as the wings would cause major disturbance to the vehicle as they oscillated in their deployed state. Another major, and possibly the largest, concern was the fact that as the high gain antenna pointed to Earth for communication, the Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) would cast a large shadow on the cell -side of the array. This resulted in an estimated 10% power loss to the vehicle. On top of all this, NASA announced the selection of the instruments that would fly on the Europa mission and replace the notional instrument suite that had been used to develop and submit the project proposal. The selected

  6. Examining Microbial Survival During Infall onto Europa: An Important Limit on the Origin of Potential European Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Conrad, P.; Matney, M.; Steele, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work shows that transfer of material from Earth to Europa is statistically possible, opening the question of whether terrestrial biota may have transferred to Europa to populate that world. Transfer of viable organisms is a function of parameters such as ejection shock, radiation exposure, and others, applied across four phases in the transfer process: ejection from the parent body, transport through interplanetary space, infall onto the target world, and biological adaptation. If terrestrial biota could survive transport to Europa, then biology on Europa may be either the product of a separate and unrelated origin or they are the descendants of transferred terrestrial organisms. If, however, transfer of viable organisms is impossible, then any biota present on Europa must be the product of a biological origin independent from terrestrial life. We will investigate the survival likelihood of material falling onto Europa.

  7. Medicines Compliance and Reimbursement Level in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino Portela, Maria da Conceição; Campos Fernandes, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    During a severe financial crisis, it is a priority to use scientific evidence to identify factors that enable therapeutic compliance by patients. This study aimed to evaluate a possible association between the number of patients who attended a medical appointment and had medicine prescribed and the number of these same patients who purchased the prescribed medicine and whether the level of reimbursement was a deciding factor. We perform a correlation analysis at primary care centers in Portugal, between 2010 and 2012 (n = 96). We found a moderate to high positive association, which is statistical significant, between the number of the patients with medicines dispensing and medicines reimbursement levels. The correlation coefficient varies from .5 to .63 ( P < .01). The compliance increases along with the increase in the reimbursement levels.

  8. Medicines Compliance and Reimbursement Level in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Constantino Portela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During a severe financial crisis, it is a priority to use scientific evidence to identify factors that enable therapeutic compliance by patients. This study aimed to evaluate a possible association between the number of patients who attended a medical appointment and had medicine prescribed and the number of these same patients who purchased the prescribed medicine and whether the level of reimbursement was a deciding factor. We perform a correlation analysis at primary care centers in Portugal, between 2010 and 2012 (n = 96. We found a moderate to high positive association, which is statistical significant, between the number of the patients with medicines dispensing and medicines reimbursement levels. The correlation coefficient varies from .5 to .63 ( P < .01. The compliance increases along with the increase in the reimbursement levels.

  9. Scorodite stability in mine drainage : Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Raquel Cepeda; Gomes, C. Leal; Valente, Teresa Maria Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Apresenta-se uma síntese de resultados procedentes de um programa alargado de reconhecimento de neoformações mineralógicas em rejeitos mineiros. Neste caso deu-se especial atenção às paragéneses secundárias em que a scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O) é fase essencial, ocorrendo sob a forma de cristais isolados, agregados ou ainda em crustificações com diferentes estados de consolidação e níveis de compacidade. Foram selecionados espaços mineiros do N de Portugal, com depósitos hidrotermais de quar...

  10. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) onboard the Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Joseph H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Kasper, Justin C.; Rymer, Abigail; Case, Anthony; Battista, Corina; Cochrane, Corey; Coren, David; Crew, Alexander; Grey, Matthew; Jia, Xianzhe; Khurana, Krishan; Kim, Cindy; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Korth, Haje; Krupp, Norbert; Paty, Carol; Roussos, Elias; Stevens, Michael; Slavin, James A.; Smith, Howard T.; Saur, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    Europa is embedded in a complex Jovian magnetospheric plasma, which rotates with the tilted planetary field and interacts dynamically with Europa’s ionosphere affecting the magnetic induction signal. Plasma from Io’s temporally varying torus diffuses outward and mixes with the charged particles in Europa’s own torus producing highly variable plasma conditions. Onboard the Europa Clipper spacecraft the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) works in conjunction with the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG) investigation to probe Europa’s subsurface ocean. This investigation exploits currents induced in Europa’s interior by the moon’s exposure to variable magnetic fields in the Jovian system to infer properties of Europa’s subsurface ocean such as its depth, thickness, and conductivity. This technique was successfully applied to Galileo observations and demonstrated that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, due to limitations in the observations the results raised major questions that remain unanswered. PIMS will greatly refine our understanding of Europa’s global liquid ocean by accounting for contributions to the magnetic field from plasma currents.The Europa Clipper mission is equipped with a sophisticated suite of 9 instruments to study Europa's interior and ocean, geology, chemistry, and habitability from a Jupiter orbiting spacecraft. PIMS on Europa Clipper is a Faraday Cup based plasma instrument whose heritage dates back to the Voyager spacecraft. PIMS will measure the plasma that populates Jupiter’s magnetosphere and Europa’s ionosphere. The science goals of PIMS are to: 1) estimate the ocean salinity and thickness by determining Europa’s magnetic induction response, corrected for plasma contributions; 2) assess mechanisms responsible for weathering and releasing material from Europa’s surface into the atmosphere and

  11. [Neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription practices in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, A; Pereira-da-Silva, L; Fernandez-Llimos, F

    2014-02-01

    The use of guidelines for neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) improves its clinical efficiency and the safety of prescription. To evaluate the practices of neonatal parenteral nutrition prescription in Portugal, and the adherence to the National Consensus on neonatal PN (2008). A questionnaire based on a multiple choice response on parenteral nutrition prescription was conducted, and sent to the coordinators of the 50 public and private Portuguese neonatal special care units, 25 being level III and 25 level II. Parenteral nutrition was prescribed in 32 neonatal units, 23 of which (71.9%) responded to the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 19 (82.6%) refer to follow the National Consensus, the remaining following local guidelines; 17 (73.9%) of units referred to using an electronic based system for prescription. In preterm neonates, most mentioned: administering judiciously the fluid intake during the first post-natal week; starting amino acids from the first post-natal day with 1.5-3g/kg/d, increasing up to 3-4g/kg/d; starting lipids from the first three post-natal days with 1g/kg/d, increasing up to 3g/kg/d; administering 40-70mg/kg/d of calcium and of phosphorus with the fixed calcium:phosphorus ratio of 1.7: 1 (mg:mg); and estimating the osmolality of the solutions, and weekly monitoring of serum triglycerides, blood urea, serum phosphorus and liver function. The high response rate is probably representative of the practice of PN prescription in Portugal. Most of the units used the National Consensus on neonatal PN as a reference, thus contributing to better nutritional support for neonates. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconstruindo memórias: jovens refugiados em Portugal Rebuilding memories: young refugees in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Santinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi apresentado em setembro de 2007, no contexto do Seminário Internacional "Programa de Cooperação em Ciências Sociais para os Países da CPLP", promovido pela LIESP - Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Estudos e Pesquisas Sociais em Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. Resulta de um work in progress conducente a uma tese de doutoramento em antropologia médica. Pretende apresentar a condição dos jovens refugiados e requerentes de asilo em Portugal, em particular na vertente da saúde mental. O trabalho de campo levado a cabo com estes jovens envolveu a escuta de muitas narrativas de sofrimento provocado pela sua experiência de vida nos contextos originais de guerra, com testemunhos de violência e tortura, e também as dificuldades sentidas no longo percurso de viagem de fuga e posterior inserção em Portugal. O isolamento, as barreiras linguísticas, a ausência de redes sociais e familiares de apoio e a dificuldade de encontrar, em Portugal, referentes socioculturais e simbólicos, comprometem o seu desenvolvimento enquanto jovens, levando-nos a equacionar o valor dos referentes identitários na construção do eu e até o próprio conceito de juventude.This essay was first presented in September 2007, within the seminar "Programa de Cooperação em Ciências Sociais para os Países da CPLP", promoted by LIESP - Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo. It is a work in progress, leading to a PhD thesis on medical anthropology. It aims to present refugee's youth and asylum seeker's condition in Portugal, particularly in regard to mental health. The fieldwork conducted with these youth comprised active listening of their suffer narratives, provoked not only by life experiences in their original war contexts, with testimonies of violence and torture, but also the difficulties felt during the long flee journey and subsequent insertion in Portugal. Isolation, pain

  13. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Fonte, M; Faustino, E V S

    2015-01-01

    ...), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data...

  14. Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The civil engineering program of Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil is described, with emphasis on recent trends within the Hydraulics Department’s coastal engineering unit.

  15. Ombudsman em veículos de comunicação do Brasil e de Portugal: reflexão sobre atividades desenvolvidas entre 1989-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Oliveira Paulino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é refletir sobre a história da prática de ombudsman em veículos de comunicação no Brasil e em Portugal, procurando, ao mesmo tempo, identificar os desafios e as dificuldades inerentes à função na comunicação mediática. A perspectiva adotada neste contexto recorre a uma abordagem comparativa que, à semelhança do que acontece nas ciências sociais em geral, visa descobrir regularidades e reconhecer dissemelhanças das atividades realizadas pelos ombudsmans do Brasil e de Portugal entre 1989 e 2013. Procurando, então, por meio da comparação, um método de objetivação da análise, neste artigo, buscamos delinear essa função nos veículos de comunicação dos dois países. Com uma história de quase 25 anos no espaço lusófono e não obstante as suas propriedades como mecanismo de accountability, hetero e autorregulação, a prática de ombudsman não chegou a generalizar-se nos países de língua portuguesa. Se no Brasil é ainda pensável a expansão dessa atividade, em Portugal, o ombudsman é já um instrumento em declínio. Afetados pela crise econômica que devasta a Europa, os veículos de comunicação portugueses resistem à instituição dessa posição e os que já a acolheram parecem estar a dispensá-la progressivamente.

  16. El rapto de Europa... una y otra vez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo GARCIA SÁNCHEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El registro inferopaleolítico de Europa permite establecer un mínimo de tres fases de poblamiento del subcontinente. Las evidencias seguras de actividad antrópica más antigua, localizadas todas ellas en la Península Ibérica, son escasas y se datan entre 1,5 y 1,25 Ma BP. No existen datos que indiquen su continuidad. Las similitudes de estos conjuntos líticos con las colecciones documentadas circa 1,8 Ma BP en Dmanisi (Georgia invitan a considerar la posibilidad de que todos estos yacimientos manifiesten una dispersión de homínidos con origen en África oriental. La misma parece estar relacionada con las transformaciones de faunas apreciadas en el Cáucaso, Próximo Oriente y Europa en torno al límite Plio-Pleistoceno convencional, episodio que implicó la difusión de especies africanas en estos ecosistemas. Una segunda fase de poblamiento del continente, restringido al área mediterránea, está representada por una nómina de yacimientos algo más nutrida. La misma parece no prolongarse más allá de la transición Pleistoceno inferior/ Pleistoceno medio, datándose entre OIS 25-OIS 24 y la transición OIS 19-OIS 18. Los datos paleoantropológicos y arqueológicos de estos yacimientos parecen señalar un origen asiático para estas poblaciones, cuya penetración en Europa coincide con el episodio de reemplazo faunístico Galeriense, que implicó la difusión de taxa asiáticos en los ecosistemas europeos. Tras un aparente hiato del registro europeo, a partir de la transición OIS 16-OIS 15, se cuenta con evidencia de actividad antrópica más abundante. El rango geográfico ocupado por grupos de homínidos se amplió hasta alcanzar áreas tan septentrionales como el sur de Gran Bretaña y el norte de Alemania durante las fases isotópicas pares. En términos generales, los yacimientos correspondientes a esta tercera fase manifiestan la aparición en Europa de nuevas tecnologías y pautas de comportamiento, así como un mejor

  17. Ciudades, barrios y gobernanza multiescalar en la Europa urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Moulaert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas urbanas, especialmente aquellas orientadas al desarrollo de barrios, carecen de consistencia en el tiempo y en su "régimen urbano". En Europa, durante las últimas dos décadas, la política urbana ha experimentado un movimiento pendular, desde una política centrada en el barrio de corte social-comunitaria en la década de 1990, hacia una política para la ciudad manejada por la economía y el mercado inmobiliario en los 2000, y el llamado urgente de los últimos años a reintroducir innovación social y barrios en la política urbana. A partir de experiencias de innovación social en ciudades europeas y de sus formas de gobierno, pero también de cómo desafían a las autoridades públicas, este artículo extrae lecciones sobre innovación social, desarrollo urbano y formas de gobierno más sólidas en el tiempo y en relación con el contexto. Constancia en el financiamiento, articulación y aprendizaje recíproco en la gobernanza y una ética comunitaria solidaria parecen ser las bases de dicha solidez.

  18. Qu'est que Lila dit? Construyendo Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Torrado Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este momento, Europa se encuentra inmersa en el proceso de construcción de lo que algunos llaman “alma europea”, otros “sueño europeo”, y que podemos identificar, de forma más directa, con una “identidad europea”. Una “identidad europea” definida como “…aquellos valores que los europeos comparten y que otras partes del mundo admiran”. Pero, ¿realmente existen esos valores comunes?, ¿se muestran en el cine europeo?, ¿se aprecian en películas como Lila dit ça, Monsieur Ibrahim et les fleurs du Coran o Solino? In this moment, Europe is involved in the process of making up a “European soul”, also called “European identity”. The definition of European identity is: “... those Values than European People share and other countries admire”. But, really this values exist? And, if it was the case, we can find it in the European Cinema? In films as Lila dit ça, Monsieur Ibrahim et les fleurs du Coran or Solino?

  19. Valores culturales y actitudes hacia los inmigrantes en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Álvaro Estramiana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La inmigración es uno de los fenómenos que más controversia social, política y económica genera. No podemos negar que dicho fenómeno se vive en Europa con recelo y preocupación debido a sus consecuencias. El continente europeo presenta una amplia variedad cultural y social; estas diferencias culturales y sociales afectan, en gran medida, a la propia diversidad de los valores occidentales, que se ven influenciados por los procesos migratorios que acontecen en todo el continente. El trabajo que presentamos quiere destacar la importancia que los valores culturales tienen en la explicación de la aceptación o el rechazo de inmigrantes. Los datos que presentamos en esta investigación están basados en el cuestionario realizado en la Encuesta Social Europea (2002, y en el Cuestionario de Valores Personales de Schwartz (2001. Destacaremos la importancia de algunos valores culturales como objetivos a desarrollar en cualquiera de las iniciativas y políticas migratorias.

  20. PORTUGAL AND SOUTH AFRICA: CLOSE ALLIES OR UNWILLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francois

    1 R. Ramos, A Segunda Fundação (1890-1926). História de Portugal. Direcção de. José Mattoso. Sexto Volume. Editorial Estampa. Lisboa 2000, p.40. In addition, to have a better perspective of Britain's interference and meddling in Brazil's independence process see V. Alexandre, Velho Brasil Novas Áfricas – Portugal e o.

  1. OPM3® Portugal project : analysis of preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, David; Tereso, Anabela; Fernandes, Gabriela; Pinto, José Ângelo

    2014-01-01

    Project Management (PM) has emerged as a crucial factor that determines the success of an organization. In this sense, there is a growing concern for organizations to assess their PM maturity. This paper presents the PM maturity results for 19 organizations, using Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3®) emerging from OPM3® Portugal Project research, that is presently in progress. All aspects of OPM3® Portugal Project are explained in detail, and a brief descriptiv...

  2. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zé-Zé

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  3. A Família Homoparental na Ficção Televisiva: As Práticas Narrativas do Brasil e da Espanha como Relatos das Novas Representações Afetivo-Amorosas

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Aline Martins; Pavia,Carme Ferré

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo analisa o tratamento da família homoparental nas televisões do Brasil e Espanha. Destaca-se a interdisciplinaridade entre família, sociedade e ficção através de um recorte das obras Hospital Central (Telecinco, 2000-2012) e Páginas da Vida (Rede Globo, 2006-2007), com análise, em ambos os casos, de atributos de uma família homoparental de cada, e análise textual de conteúdo. Foi aplicada também técnica de suporte metodológico por meio de questionários com coletivos homossexuais do...

  4. A qualidade percebida em programas municipais de actividade física para idosos: validação estatística para Portugal The perceived quality of physical activity programs for elderly: statistical validation for Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isilda Barata Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento demográfico alastra em todo o mundo particularmente na Europa. O INE de Portugal (2002 confirma essa tendência neste país onde as autarquias locais têm um papel político e cultural fundamental na promoção da qualidade de vida aos seus cidadãos. Este estudo descreve o processo de validação de um instrumento fiável, simples e adequado para avaliar a qualidade percebida que os idosos fazem dos programas de actividade física autárquicos nas principais capitais de distrito em Portugal. Para além de uma sistematização de literatura sobre questionários de avaliação da qualidade de serviços, apresenta-se detalhadamente o procedimento estatístico que permitiu classificar o poder explicativo das diversas dimensões de qualidade estudadas. O tratamento de um inquérito aplicado a uma amostra de 210 idosos (0,5% da população portuguesa permite demonstrar que são considerados fortes os factores relativos às dimensões "Variedade" e "Recursos Humanos" e fracos os relacionados com a dimensão "Aspectos Gerais".Ageing is an increasing phenomenon all over the world, especially in Europe. The Portuguese INE (2002 confirms this trend for Portugal where local authorities play a crucial political and cultural role in promoting the quality of life of their citizens. In this paper we describe the validation process of a reliable and simple instrument fitted to assess the perceived quality of elderly people about the physical activity programs across the district municipalities. Besides a systematic literature review on inquiring services' quality we present the statistical procedure that allowed us to classify the explanation power of several quality dimensions. The results came out from a questionnaire applied to a sample of 210 elderly (0.5% of the Portuguese population and demonstrate that the factors related to the "Variety" and "Human Resources" dimensions are strong and those related to "General Aspects" dimension are

  5. O currículo e o livro didático do Brasil e da Espanha. Um caso: o indígena da América Hispânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Adriana da Silva Santiago

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a temática indígena no currículo de história e nos manuais didáticos do ensino fundamental no Brasil e do secundário na Espanha, quando se referem a América Latina. A questão que se coloca é perceber quais são os conteúdos incluídos nas duas propostas e os que estão presentes em quatro livros didáticos selecionados, a fim de verificar se tem sido estimulada a formação de uma consciência histórica e cidadã. Também examinamos os símbolos e significados dados aos conteúdos sobre a América Latina, que são selecionados para transmitir ao aluno. O texto está dividido em três partes. Na primeira estão dispostos os dados referentes à temática indígena da América Hispânica nas propostas curriculares do Brasil e da Espanha. Na segunda e na terceira parte, analisamos os conteúdos sobre os povos autóctones hispano-americanos, presentes nos quatro livros didáticos selecionados. Finalmente, concluímos que ainda é necessário um longo percurso para que seja possível ressignificar um ensino de história que estimule uma consciência histórica e cidadã, pois há uma história que silenciosamente mantém conteúdos, ideias e representações preconceituosas no tratamento da temática indígena.

  6. Inovação em hospitais do Brasil e da Espanha: a percepção de gestores sobre o prontuário eletrônico do paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josivania Silva Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa descreve a adoção de Prontuário Eletrônico do Paciente em hospitais do Brasil e da Espanha, com foco no papel desta tecnologia na gestão hospitalar e na discussão de controvérsias inerentes ao desenvolvimento e implantação desta ferramenta. No referencial teórico discute-se a inovação na perspectiva Schumpeteriana; os serviços em uma abordagem sociotécnica, e a noção de Rede Tecno-Econômica. A pesquisa foi realizada em dois hospitais universitários brasileiros e um espanhol. Vinte gestores, sendo 15 no Brasil e cinco na Espanha, foram entrevistados, no período de abril de 2009 a março de 2010, com emprego de um roteiro estruturado. Utilizou-se análise de conteúdo indutiva, com categorização a posteriori, na análise dos dados. Os principais resultados mostram que esse prontuário é uma inovação multifacetada, que se manifesta nos níveis macro, meso e micro. Significa, também, inovação administrativa e de serviços em que o prontuário 'resignifica' o produto do serviço hospitalar, comportando-se como um ator-rede mediador da gestão, mediante mecanismos de controle.

  7. Hydrated salt minerals on Europa's Surface from the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Crowley, J.K.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Smythe, W.D.; Martin, P.D.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.; Ocampo, A.

    1999-01-01

    We reported evidence of heavily hydrated salt minerals present over large areas of Europa's surface from analysis of reflectance spectra returned by the Galileo mission near infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) [McCord et al., 1997a, b, 1998a, b]. Here we elaborate on this earlier evidence, present spatial distributions of these minerals, examine alternate water-ice interpretations, expand on our hydrated-salts interpretation, consider salt mineral stability on Europa, and discuss the implications. Extensive well-defined areas on Europa show distinct, asymmetric water-related absorption bands in the 1 to 2.5-??m region. Radiative transfer modeling of water ice involving different particle sizes and layers at Europa temperatures does not reproduce the distinctive Europa water bands. However, ice near its melting temperature, such as in terrestrial environments, does have some characteristics of the Europa spectrum. Alternatively, some classes of heavily hydrated minerals do exhibit such water bands. Among plausible materials, heavily hydrated salt minerals, such as magnesium and sodium sulfates, sodium carbonate and their mixtures, are preferred. All Europa spectral features are present in some salt minerals and a very good match to the Europa spectrum can be achieved by mixing several salt spectra. However, no single or mix of salt mineral spectra from the limited library available has so far been found to perfectly match the Europa spectrum in every detail. The material is concentrated at the lineaments and in chaotic terrain, which are technically disrupted areas on the trailing side. Since the spectrum of the material on Europa is nearly the same everywhere so-far studied, the salt or salt-mixture composition may be nearly uniform. This suggests similar sources and processes over at least a near-hemispheric scale. This would suggest that an extensive subsurface ocean containing dissolved salts is the source, and several possible mechanisms for deposit

  8. Model of spatial distribution of relativistic electron fluxes in vicinity of Jupiter's moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzolko, Mikhail; Veselovsky, Igor; Getselev, Igor; Gubar, Yury

    This research was made as a part of a project of future space mission to the system of Jupiter, being developed by Russian Federal Space Agency. Currently several mission strategies are being considered, including placing the spacecraft into the low-altitude orbit around Jupiter’s moon Europa and possibly landing on its surface. In the region of Europa’s orbit the spacecraft will be affected by very strong radiation from the Jupiter’s radiation belts. The absorbed dose during 2 months under shielding compared to that for “Galileo” spacecraft will amount to almost 1 megarad. The major contribution to the dose will originate from relativistic electrons. However, near Europa part of the charged particle flux will be shaded by the moon. This reduction of the fluxes is nonuniform, depends on the particle energy and pitch-angle and differs for the surface and the low-altitude orbit. It is caused by a number of factors: complexity of particle trajectories relative to Europa, the flux anisotropy, variations of Europa’s position relative to Jupiter’s magnetic equator plane, magnetic and electric field disturbance in vicinity of Europa, the tenuous atmosphere of the moon. In the current study modeling of relativistic electron flux spatial distribution near Europa and on its surface and computation of the radiation doses have been made, taking into account several of mentioned above factors.

  9. UNIDADES GEOMORFOLÓGICAS DE PORTUGAL CONTINENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantino Insua Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  10. Model Based Systems Engineering on the Europa Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Todd J.; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, I.; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; hide

    2012-01-01

    At the start of 2011, the proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission was staffing up in expectation of becoming an official project later in the year for a launch in 2020. A unique aspect of the pre-project work was a strong emphasis and investment on the foundations of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). As so often happens in this business, plans changed: NASA's budget and science priorities were released and together fundamentally changed the course of JEO. As a result, it returned to being a study task whose objective is to propose more affordable ways to accomplish the science. As part of this transition, the question arose as to whether it could continue to afford the investment in MBSE. In short, the MBSE infusion has survived and is providing clear value to the study effort. By leveraging the existing infrastructure and a modest additional investment, striking advances in the capture and analysis of designs using MBSE were achieved. In the process, the need to remain relevant in the new environment has brought about a wave of innovation and progress. The effort has reaffirmed the importance of architecting. It has successfully harnessed the synergistic relationship of architecting to system modeling. We have found that MBSE can provide greater agility than traditional methods. We have also found that a diverse 'ecosystem' of modeling tools and languages (SysML, Mathematica, even Excel) is not only viable, but an important enabler of agility and adaptability. This paper will describe the successful application of MBSE in the dynamic environment of early mission formulation, the significant results produced and lessons learned in the process.

  11. Los primeros objetos de bronce en el occidente de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Miranda, Manuel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The alloy of copper with tin is used to show cultural relations and exchanges between Bronze Age cultures in western and central Europe. At the beginning, the distribution and location of tin resources explains the variations in bronze composition, but interregional ex-change leads later to a more homogeneous alloy. During the Early Bronze Age the Iberian Peninsula was not connected to the exchange networks of western Europe, and the first true bronzes appear at least two centuries la ter. The tin alloy spread over Iberia from north to south, and arrive to South-east at the end of the Middle Brome Age, due to the isolation of this region.

    A través del uso de la aleación de cobre y estaño en la tecnología metalúrgica de la Edad del Bronce europea se analizan las relaciones culturales e intercambios que tienen lugar entre los diversos grupos culturales. Al principio la disponibilidad de recursos minerales de estaño condicionó la composición de la aleación, pero más tarde el establecimiento de relaciones comerciales condujo a una mayor homogeneización en la producción. La Península Ibérica aparece durante el Bronce Antiguo desconectada de las interacciones actuantes en el Occidente de Europa, acusando un retraso en el conocimiento del bronce de al menos dos siglos. La difusión de la aleación se produce de norte a sur, llegando al Sureste a fines del Bronce Medio como consecuencia de su aislamiento.

  12. Robert Musil y los Estados desunificados de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayón, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of Robert Musil´s work “The Man Without Qualities” from philosophical sources. It is a novel that has produced so many overriding metaphors through which we can better understand the crises of the social identity on the horizont of the last modernity in Europe. Much of the key-concepts that helped in creating the so called “Leyend of Modernity” start to vanish in an irremediable way: not only did Musil trace the disappearance of the support for national aspirations and social cohesion, he also showed us how culture is a mad carrousel of collapsed expectations, and how the prevailing idea of “subjectivity” lacks today any solid or essential nucleus. In the middle of this disenchanted landscape of Europe, where all the modern and clasical illusions became nothing, appears however “a new human being”, since the man “without qualities” is the man with endless possibilities too.El presente ensayo es una interpretación de la novela de Robert Musil “El hombre sin atributos” a partir de fuentes filosóficas. Se trata de una obra que ha producido algunas metáforas decisivas para comprender las crisis de la identidad social en el horizonte de la última modernidad europea. Muchos de los conceptos clave que ayudaron a crear la leyenda de la modernidad empiezan a erosionarse de modo irreversible: se descomponen las aspiraciones nacionales, el sujeto pierde su núcleo sustancial y la cultura es un carrusel de esperanzas abortadas incapaces de responder a ninguna idea rectora. Y, sin embargo, en el paisaje de esta Europa tardomoderna en que se han agotado las pasadas ilusiones surge la idea de que el “hombre sin atributos” es también el “hombre de las posibilidades”.

  13. Melhor o cozinheiro? Um percurso sobre a dimensão de gênero da preparação da comida (Europa ocidental, séculos XVI-XIX A male cook, is it better? An overview on the gender dimension of cooking ( Western Europe, 16th to 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Sarti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a preparação da comida na Europa ocidental (séculos XVI a XIX, enfocando sua dimensão de gênero. São consideradas três principais variáveis: estratificação social, geografia e tempo. Sugere que na Itália, Espanha e França, no início do período moderno, os cozinheiros empregados nas cortes e pela aristocracia eram geralmente homens; a feminização da preparação da comida começou na França a partir do século XVIII. Na Europa central e do norte, as mulheres das classes mais altas estavam muito mais envolvidas na preparação da comida, embora a moda da cozinha francesa nos séculos XVII e XVIII tenha implicado no recurso crescente de homens cozinheiros. O artigo sugere explicações para essas diferenças e tendências através dos tempos, e discute o papel da nutrição e cozinha na definição da identidade feminina em contextos diferentes.This paper analyses the preparation of food in Western Europe (16th-19th centuries, focusing on its gendered dimension. Three main variables are considered: social stratification, geography and time. It suggests that in Italy, Spain and France in early modern times the cooks employed at the courts and by the aristocracy were generally men; a feminization of the preparation of food started in France from the 18th century onwards. In Central and Northern Europe women were much more involved in the preparation of food in the upper classes, too, even though the fashion for French cuisine in the 17th and 18th centuries implied a growing recourse to male cooks. The paper suggests explanations of these differences and trends over time and discusses the role of nurturing and cooking for the definition of the female identity in different contexts.

  14. Dictatorship and revolution: Socio-political reconstructions of collective memory in post-authoritarian Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loff, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article inserts itself into larger discussions regarding post-dictatorship memory politics in Portugal and comparative studies of similar histories of violence in Europe, particularly examinations of National-Socialism, Nazism and the Holocaust, as well as comparative studies of twentieth-century fascist dictatorships in the Iberian peninsula. In spite of the revolutionary, radical nature of the Portuguese democratisation process, studies conducted during the last four decades on the social and political (reconstructions of memory regarding the Portuguese dictatorship (1926-1974 have demonstrated that state policies regarding the past have depicted the dictatorship as one that is very similar to events in countries where the process of democratic transition was actually quite different from that of Portugal. Right-wing groups and those who self-describe as “victims” of processes of decolonisation that occurred between 1974 and 1975 have established a pattern of public debate that leaves no room for discussing the dictatorship without also referring to the 1974-1975 Revolution. This mode of debate seems to suggest that these two periods of history are indicative of a global regime phenomenon and that both the processes of decolonisation and revolution affected Portuguese society in similar ways. This paper attempts to complicate these narratives in order to question the democratic forms that emerged after the Revolution and to compare it to Salazar’s dictatorial regime.Este artículo se encuadra en una discusión más amplia sobre las políticas de la memoria de la posdictadura salazarista en Portugal, y en estudios comparados sobre historias semejantes de violencia en Europa, especialmente las relativas al nacional-socialismo, el nazismo y el Holocausto. También se refiere a los estudios comparados sobre las dictaduras fascistas en la Península Ibérica. A pesar de la naturaleza revolucionaria y radical del proceso de democratizaci

  15. Searching Less Perturbed Circular Orbits for a Spacecraft Travelling around Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. S. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Space missions to visit the natural satellite of Jupiter, Europa, constitute an important topic in space activities today, because missions to this moon are under study now. Several considerations have to be made for these missions. The present paper searches for less perturbed circular orbits around Europa. This search is made based on the total effects of the perturbing forces over the time, evaluated by the integral of those forces over the time. This value depends on the dynamical model and on the orbit of the spacecraft. The perturbing forces considered are the third-body perturbation that comes from Jupiter and the J2, J3, and C22 terms of the gravitational potential of Europa. Several numerical studies are performed and the results show the locations of the less perturbed orbits. Using those results, it is possible to find near-circular frozen orbits with smaller amplitudes of variations of the orbital elements.

  16. Wavy Lineaments on Europa: Fracture Propagation into Combined Nonsynchronous and Diurnal Stress Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Zane; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Barr, Amy C.; Gleeson, Damhnait; Mullen, McCall; Nimmo, Francis; Stempel, Michelle M.; Wahr, John

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the processes that have operated on Europa and the manner in which they may have changed through time is fundamental to understanding the satellite's geology and present-day habitability. Previous studies have shown that lineament patterns on Europa can be explained by accumulation of tensile stress from slow nonsynchronous rotation (NSR), while the cycloidal planforms of other Europan lineaments can be explained if fractures propagate through a diurnally changing tensile stress field. We find that fractures propagated into combined diurnal and NSR stress fields can be "wavy" in planform for NSR stress accumulated over 2 to 8 of ice shell rotation and average propagation speeds of approx. 1 to 3 m/s. The variety of Europa's observed lineament planforms from cycloidal, to wavy, to arcuate can be produced by accumulation of NSR stress relative to the diurnal stress field. Varying proportions of these stress mechanisms plausibly may be related to a time-variable (slowing) NSR rate.

  17. Cultural and Creative tourism in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo paradigma en la industria turística está cambiando el significado de la cultura y sus usos de forma a promocionar productos o experiencias y destinos otros. Las cuestiones que ponemos son las siguientes: ¿Cuál es la importancia del turismo creativo en un destino turístico y cuáles serán las consecuencias para su organización? La metodología seguida se basó en una revisión de la literatura relativa al objeto de investigación, estudio de caso, análisis de datos, análisis de contenido, toma de muestras, “bola de nieve”, encuestas y observación participante. Este artículo analiza cómo el evento Festival MED en Loulé, Algarve ha mejorado la economía local, ha resuelto problemas urbanos en el centro histórico (área del evento y ayudó a diferenciar la oferta turística en el destino turístico maduro, en el Algarve, Portugal.

  18. Chemotaxonomic study on Thymus villosus from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro; Vila; Tomàs; Cañigueral; Paiva; Proença da Cunha A; Adzet

    2000-06-01

    The composition of the essential oils of four populations of Thymus villosus subsp. lusitanicus (Boiss.) Coutinho from Portugal was investigated by GC and GC-MS. To study the chemical polymorphism the results obtained from GC analyses of the volatile oils from individual plants from four populations were submited to Principal Component and Cluster analyses. A comparision with the essential oil of T. villosus subsp. villosus, previously studied by us was done. Important differences with regard to the major constituents in these two taxa were found. Linalool, geranyl acetate, geraniol and terpinen-4-ol were the main components of the essential oils of T. villosus subsp. lusitanicus, whereas in the oil of T. villosus subsp. villosus p-cymene, myrcene and alpha-terpineol were the major ones. Although, both taxa showed chemical polymorphism, different types of essential oils were characterized in each one: linalool; linalool/ terpinen-4-ol/trans-sabinene hydrate; linalool/1,8-cineole; geranyl acetate/geraniol; geranyl acetate/geraniol/1,8-cineole in T. villosus subsp. lusitanicus and p-cymene/camphor/linalool; p-cymene/borneol; linalool/geraniol/geranyl acetate; alpha-terpineol/camphor/myrcene in T. villosus subsp. villosus. Thus, the two subspecies of T. villosus can be easely differenciated by the composition of their essential oils.

  19. Identity Reconfiguration of Immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The starting point is the principle that there is no immigrant culture, but rather, different ways of living, coexisting and identifying oneself within the cultural worlds that each subject crosses on his or her social path. Here we study Brazilian immigrants in Portugal, working with the first wave (starting at the end of the 1980s and the second wave (at the turn of the 20th to 21st century. We intend, firstly, to show how identity is reconstructed between two banks: the departure culture and the arrival culture. Secondly, we intend to give a voice to the most silent in the understanding of immigrants: the process of identity reconstruction of Brazilian immigrants is presented, resulting from ethno-biographic interviews. We will consider the cultural transfusion theory and observe the heterogeneous ways of living between cultures, whether by rejecting the departure culture (the Oblato‘s case, refusing the arrival one at a given moment (the mono-cultural subject according to the source culture, living in an ambivalent manner between the two (the multicultural self, or, finally, inventing a third bank, as the poets say, which corresponds to an attitude of including the cultural differences through which one crosses during his or her life history in an intercultural self (the Intercultural Transfuga.

  20. El caso Breivik como paradigma de la nueva violencia política en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Tras el doble atentado en Noruega del 22 de julio de 2011 cometido por Anders Behring Breivik, el terrorismo en Europa se enfrenta a una nueva amenaza. La novedad ideológica de Breivik es escasa, salvo por actualizar peligros que parecían del pasado. Por el contrario, su novedad operativa sí es relevante, ya que demuestra la posibilidad de la actuación de "lobos solitarios" en Europa y ejemplifica de qué manera el occidental medio puede actuar con un potencial muy alto de causar daños. Se con...

  1. Tendencias tecnológicas en Europa. Análisis de los procesos de prospectiva

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Pereda, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    El Informe «Tendencias tecnológicas en Europa. Análisis de los procesos de prospectiva», que Cotec publica en su Colección Observaciones de Buenas Prácticas en los sistemas de innovación, es el resultado de un trabajo original e innovador que compara los resultados obtenidos en los estudios de prospectiva tecnológica realizados por cinco de los países más avanzados de Europa.

  2. Are there signatures of active Europa plumes in Galileo in-situ data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrighs, H. L. F.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-09-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations made during recent years suggest that recurring water vapour plumes originating from Europa's surface exist, though they do not conclusively prove their existence. Indisputable (in-situ) observations of these plumes have not been reported yet. However, it may be possible that the NASA Galileo mission encountered these plumes in the past. We present an overview of in-situ data obtained by the Galileo spacecraft during the Europa flybys. The data is compared in the context of the search for signs of active plumes.

  3. Trepartsforhandlinger i Danmark og Europa følges ikke ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Trepartsforhandlinger med flere emner på dagsordenen flore-rede særligt i 1990’erne og tidligt i 00’erne rundt omkring i Europa, hvor de var fraværende i Danmark. Efter den øko-nomiske krise synes billedet at være vendt.......Trepartsforhandlinger med flere emner på dagsordenen flore-rede særligt i 1990’erne og tidligt i 00’erne rundt omkring i Europa, hvor de var fraværende i Danmark. Efter den øko-nomiske krise synes billedet at være vendt....

  4. Televisión regional en la Europa de las Identidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Europa cerca de trescientos emisoras ahora ofrecen varios servicios comparten una característica peculiar: sirven a pequeños territorios no estatales y/o comunidades étnico-culturales diferenciadas. Comenta de hacia dónde irá la televisión regional en Europa corresponde la palabra "incertidumbre". Tan solo mediante un estrechamiento de la relación con la audiencia y una política abierta e innovadora podrán las televisiones regionales afrontar el futuro con garantías.

  5. Televisión regional en la Europa de las identidades

    OpenAIRE

    López López, Bernat

    1993-01-01

    En Europa cerca de trescientos emisoras ahora ofrecen varios servicios comparten una característica peculiar: sirven a pequeños territorios no estatales y/o comunidades étnico-culturales diferenciadas. Comenta de hacia dónde irá la televisión regional en Europa corresponde la palabra "incertidumbre". Tan solo mediante un estrechamiento de la relación con la audiencia y una política abierta e innovadora podrán las televisiones regionales afrontar el futuro con garantías.

  6. Patterns of Fracture and Tidal Stresses Due to Nonsynchronous Rotation: Implications for Fracturing on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Helfenstein, P.

    1985-01-01

    Global lineaments on Europa were interpreted as fractures in an icy crust. A variety of lineament types were identified, which appear to form a systematic pattern on the surface. For a synchronously rotating body, the patterns of fractures observed could be produced by a combination of stresses due to orbital recession, orbital eccentricity, and internal contraction. However, it was recently suggested that the forced eccentricity of Europa's orbit may result in nonsynchronous rotation. The hypothesis that fractures in a thin icy crust may have formed in response to stresses resulting from nonsynchronous rotation is studied.

  7. Geometry and spatial distribution of lenticulae on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culha, Cansu; Manga, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The surface of Europa contains several types of roughly elliptical features, collectively called lenticulae. Lenticulae may have positive relief (domes) or negative relief (pits), may disrupt the crust (chaos), or discolor the surface (spots); some lenticulae have attributes of both domes and chaos (dome/chaos). We map the location, dimensions and shapes of all lenticulae and their interactions with other lenticulae and lineaments. We find that (1) pits and domes have similar sizes; (2) chaos are larger than the other lenticulae; (3) pits are clustered within the trailing antijovian quadrant and the leading subjovian quadrant whereas domes, dome/chaos, and chaos terrains are more uniformly distributed; (4) the areal density for all lenticulae is not uniform; (5) lenticulae do not divert the path of younger lineaments such as ridges. Taken together, these observations are consistent with conceptual models in which lenticulae are created by intrusion of liquid water bodies, or convection within, the ice shell. Additionally, the observations are consistent with the notion that each type of lenticula is a surface expression of dynamics within the ice shell at a different stage of lenticulae evolution. The similar size and shape of pits and domes suggests that one may evolve into the other. Because domes are more numerous and more uniformly distributed than pits, they are more likely to represent the end stage of this evolution, assuming the end-stage leaves a longer-lasting surface expression. Models also predict that larger features are more likely to disrupt the crust, which is consistent with dome/chaos and chaos being larger than pits and domes. We find no examples of lineaments offsetting pits but lineaments do cross some chaos. Pits also have a preferred northwest-southeast elongation, whereas domes, dome/chaos, and chaos do not have a preferred orientation. If lenticulae orientation is influenced by crustal stress, then pits may have formed during a shorter time

  8. Web 2.0 e redes sociais: ferramentas de relações públicas dos centros de eventos em Espanha, Portugal e América Latina/ Web 2.0 and social networks: public relations tools of exhibition centres in Spain, Portugal and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé Manuel Baamonde Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Os centros de eventos, como as feiras, são espaços de comunicação. Não são apenas centrosde negócios e, como tal, podem ser estudados de um ponto de vista comunicativo. Estainvestigação analisa a utilização da Web 2.0 e das redes sociais como ferramentas deRelações Públicas. Constata-se que as organizações de feiras da Península Ibérica e daAmérica Latina não utilizam um modelo interativo e multidirecional. As suas webs estãoorientadas para satisfazer as necessidades de informação dos meios de comunicação social,mas não estão preparadas para dialogar diretamente com a opinião pública. A maioria dosespaços na Internet das organizações de feiras espanholas, portuguesas e latino-americanasnão está aproveitando as possibilidades que a Web 2.0 e as redes sociais oferecem paraconversar com os seus públicos. A gestão das Relações Públicas deve incluir a utilização das redes sociais, dado que já não é suficiente estar na Internet, há que participar na vida da Rede./The trade fairs are spaces of communication. They are not only business centres and,therefore, they can study under a communicative approach. This investigation analyses theutilisation of the Web 2.0 and the social networks like public relations tools. The IberianPeninsula and o Latin America trade fairs organization do not use a bidirectional symmetricalmodel. Their webs are oriented to satisfy the needs of information of the media but not tohave a conversation directly with the public opinion. The spaces in Internet of Spanish,Portuguese and Latin American trade fairs organizations are not taking advantage of thepossibilities that offers the web 2.0 and the social networks to converse with their publics.The management of the public relations has to include the utilisation of the social networks,because it is necessary to participate in the life of Internet.

  9. Habitability in High Radiation Environments: The Case for Gaia at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.

    2004-12-01

    In the paper of Cooper et al. (2001) we concluded, in relation to our work on magnetospheric irradiation of Europa and the other icy galilean moons of Jupiter, that 'icy satellites with significant heat, irradiation, and subsurface water resources may provide common abodes for life throughout the universe'. This expanded the original proposal of Chyba (2000) and his later works that radiolytic production of oxidants and simple hydrocarbons on Europa's icy surface could support evolution and survival of life within a Europan subsurface ocean. In the general case of icy planets and moons the radiation environment does not have to interact directly with the surface but could also provide energy for life through radiation-induced chemistry in thick atmospheres chemically coupled to icy surfaces with hydrocarbon reservoirs as on Titan. The Gaia model for Earth implies that the entire planet operates with atmospheric, geologic, and geochemical processes conducive to life. Essential requirements for Gaia are an oxidizing atmospheric environment at planetary surfaces, where oxidants like molecular oxygen are produced by radiation processes (mediated by photosynthetic chemistry on Earth but more directly produced by radiolysis on Europa), reservoirs of liquid water and hydrocarbons on or below the surface, other reduced materials in the interior, and geologic processes which drive chemical exchange between the chemically oxidized surface and reduced interior environments. At Europa a thin oxygen atmosphere is observed and arises from magnetospheric interaction, and there is much evidence for active resurfacing likely related to solid-state convection and diapiric processes within a thick crust of soft ice overlying a liquid ocean. These processes on Europa are analogous to that of the tectonic conveyer belt that continually recycles carbon, oxygen, and other essential materials for life between the atmosphere, surface, and interior on Earth. The ice crust at Europa could be

  10. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4 pi surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  11. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carla; Ramalho Sousa, Sérgio; Anastácio, Sofia; Goreti Matias, Maria; Marquês, Inês; Mascarenhas, Salvador; João Vieira, Maria; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-23

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a nematode that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing mild to severe symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis, lacrimation, epiphora, blepharospasm, keratitis and even corneal ulceration) in infected animals. This report describes an autochthonous case of thelaziosis in a cat from the central region of Portugal, representing the most occidental record of thelaziosis in Europe. Adult nematodes recovered from alive animal were morphological identified as T. callipaeda. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox 1) from nematode specimens was amplified by PCR. Cox1 sequences of all specimens were identical to T. callipaeda haplotype 1. Additionally to these findings, a recent description of thelaziosis in the northern region of Portugal suggests that T. callipaeda has successfully established in Portugal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CONFLITOS E TRAUMAS NO RENASCIMENTO EM PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Castro Soares

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Num século em que a abertura à modernidade trouxe um ardor renovado pelos ideais da Antiguidade Clássica, assimilados aos valores do Cristianismo – raízes da Civilização do Ocidental –,consuma-se a perda de Constantinopla e assiste-se ao crescente domínio turco e à defesa concertada contra o seu avanço; à grande gesta dos Descobrimentos, com as inevitáveis guerras de conquista; à Reforma protestante e às guerras de religião, qual Hidra de Lerna, no dizer de Erasmo; aos conflitos armados entre príncipes cristãos, que Camões interpela no Canto VII de Os Lusíadas.A Reforma de Lutero, Calvino, Henrique VIII fragmentaram a inconsútil túnica de Cristo e puseram fim à unidade da Respublica Christiana, que se tornou em Ocidente dos Estados. Marcantes nesta época foram o pragmatismo político de Maquiavel; o papel da ciência juridica, na definição do direito internacional e do direito dos povos.Em Portugal, muitos foram os conflitos decorrentes da política de expansão e da acção dos sucessivos monarcas, desde os inícios da Segunda Dinastia ao reinado de D. Sebastião: exílios, perseguições, sobretudo a partir da introdução da Inquisição (1536, desastres naturais e, enfim, a perda da independência, a marcar o ocaso do Século de Ouro. 

  13. Pediatric and neonatal transport in Spain, Portugal and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, S; Escobar, M; Cabrerizo, M; Gómez, M; González, R; López-Herce Cid, J

    2017-04-01

    To study the organization of inter-hospital transport of pediatric and neonatal patients in Spain, Portugal and Latin America. An observational study was performed. An on-line survey was sent by email including questions about characteristics of national, regional and local health transport systems, vehicles, material, and composition of the transport team and their training. Hospital pediatric healthcare professionals treating children in Spain, Portugal and Latin America RESULTS: A total of 117 surveys from 15 countries were analyzed. Of them, 55 (47%) come from 15 regions of Spain and the rest from Portugal and 13 Latin American countries. The inter-hospital transport of pediatric patients is unified only in the Spanish regions of Baleares and Cataluña and in Portugal. Chile has a mixed unified transport system for pediatric and adult patients. Only 51.4% of responders have an educational program for the transport personnel, and only in 36.4% of them the educational program is specific for pediatric patients. In Spain and Portugal the transport is executed mostly by public entities, while in Latin America public and private systems coexist. Specific pediatric equipment is more frequent in the transport teams in the Iberian Peninsula than in Latin American teams. The specific pediatric transport training is less frequent for teams in Latin America than on Spain and Portugal. There is a great variation in the organization of children transport in each country and region. Most of countries and cities do not have unified and specific teams of pediatric transport, with pediatric qualified personnel and specific material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially correlated with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.

  15. Vigilância laboratorial da resistência aos antibacilares em Portugal em 2000 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Furtado

    2003-07-01

    /1557 e adquirida de 13,3% (41/309.CONCLUSÃO: Para os primeiros dois anos de actividade do VigLab-Tuberculose, a taxa de 80% de participação dos laboratórios é muito encorajadora. A frequência de multirresistência primária e adquirida observada estão acima dos valores actualmente declarados na Europa Central e Ocidental (<1% de multirresistência primária, o que justifica só por si a necessidade de mantermos e reforçarmos a vigilância laboratorial e, assim, contribuir para minimizar a emergência das resistências em Portugal.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2003; IX (4: 279-291 ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A network for the Surveillance of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance (VigLab-Tuberculose, including all the mycobacterial laboratories where drug susceptibility test on isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are carried out, was established in Portugal in April 2000. VigLab-Tuberculose aims to maintain a laboratory-based surveillance system for antibiotic susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in order to monitor trends in drug resistance in Portugal.OBJECTIVE: To describe the first line antituberculosis drug resistance patterns of tuberculosis cases diagnosed and reported to VigLab-Tuberculose in 2000-2001.METHODS: Collaborating laboratories collect and report data on individuals from whom a drug susceptibility test on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates has been performed in 2000-2001. Data collected included demographic, geographic, clinical and first line antibiotics susceptibility information. Data were analysed using Epi-Info version 6.04c software.RESULTS: There were 4170 reports of drug susceptibility test results on tuberculosis patients diagnosed from 1st April 2000 to 31st December 2001. Drug susceptibility results for all five first line antituberculosis drugs shows that 23% (541/ 2358 were resistant at least to one of them. The proportion of mono-resistance to streptomycin was 7,6% (179/2358, to isoniazid 2,6% (62/2358, to

  16. Evolução da mortalidade por cancro do pulmão em Portugal (1955-2005 Trends in lung cancer mortality in Portugal (1955-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A prevalência de fumadores tem diminuído na Europa Ocidental, observando-se já o declínio da mortalidade por cancro do pulmão. Contudo, até 1998 não se observava ainda um decréscimo da frequência deste cancro em Portugal. Objectivo: Descrever a tendência secular da mortalidade por cancro do pulmão em Portugal. Métodos: As taxas de mortalidade por cancro do pulmão (ICD10:C33-34 em Portugal, entre 1955 e 2005, por sexo e grupo etário (5 anos de amplitude, obtiveram-se através da Organização Mundial de Saúde e do Instituto Nacional de Estatística. Calcularam-se taxas de mortalidade padronizadas (método directo, população mundial, para os grupos etários 35-74/35-44/45-54/55-64/65-74 anos. Realizou-se uma regressão joinpoint para calcular a variação anual percentual (VA% da mortalidade e identificar eventuais pontos de inflexão. Resultados: Entre 1955 e 2005, em homens dos 35 aos 74 anos, observou-se uma estabilização da mortalidade por cancro do pulmão, variando 3,77%/ano (intervalo de confiança a 95% [IC95%]: 3,53; 4,01 entre 1955 e 1986 e -0,15%/ano (IC95%: -0,99; 0,69 entre 1996 e 2005. Observaram-se estimativas pontuais da VA% negativas (não significativamente inferiores a zero nas tendências mais recentes de todos os grupos etários, excepto no grupo 45-54 anos, onde apenas se verificou uma desaceleração da VA% desde 1981. Em mulheres entre 35 e 74 anos, a mortalidade aumentou 1,60%/ano (IC95%: 1,40; 1,77 entre 1955 e 2005. Conclusão: Observou-se uma estabilização das taxas de mortalidade por cancro do pulmão nos homens, enquanto nas mulheres esta aumentou de forma constante. Estes resultados colocam Portugal no final do terceiro estádio da epidemia tabágica.Introduction: While the rate of smoking and lung cancer mortality has been decreasing in western Europe, there was no decline in lung cancer mortality in Portugal until 1998. Aim: To describe lung cancer mortality trends in Portugal

  17. Salinibater Ruber as a Model for the Habitability of Europa's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M. C.; Ramírez, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The moon Europa has an ocean enriched with sulfate compounds. This work evaluates the adaptation strategies of Salinibacter ruber, a halophilic bacterium, when subjected to MgSO4 and NaSO4, two of the main salty components of Europás ocean.

  18. Europa in the Far-UV: Spatial and Spectral Analysis from HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Roth, Lorenz; Hendrix, Amanda R.; McGrath, Melissa; Alday, Juan; Saur, Joachim; Molyneux, Philippa M.; Raut, Ujjwal; Teolis, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    We present a spatial and spectral analysis of Europa using far-UV observations from 1999 - 2015 made by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Disk-integrated observations show that the far-UV spectrum from ~130 nm - 170 nm is blue (increasing albedo with decreasing wavelength) for the studied hemispheres: the leading, trailing, and anti-Jovian hemispheres. At Lyman-alpha (121.6 nm), the albedo of the trailing hemisphere continues the blue trend, but it reddens for the leading hemisphere. At wavelengths shorter than 133.5 nm, the leading hemisphere, which is brighter than the trailing hemisphere at near-UV and visible wavelengths, becomes darker than the trailing hemisphere. We find no evidence of a sharp water-ice absorption edge at 165 nm on any hemisphere of Europa, which is intriguing since such an absorption feature has been observed on most icy moons. This suggests the possibility that radiolytic alteration by Jovian magnetospheric plasma has made the surface more strongly absorbing, masking the absorption edge. We will also present a spatial map of Lyman-alpha across the entire surface of Europa. This map can then be used to distinguish variable H emissions in the atmosphere from surface reflectance, improving our ability to detect potential plumes occurring on the disk of Europa during an observation.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope observations of Europa in and out of eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, W.B.; McGrath, M.; Hand, K.; Ford, H.C.; Geissler, P.; Hough, J.H.; Turner, E.L.; Chyba, C.F.; Carlson, R.; Turnbull, M.

    2010-01-01

    Europa is a prime target for astrobiology and has been prioritized as the next target for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration flagship mission. It is important, therefore, that we advance our understanding of Europa, its ocean and physical environment as much as possible. Here, we describe observations of Europa obtained during its orbital eclipse by Jupiter using the Hubble Space Telescope. We obtained Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel far ultraviolet low-resolution spectra that show oxygen line emission both in and out of eclipse. We also used the Wide-Field and Planetary Camera-2 and searched for broad-band optical emission from fluorescence of the surface material, arising from the very high level of incident energetic particle radiation on ices and potentially organic substances. The high-energy particle radiation at the surface of Europa is extremely intense and is responsible for the production of a tenuous oxygen atmosphere and associated FUV line emission. Approximately 50% of the oxygen emission lasts at least a few hours into the eclipse. We discuss the detection limits of the optical emission, which allow us to estimate the fraction of incident energy reradiated at optical wavelengths, through electron-excited emission, Cherenkov radiation in the ice and fluorescent processes. ?? 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Space Radiation Effects and Reliability Consideration for the Proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission to explore the Jovian moon Europa poses a number of challenges. The spacecraft must operate for about seven years during the transit time to the vicinity of Jupiter, and then endure unusually high radiation levels during exploration and orbiting phases. The ability to withstand usually high total dose levels is critical for the mission, along with meeting the high reliability standards for flagship NASA missions. Reliability of new microelectronic components must be sufficiently understood to meet overall mission requirements.

  1. Project BELIEVE. Final Report. (A National Workplace Literacy Project with Bakery Europa and Straub Clinic & Hospital).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Lawrence F. H.

    Bakery Europa and the Straub Clinic in Hawaii participated in Project BELIEVE, a 3-year (1995-98) workplace literacy project conducted in partnership with the University of Hawaii's College of Education. Instruction focused on the literacy, communication, interpersonal, and problem-solving skills needed to succeed in the baking and health care…

  2. Transición y migraciones en Europa central y oriental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Viruela Martínez

    2014-01-01

    La caída del muro de Berlín en 1989 y los cambios políticos y económicos que desde entonces se han sucedido en Europa central y oriental han tenido una gran incidencia en las migraciones europeas...

  3. True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul; Matsuyama, Isamu; Nimmo, Francis

    2008-05-15

    The tectonic patterns and stress history of Europa are exceedingly complex and many large-scale features remain unexplained. True polar wander, involving reorientation of Europa's floating outer ice shell about the tidal axis with Jupiter, has been proposed as a possible explanation for some of the features. This mechanism is possible if the icy shell is latitudinally variable in thickness and decoupled from the rocky interior. It would impose high stress levels on the shell, leading to predictable fracture patterns. No satisfactory match to global-scale features has hitherto been found for polar wander stress patterns. Here we describe broad arcuate troughs and depressions on Europa that do not fit other proposed stress mechanisms in their current position. Using imaging from three spacecraft, we have mapped two global-scale organized concentric antipodal sets of arcuate troughs up to hundreds of kilometres long and 300 m to approximately 1.5 km deep. An excellent match to these features is found with stresses caused by an episode of approximately 80 degrees true polar wander. These depressions also appear to be geographically related to other large-scale bright and dark lineaments, suggesting that many of Europa's tectonic patterns may also be related to true polar wander.

  4. Necesidad de una política coherente para minerales en Europa. Discusiones y acercamientos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Tiess

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume algunos aspectos relevantes de la política mineral en Europa. Hace un llamado a la Unión Europea para concertar políticas e instrmentos de trabajo que aseguren la disponibilidad de las materias primas esenciales y la sustentabilidad de su extración y su uso.

  5. Exploration Pathways for Europa After Initial In Situ Analyses for Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, K. P.; Murray, A. E.; Garvin, J.; Horst, S.; Brinkerhoff, W.; Edgett, K.; Hoehler, T.; Russell, M.; Rhoden, A.; Yingst, A.; German, C.; Schmidt, B.; Paranicas, C.; Smith, D.; Willis, P.; Hayes, A.; Ehlmann, B.; Lunine, J.; Templeton, A.; Nealson, K.; Cable, M.; Craft, K.; Pappalardo, B.; Phillips, C.

    2017-02-01

    The 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team has recently completed its report on the science goals, objectives, and investigations to be conducted by a robotic lander on Europa’s surface. We will present this mission in the context of 2050.

  6. Utilizing Science and Technology to Enhance a Future Planetary Mission: Applications to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Melissa K.

    A thorough understanding of Europa's geology through the synergy of science and technology, by combining geologic mapping with autonomous onboard processing methods, enhances the science potential of future outer solar system missions. Mapping outlines the current state of knowledge of Europa's surface and near sub-surface, indicates the prevalence of distinctive geologic features, and enables a uniform perspective of formation mechanisms responsible for generating those features. I have produced a global geologic map of Europa at 1:15 million scale and appraised formation scenarios with respect to conditions necessary to produce observed morphologies and variability of those conditions over Europa's visible geologic history. Mapping identifies areas of interest relevant for autonomous study; it serves as an index for change detection and classification and aids pre-encounter targeting. Therefore, determining the detectability of geophysical activity is essential. Activity is evident by the presence of volcanic plumes or outgassing, disrupted surface morphologies, or changes in morphology, color, temperature, or composition; these characteristics reflect important constraints on the interior dynamics and evolutions of planetary bodies. By adapting machine learning and data mining techniques to signatures of plumes, morphology, and spectra, I have successfully demonstrated autonomous rule-based response and detection, identification, and classification of known events and features on outer planetary bodies using the following methods: 1. Edge-detection, which identifies the planetary horizon and highlights features extending beyond the limb; 2. Spectral matching using a superpixel endmember detection algorithm that identifies mean spectral signatures; and 3. Scale invariant feature transforms combined with supervised classification, which examines brightness gradients throughout an image, highlights extreme gradient regions, and classifies those regions based on a

  7. Low Adherence to Mediterranean Diet in Portugal: Pregnant Women Nutrition in Portugal and its Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-10-01

    Portuguese population is drifting away from the Mediterranean diet-like pattern. In this context, the current nutritionalstatus of women of childbearing age and of pregnant Portuguese women and their growing fetuses is critically reviewed. A narrative critical review was performed on recent published high quality studies assessing diet and nutritional status of women of childbearing age and pregnant women and its influence on the nutritional status of their offspring. Data from five multinational ecological studies that included Portugal, two national official surveys on food availability, seven national studies on the diet and nutritional status of women of childbearing age and pregnant women, and five national studies on the effect of nutritional maternal factors on their growing fetuses were selected and analyzed. The prevalence of overweight/obesity has dramatically increased in Portuguese women of childbearing age and pregnant women, associated with the described trend of low adherence to Mediterranean diet. Variations in energy and macronutrients intakes during pregnancy seem to have no significantly impact on the nutritional status of growing fetuses. On contrary, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity has been associated with increased offspring adiposity at birth, and an excessive gestational weight gain may be associated with offspring's overweight status in childhood. Factors potentially contributing to low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, deserving further investigation, include European Union agriculture policies that have implemented the production of non-Mediterranean food groups at low cost, and insufficient financial capacity to afford foods of quality reported by Portuguese population. Retrieving traditional Mediterranean dietary habits should be incorporated into strategies for prevention and treatment ofoverweight/obesity in Portugal, especially in women of childbearing age.

  8. Novos dados sobre os Spoligotypes de estirpes do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas no Hospital Fernando Fonseca (Amadora-Sintra, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente estudo populacional, que decorreu entre 1999 e 2003, foi baseado na utilização do Spoligotyping na genotipagem de 452 isolados do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis de doentes com tuberculose internados no Hospital Fernando Fonseca. Spoligotypes foram identificados como shared types (ST recorrendo a uma base de dados internacional. Onze ST raros, não identificados na base de dados, acomodaram 8,4% dos isolados. Aliás, particular a Portugal poderá ser a predominância de ST identificados na base de dados mas não previamente classificados como famílias genotípicas, tais como o ST244, ST150 e ST389, representando 13,3 % do total. A identificação de isolados clínicos de M. africanum de genótipo Afri1 e de M. tuberculosis de genótipo CAS1 poderá confirmar a importação de isolados de origem africana e asiática. M. tuberculosis da família Beijing foi pela primeira vez por nós assinalado a partir de 1999. Desde então, o número de isolados provenientes do hospital passou de um para cinco, anualmente, representando actualmente 2,2%, o que a coloca em décimo lugar em prevalência. M. tuberculosis Beijing poderá corresponder a um problema emergente em Portugal devido à recente imigração proveniente da Europa Oriental e da Ásia. Outros genótipos, ST150 e ST389, mostraram um incremento, cujo significado não é claro. No entanto, as frequências relativas das famílias predominantes LAM, T1 e Haarlem mantiveram-se relativamente estáveis. O presente estudo confirma a variabilidade genética em Portugal dos isolados do complexo M. tuberculosis. Estes estudos poderão contribuir para a definição de prioridades nos programas nacionais de luta contra a tuberculose.Rev Port Pneumol 2005; XI (6: 513-531 Abstract: The present population study, from 1999 to 2003, has been based on the use of Spoligotyping in the genotyping of 452 isolates of

  9. Shape of lenticulae on Europa and their interaction with lineaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culha, Cansu; Manga, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The surface of Europa contains many elliptical features that have been grouped into three classes: (a) positive relief (domes), (b) negative relief (pits), or (c) complex terrain (small chaos). Collectively, these three classes of features are often called "lenticulae". The internal processes that form lenticulae are unknown. However, given that the diameters of all these features are similar, it is parsimonious to ascribe each class of feature to a different stage in the evolution of some process occurring within the ice shell. Proposed models for these features including diapirs (Sotin et al., 2002; Rathbun et al., 1998); melting above diapirs (Schmidt et al., 2011); and sills of water (Michaut and Manga, 2014). The objective of the present study is to first characterize the shape of lecticulae, and then look at the interaction of lenticulae with lineaments, in order to test lenticulae formation mechanisms. Lenticulae and lineaments are mapped and annotated on ArcGIS. We mapped a total of 57 pits and 86 domes. Both pits and domes have similar aspect ratios and orientations. The elliptical similarities of domes and pits suggest that domes and pits are surface expressions of different stages of a common process within the ice shell. The cross cutting relationships between lineaments reveal relative age. Lineaments either lie over or under the lenticulae. All of the lineament segments that appear within pits also appear topographically lower than the rest of the surface. Domes lie over and under lineaments, but unlike pits there are lineaments that lie over domes that do not vary in topography. This suggests that the lineaments that lie above lenticulae and match the lenticulae's topography are older than the lenticulae. Domes have more crossing lineaments. Therefore, on average, they appear to be older than pits. Lineaments also appear on the sides of lenticulae. There are two different ways in which adjacent lineaments appear: 1. they disrupt the shape of the

  10. Good bye, Europa del Este. La desaparición de la Europa de los dos bloques y el difícil camino hacia una nueva identidad en la Europa del Este a través del cine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrador Ben, Julia María

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Generation of distinguishing marks is described in Europe after the Revolution Of October, the use of the movies in the United States as an element in the Cold War and the European Identity after the fall of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact.Se describe la generación de señas de identidad en Europa tras la revolución de Octubre, la utilización del cine en EEUU como elemento de combate en la guerra fría, y la nueva identidad europea tras la desaparición de la URSS y el Pacto de Varsovia.

  11. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-05-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4? surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The composition of the global surfaces of Europa and Ganymede can be inferred from the measurement of ejected neutrals and pick-up ions using at minimum an in situ payload including MAG and IMS also fully capable of meeting Level 1 mission requirements for ocean detection and survey. Elemental and isotopic analysis of potentially extruded oceanic materials at the moon surfaces would further support the ocean objectives. These measurements should be made from a polar orbiting spacecraft about Europa or Ganymede at height ~ 100 km. The ejecta produced by

  12. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  13. Listeriosis in Portugal: an existing but under reported infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Paula C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeriosis is a rare disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, the normal vehicle of which is food. The disease, which is largely confined to its risk groups of pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals, has increased in incidence in recent years. In Portugal, listeriosis is not a notifiable infection and available data are scarce. The objective of this work was to collate the available information concerning listeriosis in Portugal by compiling a retrospective study of cases recorded over a decade. Methods Requests for case data on clinically confirmed listeriosis, recorded over the previous decade, were replied to by 23 hospitals and a National Institute of Health delegation. Results 35 cases of listeriosis were identified for the period between 1994 and 2003 inclusive, the mortality rate being greater than 17%. According to the data collected in this study for the year 2003, the incidence of this disease in Portugal was at least 1.4 cases per million inhabitants in that year. Conclusion The study demonstrates, for the first time in the widely available literature, that despite their being no cases of listeriosis in Portugal recorded in official reports, the threat of L. monocytogenes to public health is of a similar dimension to that in other countries.

  14. Portugal and South Africa: Close Allies or Unwilling Partners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The popular perception of the existence of a straightforward alliance between Portugal and South Africa as a result of the growing efficacy of African nationalist groups during the 1960s and early 1970s has never been seriously questioned. However, new research into recently declassified documents from the Portuguese ...

  15. Contagious equine metritis in Portugal: A retrospective report of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), a highly contagious bacterial venereal infection of equids, caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is of major international concern, causing short-term infertility in mares. Portugal has a long tradition of horse breeding and exportation and until recently was considered CEM-free. However, in ...

  16. Assessment of the sustainable offshore wind potential in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, P; Simões, T.; Estanqueiro, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The sustainable offshore wind potential for the west and south coasts of Portugal is presented. Results were carried out using an atmospheric mesoscale model and GIS tools. Unlike previous common opinions, the preliminary results show the existence of interesting areas for the developing of offshore wind parks.

  17. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  18. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  19. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  20. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...

  1. Corporate Blended Learning in Portugal: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcal, Julia; Caetano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the current status of blended learning in Portugal, given that b-learning has grown exponentially in the Portuguese market over recent years. 38 organizations (representing 68% of all institutions certified to provide distance training by the Government Labour Office--DGERT-) participated in this study. The…

  2. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  3. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  4. Mapping the networks of cancer research in Portugal: first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, O.R.; Cointet, J.P.; Nunes, J.A.; David, L.; Cambrosio, A.

    2016-07-01

    Social studies of cancer research at the international level have contributed to a better understanding of the developmental dynamics – both organizational and epistemic – of this field (Keating & Cambrosio, 2012). In contrast, despite its robust development, oncology research in Portugal has been the subject of only few studies. Most of them have a strong focus on the first half of the 20th century (Raposo, 2004; Costa, 2010, 2012a; 2012b), while a few focus on more contemporary events (Nunes, 2001). Consequently, we do not have a clear picture of recent trends in oncology research in Portugal, and how it integrates into the international landscape. This hinders public accountability of oncology research while also limiting the analysis of how this research relates to health care delivery, health outcomes, and health policy formulations. This paper presents the first results of an ongoing research project on the organizational and epistemic development of oncology research in Portugal, covering the period from the end of the 20th century to 2015. Among other issues, we intend to explore the extent to which oncology research in Portugal mirrors the international dynamics at a smaller scale, and the extent to which it presents features of its own. The study draws upon computer-based analysis of publications using the platform CorText (http://www.cortext.net/) of IFRIS (Institut Francilien Recherche, Innovation, Société), along with interviews with Portuguese oncologists and related practitioners. (Author)

  5. Science of the Joint ESA-NASA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel; Greeley, Ron

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international joint mission under study by NASA and ESA, has the overarching theme to investigate the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites—three of which are believed to harbor internal oceans—are the key to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. To this end, the reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO will execute a coordinated exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO carry sets of complementary instruments, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. Encompassed within the overall mission theme are two science goals, (1) Determine whether the Jupiter System harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes within the Jupiter System. The science objectives addressed by the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressed by the second goal are to: i) understand the

  6. Uma Estranha Diáspora Rumo a Portugal: Judeus e Cristãos-Novos Reduzidos à Fé Católica no século XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, Isabel M. R. Mendes Drumond

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a number of Jewish and new Christian people, descendants of Peninsular Jews, who arrived in Portugal in the 16th century and consequently converted to Catholicism. The source material used in this study are the Books of Converted Jews that belonged to the Holy Office of Inquisition. These books provide information on the nature of the people (age, status, birthplace, place of residence, the way they experienced their religion in different parts of Europe, and the true or apparently true reasons for their conversion.

    Este artículo aborda el tema de algunos judíos y cristianos nuevos descendientes de judíos peninsulares que, en el siglo XVII, llegaron a Portugal y se convirtieron al catolicismo. Las fuentes para este estudio son los libros de convertidos del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Éstos nos proporcionan datos acerca de las personas (edad, estado civil, lugar de nacimiento y de residencia y, especialmente, sobre la vivencia del judaísmo en diferentes partes de Europa, así como sobre las motivaciones, reales o aparentes, para la conversión.

  7. A data símbolo de 1898: o impacto da independência de Cuba na Espanha e Hispanoamérica The 1898’s symbol date: the Cuban Independence impact in Spain and Spanish America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Rolim Capelato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo analisar o impacto da Independência de Cuba nos intelectuais espanhóis e hispanoamericanos e as razões da aproximação entre eles após o evento. 1898 tornou-se uma data-símbolo pelas mudanças significativas que produziu nas concepções de escritores hispânicos sobre o papel dos Estados Unidos na América Latina e sobre o destino da Espanha após a perda de sua última colônia.The article aims to analyze the Cuban Independence impact in Spanish and Spanish American intellectuals and the approximation reasons between them after the event. 1898 became a symbol date through the significatives changes that produced in Spanish American writers about the United State’s role in Latin America and about the Spain’s destiny after the loss of the last Spanish colony in America.

  8. Adoção de prontuário eletrônico do paciente em hospitais universitários de Brasil e Espanha: a percepção de profissionais de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josivania Silva Farias

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo descreve a percepção de profissionais de saúde a respeito do prontuário eletrônico do paciente na gestão de hospitais e o impacto dessa tecnologia no trabalho. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 2009 e 2010 com 336 usuários deste prontuário, em dois hospitais universitários, sendo um no Brasil e outro na Espanha. Os participantes da pesquisa preencheram um questionário contendo respostas padronizadas em escala de concordância do tipo Likert. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais e os resultados mostram que: a esta tecnologia é percebida como um mecanismo que contribui com a gestão e a assistência hospitalar mediante mecanismos de controle; b os respondentes com maior domínio de informática concordam mais do que aqueles com menor domínio a respeito do impacto desse prontuário no respectivo desempenho; c há diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas médias de percepção do papel desse prontuário no desempenho quando considerado o tempo de serviço e o hospital (ou o país onde o participante da pesquisa trabalha. Estudos adicionais são sugeridos no final.

  9. Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation in Portugal During the First Year of Life: Results From EPACI Portugal 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo, Carla; Nazareth, Margarida; Lopes, Carla; Graça, Pedro; Pinto, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adequate nutritional status is essential for health, growth and development. Practices regarding vitamin and mineral supplementation in Portuguese infants are unknown. The objectives were to characterise vitamin and mineral supplementation practices and to quantify their association with social, demographic and health- -related factors, in a representative national sample. Methods: From the EPACI Portugal 2012 study protocol, a questionnaire that included...

  10. Benefits to the Europa Clipper Mission Provided by the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Patel, Keyur

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) proposed Europa Clipper mission would provide an unprecedented look at the icy Jovian moon, and investigate its environment to determine the possibility that it hosts life. Focused on exploring the water, chemistry, and energy conditions on the moon, the spacecraft would examine Europa's ocean, ice shell, composition and geology by performing 32 low-altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years, allowing detailed investigations of globally distributed regions of Europa. In hopes of expediting the scientific program, mission planners at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are working with the Space Launch System (SLS) program, managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. Designed to be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, SLS is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS rocket will offer an initial low-Earth-orbit lift capability of 70 metric tons (t) beginning with a first launch in 2017 and will then evolve into a 130 t Block 2 version. While the primary focus of the development of the initial version of SLS is on enabling human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit using the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the rocket offers unique benefits to robotic planetary exploration missions, thanks to the high characteristic energy it provides. This paper will provide an overview of both the proposed Europa Clipper mission and the Space Launch System vehicle, and explore options provided to the Europa Clipper mission for a launch within a decade by a 70 t version of SLS with a commercially available 5-meter payload fairing, through comparison with a baseline of current Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) capabilities. Compared to that baseline, a mission to the Jovian system could reduce transit times to less than half, or increase mass to more than double, among other benefits. In addition to these primary benefits, the paper will

  11. The Resolved Asteroid Program - Size, shape, and pole of (52) Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.; Drummond, J. D.; Carry, B.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Dumas, C.; Kaasalainen, M.; Erikson, A.; Mottola, S.; Ďurech, J.; Rousseau, G.; Behrend, R.; Casalnuovo, G. B.; Chinaglia, B.; Christou, J. C.; Chapman, C. R.; Neyman, C.

    2013-07-01

    With the adaptive optics (AO) system on the 10 m Keck-II telescope, we acquired a high quality set of 84 images at 14 epochs of asteroid (52) Europa on 2005 January 20, when it was near opposition. The epochs covered its 5.63 h rotation period and, by following its changing shape and orientation on the plane of sky, we obtained its triaxial ellipsoid dimensions and spin pole location. An independent determination from images at three epochs obtained in 2007 is in good agreement with these results. By combining these two data sets, along with a single epoch data set obtained in 2003, we have derived a global fit for (52) Europa of diameters a × b × c = (379 × 330 × 249) ± (16 × 8 × 10) km, yielding a volume-equivalent spherical-diameter of √abc3 =315±7km, and a prograde rotational pole within 7° of [RA; Dec] = [257°; +12°] in an Equatorial J2000 reference frame (Ecliptic: 255°; +35°). Using the average of all mass determinations available for (52) Europa, we derive a density of 1.5 ± 0.4 g cm-3, typical of C-type asteroids. Comparing our images with the shape model of Michalowski et al. (2004, Astron. Astrophys. 416, 353), derived from optical lightcurves, illustrates excellent agreement, although several edge features visible in the images are not rendered by the model. We therefore derived a complete 3-D description of (52) Europa's shape using the KOALA algorithm by combining our 18 AO imaging epochs with 4 stellar occultations and 49 lightcurves. We use this 3-D shape model to assess these departures from ellipsoidal shape. Flat facets (possible giant craters) appear to be less distinct on (52) Europa than on other C-types that have been imaged in detail, (253) Mathilde and (511) Davida. We show that fewer giant craters, or smaller largest-sized craters, is consistent with its expected impact history. Overall, asteroid (52) Europa is still well modeled as a smooth triaxial ellipsoid with dimensions constrained by observations obtained over

  12. The crustal tectonics and history of Europa: A structural, morphological, and comparative analysis. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of surface features and structures on the Galilean moon Europa is made using the available high resolution Voyager imagery, low resolution support imaging, and what understanding of ice structure and mechanical behavior science has that is applicable to the problem. A general discussion of the history of Europa studies and the fundamental global morphology is undertaken. The visible lineament and terrain patterns are described, and possible origins discussed. Observations of faulting and block rotation previously described are amplified. A comparison of Europa's structures to terrestrial sea ice and lava lake crust features is also included. Finally, an attempt is made at synthesizing a unified model for the evolution of Europa's crust is presented which is compared with models developed by others.

  13. Poderes probatorios de las partes y del juez en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Taruffo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo desmenuza con fuerza argumental, de fuentes, histórica y con pleno conocimiento del derecho procesal civil comparado los distintos postulados políticos, ideológicos y meta jurídicos contra el poder probatorio del juez en el proceso. Para el autor tres son los sistemas existentes en materia de actividad probatoria del juez en Europa: todos - en más o en menos - admiten la actividad probatoria de oficio por el juez. La conclusión es lapidaria: el asiento liberal de los críticos a esta realidad no es ni coherente ni preciso y que refieren al liberalismo del siglo XIX en los que estuvo vigente las concepciones del proceso civil típico del individualismo propietario. Consideraciones generales de este género serían probablemente suficientes para demostrar que las ecuaciones del tipo «poderes de instrucción del juez = régimen autoritario» y «juez pasivo = régimen liberal» son vagas y genéricas, y se reducen a slogans polémicos faltos de valor científico. Ello es, resulta un sofisma el "juez activo autoritario versus juez pasivo liberal". Existen así numerosos sistemas demócratas en los que el juez cuenta con amplios poderes de instrucción, como ocurre p.e. en Francia, en Suiza y en Alemania. En sustancia, cada decisión no es «buena» sólo porque pone punto final al conflicto; la decisión es «buena» si pone punto final al conflicto siendo fundada en criterios legales y racionales, entre los que asume importancia particular la veracidad de la comprobación de los hechos. Si se piensa en un «buen» juez, capaz de ejercer correctamente y racionalmente sus poderes, no hay razón de temer que él se vuelva parcial, e incapaz de valorar las pruebas, por el sólo hecho de haber dispuesto o sugerido su adquisición. Sólo si se piensa en un juez incapaz y psíquicamente débil se puede temer que él pierda su propia imparcialidadThe article treats different political and ideological and the meta judicial postulates

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  15. Estratigrafía secuencial de las sucesiones Estefanienses del sector septentrional de Picos de Europa (Asturias)

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Tomé, O.; Colmenero, Juan Ramón; Bahamonde, Juan R.; Fernández, Luis P.

    2004-01-01

    The Stephanian successions croppingbut in the Gamonedo-Cabrales-Panes sector (Northern part of Picos de Europa Region) where deposited in tectonic active basins developed during the southward trhusting and transport of the Picos the Europa Allocthonous unit. These successions had been subdivided in eleven sequences that can be grouped in two sequence sets. Sequences equals to third and fourth order cycles and sequence sets represent second order ones. A higher order cyclicity is present In so...

  16. La educación superior a distancia y el e-Learning en las prisiones en Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La enseñanza superior en Europa ha venido experimentando grandes transformaciones gracias a los avances tecnológicos y a los cambios derivados del proceso de Bolonia, que prevé la creación de condiciones para que todos tengan acceso al aprendizaje, independientemente de factores de exclusión social, como la reclusión. La subsiguiente masificación del acceso a la Enseñanza Superior exige una oferta educativa flexible, centrada en el estudiante e inclusiva: son estas las prioridades de la Educación a Distancia de la Universidade Aberta en Portugal. Este artículo tiene como objetivo conocer las impresiones de veintiséis individuos (estudiantes, candidatos a estudiantes y técnicos superiores de reeducación sobre la realidad de la Enseñanza Superior en la modalidad de Educación a Distancia y aprendizaje virtual (e-Learning en una cárcel portuguesa. Este estudio se encuadra en un paradigma no positivista y hace hincapié en la percepción de los individuos, recurriendo a una metodología de carácter cualitativo. Los resultados, obtenidos mediante entrevistas, revelan la existencia de enormes debilidades y limitaciones en el proceso educativo, debido, sobre todo, a la falta de instalaciones y medios, recursos pedagógicos y tecnológicos, y apoyo de los profesores. Se ha concluido que es fundamental crear mejores condiciones de asistencia a distancia en las cárceles, porque esta formación superior puede ser una oportunidad de cualificación profesional y desarrollo personal, que incrementa sus perspectivas de éxito en el futuro.

  17. A Rosa brasileira que incendiou a questão religiosa em Portugal: o Caso Calmon (1899–1901

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Corrêa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No processo de progressiva secularização da sociedade, que, na Europa e na América, ganhou renovado fôlego a partir de finais do século XIX, as relações entre Estado e Igreja assumiram muitas vezes uma dinâmica conflituosa a que a historiografia convencionou chamar de "questão religiosa". Neste artigo, proponho-me a analisar um momento alto dessa tensão relacional em Portugal a partir de um episódio concreto que, por uma convergência de circunstâncias e predisposições, se transformou num marco simbólico do processo de laicização da sociedade portuguesa. Trata-se da polêmica gerada em torno da vocação religiosa da filha do cônsul do Brasil na cidade do Porto - caso que conduziu a um dos mais acesos e participados debates sobre religiosidade, direitos individuais e confessionalidade do Estado, envolvendo instâncias governamentais e sociedade civil numa mobilização até então nunca vista em assuntos dessa natureza. Anticongreganismo, anticlericalismo e militância laica foram os protagonistas desse episódio, que envolveu cidadãos e chancelarias brasileiras e no qual é possível identificar, com toda a clareza, as linhas de clivagem as quais viriam mais tarde a determinar os contornos da questão religiosa durante o regime republicano, entre 1910 e 1926.

  18. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastra Juan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compare traditional knowledge and use of wild edible plants in six rural regions of the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula as follows: Campoo, Picos de Europa, Piloña, Sanabria and Caurel in Spain and Parque Natural de Montesinho in Portugal. Methods Data on the use of 97 species were collected through informed consent semi-structured interviews with local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document the relative importance of each species and to indicate differences in selection criteria for consuming wild food species in the regions studied. Results and discussion The most significant species include many wild berries and nuts (e.g. Castanea sativa, Rubus ulmifolius, Fragaria vesca and the most popular species in each food-category (e.g. fruits or herbs used to prepare liqueurs such as Prunus spinosa, vegetables such as Rumex acetosa, condiments such as Origanum vulgare, or plants used to prepare herbal teas such as Chamaemelum nobile. The most important species in the study area as a whole are consumed at five or all six of the survey sites. Conclusion Social, economic and cultural factors, such as poor communications, fads and direct contact with nature in everyday life should be taken into account in determining why some wild foods and traditional vegetables have been consumed, but others not. They may be even more important than biological factors such as richness and abundance of wild edible flora. Although most are no longer consumed, demand is growing for those regarded as local specialties that reflect regional identity.

  19. Europa's opposition surge in the near-infrared: interpreting disk-integrated observations by Cassini VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Damon P.; Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2004-11-01

    Near-infrared observations of Europa's disk-integrated opposition surge by Cassini VIMS, first published in Fig. 4 of Brown et al. (2003, Icarus, 164, 461), have now been modeled with the commonly used Hapke photometric function. The VIMS data set emphasizes observations at 16 solar phase angles from 0.4° to 0.6°—the first time the Effect (SHOE) and the Coherent Backscatter Opposition Effect (CBOE). Because of sparse VIMS phase coverage, it is not possible to constrain all the surge parameters at once in a Hapke function that has both SHOE and CBOE; accordingly, we performed separate Hapke fits for SHOE-only and CBOE-only surges. At 2.25 μm, where VIMS data are somewhat noisy, both types of surges can mimic the slope of the VIMS phase curve at SHOE of matching the VIMS phase coefficient at SHOE component, even at wavelengths where Europa is bright.

  20. Early Formulation Model-centric Engineering on NASA's Europa Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Todd; Chung, Seung; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Chris; Gontijo, Ivair; Lewis, Kari; Moshir, Mehrdad; Rasmussen, Robert; hide

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter and Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter missions were formulated using current state-of-the-art MBSE facilities: - JPL's TeamX, Rapid Mission Architecting - ESA's Concurrent Design Facility - APL's ACE Concurrent Engineering Facility. When JEO became an official "pre-project" in Sep 2010, we had already developed a strong partnership with JPL's Integrated Model Centric Engineering (IMCE) initiative; decided to apply Architecting and SysML-based MBSE from the beginning, begun laying these foundations to support work in Phase A. Release of Planetary Science Decadal Survey and FY12 President's Budget in March 2011 changed the landscape. JEO reverted to being a pre-phase A study. A conscious choice was made to continue application of MBSE on the Europa Study, refocused for early formulation. This presentation describes the approach, results, and lessons.

  1. A Segurança Energética da Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, António Costa

    2007-01-01

    O problema da Segurança Energética da Europa tem vindo a assumir um crescente protagonismo no debate político e estratégico tendo em conta o contexto actual do preço alto do petróleo e do gás e o impacto nos preços da energia. As fragilidades da Europa são patentes quando se olha para a crescente dificuldade das companhias europeias em terem acesso a novas reservas de petróleo e gás, ao declínio acentuado da produção no Mar do Norte, à onda crescente de nacionali...

  2. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  3. Two-Pendulum Model of Propellant Slosh in Europa Clipper PMD Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wanyi; Benson, David

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this fluids analysis is to model propellant slosh for the Europa Clipper mission using a two-pendulum model, such that controls engineers can predict slosh behavior during the mission. Propellant slosh causes shifts in center of mass and exerts forces and torques on the spacecraft which, if not adequately controlled, can lead to mission failure. The two-pendulum model provides a computationally simple model that can be used to predict slosh for the Europa Clipper tank geometry. The Europa Clipper tank is cylindrical with a domed top and bottom and includes a propellant management device (PMD). Due to the lack of experimental data in low gravity environments, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results were used as 'real' slosh behavior for two propellants at three fill fractions. Key pendulum parameters were derived that allow the pendulum model's center of mass, forces, and moments to closely match the CFD data. The parameter trends were examined as a function of tank fill fraction and compared with solutions to analytic equations that describe the frequency of slosh in tanks with simple geometries. The trends were monotonic as expected, and parameters resembled analytical predictions; any differences could be explained by the specific differences in the geometry of the tank. This paper summarizes the new method developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for deriving pendulum parameters for two-pendulum equivalent sloshing models. It presents the results of this method and discusses the validity of the results. This analysis is at a completed stage and will be applied in the immediate future to the evolving tank geometry as Europa Clipper moves past its preliminary design review (PDR) phase.

  4. Two-Pendulum Model of Propellant Slosh in Europa Clipper PMD Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wanyi; Benson, David

    2017-01-01

    Model propellant slosh for Europa Clipper using two pendulums such that controls engineers can predict slosh behavior during the mission. Importance of predicting propellant slosh; (1) Sloshing changes CM (center of mass) of spacecraft and exerts forces and torques on spacecraft. (2) Avoid natural frequencies of structures. (3) Size ACS (Attitude Control Systems) thrusters to counteract forces and torques. Can model sloshing fluid as two pendulums with specific parameters (mass, length, damping),

  5. Science Goals, Objectives, and Investigations of the 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Kevin P.; Murray, Alison; Garvin, James; and the Europa Lander Science Definition Team, Project Science Team, and Project Engineering Team.

    2017-10-01

    In June of 2016 NASA convened a 21-person team of scientists to establish the science goals, objectives, investigations, measurement requirements, and model payload of a Europa lander mission concept. The NASA HQ Charter goals, in priority order, are as follows:1) Search for evidence of life on Europa, 2) Assess the habitability of Europa via in situ techniques uniquely available to a lander mission, 3) Characterize surface and subsurface properties at the scale of the lander to support future exploration of Europa.Within Goal 1, four Objectives were developed for seeking signs of life. These include the need to: a) detect and characterize any organic indicators of past or present life, b) identify and characterize morphological, textural, and other indicators of life, c) detect and characterize any inorganic indicators of past or present life, and d) determine the provenance of Lander-sampled material. Goal 2 focuses on Europa’s habitability and ensures that even in the absence of the detection of any potential biosignatures, significant ocean world science is still achieved. Goal 3 ensures that the landing site region is quantitatively characterized in the context needed for Goals 1 and 2, and that key measurements about Europa’s ice shell are made to enable future exploration.Critically, scientific success cannot be, and should never be, contingent on finding signs of life - such criteria would be levying requirements on how the universe works. Rather, scientific success is defined here as achieving a suite of measurements such that if convincing signs of life are present on Europa’s surface they could be detected at levels comparable to those found in benchmark environments on Earth, and, further, that even if no potential biosignatures are detected, the science return of the mission will significantly advance our fundamental understanding of Europa’s chemistry, geology, geophysics, and habitability.

  6. Exogenic controls on sulfuric acid hydrate production at the surface of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Cassidy, T.; Paranicas, C.; Shirley, J. H.; Prockter, L. M.; Kamp, L. W.

    2013-03-01

    External agents have heavily weathered the visible surface of Europa. Internal and external drivers competing to produce the surface we see include, but are not limited to: aqueous alteration of materials within the icy shell, initial emplacement of endogenic material by geologic activity, implantation of exogenic ions and neutrals from Jupiter's magnetosphere, alteration of surface chemistry by radiolysis and photolysis, impact gardening of upper surface layers, and redeposition of sputtered volatiles. Separating the influences of these processes is critical to understanding the surface and subsurface compositions at Europa. Recent investigations have applied cryogenic reflectance spectroscopy to Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) observations to derive abundances of surface materials including water ice, hydrated sulfuric acid, and hydrated sulfate salts. Here we compare derived sulfuric acid hydrate (H2SO4·nH2O) abundance with weathering patterns and intensities associated with charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere. We present models of electron energy, ion energy, and sulfur ion number flux as well as the total combined electron and ion energy flux at the surface to estimate the influence of these processes on surface concentrations, as a function of location. We found that correlations exist linking both electron energy flux (r∼0.75) and sulfur ion flux (r=0.93) with the observed abundance of sulfuric acid hydrate on Europa. Sulfuric acid hydrate production on Europa appears to be limited in some regions by a reduced availability of sulfur ions, and in others by insufficient levels of electron energy. The energy delivered by sulfur and other ions has a much less significant role. Surface deposits in regions of limited exogenic processing are likely to bear closest resemblance to oceanic composition. These results will assist future efforts to separate the relative influence of endogenic and exogenic sources in establishing the

  7. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons--Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto--may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  8. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  9. An Impacting Descent Probe for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, P.; Lasi, D.; Thomas, N.; Piazza, D.; Galli, A.; Jutzi, M.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Magnes, W.; Lammer, H.; Auster, U.; Gurvits, L. I.; Hajdas, W.

    2017-08-01

    We present a study of an impacting descent probe that increases the science return of spacecraft orbiting or passing an atmosphere-less planetary bodies of the solar system, such as the Galilean moons of Jupiter. The descent probe is a carry-on small spacecraft (<100 kg), to be deployed by the mother spacecraft, that brings itself onto a collisional trajectory with the targeted planetary body in a simple manner. A possible science payload includes instruments for surface imaging, characterisation of the neutral exosphere, and magnetic field and plasma measurement near the target body down to very low-altitudes ( 1 km), during the probe's fast ( km/s) descent to the surface until impact. The science goals and the concept of operation are discussed with particular reference to Europa, including options for flying through water plumes and after-impact retrieval of very-low altitude science data. All in all, it is demonstrated how the descent probe has the potential to provide a high science return to a mission at a low extra level of complexity, engineering effort, and risk. This study builds upon earlier studies for a Callisto Descent Probe for the former Europa-Jupiter System Mission of ESA and NASA, and extends them with a detailed assessment of a descent probe designed to be an additional science payload for the NASA Europa Mission.

  10. Transición y migraciones en Europa central y oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viruela Martínez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La caída del muro de Berlín en 1989 y los cambios políticos y económicos que desde entonces se han sucedido en Europa central y oriental han tenido una gran incidencia en las migraciones europeas. La apertura de fronteras, la crisis económica, la inestabilidad política y los conflictos étnicos han acelerado las corrientes migratorias. El gran número de inmigrantes registrado en los primeros años hizo temer a Occidente una avalancha de personas huyendo de la miseria y el hambre. Sin embargo, se ha comprobado que el flujo ha sido modesto y que ha experimentado cambios notables en fecha reciente. Así, disminuye la emigración permanente y aumentan los desplazamientos temporales y de corta duración, al tiempo que Europa central y oriental recibe emigrantes de muy diversa procedencia, muchos de ellos en tránsito hacia Europa Occidental y América del Norte. La Unión Europea ha exigido a los futuros socios la adopción de normas acordes con las políticas migratorias vigentes en Occidente.

  11. Europa's Alfvén wing: shrinkage and displacement influenced by an induced magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Volwerk

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Galileo magnetometer data are used to investigate the structure of the Alfvén wing during three flybys of Europa. The presence of an induced magnetic field is shown to shrink the cross section of the Alfvén wing and offset it along the direction radial to Jupiter. Both the shrinkage and the offset depend on the strength of the induced field. The entry and exit points of the spacecraft into and out of the Alfvén wings are modeled to determine the angle between the wings and the background magnetic field. Tracing of the Alfvén characteristics in a model magnetic field consisting of Jupiter's background field and an induced field in Europa produces an offset and shrinking of the Alfvén wing consistent with the geometric modeling. Thus we believe that the Alfvén wing properties have been determined correctly. The Alfvén wing angle is directly proportional to the local Alfvén velocity, and is thus a probe for the local plasma density. We show that the inferred plasma density can be understood in terms of the electron density measured by the plasma wave experiment. When Europa is located in the Jovian plasma sheet the derived mass-per-charge exceeds the previous estimates, which is a result of increased pickup of sputtered ions near the moon. The estimated rate of O2+ pickup agrees well with the results from numerical models.

  12. Can a future mission detect a habitable ecosystem on Europa, or Ganymede?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2010-05-01

    The considerable evidence for the presence of a liquid ocean over a silicate core makes Europa a candidate for the emergence of a second evolutionary pathway of autochthonous life. The most urgent question in astrobiology is the origin of habitable ecosystems—a question in geochemistry—rather than the alternative search for the origin of life itself—a question in chemical evolution (Chela-Flores, 2010). Since certain bodies may share a similar geophysical past with the Earth, a question suggests itself: Can available instrumentation be the ‘pioneer' in the discovery of habitable ecosystems in geophysical environments similar to the early Earth, where oceans were in contact with a silicate core? A central aspect of this dilemma is the element sulphur (S). A reliable window on the nature of the early terrestrial habitable ecosystems is the Pilbara Craton (Australia), a rich fossiliferous archive of the early steps of evolution, having preserved details of ancient hydrothermal vents. It contains a 3.47 Ga barite deposit with microfossils of a complex set of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Shen and Buick, 2004). The large spread in the delta 34S values provides the earliest reliable biomarker from the early Earth. Europa may represent the only other case in the Solar System in which liquid water has been in contact with a silicate core over geologic time in perfect analogy with the early Earth (Bland et al., 2009). The following hypothesis is forced upon us: The presence of hydrothermal activity at the interface of the silicate core and the Europan ocean can provide a variety of biogenic chemicals that play a role in sustaining microbial life at the ocean floor. This is the source of microbial life elsewhere in the ocean and of biomarkers on its icy surface. This hypothesis is subject to a feasible experimental test: Europa's non-ice surficial elements were found to be widespread, patchy and, most likely, endogenous. We argue that penetrators should be inserted in

  13. Generation of construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    In line with the growing concern around the world about construction and demolition waste (CDW) management, an attempt has been made to quantify the amount of CDW generated in Portugal, a country where no reliable/official data exist. This is an increasingly important concern of companies, businesses and municipalities involved with CDW, in a context of rising demands and more demanding recent legislation. One methodology is presented to quantify the present generation, and another to extrapolate this generation over the next few years, up to 2020. It is concluded that at present substantially less CDW is generated than the figure usually cited for Portugal, based on Spanish estimates, although it is predicted that this value will be higher on a 10-15 year timescale, reaching over 400 kg person⁻¹ year⁻¹.

  14. Cyanobateria and toxicity: public health impact in Portugal and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bellém, Fernando; Nunes,Susana; Morais,Manuela; Fonseca, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Um aumento da concentração de nutrientes na água poderá desencadear fluorescências de cianobactérias (densidades >200 cel/mL). Sob determinadas condições as cianobactérias produzem toxinas responsáveis pelo envenenamento de animais e humanos. O objetivo deste estudo é relacionar a ocorrência de fluorescências toxicas em Portugal e no Brasil. Para tal, em 2005 e 2006 foi estudado o fitoplâncton em três reservatórios em Portugal (região sul) e dois no Brasil (Minas Gerais e Pará). Comparativame...

  15. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks.

  16. Escribiendo la reconquista: la consolidación de la memoria histórica en el Portugal del siglo XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen LAY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante el siglo XII los portugueses experimentaron un alto nivel de agitación política y social, así como la amenaza militar planteada por los estados vecinos fue agravada por un reto cultural que provenía de la Europa latino-cristiana. En un esfuerzo por darle a su propia sociedad un contexto, los portugueses dirigieron sus miradas a un pasado lejano. Una serie de autores que trabajaron en Portugal durante este periodo nos han dado su visión particular de la invasión islámica del siglo VIII, de la consiguiente Reconquista y de la evolución de la relación entre cristianos y musulmanes en la Península Ibérica. En ese esfuerzo por contextualizar su propio mundo, estos autores han proporcionado al lector moderno una visión excepcional de una sociedad medieval de frontera que estaba inmersa en un proceso de rápidos cambios.

  17. Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC): Times series evidence from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Jalil, Abdul; Dube, Smile

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides empirical evidence of an EKC – a relationship between income and environmental degradation for Portugal by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to times series data. In order to capture Portugal’s historical experience, demographic changes, and international trade on CO2 emissions, we assess the traditional income-emissions model with variables such as energy consumption, urbanization, and trade openness in time series framework. There is evidence o...

  18. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Carla; Sousa, Sérgio Ramalho; Anastácio, Sofia; Matias, Maria Goreti; Marquês, Inês; Mascarenhas, Salvador; Vieira, Maria João; Carvalho, Luís Madeira de; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a nematode that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing mild to severe symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis, lacrimation, epiphora, blepharospasm, keratitis and even corneal ulceration) in infected animals. This report describes an autochthonous case of thelaziosis in a cat from the central region of Portugal, representing the most occidental record of thelaziosis in Europe. Adult nematodes recovered f...

  19. Essential and toxic elements in fish products consumed in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Helena Maria Gomes, 1964-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Bioquímica (Bioquímica Farmacêutica e Toxicológica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Fishery and aquaculture products are considered indispensables in balanced diets, partly because they have high protein content and are an excellent source of almost elements, considered to be essential for man. However, such products can, in a certain extent, be contaminated with some chemicals, like toxic elements, coming from several sources. In Portugal these p...

  20. LANGUAGE SCHOOLS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDYING PROGRAMS IN PORTUGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Hritchenko, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the description and characterizing of language schools and foreign language studying programs in Portugal. The relevance of language learning for professional, mobility, self-developing means is shown. The main courses and programs are observed and the advantages and disadvantages of each of them are given. It is stated that Portuguese courses mostly follow the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. A small synopsis of the abilities for each level is p...

  1. Female visualities: exhibitions of womens artists in Brazil and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Corrêa e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one of the most known regenerating means, re-signifying and diffuser of visualities: the museum’s exhibitions. We intend to demonstrate the importance of this type of event in the museum’s context and for the society, from a perspective that integrates sociomuseology and gender. These concepts were applied to a comparative analysis of two new recents exhibitions dedicated to the artist women, seen in cases of Brazil and Portugal.

  2. Regional differences in intelligence and per capita income in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Leandro S.; Lemos, Gina C.; Lynn, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ and per capita incomes are presented for five regions of Portugal: North, North Central, Lisbon-Central, Lisbon-Suburb, and South. Regional IQs were calculated from a representative sample of 4548 Portuguese school students from 5th to 12th grades. The average IQ and average incomes are highest in Central Lisbon. The results show a positive association between IQs and average regional incomes, as it has been observed in other countries.

  3. [Patterns and specific features of immigration in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F L

    1997-06-01

    "With...present international migration trends as its scenario, this article analyses the growth of immigration in Portugal, emphasising four main aspects: the balance between immigration and the recent resumption of emigration; the factors which have favoured the entry of immigrants; the composition of these immigrants in terms of country of origin; and the specific characteristics of Portuguese immigration in the context of the European Union." (EXCERPT)

  4. The Sport Consumption in Portugal: Very First Gross Results

    OpenAIRE

    José Viseu

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to present a survey designed to describe and to explain the extension and the structure of the demand of sport merchandise and sport services in Portugal. The Portuguese population is questioned for the first time directly on their sport expenditures. The presented survey contributes with representative and quantitative scientific data to understand the economy of sport. The results of this survey will help decision-making in Science, Politics, Econo...

  5. The Sport Consumption in Portugal : survey presentation and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Viseu, José

    2001-01-01

    CISEP (2001) The main objective of the present paper is to present a survey designed to describe and to explain the extension and the structure of the demand of sport merchandise and sport services in Portugal. The Portuguese population is questioned for the first time directly on their sport expenditures. The presented survey contributes with representative and quantitative scientific data to understand the economy of sport. The results of this survey will help decision-making in Scien...

  6. Health Cluster Portugal : origem e caracterização

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Helder; Cavaleiro, Célia; Marques, Teresa Sá

    2010-01-01

    The Health Cluster Portugal (HCP) is a formal institution that aims to increase competitiveness in the research, design, development, manufacture and trade of innovative products and services in the health sector. The set up of this interface was the result of a bottom-up initiative, within the framework of the Norte 2015 debate on policies designed to foster competitiveness based on innovation. It was inspired in the triple helix model with the aim of engaging university, industrial and Stat...

  7. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest a biogenic interpretation of the sulfur patches on the Europan icy surface. This hypothesis is testable by LAPLACE, or a later mission, in which the instrumentation on board are penetrators, or ion traps, with component selection including miniaturized mass spectrometry. The argument in favor of such instrumentation and component selection is as follows: Extreme environments with microbes can act as models for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach et al., 2008). Suggestions have ranged from Venusian environments (Sagan, 1967, Seckbach and Libby, 1970) to Mars (Grilli Caiola and Billi, 2007). Active photosynthetic microbial communities are found on Antarctica, both in and on ice, in fresh water, in saline lakes and streams and within rocks. In the dry valley lakes of Antarctica close to the McMurdo Base, microbial mats are known to selectively remove a huge quantity of sulfur (Parker et al., 1982). Lake Vostok in Antarctica possesses a perennially thick (3 to 4 km) ice-cover that precludes photosynthesis, thus making this subglacial environment a good model system for determining how a potential Europan biota might emerge, evolve and distribute itself. Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a subsurface water ocean, which lies beneath an ice layer that might be too thick to allow photosynthesis, just as in Lake Vostok. However, disequilibrium chemistry driven by charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere could produce sufficient organic and oxidant molecules for an Europan biosphere (Chyba, 2000). We restrict our attention to microbial mats that could still be thriving in spite of the extreme conditions of radiation on Europa. We are especially concerned with sulfur patches discovered by the Galileo mission. In the near future there are technologies available to settle the question of habitability on Europa, such as penetrators that are currently being developed for preliminary trials nearer to the Earth—the Moon-Lite mission (Smith et al., 2008). If analogies

  8. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  9. Padrões de diversidade mitocondrial da abelha melífera em Portugal continental

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Henriques, Dora; Neto, Margarida; Guedes, Helena

    2013-01-01

    A distribuição natural da abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L.) abrange a África, a Europa e o Médio Oriente (Figura 1). Esta ampla área geográfica é ocupada por 30 subespécies (raças geográficas) de abelhas (Ruttner 1988; Engel 1999; Sheppard e Meixner 2003; Meixner et al. 2011) que têm sido agrupadas em quatro linhagens (Ruttner 1988), nomeadamente: a linhagem do Médio Oriente (O), a linhagem Africana (A), a linhagem da Europa oriental (C) e a linhagem da Europa ...

  10. History of Astronomy in Portugal: Theories, Institutions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In Portugal, throughout its history, astronomy was developed in the context of the mathematical sciences. During the times of Portugal's Maritime Discoveries, astronomical navigation was based on spherical trigonometry, and therefore it was the mathematicians who taught astronomy to the pilots. During the 17th century, basic notions of astronomy were taught in mathematical courses in the University and in the main Jesuit colleges. This tradition continued in the 18th century, so it is no wonder that one of the most influent Portuguese astronomers during this period was the mathematician José Monteiro da Rocha. During the 19th century the new centres of science teaching, as the Polytechnic School in Lisbon, or the Polytechnic Academy in Oporto, developed astronomy teaching and research in the context of the mathematics subjects. The inheritors of these 19th century institutions, respectively the Faculties of Sciences of Lisbon and Oporto, upheld this tradition until the final decades of 20th century and continued to consider astronomy as a subject to be taught in their mathematics departments. This Meeting aims at outlining several perspectives on the history of astronomy in Portugal, particularly analysing its ties with mathematical sciences and astronomy applications. The Meeting is organised by the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon (MCUL) with CMAF, CMUC, CMUP and the CIUHCT, and is included in CIM events. It is integrated in the commemorations of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009).

  11. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  12. Regulation of clinical research and bioethics in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fatima Lampreia

    2007-06-01

    This article presents an overview of the Portuguese transposition of the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (2001/20/E) concerning scientific and academic debates on bioethics and clinical investigation. Since the Directive was transposed into Portuguese law by its National Assembly, the bureaucracy of clinical trials has been ever more complex. Despite demands for swift application processes by the Pharmaceutical industry, supported by the European Parliament, the Directive's transcription to the national law has not always delivered the expected outcome. However, this has led to an increased number of applications for clinical trials in Portuguese hospitals. In this article I revise bioethical publications and decree-laws enabling an informed appraisal of the anxieties and prospects for the implementation of the clinical trials Directive in Portugal. This article also places the European Directive in the field of sociology of bioethics, arguing that Portuguese bioethical institutions differ from those of the US, and also from Northern European counterparts. The main divergence is that those people in Portugal who claim expertise in 'legal' bioethics do not dominate either the bureaucratic structure of research or ethics committees for health. Even experts in the applied ethics field now claim that 'professional bioethicists do not exist'. The recent creation of a national Ethics Committee for Clinical Investigation (CEIC) in line with the European Directive on Good Clinical Practice (GCP) will not change the present imbalance between different professional jurisdictions in the national bioethical debate in Portugal.

  13. La electricidad en las relaciones España-Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetano Espejo Marín

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ELECTRICITY AND THE RELATIONS BETWEEN SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. From the early 1960s onwards, Spain and Portugal have maintained far-reaching programs for the exchange of electric power. These contacts have afforded, on the one hand, an increase in the security of electricity supply for both countries and, on the other, a better exploitation of their particular energy resources. The likely launching of the Iberian Electricity Market in April 2004 will lead to a new phase in the relations between Portugal and Spain. The new Market is based on three essential elements: i the expansion of electric links along their shared national borders, ii the setting up of a lone Operator for the single Iberian Market and iii the coordination of the two Operators that exist nowadays, RED ELÉCTRICA DE ESPAÑA and REDE ELÉCTRICA NACIONAL. The Iberian Electricity Market will be the first to comprise countries of the European Community only and it will generate one-tenth of the electric power consumed in Europe, being the fourth largest producer.

  14. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  15. A Família Homoparental na Ficção Televisiva: As Práticas Narrativas do Brasil e da Espanha como Relatos das Novas Representações Afetivo-Amorosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Martins Mesquita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o tratamento da família homoparental nas televisões do Brasil e Espanha. Destaca-se a interdisciplinaridade entre família, sociedade e ficção através de um recorte das obras Hospital Central (Telecinco, 2000-2012 e Páginas da Vida (Rede Globo, 2006-2007, com análise, em ambos os casos, de atributos de uma família homoparental de cada, e análise textual de conteúdo. Foi aplicada também técnica de suporte metodológico por meio de questionários com coletivos homossexuais dos dois países, a fim de obter dados sobre consumo e percepção. Os resultados encontrados ratificam a representação articulada entre desejo e tradição nas relações, e a tendência das obras de evitar o estereótipo homossexual. Observa-se a prática narrativa atrevida da série espanhola e o tratamento aprofundado de um casal formado por duas mulheres, à diferença da novela brasileira, em que o amor entre dois homens apresentou restrição na abordagem afetivo-amorosa e paterno-filial. Finalmente, detectam-se elementos para uma nova linha de estudo internacional: a família homoparental na televisão.

  16. Antioxidant activities of some local bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubir, Titov

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health.

  17. Assessing the potential for measuring Europa's tidal Love number h2 using radar sounder and topographic imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, G.; Schroeder, D. M.; Haynes, M. S.; Hussmann, H.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal Love number h2 is a key geophysical measurement for the characterization of Europa's interior, especially of its outer ice shell if a subsurface ocean is present. We performed numerical simulations to assess the potential for estimating h2 using altimetric measurements with a combination of radar sounding and stereo imaging data. The measurement principle exploits both delay and Doppler information in the radar surface return in combination with topography from a digital terrain model (DTM). The resulting radar range measurements at cross-over locations can be used in combination with radio science Doppler data for an improved trajectory solution and for estimating the h2 Love number. Our simulation results suggest that the absolute accuracy of h2 from the joint analysis of REASON (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface) surface return and EIS (Europa Imaging System) DTM data will be in the range of 0.04-0.17 assuming full radio link coverage. The error is controlled by the SNR budget and DTM quality, both dependent on the surface properties of Europa. We estimate that this would unambiguously confirm (or reject) the global ocean hypothesis and, in combination with a nominal radio-science based measurement of the tidal Love number k2, constrain the thickness of Europa's outer ice shell to up to ±15 km.

  18. Lyman Alpha Camera for Io's SO2 atmosphere and Europa's water plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Sandel, Bill; Schneider, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The Student Lyman-Alpha Mapper (SLAM) was conceived for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission proposal (McEwen et al., 2014) to determine the spatial and temporal variations in Io's SO2 atmosphere by recording the H Ly-α reflection over the disk (Feldman et al., 2000; Feaga et al., 2009). SO2 absorbs at H Ly-α, thereby modulating the brightness of sunlight reflected by the surface, and measures the density of the SO2 atmosphere and its variability with volcanic activity and time of day. Recently, enhancements at the Ly-α wavelength (121.57 nm) were seen near the limb of Europa and interpreted as active water plumes ~200 km high (Roth et al., 2014). We have a preliminary design for a very simple camera to image in a single bandpass at Ly-α, analogous to a simplified version of IMAGE EUV (Sandel et al. 2000). Our goal is at least 50 resolution elements across Io and/or Europa (~75 km/pixel), ~3x better than HST STIS, to be acquired at a range where the radiation noise is below 1E-4 hits/pixel/s. This goal is achieved with a Cassegrain-like telescope with a 10-cm aperture. The wavelength selection is achieved using a simple self-filtering mirror in combination with a solar-blind photocathode. A photon-counting detector based on a sealed image intensifier preserves the poisson statistics of the incoming photon flux. The intensifier window is coated with a solar-blind photocathode material (CsI). The location of each photon event is recorded by a position-sensitive anode based on crossed delay-line or wedge-and-strip technology. The sensitivity is 0.01 counts/pixel/sec/R, sufficient to estimate SO2 column abundances ranging from 1E15 to 1E17 per cm2 in a 5 min (300 sec) exposure. Sensitivity requirements to search for and image Europa plumes may be similar. Io's Ly-α brightness of ~3 kR exceeds the 0.8 kR brightness of Europa's plume reported by Roth et al. (2014), but the plume brightness is a direct measurement rather than inferring column abundance from

  19. La fine dell’eccezione atlantica e la decolonizzazione dell’Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Calafate Ribeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation Portugal has been seen by others and by itself as, in the words of Eduardo Lourenço, an “uncommon Portuguese exception”. An exception that has historically become a norm firstly built upon the relationship with both the physical and political body of Iberia, leading afterwards to the independence of the Reign of Portugal. This independence was perceived as an achievement gained through the exceptional and narratively miraculous Battle of Ourique and reaffirmed then thanks to the equally miraculous Battle of Aljubarrota. This sort of vocation for 'exceptionality' was inherent in the geography of the country itself, as Zurara emphasized in ancient times in the first chronicle of its expansion: the Crónica da Tomada de Ceuta.

  20. Europa's Crust and Ocean: Origin, Composition, and the Prospects for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J.S.; Kaye, J.Z.; Head, J. W.; Marion, G.M.; Sassen, R.; Crowley, J.K.; Ballesteros, O.P.; Grant, S.A.; Hogenboom, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    We have considered a wide array of scenarios for Europa's chemical evolution in an attempt to explain the presence of ice and hydrated materials on its surface and to understand the physical and chemical nature of any ocean that may lie below. We postulate that, following formation of the jovian system, the europan evolutionary sequence has as its major links: (a) initial carbonaceous chondrite rock, (b) global primordial aqueous differentiation and formation of an impure primordial hydrous crust, (c) brine evolution and intracrustal differentiation, (d) degassing of Europa's mantle and gas venting, (e) hydrothermal processes, and (f) chemical surface alteration. Our models were developed in the context of constraints provided by Galileo imaging, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and gravity and magnetometer data. Low-temperature aqueous differentiation from a carbonaceous CI or CM chondrite precursor, without further chemical processing, would result in a crust/ocean enriched in magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate, consistent with Galileo spectroscopy. Within the bounds of this simple model, a wide range of possible layered structures may result; the final state depends on the details of intracrustal differentiation. Devolatilization of the rocky mantle and hydrothermal brine reactions could have produced very different ocean/crust compositions, e.g., an ocean/crust of sodium carbonate or sulfuric acid, or a crust containing abundant clathrate hydrates. Realistic chemical-physical evolution scenarios differ greatly in detailed predictions, but they generally call for a highly impure and chemically layered crust. Some of these models could lead also to lateral chemical heterogeneities by diapiric upwellings and/or cryovolcanism. We describe some plausible geological consequences of the physical-chemical structures predicted from these scenarios. These predicted consequences and observed aspects of Europa's geology may serve as a basis for further analys is

  1. Correlative Observations of Enceladus and Europa: Clues to Unusual Morphology and Surface Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Newman, S.; Grundy, W.; Mosher, J.

    2008-05-01

    A solar phase curve is a function expressing the brightness of a planet or satellite over the full range of illumination geometries ("phases"). The phase curves of airless bodies offer clues to important physical characteristics of their surfaces. The roughness of the surface and the nature of particles comprising the optically active upper regolith can be studied by fitting observations to radiative transfer models. Since characteristics of the surface below the resolution limit of a spacecraft camera can be studied with these models and photometrically accurate solar phase curves, unusual surface texture indicating geologic activity often exhibits itself first as a photometric clue. For the outer planets, full solar phase curves can only be obtained by deep-space missions. Two important new data sets on active icy moons were obtained and analyzed in the past year. The first data set was obtained during the New Horizons flyby of the Jovian system, and it enabled observations of the icy moon Europa at new viewing geometries. The second data set consists of a complete solar phase curve of Enceladus collected during the nearly finished four-year nominal mission of the Cassini spacecraft. A comparison of these two sets of observations shows that the solar phase curve of Europa is remarkable, exhibiting a decrease in brightness between opposition and 70 degrees that is even less than that exhibited by Enceladus. These results imply that the surface of Europa may be covered with a substance or features that tend to scatter in an isotropic fashion, such as snow or deposits from outgassing. The morphology of this material is below the resolution limit of the camera systems that have imaged its surface so far. Work funded by NASA.

  2. The Effect of Incidence Angle on Stereo DTM Quality: Simulations in Support of Europa Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Hare, T. M.; Jorda, L.

    2015-12-01

    Many quality factors for digital topographic models (DTMs) from stereo imaging can be predicted geometrically. For example, pixel scale is related to instantaneous field of view and range, and vertical precision is a known function of the pixel scale and convergence angle if the image quality is high so that automated image matching reaches its optimal precision (~0.2 pixel). The influence of incidence angle is harder to predict. Reduced quality is expected both at low incidence (where topographic shading disappears) and high incidence (where signal/noise ratio is low and shadows occur). This problem is of general interest, but critical for NASA's Europa mission. The REASON instrument will obtain a radar sounding profile on each Europa flyby. Stereo images collected simultaneously by the EIS camera will be used to make DTMs needed to distinguish off-nadir surface echos (clutter) from subsurface features. The question is, how much of this DTM strip will be useful, given that incidence angle will vary substantially? We are using simulations to answer this question. We mosaicked 220 m/pixel Galileo images of the Castalia Macula region of Europa and made a DTM by photoclinometry, using a low-incidence image to correct for albedo variations. With the simulation software OASIS we generated synthetic stereopairs that are realistic in terms of image resolution, noise, photometry (including albedo variations based on the low incidence image), and cast shadows. We then use the commercial stereo software SOCET SET (® BAE Systems), which we have used for a wide variety of planetary mapping projects, to produce DTMs. These are compared to the input DTM as "truth" to quantify the dependence of DTM resolution and vertical precision on illumination, and to document the ways that DTMs degrade at high and low incidence angles. This methodology is immediately applicable to other planetary targets, and in particular can be used to address how much difference in illumination can be

  3. NIR spectral constraints of Europa's surface with ESO/VLT/ SINFONI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Carter, John; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is a major exobiological target with its possible sub-surface briny ocean buried under a water-ice dominated crust of several km-thick. The upcoming ESA L-class mission JUICE to the Jupiter system and its payload will partly address this question, in particular through compositional remote sensing in the near-infrared (using the MAJIS imaging hyperspectral spectrometer) and visible (using MAJIS and the camera JANUS) wavelength range. A global compositional mapping campaign was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile for increasing our knowledge acquired with the NIMS instrument onboard the Galileo spacecraft and previous telescopic observations. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface). Depending on the hemisphere, our spectra are globally (1) dominated by crystalline water-ice distorted and asymmetric absorption features, or (2) dominated by sulfuric acid hydrate (Carlson et al. 1999b) coming from Iogenic sulfur ion bombardment. However, some well-identified geological structures such as crater (Pwyll) and some chaos regions (Tara Regio, Powys Regio) look spectrally different. Although hydrated magnesium sulfates as epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O) and chlorine hydrated salts were proposed to be present on the surface (Brown et al. 2013, Hanley et al. 2014), our preliminary fits from linear spectral modeling (using cryogenic laboratory spectra of these materials) cannot reproduce this result. Finally, no narrow signature, which could indicate the presence of material of exobiological interest, has been so far detected in this complex data set.

  4. Duda y posmodernidad: el ocaso de la secularización en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un análisis empírico y teórico desarrollado con el objeto de determinar el estado actual de la religiosidad en Europa, es decir, el grado en que los europeos se adscriben bien a una cosmovisión religiosa, bien a una cosmovisión secular. Aplicando el Análisis de Correspondencias Múltiples y el Análisis de Cluster K-medias a los datos de la encuesta europea "Religión-II", del ISSP, se ha elaborado una tipología compuesta por cinco posiciones culturales básicas: religiosos, creyentes, escépticos, agnósticos y ateos. Estos resultados han puesto de manifiesto tanto la extensión cuantitativa como la importancia cualitativa del escepticismo. Mediante la interpretación del contenido de cada uno de los tipos, se muestra que el escepticismo frente a las opciones religiosa o secular constituye en este momento una clave esencial de la cultura europea. No puede hablarse de un claro retorno de lo religioso, pero es evidente que el proceso de secularización ha perdido parte de su fuerza original. La Europa posmoderna se encuentra inmersa en una encrucijada cultural, y tendrá que decidir sobre su futuro. El artículo termina exponiendo las tres posibles estrategias de salida de la duda: la resolución kierkegaardiana, mediante la que los europeos afirmarán posiciones religiosas o seculares excluyentes; la solución borgiana, mediante la que se hibridarán las formas y contenidos religiosos y seculares; y la disolución hegeliana, mediante la que quizás Europa despliegue en el futuro una síntesis cultural nueva construida con los restos de las viejas cosmovisiones religiosa y secular.

  5. Population mobility and the changing epidemics of HIV-2 in Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A C; Valadas, E; França, L

    2012-01-01

    Portugal is the European country with the highest frequency of HIV-2 infection, which is mainly concentrated in West Africa. The cumulative number of notified HIV-2 infections in Portugal was 1813 by the end of December 2008. To better characterize the dynamics of HIV-2 infection in the country a...

  6. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  7. A Numerical Study of Wind Forcing in the Eastern Boundary Current System Off Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Research Administration (Code 0 12)1 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 113 28. Dr. %1drio Ruiv’o Membro do Conseiho Consultivo da JNICT...Coordenaqao da Area de Cidncias e Tecnologia do Mar Av. D. Carlos 1, 126 1200 Lisboa Portugal 29. Dr. ipolito Monteiro Ser%-iqos Geologicos de Portugal Rua da

  8. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  9. Kolmas vaatus Euroopa võlakriisis - Portugal. Oht Portugali mainel / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Portugal kavatseb läbi viia riigivõlakirjade emissiooni, samas müüvad teisedki riigid lähiajal võlakirju, mille riskiaste on väiksem. Portugal eitab väidet, nagu oleks Saksamaa ja Prantsusmaa survestanud teda Euroopa kriisifondist abi küsima

  10. A new model for cork weight estimation in Northern Portugal with methodology for construction of confidence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J.F. Fonseca; Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Cork, a unique biological material, is a highly valued non-timber forest product. Portugal is the leading producer of cork with 52 percent of the world production. Tree cork weight models have been developed for Southern Portugal, but there are no representative published models for Northern Portugal. Because cork trees may have a different form between Northern and...

  11. Imagen y cultura de la enfermedad en la Europa de la Baja Edad Media

    OpenAIRE

    Morente Parra, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Mi investigación analiza la imagen de la enfermedad en la Europa de la Baja Edad Media a partir del conocimiento de los factores que determinaron y condicionaron su expresión visual en los contextos sociales y culturales en los que se desarrolló. He destacado aquellos discursos que incidieron de forma directa sobre la enfermedad como manifestación real y sobre todo visible, desde un punto de vista biológico, médico, religioso y social. A todo ello he incorporado la repercusión del discurso qu...

  12. Retos en investigación e innovación en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana Trías, Octavi

    2017-01-01

    Octavi Quintana desvela los nuevos retos en I+D+i en Europa, entre ellos: "La necesidad de desarrollar un Espacio Europeo de Investigación", en donde los investigadores trasladen y den movilidad al conocimiento, con independencia de su pasaporte. “La necesidad de gestión de datos”, ya que el 90% se han generado en los últimos dos años. “La innovación social debe forjar el cambio tecnológico”, las trabas en ciencia no son solo de dinero y recursos, también vienen de la formación p...

  13. Development of a European resource on the origins of pathogens of aquaculture: The Europa Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Barja, J.; Colquhoun, D.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop described the EUROPA project, an EU-funded program aimed at creating a web-based database of molecular sequence data-sets related to significant pathogens of aquaculture. The project aims to focus the efforts of fish health researchers into generating large, evolving and readily...... available data-sets suited to the purpose of molecular epidemiology. This workshop reviewed the progress of this project, demonstrated the scope of the database developed to date, and sought input regarding the future development of this resource....

  14. Temperatures on europa from galileo photopolarimeter-radiometer: nighttime thermal anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer; Tamppari; Martin; Travis

    1999-05-28

    Galileo observations of Europa's thermal emission show low-latitude diurnal brightness temperatures in the range of 86 to 132 kelvin. Nighttime temperatures form an unexpected pattern, with high temperatures on the bright ejecta blanket of the crater Pwyll and an equatorial minimum in temperatures after sunset, uncorrelated with surface albedo or geology. The nighttime anomalies may be due to regional thermal inertia variations of an unknown origin, which are equivalent to a two- to threefold variation in thermal conductivity, or to endogenic heat fluxes locally reaching 1 watt per square meter. Endogenic heat flow at this high level, although consistent with some geological evidence, is theoretically unlikely.

  15. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    for their continuous re-envisioning through extra-territorial and post-colonial enframings of Europe, the standard horizontal gaze of border studies, it is argued, is dislocated. 'Inverting the telescope' on border studies thus enables a productive space of tension – named Café Europa – in which the negotiations......This article develops a new critical comparative lens for the study of European borders, which displays bordering processes less as territorialized state-spaces than spatio-temporal assemblages. Taking the multiplicity and historicity of European borders into account while simultaneously allowing...

  16. Balcãs: conflitos adormecidos mantêm Europa em alerta

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos Santos

    2012-01-01

    AS ARMAS CALARAM-SE HÁ QUINZE ANOS na Krajina e na Bósnia-Herzegovina e há dez no Kosovo e na Macedónia. O confl ito do Kosovo parece congelado numa independência ainda muito contestada, mas que se apaga pouco a pouco nas prioridades da diplomacia internacional. E a promessa de uma integração na União Europeia impõe-se para já às agendas nacionalistas nos Balcãs. Estrategicamente situada na confl uência das vias terrestres entre a Europa, o Médio Oriente e o S...

  17. Schoolmaster abre las puertas del aprendizaje por Internet a todos los colegios de Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Baciero, Belén

    1999-01-01

    La empresa BiblioTech, es una companía de Internet que está creciendo muy rápido en Europa; Presentamos Schoolmaster – web interactivo y gratuito que actúa en entorno seguro. Diseñado para profesores, padres y alumnos- . Schoolmaster ofrece número ilimitado de cuentas de correo electrónico, grupos privados de discusión y charla para "solo miembros", páginas educacionales, revista interactiva para colegios, competiciones entre alumnos, forum internacional de "amigos por la red" y un sistema de...

  18. Origin of the water content of Europa : Evidence for pebble accretion ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnet, T.; Mousis, O.; Vernazza, P.

    2017-09-01

    Despite the fact that the observed gradient in water content among the Galilean satellites is globally consistent with a formation in a circum-Jovian disk on both sides of the snowline, the mechanisms that led to a low water mass fraction in Europa (˜8%) are not yet understood. Here we show that the water mass fraction of pebbles, as they drift inward, is globally consistent with the current water content of the Galilean system. This opens the possibility that each satellite could have formed through pebble accretion within a delimited region whose boundaries were defined by the position of the snowline.

  19. Deglaciation and post-glacial environmental evolution in the Western Massif of Picos de Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Oliva, Marc; García, Cristina; López-Sáez, José Antonio; Gallinar, David; Geraldes, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the process of deglaciation of the Western Massif of Picos de Europa through field work, geomorphological mapping, sedimentary records and absolute datings of 14C. This massif has several peaks over 2,400 m a.s.l. (Peña Santa de Castilla, 2,596 m; Torre Santa María, 2,486 m; Torre del Mediu, 2,467 m). It is composed mainly by Carboniferous limestones. This area has been intensively affected by karstic dissolution, Quaternary glaciers and fluvio-torrential processes (Miotke, 1968; Moreno et al, 2010; Ruiz-Fernández et al, 2009; Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). At present day, periglacial processes are active at the highest elevations (Ruiz-Fernández, 2013). We have identified four main glacial stages regarding the deglaciation of the massif: (i) maximum advance corresponding to the Last Glaciation, (ii) retreat and stabilization after the maximum advance, (iii) Late Glacial, and (iv) Little Ice Age. Sedimentological studies also contribute data to the understanding of the chronological framework of these environmental changes. The datings of the bottom sediments in two long sequences (8 and 5.4 m) provided a minimum age of 18,075 ± 425 cal BP for the maximum advance stage and 11,150 ± 900 cal BP for retreat and stabilization in the phase following the maximum advance. The ongoing analyses of these sequences at very high resolution will provide new knowledge about the environmental conditions prevailing since the deglaciation of the massif. References Miotke, F.D. (1968). Karstmorphologische studien in der glazial-überformten Höhenstufe der Picos de Europa, Nordspanien. Hannover, Selbtverlag der Geografischen Gessellschaft, 161 pp. Moreno, A., Valero, B.L., Jiménez, M., Domínguez, M.J., Mata, M.P., Navas, A., González, P., Stoll, H., Farias, P., Morellón, M., Corella, J.P. & Rico, M. (2010). The last deglaciation in the Picos de Europa National Park (Cantabrian Mountains, Northern Spain). Journal of Quaternary Science, 25 (7), 1076-1091. Ruiz

  20. Allegretti, Giovanni; Sintomer, Yves, I bilanci partecipativi in Europa. Nuove esperienze democratiche nel vecchio continente1

    OpenAIRE

    d’Albergo, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Qual é a relação entre os objectivos, as expectativas e as consequências efectivas das práticas participativas? E qual é a relevância global (política, institucional, social) da oferta de oportunidades participativas por parte das instituições políticas? O volume de Giovanni Allegretti e Yves Sintomer I bilanci partecipativi in Europa. Nuove esperienze democratiche nel vecchio continente ajuda a esclarecer e dar resposta a estas e outras questões, apresentando os resultados de uma pesquisa qu...

  1. Allegretti, Giovanni; Sintomer, Yves, I bilanci partecipativi in Europa. Nuove esperienze democratiche nel vecchio continente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto d’Albergo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Qual é a relação entre os objectivos, as expectativas e as consequências efectivas das práticas participativas? E qual é a relevância global (política, institucional, social da oferta de oportunidades participativas por parte das instituições políticas? O volume de Giovanni Allegretti e Yves Sintomer I bilanci partecipativi in Europa. Nuove esperienze democratiche nel vecchio continente ajuda a esclarecer e dar resposta a estas e outras questões, apresentando os resultados de uma pesquisa qu...

  2. Transición y migraciones en Europa central y oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Viruela Martínez

    2014-01-01

    La caída del muro de Berlín en 1989 y los cambios políticos y económicos que desde entonces se han sucedido en Europa central y oriental han tenido una gran incidencia en las migraciones europeas. La apertura de fronteras, la crisis económica, la inestabilidad política y los conflictos étnicos han acelerado las corrientes migratorias. El gran número de inmigrantes registrado en los primeros años hizo temer a Occidente una avalancha de personas huyendo de la miseria y el hambre. Sin embargo, s...

  3. POTENTIAL AND CHALLENGES OF ROMANIA’S RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET TOWARDS EUROPA 2020 HORIZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÎRVU MARCEL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to offer a short analysis on the progress of Romania regarding renewable energy, by correlating the on-field situation with the National Renewable Energy Action Plan, in order to create an overview on how the objectives for Europa 2020 horizon are being followed. All the advantages, as well as natural potential, political environment, legal framework and other influential factors are being taken into consideration to launch a hypothesis on whether Romania will be able to meet the renewable energy targets set by 2009/28/CE Directive.

  4. Ice sintering timescales at the surface of Europa and implications for surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaro, Jamie; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Meirion-Griffith, Gareth

    2017-10-01

    The planned exploration of Europa by NASA’s Europa Clipper Mission and the possibility of a future Europa lander have driven the need to characterize its surface strength, roughness, porosity, thermal conductivity, and regolith depth in order to accurately interpret remote sensing data and develop appropriate spacecraft landing systems. Many processes contribute to Europa’s landscape evolution, such as sputtering, mass wasting, thermal segregation, and impact gardening, driving the creation and distribution of icy regolith across the surface. While the efficacy of these processes are not well constrained, any amount of regolith emplaced at the surface will undergo subsequent processing due to sintering. Ice sintering is a form of frost metamorphism whereby contacting ice grains experience the diffusion of material into their contact region, forming a “neck” between them and densifying over time. Over long enough timescales, ice aggregates will sinter into solid material, which may contribute to the incorporation of non-ice material into Europa’s subsurface and help to drive subsurface chemistry. Sintering also interacts with other processes, adding to the complexity of icy surface evolution. For example, sputtering preferentially removes larger grains and may enhance sintering rates, and changes in ice porosity may affect the response of the surface to micrometeorite impacts.Quantifying the effects of ice sintering will allow us to predict the microstructural properties of Europa’s surface at spacecraft scales. To this end, we have modeled pressure-less (no overburden) sintering of spherical water-ice grains and validated the results with a laboratory experiment. We also modeled ice at the surface of Europa to obtain a first-order approximation of the sintering timescale and surface properties. Preliminary results indicate that ice grains will experience neck growth but not significant densification over Europa’s surface age, suggesting that loose

  5. Crisis global y el sistema migratorio Europa-América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Sassone, Susana; Yépez del Castillo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo aborda algunos de los cambios ocurridos en los lazos activos del sistema migratorio Europa-América Latina durante las últimas décadas. En primer lugar, se analizan los cambios en las tendencias y redireccionamientos de los flujos entre ambos pares del sistema. A continuación, se examinan los complejos reacomodamientos de las políticas migratorias, bajo la forma de una vuelta del «mirar hacia dentro» en los dos espacios. Por último, se revisan brevemente las alianzas que se están...

  6. La realidad informativa en EE.UU., Europa y Latinoamérica

    OpenAIRE

    Xosé Soengas Pérez

    2012-01-01

    El análisis de la realidad informativa en EE.UU., Europa y Latinoamérica demuestra que las dificultades para informar y las coacciones a la prensa son algo habitual, especialmente en zonas de conflicto. La censura se presenta de diversas formas y las diferentes modalidades se corresponden, casi siempre, con la naturaleza de los regímenes políticos y con el grado de dependencia que tienen los medios. El periodismo es la única herramienta que les queda a muchos sectores para conocer la verdad s...

  7. Investigation of the atmospheres of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto with PEP/JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Peter; Tulej, Marek; Vorburger, Audrey; Thomas, Nicolas; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Lammer, Helmut

    2013-04-01

    The Particle Environment Package (PEP) suite of instruments has been proposed for the JUICE mission, which contains sensors for the comprehensive measurements of electrons, ions and neutrals. One of the instruments for neutral particles is the Neutral and Ion Mass spectrometer instrument (NIM). NIM is a time-of-flight neutral gas and thermal ion mass spectrometer and is optimised for exospheric investigations. Full mass spectra (1 - 1000 amu, m/Δm = 1100) are recorded with high cadence, typically every 100 s, and during flybys even at 1 s cadence. In a 5-s spectrum the detection threshold is 10-16 mbar (about 1 cm-3). Various physical processes are acting on the surfaces of Jupiter's icy moons (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto) to promote material from the surface into the exosphere. These are thermal desorption (sublimation), photon stimulated desorption, ion-induced sputtering, and micro-meteorite impact vaporisation (Wurz and Lammer, 2003; Wurz et al., 2010). At Europa, sputtering is the most important surface release process (Johnson et al., 2009), which releases all species present on the surface more or less stoichiometrically into the exosphere, allowing to derive the chemical composition of the surface from the exospheric measurements. However, the chemical composition of the surface is modified by the bombardment of energetic electrons and ions, and the ultraviolet radiation. For example, species like H2, O2, H2O2 or O3 begin to be produced in the top surface layer and are later released into the exosphere by various means. Also, the co-rotation plasma's electrons and to a smaller extent the UV photons cause fragmentation and ionisation of molecules at some locations in these exospheres. We calculated the expected densities for established and expected species in Jupiter's icy moons exospheres. We find that for the planned JUICE trajectories near these moons that NIM will record most known species because of NIM's high sensitivity, even in the presence of the

  8. Patterns of fracture and tidal stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation - Implications for fracturing on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    This study considers the global patterns of fracture that would result from nonsynchronous rotation of a tidally distorted planetary body. The incremental horizontal stresses in a thin elastic or viscous shell due to a small displacement of the axis of maximum tidal elongation are derived, and the resulting stress distributions are applied to interpret the observed pattern of fracture lineaments on Europa. The observed pattern of lineaments can be explained by nonsynchronous rotation if these features formed by tension fracturing and dike emplacement. Tension fracturing can occur for a small displacement of the tidal axis, so that the resulting lineaments may be consistent with other evidence suggesting a young age for the surface.

  9. Linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations of Europa (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Carter, John; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2015-11-01

    Jupiter’s moon Europa may harbor a global salty subsurface liquid water ocean (Kivelson et al. 2000), and its surface should contain important clues about its composition. However, debate still persists about the nature of the surface chemistry and the relative roles of exogenous versus endogenous processing. Recently, Roth et al. (2014) reported the presence of activity by the detection of plumes reinforcing Europa as a major target of interests of upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE.To continue the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa’s surface).We perform linear spectral modeling using 4 types of species : water-ice (both crystalline and amorphous), sulfuric acid hydrate, sulfate salts and Cl-rich salts. At first order, spectra on the leading side are, as expected, dominated by water-ice distorted and asymmetric absorption features, whereas sulfuric acid hydrate thought to originate from Iogenic sulfur ion bombardment is clearly predominant on the trailing side (Carlson et al. 2005).Salts are also required to fit any SINFONI spectrum with the following notable result: when Na/K-bearing chlorines instead of Mg-sulfates are used, the fits are improved whatever the region. The feature centered at ~2.07 µm previously associated to the magnesium sulfates (Brown et al. 2013) is also observed in the SINFONI spectra and can be reproduced by some chlorine salts. Global abundance maps will be presented, regional variations of abundances will be

  10. A Europa, as migrações e o cosmopolitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Sacramento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO análise aqui delineado discute as posturas das fronteiras europeias em relação aos desafios colocados pelos fluxos migratórios externos. É dada especial atenção à forma como a Europa, através do Acordo de Schengen, estabelece uma combinação estratégica entre a livre circulação de certas categorias de pessoas e o bloqueio de muitas outras mobilidades “indesejados”. Ao mesmo tempo, são considerados resumidamente as políticas de identidade subjacentes a seletividade do espaço Schengen e seu impacto sobre um projecto europeu pós-nacional e cosmopolita. Palavras-chave: Europa, Migração externa, Fronteiras e limites, Seletividade, Cosmopolitismo. Resumen En el análisis esbozado aquí se analizan las actitudes en las fronteras europeas en relación con los retos que plantea la migración externa. Se presta especial atención a la forma en Europa a través del Acuerdo de Schengen, establece una combinación estratégica de la libre circulación de ciertas categorías de personas y el bloqueo de muchas otras movilida- des “no deseadas”. Al mismo tiempo, se consideran brevemente la política de la identidad subyacente en la selectividad de la zona Schengen y su impacto en un proyecto europeo post-nacional y cosmopolita. Palabras clave: Europa, La migración externa, Fronteras y límites, La selectividad, Cosmopolitismo. Abstract The analysis outlined in this paper discusses the attitudes of the European borders in relation to the challenges posed by external migration flows. Special attention is given to the way Europe, through the Schengen Agreement, establishes a strategic combination between the free movement of certain categories of people and the blocking of many other “un- wanted” mobilities. At the same time, the paper briefly considers the identity policies underlying the selectivity of the Schengen area and their impact on a post-national and cosmopolitan European project

  11. Evaluation of the possible presence of clathrate hydrates in Europa's icy shell or seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Fernández-Sampedro, Maite; Selsis, Franck; Martínez, Eduardo Sebastián; Hogenboom, David L.

    2005-10-01

    Several substances besides water ice have been detected on the surface of Europa by spectroscopic sensors, including CO 2, SO 2, and H 2S. These substances might occur as pure crystalline ices, as vitreous mixtures, or as clathrate hydrate phases, depending on the system conditions and the history of the material. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds in which an expanded water ice lattice forms cages that contain gas molecules. The molecular gases that may constitute Europan clathrate hydrates may have two possible ultimate origins: they might be primordial condensates from the interstellar medium, solar nebula, or jovian subnebula, or they might be secondary products generated as a consequence of the geological evolution and complex chemical processing of the satellite. Primordial ices and volatile-bearing compounds would be difficult to preserve in pristine form in Europa without further processing because of its active geological history. But dissociated volatiles derived from differentiation of a chondritic rock or cometary precursor may have produced secondary clathrates that may be present now. We have evaluated the current stability of several types of clathrate hydrates in the crust and the ocean of Europa. The depth at which the clathrates of SO 2, CO 2, H 2S, and CH 4 are stable have been obtained using both the temperatures observed in the surface [Spencer, J.R., Tamppari, L.K., Martin, T.Z., Travis, L.D., 1999. Temperatures on Europa from Galileo photopolarimeter-radiometer: Nighttime thermal anomalies. Science 284, 1514-1516] and thermal models for the crust. In addition, their densities have been calculated in order to determine their buoyancy in the ocean, obtaining different results depending upon the salinity of the ocean and type of clathrate. For instance, assuming a eutectic composition of the system MgSO 4sbnd H 2O for the ocean, CO 2, H 2S, and CH 4 clathrates would float but SO 2 clathrate would sink to the seafloor; an ocean of much

  12. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  13. Primary non-adherence in Portugal: findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Filipa Alves; Pedro, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Inês; Bragança, Fátima; da Silva, José Aranda; Cabrita, José

    2015-08-01

    Portugal is currently facing a serious economic and financial crisis, which is dictating some important changes in the health care sector. Some of these measures may potentially influence patients' access to medication and consequently adherence, which will ultimately impact on health status, especially in chronic patients. This study aimed at providing a snapshot of adherence in patients with chronic conditions in Portugal between March and April 2012. Community pharmacy in Portugal. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken, where patients were recruited via community pharmacies to a questionnaire study evaluating the number of prescribed and purchased drugs and, when these figures were inconsistent, the reasons for this. Primary and secondary adherence measures. Failing to purchase prescription items was categorized as primary nonadherence. Secondary nonadherence was attributed to purchasing prescription items, but not taking medicines as prescribed. Data were collected from 375 patients. Primary nonadherence was identified in 22.8 % of patients. Regardless of the underlying condition, the most commonly reported reason for primary non-adherence was having spare medicines at home ("leftovers"), followed by financial problems. The latter appeared to be related to the class of medicines prescribed. Primary non-adherence was associated with low income (/month; p = 0.026). Secondary non-adherence, assessed by the 7-MMAS was detected in over 50 % of all patients, where unintentional nonadherence was higher than intentional nonadherence across all disease conditions. This study revealed that more than one fifth of chronic medication users report primary nonadherence (22.8 %) and more than 50 % report secondary nonadherence. Data indicates that the existence of spare medicines and financial constraints occurred were the two most frequent reasons cited for nonadherence (47, 6-64, 8 and 19-45.5 %, depending on the major underlying condition, respectively).

  14. Satellite SAR interferometry for monitoring dam deformation in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Sousa; Lazecky, Milan; Hlavacova, Ivana; Bakon, Matus; Patrício, Glória

    2016-01-01

    The paper offers three examples of satellite SAR interferometry (InSAR) application for monitoring dam deformations: Paradela, Raiva and Alto Ceira, all of them in Portugal. Dam deformations were estimated using several sets of ERS and Envisat C-band SAR data by PS-InSAR method that offers accuracy of a millimeter per year at monitoring man-made tructures. The results show potential of InSAR but also summarize limits of C-band InSAR in these particular cases and can be handful to recogn...

  15. INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY OF BRAZILIAN STUDENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana-Chatti-Iorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a study that is still in development, which includes the analysis of secondary sources of information and data from THEMIS Project – Theorising the Evolution of European Migration Systems. The later provided some “clues” for the research which aims to deepening the knowledge and understanding of international mobility patterns of Brazilian students in higher education in Portugal. It is intended, therefore, to analyze the macro, meso and micro factors that can be responsible for this type of mobility, as well as to explain the choice of the territory of destination and the plans for other types of future migration.

  16. Ocular biometric measurements in cataract surgery candidates in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, T.B.; Hoffer, K.J.; Ribeiro, F.; Ribeiro, P.; O’Neill, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Export Date: 19 October 2017 CODEN: POLNC Correspondence Address: Ferreira, T.B.; Department of Refractive Surgery, Hospital da LuzPortugal; email: References: Wong, T.Y., Foster, P.J., Ng, T.P., Tielsch, J.M., Johnson, G.J., Seah, S.K., Variations in ocular biometry in an adult Chinese population in Singapore: The Tanjong Pagar Survey (2001) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 42, pp. 73-80. , PMID: 11133850; Shufelt, C., Fraser-Bell, S., Ying-Lai, M., Torres, M., Varma, R., ...

  17. Gender and Judging in Portugal: Opinions and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, the phenomenon of feminization of the legal professions is quite recent compared to other countries. The increasing predominance of women among magistrates – judges and public prosecutors – since 2006 has been overwhelming though. If, until 1974, the judiciary was forbidden to women, in 2015, from a total of 1990 judges in first instance courts, Appeal Courts and the Judicial Supreme Court and the Administrative Supreme Court, 1175 were women (59%. Within the Public Prosecution, 61% were women. The weight of women in the legal professions is visible, even, at the Centre for Judicial Studies, where 67,5% of the justice auditors, in 2014, were women. In this scenario, the aim of this article is to discuss the representations of the legal professionals, on the repercussions of this change to the judiciary and to the legal culture in Portugal. En Portugal, el fenómeno de la feminización de las profesiones jurídicas es bastante reciente en comparación con otros países. Sin embargo, el creciente predominio de mujeres entre los magistrados -jueces y fiscales- desde el año 2006 ha sido abrumador. Si, hasta 1974, las mujeres tenían prohibido el acceso al poder judicial, en 2015, de un total de 1990 jueces en los tribunales de primera instancia, tribunales de apelación y la Corte Suprema de Justicia y el Tribunal Supremo Administrativo, 1175 eran mujeres (59%. Dentro de la fiscalía, el 61% eran mujeres. El peso de las mujeres en las profesiones jurídicas es visible, incluso, en el Centro de Estudios Judiciales, donde el 67,5% de los auditores de justicia, en 2014, eran mujeres. En este escenario, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar las representaciones de los profesionales del derecho sobre las consecuencias de este cambio en el poder judicial y en la cultura jurídica de Portugal. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2831939

  18. El turismo accesible en Andalucía y Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Jurado Almonte

    2014-01-01

    Es relevante el número de personas con alguna discapacidad en Portugal, España y, dentro de la misma, Andalucía, y la Unión Europea que desean gozar del ocio y del turismo. Por tanto, a la imposición legislativa hay que añadir la oportunidad económica del turismo accesible. Los variados modelos turísticos existentes (sol y playa, rural, turismo cultural, turismo activo, etc.) pueden y deben llevar también la etiqueta de «accesible». Pero la realidad, a pesar del avance experimentado en materi...

  19. Affordable housing and urban regeneration in Portugal: a troubled tryst?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Rosa; Alves, Sonia

    demographic trajectory over recent decades. Despite some signs of sporadic residential gentrification, the local social fabric continues to be characterized by an ageing population and weak educational and socio-economic capital. In the current phase of economic and social crisis, it is critical to consider...... whether and how the new agents of urban regeneration, in particular the Urban Rehabilitation Societies, are providing affordable housing in these areas. In this context, it makes sense to discuss the meaning of concepts and models of social and affordable housing in Portugal since they are key elements...

  20. Alcoholismo, suicidio y factores de riesgo en Portugal.

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Ferreira de Castro; F Pimenta; Martins, I

    1992-01-01

    Se analiza indirectamente la contribución del alcoholismo en el suicidio. Se comparan las tasas de muerte por cirrosis hepática y por suicidio en Portugal y en el distrito de Lisboa, por sexo y profesiones. Las tasas son significativamente más altas en los hombres, los agricultores y en el distrito. Se concluye que el abuso alcohólico puede contribuir al aumento del suicidio. Se argumenta que los hombres sufren de depresión más grave y tienen tasas de suicidio más elevado debido, entre otros ...

  1. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia C. Duarte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA, one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat and biological fluids (blood, urine is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations.

  2. The Electoral Geography of the 2016 Presidential Election in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgian-Ionuţ GUŢOIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portugal elected a new president in January, this year. While the campaign was rather atypical, with a majority of independent candidates and a low involvement of the parties, we employ here an analysis of the election’s electoral geography, in order to identify if the geographical partisan delimitations influenced the electoral outcome. At this election a clear political geographical divide existed between the urban North and the rural South. Our findings suggest that the geographical distribution of the votes follows the candidates’ ideological identity.

  3. Characterisation of five coins from the archaeological heritage of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, André; Mata, Ana Leonor; Neto, M. Manuel; Proença, Luís; Salta, Manuela; Mendonça, Helena; Fonseca, Inês

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study carried out on three Roman and two Portuguese coins found in the archaeological site of São Pedro, in Fronteira (Alentejo, Portugal). The three Roman coins have been identified as a Follis, an AE 2 and an AE 3 (bronze alloys), while the Portuguese coins have been identified as a Ceitil (copper) and the “6 vinténs” (Ag–Cu alloy). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) has allowed the semi-quantitative determination of the e...

  4. The Bologna Process in Portugal and Poland: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomé

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the consequences of the introduction of the EU directed Bologna Process in Portuguese and Polish Universities. Specifically, we study how the Bologna Process has impacted in the employment situations of graduates in Portugal and Poland. Concerning methodology, we use available official data on the implementation of the Bologna Process in Poland and Portugal. We have found that the investment in Higher Education (HE stalled in both countries in the years since the implementation of the Bologna Process due to massive budgetary restrictions. Nevertheless, the stock of HE graduates increased massively, seemingly because the authorities thought that the free market should lead the HE market in the two countries. Employment prospects, unemployment prospects and wages of graduates continued to be much higher than those of non-graduates. But an unexpected divide appeared between graduates and Masters/PhDs, with important social consequences. While the first “saved” themselves and prospered going into high skilled jobs, the later had to endure minimum wage and underskilled occupations. The low payment for these youngsters was also justified because the supply of HE with Bologna increased but the demand by companies did not match. In fact, both Portugal and Poland have stronger needs in the demand side of the market than in the supply side. Finally, both markets continue to be essentially public and the experiences of privatization did not succeed to much. In terms of social implications, the Bologna Process faces in both countries the massive and decisive challenge of eliminating youth unemployment and emigration but this can only be done with the cooperation of companies that should create high paid and high skilled jobs. Only when this occurs the Bologna Process will achieve its ultimate goal of transforming Portugal and Poland in high skilled equibriuns. Let us hope it happens, for the good of the two countries and particularly for the

  5. Manifestações primordiais do Barroco Musical em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Doderer, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Gerhard Doderer planteja la recepció del Barroc italià a la península ibèrica com a procés complex de similituds i dissemblances entre Portugal i Castella [Espanya]. Partint de tres punts bàsics (la monodia acompanyada, la sonata a solo o a trio i el concertato expressiu), destaca la convivència entre l’stile rappresentativo i l’stile antico, com a element comú a la praxi hispànica del segle XVII, sense que aquest capteniment ofegui l’actitud d’experimentació i de novetat. Amb tot, les negati...

  6. The Effects of Surface and Subsurface Structural Anomalies on the Detectability of Shallow Aquifers on Europa by Sounding Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggy, E.; Scabbia, G.

    2014-12-01

    Clutter from surface topography can compromise the sounding radar capability to detect shallow subsurface features in several planetary environments. Herein we investigate the effect of surface and subsurface structural anomalies on the detectability of potential shallow aquifers for the case of Europa ice penetrating radars. We investigate the surface and volume scattering effects arising from the cratering, geothermal and ice tectonic structural elements associated with Europa's geological evolution. Using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method we modeled the radar wave propagation through Europa's subsurface in the frequency range from 9 to 30 MHz for two Europa geoelectrical models representing the thermally conductive and convective subsurface models. These geoelectrical models are then meshed to match the subsurface structural models for the most common two types of terrains on Europa, i.e. the Double Ridges and the Chaos Terrain, represented. Our simulations suggest that shallow aquifer detection in the first 3 km of the Europa subsurface can be achieved in most types of terrains for the conductive models and derive the constraints for its detectability in the terrains that are hypothesized to be formed from convective thermal activity. Both the large subsurface fractures and the brittle-ductile interface and their slopes variation are also possible to detect in the simulated radargrams for various surface roughness conditions. Our results suggests that quantifying the surface and volume scattering effects arising respectively from topographic and roughness conditions and subsurface structural anomalies through FDTD simulations is crucial to optimize the future sounding radar orbital data acquisitions. We will also present the added value of using interferometric and passive acquisitions to reduce the ambiguities of the complex clutter and maximize subsurface detectability of aquifers.

  7. Europa's surface composition: What we know, what we would like to know, and how we can find out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Calvin, W.; Dalton, J. B.; Hansen, G. B.; Hudson, R.; Johnson, R. E.; McCord, T. B.; Moore, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    Europa's icy surface contains both exogenic and endogenic material, and these materials can be modified by radiation and impact-generated processes. Determining the parent molecules and their possible origins is important for studying surface-subsurface exchange and the chemical content of Europa's putative ocean. The surface is known to contain water ice in both amorphous and crystalline form, as well as water in hydrated compounds. The identity of the hydrated molecules is not established; salts, acids, or combinations of both have been suggested. The presence of salts would indicate an endogenic source, acids can arise from both internal and external sources. Sodium and potassium atoms are observed escaping from Europa's surface, possibly originating from endogenic salts or exogenic plasma and neutral atom torii. Europa's brownish chromophore is often suggested to be sulfur, which known to be implanted in the surface by Iogenic plasma but may also be a product of salt or acid radiolysis. Molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide are present and are clearly radiolysis products. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide can arise from exogenic or endogenic sources and may be components of radiolytic sulfur and carbon cycles. Volatile molecules such as CO2 and O2 may be trapped within defects or clathrate structures. Further studies with higher sensitivity and specificity can elucidate the relative roles of exogenic and endogenic sources and allow searches for minor species, including organic molecules and potential biomarkers. Such studies can be performed using ultraviolet, visible, and near- and mid- infrared remote sensing. Observations of Europa's sputter atmosphere can be used to infer the surface composition while grains, ejected from the surface and forming Europa's dust cloud, are also potential compositional indicators.

  8. Fingerprints of endogenous process on Europa through linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa harbors a very young surface dated, based on cratering rates, to 10-50 M.y (Zahnle et al. 1998, Pappalardo et al. 1999). This young age implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing, partially engendered by a global salty subsurface liquid ocean that could result in tectonic activity (Schmidt et al. 2011, Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and active plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface of Europa should contain important clues about the composition of this sub-surface briny ocean and about the potential presence of material of exobiological interest in it, thus reinforcing Europa as a major target of interest for upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE. To perform the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow mineral signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Until recently, a large majority of studies only proposed sulfate salts along with sulfuric acid hydrate and water-ice to be present on Europa's surface. However, recent works based on Europa's surface coloration in the visible wavelength range and NIR spectral analysis support the hypothesis of the predominance of chlorine salts instead of sulfate salts (Hand & Carlson 2015, Fischer et al. 2015). Our linear spectral modeling supports this new hypothesis insofar as the use of Mg-bearing chlorines improved the fits whatever the region. As expected, the distribution of sulfuric acid hydrate is correlated to the Iogenic sulfur ion implantation flux distribution (Hendrix et al

  9. La enseñanza de la lengua española en Portugal / The teachig of spanish in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Ricardo Mira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se hacen algunas referencias al marco común europeo de referencia para las lenguas: aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación y a la legislación que, en Portugal, revelan las opciones políticas para la enseñanza de las lenguas extranjeras en su Sistema Educativo, específicamente del español. También se pone de manifiesto cuándo se enseña/ aprende el español, en la escuela portuguesa. Se indican los contenidos que se enseñan y aprenden en la asignatura de español. Se dará ejemplo de una clase de español como lengua extranjera impartida en Portugal. Se señala el modo de formación de los docentes de lengua española. Se pulsan las diferentes maneras que, en este momento de arranque de la enseñanza del español, el gobierno portugués ha encontrado para incorporar en su ministerio de la educación, a los docentes necesarios de español.Abstract: Some references are made to the European Common Framework for Languages: learning, teaching, evaluation, as well as to the laws that, in Portugal, testify the political options for the teaching of foreign languages, particularly Spanish, in its Teaching System(Educational System. We also give evidence to when Spanish is taught/learnt in Portuguese schools. We point out the syllabuses which are taught and learnt in courses of Spanish. We give an example of a lesson of Spanish as a foreign language taking place in Portugal. We give evidence to the way Spanish teachers’ training is being done. We present the different ways that, at the starting point of this process, have been found by of the Portuguese government to integrate in its ministry the teachers needed for the teaching of Spanish.

  10. Gran Bretaña ante Europa. Tormenta en el Canal. El continente aislado

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    Elizalde, María Dolores

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El presente artículo estudia el difícil camino de Gran Bretaña hacia la integración en la Comunidad Europea. El trabajo se inicia con un análisis de los factores que determinaron la posición británica ante Europa; explica luego el modelo de Europa deseado por los británicos; y se detiene especialmente en las distintas actitudes adoptadas por Gran Bretaña durante el proceso de integración europea, centrándose en tres ámbitos: la política, la economía y la defensa. En ese marco, el trabajo revisa las razones por las que Gran Bretaña apoyó o rechazó las distintas instituciones europeas que se fueron creando, los motivos de su alejamiento del núcleo inicial de la CEE, y las causas de su posterior incorporación a la estructura comunitaria.

  11. High Spatial Resolution Europa Coverage by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NIMS instrument on the Galileo spacecraft, which is being used to map the mineral and ice properties over the surfaces of the Jovian moons, produces global spectral images at modest spatial resolution and high resolution spectral images for small selected regions on the satellites. This map illustrates the high resolution coverage of Europa obtained by NIMS through the April 1997 G7 orbit.The areas covered are displayed on a Voyager-derived map. A good sampling of the dark trailing-side material (180 to 360 degrees) has been obtained, with less coverage of Europa's leading side.The false-color composites use red, green and blue to represent the infrared brightnesses at 0.7, 1.51 and 1.82 microns respectively. Considerable variations are evident and are related to the composition and sizes of the surface grains.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  12. Análisis DAFO de los Picos de Europa de León

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    Julio Lago Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio realiza un análisis estratégico de los Picos de Europa de León, un enclave montañoso perteneciente a la Cordillera Cantábrica que forma parte de la Red Estatal de Parques Nacionales. Se identifican debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades de un territorio en fase de transformación socioeconómica. La confección de la matriz DAFO sintetiza las principales conclusiones, a la vez que sirve de guía para definir las líneas de actuación que pueden aportar un futuro más prometedor a tan singular espacio natural protegido.The following study carries out a strategic analysis of Picos de Europa, a mountainous area in the Cantabrica Mountain Range, which forms part of the Spanish Sate Park Net. Stregths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are identified in this place still subject to a socioeconomic transformation. The SWOT report summarizes the main conclusions, as well as it can be used as a guide to define future plans thay may contribute to offer a promising future for such a singular natural protected area.

  13. El caso Breivik como paradigma de la nueva violencia política en Europa

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    Jesús Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras el doble atentado en Noruega del 22 de julio de 2011 cometido por Anders Behring Breivik, el terrorismo en Europa se enfrenta a una nueva amenaza. La novedad ideológica de Breivik es escasa, salvo por actualizar peligros que parecían del pasado. Por el contrario, su novedad operativa sí es relevante, ya que demuestra la posibilidad de la actuación de "lobos solitarios" en Europa y ejemplifica de qué manera el occidental medio puede actuar con un potencial muy alto de causar daños. Se concluye con el avance de un nuevo paradigma, el de sujetos que actúan movidos políticamente por un objetivo irrealizable, para favorecer a grupos que son extremadamente abstractos o no existen, lo que les proporciona un blindaje ideológico sin capacidad alta de movilización pero con destacadas cotas de destrucción.

  14. Radiation Testing at Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia – JPL Collaboration for Europa Lander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ion Beam Lab.; Olszewska-Wasiolek, Maryla Aleksandra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Gamma Irradiation Facility

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is assisting Jet Propulsion Laboratory in undertaking feasibility studies and performance assessments for the Planetary Protection aspect of the Europa Lander mission. The specific areas of interest for this project are described by task number. This white paper presents the evaluation results for Task 2, Radiation Testing, which was stated as follows: Survey SNL facilities and capabilities for simulating the Europan radiation environment and assess suitability for: A. Testing batteries, electronics, and other component and subsystems B. Exposing biological organisms to assess their survivability metrics. The radiation environment the Europa Lander will encounter on route and in orbit upon arrival at its destination consists primarily of charged particles, energetic protons and electrons with the energies up to 1 GeV. The charged particle environments can be simulated using the accelerators at the Ion Beam Laboratory. The Gamma Irradiation Facility and its annex, the Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility, offer irradiations using Co-60 gamma sources (1.17 and 1.33 MeV), as well as Cs-137 gamma (0.661 MeV) AmBe neutron (0-10 MeV) sources.

  15. The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left). A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements. Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may

  16. Thermal Coupling Between the Ocean and Mantle of Europa: Implications for Ocean Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Krista M.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Wicht, Johannes; Blankenship, Donald D.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic induction signatures at Europa indicate the presence of a subsurface ocean beneath the cold icy crust. The underlying mantle is heated by radioactive decay and tidal dissipation, leading to a thermal contrast sufficient to drive convection and active dynamics within the ocean. Radiogenic heat sources may be distributed uniformly in the interior, while tidal heating varies spatially with a pattern that depends on whether eccentricity or obliquity tides are dominant. The distribution of mantle heat flow along the seafloor may therefore be heterogeneous and impact the regional vigor of ocean convection. Here, we use numerical simulations of thermal convection in a global, Europa-like ocean to test the sensitivity of ocean dynamics to variations in mantle heat flow patterns. Towards this end, three end-member cases are considered: an isothermal seafloor associated with dominant radiogenic heating, enhanced seafloor temperatures at high latitudes associated with eccentricity tides, and enhanced equatorial seafloor temperatures associated with obliquity tides. Our analyses will focus on convective heat transfer since the heat flux pattern along the ice-ocean interface can directly impact the ice shell and the potential for geologic activity within it.

  17. Encontros Globais e Confrontos Culturais: O Pentecostalismo Brasileiro à Conquista da Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Pedro Oro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa quatro igrejas pentecostais de Porto Alegre que põem em prática a política da “reconquista espiritual da Europa” posto que, segundo elas, este continente tornou-se demasiadamente materialista e estaria abandonando o cristianismo. Para atender este objetivo, o de “recristianizar a Europa”, essas igrejas fecham acordos de parcerias com igrejas e agentes religiosos de países europeus como “recurso estratégico” para deslanchar a “missão invertida”. Porém, como na Europa a maioria dos fiéis e dos missionários das igrejas de Porto Alegre não é composta por europeus, mas brasileiros, latinos e africanos, sugerimos que a “missão invertida” detém outros sentidos, para além do verbalizado, como auferir benefícios econômicos, abrir-se para o “global” e elevar o prestígio das igrejas e dos agentes no contexto sociorreligioso “local”. Enfim, analisam-se as tensões vividas pelos missionários brasileiros na Europa devido aos choques culturais que enfrentam e que repercutem na prática religiosa, sobretudo em relação ao espaço reservado à emoção nos rituais.

  18. Assessing the potential for passive radio sounding of Europa and Ganymede with RIME and REASON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Dustin M.; Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Carrer, Leonardo; Grima, Cyril; Campbell, Bruce A.; Kofman, Wlodek; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Blankenship, Donald D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent work has raised the potential for Jupiter's decametric radiation to be used as a source for passive radio sounding of its icy moons. Two radar sounding instruments, the Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) and the Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON) have been selected for ESA and NASA missions to Ganymede and Europa. Here, we revisit the projected performance of the passive sounding concept and assess the potential for its implementation as an additional mode for RIME and REASON. We find that the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of passive sounding can approach or exceed that of active sounding in a noisy sub-Jovian environment, but that active sounding achieves a greater SNR in the presence of quiescent noise and outperforms passive sounding in terms of clutter. We also compare the performance of passive sounding at the 9 MHz HF center frequency of RIME and REASON to other frequencies within the Jovian decametric band. We conclude that the addition of a passive sounding mode on RIME or REASON stands to enhance their science return by enabling sub-Jovian HF sounding in the presence of decametric noise, but that there is not a compelling case for implementation at a different frequency.

  19. The Effect of Illumination on Stereo DTM Quality: Simulations in Support of Europa Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Hare, T. M.; Jorda, L.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated how the quality of stereoscopically measured topography degrades with varying illumination, in particular the ranges of incidence angles and illumination differences over which useful digital topographic models (DTMs) can be recovered. Our approach is to make high-fidelity simulated image pairs of known topography and compare DTMs from stereoanalysis of these images with the input data. Well-known rules of thumb for horizontal resolution (>3-5 pixels) and matching precision (~0.2-0.3 pixels) are generally confirmed, but the best achievable resolution at high incidence angles is ~15 pixels, probably as a result of smoothing internal to the matching algorithm. Single-pass stereo imaging of Europa is likely to yield DTMs of consistent (optimal) quality for all incidence angles ≤85°, and certainly for incidence angles between 40° and 85°. Simulations with pairs of images in which the illumination is not consistent support the utility of shadow tip distance (STD) as a measure of illumination difference, but also suggest new and simpler criteria for evaluating the suitability of stereopairs based on illumination geometry. Our study was motivated by the needs of a mission to Europa, but the approach and (to first order) the results described here are relevant to a wide range of planetary investigations.

  20. Fronteras imaginadas y estereotipos : la creación de un monstruo llamado Europa del Este

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esparza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se observa como se han formado en el «oeste», desde la Guerra Fría hasta hoy, algunos estereotipos negativos sobre la marca «Europa del Este», la cual está cargada de connotaciones negativas (ciudades grises, guerras, inmigración ilegal, pobreza o criminalidad. Al mismo tiempo, como si de un oasis se tratara, se observa parojicamente como la marca Praga o Budapest (capitales de países de «Europa del Este» no son percibidas negativamente, precisamente porque no están relacionadas directamente con el Este, sino con centroeuropa y con imágenes positivas asociadas a la herencia artístico-cultural de los imperios centrales: el sacro imperio germano-romano y el austrohúngaro.In this article it is observed how from the Cold War till today have been formed in the West significant stereotypes towards Eastern Europe, which are endowed with negative images, such as grey towns, illegal immigration, wars, poverty or criminality. At the same time it is observed, paradoxically, how the brand Prague or Budapest (capitals of «Eastern European» countries are not perceived negatively, precisely because they are not directly associated with the East, but with the cultural heritage form the old central empires: the Sacred Roman-German empire first, and the Habsburg empire later.

  1. Association between cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic level in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sónia; Furtado, Cláudia; Pereira, João

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and disability in Portugal. Socioeconomic level is known to influence health status but there is scant evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Portugal. To analyze the distribution of cardiovascular disease in the Portuguese population according to socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the fourth National Health Survey on a representative sample of the Portuguese population. Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease, risk factors and number of medical visits were analyzed using odds ratios according to socioeconomic status (household equivalent income) in the adult population (35-74 years). Comparisons focused on the top and bottom 50% and 10% of household income distribution. Of the 21 807 individuals included, 53.3% were female, and mean age was 54 ± 11 years. Cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity were associated with lower socioeconomic status, while smoking was associated with higher status; number of medical visits and psychological distress showed no association. When present, inequality was greater at the extremes of income distribution. The results reveal an association between morbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. They also suggest that besides improved access to effective medical intervention, there is a need for a comprehensive strategy for health promotion and disease prevention that takes account of individual, cultural and socioeconomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct treatment costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Perelman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the direct medical costs of HIV/AIDS in Portugal from the perspective of the National Health Service. METHODS A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted for 150 patients from five specialized centers in Portugal in 2008. Data on utilization of medical resources during 12 months and patients’ characteristics were collected. A unit cost was applied to each care component using official sources and accounting data from National Health Service hospitals. RESULTS The average cost of treatment was 14,277 €/patient/year. The main cost-driver was antiretroviral treatment (€ 9,598, followed by hospitalization costs (€ 1,323. Treatment costs increased with the severity of disease from € 11,901 (> 500 CD4 cells/µl to € 23,351 (CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/ µl. Cost progression was mainly due to the increase in hospitalization costs, while antiretroviral treatment costs remained stable over disease stages. CONCLUSIONS The high burden related to antiretroviral treatment is counterbalanced by relatively low hospitalization costs, which, however, increase with severity of disease. The relatively modest progression of total costs highlights that alternative public health strategies that do not affect transmission of disease may only have a limited impact on expenditure, since treatment costs are largely dominated by constant antiretroviral treatment costs.

  3. Portugal's contribution to navigation and discovery of the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M L

    1993-01-01

    Even before the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator (1394) Portugal had displayed a maritime calling due to its 500-mile shore line and numerous natural bays. Inspired by the riches of India he saw during the Portuguese exploration along the coast of West Africa, Prince Henry set out methodically to collect information by bringing together Jews and Moors with geographical knowledge to found his School of Navigation. From 1415 until his death in 1460 he attracted to his school the foremost contemporary scholars in mathematics, astronomy, and cartography along with experts in knowledge of the compass, astrolabe, water currents, and the winds. This concentration of talent yielded the invention of the caravel, the most important navigational advancement of the time, crucial for long voyages across the high seas. Although the rest of Europe busied itself in political and religious wars, for 70 years (1415-1492) Portugal alone pursued the discovery of the Atlantic. "No nation in the 15th century exhibited so great a spirit of maritime enterprise as the Portuguese."

  4. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and drought in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Martins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of precipitation and drought are investigated for Portugal using monthly precipitation from 74 stations and minimum and maximum temperature from 27 stations, covering the common period of 1941–2006. Seasonal precipitation and the corresponding percentages in the year, as well as the precipitation concentration index (PCI, was computed for all 74 stations and then used as an input matrix for an R-mode principal component analysis to identify the precipitation patterns. The standardized precipitation index at 3 and 12 month time scales were computed for all stations, whereas the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the modified PDSI for Mediterranean conditions (MedPDSI were computed for the stations with temperature data. The spatial patterns of drought over Portugal were identified by applying the S-mode principal component analysis coupled with varimax rotation to the drought indices matrices. The result revealed two distinct sub-regions in the country relative to both precipitation regimes and drought variability. The analysis of time variability of the PC scores of all drought indices allowed verifying that there is no linear trend indicating drought aggravation or decrease. In addition, the analysis shows that results for SPI-3, SPI-12, PDSI and MedPDSI are coherent among them.

  6. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  7. ESSAY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COLLECTIVE PROTECTION IN PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Picoli Gagno

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to examine certain aspects concerning collective judicial process by the light of some Portuguese cases, having as base the collective judicial protection understood as a fundamental right. With regard to the employed research method, the approach is the qualitative one, while the method is the deductive and the technique is the bibliographic e jurisprudential research. The theoretical framework is based on the doctrine and theory of some of the cited authors during the research. Among them are Robert Alexy, Mauro Cappelletti and Bryant Garth. In addition, this paper is divided into three sections: the first one is a brief study on access to justice clarified as a fundamental right of the citizen. In the second section a parallel is made with the first one, but the collective judicial protection is therefore seen as a fundamental right. In the third and last section we have the analysis of four cases of two superior courts of Portugal, being them the Supreme Court of Justice (STJ and the Supreme Administrative Court (STA, in order to understand the collective process in Portugal and to see which points that can offer a contribution for the brazilian collective procedural technic. As a result, it is found that collective judicial protection is inevitable and immanent for a substantial vision of the fundamental right of access to justice, understood like a orders of optimization, that may his realization in the biggest measure is possible

  8. Blepharitis due to in a cat from northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pimenta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Case summary We report a clinical case of blepharitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans yeasts in a 2-year-old stray cat from northern Portugal (Vila Real without concurrent naso-ocular signs. Ophthalmological examination revealed mucopurulent discharge from an open wound in the right upper and lower lids. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a normal anterior segment, and intraocular pressure was within the normal reference interval. No fundoscopic alterations were detected in either eye by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. Cytological examination of an appositional smear showed numerous polymorphic neutrophils and macrophages, together with spherical yeast cells compatible with Cryptococcus species. Molecular analysis by means of PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism identified C neoformans genotype VNI. The cat was treated with itraconazole, and amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, combined with a commercial ear ointment and an imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on application for bilateral parasitic otitis caused by Otodectes cynotis . One month after treatment, the clinical signs were completely resolved. Localised cutaneous lesions, as in the present case, probably result from contamination of cat-scratch injuries with viable encapsulated yeasts. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline blepharitis due to C neoformans without concurrent naso-ocular signs. The current findings, together with those from recent reports of the infection in domestic animals, should alert the veterinary community both in Portugal and in Europe to this underdiagnosed disease.

  9. Training requirements for agro-food industry in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Gaspar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-food companies are aware that the technical and soft skills of their employees directly influence business performance and, consequently, improving those skills will enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of their companies. This paper presents the main results of the AgriTraining project “Training requirements for the agro-food industry". Activities in pursuit of the objectives of this project involved: (1 analysis of the training needs in the agro-food industry in Portugal; (2 analysis of the training provision and the training organizations; (3 analysis of market trends; (4 definition of a training strategy; and (5 adjustment and development of training strategies for the agro-food sector. This last activity comprised the development of training curricula, suitable for the food sector as a whole and adjusted for the specific needs of some traditional industries, in order to promote the development and competitiveness of the agro-food industry in Portugal. Such training curricula aimed to promote the uptake of innovative technologies and methodologies, increase the ability of agro-food industries to invest and take risks, and enable adoption of European Community standards for production and marketing. Gaps in training supply were identified and the training provision was updated according to the needs of the agro-food companies. It was determined that companies need and demand knowledge and innovation to increase their competitive position for internationalization purposes. It was possible to define a training strategy based on market-orientation for agro-food differentiation.

  10. Wikipédia como fonte de informação monolíngue e multilíngue sobre o patrimônio histórico da Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores OLVERA-LOBO

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho analisa a enciclopédia online Wikipédia como uma ferramenta de difusão de informação monolingue e multilingue sobre patrimônio histórico da Espanha. A amostra é composta por bens imóveis de interesse cultural catalogados de várias províncias espanholas. Para o efeito, estudou-se em que medida estes bens estão representados na Wikipédia através de um artigo próprio, ou seja, com informação independente dedicada a cada um deles. Procedeu-se à realização de três diferentes tipos de pesquisa na enciclopédia (navegação, por meio de anexos e através do motor de busca interno durante vários meses. Por outro lado, determinou-se o grau em que a Wikipédia inclui informação multilingue em relação à amostra, identificando o número e tipos de línguas nas quais se representa essa informação, bem como os artigos presentes noutras línguas diferentes do espanhol que são o resultado de uma tradução propriamente dita. Os resultados mostram que apenas 21,73% dos bens que constituem a amostra final possuem um artigo independente na Wikipédia, destes, somente 20,85% se encontram em várias línguas, sendo 50,00% traduções propriamente ditas. Isto leva-nos a concluir que, dada a natureza colaborativa desta ferramenta e dada também a importância cultural e econômica do patrimônio histórico, as próprias instituições deveriam responsabilizar-se em promover a difusão multilingue deste tipo de informação.

  11. Aplicação de instrumentos de qualidade em doação de órgãos e transplantes da Espanha validados em hospitais pilotos em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide da Silva Knihs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoIntrodução:A necessidade de aumentar o número de notificações de potenciais doadores e de doadores efetivos é um problema mundial. Ainda há muitas perdas de doadores, as quais podem ser evitadas.Objetivo:Utilizar os instrumentos adaptados do Modelo de Gestão de Qualidade da Organização Nacional de Transplantes da Espanha (ONT em hospitais pilotos no Brasil.Métodos:Pesquisa quantitativa desenvolvida em três hospitais de grande porte em Santa Catarina - a opção pelas três instituições está relacionada ao número de leitos de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI e ao número de notificações de possíveis doadores à Central de Notificação Captação e Distribuição de Órgãos e Tecidos do Estado de Santa Catarina- CNCDO/SC. A coleta de dados foi realizada em prontuários de pacientes falecidos nas unidades de terapia intensiva utilizando dois instrumentos validados, em um período de três meses, conforme em duas etapas conforme orientação da ONT.Resultados:Em um dos hospitais, ocorreu maior percentual de perdas por problemas de manutenção (17,6%, por recusa familiar (64,3% e por escapes (16,7% e o menor índice de efetivação real (29,4%. Em 70,3%, as perdas por manutenção relacionaram-se com parada cardíaca irreversível e instabilidade hemodinâmica. A recusa familiar relacionou-se em 48,4% com o fato de a família ser contrária à doação sem informar o motivo e pelo desejo em manter o corpo íntegro.Conclusão:As informações obtidas permitem ao gestor o gerenciamento desses dados e, consequentemente, a implementação de ações de melhoria, aumentando o número de doadores de órgãos e tecidos.

  12. Evaluation of "Pampa-Corte" simulation model in different beef cattle fattening systems in Spain Desempenho do modelo "Pampa-Corte" em diferentes sistemas de terminação de bovinos na Espanha

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    Vicente Celestino Pires Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pampa-Corte model was developed to simulate the growth of beef cattle in grazing systems in a dynamic and mechanistic way. It was validated under Brazilian conditions. This paper aims to verify the performance of the model in conventional and alternative beef cattle finishing systems in Spain. An experimental dataset of 21 Parda de Montaña calves of similar age and weight at weaning was used to evaluate the model. They were slaughtered individually on reaching 450kg liveweight. The model considered genetic group maturity rather than breed, in order to adjust growth parameters, once Parda de Montaña breed is not contemplated by AFRC (1993. Parameters from late maturing group were initially used considering adult animal size of Parda de Montaña animals; however, the best fit was with values from the early maturing group. The model predicted accurately animal growth in grazing and conventional finishing systems in Spain, although estimates were less precise when changes in animal management involved physiologic modifications.O modelo Pampa Corte foi desenvolvido para simular de forma dinâmica e mecanistica o crescimento de bovinos de corte em sistemas de pastejo, sendo validado nas condições de produção brasileiras. Este trabalho tem como finalidade demonstrar a performance do modelo em situações de engorda tradicionais e alternativos de bovinos de corte na Espanha. Com essa finalidade, foram utilizados dados de 21 animais inteiros da raça Parda de Montanha com similar idade e peso de desmame e que foram abatidos individualmente quando atingiram o peso vivo de 450kg. O modelo considera grupos genéticos no ajuste de seus parâmetros conforme AFRC (1993, entretanto, a raça Parda de Montanha não é contemplada em suas tabelas. Devido ao seu tamanho adulto, inicialmente, foram considerados os parâmetros referentes ao grupo tardio de maturidade, entretanto, os melhores ajustes ocorreram ao serem utilizados os parâmetros de animais de

  13. Denominaciones de Origen y Parques Nacionales: Actividad quesera en Picos de Europa (Denomination of Origin and National Parks: Cheese activity in Picos de Europa

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    María González Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La compleja convivencia entre la gestión de los Parques Nacionales (PN, en adelante y sus ocupantes tiene un largo recorrido en el caso del Parque Nacional Picos de Europa (PNPE. PNPE es el único PN con poblaciones enteras dentro del espacio protegido. El estudio realizado sobre los quesos con Denominación de Origen Protegida (DOP Cabrales y Gamoneu, parte de cuya elaboración se realiza dentro del PNPE recoge este testimonio de desencuentros. Durante los años 2012 y 2014 se realizaron 59 entrevistas a miembros de ambas DOP, administraciones y otros agentes involucrados en el conflicto. Los principales resultados muestran unos pobladores que perciben el PN como algo ajeno e impuesto, que prioriza las necesidades de turistas y animales, mientras que el PNPE insiste en la laxitud de la legislación comparándola con otros espacios protegidos. Este estudio pretende profundizar en las raíces de un conflicto de casi un siglo de duración.Abstract: The complex coexistence between the management of National Parks (NP, hereafter and its occupants have a long history in the case of Picos de Europa National Park (PENP. It is the only NP in Spain in which whole populations are within the protected space. There are many interests around a NP (scientific, economic, tourism and conservation, making the natural space difficult to manage. The study of cheeses with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO Gamoneu and Cabrales, part of whose production is performed within the PNPE, collect this testimony of disagreements. During the years 2012 and 2014, 59 Interviews were conducted a members of both DOP, administrations and other agents involved in the conflict. The main results of the analysis show that settlers perceive the PN as imposed, which prioritises the needs of tourists and animals. Meanwhile PNPE insists that Legislation is very lax compared with other protected areas. The study aims to further knowledge about the origin of the conflict in

  14. O acolhimento familiar em Portugal: conceitos, práticas e desafios Foster care in Portugal: concepts, practices and challenges

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    Paulo Delgado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O Acolhimento Familiar assume em Portugal uma expressão reduzida, num sistema de protecção das crianças excessivamente centrado na colocação em instituições, não obstante o discurso político mais recente, defensor da desinstitucionalização, e a evolução de outros sistemas sociais em diversos países europeus. Este artigo pretende caracterizar o modelo de Acolhimento Familiar português, destacando, nomeadamente, a sua evolução histórica mais recente, os conceitos e tipologias que mobiliza, as práticas que manifesta e os desafios que se colocam ao seu desenvolvimento.The Foster Care in Portugal takes a reduced expression, in a system of protection of children excessively focused on institutional placements, despite the political discourse more recent, advocate of deinstitutionalization, and the development of other social systems in several European countries. This paper aims to analyze the Portuguese Foster Care model, highlighting in particular its historical evolution latest concepts and typologies that mobilize the practices that expresses, and challenges to its development.

  15. Tuta absoluta: una nueva plaga para el cultivo del tomate en Europa (Sesión Técnia: Hortalizas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, W.; Griepink, F.C.; Deventer, van P.

    2009-01-01

    Tuta absoluta es una polilla originaria de Chile cuyas larvas producen minas en las hojas de las plantas de tomate. En las últimas décadas de este insecto se ha extendido por gran parte del continente sudamericano. Después de su primera observación en Europa (España, Valencia) en 2007, esta polilla

  16. Espectáculos demasiado humanos. Las exhibiciones de etnias salvajes en la Europa del siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gómez, Luis Ángel

    2008-01-01

    El artículo resume las principales modalidades de exhibición "viva" de seres humanos (considerados "primitivos" o "salvajes") celebradas en Europa durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. A continuación, se comentan las que tienen lugar en España.

  17. Brachiopod and fusulinid assemblages of Kasimovian (Pennsylvanian) age from the Ándara Massif (Picos de Europa, northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Chacón, M.L.; Merino-Tomé, O.A.; Villa, E.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of early Kasimovian (Pennsylvanian) brachiopod assemblages from two fossiliferous localities of the Las Llacerias Formation (Ándara Massif, Picos de Europa, northern Spain) improve our knowledge of this fossil group in the Cantabrian Zone. At the Morra de Lechugales Peak (locality 1),

  18. pH and salinity evolution of Europa's brines: Raman spectroscopy study of fractional precipitation at 1 and 300 bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Iglesias, Victoria; Bonales, Laura J; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga

    2013-08-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of salty liquid water below the icy surface of the satellite Europa. Depending on the chemical composition of the original interior brines, minerals that precipitate will be varied as will be the resulting physicochemical parameters of the evolving solutions such as pH and salinity. These parameters are determinants apropos to the study of the possible habitability of the satellite. In this work, experiments of fractional precipitation by cooling of several brines with different chemical composition (acid, alkaline, and neutral) were performed at 1 and 300 bar. The gradual decrease in temperature leads to mineral precipitation and changes in salinity and pH values. During the experiment, Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze quantitatively the variation of the salt concentration in the aqueous solutions. The obtained laboratory data indicate the manner in which cryomagma differentiation might occur on Europa. These endogenous processes of differentiation require planetary energy, which seems to have been plentiful during Europa's geological history. Ultimately, the dissipation of part of that energy is translated to a higher complexity of the cryopetrology in Europa's crust. From the results, we conclude that fractional differentiation processes of briny cryomagmas produce several types of igneous salty mineral suites on icy moons.

  19. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The mythology of the European Union (EU) in world politics can be told and untold in many different ways. This article focuses on the lore or stories of who did what to whom, the ideological projection of the past onto the present and the escapist pleasure of story telling in looking...

  20. O uso das redes sociais por jornalistas em Portugal

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    Ana Sofia Veloso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende mostrar como as redes sociais são utilizadas pelosjornalistas, nomeadamente os que trabalham em Portugal. É ainda intuito deste trabalho perceber se o uso destas ferramentas por estes profissionais pode constituir uma nova prática rotineira.Para o efeito, levou-se a cabo um estudo de carácter exploratório baseado nos resultados de um inquérito por questionário – realizado de raiz – dirigido à classe jornalística em Portugal. O artigo divide-se em quatro partes. Tendo em conta que, em pouco mais de uma década, as redes sociais se tornaram a atividade online mais popular a nível global, começa-se por realizar um enquadramento de apoio ao surgimento destas ferramentas na sociedade atual, dando conta de algumas estatísticas de uso e de novos processos de socialização subsequentes. Num segundo momento, é feito refereência à relação do jornalismo com as redes sociais e algumas novas práticas jornalísticas neste âmbito, apresentando conclusões de estudos internacionais sobre a utilização que jornalistas de diversos países fazem das redes sociais. Aborda-se ainda as orientações existentes sobre o uso ético que os jornalistas devem dar a estas ferramentas segundo várias entidades ligadas ao universo do jornalismo. A terceira parte foca-se no inquérito, designadamente a metodologia usada e a estrutura do mesmo; realiza-se um breve retrato sociográfico da classe jornalística em Portugal e faz-se uma caracterização socioprofissional da amostra obtida através do inquérito; apresentam-se os resultados conseguidos e analisam-se e discutem-se os mesmos, nomeadamente através de comparações com as estatísticas e as conclusões dos estudos nacionais e internacionais já mencionadas. Na quarta secção, tendo por base a discussão realizada e o balanço do tratamento do inquérito, menciona-se alguns desafios que se colocam aos jornalistas na era da Web 2.0. E conclui-se com a confirmação de que a