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Sample records for europa moderna notas

  1. Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik

    2000-01-01

    Artiklen behandler, hvordan Europa blev centrum for den globale økonomiske udvikling, og hvilken rolle nationalstaterne har spillet for Europas udvikling. Derudover behandles det, hvordan den europæiske integrationsproces kan ses som et forsøg på at genskabe Europas centrale politiske og økonomis...

  2. Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malin, M.C.; Pieri, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Europa, the second major satellite outward from Jupiter, is a lunar-sized object in synchronous rotation about that planet. Its high albedo and spectral characteristics indicate the presence of surface water ice and/or frost. Its density suggests a substantial silicate component of at least 85 percent by volume. A limited variety of landforms is seen in Voyager images, most likely because of poor spatial resolution of these data. The absence of numerous impact craters is interpreted as indicating a youthful surface and /or surface regenerating processes. A planet-wide lineament system has been interpreted to result from tectonic stresses induced by evolution of Europa's orbit and interior. Present data do not permit unambiguous tests of such interpretations. Greater insight may come from analytical or numerical models and future spacecraft observations

  3. Studiare i prezzi dei libri nell'Europa della prima età moderna: questioni e fonti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nuovo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo presenta in modo sintetico il quadro concettuale all'interno del quale uno studio dei prezzi dei libri nella prima età moderna dovrebbe muoversi, così come i problemi metodologici da affrontare. Nonostante la natura di manufatto semi-industriale ponga il libro a stampa in una classe merceologica del tutto particolare nell'economia pre-industriale, è possibile utilizzare le categorie generali di domanda e offerta per identificare alcuni fattori atti ad impostare specifici percorsi di ricerca basati sull'analisi storico-economica. La storia del libro può essere quindi messa in relazione con alcuni temi classici della storia economica, allo scopo di inserire il problema del commercio librario e dei prezzi dei libri in un dibattito storiografico più ampio. Tra le fonti disponibili per lo studio dei prezzi dei libri nella prima età moderna, l'inventario di bottega di Bernardo Giunti (Department of Special Collections, UCLA, Collection 170/622 è una chiara testimonianza del fiorente mercato librario allora esistente a Venezia. Le quasi 12.000 registrazioni incluse nella lista dei libri in vendita riflettono gli scopi e gli obiettivi dell’azienda. La struttura di questo documento è decisamente complessa, frutto di più di venti anni di uso continuo (1600-1620 c.. Lungo questo periodo di tempo, il documento sembra essere evoluto da un semplice elenco o catalogo ad uso del personale interno a un importante strumento per la gestione della bottega e del suo magazzino. Quasi ogni titolo presenta un prezzo, e ciò rende questo inventario una delle fonti più ampie e significative per lo studio dei prezzi dei libri nella prima età moderna.This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement n° 694476.

  4. José Martínez Millán y Carlos Javier de Carlos Morales. Religión, política y tolerancia en la Europa Moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Corominas, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Como fruto maduro de una larga trayectoria docente e investigadora en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, José Martínez Millán y Carlos Javier de Carlos Morales ofrecen en Religión, política y tolerancia en la Europa Moderna una serena reflexión sobre la época del Antiguo Régimen que pretende superar, desde los estudios sobre la Corte, los límites y contradicciones de las escuelas y paradigmas precedentes, como la escuela de los Annales y el marxismo, por medio de un discurso renovador donde s...

  5. Las órdenes militares en la Edad Moderna en la historiografía española desde 1995. Notas para un balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco FERNÁNDEZ IZQUIERDO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La bibliografía sobre las órdenes militares en España durante la Edad Moderna ha crecido de manera abundante en los últimos años. Se revisan las convocatorias de congresos y seminarios, las reediciones de fuentes, la aparición de revistas especializadas, y las monografías, especialmente las que se ocupan de aspectos ideológicos y sociales de los miembros (caballeros, clérigos y monjas, así como de los estudios particulares sobre el territorio, la administración del señorío, patrimonio, aspectos artísticos y otros muchos que se pueden acometer con la documentación de las órdenes militares. La información queda recogida en una base de datos de acceso libre en Internet.ABSTRACT: The bibliography on the Military Orders in Spain during the Early Modern Age has incessantly grown during the last years. This article reviews conferences and seminar calls, sources' reprints, the birth of some specialized periodicals and books, focusing on works dealing with ideological and social aspects of the members (knights, clergymen and nuns and paying attention to particular surveys on the land, lordship management, heritage, art and many historical matters that we can research with the help of the archives of the Military Orders. The bibliographical records will be on a free access data base on Internet.

  6. Por uma Economia Política do Funk Carioca: notas sobre a teoria pós-moderna e seus desdobramentos na música popular contemporânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cezar Laignier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as relações entre o funk carioca enquanto gênero musical e a teoria sobre as condições de uma economia política moderna no estágio contemporâneo, em que a acumulação flexível e os rápidos giros nos ciclos do capital se desdobram em uma sociabilidade e em aspectos culturais de mobilidade, risco, incerteza, crise, fluidez, portabilidade e interconexão. O referencial teórico é baseado principalmente nas obras de Harvey (2006, Lyotard (2003 e Anderson (1999. A primeira seção discute, com base nestes autores, a conjuntura pós-moderna; a segunda apresenta alguns exemplos dos desdobramentos das características classificadas como pós-modernas na música massiva/popular; a terceira discute algumas características do funk carioca como gênero musical e como cena cultural, inserindo-o no contexto político-econômico do Rio de Janeiro contemporâneo.

  7. Notas feministas sobre o marco jurídico da migração e do tráfico de mulheres na Europa e Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mayorga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2012v9n1p278   Neste trabalho, buscamos compreender aspectos do marco jurídico da migração, tráfico de mulheres e prostituição na Europa de forma geral e na Espanha de forma específica a partir de uma análise das principais regulamentações vigentes entre 2005/2007 nesses contextos. Para isso, buscamos conhecer como a legislação e a tendência ao fechamento de fronteiras oferecem brechas que levam a situações de exploração e vulnerabilização para mulheres migrantes que estão na Espanha exercendo a prostituição. Foram analisados os seguintes documentos: Protocolo para prevenir, reprimir e sancionar o tráfico de pessoas, especialmente mulheres e crianças, do ano 2000, que complementa a Convenção das Nações Unidas contra a delinqüência organizada internacional; Protocolo contra o tráfico ilícito de migrantes por terra, mar e ar, que complementa a Convenção das Nações Unidas contra a delinqüência organizada internacional e a Lei de Migração espanhola de 1985. A política sobre o tráfico de mulheres e as posições mais conservadoras sobre a migração na União Européia tem tido conseqüências específicas para as mulheres. Os tratados e leis enfatizam, sobremaneira, as medidas de controle de fronteiras e repressão aos Possíveis delitos cometidos. Tal perspectiva deixa em segundo plano os direitos dos/as migrantes e das pessoas vitimas do tráfico (é importante ressaltar que os textos dos tratados e leis dão margem para que se identifique tráfico de mulheres com migração para a prostituição. Com relação à prostituição, o direito espanhol não penaliza, mas também não regulamenta, o exercício da prostituição; deixa tal atividade em uma situação de completa alegalidade, o que acaba por incrementar a vulnerabilização das prostitutas frente abusos e explorações de todos os tipos.

  8. Global Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2010-01-01

    at the mythology of ‘global Europa' - the EU in the world. It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the many diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure. In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU...

  9. A lente moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Baptista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Belo Horizonte, cidade moderna, abriga registros do surgimento da arquitetura moderna brasileira, flagrados na sua construção pela lente moderna do fotógrafo Wilson Baptista. Associar fragmentos das histórias arquitetônica e fotográfica nas décadas de 1930-1960 é o objetivo com este ensaio, baseado no relato pessoal da experiência de cada imagem. As referências arquitetônicas não se estendem além do necessário, por já terem sido publicadas por outros autores, limitando-se a referenciar o trabalho inventivo do fotógrafo, que traduz, em uma estética também moderna, a beleza da arquitetura belo-horizontina.

  10. ORIGEM DA ANGTIA MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvino Rabuske

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema que me foi proposto "origem da angtia moderna". Por certo, um tema extremamente complexo. Trata-se de surpreender as modalidades modernas de um fenomeno, antigo como o prrio homem. Visando contribuir numa semana de reflexo sobre a esperan crist em, que esta abordada a partir, de diversos gulos, parece indicado que esta exposio n se atenha a um ico aspeto da angtia.

  11. Pensar Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Reverter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Como dijo el profesor Fernando Montero "hay que reconocer que Europa es una extraña entidad, a mitad camino entre los seres reales y las ficciones". Desde el mismo mito de Europa, como princesa fenicia raptada por Zeus convertido en un toro blanco y llevada a Creta, hasta el discurso actual que promueve una idea de Europa como entidad transnacional, nos hallamos frente a la realidad de Europa como cuna de ideas e idea ella misma. La reflexividad que caracteriza al pensamiento filosófico y a la racionalidad crítica vuelve su mirada hacia la misma razón que se piensa, por tanto, a sí misma. Y es en ese punto en el que la cultura europea se ha destacado y tal vez debamos admitir también, se ha desgastado. Europa, desde la racionalidad de los griegos hasta la crisis de la razón actual ha pensado sobre sí misma al preguntarse por la razón misma. Podemos decir, de alguna manera, que Europa se piensa a sí misma al pensar en la razón humana. En este número monográfico de Recerca presentamos precisamente eso, una reflexión de Europa, que es a su vez una reflexión sobre algunos de los temas no sólo abiertos en ese quehacer constante que Europa se ha convertido, sino de gran calado para lo que Europa en un futuro pueda ser.

  12. Notas Editoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosquera Alberto

    1943-09-01

    Full Text Available Prestigiosas firmas honran las páginas de esta edición y a todos los generosos colaboradores hacemos llegar la sincera expresión de nuestra gratitud por el valioso contingente prestado a la vez que les repetimos que la REVISTA FACULTAD NACIONAL DE AGRONOMIA siempre acogerá preferentemente su interesante y autorizado aporte científico. Asimismo ofrecemos a los señores Agrónomos y hombres de ciencia colombianos estas páginas para que hagan conocer del país sus ideas en relación con los muchos y complejos problemas que atañen a la economía agraria. En estas notas editoriales encontramos la información de la visita del Excmo Sr. Henry A. Wallace a la Facultad Nacional de Agronomía; La publicación del libro “Sentido de una Lucha Biológica” por Luis Maria Murillo y el regreso del Doctor Carlos Madrid después de estar en los Estado Unidos de Norte América enviado por la Facultad.

  13. Europa: Processes and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the known and possible geologic processes of Europa. It shows slides of Europa, with different terrains (ridged plains and molten plains), and a possible view of the interior. Europa's eccentric orbit is reviewed. The presentation also reviews Europa's composition. The possible reasons for Europa's geology are reviewed. Also the possiblity that life exists on Europa is raised. The planned Europa Geophysical Explorer mission is also reviewed.

  14. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  15. A Europa moderna a Leste e as identidades politicas (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    O poder da casa dos Habsburgos desenvolve-se a partir dos seus domínios hereditários originalmente situados na actual Áustria e Eslovénia, no séc. XIII (1278), tornando-se proeminente quando Carlos de Habsburgo, filho de Filipe “o Formoso” e de Joana “a Louca” de Castela, e neto de Maximiliano I de Áustria e Maria de Burgúndia (pelo lado paterno) e de Fernando II de Aragão e Isabel I “a Católica” (pelo lado materno) ascendeu aos tronos de Castela e Aragão (Carlos I de Espanha), a partir de 15...

  16. Notas de pintura rupestre solutrense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco JORDÁ CERDÁ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde hace algún tiempo venimos sosteniendo, junto con otros prehistoriadores, la necesidad de revisar las fases establecidas para el desarrollo del arte rupestre cuaternario y su cronología. El sistema preconizado por Breuil tiene la necesaria flexibilidad para permitir las rectificaciones que el tiempo necesariamente irá imponiendo a raíz de la investigación moderna. De ahí que nuestras notas o reflexiones sean más que críticas que tiendan a desvalorizar el sistema actualmente admitido, simples rectificaciones orientadas en los nuevos puntos de vista, producto de los descubrimientos más recientes. En este sentido hemos de hacer patente la importancia que la cueva del Parpalló (Gandía, con una estratigrafía clara y definida y con una serie de hallazgos de arte mobiliar perfectamente datados, tiene para el estudio del arte rupestre hispanofrancés, del Paleolítico superior.

  17. The Europa Global Geologic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D. A.; Collins, G. C.

    2018-06-01

    The Europa Global Geologic Map reveals three periods in Europa's surface history as well as an interesting distribution of microchaos. We will discuss the mapping and the interesting implications of our analysis of Europa's surface.

  18. "Que nunca chegue o dia que irá nos separar": notas sobre epistémê arcaica, hermafroditas, andróginos, mutilados e suas (descontinuidades modernas "May it never come the day that will tear us apart": notes About classical epistémê, hermaphrodites, androgynous, mutilated people and their modern (discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Leite Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A figura do hermafrodita ou andrógino foi fundamental para todo o discurso médico-moral-espiritual sobre sexo e gênero em nossa cultura, desde a Antiguidade até o século XVIII. Com a mudança epistemológica que ocorre a partir do século XVI, o antigo hermafrodita, associado ao mundo mágico e religioso, perde seu lugar nas classificações modernas. A partir do século XIX nasce uma nova entidade conceitual no Ocidente: o pseudo-hermafrodita da medicina, não mais "maravilha" da natureza, mas um erro desta; filho do racionalismo iluminista e do positivismo, vindo a tornar-se o pai - e mãe - das futuras identidades transgêneras.The image of the hermaphrodite or androgyne was essential for all medical-moral-spiritual discourses about sex and gender in our culture, from Antiquity until the eighteenth century. With the epistemological change that has happened since the sixteenth century, the old hermaphrodite, associated with the magical and religious world, has lost his/her place in modern classifications. From the nineteenth century on, a new conceptual entity in the West takes place: the pseudo-hermaphrodite from medicine, not the wonder of nature anymore, but its error; a product of the illuminist rationalism and positivism, gradually becoming the father and mother of future transgender identities.

  19. Geology of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  20. REASON for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussessian, A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Plaut, J. J.; Patterson, G. W.; Gim, Y.; Schroeder, D. M.; Soderlund, K. M.; Grima, C.; Young, D. A.; Chapin, E.

    2015-12-01

    The science goal of the Europa multiple flyby mission is to "explore Europa to investigate its habitability". One of the primary instruments selected for the scientific payload is a multi-frequency, multi-channel ice penetrating radar system. This "Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON)" would revolutionize our understanding of Europa's ice shell by providing the first direct measurements of its surface character and subsurface structure. REASON addresses key questions regarding Europa's habitability, including the existence of any liquid water, through the innovative use of radar sounding, altimetry, reflectometry, and plasma/particles analyses. These investigations require a dual-frequency radar (HF and VHF frequencies) instrument with concurrent shallow and deep sounding that is designed for performance robustness in the challenging environment of Europa. The flyby-centric mission configuration is an opportunity to collect and transmit minimally processed data back to Earth and exploit advanced processing approaches developed for terrestrial airborne data sets. The observation and characterization of subsurface features beneath Europa's chaotic surface require discriminating abundant surface clutter from a relatively weak subsurface signal. Finally, the mission plan also includes using REASON as a nadir altimeter capable of measuring tides to test ice shell and ocean hypotheses as well as characterizing roughness across the surface statistically to identify potential follow-on landing sites. We will present a variety of measurement concepts for addressing these challenges.

  1. Inmigraciones en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrián, Juan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an interval of only six decades 1950-2010, we have witnessed the five centuries old emigration process interruption that has shaped modern European history. At the end of World War II begins an intense opposite migration flow from former European colonies to their historic metropolis, which had also incorporated other areas that never had that relationship of dependency. This phenomenon is undoubtedly the most important contemporary social process that has taken place in Europe. Such a transformation could only occur by the confluence of important complementary factors. In separate sections of this article we present the main causes of recent immigrations in Europe and what flows within Europe and from other continents can be identified. Second, we explore the key aspects of immigration: demographics, gender and labor market. Then, we study the problems of integration in the host societies and immigration policies that facilitate it. We ended our discussion with references to the singular case of Spain.

    En un intervalo de sólo seis décadas 1950-2010, hemos sido testigos de la interrupción del proceso multisecular emigratorio que ha marcado toda la historia moderna europea. Al término de la Segunda Guerra Mundial comienza un intenso reflejo de movilidad opuesta, desde las antiguas colonias europeas hacia su metrópoli histórica, que se ha contagiado también a otras áreas que nunca tuvieron esa relación de dependencia. Este fenómeno constituye, sin duda, el proceso social contemporáneo más importante que ha tenido lugar en Europa. Una transformación así sólo ha podido ocurrir por la confluencia de importantes factores complementarios. En diferentes apartados de este artículo exponemos las principales causas de la inmigración reciente en Europa y qué flujos intraeuropeos y procedentes de otros continentes pueden identificarse. En segundo término, nos interesamos por los aspectos claves del fenómeno inmigratorio

  2. Usos do primitivismo. Pedra, barro e arquitetura moderna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Costa Cabral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de problemáticas, as noções de “primitivo” e “primitivismo” foram categorias essenciais para a arte e a arquitetura moderna na América Latina, tanto para produtores (arquitetos e artistas, quanto para seus intérpretes (historiadores e críticos. Estiveram fortemente associadas tanto à contribuição latino-americana para uma modernidade universal quanto à apreciação historiográfica dessa contribuição. Este texto tem por objetivo cercar determinados “usos do primitivismo” na arquitetura sul-americana, que coincidem com a presença de materiais naturais, como a pedra e o barro, e de técnicas construtivas pré-industriais. Embora essa presença possa ser discutida apenas nos termos de uma relação com o “vernáculo”, adota-se propositalmente a noção de “primitivismo”, por exibir um impasse (de certa forma indiferente ao vernáculo de uma ligação intelectual, e não natural, com a tradição. O trabalho finaliza com algumas notas sobre a proposta de Lucio Costa para a casa operária de Monlevade no Brasil (1936 e as alternativas do grupo Austral para a casa rural argentina (1939.

  3. Macula on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa, an icy satellite of Jupiter about the size of the Earth's Moon, was obtained from a range of 7415 miles (11933 kilometers) by the Galileo spacecraft during its fourth orbit around Jupiter and its first close pass of Europa. The image spans 30 miles by 57 miles (48 km by 91 km) and shows features as small as 800 feet (240 meters) across. The large circular feature centered in the upper middle of the image is called a macula, and could be the scar of a large meteorite impact. The surface of Europa is composed mostly of water ice, so large impact craters on Europa could look different from large bowl-shaped depressions formed by impact into rock, such as on the Moon. On Europa's icy surface, the original impact crater has been modified into a central zone of rugged topography surrounded by circular fractures which reflect adjustments to stress in the surrounding icy crust.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  4. Active Cryovolcanism on Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, W. B.; Cracraft, M.; Deustua, S. E [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schmidt, B. E. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 311 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); McGrath, M. A. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hand, K. P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spencer, J. R., E-mail: sparks@stsci.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    Evidence for plumes of water on Europa has previously been found using the Hubble Space Telescope using two different observing techniques. Roth et al. found line emission from the dissociation products of water. Sparks et al. found evidence for off-limb continuum absorption as Europa transited Jupiter. Here, we present a new transit observation of Europa that shows a second event at the same location as a previous plume candidate from Sparks et al., raising the possibility of a consistently active source of erupting material on Europa. This conclusion is bolstered by comparison with a nighttime thermal image from the Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer that shows a thermal anomaly at the same location, within the uncertainties. The anomaly has the highest observed brightness temperature on the Europa nightside. If heat flow from a subsurface liquid water reservoir causes the thermal anomaly, its depth is ≈1.8–2 km, under simple modeling assumptions, consistent with scenarios in which a liquid water reservoir has formed within a thick ice shell. Models that favor thin regions within the ice shell that connect directly to the ocean, however, cannot be excluded, nor modifications to surface thermal inertia by subsurface activity. Alternatively, vapor deposition surrounding an active vent could increase the thermal inertia of the surface and cause the thermal anomaly. This candidate plume region may offer a promising location for an initial characterization of Europa’s internal water and ice and for seeking evidence of Europa’s habitability.

  5. Moderna Museet peata / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    Viis aastat Stockholmi Moderna Museetit juhtinud David Elliott lahkub novembris praeguselt ametikohalt ning asub juhtima aastal 2003 Tokyos avatavat Mori kunstimuuseumi. 2003. a. avatakse Ellioti ja Simon Nijami kureeritud aafrika kaasaegse kunsti näitus "Out of Africa" Stockholmis, seejärel Tokyos.

  6. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  7. El Formalismo esencial de la arquitectura moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Piñón Pallarés, Helio

    2008-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 2 de maig de 2012 La idea más extendida de la arquitectura moderna la considera una mera faceta de un fenómeno más general, denominado Movimiento Moderno, que vendría a ser un estado de entusiasmo provocado por la culminación de la Revolución Industrial en lo que se dio en llamar "la edad de la máquina". Las obras de arquitectura moderna serían, desde esa perspectiva, transparentes a la función y a la forma, de modo que los arquitectos actuarían como comadronas que a...

  8. Notas acerca de psicólogos y teorías psicológicas de Europa Oriental en la historia de la psicología de América del Sur (Notes About East European Psychologists and Psychological Theories in tahe History of Psychology in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Psicólogos de Europa Oriental tuvieron un rol importante en los años iniciales de desarrollo de la psicología en América del Sur. En el presente artículo se describe el trabajo y la influencia de cuatro de ellos: Waclaw Radecki (1887-1953, Béla Székely (1899-1955, F. Oliver Brachfeld (1908-1967 y Hélène Antipoff (1892-1974. Además, teorías provenientes de Rusia y la Unión Soviética encontraron una amplia resonancia entre los psicólogos sudamericanos, como la teoría de Pavlov y las ideas de Vygotsky que atrajeron el interés de los especialistas en la región, quienes las consideraron alternativas válidas frente a la psicología proveniente de los Estados Unidos, sobre todo en la década de1960, cuando predominaba una fuerte atmósfera antiestadounidense en esa parte del mundo. ABSTRACT: Psychologists from Eastern Europe had an important role in the initial years of the development of psychology in South America. In the present communication is the work and influence of four of them: WaclawRadecki (1887-1953, BélaSzékely (1899-1955, F. Oliver Brachfeld (1908-1967 and Hélène Antipoff (1892-1974. Furthermore, theory from Russia and the Soviet Union found a wide resonance among South American Psychologists as Pavlov's theory and the ideas of Vygotsky caught the interest of specialists in the region, who considered them valid alternatives to the psychology coming from the United States, at a time as in the 1960 when a strong anti-american atmosphere prevailed in that part of the world.

  9. La influencia de la Alquimia medieval hispana en la Europa moderna,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Pérez, Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The pseudolullian texts of german paracelsists in Spain specify the peninsular paracelsism. This texts, and many others, were influenced by other previous texts, like these of the same Lull, Arnau of Vilanova and John of Rupescissa, that's the reason why this ideas made a return trip and the spanish mediaeval alchemy determined directly to the european alchemy.

    Los textos pseudolulianos de paracelsistas alemanes en España concretan los años del paracelsismo peninsular. Dichos textos, y algunos más, estaban influenciados por otros anteriores, como los del propio Lulio, Arnau de Vilanova y Juan de Rupescissa, por lo que dichas ideas hicieron un viaje de ida y vuelta y la Alquimia hispana medieval influenció directamente a la europea.

  10. Akon - A Penetrator for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Geraint

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This 2000km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life. The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. NASA has selected the Europa Mission (formerly Europa Clipper) to study Europa in detail in the 2020s through multiple flybys, and ESA's JUICE mission will perform two flybys of the body in the 2030s. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa's surface in situ. A high speed lander - a penetrator - is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level. An international team to formally propose an Europa penetrator to ESA in response to the anticipated ESA M5 call is growing. The working title of this proposal is Akon (Άκων), named after the highly accurate javelin gifted to Europa by Zeus in ancient Greek mythology. We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa's surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon's subsurface. To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface. It is planned that the instruments to be

  11. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Gruber, M. R. (2011, 13 December). Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas). Guest lecture at the IPMZ - Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research, Devision Media Change & Innovation, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

  12. Europa Kinetic Ice Penetrator (EKIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity...

  13. Kant e a hermenêutica moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joãosinho Beckenkamp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Encontra-se espalhada pela obra de Kant uma série de teses que dizem respeito ao que hoje é conhecido por hermenêutica, isto é, a arte ou a técnica da interpretação. Apesar da clara e marcante influência dessas teses sobre Fr. Schlegel e Schleiermacher, que devem ser reconhecidos como os verdadeiros fundadores da hermenêutica moderna, elas não são devidamente levadas em consideração pelos historiadores da hermenêutica. O presente trabalho visa recuperar a memória histórica destas conexões, no intuito de chegar a uma imagem mais justa do desenvolvimento da hermenêutica moderna.There are throughout Kant's work many propositions concerning to what is today called hermeneutics, i. e., the art or the technique of interpretation. Notwithstanding the clear influence of these propositions on Fr. Schlegel and Schleiermacher, who should be recognized as the founders of modern hermeneutics, they aren't duly taken in account by the historians of hermeneutics. The present paper proposes to recover the historical memory of these connections, in order to attain a fair picture of the development of modern hermeneutics.

  14. Notas

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Meissner Grebe; Hans Fox Timmling

    1986-01-01

    • Arquitectura Egipcia. • Arquitectura Romana. • Arquitectura Paleocristiana. • Arquitectura Romántica. • Arquitectura Griega. • Arquitectura Gótica. • Arquitectura del Renacimiento. • Arquitectura del Manierismo. • Arquitectura Barroca. • Arquitectura de la Ilustración. • Arquitectura Funcional. • Arquitectura Posmoderna.

  15. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  16. Europa: Initial Galileo Geological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Klemaszewski, J.; Homan, K.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Veverka, J.; Clark, B.E.; Johnson, T.V.; Klaasen, K.P.; Belton, M.; Moore, J.; Asphaug, E.; Carr, M.H.; Neukum, G.; Denk, T.; Chapman, C.R.; Pilcher, C.B.; Geissler, P.E.; Greenberg, R.; Tufts, R.

    1998-01-01

    Images of Europa from the Galileo spacecraft show a surface with a complex history involving tectonic deformation, impact cratering, and possible emplacement of ice-rich materials and perhaps liquids on the surface. Differences in impact crater distributions suggest that some areas have been resurfaced more recently than others; Europa could experience current cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Global-scale patterns of tectonic features suggest deformation resulting from non-synchronous rotation of Europa around Jupiter. Some regions of the lithosphere have been fractured, with icy plates separated and rotated into new positions. The dimensions of these plates suggest that the depth to liquid or mobile ice was only a few kilometers at the time of disruption. Some surfaces have also been upwarped, possibly by diapirs, cryomagmatic intrusions, or convective upwelling. In some places, this deformation has led to the development of chaotic terrain in which surface material has collapsed and/or been eroded. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Europa como cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier San Martín

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto tiene un origen muy concreto. El día 15 de marzo de 2002, con motivo de la Cumbre Europea de Barcelona, Jorge Semprún reflexionaba, en las páginas de un conocido diario madrileño, sobre el significado que para él tenía ser europeo. Para ello emprendía tres "viajes intelectuales" a Viena, Praga y Buchenwald, los tres de gran significado histórico y cultural. Dado el interés del texto y del momento, me pareció entonces oportuno glosar algunos aspectos de aquel artículo, primero, para subrayar el valor de la aportación de Semprún, luego para corregir alguna inexactitud de carácter biográfico, debida posiblemente a la rapidez de la traducción, y, tercero, para ampliar con algún comentario la valiosa contribución de Sempnín, sobre todo en lo que concierne al sentido de Europa. En este texto se toma aquel comentario como punto de partida.The origins of this text are very specific. On 15 March 2002, on the occasion of the European Summit in Barcelona, and on the pages of a well-known Madrid newspaper, Jorge Semprún reflected on the meaning that being European had for him. To do this, he embarked on three "intellectual journeys" to Vienna, Prague and Buchenwald, all three of great historical and cultural significance. Given the interest of the text and of the moment, I considered it appropriate to comment on aspects of the article -firstly, to underline the value of Semprún's contribution; secondly, to correct certain biographical inaccuracies, possibly due to a hasty translation; and thirdly, to complement Semprún's valuable contribution, essentially concerning the meaning of Europe. This text takes that comment as its starting point.

  18. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  19. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  20. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hörst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  1. A introdução da matemática moderna no Ciclo Preparatório do Ensino Secundário em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Marta Alexandra Marques

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Ensino da Matemática Com o presente estudo pretende-se estudar a introdução do programa de Matemática Moderna no contexto da criação do novo Ciclo Preparatório do Ensino Secundário, através da visão do Inspetor Joaquim Simões Redinha, sendo por isso necessário reunir e digitalizar documentação relativa aos primeiros anos do referido ciclo e obter notas sobre o percurso profissional e perspetivas do supramencionado inspetor. Pretende-se aind...

  2. Notas de Lugar Nenhum: sobre os primórdios da escolarização moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hamilton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter deals with the innovating initiatives in the teaching methods taken by authors such as Hoole and Comenius in the sixteenth century. The innovations introduced not only represented a rework on ideas from remote ages but also contributed to reconfigure politics and the rise of the modern state. Focused on the parallel of modern schooling and the modern state, David Hamilton fosters as critical view on the evolutionary readings from a cultural history that provides him with support to assert the idea that modern schooling did not have institutional ancestors. As a supportive argument to his assumption, Hamilton operates a dual movement: a preliminary historiographical critique, based on original sources but subjugated by a Darwinian interpretative framework and a subsequent exposition of complex pathways through which disorderly ideas and practices intermingled to give birth to modern schooling.

  3. Notas Ornitológicas Colombianas, IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista siguiente, cuarta en la serte de mis notas ornitológicas colombianas (*, contiene noticias de algún interés relativas a elementos propios de la avifauna de Colombia y a varias especies migratorias que se encuentran de manera temporal en el territorio de este país. En total, 178 especies y subespecies se enumeran en este trabajo.

  4. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo; Bengenal; Bar; Bills; Blankenship; Connerney; Kurth; McGrath; Moore; Prockter; hide

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability, as an overarching science goal, will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes, The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (1EO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options, In its preliminary findings (May, 2011), the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives, An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing, This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources, More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, that is better situated to handle larger masses and higher data volumes, and which aims to limit radiation exposure, Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over mUltiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile, Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission

  5. Origen y filogenia de los primeros homínidos de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten el origen y relaciones filogenéticas de la especie Homo antecesor, Bermudez de Castro et al.., 1997, con especial atención a los datos aportados por la nueva mandíbula recuperada en el nivel TD6 del yacimiento de Gran Dolina, en la Sierra de Atapuerca, que refuerzan la identidad taxonómica de esta especie y su relación con el origen de H. sapiens. Se constata la hipótesis de que H. antecessor represente el último antecesor común de los neandertales y de las poblaciones modernas y se considera la posibilidad de un origen asiático para el primer poblamiento de Europa

  6. Notas sobre una escuela circular prefabricada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1930, la idea de una planta circular para escuela, abarcando un espacio exterior frente a un edificio de usos varios, era ya antigua por lo menos en diez años. El Museo de Arte Moderno de Nueva York, que por aquellos tiempos instaló y preparó en sus nuevas dependencias la primera exposición masiva de Arquitectura moderna, dispuso una magnífica maqueta de este proyecto de Richard J. Neutra.

  7. Biogeochemical Reactions Under Simulated Europa Ocean Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, X.; Connon, S. A.; Gleeson, D. F.; Kowalczyk, R. S.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2007-12-01

    Galileo data have demonstrated the probable presence of a liquid water ocean on Europa, and existence of salts and carbon dioxide in the satellite's surface ice (e.g., Carr et al., 1998; McCord et al., 1999, Pappalardo et al., 1999; Kivelson et al., 2000). Subsequently, the discovery of chemical signatures of extinct or extant life in Europa's ocean and on its surface became a distinct possibility. Moreover, understanding of Europa's potential habitability is now one of the major goals of the Europa Orbiter Flagship mission. It is likely, that in the early stages of Europa's ocean formation, moderately alkaline oceanic sulfate-carbonate species and a magnetite-silicate mantel could have participated in low-temperature biogeochemical sulfur, iron and carbon cycles facilitated by primitive organisms (Zolotov and Shock, 2004). If periodic supplies of fresh rock and sulfate-carbonate ions are available in Europa's ocean, then an exciting prospect exists that life may be present in Europa's ocean today. In our laboratory, we began the study of the plausible biogeochemical reactions under conditions appropriate to Europa's ocean using barophilic psychrophilic organisms that thrive under anaerobic conditions. In the near absence of abiotic synthetic pathways due to low Europa's temperatures, the biotic synthesis may present a viable opportunity for the formation of the organic and inorganic compounds under these extreme conditions. This work is independent of assumptions regarding hydrothermal vents at Europa's ocean floor or surface-derived oxidant sources. For our studies, we have fabricated a high-pressure (5,000 psi) reaction vessel that simulates aqueous conditions on Europa. We were also successful at reviving barophilic psychrophilic strains of Shewanella bacterium, which serve as test organisms in this investigation. Currently, facultative barophilic psychrophilic stains of Shewanella are grown in the presence of ferric food source; the strains exhibiting iron

  8. Art Museum Education in Transition: Moderna Galerija in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, Adela

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the educational practices at the Moderna galerija, a national museum of modern and contemporary art in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in the last twenty years. Its aim is to reflect on the museum education in relation to broader historical context, of the former Yugoslavia (the country Slovenia was a part of until 1991) and discuss how…

  9. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  10. Informalidad y comercio ambulante. Algunas notas preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alfonso Llancar Etcheverry

    2009-01-01

    Las siguientes notas tratan un tema que se ha presentado en nuestro contexto local, el comercio ambulante. Se pretende aportar algunos datos derivados de una investigación desarrollada en la ciudad de Osorno, en la que se emplearon como técnicas de recolección de información la observación no participante y el análisis de instrumentos que emplea el Estado de Chile para implementar sus políticas sociales, a fin de conocer la situación social del vendedor ambulante, contexto y dinámica en que s...

  11. MISE: A Search for Organics on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kelly; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2017-01-01

    NASA’s planned Europa Flyby Mission will try to assess the habitability of Jupiter’s moon, Europa. One of the selected instruments on the mission is the Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE). MISE is a near-infrared imaging spectrometer that takes spectra in the 0.8-5 micron range, and it will be capable of mapping Europa’s surface chemical composition. A primary goal of the MISE instrument is to determine if Europa is capable of supporting life by searching for amino acid signatures in the infrared spectra. We present spectra of pure amino acid at MISE’s resolution, and we analyze the effect of chirality on these spectra. Lastly, we present model spectra for diluted/mixed amino acids to simulate more realistic concentrations. We show MISE can distinguish between different types of amino acids, such as isoleucine, leucine, and their enantiomers.

  12. SLUSH: Europa Hybrid Deep Drill, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are at least two fundamental design approaches one could use when trying to penetrate the icy shell on Europa and other planetary bodies: a melt probe and an...

  13. Modeling Europa's Ice-Ocean Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenousy, A.; Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on modeling the ice-ocean interface on Jupiter's Moon (Europa); mainly from the standpoint of heat and salt transfer relationship with emphasis on the basal ice growth rate and its implications to Europa's tidal response. Modeling the heat and salt flux at Europa's ice/ocean interface is necessary to understand the dynamics of Europa's ocean and its interaction with the upper ice shell as well as the history of active turbulence at this area. To achieve this goal, we used McPhee et al., 2008 parameterizations on Earth's ice/ocean interface that was developed to meet Europa's ocean dynamics. We varied one parameter at a time to test its influence on both; "h" the basal ice growth rate and on "R" the double diffusion tendency strength. The double diffusion tendency "R" was calculated as the ratio between the interface heat exchange coefficient αh to the interface salt exchange coefficient αs. Our preliminary results showed a strong double diffusion tendency R ~200 at Europa's ice-ocean interface for plausible changes in the heat flux due to onset or elimination of a hydrothermal activity, suggesting supercooling and a strong tendency for forming frazil ice.

  14. Retos pendientes en el periodismo de nota roja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Barata

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La nota roja tiene que ser dignificada y tratada profesionalmente respetando los derechos de aquellos que tienen el desprecio social como una forma de fortalecer los valores democráticos. Un periodismo responsable y comprometido con los valores humanos de todos quienes piensen en que la nota roja puede develar muchas verdades ocultas de esta sociedad, aunque estén impregnadas de lodo y miseria.

  15. Various Landscapes and Features on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    These 15 frames show the great variety of surface features on Jupiter's icy moon, Europa, which have been revealed by the Galileo spacecraft Solid State Imaging (CCD) system during its first six orbits around Jupiter from June 1996 to February 1997. North is to the top of each of the images. The features seen on Europa's surface document both internal and external processes shaping the icy crust. Internal processes and the possible presence of liquid water beneath the ice are indicated by features such as 'dark spots', lobe-shaped flow features, 'puddles','mottled terrain', knobs, pits, and the darker areas along ridges and triple bands.Europa is subjected to constant tugging from the giant planet, Jupiter, as well as from its neighboring moons, Io and Ganymede. This causes 'tidal' forces that affect Europa's interior and surface. Evidence for such forces includes ridges, fractures, wedge-shaped bands, and areas of 'chaos'. Some of these features result from alternate extension and compression buckling and pulling apart Europa's icy shell.Impact craters document external effects on a planet's surface. Although present on Europa, impact craters are relatively scarce compared to the number seen on Ganymede, Callisto, and on the surfaces of most other 'rocky' planets and moons in our solar system. This scarcity of craters suggests that the surface of Europa is very young. 'Maculae' on Europa may be the scars from large impact events.These images have resolutions from 27 meters (89 feet) to 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) per picture element (pixel) and were taken by Galileo at ranges of 2,500 kilometers (1,525 miles) to 677,000 kilometers (413,000 miles) from Europa.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo

  16. Heat transfer of ascending cryomagma on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Marsh, Bruce D.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a relatively young surface (60-90 Myr on average), which may be due in part to cryovolcanic processes. Current models for both effusive and explosive cryovolcanism on Europa may be expanded and enhanced by linking the potential for cryovolcanism at the surface to subsurface cryomagmatism. The success of cryomagma transport through Europa's crust depends critically on the rate of ascent relative to the rate of solidification. The final transport distance of cryomagma is thus governed by initial melt volume, ascent rate, overall ascent distance, transport mechanism (i.e., diapirism, diking, or ascent in cylindrical conduits), and melt temperature and composition. The last two factors are especially critical in determining the budget of expendable energy before complete solidification. Here we use these factors as constraints to explore conditions under which cryomagma may arrive at Europa's surface to facilitate cryovolcanism. We find that 1-5 km radius warm ice diapirs ascending from the base of a 10 km thick stagnant lid can reach the shallow subsurface in a partially molten state. Cryomagma transport may be further facilitated if diapirs travel along pre-heated ascent paths. Under certain conditions, cryolava transported from 10 km depths in tabular dikes or pipe-like conduits may reach the surface at temperatures exceeding 250 K. Ascent rates for these geometries may be high enough that isothermal transport is approached. Cryomagmas containing significant amounts of low eutectic impurities can also be delivered to Europa's surface by propagating dikes or pipe-like conduits.

  17. Denkers over eenwording van heinde en verre - Ghandi en Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof. dr. Ben Hoetjes

    2006-01-01

    Europa raakt in de publieke beeldvorming in Nederland duidelijk op de achtergrond. Andere zaken - het nieuwe zorgstelsel, de pensioenen, de misdaad, het internationale terrorisme, mensenrechtenschendingen, natuurrampen - hebben allang de voorpagina's overgenomen. Voor Europa-aanhangers zoals

  18. Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to develop a robust and effective sample acquisition system for the Europa lander called the Europa Drum Sampler (EDuS)....

  19. La arquitectura moderna en Iberoamérica: una seña de identidad

    OpenAIRE

    González Capitel, Antón

    1996-01-01

    6. La arquitectura moderna en Iberoamérica: una seña de identidad 6. 1. Antes de la arquitectura moderna 6. 2. El Art Déco y los primeros estadios de la arquitectura moderna 6. 2. l. El florecimiento de una primera modernidad en la República del Uruguay 6. 2. 2. Los inicios de la modernidad en la República Argentina 6. 2. 3. Los inicios de la arquitectura moderna en los demás países 6. 3. El desairnllo de la modernidad corbuseriana en Brasil. Brasilia: Costa y Niemeyer ...

  20. An ice crystal model for jupiter's moon Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; schmidt, Karen Guldbae

    2003-01-01

    A simple model for crystal growth in the ice shell of Europa has been made in order to estimate the size of ice crystals at Europa's surface. If mass is lost from the surface of Europa due to sputtering processes, and the ice thickness is constant in time, ice crystals will be transported upwards...

  1. Voorbij de retoriek: sociaal Europa vanuit twaalf invalshoeken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Burg, I.; Cremers, J.; Hamans, C.; Pilon, A.

    2014-01-01

    Voorbij de retoriek. Sociaal Europa vanuit twaalf invalshoeken is een kritische analyse van de voorbije decennia, waarin het opbouwen van een sociaal Europa is achtergebleven bij het marktgerichte Europa. Wat zijn de oorzaken, de gevolgen en de oplossingen? En vooral: hoe zorgen we ervoor dat

  2. New observations on the crustacean fauna of Europa Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Crustacea Decapoda of Europa Island have been inventoried during the BIORECIE fieldwork conducted from 7-12 November 2011. Previous records for Europa Island have been also compiled and an updated documented checklist of the species is proposed. In total, 175 decapods are reported for Europa Island, ...

  3. Science and Reconnaissance from the Europa Clipper Mission Concept: Exploring Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Senske, David; Prockter, Louise; Paczkowski, Brian; Vance, Steve; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Cooke, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Europa is recognized by the Planetary Science De-cadal Survey as a prime candidate to search for a pre-sent-day habitable environment in our solar system. As such, NASA has pursued a series of studies, facilitated by a Europa Science Definition Team (SDT), to define a strategy to best advance our scientific understanding of this icy world with the science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. (In June of 2014, the SDT completed its task of identifying the overarching science objectives and investigations.) Working in concert with a technical team, a set of mission archi-tectures were evaluated to determine the best way to achieve the SDT defined science objectives. The fa-vored architecture would consist of a spacecraft in Ju-piter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, con-centrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. In-novative mission design would use gravitational per-turbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of Europa's sur-face, with nominally 45 close flybys, typically at alti-tudes from 25 to 100 km. This concept has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa SDT recommended three science ob-jectives for the Europa Clipper: Ice Shell and Ocean: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; Composition: Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and Geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. The Europa SDT also considered implications of the Hubble Space Telescope detection of possible plumes at Europa. To feed forward to potential subsequent future ex-ploration that could be enabled by a lander, it was deemed that the Europa Clipper mission concept should provide the

  4. Power Subsystem Approach for the Europa Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulloa-Severino Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available NASA is planning to launch a spacecraft on a mission to the Jovian moon Europa, in order to conduct a detailed reconnaissance and investigation of its habitability. The spacecraft would orbit Jupiter and perform a detailed science investigation of Europa, utilizing a number of science instruments including an ice-penetrating radar to determine the icy shell thickness and presence of subsurface oceans. The spacecraft would be exposed to harsh radiation and extreme temperature environments. To meet mission objectives, the spacecraft power subsystem is being architected and designed to operate efficiently, and with a high degree of reliability.

  5. Biomarker Production and Preservation on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future landing site selection and sampling techniques for Europa will concentrate on locations of high potential biomarker preservation, however it is unclear what the best targets might be. On Europa, the scenario is quite unlike the depositional surface environments of terrestrial planets we've studied thus far-Europa's surface is passively communicating with putative habitable niches below that extend throughout the ice shell, ocean and sea floor. In this work, I approach biomarker production and preservation on Europa based by considering the many hypotheses that govern the its habitability, the processes that occur within the sea floor, ocean, and ice and exchange between them, and the geologic hypotheses for the formation of its various surfaces to establish, what journey through the planet a biomarker might take to arrive, if possible, at the surface where it is accessible to near-term landed missions. The goal of this project is to construct a simple model through which to consider the context for sampled material that will provide us with the ability to identify limitations in our intuition, understanding of the Europan system, our current hypotheses and data, and provide a road map for developing both areas for new research and identifying technology gaps that we must overcome before we can confidently select a landing site or analyze a sample from the near surface of Europa. I first consider the nature of the environment, i.e. at the sea floor interface, the ocean, or ocean-ice interface, in order to establish what the likely "biomarker" could be and then trace its path through the system: downwelling through the shell, mixing through the ocean, and pathways to the surface. Importantly, many models exist for the production of Europa's surface and subsurface geology that could affect the integrity of a putative biomarker. Often we modulate such considerations as a function of the time-scales over which the geologic process occurs, however such processes

  6. Laennec, el estetoscopio y las bases de la Medicina moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Drut, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    La revolución conceptual de la Medicina moderna, tal como la ejercemos, parte del principio de la correlación anátomo-clínica. En síntesis, la lesión (celular) es la causa de los signos y síntomas. Por lo tanto, estos últimos representan a la enfermedad, y la Medicina clínica tiene como objeto su interpretación para realizar diagnóstico y aplicar el tratamiento específico (o lo más e...

  7. Apolo y Dionisos : el temperamento en la arquitectura moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrándiz Gabriel, Javier

    1999-01-01

    En este libro se ensaya una visión de la arquitectura moderna dirigida a diferenciar sus aspectos racionales de aquellos que son consecuencia de la emoción. Buscar en la dualidad razón-sentimiento el origen del proceder del artista lleva a comprobar la subjetividad con la que el arquitecto moderno debe decidir, en cada momento, entre seguir fiel a la razón o dejarse llevar por sentimientos. La distinta afinidad que muestran hacia Apolo y Dionisos y, en consecuencia, el predominio de uno u otr...

  8. Vísceras, humores, alientos. Alma premoderna y subjetividad moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Rejón Altable, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    La medicina premoderna se ocupó tempranamente de la locura. Sin embargo, no supo proporcionar un concepto sólido de enfermedad mental a la psiquiatría naciente, que permaneció atrapada en las contradicciones de la forma sujeto moderna con la que nace. Este texto reconstruye algunos conceptos básicos de la medicina premoderna para mostrar cómo dan expresión metafórica a ciertas características de la estructura ontológica humana necesarias para comprender la enfermedad mental: escisión, individ...

  9. Usando a antimatéria na medicina moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,A.C.B.; Pleitez,V.; Tijero,M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Neste artigo, fazemos uma breve exposição de como um dos conceitos fundamentais da física moderna, a existência de antimatéria, tem aplicação na medicina, na chamada tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET na sigla em inglês). Ela consiste na produção de imagens tomográficas digitais do organismo que são obtidas pela detecção da radiação produzida na aniquilação do pósitron com o elétron.

  10. Europa the ocean moon : search for an alien biosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Europa - The Ocean Moon tells the story of the Galileo spacecraft probe to Jupiter's moon, Europa. It provides a detailed description of the physical processes, including the dominating tidal forces that operate on Europa, and includes a comprehensive tour of Europa using images taken by Galileo's camera. The book reviews and evaluates the interpretative work carried out to date, providing a philosophical discussion of the scientific process of analyzing results and the pitfalls that accompany it. It also examines the astrobiological constraints on this possible biosphere, and implications for future research, exploration and planetary biological protection. Europa - The Ocean Moon provides a unique understanding of the Galileo images of Europa, discusses the theory of tidal processes that govern its icy ridged and disrupted surface, and examines in detail the physical setting that might sustain extra-terrestrial life in Europa's ocean and icy crust.

  11. Hartvig Frisch og "Pest over Europa"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Vil populistiske bevægelser i dagens Europa udhule demokratiet og skabe stater med en formel retsorden, som bliver vendt mod syndebukke og udnyttes til diskrimination af etniske, sociale og religiøse mindretal – som i 1930erne?...

  12. Europa's Compositional Evolution and Ocean Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Glein, C.; Bouquet, A.; Cammarano, F.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's ocean depth and composition have likely evolved through time, in step with the temperature of its mantle, and in concert with the loss of water and hydrogen to space and accretion of water and other chemical species from comets, dust, and Io's volcanism. A key aspect to understanding the consequences of these processes is combining internal structure models with detailed calculations of ocean composition, which to date has not been done. This owes in part to the unavailability of suitable thermodynamic databases for aqueous chemistry above 0.5 GPa. Recent advances in high pressure aqueous chemistry and water-rock interactions allow us to compute the equilibrium ionic conditions and pH everywhere in Europa's interior. In this work, we develop radial structure and composition models for Europa that include self-consistent thermodynamics of all materials, developed using the PlanetProfile software. We will describe the potential hydration states and porosity of the rocky interior, and the partitioning of primordial sulfur between this layer, an underlying metallic core, and the ocean above. We will use these results to compute the ocean's salinity by extraction from the upper part of the rocky layer. In this context, we will also consider the fluxes of reductants from Europa's interior due to high-temperature hydrothermalism, serpentinization, and endogenic radiolysis.

  13. Core ethical values: EuropaBio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    EuropaBio, the European Association for BioIndustries, represents 40 companies operating world wide and 14 national association (totaling around 600 small and medium-sized enterprises) involved in the research, development, testing, manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution of biotechnology products and services in the fields of healthcare, agriculture, food and the environment.

  14. Cryovolcanic Emplacement of Domes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we explore the hypothesis that certain domes on Europa may have been produced by the extrusion of viscous cryolavas. A new mathematical method for the emplacement and relaxation of viscous lava domes is presented and applied to putative cryovolcanic domes on Europa. A similarity solution approach is applied to the governing equation for fluid flow in a cylindrical geometry, and dome relaxation is explored assuming a volume of cryolava has been rapidly emplaced onto the surface. Nonphysical sin- gularities inherent in previous models for dome relaxation have been eliminated, and cryolava cooling is represented by a time-variable viscosity. We find that at the onset of relaxation, bulk kinematic viscosities may lie in the range between 10(exp 3) and 10(exp 6) sq m/s, while the actual fluid lava viscosity may be much lower. Plausible relaxation times to form the domes, which are linked to bulk cryolava rheology, are found to range from 3.6 days to 7.5 years. We find that cooling of the cryolava, while dominated by conduction through an icy skin, should not prevent fluids from advancing and relaxing to form domes within the timescales considered. Determining the range of emplacement conditions for putative cryolava domes will shed light on Europa's resurfacing history. In addition, the rheologies and compositions of erupted cryolavas have implications for subsurface cryomagma ascent and local surface stress conditions on Europa.

  15. Forschung weltweit anerkannt: lernen von Europa

    CERN Multimedia

    Lorbeere, K

    2006-01-01

    Europa is better than its reputation. On one hand, the old continent, with the CERN, has the most modern research center for particle physics of the world; in addition, international groupings of companies as Microsoft use the research laboratories in Europe and thus use the know-how of the European scientists

  16. Tidally Driven Failure Along Europa's Rhadamanthys Linea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M.; Konter, B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    The surface of Europa is crosscut by a dense network of fractures and there are many candidate faults for studying past tectonic activity. To better understand the role of tidal stress sources and implications for faulting on Europa, we investigate the relationship between shear and normal stresses at Rhadamanthys Linea, a northwest oriented fracture in the northern hemisphere. Previous work on Agenor Linea, a right-lateral strike-slip fracture in the southern hemisphere, suggests that both tidal diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) stresses play a critical role in the mechanics of Coulomb shear failure on Europa. At Agenor Linea, shear failure from diurnal tidal stress mechanisms is difficult to achieve because the relatively large over¬burden stress (ie., 1.2 MPa at 1 km depth) dominates the stress field; however, MPa order stresses from NSR permit right-lateral shear failure along the west side of the fault at shallow depths (Astypalea Linea and Conamara Chaos will also be investigated, offering a unique comparison of geologic activity of fractures residing in geographically diverse locations of Europa.

  17. L'Europa accelera sul progetto Grid

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Il consorzio pan-europeo Egee sta pilotando a Bruxelles la complessa operazione che dotera' l'Europa di un mercato comune delle risorse di calcolo sulla base del modello Grid (griglia di calcolo, trasporto e distribuzione di dati)" (1 page).

  18. Exploring Europa's Habitability: Science achieved from the Europa Orbiter and Clipper Mission Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, D. A.; Prockter, L. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Vance, S.

    2012-12-01

    Europa is a prime candidate in the search for present-day habitable environments in our solar system. Europa is unique among the large icy satellites because it probably has a saltwater ocean today beneath an ice shell that is geodynamically active. The combination of irradiation of its surface and tidal heating of its interior could make Europa a rich source of chemical energy for life. Perhaps most importantly, Europa's ocean is believed to be in direct contact with its rocky mantle, where conditions could be similar to those on Earth's biologically rich sea floor. Hydrothermal zones on Earth's seafloor are known to be rich with life, powered by energy and nutrients that result from reactions between the seawater and the warm rocky ocean floor. Life as we know it depends on three principal "ingredients": 1) a sustained liquid water environment; 2) essential chemical elements that are critical for building life; and 3) a source of energy that could be utilized by life. Europa's habitability requires understanding whether it possesses these three ingredients. NASA has enlisted a study team to consider Europa mission options feasible over the next decade, compatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget and addressing Planetary Decadal Survey priorities. Two Europa mission concepts (Orbiter and multiple flyby—call the "Clipper") are undergoing continued study with the goal to "Explore Europa to investigate its habitability." Each mission would address this goal in complementary ways, with high science value of its own. The Orbiter and Clipper architectures lend themselves to specific types of scientific measurements. The Orbiter concept is tailored to the unique geophysical science that requires being in orbit at Europa. This includes confirming the existence of an ocean and characterizing that ocean through geophysical measurements of Europa's gravitational tides and magnetic induction response. It also includes mapping of the global morphology and

  19. Notas sobre el proceso de conocimiento antropológico

    OpenAIRE

    Devillard, María José

    2002-01-01

    "Pensar Europa en sus fronteras", como ya en 1992 proponían un grupo de filósofos de la Universidad de Estrasburgo -Denis Guénoun, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Jean-Luc Nancy, Daniel Payot-, significa considerar qué es eso de la "geofilosofía de Europa" como una cuestión imprescindible que conlleva toda reflexión veraz en torno a la idea de Europa. El debate al que invitaron a una serie diversa de colegas y amigos, procedentes de diferentes naciones, planteaba la posibilidad misma de una identif...

  20. Europa e Africa - Anatomia di un incontro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy of an enc......Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy...

  1. Praga, el Hollywood de Europa Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Sorrosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar la industria fílmica checa, tuvieron que aliarse el mundo poscomunista y el capitalismo. Praga se ha convertido en "El Hollywood de Europa del Este" o en la Meca fílmica. Los estudios Barrandov después de la caída del comunismo y el proceso de transformación económico pasaron por la privatización.

  2. Seismic signal and noise on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, Mark; Stähler, Simon; Bills, Bruce; Castillo Castellanos, Jorge; Huang, Hsin-Hua; Husker, Allen; Kedar, Sharon; Lorenz, Ralph; Pike, William T.; Schmerr, Nicholas; Tsai, Victor; Vance, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Seismology is one of our best tools for detailing interior structure of planetary bodies, and a seismometer is included in the baseline and threshold mission design for the upcoming Europa Lander mission. Guiding mission design and planning for adequate science return, though, requires modeling of both the anticipated signal and noise. Assuming ice seismicity on Europa behaves according to statistical properties observed in Earth catalogs and scaling cumulative seismic moment release to the moon, we can simulate long seismic records and estimate background noise and peak signal amplitudes (Panning et al., 2017). This suggests a sensitive instrument comparable to many broadband terrestrial instruments or the SP instrument from the InSight mission to Mars will be able to record signals, while high frequency geophones are likely inadequate. We extend this analysis to also begin incorporation of spatial and temporal variation due to the tidal cycle, which can help inform landing site selection. We also begin exploration of how chaotic terrane at the bottom of the ice shell and inter-ice heterogeneities (i.e. internal melt structures) may affect anticipated seismic observations using 2D numerical seismic simulations.M. P. Panning, S. C. Stähler, H.-H. Huang, S. D. Vance, S. Kedar, V. C. Tsai, W. T. Pike, R. D. Lorenz, “Expected seismicity and the seismic noise environment of Europa,” J. Geophys. Res., in revision, 2017.

  3. Dome shaped features on Europa's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging system aboard the spacecraft Galileo took this image of the surface of Europa on February 20, 1997 during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. The image is located near 16 North, 268 West; illumination is from the lower-right. The area covered is approximately 48 miles (80 kilometers) by 56 miles (95 kilometers) across. North is toward the top of the image.This image reveals that the icy surface of Europa has been disrupted by ridges and faults numerous times during its past. These ridges have themselves been disrupted by the localized formation of domes and other features that may be indicative of thermal upwelling of water from beneath the crust. These features provide strong evidence for the presence of subsurface liquid during Europa's recent past.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  4. Notas de la Dirección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Marco

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el orgullo de colombiano y de Rector de la Universidad Nacional, doy testimonio de la dedicacion, perseverancia, amor a la ciencia y a la patria, de Los profesores del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, emblema de La comunidad cientifica nacional. A partir de su fundación el 30 de octubre de 1936, la misión del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales-Museo de Historia Natural, ha sido la de estudiar en forma sistemática el suelo patrio, sus elementos y sus productos naturales con arreglo a las normas modernas de la Botánica, la Zoología, la Geología y la Antropología. Ha contribuido el Instituto a l0 largo de sus primeros cincuenta años al adelanto de las ciencias naturales y de sus diversas ramas de aplicación en Colombia, haciendo metódica la enseñanza universitaria de las mismas y' promoviendo la formación de personal idóneo dedicado a la investigación especializada en el campo de la sistemática y de la taxonomía, como medios indispensables para configurar los inventarios botánico y zoológico del país y contribuir en las actividades investigativas en los campos de la Antropología y la Geología.

  5. Notas para uma teoria do "virar branco"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Kelly

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo descreve e analisa alguns aspectos da transformação que ocorre entre os Yanomami na Venezuela como produto da crescente troca com a sociedade nacional, em particular com o sistema médico. Procura-se mostrar como muitos aspectos da vida moderna e contemporânea Yanomami só podem ser compreendidos a partir de conceitos da antropologia amazônica, desenvolvidos em contextos mais tradicionais, conceitos como o de 'afinidade potencial'. Explorando a natureza do espaço sociopolítico contemporâneo, de como a interação entre brancos e Yanomami sustenta tal espaço e tornando explícitas as formas indígenas de ser e viver que se mantêm nessa transformação e troca com os brancos, oferecemos algumas reflexões que podem ser úteis na análise das situações de contato étnico em diferentes partes da Amazônia e com diferentes agentes dos estados nacionais.This article describes and analyses various aspects of the transformation occurring among the Yanomami in Venezuela, a product of their increasing exchanges with national society and in particular the medical system. The article looks to show how many aspects of Yanomami contemporary and modern life can only be understood by employing concepts from Amazonian anthropology, such as 'potential affinity,' developed in more traditional contexts. By exploring the nature of contemporary sociopolitical space and how the interaction between Whites and Yanomami sustains this space, making explicit the very indigenous ways of being and living that persist through transformation and exchange with Whites, the article tackles issues which may be useful in the analysis of ethnic contact situations in other parts of Amazonia and involving different national state agents.

  6. NOTAS PARA UN DIÁLOGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nieves Alonso M.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available La relación de Pablo Neruda con la poesía y los poetas peninsulares ha sido destacada en varios estudios. El mismo poeta ha entregado hermosas señales sobre el asunto. En esta línea, "Notas para un diálogo" propone demostrar la vinculación profunda entre el Premio Nobel chileno y Antonio Gamoneda, poeta español (leonés nacido en Oviedo contemporáneo. La intuición inicial y los indicios preliminares, surgidos por la lectura de algunos relatos de infancia poetizados por los autores, permite avanzar hasta precisar los elementos de un diálogo temático, léxico y sintáctico que revela una misma proposición estética surgida de una conciencia desolada y en constante regreso a lo deshabitado del yo y con un gran compromiso con su tiempo. La profunda comunidad de la lengua que estos poetas habitan, compleja y diáfana a tiempos, muestra las afinidades y diferencias de unas poéticas que parecen decir: "Estamos rodeados de pura muerte, vivimos rodeados de muerte y, al mismo tiempo, de luz, palabras y silencio. Somos desiertos, pero poblados de tribus, de fauna, de flores"Pablo Neruda's relation to peninsular poetry and poets has been well emphasized in diverse studies. The poet himself has left beautiful intimations on this matter. In this perspective,'Notes for a Dialogue' intends to demostrate the prolound bonds between the Chilean Nobel Prize, and the contemporary Spanish poet, Antonio Gamonal (born in Oviedo. The initial intuition and the preliminary hints, arising from the reading of some childhood memories poetized by these poets, permit us to advance towards the identification of the elements of a syntactical, lexicographic and thematic dialogue revealing an identical aesthetic proposal born out of a desolate conscience in constant return to an uninhabited self, with full commitment to the age, The profound community of the language binding these poets, shows affinities as well as differences in their respective poetics which may

  7. The Inferred Distribution of Liquid Water in Europa's Ice Shell: Implications for the Europa Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviello, J. L.; Torrano, Z. A.; Rhoden, A.; Manga, M.

    2017-12-01

    A key objective of the Europa lander mission is to identify liquid water within 30 km of the lander (Europa Lander SDT report, 2017), to provide essential context with which to evaluate samples and enable assessment of Europa's overall habitability. To inform lander mission development, we utilize a model of surface feature formation that invokes liquid water within Europa's ice shell to map out the implied 3D distribution of liquid water and assess the likelihood of a lander to be within 30 km of liquid water given regional variability. Europa's surface displays a variety of microfeatures, also called lenticulae, including pits, domes, spots, and microchaos. A recent model by Manga and Michaut (2017) attributes these features to various stages in the thermal-mechanical evolution of liquid water intrusions (i.e. sills) within the ice shell, from sill emplacement to surface breaching (in the case of microchaos) to freezing of the sill. Pits are of particular interest because they appear only when liquid water is still present. Another key feature of the model is that the size of a microfeature at the surface is controlled by the depth of the sill. Hence, we can apply this model to regions of Europa that contain microfeatures to infer the size, depth, and spatial distribution of liquid water within the ice shell. We are creating a database of microfeatures that includes digitized, collated data from previous mapping efforts along with our own mapping study. We focus on images with 220 m/pixel resolution, which includes the regional mapping data sets. Analysis of a preliminary study area suggests that sills are typically located at depths of 2km or less from the surface. We will present analysis of the full database of microfeatures and the corresponding 3D distribution of sills implied by the model. Our preliminary analysis also shows that pits are clustered in some regions, consistent with previous results, although individual pits are also observed. We apply a

  8. De historische achtergronden van een Europa in crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Suijlekom, L.T.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Der Euro ist unser gemeinsames Schicksal, und Europa ist unsere gemeinsame Zukunft‘ verklaarde bondskanselier Angela Merkel in 2010. De economische en monetaire crisis in Europa zet EU-regeringsleiders onder druk om vergaande beslissingen te nemen welke bepalend zullen zijn voor de toekomst van

  9. Ad populum. Parlare alla pancia: retoriche del populismo in Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Ivanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recensiamo il libro Ad populum. Parlare alla pancia: retorica del populismo in Europa. Eds. Bruno Capaci e Giuditta Spassini. Bologna: I libri di Emil di Odoya srl., 2016. Stampa. Review of Ad populum. Parlare alla pancia: retorica del populismo in Europa. Eds. Bruno Capaci and Giuditta Spassini. Bologna: I libri di Emil di Odoya srl., 2016. Print

  10. Trajectory Design for the Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Europa is one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for extant life. As such, NASA has funded the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to jointly determine and develop the best mission concept to explore Europa in the near future. The result of nearly 4 years of work--the Europa Clipper mission concept--is a multiple Europa flyby mission that could efficiently execute a number of high caliber science investigations to meet Europa science priorities specified in the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, and is capable of providing reconnaissance data to maximize the probability of both a safe landing and access to surface material of high scientific value for a future Europa lander. This paper will focus on the major enabling component for this mission concept--the trajectory. A representative trajectory, referred to as 13F7-A21, would obtain global-regional coverage of Europa via a complex network of 45 flybys over the course of 3.5 years while also mitigating the effects of the harsh Jovian radiation environment. In addition, 5 Ganymede and 9 Callisto flybys would be used to manipulate the trajectory relative to Europa. The tour would reach a maximum Jovicentric inclination of 20.1 deg. have a deterministic (Delta)V of 164 m/s (post periapsis raise maneuver), and a total ionizing dose of 2.8 Mrad (Si).

  11. Tyskland kvæler Europas økonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2012-01-01

    Tyskland dikterer økonomisk smalhals i Europa de næste mange år frem. Men spareiveren virker ikke og vil føre til mere arbejdsløshed samt større splittelse mellem Europas center og periferi. Så hvorfor ikke prøve noget andet?...

  12. Thera and Thrace Macula on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Europa's southern hemisphere was obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on board NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its sixth orbit of Jupiter. The upper left portion of the image shows the southern extent of the 'wedges' region, an area that has undergone extensive disruption. South of the wedges, the eastern extent of Agenor Linea (nearly 1000 kilometers in length) is also visible. Thera and Thrace Macula are the dark irregular features southeast of Agenor Linea. This image can be used by scientists to build a global map of Europa by tying such Galileo images together with images from 1979 during NASA's Voyager mission. Such lower resolution images also provide the context needed to interpret the higher resolution images taken by the Galileo during both its nominal mission and the upcoming Europa mission. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the right. The image, centered at -40 latitude and 180 longitude, covers an area approximately 675 by 675 kilometers. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 3.3 kilometers across. The images were taken on Feb 20, 1997 at 12 hours, 55 minutes, 34 seconds Universal Time when the spacecraft was at a range of 81,707 kilometers.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  13. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  14. BIZANCIO, LOS ESLAVOS Y EUROPA ORIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marín Riveros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: en este estudio, se presenta una reflexión acerca del concepto de Europa Oriental y, luego, una revisión de la historiografía acerca del origen de los eslavos, discutiendo las tesis tradicionales, la de Pritsak y la de Curta, según la etnogénesis, la etnonimia y la etnicidad.in this article, the author presents an analytical view about de concept "East Europe" and, then, an historiographical revision about the origin of the Slavic people, discussing the traditional thesis, Pritsak's thesis and Curta's thesis, i.e., commenting the ideas of ethnogenesis, ethnonimia and ethnicity.

  15. Can evolutionary convergence be tested on Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chela-Flores, Julian [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas (Venezuela); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: chelaf@ictp.trieste.it

    2002-09-01

    A major objective in solar system exploration has to be the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. With the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe, various degrees of convergent phenomena argue in favor of the conjecture that universal evolution of intelligent behavior is just a matter of time and preservation of steady planetary conditions. A preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments involving evolutionary biosignatures on Europa. (author)

  16. Nota sobre el Ejemplar Tipo de "Bromus catharticus" Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Escobar Polidoro

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available EI agrostólogo inglés C. E. Hubbard y simultáneamente el agrostólogo argentino Lorenzo Parodi en sendas notas (1956 concluyeron en declarar dudosa la especie Bromus catharticus Vahl y restablecer para la planta conocida como "rescue grass" en USA y "cebadilla criolla" en la Argentina el nombre Bromus unioloides H. B. K. Este trabajo presenta nuevas evidencias que permiten restablecer la validez de Bromus catharticus Vahl.

  17. Thermal probe design for Europa sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Mera F.

    2018-01-01

    The planned lander missions to the surface of Europa will access samples from the subsurface of the ice in a search for signs of life. A small thermal drill (probe) is proposed to meet the sample requirement of the Science Definition Team's (SDT) report for the Europa mission. The probe is 2 cm in diameter and 16 cm in length and is designed to access the subsurface to 10 cm deep and to collect five ice samples of 7 cm3 each, approximately. The energy required to penetrate the top 10 cm of ice in a vacuum is 26 Wh, approximately, and to melt 7 cm3 of ice is 1.2 Wh, approximately. The requirement stated in the SDT report of collecting samples from five different sites can be accommodated with repeated use of the same thermal drill. For smaller sample sizes, a smaller probe of 1.0 cm in diameter with the same length of 16 cm could be utilized that would require approximately 6.4 Wh to penetrate the top 10 cm of ice, and 0.02 Wh to collect 0.1 g of sample. The thermal drill has the advantage of simplicity of design and operations and the ability to penetrate ice over a range of densities and hardness while maintaining sample integrity.

  18. Os livros de segredos italianos e o desenvolvimento da ciência moderna = Books of secrets italian and development of modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, Julia Gruman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os livros de segredos foram um gênero de enorme sucesso nos séculos XVI e XVII, que unia elementos de diversas tradições: técnicas, hermetismo, alquimia, medicina empírica e magia natural. Graças à imprensa, traduções e reedições desses livros circularam por toda a Europa. Os “professores de segredos” foram os articuladores de saberes científicos e populares que se difundiram através de seus livros. O sincretismo da literatura de segredos ajudou a formar redes de transmissão de saberes, em que múltiplos agentes participaram. Como resultado desses encontros culturais, formou-se uma nova percepção do homem como operador sobre a natureza. Através da experiência, o homem podia melhor compreender a natureza e, através das técnicas, até mesmo melhorá-la, para seu próprio benefício. Essa concepção surgida do encontro da herança hermética com o universo do artesão, exemplificada pelos livros de segredos, facilitou o desenvolvimento tanto de um empirismo quanto de uma promessa de acesso ao saber que constituem a base da ciência moderna e do método experimental

  19. Notas sobre a constituição do direito público na idade moderna: a doutrina das leis fundamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Lisle Cerqueira Leite Seelaender

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A noção contemporânea de“constituição” é inaplicável ao Antigo Regime. Jáa de “lei fundamental” neste desempenhava umpapel relevante. Criado para limitar o podermonárquico, o conceito de “lei fundamental” logose revelou politicamente útil tanto para osopositores quanto para os partidários doabsolutismo. Difundindo-se rapidamente, seu usocontribuiu para a despatrimonialização das relaçõesrei/súdito e para a estatização da Coroa e do direito.Ampliando o interesse pela norma positiva e pelahistória do direito de cada país, a idéia de leifundamental também foi uma das referênciasbásicas na construção do direito público moderno,legitimando sua autonomia. A substituição da “leifundamental” pela “constituição” refletiu apassagem do Antigo Regime para o Liberalismo.Unlike the old concept of "fundamentallaw", the contemporary idea of "constitution" isnot suitable to describe the institucional life of theAncien Réginie. Even though it was created to limitmonarchical power, the concept of "fundamentallaw" could be politically used not only by theopponents ofAbsolutism, but also by its supporters.The concept spread quickly, contributing to thedevelopment of a new conception of king/subjectrelations, according to which Law and Crown begunalso to be identified with lhe "State". The idea of"fundamental law" stimulated the interest for thepositive norm and for the legal history of eachindividual country. ltgave niodern public law one ofits basic referentes and legitimated the autonomy ofpublic law itself. The substitution of the"fundamental law" by the "constitution" retlectedthe passage froco theAncien Regime to Liberalism.

  20. Particulates in Europe; Fijn stof in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeftens, M.; Brunekreef, B. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Although the same air quality standards apply across Europe, there are large differences in concentration within, but also between countries. There are also differences between the methods that these countries use for regular monitoring networks, which makes a direct comparison of concentrations difficult. The ESCAPE project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) mapped the differences in the European particulate concentrations using one unified measuring method [Dutch] Hoewel voor heel Europa dezelfde luchtkwaliteitsnormen gelden, bestaan er grote concentratieverschillen binnen, maar ook tussen landen. Ook zijn er verschillen tussen de meetmethoden die deze landen binnen reguliere meetnetten hanteren, wat een directe vergelijking van concentraties vaak moeilijk maakt. Het ESCAPE-project (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) bracht de Europese fijnstofcontrasten in kaart met behulp van 1 identieke meetmethode.

  1. El Orinoco ilustrado en la Europa dieciochesca

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Castro Roldán

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo estudia el fenómeno de la lectura en la Europa del siglo XVIII, a partir del caso del Orinoco ilustrado (1741-1745), del jesuita español José Gumilla. Se trata de una primera contribución al estudio de la recepción y la circulación de esta obra, a través de las múltiples lecturas que de Gumilla hicieron sus contemporáneos en España, Francia y los Países Bajos. El objetivo es poner esta obra en el contexto de su época, tanto desde el punto de vista literario como de la his...

  2. Europa's Habitability follows from Classical Dynamical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.

    2001-11-01

    Celestial mechanics is responsible for Jupiter's satellite Europa being a possible site for life in the solar system. The Laplace orbital resonance drives a substantial eccentricity. The mutually dependent relationship between orbital and rotational evolution and tidal processes in turn controls Europa's heating and stress. Heat is likely adequate to maintain a liquid water ocean, and to keep the surface ice thin. Tidal stress can explain characteristic and ubiquitous crack patterns (global and cycloidal), as well as drive observed shear displacement features. The characteristic ridge sets that cover tectonic terrain are likely built by tidal pumping of oceanic fluid and slush through cracks to the surface on a daily basis. Nearly half the surface is chaotic terrain, with morphology and other characteristics indicative of melt-through from below. Formation of both chaotic and tectonic terrains has continually resurfaced the satellite, while connecting the ocean to the surface and providing a variety of evolving environmental niches. As a result of tides, liquid water would daily bathe crustal cracks and surfaces with heat, transporting and mixing substances vertically. Thus a variety of habitable environments likely exist in the crust. Moreover, exposure of the ocean to the surface in the ways described here satisfies a necessary condition for life in the ocean as well, by providing access to oxidants which are available near the surface. These processes were recent, and thus most likely continue today. Longer term changes in environmental conditions in the crust, such as deactivation of individual cracks after thousands of years (due to non-synchronous rotation) and later crustal thawing (releasing any trapped organisms), provided drivers for adaptation, as well as opportunity for evolution. This work is supported by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program and the NSF Life in Extreme Environments Program.

  3. Flow-like Features On Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows features on Jupiter's moon Europa that may be 'flows' from ice volcanoes. It was taken by the Galileo spacecraft solid state imaging (CCD) system during its seventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing features with shapes similar to lava flows on Earth. Two such features can be seen in the northwest corner of the image. The southern feature appears to have flowed over a ridge along its western edge. Scientists use these types of relationships to determine which feature formed first. In this case, the ridge probably formed before the flow-like feature that covers it.The image, centered at 22.6 degrees north latitude and 106.7 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 180 by 215 kilometers (112 by 134 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) across. This image was obtained on April 28, 1997, when Galileo was 27,590 kilometers (16,830 miles) from Europa.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  4. Da Revolução: Arendt, uma moderna?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Eccel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Da Revolução, Arendt aponta para o vigor da política que renasce por meio das iniciativas revolucionárias. Por outro lado, é preciso atentar para o fato de que várias outras características presentes em Da Revolução apontam para aspectos críticos e negativos da modernidade que estão presentes dentro do âmago das próprias revoluções. O objetivo deste texto consiste em analisar os elementos modernos presentes nas revoluções que são admirados por Arendt, bem como os retornos que ela faz à antiguidade, de modo que seja possível contrapô-los e mostrar que, apesar de a autora louvar os feitos modernos das revoluções, o faz tendo Atenas e Roma como referências, já que a forma de participação dos conselhos provenientes das revoluções lembra, em grande escala, a polis grega, e a liberdade pública exaltada pelas revoluções (neste caso, a americana corresponde à liberdade dos antigos, da mesma maneira como o ato de fundação da república americana lembra com grande vigor a fundação da "cidade eterna". O objetivo, longe de enquadrar Arendt em alguma das categorias que seus comentadores já fizeram, está em perceber a relevância de não negar a importância que os antigos legaram para as considerações "modernas" de Arendt, assim como voltar os olhares para essa autora como alguém que realmente pensou seu tempo tendo os antigos como alguns parâmetros, mas não considerando isso de forma inteiramente negativa. Em outras palavras, trata-se de tentar assumir esse caráter presente na obra de Arendt, sem que ele seja tomado como um defeito.

  5. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) on The Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, J. H.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Kasper, J. C.; Battista, C.; Case, A. W.; Cochrane, C.; Grey, M.; Jia, X.; Kivelson, M.; Kim, C.; Korth, H.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Paty, C. S.; Roussos, E.; Rymer, A. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, H. T.; Saur, J.; Coren, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Europa Clipper mission is equipped with a sophisticated suite of 9 instruments to study Europa's interior and ocean, geology, chemistry, and habitability from a Jupiter orbiting spacecraft. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) on Europa Clipper is a Faraday Cup based plasma instrument whose heritage dates back to the Voyager spacecraft. PIMS will measure the plasma that populates Jupiter's magnetosphere and Europa's ionosphere. The science goals of PIMS are to: 1) estimate the ocean salinity and thickness by determining Europa's magnetic induction response, corrected for plasma contributions; 2) assess mechanisms responsible for weathering and releasing material from Europa's surface into the atmosphere and ionosphere; and 3) understand how Europa influences its local space environment and Jupiter's magnetosphere and vice versa. Europa is embedded in a complex Jovian magnetospheric plasma, which rotates with the tilted planetary field and interacts dynamically with Europa's ionosphere affecting the magnetic induction signal. Plasma from Io's temporally varying torus diffuses outward and mixes with the charged particles in Europa's own torus producing highly variable plasma conditions at Europa. PIMS works in conjunction with the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG) investigation to probe Europa's subsurface ocean. This investigation exploits currents induced in Europa's interior by the moon's exposure to variable magnetic fields in the Jovian system to infer properties of Europa's subsurface ocean such as its depth, thickness, and conductivity. This technique was successfully applied to Galileo observations and demonstrated that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, due to limitations in the observations the results raised major questions that remain unanswered. PIMS will greatly refine our understanding of Europa's global liquid ocean by

  6. Europa Nostra medal Tartusse / Karin Hallas-Murula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas-Murula, Karin, 1957-

    2002-01-01

    Alvar Aalto projekteeritud Tammekannu villa (1932) Tartus pälvis Europa Nostra medali, mis antakse eriti õnnestunult renoveeritud objektile. Villa renoveeriti soome arhitekti Tapani Mustoneni projekti järgi

  7. La herencia escotista en la Filosofía política moderna*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Miralbell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se busca mostrar la fuerte herencia voluntarista tardo-medieval de origen escotista en la filosofía política moderna, sobre todo en Bodino, Maquiavelo y Hobbes, pero también en Locke, Rousseau y Kant. Se examina la concepción escotista del poder y su fundamentación filosófico-teológica, así como algunos tópicos de su "nueva" metafísica y antropología para desglosar sus consecuencias directas o indirectas en la filosofía política moderna.

  8. Notas suicidas mexicanas. Un análisis cualitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Chávez Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El análisis de notas suicidas es uno de los métodos más fructíferos en el estudio del comportamiento suicida. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo de este trabajo fue describir y analizar las características afectivas, emocionales, cognoscitivas y actitudinales, relacionadas con el momento en que las personas planean su auto-destrucción, y que fueron expresadas en sus notas suicidas. Método. Estudio de tipo ex post facto, con una muestra de 142 notas suicidas que dejaron personas que se suicidaron (2005-2008 en el Estado de Guanajuato, México. Se realizó un análisis de contenido con el método de Inter-juez (0.96 coeficiente de concordancia; así como tablas de contingencia y escalamiento multidimensional. Resultados. Se muestra que el grupo de edad, entre 15 y 29 años, representan la mitad de los sujetos que consumaron el acto de suicidio (50% y que dejaron una nota póstuma. Se encontraron 11 categorías con diferencias estadísticamente significativas para lo cual se utilizó un escalamiento multidimensional. Los problemas de relaciones interpersonales fue la razón más mencionada para cometer suicidio (45.1% tanto en hombres como mujeres (X2 c = 6.856, p = 0.009. El 97.2% de los casos mostró curso lógico de pensamiento y consciencia de su actividad cognitiva y el 83% adecuada orientación en la realidad. Conclusión. Los resultados concuerdan con los arrojados por otros estudios internacionales con relación a la comprensión etiológica psicosocial del suicidio. Las razones manifiestas para el suicidio difieren según los grupos de edad, lo cual deberá considerarse en los dispositivos de detección y tratamiento de las personas con riesgo suicida.

  9. Authorial and Editorial Roles in Modern Devout Song Manuscripts of the Devotio Moderna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, D.E.; de Morrée, C.V.

    2017-01-01

    This essay sets out a model which identifies eight distinct authorial and editorial roles in the transformation of oral sermons towritten collections in multi-text codices. This model is then applied to a different genre: collections of songs from the same background, the Devotio Moderna. The main

  10. The Devotio Moderna and the Printing Press (ca. 1475-1540)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Six presses owned by religious houses belonging to the Devotio Moderna were active during the period 14751540, five of them run by Brethren of the Common Life, the sixth by Regular Canons. The question is raised whether the production of these presses can be correlated with the nature of this

  11. Late Medieval Piety expressed in Song Manuscripts of the Devotio Moderna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, C.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Booklets with song texts from houses belonging to one of the branches of the Devotio Moderna often contain texts of songs which had been sung earlier. However, the fact that such song texts were written down in booklets shows that they were valued by their owners, who chose to express their personal

  12. La memòria constitucional a la Catalunya Moderna: el cas de Francesc Gilabert

    OpenAIRE

    Sala i Rusinyol, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    L'autor ens mostra l'origen i el cos del constitucionalisme català de l'època moderna abans de la Guerra dels Segadors, analitzant l'obra d'un dels màxims exonents de la intelligensia catalana que forjà aquest pensament: Francesc Gilabert

  13. A Search for Signs of Life and Habitability on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor); McKay, Christoper P.; Eicken, H.; Neuer, S.; Sogin, M.; Waite, H.; Warmflash, D.

    2003-01-01

    Europa is a key target in the search for life beyond the Earth because of consistent evidence that below the icy surface there is liquid water. Future missions to Europa could confirm the presence and nature of the ocean and determine the thickness of the ice layer. Confirming the presence of an ocean and determining the habitability of Europa are key astrobiology science objectives. Nevertheless, the highest priority objective for astrobiology will be a search for life. How could a search for life be accomplished on a near-term mission given the thick ice cover? One answer may lie in the surface materials. If Europa has an ocean, and if that ocean contains life, and if water from the ocean is carried up to the surface, then signs of life may be contained in organic material on the surface. Organics that derive from biological processes (dead organisms) are distinct from organics derived from non-biological processes in several aspects. First, biology is selective and specific in its use of molecules. For example, Earth life uses 20 left-handed amino acids. Second, biology can leave characteristic isotopic patterns. Third, biology often produces large complex molecules in high concentrations, for example lipids. Organic material that has been on the surface of Europa for long periods of time would be reprocessed by the strong radiation field probably erasing any signature of biological origin. Evidence of life in the ocean may be found on the surface of Europa if regions of the surface contained relatively recent material carried up from the ocean through cracks in the icy lithosphere. But organic material that has been on the surface of Europa for long periods of time would be reprocessed by the strong radiation field probably erasing any signature of biological origin. Thus, the detailed analysis required may not be possible via remote sensing but direct sampling of the material below the radiation processed upper meter is probably required.

  14. Surface Modification and Surface - Subsurface Exchange Processes on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. B.; Molaro, J.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa is modified by exogenic processes such as sputtering, gardening, radiolysis, sulfur ion implantation, and thermal processing, as well as endogenic processes including tidal shaking, mass wasting, and the effects of subsurface tectonic and perhaps cryovolcanic activity. New materials are created or deposited on the surface (radiolysis, micrometeorite impacts, sulfur ion implantation, cryovolcanic plume deposits), modified in place (thermal segregation, sintering), transported either vertically or horizontally (sputtering, gardening, mass wasting, tectonic and cryovolcanic activity), or lost from Europa completely (sputtering, plumes, larger impacts). Some of these processes vary spatially, as visible in Europa's leading-trailing hemisphere brightness asymmetry. Endogenic geologic processes also vary spatially, depending on terrain type. The surface can be classified into general landform categories that include tectonic features (ridges, bands, cracks); disrupted "chaos-type" terrain (chaos blocks, matrix, domes, pits, spots); and impact craters (simple, complex, multi-ring). The spatial distribution of these terrain types is relatively random, with some differences in apex-antiapex cratering rates and latitudinal variation in chaos vs. tectonic features. In this work, we extrapolate surface processes and rates from the top meter of the surface in conjunction with global estimates of transport and resurfacing rates. We combine near-surface modification with an estimate of surface-subsurface (and vice versa) transport rates for various geologic terrains based on an average of proposed formation mechanisms, and a spatial distribution of each landform type over Europa's surface area. Understanding the rates and mass balance for each of these processes, as well as their spatial and temporal variability, allows us to estimate surface - subsurface exchange rates over the average surface age ( 50myr) of Europa. Quantifying the timescale

  15. Understanding the Cryosphere of Europa Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, D. L.; Green, R. O.; Hibbitts, C.; Clark, R. N.; Dalton, J. B.; Davies, A. G.; Langevin, Y.; Hedman, M.; Lunine, J. I.; McCord, T. B.; Murchie, S. L.; Paranicas, C.; Seelos, F. P.; Soderblom, J. M.; Diniega, S.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's surface expresses a complex interplay of geologic processes driven by the ocean beneath the cryosphere that are subsequently modified by the Jovian environment once exposed on the surface. Several recent Earth-based observations of Europa's tenuous atmosphere suggest that there may in fact be active plumes [1,2,3]. However, the frequency and the duration of activity at any specific location cannot be precisely determined by these observations, but could be with spacecraft observations. For instance, recently active areas on Europa from plumes or other processes may result in distinctive spectral signatures on the surface. Possible spectral signatures that may indicate recent activity include: differences in ice grain size or ice crystallinity; the lack of radiolytic signatures (e.g. a deficit in species due to implantation, radiation darkening of salts, degradation of organic compounds); and thermal anomalies. The Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE) on NASA's Europa Clipper Mission will be able to map these species thus enabling the identification of these deposits and other young and/or least processed areas. These signatures may also enable a relative geochronology for Europa to be developed. For example, recent work by Proctor et al [4] finds that bands of different stratigraphic ages have different spectral features potentially due to radiation effects on the deposits. We will explore borrowing analyses techniques from earth observing missions of the Arctic. On Earth, data from the Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVRIS-NG) (https://avirisng.jpl.nasa.gov/aviris-ng.html) is being used to explore Earth's cryosphere. AVRIS-NG data collected from the Greenland ice sheet and high latitude sea ice is being used to map of key ice properties such as grain size and contaminants. These data and processing approaches will be used to explore and validate imaging spectroscopy approaches which MISE might use on Europa.

  16. ¿Qué conceptos políticos para Europa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duso, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    pretendida universalidad sin dejar por ello de discutir a la vez con el pensamiento de una larga tradición que encuentra su origen en el mundo griego. No parece posible afrontar y comprender los problemas surgidos a partir del proceso que lleva a la Unión Europea a través de los conceptos que han dado lugar a la doctrina del Estado y que vertebran las constituciones modernas. Estos conceptos nacen en el seno de las doctrinas del contrato social y del derecho natural y resultan funcionales para una forma política que tiene como polos inseparables los derechos de los individuos y la soberanía del cuerpo político. Europa, precisamente por la pluralidad de los miembros que la constituyen, requiere, por una parte, de una superación del concepto de soberanía de los Estados y, por otra, debe no pensarse a sí misma como una nueva soberanía, o como una nueva y más amplia dimensión estatal. La superación de la conceptualidad política que se condensa en la soberanía comporta al mismo tiempo el repensar aquellos conceptos —como individuo, igualdad, libertad— que, en el modo en que han sido pensados a partir del iusnaturalismo moderno, aparecen como los fundamentos lógicos de la soberanía.

  17. Sociaal-economische aspecten van het Nederlandse gewasbeschermingsbeleid. Tussenevaluatie nota Duurzame Gewasbescherming, deelrapport Economie 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.; Bremmer, J.; Gaag, van der D.J.; Linden, van der T.; Meer, van der R.W.; Netjes, A.; Spruijt, J.; Wal, van der E.

    2006-01-01

    In het deelproject economie wordt de economische doelstelling van de nota Duurzame Gewasbescherming geëvalueerd. Op basis van de beschikbare gegevens kan niet worden aangetoond dat Nederlandse telers concurrentienadeel ondervinden van nationaal gewasbeschermingsbeleid. Telers staan redelijk positief

  18. Astrobiological Aspects of Radiation Chemistry in Europa's Icy Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hand, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa, with its likely subsurface ocean and young, active surface, is a promising habitat for life. Europa orbits in the heart of Jupiter's powerful magnetosphere and suffers intense energetic particle bombardment, producing both positive and negative aspects for astrobiology at Europa. Ionizing radiation can produce oxidants that could support a radiation-driven ecology as proposed by Chyba. On the other hand, biomolecular evidence for life that may be upwelled to the surface is rapidly altered by irradiation, complicating astrobiological searches for evidence of life. We present an overview of laboratory work performed at JPL and elsewhere and observational results related to these two aspects. The oxidants hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen are known to exist on Europa and the radiolytic production of these species has been studied in the laboratory for both electron and ion irradiation. Laboratory- measured equilibrium concentrations of H2O2, where production and destruction rates are equal, are in general agreement with the observed 0.1% molar abundance on Europa. The shape of Europa's peroxide band is consistent with the line shapes observed in radiolysis and with H2O2 dispersed in water ice rather than occurring as H2O2 aggregates. Surprisingly, molecular oxygen may be even more abundant on Europa even though O2 is extremely volatile ande would be expected to escape from the ice surface. Radiolysis can produce molecular oxygen and appears to simultaneously alter the ice matrix, trapping the O2. Other species observed on Europa are CO2 and SO2, and laboratory radiolysis of these species in H2O ice produces carbonic and sulfuric acid, respectively. We are studying the radiolytic degradation of biomarkers in ice at Europa temperatures by studying both simple organics and more complex biomolecules, including microorganisms. Hydrocarbon radiolysis yields carbon dioxide and methane, which can escape the system and results in loss of carbon. In

  19. Tides on Europa: The membrane paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a thin icy crust which is decoupled from the mantle by a subsurface ocean. The crust thus responds to tidal forcing as a deformed membrane, cold at the top and near melting point at the bottom. In this paper I develop the membrane theory of viscoelastic shells with depth-dependent rheology with the dual goal of predicting tidal tectonics and computing tidal dissipation. Two parameters characterize the tidal response of the membrane: the effective Poisson's ratio ν bar and the membrane spring constant Λ, the latter being proportional to the crust thickness and effective shear modulus. I solve membrane theory in terms of tidal Love numbers, for which I derive analytical formulas depending on Λ, ν bar , the ocean-to-bulk density ratio and the number k2∘ representing the influence of the deep interior. Membrane formulas predict h2 and k2 with an accuracy of a few tenths of percent if the crust thickness is less than one hundred kilometers, whereas the error on l2 is a few percents. Benchmarking with the thick-shell software SatStress leads to the discovery of an error in the original, uncorrected version of the code that changes stress components by up to 40%. Regarding tectonics, I show that different stress-free states account for the conflicting predictions of thin and thick shell models about the magnitude of tensile stresses due to nonsynchronous rotation. Regarding dissipation, I prove that tidal heating in the crust is proportional to Im (Λ) and that it is equal to the global heat flow (proportional to Im (k2)) minus the core-mantle heat flow (proportional to Im (k2∘)). As an illustration, I compute the equilibrium thickness of a convecting crust. More generally, membrane formulas are useful in any application involving tidal Love numbers such as crust thickness estimates, despinning tectonics or true polar wander.

  20. Towards a Global Unified Model of Europa's Tenuous Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, Christina; Cassidy, Tim A.; Shematovich, Valery I.; Milillo, Anna; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Roth, Lorenz; Galli, André; Rubin, Martin; Blöcker, Aljona; Brandt, Pontus C.; Crary, Frank; Dandouras, Iannis; Jia, Xianzhe; Grassi, Davide; Hartogh, Paul; Lucchetti, Alice; McGrath, Melissa; Mangano, Valeria; Mura, Alessandro; Orsini, Stefano; Paranicas, Chris; Radioti, Aikaterini; Retherford, Kurt D.; Saur, Joachim; Teolis, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Despite the numerous modeling efforts of the past, our knowledge on the radiation-induced physical and chemical processes in Europa's tenuous atmosphere and on the exchange of material between the moon's surface and Jupiter's magnetosphere remains limited. In lack of an adequate number of in situ observations, the existence of a wide variety of models based on different scenarios and considerations has resulted in a fragmentary understanding of the interactions of the magnetospheric ion population with both the moon's icy surface and neutral gas envelope. Models show large discrepancy in the source and loss rates of the different constituents as well as in the determination of the spatial distribution of the atmosphere and its variation with time. The existence of several models based on very different approaches highlights the need of a detailed comparison among them with the final goal of developing a unified model of Europa's tenuous atmosphere. The availability to the science community of such a model could be of particular interest in view of the planning of the future mission observations (e.g., ESA's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, and NASA's Europa Clipper mission). We review the existing models of Europa's tenuous atmosphere and discuss each of their derived characteristics of the neutral environment. We also discuss discrepancies among different models and the assumptions of the plasma environment in the vicinity of Europa. A summary of the existing observations of both the neutral and the plasma environments at Europa is also presented. The characteristics of a global unified model of the tenuous atmosphere are, then, discussed. Finally, we identify needed future experimental work in laboratories and propose some suitable observation strategies for upcoming missions.

  1. Unmasking Europa the search for life on Jupiter's ocean moon

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter's ice moon Europa is widely regarded as the most likely place to find extraterrestrial life. This book tells the engaging story of Europa, the oceanic moon. It features a large number of stunning images of the ocean moon's surface, clearly displaying the spectacular crack patterns, extensive rifts and ridges, and refrozen pools of exposed water filled with rafts of displaced ice. Coverage also features firsthand accounts of Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons. The book tells the rough and tumble inside story of a very human enterprise in science that lead to the discovery of a f

  2. Occurrence and Detectability of Thermal Anomalies on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul O.; Christensen, Philip R.; Spencer, John R.; Abramov, Oleg; Howett, Carly; Mellon, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Piqueux, Sylvain; Rathbun, Julie A.

    2017-10-01

    Endogenic activity is likely on Europa, given its young surface age of and ongoing tidal heating by Jupiter. Temperature is a fundamental signature of activity, as witnessed on Enceladus, where plumes emanate from vents with strongly elevated temperatures. Recent observations suggest the presence of similar water plumes at Europa. Even if plumes are uncommon, resurfacing may produce elevated surface temperatures, perhaps due to near-surface liquid water. Detecting endogenic activity on Europa is one of the primary mission objectives of NASA’s planned Europa Clipper flyby mission.Here, we use a probabilistic model to assess the likelihood of detectable thermal anomalies on the surface of Europa. The Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS) investigation is designed to characterize Europa’s thermal behavior and identify any thermal anomalies due to recent or ongoing activity. We define “detectability” on the basis of expected E-THEMIS measurements, which include multi-spectral infrared emission, both day and night.Thermal anomalies on Europa may take a variety of forms, depending on the resurfacing style, frequency, and duration of events: 1) subsurface melting due to hot spots, 2) shear heating on faults, and 3) eruptions of liquid water or warm ice on the surface. We use numerical and analytical models to estimate temperatures for these features. Once activity ceases, lifetimes of thermal anomalies are estimated to be 100 - 1000 yr. On average, Europa’s 10 - 100 Myr surface age implies a resurfacing rate of ~3 - 30 km2/yr. The typical size of resurfacing features determines their frequency of occurrence. For example, if ~100 km2 chaos features dominate recent resurfacing, we expect one event every few years to decades. Smaller features, such as double-ridges, may be active much more frequently. We model each feature type as a statistically independent event, with probabilities weighted by their observed coverage of Europa’s surface. Our results

  3. A Europa no Mundo Entre as Guerras 1919-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Rollo, Maria Fernanda; Ribeiro, Maria Manuela Tavares; Pires, Ana Paula; Cunha, Alice; Valente, Isabel Maria Freitas

    2014-01-01

    O II Encontro A Europa no Mundo é dedicado ao estudo, análise, debate e interpretação das transformações políticas, económicas, sociais e culturais ocorridas na Europa durante o período entre guerras. Os textos compilados neste e-book correspondem a uma parte das comunicações apresentadas no Encontro, reflectem a investigação realizada e procuram constituir um ponto de partida para novas e mais aprofundadas reflexões.

  4. El Consejo de Europa y la abolición total de la pena de muerte en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Franch, Valentín

    2002-01-01

    1. Introducción.- 2. La parca reglamentación de la pena de muerte.- 3. La superación práctica de una mala disposición.- 3.1 .Por el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos.- 3.2. Por la práctica de los Estados Miembros del Consejo de Europa.- 3.3. Por la práctica de los órganos del Consejo de Europa.- 4. La abolición de iure de la pena de muerte en Europa.- 4.1. La prohibición de la pena de muerte en tiempo de paz.- 4.2. La abolición de la pena de muerte en todas las circunstancias:- 5. Consider...

  5. Arquitectura y paisaje de la industria moderna en Alcalá de Henares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ángeles Layuno Rosas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado crecimiento industrial de municipios como Alcalá de Henares durante las décadas de los años 50 y 60 provocará radicales transformaciones en su morfología y paisaje urbanos, pero, a su vez, la identidad del municipio como ciudad industrial estimulará la aparición de una arquitectura moderna de la industria, símbolo del progreso industrial de la política económica del desarrollismo. Complejos fabriles cuya arquitectura sintetiza los debates internacionales sobre el proyecto industrial moderno en su doble vertiente formal y técnica. En este sentido, la arquitectura industrial de las décadas del desarrollismo supondrá una contribución realista y funcional a la recuperación de la arquitectura moderna en la España del momento.

  6. Liderazgo para una gestión moderna de procesos educativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiselle María Garbanzo Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora y el autor realizan a manera de ensayo una contextualización social sobre la que actúa la educación resaltando en ella la complejidad social en la que se desarrolla el proceso educativo y los retos que le demanda la sociedad de la información. Desde este contexto se replantea el papel que una gestión moderna sustentada en un liderazgo pertinente representa en el logro de los objetivos y fines educativos que la sociedad se plantea. Se replantean las características personales y de liderazgo que en una gestión moderna de la educación se requiere, así como factores claves de la calidad de la gestión de la educación. Se desarrollan los elementos de liderazgo aplicados a la educación.

  7. A cultura organizacional como forma de controle invisível nas organizações modernas e pós-modernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Serafim Cardoso dos Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo compreender as formas de controle invisível apresentadas nas organizações modernas e pós-modernas, tendo como ponto de partida a cultura organizacional. Deste modo, um ensaio teórico foi realizado buscando respostas na relação da cultura organizacional com os mecanismos de controle, dentre eles foram abordados a burocracia, poder, ideologia e mediação. Dos resultados, obteve-se que as formas de dominação e controle social apresentam-se tanto na modernidade como na pós-modernidade, fazendo uma transição criativa dos artifícios de controle, enquanto na organização burocrática os controles invisíveis estão nos aspectos formais, como manuais e regulamentos, nas pós-burocráticas os controles são internalizados pelos indivíduos pelos valores compartilhados e pelos pressupostos básicos, ou seja, tornando-se cada vez mais inconscientes.

  8. Aportes de la administración moderna a la gerencia educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Julio Baltodano-Zúñiga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 23 de marzo de 2009 • Aceptado 29 de abril de 2009 • Corregido 28 de julio de 2009   En la actualidad, el gerente educativo, o director, dispone de una serie de herramientas de la administración moderna que permiten guiar la institución educativa hacia la calidad. Para ello, debe cumplir con una serie de funciones que se enmarcan dentro del proceso administrativo, tales como: planear, organizar, dirigir y controlar las actividades del centro a educativo. Este escrito tiene como objetivo dar a conocer algunos de estos aportes y la manera en que el gerente educativo puede utilizarlos para mejorar la institución educativa. La administración moderna pone a disposición de éste diferentes concepciones, que ayudan a visualizar la forma en que se debe gerenciar la institución. La principal conclusión que se extrae es que no existe un cuerpo teórico único que garantice el éxito a un gerente educativo, sino que se debe utilizar lo mejor de cada una de las concepciones que aporta la administración moderna, y adaptarlas, de acuerdo con las circunstancias.

  9. Effects of comprehensive smoke-free legislation in Europe Efectos de la legislación antitabaco en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Lotrean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews data regarding the effects of the legislation banning smoking in enclosed public places, including workplaces, restaurants and bars which entered into force in several countries of Europe starting with the year 2004. The source of data is represented by articles and short information published in peer reviewed journals or in electronic format between the years 2005 and 2008. Highlights include a consideration of the effects of these laws on the attitudes of the population regarding their implementation, exposure to passive smoking in public places as well as the scientific evidence on the public health and economic impact of these laws. The results of smoking ban in public places observed in several parts of Europe support initiatives in many countries toward implementing smoke-free legislation, particularly those who have ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which calls for legislation to reduce tobacco smoke pollution.Se revisaron datos sobre el impacto de las leyes que prohíben fumar en espacios públicos cerrados, incluyendo centros de trabajo, restaurantes y bares, las cuales entraron en vigor en varios países de Europa en 2004. La fuente de datos incluye artículos indexados y notas breves publicadas en revistas científicas o en formato electrónico entre 2005 y 2008. Los hallazgos incluyen una descripción del impacto de estas leyes sobre las actitudes de la población con respecto a su implementación, la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en espacios públicos cerrados, así como la evidencia científica sobre el impacto de estas leyes en la salud pública y en la economía. Los resultados de la prohibición de fumar en lugares públicos que se observaron en varios países de Europa confirman la importancia de promulgar iniciativas legislativas para crear ambientes libres de humo de tabaco en varios países del mundo, en particular en aquellos que han ratificado en Convenio Marco para el

  10. Kontrol af konventionelle våben i Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Rune; Kierulf, John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    Rapporten indledes med en historisk gennemgang af tilblivelsen og udviklingen af Traktat om Konventionelle Væbnede Styrker i Europa (CFE), som blev iværksat af NATO og det tidligere Warszawapagten i 1973. Traktaten fastsætter et loft for antallet af kampvogne, pansrede kampkøretøjer, artilleripje...

  11. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution ∼40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO 2 . On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO 4 detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO 4 is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl 2 , and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  12. Da Europa faldt i en grav, man selv havde gravet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Necef, Mehmet Ümit

    2011-01-01

    Med premierminister Erdogan i spidsen har tyrkiske politikere og intellektuelle tolket Breiviks massakre som udtryk for den generelle islamofobi i Europa. Faktisk fremstilles Breivik ikke som afviger men som mainstream. Dæmoniseringen af den europæiske mentalitet kommer af en tendens til at opfatte...

  13. SALTS AND RADIATION PRODUCTS ON THE SURFACE OF EUROPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: mbrown@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The surface of Europa could contain the compositional imprint of an underlying interior ocean, but competing hypotheses differ over whether spectral observations from the Galileo spacecraft show the signature of ocean evaporates or simply surface radiation products unrelated to the interior. Using adaptive optics at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we have obtained spatially resolved spectra of most of the disk of Europa at a spectral resolution {approx}40 times higher than seen by the Galileo spacecraft. These spectra show a previously undetected distinct signature of magnesium sulfate salts on Europa, but the magnesium sulfate is confined to the trailing hemisphere and spatially correlated with the presence of radiation products like sulfuric acid and SO{sub 2}. On the leading, less irradiated, hemisphere, our observations rule out the presence of many of the proposed sulfate salts, but do show the presence of distorted water ice bands. Based on the association of the potential MgSO{sub 4} detection on the trailing side with other radiation products, we conclude that MgSO{sub 4} is also a radiation product, rather than a constituent of a Europa ocean brine. Based on ocean chemistry models, we hypothesize that, prior to irradiation, magnesium is primarily in the form of MgCl{sub 2}, and we predict that NaCl and KCl are even more abundant, and, in fact, dominate the non-ice component of the leading hemisphere. We propose observational tests of this new hypothesis.

  14. Europa Cinemas auhindas Sõpruse kino / Katrin Rajasaare ; interv. Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa ja Vahemere regiooni kinopidajaid ühendav organisatsioon Europa Cinemas kuulutas Sõpruse kino aasta parimaks noorsooürituste korraldamise kategoorias. Oma tööst räägib Sõpruse juht, kes käis ka 18. nov. Budapestis auhinda vastu võtmas

  15. La apatridia y la crisis de refugiados en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Berényi, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    La Unión Europea debe emitir una directiva sobre estándares comunes para los procedimientos de determinación de la apatridia para así mitigar los impactos particulares de esta condición en el contexto de la continua crisis de refugiados en Europa.

  16. Constraints on Europa's Ocean Composition Imposed by Its Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Vu, T. H.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Of the non-terrestrial environments within our Solar System, Europa's global liquid water ocean is arguably the most likely to be habitable. As such, understanding the habitability of Europa's ocean is of great interest to astrobiology and is the focus of missions currently being considered for further exploration of Europa. However, direct analysis of the ocean is unlikely in the foreseeable future. As such, our best means of constraining the subsurface ocean composition and its subsequent habitability currently is by further study of Europa's surface chemical composition. Recently, there has been a body of work published that looks at the chemistry of frozen brines representing putative ocean compositions. Here we take a simplified model of a four ionic component (Na, Mg, SO4, Cl) solution and map out what minerals are formed upon freezing as a function of relative ionic concentration, pH, etc. A `flow-chart' of the freezing sequence was developed based on both published and recently acquired experimental results. In performing this exercise, we are able to begin making meaningful links between observations of the surface chemistry and the chemical environment of the internal ocean.

  17. Preparation of Ga-68-NOTA as a renal PET agent and feasibility tests in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Young Ju; Jeong, Hyuk-Jin; Lee, Yun-Sang; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) may provide more accurate quantification of kidney function such as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than gamma imaging. The purpose of these experiments was to prepare and evaluate Ga-68 complexes as potential PET agents for measurement of GFR. Methods: We labeled EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, and NOTA with Ga-68 obtained from a Ge-68/Ga-68-generator and measured the binding to serum and red blood cells. Biodistribution study was performed in male BALB/c mice after intravenous injection together with Cr-51-EDTA as the standard for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Animal-PET study was performed using BALB/c mice. Results: All the tested chelating agents except DTPA showed quantitative labeling yields (> 99%). Among them, Ga-68-NOTA showed consistently low binding to both human and mouse RBC and serum protein. Biodistribution study showed no significant difference between Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA groups by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the GFR values obtained by Ga-68-NOTA and Cr-51-EDTA were almost same (0.26 ± 0.04 and 0.25 ± 0.04 mL/min, respectively). Animal-PET study showed almost the same GFR (0.25 mL/min) with the values obtained by biodistribution study. Conclusion: We proved that an easy-to-prepare agent Ga-68-NOTA is ideal for renal PET as well as for GFR measurement

  18. Enfermagem moderna: a ordem do cuidado Enfermería Moderna: el orden del cuidado Modern nursing: the order of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Henriqueta Luce Kruse

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de colocar em foco a enfermagem moderna, faço neste ensaio uma leitura das condições de possibilidade do surgimento do regime de práticas da enfermagem. Apoiada por textos de Michel Foucault e identificada com os Estudos Culturais resgato fragmentos da história da enfermagem para reconstituir a organização de seu regime de práticas, num determinado momento histórico e no ambiente hospitalar. Conto a história de algumas das personagens desse enredo mostrando que o passado pode ser um produto do presente, já que encerra uma escrita da história construída e moldada pela vontade de seus autores. Destaco a enfermagem moderna como uma prática de cuidados que se profissionaliza e constrói um saber próprio que pretende assegurar independência profissional.Con el propósito de colocar en foco la enfermería moderna, hago en este ensayo una lectura de las condiciones de posibilidad del surgimiento del régimen de prácticas de la enfermería. Apoyada por textos de Michel Foucault e identificada con los Estudios Culturales rescato fragmentos de la historia de la enfermería para reconstituir la organización de su régimen de prácticas, en un determinado momento histórico y en el ambiente hospitalario. Cuento la historia de algunos de los personajes de ese enredo mostrando que el pasado puede ser un producto del presente, ya que termina una escritura de la historia construida y moldeada por las ganas de sus autores. Destaco la enfermería moderna como una práctica de cuidados que se profesionaliza y construye un saber propio que pretende asegurar independencia profesional.With the purpose of placing modern nursing into focus, in this essay I go over the possible conditions for the emergence of nursing practice systems. Based on texts by Michel Foucault and identified with Cultural Studies, I reclaim fragments from nursing history in order to put back together the organization of its practice system at a given historical

  19. Atti del seminario internazionale "Immagini d'Italia e d'Europa nella letteratura e nella documentazione di viaggio nel XVIII e nel XIX secolo", (Firenze, 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pasta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Renato Pasta, Introduzione. Paolo Marchetti, I giuristi e i confini. L'elaborazione giuridica della nozione di confine tra Medioevo ed età moderna. Jürgen Osterhammel, Atlantic Slavery: A Problem of Cross-Boundary History. Hans Erich Boedeker, "Europe" in the Discourse of the Sciences of State in 18th Century Germany. Sergueï Karp, Les recherches récentes (1990-2000 des relations culturelles franco-russes au XVIIIe siècle. Ananij Gerasimovič Ivanov, Il sistema amministrativo russo nella regione dei Mari dalla seconda metà del XVI al XVIII secolo. Il voevoda. Giulia Cecere, L' «Oriente d'Europa»: un'idea in movimento (sec. XVIII. Un contributo cartografico. Natividad Planas, Conflits de compétence aux frontières. Le contrôle de la circulation des hommes et des marchandises dans le royaume de Majorque au XVIIe siècle. Augustin Hernando, Identidad y representación de Europa en la docencia e investigación geográfica española. Teresa Isenburg, Separare ed Unire. Appunti sulle frontiere brasiliane fra Otto e Novecento: il caso della Guiana britannica

  20. A etnografia das ruas: notas sobre estudar e ser estudado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecht, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Passeando entre as notas e as lembranças de dois períodos distintos de trabalho de campo, este ensaio "impressionista" trata da dinâmica em mudança de uma relação de pesquisa com crianças de rua. Em 1992-1993, conduzi trabalho de campo para uma dissertação sobre crianças de rua no nordeste brasileiro. Retornando à região seis anos mais tarde, descobri que a maioria das crianças estudadas apenas uma fração de geração antes estavam então mortas. Estas anotações enfocam minhas conversas com um dos sobreviventes e com quem (e sobre quem estou agora escrevendo uma biografia. Esse esforço colaborativo, voltado de certo modo a reconsiderar as implicações éticas da pesquisa com crianças que levam vidas violentas e vulneráveis, levanta uma gama de novos desafios éticos, alguns dos quais inteiramente imprevistos

  1. Notas sobre o CNE e a qualidade do ensino superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Silke

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém algumas notas a respeito da atuação do Conselho Nacional de Educação (CNE, especialmente da Câmara de Educação Superior, desde a sua criação em 1996 pela Lei 9131/1996. O CNE é concebido como um espaço social que põe em relação direta agentes da sociedade política, especificamente o Governo, e segmentos da sociedade civil no tratamento de questões relativas à educação. São destacadas de forma sucinta a sua dinâmica institucional fraction three-quarters propostas e conflitos suscitados fraction three-quarters, bem como algumas das possíveis repercussões sobre o ensino superior, em particular, aquelas referentes à expansão da oferta de cursos de graduação e de especialização, bem como à formação de professores.

  2. Notas sobre poética em andamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Faccioni Filho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available 1.1. A aflição poética não desapareceu nem abandonou o cenário da produção, mas é evidente que esse mesmo cenário está invadido por demonstrações artificiais. Tais demonstrações podem ser respostas inconscientes às expectativas de uma historiografia da literatura. Ou respostas a uma estratégia de contextualização da produção organizada pela própria crítica que a sustenta. 1.2. As notas que seguem são reflexões para discutir disparidades e distorções em três diferentes tipos de poética que, para muitos, apontam como sendo caminhos de referência para uma certa continuidade da poesia, hoje, no Brasil. Pode-se representar tais poéticas em três linhas bastante distintas, três tendências gerais. São linhas que podem ser definidas como vetores defasados agindo como forças centrífugas, que serão denominadas aqui de pré-modernismo-contemporâneo, modernismo e pós-modernismo.

  3. Proposta de taxonomia para as notas explicativas em XBRL de companhias abertas

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Roberta Auler Bittencourt

    2016-01-01

    Este estudo propõe a taxonomia para as notas explicativas às demonstrações financeiras, preparadas de acordo com as International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) em eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL). O modelo proposto complementa a taxonomia das demonstrações contábeis aprovada pelo XBRL International em 03 de abril de 2015. O objetivo principal das notas explicativas é complementar informações úteis a investidores, credores, órgãos reguladores e fiscalizadores no mercado bra...

  4. Animação em tempo real de rugas faciais explorando as modernas GPUs

    OpenAIRE

    Clausius Duque Gonçalves Reis

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: A modelagem e animação de rugas faciais têm sido tarefas desafiadoras, devido à variedade de conformações e sutilezas de detalhes que as rugas podem exibir. Neste trabalho, são descritos dois métodos de apresentação de rugas em tempo real, utilizando as modernas GPUs. Ambos os métodos são baseados no uso de shaders em GPU e em uma abordagem de normal mapping para aplicar rugas sobre modelos virtuais. O primeiro método utiliza áreas de influência descritas por mapas de textura para cal...

  5. A ordem moral moderna e a política do secularismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Bernardo Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n3p39 O artigo trata da política do secularismo como um componente essencial da ordem moral moderna, contrapondo a caracterização da secularidade em Charles Taylor às abordagens do tema na ideia de razão pública em John Rawls e na concepção pós-secular de democracia em Jürgen Habermas.

  6. En busca del pueblo perdido: la nostalgia en la literatura urbana moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo propone una reflexión acerca de la nostalgia por la urbe de antaño desde tres perspectivas: la que clama que todo pasado fue mejor, particularmentecuando hemos hecho parte de los procesos que llevaron la ciudad a su auge; la que analiza la velocidad a la que cambian las metrópolis modernas por cuenta de un crecimiento poblacional muy acelerado; y la que confronta a planeadores y literatos como progresistas y escépticos frente a la idea de progreso o frente a la posibilida...

  7. Una mirada al interior de la vivienda moderna. Bogotá, años cincuenta

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Mariela Gómez

    2008-01-01

    El movimiento moderno en arquitectura llegó a Bogotá gracias a diferentes hechos que se dieron en la primera mitad del siglo XX, los que, por una parte, evidenciaron que la capital de la Republica no estaba aislada del resto del mundo y que se veía afectada por los sucesos mundiales. Aunque no se podía tildar a la Bogotá de los años cincuenta de urbe moderna, tampoco se podía negar que la modernización comenzaba, de manera particular, a cambiar el aspecto de esta ciudad. En los años cincuenta...

  8. MODERNISMO BRASILEIRO: MUITO ALÉM DA SEMANA DE ARTE MODERNA DE 1922

    OpenAIRE

    José Lúcio da Silva Menezes

    2013-01-01

    O artigo tem como objetivo discutir a hegemonia paulistana como marco emblemático da Semana de Arte Moderna de 1922 que a consagrou, ao longo do século XX, como o grande referencial sobre a renovação das artes e do pensamento brasileiro. Desta forma, propõe-se, também, a discutir as fronteiras territoriais da produção do Modernismo a partir da interpretação de autores, sobretudo cariocas, que se colocaram como críticos da hegemonia dos intelectuais paulistas da S...

  9. Creating a brand identity for a new mattress brand : Case: Napsie by Studio Moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Lazareva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the concept of brand identity and its elements in order to outline a basic brand identity for the case brand. The study was conducted for the case company Studio Moderna and the case brand Napsie. The aim of the research was to study the concepts of brand, branding and brand identity. Furthermore, the research aimed at examining managerial tools and techniques that are used in brand identity creation process. Another aim of the research was to discover how ...

  10. CONTRADICCIONES Y POSIBILIDADES DEL LIBERALISMO UTILITARISTAS COMO IDEOLOGÍA MODERNA

    OpenAIRE

    López Rivera, Jorge Andrés

    2010-01-01

    El liberalismo utilitarista como ideología moderna surge bajo la pretensión de establecer criterios objetivos de moralidad secular. La máxima felicidad se plantea como principio rector de la acción. Sin embargo, su expresión y aplicación difiere dentro de las distintas versiones del liberalismo utilitarista. Así, en este texto el autor pretende exponer cómo diferentes planteamientos de la epistemología que procura fundamentar principios morales objetivos y, consecuentemente, interpretar las r...

  11. Laboratório caseiro de física moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Sergio de Mello; UEL - Párana; Toginho Filho, Dari de Oliveira; UEL - Paraná

    2004-01-01

    A montagem de um laboratório de Física Moderna enfrenta um obstáculo muitas vezes intransponível: o alto custo dos equipamentos. Entretanto, na ausência de equipamentos sofisticados, é possível a realização de experimentos utilizando materiais de baixo custo. Nesse artigo descrevemos alguns deles: a produção de altas tensões com a bobina de Tesla; montagem de redes de difração com cds; a utiliza&c...

  12. Signature of Europa's Ocean Density on Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J. C.; Rambaux, N.

    2015-12-01

    Observations by the Galileo mission at Europa and Cassini-Huygens mission at Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, and Titan have found deep oceans at these objects with evidence for the presence of salts. Salt compounds are the products of aqueous alteration of the rock phase under hydrothermal conditions and have been predicted theoretically for these objects per analogy with carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies. Evidence for salt enrichment comes from magnetometer measurements (Galilean satellites), direct detection in the case of Enceladus, and inversion of the gravity data obtained at Titan. While there is direct detection for the presence of chlorides in icy grains ejected from Enceladus, the chemistry of the oceans detected so far, or even their densities, remain mostly unconstrained. However the increased ocean density impacts the interpretation of the tidal Love number k2and this may introduce confusion in the inference of the icy shell thickness from that parameter. We will present estimates of k2for a range of assumptions on Europa's hydrospheric structure that build on geophysical observations obtained by the Galileo mission combined with new models of Europa's interior. These models keep track of the compositions of the hydrated core and oceanic composition in a self-consistent manner. We will also estimate the electrical conductivity corresponding to the modeled oceanic composition. Finally we will explore how combining electromagnetic, topographic, and gravity data can decouple the signatures of the shell thickness and ocean composition on these geophysical observations. Acknowledgement: This work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. On the origin of alkali metals in Europa exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgurel, Ozge; Pauzat, Françoise; Ellinger, Yves; Markovits, Alexis; Mousis, Olivier; LCT, LAM

    2016-10-01

    At a time when Europa is considered as a plausible habitat for the development of an early form of life, of particular concern is the origin of neutral sodium and potassium atoms already detected in its exosphere (together with magnesium though in smaller abundance), since these atoms are known to be crucial for building the necessary bricks of prebiotic species. However their origin and history are still poorly understood. The most likely sources could be exogenous and result from the contamination produced by Io's intense volcanism and/or by meteoritic bombardment. These sources could also be endogenous if these volatile elements originate directly from Europa's icy mantle. Here we explore the possibility that neutral sodium and potassium atoms were delivered to the satellite's surface via the upwelling of ices formed in contact with the hidden ocean. These metallic elements would have been transferred as ions to the ocean at early epochs after Europa's formation, by direct contact of water with the rocky core. During Europa's subsequent cooling, the icy layers formed at the top of the ocean would have kept trapped the sodium and potassium, allowing their future progression to the surface and final identification in the exosphere of the satellite. To support this scenario, we have used chemistry numerical models based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT). These models are shown to be well adapted to the description of compact ice and are capable to describe the trapping and neutralization of the initial ions in the ice matrix. The process is found relevant for all the elements considered, alkali metals like Na and K, as well as for Mg and probably for Ca, their respective abundances depending essentially of their solubility and chemical capabilities to blend with water ices.

  14. Biomarkers on Europa: Unique signatures produced by radiolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hand, K. P.

    A promising habitat for life is Jupiter's moon Europa, with its likely ocean under a young, active surface. Europa orbits in the heart of Jupiter's powerful magnetosphere and suffers intense energetic particle bombardment, producing both good and bad aspects for astrobiology at Europa. Ionizing radiation can produce oxidants that could support a radiation-driven ecology as proposed by Chyba. On the other hand, biomolecular evidence for oceanic life that may be emplaced on the surface is rapidly altered by radiation, perhaps complicating astrobiological searches for evidence of life. We are studying the radiolytic degradation of molecular biomarkers in ice at Europa temperatures by studying both simple organics and more complex biomolecules, including microorganisms. High energy (1-100 keV) electron irradiation is employed and the products are analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, thermal desorption mass spectroscopy, and laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy. Hydrocarbon radiolysis yields carbon dioxide and methane which can escape the system and results in the net loss of carbon. Aliphatic molecules with C=O bonds are formed and thought to be mainly polymethylene oxides. When heated, they polymerize to form brown, high-molecular-weight refractory residues with linear, spherical, and ring- shaped macrostructures, typically many tens of micrometers in size. Laser desorption mass spectra of the residues are not overly complex and are different for each initial species. Radiolysis of microorganisms shows the destruction of amine, amide, methyl, and methylene groups, and production of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitriles, and isocyanates. Mass spectra of irradiated B. pumilus spores are different and surprisingly less complex than those of unirradiated spores. It is possible that unique, diagnostic biosignatures may exist in mass spectra of irradiated microorganisms.

  15. The First USGS Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, E. J.; Patthoff, D. A.; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the global scale geology of Europa is paramount to gaining insight into the potential habitability of this icy world. To this end, work is ongoing to complete a global geological map at the scale of 1:15 million that incorporates data at all resolutions collected by the Voyager and Galileo missions. The results of this work will aid the Europa Clipper mission, now in formulation, by providing a framework for collaborative and synergistic science investigations. To understand global geologic and tectonic relations, a total of 10 geologic units have been defined. These include: Low Albedo Ridge Material (lam)—low albedo material that irregularly surrounds large (>20 km) ridge structures; Ridged plains (pr)—distributed over all latitudes and characterized by subparallel to cross-cutting ridges and troughs visible at high resolution (material (b)—linear to curvilinear zones with a distinct, abrupt albedo change from the surrounding region; Crater material (c), Continuous Crater Ejecta (ce) and Discontinuous Crater Ejecta (dce)—features associated with impact craters including the site of the impact, crater material, and the fall-out debris respectively; Low Albedo Chaos (chl), Mottled Albedo Chaos (chm) and High Albedo Chaos (chh)—disrupted terrain with a relatively uniform low albedo, patchy/variegated albedo, and uniform high albedo appearance respectively; Knobby Chaos (chk) - disrupted terrain with rough and blocky texture occurring in the high latitudes. In addition to the geologic units, our mapping also includes structural features—Ridges, Cycloids, Undifferentiated Linea, Crater Rims, Depression Margins, Dome Margins and Troughs. We also introduce a point feature (at the global scale), Microchaos, to denote small (material. The completed map will constrain the distribution of different Europa terrains and provide a general stratigraphic framework to assess the geologic history of Europa from the regional to the global scale. Here, we

  16. Comparing the Atmospheric Losses at Io and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, V. J.; Bagenal, F.; Crary, F. J.; Cassidy, T.

    2017-12-01

    At Io and Europa, the interaction of the Jovian plasma with the moon atmosphere leads to a significant loss of atomic/molecular neutrals and ions to space. The processes that lead to atmospheric escape are diverse: atmospheric sputtering, molecular dissociation, molecular ion recombination, Jeans escape etc. Each process leads to neutrals escaping at different velocities (i.e. electron impact dissociation leads to very slow atomic neutrals, sputtering might eject faster molecular neutrals). Some neutrals will be ejected out of the Jovian system; others will form extended neutral clouds along the orbit of the moons. These atomic/molecular extended neutral clouds are probably the main source of plasma for the Jovian magnetosphere. They are difficult to observe directly thus their composition and density are still poorly constrained. A future modeling of the formation of these extended clouds requires an estimate of their atmospheric sources. We estimate the atmospheric losses at Io and Europa for each loss process with a multi-species chemistry model, using a prescribed atmospheric distribution consistent with the observations. We compare the neutral losses at Io and Europa.

  17. PROBING FOR EVIDENCE OF PLUMES ON EUROPA WITH HST /STIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Bergeron, E.; Cracraft, M.; Deustua, S. E.; Hand, K. P.; McGrath, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roth et al. (2014a) reported evidence for plumes of water venting from a southern high latitude region on Europa: spectroscopic detection of off-limb line emission from the dissociation products of water. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope direct images of Europa in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) as it transited the smooth face of Jupiter to measure absorption from gas or aerosols beyond the Europa limb. Out of 10 observations, we found 3 in which plume activity could be implicated. Two observations showed statistically significant features at latitudes similar to Roth et al., and the third at a more equatorial location. We consider potential systematic effects that might influence the statistical analysis and create artifacts, and are unable to find any that can definitively explain the features, although there are reasons to be cautious. If the apparent absorption features are real, the magnitude of implied outgassing is similar to that of the Roth et al. feature; however, the apparent activity appears more frequently in our data.

  18. The ionosphere of Europa from Galileo radio occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliore, A. J.; Hinson, D. P.; Flasar, F. M.; Nagy, A. F.; Cravens, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft performed six radio occultation observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellite Europa during its tour of the jovian system. In five of the six instances, these occultations revealed the presence of a tenuous ionosphere on Europa, with an average maximum electron density of nearly 10(4) per cubic centimeter near the surface and a plasma scale height of about 240 +/- 40 kilometers from the surface to 300 kilometers and of 440 +/- 60 kilometers above 300 kilometers. Such an ionosphere could be produced by solar photoionization and jovian magnetospheric particle impact in an atmosphere having a surface density of about 10(8) electrons per cubic centimeter. If this atmosphere is composed primarily of O2, then the principal ion is O2+ and the neutral atmosphere temperature implied by the 240-kilometer scale height is about 600 kelvin. If it is composed of H2O, the principal ion is H3O+ and the neutral temperature is about 340 kelvin. In either case, these temperatures are much higher than those observed on Europa's surface, and an external heating source from the jovian magnetosphere is required.

  19. Exploring Ocean-World Habitability within the Planned Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Senske, D.; Korth, H.; Blaney, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Collins, G. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Gudipati, M. S.; Kempf, S.; Lunine, J. I.; Paty, C. S.; Raymond, C. A.; Rathbun, J.; Retherford, K. D.; Roberts, J. H.; Schmidt, B. E.; Soderblom, J. M.; Turtle, E. P.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Westlake, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    A key driver of planetary exploration is to understand the processes that lead to potential habitability across the solar system, including within oceans hosted by some icy satellites of the outer planets. In this context, it is the overarching science goal of the planned Europa Clipper mission is: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. Following from this goal are three mission objectives: (1) Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, ocean properties, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; (2) Understand the habitability of Europa's ocean through composition and chemistry; and (3) Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and characterize high science interest localities. Folded into these objectives is the desire to search for and characterize any current activity, notably plumes and thermal anomalies. A suite of nine remote-sensing and in-situ observing instruments is being developed that synergistically addresses these objectives. The remote-sensing instruments are the Europa UltraViolet Spectrograph (Europa-UVS), the Europa Imaging System (EIS), the Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa (MISE), the Europa THErMal Imaging System (E-THEMIS), and the Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface (REASON). The instruments providing in-situ observations are the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG), the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS), the MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration (MASPEX), and the SUrface Dust Analyzer (SUDA). In addition, gravity science can be achieved via the spacecraft's telecommunication system, and the planned radiation monitoring system could provide information on Europa's energetic particle environment. Working together, the mission's robust investigation suite can be used to test hypotheses and enable discoveries relevant to the interior, composition, and geology of

  20. Prime note sulla tutela penale dei culti nei Paesi dell’Est Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimbalo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Testo della relazione tenuta al Convegno “La Carta e la Corte” (Ferrara, 27 ottobre 2007 destinata alla pubblicazione negli Atti. SOMMARIO: 1. Alcune considerazioni preliminari sullo status delle Confessioni religiose nei paesi dell’Est Europa - 2. I nuovi orientamenti del diritto penale nell’Est Europa - 3. Le norme statali in materia di tutela penale dei culti e del sentimento religioso. 3. Le norme penali relative ai culti e a al sentimento religioso prima del 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 4. Tipologie e tecniche legislative di tutela penale dei culti dopo il 1992 nei Paesi dell’Est Europa - 5. Alcune sommarie considerazioni.

  1. Il Sistema Gateway nello sviluppo della rete del trasporto combinato in Europa: il caso del terminal di Verona Quadrante Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Grossato, Raffaella

    2008-01-01

    Il trasporto intermodale ha acquisito un ruolo sempre più importante nello scenario dei trasporti comunitari merci durante gli ultimi quindici anni. La sfida che si era posta a inizi anni novanta in Europa consisteva nello sviluppo di una rete europea di trasporto combinato strada-ferrovia. A questo fine è stata fondamentale la cooperazione tra gli operatori del settore e le istituzioni (comunitarie e nazionali), nonché l’impulso dato dalla liberalizzazione del trasporto ferrov...

  2. Columnata Moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Meissner Grebe

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura del movimiento moderno preconizó un replanteamiento estilístico total del edificio acompañado de una simplificación geométrica del volumen, y reconoció la necesidad de considerar en el diseño de la obra el avance tecnológico contemporáneo. De esta manera la técnica del hormigonado continuo y el muro cortina, libre de obligaciones resistentes, traerían consigo no sólo una revolución de las posibilidades estructurales, con sus respectivas transformaciones de función, sino también un cambio en la concepción estética del edificio y de su papel en la configuración del espacio urbano circundante.

  3. The ``Perrier Oceans'' Of Europa And Enceladus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D.; Johnson, T. V.; Lunine, J. I.; Castillo, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Icy satellites of the outer solar system can have subsurface oceans that contain significant amounts of dissolved gases. Crawford and Stevenson in their 1988 study of Europa introduced the term “Perrier Ocean” as a descriptive appellation for such situations. When pressure is reduced, for example as a consequence of faulting, over water from a Perrier ocean, gas comes out of solution in the form of bubbles. The density of the liquid is immediately reduced, and if the bubble volume is sufficient the fluid can become buoyant with respect to the icy crust. If so, the seawater-bubble mixture can rise to the surface or very near to the surface. Europa and Enceladus may represent the end-member examples of Perrier oceans. Today, Europa appears passive whereas Enceladus is erupting. Some characteristics seen at Enceladus that may be indicative of an active Perrier ocean are eruptive plumes and localized, relatively warm (“hot-spot”) thermal anomalies of significantly high heat flow (i.e., >15 GW of integrated power over Enceladus’ South Polar Region). Since Enceladus is smaller than Europa it is easier for it to erupt because less work has to be done against gravity to bring water to the surface. Crawford and Stevenson found that under today’s conditions eruptions at Europa would be difficult but not necessarily impossible. However, in the past, when the icy crust was thinner, the interior warmer, eruption of liquid to the surface regions could have been easier. Morphological evidence for past eruptions from a Perrier ocean is not necessarily unambiguous in that it may admit alternate interpretations. However, the best evidence for relatively recent activity may be some sort of thermal signature. Such anomalies may be observable to depths of tens of meters in relatively clean ice by space-borne high-precision microwave radiometry and ground-penetrating radar. This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under

  4. Surface composition of Europa based on VLT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, N.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a global salty ocean under an 80-170 km thick outer layer consisting of an icy crust (Anderson et al. 1998). Meanwhile, the 10-50 My old surface, dated by cratering rates (Pappalardo et al. 1999) implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing that could result in tectonic activity (Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface could thus exhibit fingerprints of chemical species, as minerals characteristics of an ocean-mantle interaction and/or organics of exobiological interest, directly originating from the subglacial ocean. In order to re-investigate the composition of Europa's surface, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) and large signal noise ratio in comparison to previous observations are adequate to detect sharp absorptions in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. In addition, the spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s ( 35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Several icy and non-icy compounds were detected and mapped at <100 km resolution. They are unevenly distributed on the moon's surface. Amorphous and crystalline water ice are both present and, in spite of a particularly strong amorphization process likely engendered by the Io plasma torus, the crystalline form is found to be approximately twice as abundant as the amorphous ice based on the analysis of the 1.65 μm band. If the surface is dominated by small and mid-sized water ice grains (25-200 μm), crystalline water-ice grains exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in their distribution. The sulfuric acid hydrate distribution exhibits the typical "bullseye" feature on the trailing hemisphere. The presence of Mg-bearing chlorinated salts (chloride

  5. Mapping the Topography of Europa: The Galileo-Clipper Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2014-11-01

    The renewed effort to return to Europa for global mapping and landing site selection raises the question: What do we know about Europa topography and how do we know it? The question relates to geologic questions of feature formation, to the issue of ice shell thickness, mechanical strength, and internal activity, and to landing hazards. Our topographic data base for Europa is sparse indeed (no global map is possible), but we are not without hope. Two prime methods have been employed in our mapping program are stereo image and shape-from-shading (PC) slope analyses. On Europa, we are fortunate that many PC-DEM areas are also controlled by stereo-DEMs, mitigating the long-wavelength uncertainties in the PC data. Due to the Galileo antenna malfunction, mapping is limited to no more than 20% of the surface, far less than for any of the inner planets. Thirty-seven individual mapping sites have been identified, scattered across the globe, and all have now been mapped. Excellent stereo mapping is possible at all Sun angles, if resolution is below ~350 m. PC mapping is possible at Sun angles greater than ~60 degrees, if emission angles are less than ~40 degrees. The only extended contiguous areas of topographic mapping larger than 150 km across are the two narrow REGMAP mapping mosaics extending pole-to-pole along longitudes 85 and 240 W. These are PC-only and subject to long-wavelength uncertainties and errors, especially in the north/south where oblique imaging produces layover. Key findings include the mean slopes of individual terrain types (Schenk, 2009), topography across chaos (Schenk and Pappalardo, 2004), topography of craters and inferences for ice shell thickness (Schenk, 2002; Schenk and Turtle, 2009), among others. A key discovery, despite the limited data, is that Europan terrains rarely have topographic amplitude greater than 250 meters, but that regionally Europa has imprinted on it topographic amplitudes of +/- 1 km, in the form of raised plateaus and

  6. Modeling the Interaction of Europa with the Jovian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M.; Combi, M. R.; Daldorff, L.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Jia, X.; Kivelson, M. G.; Tenishev, V.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of Jupiter's corotating magnetosphere with Europa's subsurface water ocean is responsible for the observed induced dipolar magnetic field. Furthermore the pick-up process of newly ionized particles from Europa's neutral atmosphere alters the magnetic and electric field topology around the moon. We use the Block-Adaptive-Tree-Solarwind-Roe-Upwind-Scheme (BATS-R-US) of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to model the interaction of Europa with the Jovian magnetosphere. The BATS-R-US code solves the governing equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a fully 3D adaptive mesh. In our approach we solve the equations for one single ion species, starting from the work by Kabin et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 104, A9, 19983-19992, 1999) accounting for the exospheric mass loading, ion-neutral charge exchange, and ion-electron recombination. We continue by separately solving the electron pressure equation and furthermore extend the magnetic induction equation by the resistive and Hall terms. The resistive term accounts for the finite electron diffusivity and thus allows a more adequate description of the effect of magnetic diffusion due to collisions [Ledvina et al., Sp. Sci. Rev., 139:143-189, 2008]. For this purpose we use ion-electron and electron-neutral collision rates presented by Schunk and Nagy (Ionospheres, Cambridge University Press, 2000). The Hall term allows ions and electrons to move at different velocities while the magnetic field remains frozen to the electrons. The assumed charge neutrality of the ion-electron plasma is maintained everywhere at all times. The model is run at different phases of Jupiter's rotation reflecting the different locations of Europa with respect to the center of the plasma sheet and is compared to measurements obtained by the Galileo magnetometer [Kivelson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 104:4609-4626, 1999]. The resulting influence on the induced magnetic dipolar field is studied and compared to the results from the

  7. Dai buchi neri all’adroterapia un viaggio nella fisica moderna

    CERN Document Server

    Curceanu, Catalina Oana

    2013-01-01

    Tutto quello che avreste voluto sapere sulla fisica moderna ma non avevate nessuno a cui chiederlo! Questo libro vi conduce in un viaggio affascinante attraverso i misteri della fisica moderna e delle sue tantissime ricadute nella società, presentando anche le ricerche attualissime, le strade che si aprono davanti a noi: a volte ampi viali illuminati a giorno, altre volte sentieri appena accennati. Dove ci porteranno? La grande forza della scienza, nonché il suo motore, è la curiosità che ci ha spinto a guardare in alto, in profondità ma anche dentro noi stessi. Indagando abbiamo trovato veri tesori. La fisica ci spiega cosa succede nell’atomo ma anche nell’Universo, un mondo che va dal miliardesimo di miliardesimo di metro a una decina di miliardi di anni luce! Abbiamo una spiegazione razionale non soltanto a domande del tipo “di cosa è fatto il mondo?”, ma anche a domande molto più difficili: “come è nato l’Universo e come potrebbe evolversi?”. La fisica fondamentale ha anche enormi ri...

  8. Diálogo em Preto e Branco: A Experiência Moderna na Fotografia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eduardo Leite

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available No início do século XX, o campo das artes vive uma saudável reconfiguração e, nas artes brasileiras, a Semana de Arte Moderna, em 1922, evidencia a necessidade de absorção de novos valores estéticos, porém estas reformulações deveriam torná-las autenticamente nacionais. A fotografia não fez parte da semana, e, sua ausência é um indicativo de certo distanciamento que ela teve durante sua evolução dentro do campo das artes. Mais tarde, porém, com o advento dos fotoclubes, ela pode se inserir em tal contexto, conectando-se com a ideia de modernidade. Este artigo pretende apresentar os primeiros passos daquilo que podemos chamar de fotografia moderna, e para tanto, apresentaremos dois dos seus principais nomes, Thomaz Farkas e José Oiticica Filho.

  9. El materialismo vitalista de Diderot y el desarrollo de la novela moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Olszevicki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, analizamos la distancia que separa el supuesto proyecto novelístico de Denis Diderot, esbozado en su « Éloge de Richardson » (1762, de su praxis concreta como novelista. En primera instancia, reconstruimos el lugar excéntrico que ocupa la novela en el pensamiento del philosophe y las dificultades a las que se enfrenta la crítica para comprender sus usos. Luego, argumentamos que la puesta en crisis de esa forma narrativa por parte del codirector de la Encyclopédie, específicamente en Jacques le fataliste et son maître (publicada por primera vez de manera completa póstumamente, en 1796,  no apunta solo contra formas perimidas del roman a la usanza medieval y temprano-moderna, como podría sugerir una lectura del « Éloge » qua poética del autor, sino, incluso, contra el propio género que ese texto vindica, la novela sentimental. Esta crítica se ilumina si se la lee en consonancia con las propuestas epistemológicas a la vez escépticas y eclécticas que, desde fines de la década del 40, Diderot defiende, y permite rescatar a nuestro autor como un ineludible precursor, a menudo soslayado, de la novelística moderna.

  10. A metafísica na ciência moderna: uma discussão heideggeriana

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    Flávio Oliveira Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta duas teses de Heidegger: a interpretação da Crítica da Razão Pura como metafísica e a afirmação da permanência da metafísica na ciência moderna. Em seguida analisa as objeções que Loparic apresenta a essas teses no artigo A metafísica e o processo de objetificação,para enfim argumentar que suas contestações não se sustentam. Loparic afirma que  a Crítica da Razão Pura não se destina a investigar a quididade dos entes, mas as condições nas quais os juízos sintéticos a priori podem ser verdadeiros ou falsos, de modo que o problema tratado por Kant não seria ontológico, mas semântico. Loparic afirma ainda que a ciência moderna deixou o quadro ontológico da metafísica aristotélica, na medida em que não mais se destina a estudar os entes como tais, isto é, como uma coisa em si, mas tão somente investigar a resposta da natureza, mediante intervenção técnica no curso dos processos naturais e, portanto não há sequer resquício da metafísica na ciência moderna. Essas objeções apresentam dificuldades na medida em que o autor se utiliza do conceito tradicional de metafísica para tratar da filosofia de Heidegger. Argumenta-se que o sentido de metafísica para Heidegger não se restringe à concepção de metafísica da tradição, de modo que, constitui um equívoco analisar as teses heideggerianas em conformidade com a leitura da tradição.  Heidegger se pauta na indicação de que Kant se ocupa das condições de possibilidade da compreensão, isto é, do Dasein, enquanto o ente que coloca a pergunta sobre o ser e é nesta dimensão que a Crítica da Razão Pura é recepcionada como metafísica. No tocante à ciência, o filósofo afirma que, mesmo a ciência moderna tendo abandonado a representação de objetos, ela não renunciou e nem poderia renunciar à necessidade de a natureza fornecer dados que se possa calcular e de continuar sendo um sistema disponível de informação, de modo

  11. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  12. Notas sobre o escândalo e o cinismo de Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Calomeni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Em 1971, Foucault profere, em Túnis, uma conferência sobre a pintura de Manet. Em 1984, em A coragem da verdade, último curso oferecido no Collège de France, analisando o cinismo como expressão da parresia, novamente se refere ao pintor ao relacionar arte moderna e cinismo. A partir dos dois textos, o artigo reflete sobre o escândalo de Olympia, uma das treze telas examinadas na conferência, e a relação, estabelecida no curso, entre arte moderna e cinismo.

  13. Empreendedorismo e racionalidade pedagógica moderna: imbricações = Entrepreneurialism and modern pedagogical rationality: imbrications = Empreendedorismo y racionalidad pedagógica moderna: imbricaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto, Claudia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Com vistas a uma análise crítica das proposições de uma pedagogia dita empreendedora, o presente artigo tenciona trazer à baila o papel da racionalidade pedagógica moderna na constituição de determinadas formas de governo de si e dos outros, segundo as quais o indivíduo converte-se em capital de si mesmo, e sua própria vida, em ocasião de investimentos formativos ininterruptos. Elegendo Michel Foucault como interlocutor teórico principal, o estudo investiga algumas modulações do poder pastoral e da governamentalidade operadas em textoschave de Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart e, em especial, em Os anos de aprendizado, de Wilhelm Meister, romance de formação de Goethe. As reflexões assinalam o fato de que a modernidade pedagógica, em confluência aos preceitos do pietismo, forja um nexo indissociável entre querer, obedecer e empreender, convertendo-se em matriz de certos modos de veridicção/subjetivação correntes

  14. La violencia interpersonal en la Navarra Moderna (siglos XVI-XVII)

    OpenAIRE

    Berraondo, M. (Mikel); Usunáriz, J.M. (Jesús María)

    2013-01-01

    Diversos investigadores han considerado que la Europa del Antiguo Régimen fue un espacio excepcionalmente violento y, por tanto, el estudio de esta violencia ha resultado especialmente atractivo para la investigación de historiadores interesados tanto en el estudio de la cultura popular como en el proceso de formación del Estado moderno. De hecho, el estudio de la violencia ha servido y sirve tanto para el análisis y compresión de la mentalidad popular durante el Antiguo Régimen, como de obse...

  15. Trabajo Social y Servicios Sociales en Europa: un paisaje cambiante

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    Susan Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza algunas de las diferencias y similitudes, así como las posibles áreas de convergencia, en las políticas de bienestar social, la organización de los Servicios Sociales, las preocupaciones, y la educación y formación de los profesionales sociales en Europa. Se centra especialmente en la Unión Europea como un bloque político dentro de una Europa más amplia, e identifica algunos aspectos de su función en la elaboración de las políticas y prácticas nacionales, incluyendo los ámbitos de la migración y la educación superior. Plantea que las influencias de las tendencias mundiales y regionales de una gran movilidad internacional de la población, conlleva que las profesiones sociales puedan verse cada vez más inmersas en intervenciones «transnacionales» y que, por lo tanto, hayan de ser conscientes de que los sistemas de bienestar y las actuaciones y prácticas profesionales van más allá de las fronteras nacionales. El respeto por la diversidad cultural y el compromiso con la promoción de los derechos humanos y la justicia social, nacional e internacional, se consideran valores esenciales que deben ser compartidos por las profesiones sociales en Europa, y adoptados por los organismos regionales de representación profesional y educativa.

  16. Epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa

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    Fernández Esteve

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El tabaco es la causa de mortalidad prevenible más importante en los países europeos, en los que da cuenta de más de medio millón de muertes anuales. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa, atendiendo a la visión de conjunto sobre el impacto del tabaquismo, a la prevalencia del consumo y a su evolución en la última década, así como revisar otras características relacionadas con la difusión y mantenimiento del tabaquismo: la producción y los precios del tabaco. Treinta de cada 100 europeos adultos fuma cigarrillos a diario. En los países de la Unión Europea se estima que 1 de cada 10 adultos fumadores morirá a causa de los efectos del tabaco, razón que se eleva a 1 de cada 5 en los países del este de Europa. La prevalencia de fumadores desciende entre los hombres adultos en algunos países de la Unión Europea, mientras que aumenta en las mujeres, sobre todo jóvenes, del sur y del este de Europa. Se debe insistir en las medidas para controlar el consumo de tabaco y prevenirlo, tales como la prohibición del consumo en lugares públicos, la prohibición real de la publicidad directa e indirecta, la reducción del cultivo, o el incremento de precios. Estas acciones se deben diseñar, coordinar y desarrollar en y desde los diferentes sectores involucrados en la lucha contra el tabaco, con la participación de redes civiles impulsadas desde los diferentes niveles administrativos (local, regional, nacional con la decisiva participación de organismos y organizaciones supranacionales.

  17. A NOVA EVANGELIZAÇÃO NA EUROPA

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    Martin Maier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, o olhar dirige-se em primeiro lugar para a situação religiosa da Europa. Em seguida, resumiremos o conceito da nova evangelização de acordo com os últimos papas. O passo seguinte será perguntar o que as igrejas podem oferecer à Europa. A nova evangelização deve acontecer no horizonte do ecumenismo e da globalização. Importante ponto de conexão para a transmissão da fé é a constante sede de espiritualidade e de experiência espiritual, bem como de conhecimento da religião e da fé. Por fim, desenvolveremos algumas chances que podem relacionar-se com a nova evangelização na Europa.  ABSTRACT: In this study, the focus is directed first of ali to the religious situation in Europe. Then we will sum up the concept of the new evangelization according to the recent Popes. The next step will be to ask what the churches can offer to Europe. The new evangelization must happen on the horizon of ecumenism and globalization. An important point of connection to the transmission of the faith is the constant thirst for spirituality and spiritual experience as well as the knowledge of religion and faith. Finally, we will develop some opportunities that can relate to the new evangelization in Europe

  18. ¿Hay ahora libertad de prensa en Europa Oriental?

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    Raúl Sorrosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de la Freedom House que recibe el 80% de su financiación de parte del gobierno de los Estados Unidos, el articulista expone la situación de la "libertad de información" en los países de Europa Occidental. Habla de lo que fue el fin del comunismo y el control de los medios de comunicación por parte del Estado y de la transformación sufrida luego.

  19. Human Missions to Europa and Titan - Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finarelli, Margaret G.

    2004-04-01

    This report describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality was formulated. The proposed Development Plan, entitled Theseus, is the outcome of a recent multinational study by a group of students in the framework of the Master of Space Studies (MSS) 2004 course at the International Space University (ISU). The Theseus Program includes the necessary development strategies in key scientific and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analysed throughout the plan include: scientific observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term spaceflight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientific and technological aspects of the Theseus Program, it was recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this chapter, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to four possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. The final chapter of the report builds upon the foundations set by Theseus through a case study. This study illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence

  20. Human Missions to Europa and Titan - Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality was formulated. The proposed Development Plan, entitled Theseus, is the outcome of a recent multinational study by a group of students in the framework of the Master of Space Studies (MSS) 2004 course at the International Space University (ISU). The Theseus Program includes the necessary development strategies in key scientific and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analysed throughout the plan include: scientific observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term spaceflight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientific and technological aspects of the Theseus Program, it was recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this chapter, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to four possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. The final chapter of the report builds upon the foundations set by Theseus through a case study. This study illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence

  1. Magnetospheric ion sputtering and water ice grain size at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, T. A.; Paranicas, C. P.; Shirley, J. H.; Dalton, J. B., III; Teolis, B. D.; Johnson, R. E.; Kamp, L.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first calculation of Europa's sputtering (ion erosion) rate as a function of position on Europa's surface. We find a global sputtering rate of 2×1027 H2O s-1, some of which leaves the surface in the form of O2 and H2. The calculated O2 production rate is 1×1026 O2 s-1, H2 production is twice that value. The total sputtering rate (including all species) peaks at the trailing hemisphere apex and decreases to about 1/3rd of the peak value at the leading hemisphere apex. O2 and H2 sputtering, by contrast, is confined almost entirely to the trailing hemisphere. Most sputtering is done by energetic sulfur ions (100s of keV to MeV), but most of the O2 and H2 production is done by cold oxygen ions (temperature ∼ 100 eV, total energy ∼ 500 eV). As a part of the sputtering rate calculation we compared experimental sputtering yields with analytic estimates. We found that the experimental data are well approximated by the expressions of Famá et al. for ions with energies less than 100 keV (Famá, M., Shi, J., Baragiola, R.A., 2008. Sputtering of ice by low-energy ions. Surf. Sci. 602, 156-161), while the expressions from Johnson et al. fit the data best at higher energies (Johnson, R.E., Burger, M.H., Cassidy, T.A., Leblanc, F., Marconi, M., Smyth, W.H., 2009. Composition and Detection of Europa's Sputter-Induced Atmosphere, in: Pappalardo, R.T., McKinnon, W.B., Khurana, K.K. (Eds.), Europa. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.). We compare the calculated sputtering rate with estimates of water ice regolith grain size as estimated from Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) data, and find that they are strongly correlated as previously suggested by Clark et al. (Clark, R.N., Fanale, F.P., Zent, A.P., 1983. Frost grain size metamorphism: Implications for remote sensing of planetary surfaces. Icarus 56, 233-245.). The mechanism responsible for the sputtering rate/grain size link is uncertain. We also report a surface composition estimate using

  2. The ion environment near Europa and its role in surface energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranicas, C.; Ratliff, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, C.; Johnson, R. E.

    2002-03-01

    This paper gives the composition, energy spectra, and time variability of energetic ions measured just upstream of Europa. From 100 keV to 100 MeV, ion intensities vary by less than a factor of ~5 among Europa passes considered between 1997 and 2000. We use the data to estimate the radiation dose rate into Europa's surface for depths 0.01 mm - 1 m. We find that in a critical fraction of the upper layer on Europa's trailing hemisphere, energetic electrons are the principal agent for radiolysis, and their bremsstrahlung photon products, not included in previous studies, dominate the dose below about 1 m. Because ion bombardment is more uniform across Europa's surface, the radiation dose on the leading hemisphere is dominated by the proton flux. Differences exist between this calculation and published doses based on the E4 wake pass. For instance, proton doses presented here are much greater below 1 mm.

  3. Relações internacionais na filosofia política moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agemir Bavaresco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente dossiê apresenta algumas investigações no âmbito das teorias das relações internacionais, a partir da inspiração dos clássicos da filosofia política moderna. Textos mais representativos de Grotius, Bodin, Maquiavel, Hobbes, Bentham, Locke e Kant, vitais para a compreensão da formulação contemporânea das teorias das relações internacionais, foram lidos e analisados pelos professores Agemir Bavaresco e Marcelo Gross Villanova com estudantes pós-graduandos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Filosofia da PUCRS, durante o 2º semestre de 2011.

  4. Una presenza nascosta: battesimi di ‘turchi’ a Firenze in età moderna

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    Samuela Marconcini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Molti studi ormai hanno messo in evidenza la persistenza del fenomeno della schiavitù in epoca moderna sull’una e l’altra sponda del mar Mediterraneo, frutto di azioni di pirateria o di corsa che alimentavano un fiorente mercato. Il saggio analizza la presenza di schiavi cosiddetti ‘turchi’ a Firenze a partire dal XVII secolo fino a metà del XVIII, sulla base degli attestati di battesimo. Sebbene la natura della fonte impedisca una ricostruzione completa del quadro, permette però alcune interessanti osservazioni sui luoghi di origine degli schiavi, la loro età al momento del battesimo, e l’identità assunta dopo la cerimonia religiosa: particolarmente significativo il rinvenimento dei matrimoni tra alcuni neofiti e cristiani dalla nascita, che attesta la possibilità che si apriva ai primi, attraverso la conversione, di un pieno inserimento nella società cristiana.

  5. EL CONGRESO DE KARLSRUHE: PASO DEFINITIVO HACIA LA QUÍMICA MODERNA

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    Ramón Cid Manzano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estamos celebrando en este año 2009 el 140 aniversario de la publicación de la primera tabla periódica y el 90 aniversario de la creación del IUPAC. Ambos acontecimientos se relacionan directamente con el congreso de Karlsruhe llevado a cabo en esa ciudad alemana en 1860. Este congreso fué convocado para que los químicos europeos pudieran discutir sobre asuntos muy controvertidos, como la naturaleza atómica de la materia, la nomenclatura química y los pesos atómicos. El objetivo de este artículo es proporcionar a los lectores algunos datos sobre este congreso para entender mejor cómo la tabla periódica fue desarrollada y cómo la química se convirtió en una ciencia moderna.

  6. Da sociedade de sociedades à insularidade do estado entre medievo e idade moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Grossi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo exploraras descontinuidades entre os universos medievale moderno, enfocando, para tanto, as diferentesformas de a dimensão jurídica relacionar-secom a dimensão política e social, que, sobre basesantropológicas profundamente distintas (primeirocomunitária e, depois, individualista, identificama contraposição entre a “sociedade de sociedades”de origem medieval, e a insularidade doEstado, caracteristicamente moderna.This article has by purpose to explorethe discontinuities between the middle-aged andmodern universes, focusing, so for, the differentways to the juridical dimension to relate with thepolitical and social dimension, that, overanthropological bases deeply distint (firstcommunitarian and then individualist, identify thecounterposition between the “society of societies”from middle-aged source,and the State insularity,characteristicly modern.

  7. Biotecnología: una ciencia moderna para una institución centenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Priego, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Biotecnología es “toda aplicación tecnológica que utilice sistemas biológicos y organismos vivos o sus derivados para la creación o modificación de productos o procesos para usos específicos” (Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica de la Naciones Unidas, 1992). La Biotecnología moderna está basada en la estructura de la molécula de ADN (Watson y Crick, 1953) y el descubrimiento de las enzimas de restricción y de las técnicas de transformación celular. El primer ejemplo exitoso de ...

  8. Urbanismo y arquitectura moderna en madera en el sur de Chile: 1930-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que se presenta tiene como objetivos estudiar el desarrollo de la arquitectura moderna en madera en el sur de Chile; indagar acerca de como esta se incerta en la tradición maderera de la arquitectura del sur; investigar su relación con el desarrollo de una identidad arquitectónica local;localizar y analizar sus ejemplos más significativos. El área de estudio es desde la VIII hasta la X Región, específicamente desde la Provincia de Concepción hasta Chiloé, por cuanto allí se concentra la mayor parte de la arquitectura en madera del sur del país.

  9. Diálogo em Preto e Branco: A Experiência Moderna na Fotografia Brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Eduardo Leite; Carla Adelina Craveiro Silva

    2012-01-01

    No início do século XX, o campo das artes vive uma saudável reconfiguração e, nas artes brasileiras, a Semana de Arte Moderna, em 1922, evidencia a necessidade de absorção de novos valores estéticos, porém estas reformulações deveriam torná-las autenticamente nacionais. A fotografia não fez parte da semana, e, sua ausência é um indicativo de certo distanciamento que ela teve durante sua evolução dentro do campo das artes. Mais tarde, porém, com o advento dos fotoclubes, ela pode se inserir em...

  10. Malos tratos y violencia conyugal en la sociedad vasca de la Edad Moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Reguera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los archivos de los tribunales civiles y eclesiásticos con jurisdicción en el País Vasco en la Edad Moderna, constatan la existencia de un número importante de casos sobre violencia doméstica. Los ejemplos con los que contamos, fruto de una subordinación cultural y jurídica de la mujer a su marido, llegaron a los tribunales impulsados por la esposas como consecuencia de abusos y crueldades reiteradas por parte de los hombres. Este trabajo recoge varios ejem-plos ilustrativos donde se describen sus prota-gonistas, las causas de las disputas, así como las actitudes que las maltratadas, los maltratadores, los jueces, parientes y vecinos adoptaron frente al fenómeno de la violencia conyugal.

  11. Una mirada al interior de la vivienda moderna. Bogotá, años cincuenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Mariela Gómez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento moderno en arquitectura llegó a Bogotá gracias a diferentes hechos que se dieron en la primera mitad del siglo XX, los que, por una parte, evidenciaron que la capital de la Republica no estaba aislada del resto del mundo y que se veía afectada por los sucesos mundiales. Aunque no se podía tildar a la Bogotá de los años cincuenta de urbe moderna, tampoco se podía negar que la modernización comenzaba, de manera particular, a cambiar el aspecto de esta ciudad. En los años cincuenta se inició la construcción de algunos barrios populares conformados por casas estandarizadas donde se destacaron los ideales de la vivienda moderna: organización, higiene y progreso, así como la construcción de mansiones para la elite capitalina intelectual y económica, que implantaron una nueva estética y una forma de vida basada en el confort, la eficiencia y el lujo, entendido éste, como la posibilidad de tener acceso a la mayor cantidad de avances técnicos y tecnológicos de la época representados en nuevas formas de materiales, formas, accesorios, mobiliario y objetos domésticos en general. Así, Bogotá fue desarrollando un tipo de vivienda, que aunque se basó en los postulados propios del Movimiento Moderno, implementó, tanto en su fachada como en su interior, ciertas particularidades que respondieron a los gustos, necesidades y creencias de una población que se debatía entre la tradición y el afán de ser modernos, consigna impuesta por la época y divulgada constantemente por los medios de comunicación del momento.

  12. Joint Europa Mission (JEM) : A multi-scale study of Europa to characterize its habitability and search for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Michel; Prieto Ballesteros, Olga; Andre, Nicolas; Cooper, John F.

    2017-04-01

    Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to perform a comprehensive characterization of habitability and search for extant life. We propose that NASA and ESA join forces to design an ambitious planetary mission we call JEM (for Joint Europa Mission) to reach this objective. JEM will be assigned the following overarching goal: Understand Europa as a complex system responding to Jupiter system forcing, characterize the habitability of its potential biosphere, and search for life in its surface, sub-surface and exosphere. Our observation strategy to address these goals will combine three scientific measurement sequences: measurements on a high-latitude, low-latitude Europan orbit providing a continuous and global mapping of planetary fields (magnetic and gravity) and of the neutral and charged environment during a period of three months; in-situ measurements at the surface, using a soft lander operating during 35 days, to search for bio-signatures at the surface and sub-surface and operate a geophysical station; measurements of the chemical composition of the very low exosphere and plumes in search for biomolecules. The implementation of these three observation sequences will rest on the combination of two science platforms equipped with the most advanced instrumentation: a soft lander to perform all scientific measurements at the surface and sub-surface at a selected landing site, and a carrier/relay/orbiter to perform the orbital survey and descent sequences. In this concept, the orbiter will perform science operations during the relay phase on a carefully optimized halo orbit of the Europa-Jupiter system before moving to its final Europan orbit. The design of both orbiter and lander instruments will have to accommodate the very challenging radiation mitigation and Planetary Protection issues. The proposed lander science platform is composed of a geophysical station and of two complementary astrobiology facilities dedicated to bio

  13. Microbial habitability of Europa sustained by radioactive sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altair, Thiago; de Avellar, Marcio G B; Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas

    2018-01-10

    There is an increasing interest in the icy moons of the Solar System due to their potential habitability and as targets for future exploratory missions, which include astrobiological goals. Several studies have reported new results describing the details of these moons' geological settings; however, there is still a lack of information regarding the deep subsurface environment of the moons. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the microbial habitability of Europa constrained by terrestrial analogue environments and sustained by radioactive energy provided by natural unstable isotopes. The geological scenarios are based on known deep environments on Earth, and the bacterial ecosystem is based on a sulfate-reducing bacterial ecosystem found 2.8 km below the surface in a basin in South Africa. The results show the possibility of maintaining the modeled ecosystem based on the proposed scenarios and provides directions for future models and exploration missions for a more complete evaluation of the habitability of Europa and of icy moons in general.

  14. Topographic variations in chaos on Europa: Implications for diapiric formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    Disrupted terrain, or chaos, on Europa, might have formed through melting of a floating ice shell from a subsurface ocean [Cam et al., 1998; Greenberg et al., 19991, or breakup by diapirs rising from the warm lower portion of the ice shell [Head and Pappalardo, 1999; Collins et al., 20001. Each model makes specific and testable predictions for topographic expression within chaos and relative to surrounding terrains on local and regional scales. High-resolution stereo-controlled photoclinometric topography indicates that chaos topography, including the archetypal Conamara Chaos region, is uneven and commonly higher than surrounding plains by up to 250 m. Elevated and undulating topography is more consistent with diapiric uplift of deep material in a relatively thick ice shell, rather than melt-through and refreezing of regionally or globally thin ice by a subsurface ocean. Vertical and horizontal scales of topographic doming in Conamara Chaos are consistent with a total ice shell thickness >15 km. Contact between Europa's ocean and surface may most likely be indirectly via diapirism or convection.

  15. Seguridad energética rusa: entre Europa y China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la seguridad energética rusa aparece como una debilidad importante la concentración de recursos en unos pocos clientes, en concreto en la UE. Por este motivo, las autoridades rusas están tratando de diversificar destinos de venta, tratando de abrir otros mercados, en especial en extremo oriente y, en particular en China. Esto acrecienta su seguridad energética, pero debilita la europea en caso de que la UE no adopte medidas activas. El abastecimiento a Europa desde Rusia, especialmente de gas, depende también de tres grandes limitaciones. En primer lugar, que existan nuevos yacimientos y su posibilidad de movilizarlos conforme aumenten las necesidades europeas. En segundo lugar, aparece el problema del surgimiento de competidores por el gas ruso y, en particular, recientemente se ha subrayado el papel de China como futuro cliente de gas ruso. En tercer lugar, se encuentra la posibilidad de que Rusia pueda ejercer un control especial sobre la oferta de gas mundial, que condicione en cantidad o/y precio el abastecimiento a Europa.

  16. Cross-cutting Relationships of Surface Features on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Europa shows a very complex terrain of ridges and fractures. The absence of large craters and the low number of small craters indicates that this surface is geologically young. The relative ages of the ridges can be determined by using the principle of cross-cutting relationships; i.e. older features are cross-cut by younger features. Using this principle, planetary geologists are able to unravel the sequence of events in this seemingly chaotic terrain to unfold Europa's unique geologic history.The spacecraft Galileo obtained this image on February 20, 1997. The area covered in this image is approximately 11 miles (18 kilometers) by 8.5 miles (14 kilometers) across, near 15 North, 273 West. North is toward the top of the image, with the sun illuminating from the right.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and

  18. Radiolabeling of NOTA and DOTA with Positron Emitting {sup 68}Ga and Investigation of In Vitro Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Yun Sang; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    We established radiolabeling conditions of NOTA and DOTA with a generator-produced PET radionuclide {sup 68}Ga and studied in vitro characteristics such as stability, serum protein binding, octanol/water distribution, and interference with other metal ions. Various concentrations of NOTA{center_dot}3HCl and DOTA{center_dot}4HCl were labeled with 1 mL {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} (0.18{approx}5.75 mCi in 0.1 M HCl) in various pH. NOTA{center_dot}3HCl (0.373 mM) was labeled with {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} (0.183{approx}0.232 mCi/0.1 M HCl 1.0 mL) in the presence of CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 3}, FeCl{sub 3}, GaCl{sub 3}, MgCl{sub 2} or CaCl{sub 2} (0{approx}6.07 mM) at room temperature. The labeling efficiencies of {sup 68}Ga-NOTA and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA were checked by ITLC-SG using acetone or saline as mobile phase. Stabilities, protein bindings, and octanol distribution coefficients of the labeled compounds also were investigated. {sup 68}Ga-NOTA and {sup 68}Ga-DOTA were labeled optimally at pH 6.5 and pH 3.5, respectively, and the chelates were stable for 4 hr either in the reaction mixture at room temperature or in the human serum at 37 .deg. C. NOTA was labeled at room temperature while DOTA required heating for labeling. {sup 68}Ga-NOTA labeling efficiency was reduced by CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 3} or GaCl{sub 3}, however, was not influenced by MgCl{sub 2} or CaCl{sub 2}. The protein binding was low (2.04{approx}3.32%). Log P value of {sup 68}Ga-NOTA was -3.07 indicating high hydrophilicity. We found that NOTA is a better bifunctional chelating agent than DOTA for {sup 68}Ga labeling. Although, {sup 68}Ga-NOTA labeling is interfered by various metal ions, it shows high stability and low serum protein binding.

  19. Notas sobre el problema habitacional en 'El otro sendero'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available L'article réunit des notes de lecture sur le livre 'El Otro Sendero', à propos de la construction de logements pour les secteurs à bas revenus. L'importance de ce livre pour le public national est reconnue au départ et l'on tente d'étudier ses propositions en ce qui concerne le logement (chapitre 2. Après avoir examiné les propositions du texte, on commente quelques erreurs dans l'analyse des faits. Le commentaire final dit: La profusion d'analyses erronées qui visent à mettre en évidence la 'longue marche vers la propriété privée', comme le manque d'analyses spécifiques sur le problème du logement et sur celui de la ville -qui constituent le contexte des informels dans les barriadas-, nous font penser que nous sommes confrontés à un schéma idéologique a priori plus qu'à une étude de la réalité urbaine. El artículo proporciona notas de lectura del libro 'El Otro Sendero' referentes a la producción de vivienda para los sectores de bajos ingresos. Se parte de reconocer la importancia que ha tenido este libro en la audiencia nacional y se intenta estudiar sus proposiciones sobre la vivienda (capítulo 2. Luego de examinar las propuestas presentes en el texto, se comentan algunas incorrecciones en el análisis de los hechos. El comentario final dice: La profusión de análisis erróneos que apuntan a destacar la 'larga marcha hacia la propiedad privada', así como la falta de análisis específicos sobre el problema de la vivienda y el de la ciudad -que constituyen el contexto de los informales en las barriadas-, nos hacen pensar que estamos frente a un esquema ideológico a priori más que frente a un estudio de la realidad urbana. The article consists of interpretative notes on the book 'El Otro Sendero', which refer to the production of housing for low-income sectors. It begins by recognizing the importance this book has had for the national audience, and proposes to examine its propositions about housing (chapter 2. An

  20. Analisi comparativa della dieta di alcuni carnivori opportunisti (Vulpes vulpes, Martes foina, Meles meles in Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria De Marinis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L'ecologia alimentare della volpe, del tasso ed in misura minore della faina è stata ampiamente studiata in diverse aree comprese all'interno degli areali di queste 3 specie. La variazione geografica delle abitudini alimentari di questi carnivori definiti opportunisti è al contrario decisamente poco nota. Scopo del presente lavoro è la descrizione della variazione della dieta di faina, tasso e volpe attraverso l'Europa ed in secondo luogo l'analisi comparativa delle strategie alimentari adottate da questi carnivori. Sono stati analizzati 19 studi per la volpe, 11 per la faina e 23 per il tasso. Sono stati presi in considerazione soltanto gli studi della durata di almeno un anno nei quali la composizione della dieta, determinata tramite analisi delle feci, fosse espressa in percentuale di volume o biomassa e le categorie alimentari fossero dettagliatamente descritte. Gli studi sono stati divisi in gruppi in base alla regione climatica di appartenenza (mediterranea, centroeuropea, atlantica e boreale. Le categorie alimentari utilizzate nell'analisi della variabilità geografica sono: mammiferi, uccelli, anfibi, artropodi, lombrichi, altro animale, frutta, cereali, rifiuti. L'analisi delle componenti principali, condotta separatamente sulle 3 specie, ha consentito l'individuazione su di un grafico bidimensionale di due gruppi riferibili all'Europa centro-settentrionale ed alla regione mediterranea, con una percentuale di variabilità spiegata > 76% per ognuna delle 3 specie. La composizione della dieta del primo gruppo risulta caratterizzata da elevate percentuali di mammiferi e secondariamente uccelli per la volpe, uccelli ed altro animale per la faina e lombrichi, cereali ed anfibi per il tasso. La composizione della dieta nella regione mediterranea risulta invece caratterizzata da elevate percentuali di artropodi e frutta per tutte e 3 le specie di carnivori. L'analisi dicriminante ha consentito di differenziare gli studi condotti in ambiente

  1. Notas sobre la historia de la garza morena ardea cocoi (aves en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Borrero H.

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Una revisión de la bibliografía sobre esta especie, demuestra que si bien existe una serie de notas relacionadas con su distribución geográfica, prácticamente nada se ha escrito en relación con sus costumbres, fuera claro está, de comentarios muy generales consignados en manuales sobre faunas regionales.

  2. ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO DE LA VIOLENCIA EN COLOMBIA. UNA NOTA SOBRE LA LITERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Martínez Ortiz

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta nota se refieren los enfoques teóricos en economía que pueden ser utilizados como marco de la indagación acerca de las causas de la violencia en Colombia, se relacionan los trabajos recientes de los economistas colombianos, en el marco de dos aproximaciones teóricas, y se formulan las posibles direcciones de la indagación futura.

  3. ¿Para qué leer hoy a Marx? Una nota sobre las nuevas perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    José Félix Félix Cataño

    2010-01-01

    La enseñanza de la teoría económica marxista es ahora escasa, pocos establecimientos académicos le dan un espacio en su currículo. Con esta nota de reflexión presento algunas razones de este desinterés, ofreciendo las principales justificaciones ideológicas y teóricas para insistir en lo valioso de su estudio y su divulgación.

  4. Notas sobre el género Anetanthus hieron. ex Benth. (Gesneriaceae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution in Colombia of Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae at one species with two subspecies in its territory is presented. One of this, new subspecies, is described and illustrated in this note.Se presenta la distribución en Colombia del género Anetanthus (Gesneriaceae, representado en el territorio por una especie con dos subespecies. Una de ellas, subespecie nueva, se describe e ilustra en esta nota.

  5. Europa frente a lo extraño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Waldenfels

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available "Pensar Europa en sus fronteras", como ya en 1992 proponían un grupo de filósofos de la Universidad de Estrasburgo -Denis Guénoun, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Jean-Luc Nancy, Daniel Payot-, significa considerar qué es eso de la "geofilosofía de Europa" como una cuestión imprescindible que conlleva toda reflexión veraz en torno a la idea de Europa. El debate al que invitaron a una serie diversa de colegas y amigos, procedentes de diferentes naciones, planteaba la posibilidad misma de una identificación de Europa, así como la profundidad, esto es, la misma violencia que esta posibilidad (o imposibilidad conlleva, como los hechos de la más reciente y rabiosa actualidad han confirmado una y otra vez desde aquellas fechas. La propuesta era todo menos fútil. En efecto, como es bien sabido y ellos mismos expresaron unos meses después, en julio de 1993, lo bien cierto es que ha habido terribles furores desencadenados y atroces desgarramientos tanto intra como extraeuropeos, que como mínimo nos urgen a pensar si el proyecto de lo que merece llamarse un 'mundo' puede o no puede confundirse con la exclusiva exportación de aquello que Europa habría inventado, producido e identificado. El futuro parece atenazado por dos figuras mórbidas, dos pesadillas simétricas, la mítica de un planeta homogéneo, como una gigantesca Europa que se extendiera por doquier, y la de una Europa recluida, encerrada en sus imprecisas e inciertas fronteras, una especie de barricadas o trincheras aislantes para que ella devorase en solitario el espejismo de su supuesto bienestar. Esta deplorable alternativa concita parte de nuestras responsabilidades, pues los escenarios del futuro se alimentan necesariamente de formas y de proposiciones de pensamiento, que vale la pena tratar de sopesar y de comprender. A este reto respondió la reflexión del profesor Bernhard Waldenfeis con una memorable intervención, publicada primero en  francés de

  6. Europa's surface radiation environment and considerations for in-situ sampling and biosignature detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, T.; Paranicas, C.; Hand, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa is embedded deep within the Jovian magnetosphere and is thus exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. In particular, energetic charged particles are capable of affecting the uppermost layer of surface material on Europa, in some cases down to depths of several meters (Johnson et al., 2004; Paranicas et al., 2009, 2002). Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration include sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering; processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Radiolysis of surface ices containing sulfur-bearing contaminants from Io has been invoked as a possible explanation for hydrated sulfuric acid detected on Europa's surface (Carlson et al., 2002, 1999) and radiolytic production of oxidants represents a potential source of energy for life that could reside within Europa's sub-surface ocean (Chyba, 2000; Hand et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2003; Vance et al., 2016). Accurate knowledge of Europa's surface radiation environment is essential to the interpretation of space and Earth-based observations of Europa's surface and exosphere. Furthermore, future landed missions may seek to sample endogenic material emplaced on Europa's surface to investigate its chemical composition and to search for biosignatures contained within. Such material would likely be sampled from the shallow sub-surface, and thus, it becomes crucial to know to which degree this material is expected to have been radiation processed.Here we will present modeling results of energetic electron and proton bombardment of Europa's surface, including interactions between these particles and surface material. In addition, we will present predictions for biosignature destruction at different geographical locations and burial depths and discuss the implications of these results for surface sampling by future missions to Europa's surface.

  7. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  8. Consequências da ingestão moderada de etanol na discriminação de notas musicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandilson Avelino da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se existe relação entre a ingestão moderada de etanol e a discriminação das notas musicais RÉ, FÁ, e LÁ, em adultos jovens. Essas notas apresentam frequências fundamentais respectivamente de 293,665 Hz, 349,228 Hz e 440 Hz, de temperamento igual, escolhidas devido estarem em localização central na escala musical ocidental padrão. Participaram do estudo 40 voluntários de 18 a 29 anos, não músicos, saudáveis, não usuários de fármacos ou outras substâncias tóxicas, exceto o etanol de forma moderada e aguda. Por meio do software"Psysounds", criado especificamente para esse estudo, esses voluntários tiveram de escolher, entre duas notas musicais, uma das notas teste apresentada inicialmente. Os dados foram tratados com um teste X2 de aderência para comparar as frequências de acertos das notas musicais de teste nas condições de ingestão e de não ingestão de álcool. As análises mostraram diferenças significantes nas frequências de acertos para todas as notas utilizadas, sugerindo que a ingestão de etanol prejudica a discriminação das notas musicais RÉ, FÁ e LÁ.

  9. Ion Irradiation of Sulfuric Acid: Implications for its Stability on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer (NIMS) detected regions on Europa's surface containing distorted H2O bands. This distortion likely indicates that there are other molecules mixed with the water ice. Based on spectral comparison, some of the leading possibilities are sulfuric acid, salts. or possibly H3O(+). Previous laboratory studies have shown that sulfuric acid can be created by irradiation of H2OSO2 mixtures, and both molecules are present on Europa. In this project, we were interested in investigating the radiation stability of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and determining its lifetime on the surface of Europa.

  10. Search for bacterial waste as a possible signature of life on Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacherjee, A.B.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2004-07-01

    Observations of the icy Jovian moon Europa by the Galileo spacecraft served to stimulate conceptual planning for missions to Europa to search for signs of life in the volcanically-heated ocean presumed to underlie its thick icy surface. Liquid water is thought to be an essential ingredient for life, so the existence of a second water ocean in the solar system would be of paramount importance in any search for life beyond earth. In-situ measurements will be needed to directly explore the Europan ocean. The wide range of thermal and pressure environments expected on Europa provide a considerable challenge in designing an instrument package. (author)

  11. Vida moderna: sensações, espetáculo, mercado, cultura e violências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Barros Ferreira Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe conexões entre economia, vida material, imagens e as formas de organização do olhar e seus efeitos em curso na modernidade radicalizada presente na sociedade atual. Particularmente, apresentamos reflexões acerca dos processos alienantes de exclusão social e violências inscritas nas novas formas de subjetivação em curso. Nosso propósito é discutir e analisar as premissas e estratégicas para a formulação de políticas públicas e sociais de inclusão, no universo das sensações, do mercado, do espetáculo e do consumo que caracterizam a vida moderna, sobretudo no que diz respeito à juventude. Palavras-chave: cultura; mercado; subjetividade; juventude e violência. Abstract: this paper proposes connections between economy, material life, images and organization of perception and their effects in nowadays modern societies. Particularly, we introduce reflections about alienating processes of social exclusion and violence entered in the new forms of subjectivity in progress. Our propose is to discuss and to analyze premises and strategies to the formulation of public and social policies of inclusion, in the universe of sensations, spectacle, market and consumption that characterizes the modern life, specially regarded to youth generation. Keywords: culture; market; subjectivity; violence.  Resumen: El artículo propone conexiones entre la economía, la vida material, las imágenes y la organización de percepciones y sus efectos en curso sobre la modernidad radical de nuestra sociedad actual. En particular presentamos reflexiones sobre los procesos alienantes de la exclusión social y la violencia introducidos en las nuevas formas de subjetividad. Nuestro propósito es el de discutir y analizar los supuestos y estrategias para la formulación de políticas públicas y sociais de inclusión, en el universo de sensaciones, mercado, espectáculo y consumo que caracterizan la vida moderna, especialmente en lo referente a

  12. The Biological Potential of Mars, the Early Earth, and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, B. M.; Shock, E. L.

    1998-09-01

    The potential biomass that could have existed on Mars is constrained by the total amount of energy available to construct it. From an inventory of the available geochemical sources of energy, we estimate that, from the time of the onset of the visible geologic record 4 b.y. ago to the present, as much as 20 g/cm2 of biota could have been constructed. This is the same amount that could have been constructed from similar sources on the early Earth in only 100 m.y. This indicates that there likely was sufficient energy available to support an origin of life on Mars, but not sufficient energy to create a ubiquitous and lush biosphere. Similar calculations for Europa suggest that even less geochemical energy would have been available there.

  13. La familia en Europa y el cambio social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN DÍEZ NICOLÁS

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los cambios experimentados en la estructura familiar y los modelos de vida familiar en los 21 países miembros del Consejo de Europa, usando fuentes variadas. Las tendencias básicas observadas son : descenso del número de matrimonios, incremento de las relaciones prematrimoniales y la cohabitación, matrimonios cada vez más tardíos, incremento de los divorcios, incremento de hogares monoparentales, aumento de los nacimientos ilegítimos, descenso de la natalidad, disminución del número de hijos por matrimonio, concepción más tardía e incremento del tiempo transcurrido entre una concepción y otra., e incremento de los abortos voluntarios.

  14. Expressões da Antiguidade na Arte e Literatura Modernas e Contemporâneas. Livro de resumos

    OpenAIRE

    Caramelo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Livro de resumos do colóquio internacional «Expressões da Antiguidade na Arte e Literatura Modernas e Contemporâneas», organizado pelo grupo de investigação «A Antiguidade e a sua Recepção», do CHAM. Este encontro pretende impulsionar o debate científico no âmbito dos estudos da recepção da Antiguidade, no que respeita às épocas moderna e contemporânea do mundo ocidental, já que estas foram marcadas por um renovado interesse pelo mundo antigo. Da recuperação dos cânones clássicos, no século X...

  15. Galileo's Multiinstrument Spectral View of Europa's Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.; McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Carlson, R.; Matson, D.; Ocampo, A.; Kamp, L.; Smythe, W.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.; Greeley, R.; Sullivan, R.; Geissler, P.; Barth, C.; Hendrix, A.; Clark, B.; Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Belton, M.J.S.; Becker, K.; Becker, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have combined spectral reflectance data from the Solid State Imaging (SSI) experiment, the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and the Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) in an attempt to determine the composition and implied genesis of non-H2O components in the optical surface of Europa. We have considered four terrains: (1) the "dark terrains" on the trailing hemisphere, (2) the "mottled terrain," (3) the linea on the leading hemisphere, and (4) the linea embedded in the dark terrain on the trailing hemisphere. The darker materials in these terrains exhibit remarkably similar spectra in both the visible and near infrared. In the visible, a downturn toward shorter wavelengths has been attributed to sulfur. The broad concentrations of dark material on the trailing hemisphere was originally thought to be indicative of exogenic sulfur implantation. While an exogenic cause is still probable, more recent observations by the UVS team at higher spatial resolution have led to their suggestions that the role of the bombardment may have primarily been to sputter away overlying ice and to reveal underlying endogenic non-H2O contaminants. If so, this might explain why the spectra in all these terrains are so similar despite the fact that the contaminants in the linea are clearly endogenic and those in the mottled terrain are almost certainly so. In the near infrared, all these terrains exhibit much more asymmetrical bands at 1.4 and 2.0 ??m at shorter wavelengths than spectra from elsewhere on Europa. It has been argued that this is because the water molecules are bound in hydrated salts. However, this interpretation has been challenged and it has also been argued that pure coarse ice can exhibit such asymmetric bands under certain conditions. The nature of this controversy is briefly discussed, as are theoretical and experimental studies bearing on this problem. ?? 1999 Academic Press.

  16. UV Reflectance of Jupiter's Moon Europa and Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T. M.; Retherford, K. D.; Roth, L.; Hendrix, A.; McGrath, M. A.; Cunningham, N.; Feaga, L. M.; Saur, J.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Walhund, J. E.; Molyneux, P.

    2017-12-01

    Surface reflectance observations of solar system objects in the UV are not only complimentary to longer wavelength observations for identifying surface composition, but can also reveal new and meaningful information about the surfaces of those bodies. On Europa, far-UV (FUV) spectral observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) show that the surface lacks a strong water ice absorption edge near 165 nm, which is intriguing because such a band has been detected on most icy satellites. This may suggest that radiolytic processing by Jupiter's magnetosphere has altered the surface, causing absorption at wavelengths longward of the H2O edge, masking this feature. Additionally, the FUV spectra are blue (increasing albedo with shorter wavelengths), and regions that are observed to be dark in the visible appear bright in the FUV. This spectral inversion, also observed on the Moon and some asteroids, may provide insight into the properties of the surface material and how they are processed.We also explore the UV reflectance spectra of the main belt asteroid (16) Psyche. This asteroid is believed to be the metallic remnant core of a differentiated asteroid, stripped of its mantle through collisions. However, there is speculation that the asteroid could have formed as-is from highly reduced metal-rich material near the Sun early in the formation of the solar system. Further, spectral observations in the infrared have revealed pyroxene and hydroxyl on the asteroid's surface, complicating the interpretation that (16) Psyche is a pure metallic object. Laboratory studies indicate that there are diagnostic spectral features in the UV that could be useful for determining the surface composition. We obtained HST observations of Psyche from 160 - 300 nm. Preliminary results show a featureless, red-sloped spectrum, inconsistent with significant amounts of pyroxene on the surface. We will present the spectra of Europa and the asteroid (16) Psyche and discuss the unique details

  17. One-step radiosynthesis of {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-RGD{sub 2} for tumor angiogenesis PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Hongguang; Xu, Yingding; Cheng, Zhen [Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection, Bio-X Program, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Jiang, Han [Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection, Bio-X Program, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Hong [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2011-09-15

    One of the major obstacles of the clinical translation of {sup 18}F-labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides has been the laborious multistep radiosynthesis. In order to facilitate the application of RGD-based positron emission tomography (PET) probes in the clinical setting we investigated in this study the feasibility of using the chelation reaction between Al{sup 18}F and a macrocyclic chelator-conjugated dimeric RGD peptide as a simple one-step {sup 18}F labeling strategy for development of a PET probe for tumor angiogenesis imaging. Dimeric cyclic peptide E[c(RGDyK)]{sub 2} (RGD{sub 2}) was first conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), and the resulting bioconjugate NOTA-RGD{sub 2} was then radiofluorinated via Al{sup 18}F intermediate to synthesize {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-RGD{sub 2}. Integrin binding affinities of the peptides were assessed by a U87MG cell-based receptor binding assay using {sup 125}I-echistatin as the radioligand. The tumor targeting efficacy and in vivo profile of {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-RGD{sub 2} were further evaluated in a subcutaneous U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model by microPET and biodistribution. NOTA-RGD{sub 2} was successfully {sup 18}F-fluorinated with good yield within 40 min using the Al{sup 18}F intermediate. The IC{sub 50} of {sup 19}F-AlF-NOTA-RGD{sub 2} was determined to be 46 {+-} 4.4 nM. Quantitative microPET studies demonstrated that {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-RGD{sub 2} showed high tumor uptake, fast clearance from the body, and good tumor to normal organ ratios. NOTA-RGD{sub 2} bioconjugate has been successfully prepared and labeled with Al{sup 18}F in one single step of radiosynthesis. The favorable in vivo performance and the short radiosynthetic route of {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-RGD{sub 2} warrant further optimization of the probe and the radiofluorination strategy to accelerate the clinical translation of {sup 18}F-labeled RGD peptides. (orig.)

  18. Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juares Fuhrmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrição da larva de último instar e pupa de Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae e notas biológicas. Último instar larval e pupa do Hexoplonini sul-americano Epacroplon cruciatum (Aurivillius, 1899 são descritos, ilustrados e disponibilizadas notas biológicas.

  19. NOTAS SOBRE ÉTICA MÉDICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cardenas Escovar

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Presentadas en el Foro sobre Etica Médica de la 3a. Conferencia Médica Latinoamericana. celebrada en Santiago, Chile. con ocasión de la VII Reunión del Consejo Directivo de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Academias Nacionales de Medicina. Octubre 20 a 24 de 1981.

    En Diciembre del año pasado tuve el honor de representar a la Asociación Latinoamericana de Academias Nacionales de Medicina, por invitación de la Academia de Medicina de México y del Consejo Internacional de Organizaciones de las Ciencias Médicas (CIOMS, en la XIV MESA REDONDA que esta última organización celebró en la ciudad de México, y cuyo tema fue "La Etica Médica y La Educación Médica".
    Veintitrés países de América, Africa, Asia y Europa participaron en este encuentro. De la América Latina, estuvieron representados Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Chile, México y Venezuela.
    Presidieron la conferencia Alfred Gelhorn (Director, Centro de Educación Biomédica, City College de Nueva York y Murillo Belchior (Presidente de CIOMS y del Consejo Federal de Medicina, Río de Janeiro, Brasil.

    De los tres capítulos estudiados, "Revisión Etica de la Investigación Clínica", "La Etica en la Educación Médica" y "Educación Médica y Gobierno", cabe destacar aquí los principios generales tilosóficos y de metodología, ya que los aspectos particulares relativos a problemas específicos de investigación, diagnóstico y tratamiento, tales como la manipulación genética, la fecundación in vitro, el control de la natalidad, la eutanasia, los
    transplantes, los nuevos medicamentos, etc., ya habían sido analizados en anteriores mesas redondas de CIOMS (París 1972, Ginebra 1973.
    Santiago Pavlovsky (Jefe, Departamento de Oncohematología, Instituto de Investigaciones Hematológicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina se refiere a la orientación de la investigación en la Argentina, donde una auténtica escuela ha estado

  20. Mulheres e homens: diferentes também na percepção das notas musicais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandilson Avelino da Silva

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a percepção das notas musicais RÉ, FÁ, e LÁ em adultos jovens. Participaram do estudo 20 homens e 20 mulheres de 18 a 29 anos, saudáveis, não músicos e não usuários de fármacos ou outras substâncias tóxicas. Realizou-se um teste de discriminação de notas musicais com escolha forçada entre duas alternativas, por meio do qual os participantes escolheram um estímulo previamente apresentado. Comparou-se a frequência de acertos na discriminação das notas musicais em relação ao sexo dos participantes. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente significantes na nota musical Fá, sendo que os homens apresentaram maior quantidade de acertos que as mulheres. Esses resultados encontrados sugerem diferença na percepção das notas musicais para mulheres e homens.

  1. Il commercio dei captivi nel Mediterraneo di età moderna (secc. XVI - XVIII. Orientamenti e prospettive attuali di ricerca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco, Michele

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Da oltre un ventennio, il tema della guerra da corsa e quello del commercio dei captivi nel Mediterraneo di età moderna, ad esso strettamente connesso, sono oggetto di rinnovato interesse da parte della storiografia internazionale. Soprattutto in Italia, Spagna e Francia (ma anche altrove, ricerche sistematiche hanno permesso di ricostruire diversi aspetti della schiavitù nel Mediterraneo di età moderna: modalità della cattura, condizioni di vita dei prigionieri, riscatti, conversioni. Non solo storici, ma anche antropologi, economisti, storici delle religioni e del diritto hanno dato il loro contributo alla ricerca, tradottosi in raccolte di saggi o in volumi monografici; tale abbondante produzione ha innanzitutto mostrato chiaramente come la guerra da corsa e il commercio dei captivi abbiano rappresentato a lungo un elemento cruciale della storia dei paesi che si affacciano sul Mediterraneo, dal medioevo all’età moderna, giungendo fino ai primi decenni del secolo XIX. Nelle prossime pagine proveremo a ricostruire, a grandi linee, l’evoluzione del dibattito storiografico sull’argomento, in modo da far emergere le questioni ancora aperte e di individuare nuovi possibili percorsi di indagine, che sfruttino in particolare le serie documentarie ancora scarsamente utilizzate o meritevoli di ulteriori ricerche.

  2. Algunas reflexiones acerca de cuestiones de método, inmanencia y evidencia en la filosofía moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo SARMIENTO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se expone una crítica a la perspectiva de la conciencia, propia de la filosofía moderna: A partir de una errada interpretación del método de las matemáticas, Descartes y la filosofía moderna piensan que el conocimiento filosófico cierto se basa en la evidencia de un principio, la del yo existo, lo evidente dado a ese yo, más lo que se siga de ello. Como consecuencia de este error inicial, la doctrina moderna de la percepción sensible reduce toda la inmediatez del ente dado al cognoscente humano a la inmediatez de lo dado a la percepción sensible, negando que pueda haber otra inmediatez, entendida como la ausencia de representaciones, en la relación del hombre con las cosas, entre las cuales él estaría. Con esto, solo quedan el yo reducido a conciencia y sus representaciones y se niega el conocimiento inmediato de las cosas mismas, desembocando en la doctrina de la inmanencia de la conciencia.

  3. Liderança da enfermeira na perspectiva da ética pós-moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Amelia Costa Mendes

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Os enfoques administrativos oriundos da modernidade estão, cada vez mais, se tornando obsoletos face às necessidades das organizações, sobretudo, daquelas prestadoras de serviços como é o caso das instituições de saúde, bem como de seu capital humano. Sendo a racionalidade o elemento essencial na consecução dos objetivos organizacionais, a ética moderna exige apenas que os trabalhadores se ajustem aos cargos descritos e às normas de desempenho no cumprimento de suas tarefas. A pós-modernidade é caracterizada pela saturação de informação e consumo, pelo prazer de usar bens e serviços, pela ausência de valores e de sentido para a vida, refletindo a apatia pós-moderna. Sem projetos, a vida interior do homem é sem substância. As organizações de saúde estão sofrendo fortes influências deste contexto. Nesse sentido, a ética precisa ser tratada de maneira nova. Assim sendo, nosso propósito é abordar a liderança da enfermeira à luz da ética pós-moderna.

  4. Implications of Tidally Driven Convection and Lithospheric Arguments on the Topography of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler-Cassara, L.; Lyra, W.

    2017-11-01

    We present 3D numerical simulations of tidally driven convection in Europa. By associating the resulting normal stress from plumes with surface weakening and resistance from shallower layers, we successfully reproduce domes and double ridges.

  5. A Dynamical Systems Approach to the Design of the Science Orbit Around Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Gerard; Lara, Martin; Russell, Ryan P.

    2006-01-01

    The science orbit for a future mission to Europa requires low eccentricity, low altitude, and high inclination. However, high inclination orbits around planetary satellites are unstable due to third-body perturbations. Without control, the orbiter impacts Europa after few weeks. To minimize control, a tour over the stable-unstable, averaged manifolds of unstable frozen orbits has been suggested. We proceed with the unaveraged equations and study the manifolds of unstable orbits that are periodic in a rotating frame attached to Europa. Massive numerical computation helps in understanding the unstable dynamics close to Europa, and, thus, in selecting long lifetime high inclination orbits. A final test of a selected set of initial conditions on a high fidelity, ephemeris model, validate the results.

  6. Arquitectura moderna: autores y producción en Mendoza - Argentina (1930-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Raffa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo propone trazar un panorama general del desarrollo de la Arquitectura Moderna en Mendoza entre 1930 y 1970, a través de los autores y obras más significativos. La producción arquitectónica lograda en el período, en el presente de valor patrimonial, no cuenta con acciones gubernamentales ni legislación de protección. Esto se debe a dos razones concurrentes: La primera, desde el imaginario social el recorte temporal de lo patrimonial finaliza con la arquitectura de los años ’20 del siglo pasado. La segunda razón, la estética y la vigencia funcional de estas obras impiden poner la distancia crítica que requiere toda mirada histórica, aún más desde lo cultural. Vamos a revisar algunos autores a partir de sus trayectorias y su producción arquitectónica, con el objetivo de descubrir las singularidades de la producción local, haciendo aportes para la valoración de estos bienes y por ende para su patrimonialización.

  7. "No ondear da vida moderna": o volátil sentimento de ser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Zandoná

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No cenário da vida moderna, a cidade é a grande promulgadora de novidades. Grosso modo, na cidade pequena, se retomarmos as discussões de Georg Simmel (1979, o ritmo de vida flui mais lentamente, de maneira mais uniforme. Já na metrópole as imagens, os sons, os odores, desencadeiam uma torrente sensorial, que resulta em fragmentos, flashes, mosaicos. Este artigo pretende discutir algumas narrativas de Mário de Sá-Carneiro, suas personagens, e o modo como (se (transformam (com a – e a partir das experiências possíveis através da – cidade. Se Paris pungia-lhes vida, a sensibilidade e sensações que lhes envolviam como se estivessem em bebedeira, insones, sob efeito de narcóticos como que por simbiose: “Paris! Paris! Orgíaco e solene, monumental e fútil...” (SÁ-CARNEIRO, 2007, p. 237, estar nessa grande cidade, sozinho, era como que estar sempre acompanhado de uma amante, sua cidade-amante. É aí que o artista, como sofredor exemplar, emerge, sente, se voltatiliza.

  8. La problemática moderna del trabajo como signo de los tiempos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Berríos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La realidad del trabajo, como experiencia humana esencial, es y ha sido uno de los más importantes desafíos para la Iglesia en el cumplimiento de su misión evangelizadora. Se propone aquí una reflexión sobre los principales impulsos por los que la Iglesia ha sabido reconocer en la problemática moderna del trabajo un auténtico signo de los tiempos. Se concluye con algunas sugerencias sobre los grandes desafíos de hoy en este ámbito y un esbozo de perspectivas teológico-pastorales.The reality of work, as an essential human experience, is and has been one of the most important challenges for the Church in fulfilling its evangelizing mission. The article proposes a reflection on the main impulses that the Church has been able to recognize a genuine signs of the times in the modern probiem of work. It concludes with some suggestions regarding the great challenges of today in this área and an outline of theological-pastoral perspectives.

  9. DESENVOLVIMENTO MORAL E A FRAGMENTAÇÃO DE UMA SOCIEDADE PÓS-MODERNA

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    Igor Guimarães de Azevedo de Araújo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2016.24747O artigo tem como objetivo mostrar ao leitor uma estrutura de estudos, que levaram a uma teoria universal e estruturalista do desenvolvimento moral das pessoas e da sociedade, e ao mesmo tempo demonstrar a que ponto chegamos. São apresentados estudos que contemplam desde a formação de uma moral universal e estruturalista, com o pensamento do filósofo Immanuel Kant e sua influência para a teoria de Piaget e Kholberg, no desenvolvimento moral de uma pessoa dividida em seus específicos estágios, até os estudos atuais que mostram as conclusões de Bauman sobre a sociedade pós-moderna e suas implicações no âmbito social e pessoal. As consequências de uma fragmentação social em vários aspectos são colocadas à mostra a fim de chamar a atenção do leitor para ter consciência e percepção de sua existência. Um excesso de contradições é posto para o leitor confrontar com a pós-modernidade um quadro negativo de ações presentes, e levar à reflexão do que pode ser alcançado diante do que nós temos atualmente na nossa sociedade.

  10. ¿El fin de la naturaleza? Paradojas sociales de la idea moderna de libertad

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    Maynor A. Mora Alvarado

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se estudian los principales problemas que presenta la concepción moderna de libertad frente a la naturaleza. Primero, surge el problema de la liberación respecto del mundo objetivo, la cual trae aparejado la destrucción del entorno y el cuestionamiento de la viabilidad de la especie. Segundo, se presenta el problema de la complejizacion de lo social, frente al que sucumbe, en gran medida, el tema de la liberación política. Se concluye con la búsqueda de algunas alternativas ante estos dilemas. Abstract The article analyzes the problems posed by the modern conception of freedom before nature. The first to arise is the problem posed by the modern conception of freedom before nature. The first to arise is the problem of the emancipation from the objective world which brings along the destruction of the environment and the questioning about the viability of the species. The second problem is the complex character of the social life before whom succumbs, largely the issue of political emancipation. The article concludes which the search of some alternatives to these dilemmas.

  11. Eighth Planta Europa Conference «Save Plants for Earth's Future» (Kiev, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Tashev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents information about the Eighth Planta Europa Conference (Save plants for Earth's future (22–26 May 2017, Kiev, Ukraine. We presented brief data on the history of previous Planta Europa meetings. We presented general information about the main events of the Conference, its thematic areas represented by oral and poster presentations. Brief data on the number of participants, presentations and excursions into botanical gardens of Kiev are presented.

  12. Microbial mats in Antarctica as models for the search of life on the Jovian moon Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudeja, S.; Bhattacherjee, A.B.; Chela-Flores, J.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of sulfur patches on the Jovian satellite Europa being of biogenic origin is discussed. The presence of microbial mats and the accumulation of sulfur on the surface of some Antarctic subglacial lakes are correlated with the sulfur traces found on Europa by means of microbiological processes. Special attention has been paid to the influence of temperature and radiation on the icy surface of this Jovian satellite. An optimum penetration depth to look for biomarkers is proposed based on biogeochemical parameters. (author)

  13. The sulfur dilemma: Are there biosignatures on Europa's icy and patchy surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2006-12-01

    We discuss whether sulphur traces on Jupiter's moon Europa could be of biogenic origin. The compounds detected by the Galileo mission have been conjectured to be endogenic, most likely of cryovolcanic origin, due to their non-uniform distribution in patches. The Galileo space probe first detected the sulphur compounds, as well as revealing that this moon almost certainly has a volcanically heated and potentially habitable ocean hiding beneath a surface layer of ice. In planning future exploration of Europa there are options for sorting out the source of the surficial sulphur. For instance, one possibility is searching for the sulphur source in the context of the study of the Europa Microprobe In Situ Explorer (EMPIE), which has been framed within the Jovian Minisat Explorer Technology Reference Study (ESA). It is conceivable that sulphur may have come from the nearby moon Io, where sulphur and other volcanic elements are abundant. Secondly, volcanic eruptions in Europa's seafloor may have brought sulphur to the surface. Can waste products rising from bacterial colonies beneath the icy surface be a third alternative significant factor in the sulphur patches on the Europan surface? Provided that microorganisms on Europa have the same biochemical pathways as those on Earth, over geologic time it is possible that autochthonous microbes can add substantially to the sulphur deposits on the surface of Europa. We discuss possible interpretations of the non-water-ice elements (especially the sulphur compound mercaptan) in the context of the studies for future missions. To achieve reliable biosignatures it seems essential to go back to Europa. Our work highlights the type of biogenic signatures that can be searched for when probing Europa's icy and patchy surface. (author)

  14. MANUEL TRILLO DE LEYVA: Construyendo Londres; dibujando Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Curbelo Ranero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available No es fácil reseñar un libro en el que se participa junto a varios arquitectos y profesores. Sin embargo, hay que considerar la oportunidad que ofrece la temática planteada por el Consejo Editorial para este número, que permite revisar interesantes aportaciones de muchos arquitectos formados en la escuelas de arquitectura españolas que asumieron una situación generacional muy determinada: en la necesaria formación de una teoría y práctica docente y en inevitable traslación a unos estudiantes que acabarían siendo además de arquitectos, también profesores. Con el empeño personal que deriva siempre de una actitud comprometida, Manuel Trillo logró motivar a dieciséis profesores para profundizar en el conocimiento de una serie de obras construidas en Londres, estratégicamente seleccionadas entre ejemplos clásicos e indiscutibles de la arquitectura moderna y otros más recientes y polémicos, fomentando con ello el espíritu crítico, imprescindible en la obtención de conclusiones.

  15. Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Kurth, William S.

    2018-05-01

    The icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1-4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa's surface5,6, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the data5-7, thereby calling for a search for plume signatures in in-situ measurements. Here, we report in-situ evidence of a plume on Europa from the magnetic field and plasma wave observations acquired on Galileo's closest encounter with the moon. During this flyby, which dropped below 400 km altitude, the magnetometer8 recorded an approximately 1,000-kilometre-scale field rotation and a decrease of over 200 nT in field magnitude, and the Plasma Wave Spectrometer9 registered intense localized wave emissions indicative of a brief but substantial increase in plasma density. We show that the location, duration and variations of the magnetic field and plasma wave measurements are consistent with the interaction of Jupiter's corotating plasma with Europa if a plume with characteristics inferred from Hubble images were erupting from the region of Europa's thermal anomalies. These results provide strong independent evidence of the presence of plumes at Europa.

  16. Evidence of a plume on Europa from Galileo magnetic and plasma wave signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianzhe; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Khurana, Krishan K.; Kurth, William S.

    2018-06-01

    The icy surface of Jupiter's moon, Europa, is thought to lie on top of a global ocean1-4. Signatures in some Hubble Space Telescope images have been associated with putative water plumes rising above Europa's surface5,6, providing support for the ocean theory. However, all telescopic detections reported were made at the limit of sensitivity of the data5-7, thereby calling for a search for plume signatures in in-situ measurements. Here, we report in-situ evidence of a plume on Europa from the magnetic field and plasma wave observations acquired on Galileo's closest encounter with the moon. During this flyby, which dropped below 400 km altitude, the magnetometer8 recorded an approximately 1,000-kilometre-scale field rotation and a decrease of over 200 nT in field magnitude, and the Plasma Wave Spectrometer9 registered intense localized wave emissions indicative of a brief but substantial increase in plasma density. We show that the location, duration and variations of the magnetic field and plasma wave measurements are consistent with the interaction of Jupiter's corotating plasma with Europa if a plume with characteristics inferred from Hubble images were erupting from the region of Europa's thermal anomalies. These results provide strong independent evidence of the presence of plumes at Europa.

  17. Quantitative analysis and comparison study of [18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, [18F]FPPRGD2 and [68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 using a reference tissue model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Guo

    Full Text Available With favorable pharmacokinetics and binding affinity for α(vβ(3 integrin, (18F-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide ([(18F]FPPRGD2 has been intensively used as a PET imaging probe for lesion detection and therapy response monitoring. A recently introduced kit formulation method, which uses an (18F-fluoride-aluminum complex labeled RGD tracer ([(18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, provides a strategy for simplifying the labeling procedure to facilitate clinical translation. Meanwhile, an easy-to-prepare (68Ga-labeled NOTA-PRGD2 has also been reported to have promising properties for imaging integrin α(vβ(3. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of [(18F]FPPRGD2, [(18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, and [(68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2. U87MG tumor-bearing mice underwent 60-min dynamic PET scans following the injection of three tracers. Kinetic parameters were calculated using Logan graphical analysis with reference tissue. Parametric maps were generated using voxel-level modeling. All three compounds showed high binding potential (Bp(ND = k(3/k(4 in tumor voxels. [(18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 showed comparable Bp(ND value (3.75±0.65 with those of [(18F]FPPRGD2 (3.39±0.84 and [(68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 (3.09±0.21 (p>0.05. Little difference was found in volume of distribution (V(T among these three RGD tracers in tumor, liver and muscle. Parametric maps showed similar kinetic parameters for all three tracers. We also demonstrated that the impact of non-specific binding could be eliminated in the kinetic analysis. Consequently, kinetic parameter estimation showed more comparable results among groups than static image analysis. In conclusion, [(18F]AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 and [(68Ga]Ga-NOTA-PRGD2 have comparable pharmacokinetics and quantitative parameters compared to those of [(18F]FPPRGD2. Despite the apparent difference in tumor uptake (%ID/g determined from static images and clearance pattern, the actual specific binding component extrapolated from kinetic

  18. Examining Microbial Survival During Infall onto Europa: An Important Limit on the Origin of Potential European Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Conrad, P.; Matney, M.; Steele, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work shows that transfer of material from Earth to Europa is statistically possible, opening the question of whether terrestrial biota may have transferred to Europa to populate that world. Transfer of viable organisms is a function of parameters such as ejection shock, radiation exposure, and others, applied across four phases in the transfer process: ejection from the parent body, transport through interplanetary space, infall onto the target world, and biological adaptation. If terrestrial biota could survive transport to Europa, then biology on Europa may be either the product of a separate and unrelated origin or they are the descendants of transferred terrestrial organisms. If, however, transfer of viable organisms is impossible, then any biota present on Europa must be the product of a biological origin independent from terrestrial life. We will investigate the survival likelihood of material falling onto Europa.

  19. Epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa

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    Esteve Fernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El tabaco es la causa de mortalidad prevenible más importante en los países europeos, en los que da cuenta de más de medio millón de muertes anuales. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la epidemiología del tabaquismo en Europa, atendiendo a la visión de conjunto sobre el impacto del tabaquismo, a la prevalencia del consumo y a su evolución en la última década, así como revisar otras características relacionadas con la difusión y mantenimiento del tabaquismo: la producción y los precios del tabaco. Treinta de cada 100 europeos adultos fuma cigarrillos a diario. En los países de la Unión Europea se estima que 1 de cada 10 adultos fumadores morirá a causa de los efectos del tabaco, razón que se eleva a 1 de cada 5 en los países del este de Europa. La prevalencia de fumadores desciende entre los hombres adultos en algunos países de la Unión Europea, mientras que aumenta en las mujeres, sobre todo jóvenes, del sur y del este de Europa. Se debe insistir en las medidas para controlar el consumo de tabaco y prevenirlo, tales como la prohibición del consumo en lugares públicos, la prohibición real de la publicidad directa e indirecta, la reducción del cultivo, o el incremento de precios. Estas acciones se deben diseñar, coordinar y desarrollar en y desde los diferentes sectores involucrados en la lucha contra el tabaco, con la participación de redes civiles impulsadas desde los diferentes niveles administrativos (local, regional, nacional con la decisiva participación de organismos y organizaciones supranacionales.Tobacco is the most important preventable cause of mortality in European countries, accounting for over half a million deaths per year. A review is presented on the epidemiology of tobacco smoking in Europe, using a comprehensive approach on the health effects of smoking, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and its evolution in the past decade. Tobacco industry efforts to promote and maintain smoking through

  20. The Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) onboard the Europa Clipper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Joseph H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Kasper, Justin C.; Rymer, Abigail; Case, Anthony; Battista, Corina; Cochrane, Corey; Coren, David; Crew, Alexander; Grey, Matthew; Jia, Xianzhe; Khurana, Krishan; Kim, Cindy; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Korth, Haje; Krupp, Norbert; Paty, Carol; Roussos, Elias; Stevens, Michael; Slavin, James A.; Smith, Howard T.; Saur, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    Europa is embedded in a complex Jovian magnetospheric plasma, which rotates with the tilted planetary field and interacts dynamically with Europa’s ionosphere affecting the magnetic induction signal. Plasma from Io’s temporally varying torus diffuses outward and mixes with the charged particles in Europa’s own torus producing highly variable plasma conditions. Onboard the Europa Clipper spacecraft the Plasma Instrument for Magnetic Sounding (PIMS) works in conjunction with the Interior Characterization of Europa using Magnetometry (ICEMAG) investigation to probe Europa’s subsurface ocean. This investigation exploits currents induced in Europa’s interior by the moon’s exposure to variable magnetic fields in the Jovian system to infer properties of Europa’s subsurface ocean such as its depth, thickness, and conductivity. This technique was successfully applied to Galileo observations and demonstrated that Europa indeed has a subsurface ocean. While these Galileo observations contributed to the renewed interest in Europa, due to limitations in the observations the results raised major questions that remain unanswered. PIMS will greatly refine our understanding of Europa’s global liquid ocean by accounting for contributions to the magnetic field from plasma currents.The Europa Clipper mission is equipped with a sophisticated suite of 9 instruments to study Europa's interior and ocean, geology, chemistry, and habitability from a Jupiter orbiting spacecraft. PIMS on Europa Clipper is a Faraday Cup based plasma instrument whose heritage dates back to the Voyager spacecraft. PIMS will measure the plasma that populates Jupiter’s magnetosphere and Europa’s ionosphere. The science goals of PIMS are to: 1) estimate the ocean salinity and thickness by determining Europa’s magnetic induction response, corrected for plasma contributions; 2) assess mechanisms responsible for weathering and releasing material from Europa’s surface into the atmosphere and

  1. Familia, sexo y género en la España moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria LÓPEZ-CORDÓN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Aunque género y familia son dos perspectivas complementarias, no se utilizan conjuntamente, por lo que se suelen omitir los condicionamientos culturales que particularizan la situación de las mujeres en la institución familiar. Sujetas a una fuerte presión ideológica, no son los discursos, sino sus contradicciones lo que más repercute en su vida diaria. Realidad que no impide que, en la Edad Moderna, se produzcan cambios positivos y que la práctica social les fuera abriendo esferas de actuación que la ley no contemplaba. Por ello, así como resulta imposible abordar la historia de las mujeres sin. hacer referencia a la evolución de la familia de un modelo jerárquico y patriarcal, a otro, también patriarcal, pero de relaciones asentadas sobre el afecto, tampoco se puede entender el porqué de esta transformación sin integrar ni manejar las categorías analíticas adecuadas.ABSTRACT: Even though gender and family are complementary views, both terms are not used at the same time, and the result is that cultural conditions that makes particular women's situation in the family are often omitted. Under a heavy ideological pressure, the contradictions were what most strongly influenced a woman everyday's life. -This fact does not mean that there were no positive changes in early modern age. Some spheres of activity were opened to women aside from the prevailing legal principles. That is to say that Women History can not be approached without considering the evolution in family as a institution, which from patriarchal and hierarchical patterns turned into a patriarchal one in which relationship is based on affection. This change can not be understood without and using suitable analitic categories.

  2. Práticas modernas de gestão inseridas nas culturas do terceiro mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Philippe, Iribarne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos países em desenvolvimento existem empresas que se sobressaem pela eficácia de sua administração e por seu sucesso econômico. Nós a encontramos na américa latina (México, Argentina, na África (Marrocos, Camarões. Essas empresas conseguiram aliar métodos modernos de gerenciamento com um enraizamento de sua gestão nas culturas locais. Seus exemplos mostram que as modernas ferramentas de gestão só podem ser utilizadas eficazmente quando aplicadas de maneira adaptada a essas culturas. Isso supõe que preste a atenção na maneira com que esse emprego estrutura as relações, ao mesmo tempo horizontais e verticais, no seio da empresa. É necessário que, em cada sociedade, essas relações estajem em harmonia com a visão particular da boa maneira de viver em comum que ali prevalece. Além disso, os casos estudados apresentavam uma combinação entre funcionamento comunitário intenso e procedimentos rigorosos. Esses últimos colocam obstáculos aos desvios que um funcionamento comunitário facilmente acarreta. Este traço é encontrado em qualquer que seja o domínio considerado (a implantação de procedimentos de descentralização e de controle; a mobilização do quadro de funcionários e a luta contra a corrupção. Isto deve-se ao fato das culturas consideradas colocarem o dever de manter boas relações com os próximos na frente do respeito a princípios abstratos.

  3. Hipnose e Subjetividade: Reflexões Sobre a Ciência Moderna e a Psicologia

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    Mauricio S. Neubern

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo invita a una reconsideración crítica y epistemológica de la hipnosis y su relación con la ciencia de la Psicología moderna. En este sentido, busca una discusión de dos vías que trae a colación varias contradicciones presentes en la invocación de esta ciencia en los aspectos modernos. Primero, el artículo enfatiza las dificultades de unir clínica y ciencia; adicionalmente sugiere que las visiones de la hipnosis pueden ser aplicables también, de forma general, a la psicología clínica, que a su vez supone que los pensamientos evocados por la hipnosis todavía tienen una pertinencia considerable para esta asociación, clínica y ciencia. Segundo, el artículo también postula que las instituciones involucradas en la formación de la Psicología tuvieron un papel crucial en la determinación de una visión distorsionada no sólo de la hipnosis sino de lo que podría o no considerarse científico. Finalmente, el artículo propone que aunque el estudio de la hipnosis no muestra una gran cantidad de respuestas en el sentido moderno, todavía es pertinente al invocar preguntas importantes sobre la construcción de dicha ciencia. Algunas de estas preguntas están relacionadas con las deformaciones históricas hechas por los procesos institucionales y por el aspecto científico de la práctica clínica.

  4. Laboratório virtual de física moderna: sistema para espectrometria gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Canzian da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2015v32n2p542 O artigo descreve como foi implementada uma simulação computacional de um sistema de detecção de radiação ionizante semelhante ao encontrado em tradicionais laboratórios de física moderna. A simulação modela um sistema composto por “fontes” radioativas emissoras de fótons com energias bem definidas e de um “detector” de comportamento semelhante a um sistema de espectrometria de fótons (cintilador + fotomultiplicadora + analisador multicanal. Como em um sistema real, além de escolher a fonte, é possível ajustar a tensão na fotomultiplicadora, o ganho do amplificador e o ganho de conversão do analisador multicanal, observando-se o efeito disso nos “dados” adquiridos. São apresentados e discutidos resultados obtidos com o simulador para alguns roteiros de experimentos (calibração em energia, identificação de energias desconhecidas, determinação da resolução em energia etc.. A simulação foi utilizada com duas turmas do curso de licenciatura em física a distância da UFSC em 2011 e em 2014, associadas à realização do experimento real. Permeando o texto são discutidas as motivações e os problemas do uso das simulações neste contexto. À guisa de conclusão é discutido como o trabalho se relaciona às principais metas dos laboratórios introdutórios de física, segundo um comitê da American Physical Society especificamente constituído para isso.

  5. Práticas modernas de gestão inseridas nas culturas do terceiro mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Philippe, Iribarne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos países em desenvolvimento existem empresas que se sobressaem pela eficácia de sua administração e por seu sucesso econômico. Nós as encontramos na América Latina (México, Argentina, na África (Marrocos, Camarões. Essas empresas conseguiram aliar métodos modernos de gerenciamento com um enraizamento de sua gestão nas culturas locais. Seus exemplos mostram que as modernas ferramentas de gestão só podem ser utilizadas eficazmente quando aplicadas de maneira adaptada a essas culturas. Isso supõe que se preste a atenção na maneira com que esse emprego estrutura as relações, ao mesmo tempo horizontais e verticais, no seio da empresa. É necessário que, em cada sociedade, essas relações estejam em harmonia com a visão particular da boa maneira de viver em comum que ali prevalece. Além disso, os casos estudados apresentavam uma combinação entre funcionamento comunitário intenso e procedimentos rigorosos. Esses últimos colocam obstáculos aos desvios que um funcionamento comunitário facilmente acarreta. Este traço é encontrado em qualquer que seja o domínio considerado (a implantação de procedimentos de descentralização e de controle; a mobilização do quadro de funcionários e a luta contra a corrupção. Isto deve-se ao fato das culturas consideradas colocarem o dever de manter boas relações com os próximos na frente do respeito a princípios abstratos

  6. Morphological distinction between estuarine polychaetes: Laeonereis culveri and L. nota (Phyllodocida: Nereididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus-Flores, Citlalli; Salazar-González, S Alejandro; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2016-03-01

    The family Nereididae includes more than 500 polychaete species described worldwide, and includes species common in many benthic environments, but some other species may tolerate freshwater or can even thrive in humid substrates in tropical forests. In estuarine environments, nereidid polychaetes can be abundant and relevant as a food source for resident or migratory birds. Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1879) is a common estuarine species found in tropical and subtropical Atlantic American shores and was described from New Jersey; its median and posterior parapodia have upper notopodial ligules usually longer than the lower ones, and the latter are parallel to the notaciculae throughout the body. L. culveri distribution is from Connecticut to central Argentina; however, this wide distribution might be due to the inclusion of several other species as junior synonyms, despite that some morphological differences were found between them. One of such species is L. nota (Treadwell, 1941), that was described from Texas; its parapodia have notopodial ligules of about the same size, and the lower ones are oblique to the notaciculae. In order to clarify the differences between these two species, and to define which inhabits the Northwestern Caribbean region, topotype materials from these two species and specimens from Chetumal Bay were collected, and their morphological features were compared. Our results indicated that L. culveri and L. nota are different species and that the latter is found in Chetumal Bay. On the basis of mature specimens, L. culveri is hereby restricted to the Northern Gulf of Mexico and Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, and L. nota are reinstated and its distribution extends from Texas, in the Gulf of Mexico to Chetumal Bay, in the Northwestern Caribbean Sea. A key to identify all species in Laeonereis Hartman (1945) is also included.

  7. Notas a la gaviota libertada en el campo, 31 de enero de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Notas a la Gaviota reidora (Larus ridibundus) libertada en el campo, cerca del Puente Colgante de Valladolid, el 31 de enero de 1951. Incluye observaciones de patos domésticos y Pavos reales (Pavo cristatus), y un pequeño esquema del enclave observado. Notes to the Common Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) released in the field, near the Puente Colgante of Valladolid, the 31st of January of 1951. Observations of domestic ducks and Indian Peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and a little map of the ...

  8. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

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    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  9. The search for active Europa plumes in Galileo plasma particle detector data: the E12 flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrighs, H.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S. V.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of Europa's auroral emissions and transits in front of Jupiter suggest that recurring water vapour plumes originating from Europa's surface might exist. If conclusively proven, the discovery of these plumes would be significant, because Europa's potentially habitable ocean could be studied remotely by taking in-situ samples of these plumes from a flyby mission. The first opportunity to collect in-situ evidence of the plumes will not arise before the early 2030's when ESA's JUICE mission or NASA's Europa Clipper are set to arrive. However, it may be possible that NASA's Galileo mission has already encountered the plumes when it was active in the Jupiter system from 1995 to 2003. It has been suggested that the high plasma densities and anomalous magnetic fields measured during one of the Galileo flybys of Europa (flyby E12) could be connected to plume activity. In the context of the search for Europa plume signatures in Galileo particle data we present an overview of the in-situ plasma particle data obtained by the Galileo spacecraft during the E12 flyby. Focus is in particular on the data obtained with the plasma particle instruments PLS (low energy ions and electrons) and EPD (high energy ions and electrons). We search for signs of an extended exosphere/ionosphere that could be consistent with ongoing plume activity. The PLS data obtained during the E12 flyby show an extended interaction region between Europa and the plasma from Jupiter's magnetosphere, hinting at the existence of an extended ionosphere and exosphere. Furthermore we show how the EPD data are analyzed and modelled in order to evaluate whether a series of energetic ion depletions can be attributed to losses on the moon's surface or its neutral exosphere.

  10. Integration of CubeSat Systems with Europa Surface Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoǧan, Enes; Inalhan, Gokhan; Kemal Üre, Nazım

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies show that there is a high probability that a liquid ocean exists under thick icy surface of Jupiter's Moon Europa. The findings also show that Europa has features that are similar to Earth, such as geological activities. As a result of these studies, Europa has promising environment of being habitable and currently there are many missions in both planning and execution level that target Europa. However, these missions usually involve extremely high budgets over extended periods of time. The objective of this talk is to argue that the mission costs can be reduced significantly by integrating CubeSat systems within Europa exploration missions. In particular, we introduce an integrated CubeSat-micro probe system, which can be used for measuring the size and depth of the hypothetical liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa. The systems consist of an entry module that houses a CubeSat combined with driller measurement probes. Driller measurement probes deploy before the system hits the surface and penetrate the surface layers of Europa. Moreover, a micro laser probe could be used to examine the layers. This process enables investigation of the properties of the icy layer and the environment beneath the surface. Through examination of different scenarios and cost analysis of the components, we show that the proposed CubeSat systems has a significant potential to reduce the cost of the overall mission. Both subsystem requirements and launch prices of CubeSats are dramatically cheaper than currently used satellites. In addition, multiple CubeSats may be used to dominate wider area in space and they are expandable in face of potential failures. In this talk we discuss both the mission design and cost reduction aspects.

  11. Ciudadanos del este de Europa consumidores de drogas en Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde mayo de 1999 hasta mayo de 2001, hemos contactado en el SAPS (Servicio de Atención Social y Sanitaria de Barcelona con usuarios de drogas de países del este de Europa. Acuden a centros terapéuticos gratuitos, aunque pagan por la organización del viaje unos 500 euros. Son jóvenes entre 18 y 30 años y mantienen el contacto con sus familiares. Conocen los riesgos de transmisión de enfermedades, pero suelen reutilizar las jeringas. Es alta la prevalencia de hepatitis C (92% y B (62% y menor la de infección por el VIH (19%. Si no abandonan las drogas, el retorno es un fracaso y tienen dificultades para proseguir los tratamientos con metadona o antirretrovirales. La respuesta asistencial ha de adecuarse a sus necesidades. Se debe procurar la mediación cultural y la información en los lugares de origen, supervisar los centros terapéuticos y diseñar alternativas a los abandonos. Hay que desarrollar la colaboración internacional, estimular programas de disminución de riesgos derivados del consumo y evitar que del tratamiento se haga un comercio.

  12. KOMMUNIKATIVT LEDARSKAP ett ledarskap för moderna organisationer : Kvalitativ studie med ansats att definiera begreppet

    OpenAIRE

    Axäll, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    AbstractTitle: Communicative leadership – a leadership for modern organizationsQualitative research attempting to define the concept.(Kommunikativt ledarskap – ett ledarskap för moderna organisationerKvalitativ studie med ansats att definiera begreppet.)Author: Jenny AxällAim: The aim of this essay is to try to find the essence of and a definition of the communicative leadership. Questions asked are: How can communicative leadership be described? How can it be practiced? What does it demand o...

  13. Claudia: la revista de la mujer moderna en la Argentina de los años sesenta (1957-1973)

    OpenAIRE

    Cosse, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    Claudia es recordada como la revista femenina de la mujer moderna de los años 60. Este recuerdo pone de relieve el impacto que significó, en 1957, la aparición de este emprendimiento de la editorial Abril en la renovación del periodismo y de la imagen femenina. Pero desconoce las contradicciones de la línea editorial respecto al modelo femenino y los cambios que sufrió a lo largo del tiempo. Con estas ideas, el artículo se propone analizar la doble renovación que supuso la revista en el perio...

  14. Florence Nightingale y Federico Rubio: reformadores de la Enfermería moderna española

    OpenAIRE

    Santainés Borredá, Elena; Faus Gabandé, Francisco; Camaño Puig, Ramón; Sarturi, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    En diferentes bases de datos aparecen publicaciones donde se menciona al cirujano Federico Rubio en relación con la enfermera Florence Nightingale, otorgándole un protagonismo en la enfermería moderna española. Mediante este trabajo proponemos analizar la influencia que Nightingale pudo haber tenido en Rubio. Partiendo de la vida y obra del fundador de la Escuela de Enfermeras de Santa Isabel de Hungría, valoraremos las coincidencias temporo-espaciales con la Dama de la Lámpara. Nuestros obje...

  15. KECK II OBSERVATIONS OF HEMISPHERICAL DIFFERENCES IN H2O2 ON EUROPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, K. P.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from Keck II observations of Europa over four consecutive nights using the near-infrared spectrograph. Spectra were collected in the 3.14-4.0 μm range, enabling detection and monitoring of the 3.5 μm feature due to hydrogen peroxide. Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer results first revealed hydrogen peroxide on Europa in the anti-Jovian region of the leading hemisphere at a percent by number abundance of 0.13% ± 0.07% relative to water. We find comparable results for the two nights over which we observed the leading hemisphere. Significantly, we observed a small amount of hydrogen peroxide (∼0.04%) during observations of Europa's anti-Jovian and sub-Jovian hemispheres. Almost no hydrogen peroxide was detected during observations of just the trailing hemisphere. We conclude that the Galileo observations likely represent the maximum hydrogen peroxide concentration, the exception potentially being the cold water ice regions of the poles, which are not readily observable from the ground. Our mapping of the peroxide abundance across Europa requires revisions to previous estimates for Europa's global surface abundance of oxidants and leads to a reduction in the total oxidant delivery expected for the subsurface ocean if an exchange of surface material with the ocean occurs.

  16. O positivismo na República (Notas sobre a história do positivismo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cruz Costa

    1953-09-01

    Full Text Available (Primeiro Parágrafo do Artigo Estas ligeiras notas para a história do positivismo no Brasil, constituem uma pequena e modesta contribuição ao estudo das história das idéias do nosso país.

  17. De gevolgen van beleidsmaatregelen uit de Nota Wonen op bewegingsarmoede in Nederland. Onderdeel van de gezondheidseffectrapportage "Mensen wensen gezond wonen"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos GCW; Schuit AJ; Seidell JC; CZE

    2003-01-01

    Health gains can be achieved by actively combating and decreasing physical inactivity. One of the factors probably influencing physical activity is the living environment. The Policy Document on Housing ('Nota Wonen' in Dutch) presents policy measures influencing the human living environment. The

  18. Mercados de notas estructuradas. Un análisis descriptivo y métodos de evaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Venegas-Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza las notas estructuradas más comunes en el mercado. Se presenta una descripción detallada de dichos instrumentos financieros destacando sus características particulares y dificultades técnicas en el proceso de evaluación. Debido a que la mayoría de las notas estructuradas que se negocian en el mercado financiero mexicano son certificados de depósito con garantía del capital inicial, este trabajo proporciona los elementos básicos que se requieren para su evaluación, como son los bonos cuponados flotantes y los productos de las tasas de interés. Asimismo, para la mayoría de las notas estructuradas estudiadas aquí se desarrollan modelos teóricos de evaluación. Por último, con fines ilustrativos, varios ejemplos numéricos acerca de las notas son presentados.

  19. Nota Fiscal Paulista: principais características percebidas pelos cidadãos paulistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto da Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que 60% dos valores de tributos são sonegados pelo varejo (ROLLI e FERNANDES, 2008. Como resposta o governo Paulista criou o projeto NFP-Nota Fiscal Paulista. Nesse projeto a identificação do contribuinte através do CPF gera créditos (benefícios financeiros ao comprador/contribuinte e assegura o pagamento dos tributos por parte do fornecedor/ comerciante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as  principais características percebidas pelos cidadãos paulistas com relação ao projeto.  A pesquisa envolveu 132 pessoas em um formulário com 25 assertivas no estilo Likert.  Os resultados indicam que os contribuintes aceitam e participam do projeto. No entanto desconhecem outras características do projeto, por exemplo, doação de créditos a instituições filantrópicas. A maior forma de ressarcimento dos créditos é o depósito em conta corrente. Parte dos contribuintes acredita que as informações referentes aos valores de credito não são repassados a Receita Federal. Dessa forma busca-se contribuir com um estudo sob a ótica dos contribuintes em relação a esse projeto.Nota Fiscal Paulista, análise fatorial, sonegação de tributos

  20. Notas de enfermería: una mirada a su calidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Fernández Aragón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este escrito se hace una reflexión sobre los conceptos e importancia de las notas de enfermería; muestra que su importancia radica en que favorecen la comunicación entre el equipo interdisciplinario, suministrando una información clara, precisa y detallada del acto de cuidado, para articular el proceso de atención de enfermería. Se expone un reflejo de la realidad en cuanto a la delegación de funciones propias de la profesión, y evidencia la falta de liderazgo y pérdida de autonomía por parte del profesional. Las anotaciones de enfermería son tomadas como el soporte escrito del cuidado brindado en la práctica profesional. Las autoras hacen una invitación a retomar la fundamentación teórica y metodológica de las notas de enfermería y su re-significación, en aras de dar visibilidad y fortalecer el liderazgo y gestión del acto de cuidar.

  1. El gobierno de la justicia en los Estados Pontificios durante la Edad Moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene FOSI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A lo largo de la Edad Moderna los Estados Pontificios mantuvieron una naturaleza compleja, caracterizada por fuertes tradiciones municipales, amplios poderes feudales y la herencia de los ducados que habían pertenecido a dinastías extintas, como el caso de Ferrara y Urbino. Todo ello condicionó el gobierno romano en los distintos lugares. También fue necesario adaptar las diversas clases de justicia —laica, eclesiástica, distributiva y conmutativa— a las circunstancias locales, sin comprometer la autoridad del Papa o de sus representantes. En este proyecto político de dominación del territorio, Roma y su sistema de justicia se propusieron como modelo para el conjunto de los Estados Pontificios. El control del orden y de la administración de justicia, sinónimos de buen gobierno y factores determinantes para mantener el consenso hacia el poder papal, se manifestaron en la adaptación de la norma y de la práctica a la realidad local, como prueba la correspondencia de las congregaciones romanas —la Sacra Consulta, el Buon Governo, la Inquisición— con los funcionarios judiciales periféricos.ABSTRACT: Throughout the early modern period the Papal States maintained their composite nature; characterized by territories with strong traditions of local government, extensive feudal powers and by the inheritance of duchies that had belonged to dynasties that had become extinct, as happened in the cases of Ferrara and Urbino. These characteristics of the papal dominions strongly determined the nature of Roman government in the localities. Also very necessary was the need to adapt different kinds of justice —lay, ecclesiastical, distributive and commutative— to these local conditions, without compromising the authority of the pope or that of his representatives. In this political project of territorial domination, Rome and its system of justice was put forward as a model for the entire Papal States. Control of law and order and

  2. Los primeros objetos de bronce en el occidente de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Miranda, Manuel

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The alloy of copper with tin is used to show cultural relations and exchanges between Bronze Age cultures in western and central Europe. At the beginning, the distribution and location of tin resources explains the variations in bronze composition, but interregional ex-change leads later to a more homogeneous alloy. During the Early Bronze Age the Iberian Peninsula was not connected to the exchange networks of western Europe, and the first true bronzes appear at least two centuries la ter. The tin alloy spread over Iberia from north to south, and arrive to South-east at the end of the Middle Brome Age, due to the isolation of this region.

    A través del uso de la aleación de cobre y estaño en la tecnología metalúrgica de la Edad del Bronce europea se analizan las relaciones culturales e intercambios que tienen lugar entre los diversos grupos culturales. Al principio la disponibilidad de recursos minerales de estaño condicionó la composición de la aleación, pero más tarde el establecimiento de relaciones comerciales condujo a una mayor homogeneización en la producción. La Península Ibérica aparece durante el Bronce Antiguo desconectada de las interacciones actuantes en el Occidente de Europa, acusando un retraso en el conocimiento del bronce de al menos dos siglos. La difusión de la aleación se produce de norte a sur, llegando al Sureste a fines del Bronce Medio como consecuencia de su aislamiento.

  3. Robert Musil y los Estados desunificados de Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayón, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of Robert Musil´s work “The Man Without Qualities” from philosophical sources. It is a novel that has produced so many overriding metaphors through which we can better understand the crises of the social identity on the horizont of the last modernity in Europe. Much of the key-concepts that helped in creating the so called “Leyend of Modernity” start to vanish in an irremediable way: not only did Musil trace the disappearance of the support for national aspirations and social cohesion, he also showed us how culture is a mad carrousel of collapsed expectations, and how the prevailing idea of “subjectivity” lacks today any solid or essential nucleus. In the middle of this disenchanted landscape of Europe, where all the modern and clasical illusions became nothing, appears however “a new human being”, since the man “without qualities” is the man with endless possibilities too.El presente ensayo es una interpretación de la novela de Robert Musil “El hombre sin atributos” a partir de fuentes filosóficas. Se trata de una obra que ha producido algunas metáforas decisivas para comprender las crisis de la identidad social en el horizonte de la última modernidad europea. Muchos de los conceptos clave que ayudaron a crear la leyenda de la modernidad empiezan a erosionarse de modo irreversible: se descomponen las aspiraciones nacionales, el sujeto pierde su núcleo sustancial y la cultura es un carrusel de esperanzas abortadas incapaces de responder a ninguna idea rectora. Y, sin embargo, en el paisaje de esta Europa tardomoderna en que se han agotado las pasadas ilusiones surge la idea de que el “hombre sin atributos” es también el “hombre de las posibilidades”.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Anti-HER2 Affibody Molecules Labeled with 64Cu Using NOTA and NODAGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tolmachev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging using affibody molecules enables discrimination between breast cancer metastases with high and low expression of HER2, making appropriate therapy selection possible. This study aimed to evaluate if the longer half-life of 64Cu (T1/2 = 12.7 h would make 64Cu a superior nuclide compared to 68Ga for PET imaging of HER2 expression using affibody molecules. The synthetic ZHER2:S1 affibody molecule was conjugated with the chelators NOTA or NODAGA and labeled with 64Cu. The tumor-targeting properties of 64Cu-NOTA-ZHER2:S1 and 64Cu-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1 were evaluated and compared with the targeting properties of 68Ga-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1 in mice. Both 64Cu-NOTA-ZHER2:S1 and 64Cu-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1 demonstrated specific targeting of HER2-expressing xenografts. At 2 h after injection of 64Cu-NOTA-ZHER2:S1, 64Cu-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1, and 68Ga-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1, tumor uptakes did not differ significantly. Renal uptake of 64Cu-labeled conjugates was dramatically reduced at 6 and 24 h after injection. Notably, radioactivity uptake concomitantly increased in blood, lung, liver, spleen, and intestines, which resulted in decreased tumor-to-organ ratios compared to 2 h postinjection. Organ uptake was lower for 64Cu-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1. The most probable explanation for this biodistribution pattern was the release and redistribution of renal radiometabolites. In conclusion, monoamide derivatives of NOTA and NODAGA may be suboptimal chelators for radiocopper labeling of anti-HER2 affibody molecules and, possibly, other scaffold proteins with high renal uptake.

  5. Searching Less Perturbed Circular Orbits for a Spacecraft Travelling around Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. S. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Space missions to visit the natural satellite of Jupiter, Europa, constitute an important topic in space activities today, because missions to this moon are under study now. Several considerations have to be made for these missions. The present paper searches for less perturbed circular orbits around Europa. This search is made based on the total effects of the perturbing forces over the time, evaluated by the integral of those forces over the time. This value depends on the dynamical model and on the orbit of the spacecraft. The perturbing forces considered are the third-body perturbation that comes from Jupiter and the J2, J3, and C22 terms of the gravitational potential of Europa. Several numerical studies are performed and the results show the locations of the less perturbed orbits. Using those results, it is possible to find near-circular frozen orbits with smaller amplitudes of variations of the orbital elements.

  6. ANÁLISIS DE LA INGENIERÍA CONCURRENTE CON LOS PRECEPTOS DE LA FILOSOFÍA GERENCIAL MODERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Urquiaga Rodríguez

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A raíz de los continuos e intensos cambios que en el medio empresarial se manifiestan tanto a escala mundial como nacional se impone el empleo de estrategias competitivas y prácticas novedosas. En este sentido, las empresas de mayor éxito en el mundo adoptan métodos de gestión basados en la filosofía gerencial moderna. La ingeniería concurrente (IC, técnica surgida en la década de 1950, ha sido utilizada actualmente por empresas líderes para paliar las dificultades presentadas en el área de desarrollo de productos nuevos; en el trabajo se examina cómo la IC obedece a los preceptos en los que se apoya la filosofía gerencial moderna.

  7. La escuela alemana de la planeación moderna de ciudades. Principios e influencia en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo G. Sánchez Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La planeación moderna de ciudades surgió a mediados del siglo XIX; la disciplina buscó orientar su expansión en un contexto de problemas generados por la industrialización en las ciudades. Si bien dicha disciplina se expresó de diversas formas en los países desarrollados, al paso de los años y gracias a trabajos teóricos y prácticos de ingenieros y arquitectos alemanes, fue adquiriendo una estructura, objetivos y metodologías propias. Esos profesionales finalmente formaron toda una escuela que trascendió a otros países, para sentar las bases del movimiento llamado planeación moderna de ciudades, al cual se plegaron quienes orientaron las primeras acciones de planeación en ciudades mexicanas, desde los inicios del siglo XX. Lamentablemente, los tratados de urbanismo abordan poco o de manera tangencial ese origen, pese a que los aportes en su tiempo fueron resaltados por profesionales europeos, norteamericanos y mexicanos.

  8. Trabalho imaterial, medo, solidão: "amigos de aluguel" na sociedade líquido-moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Ligia Iochins Grisci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo resultou de uma pesquisa exploratório-qualitativa que objetivou colocar em pauta os temas medo e solidão a partir da perspectiva da sociedade líquido-moderna. Para tanto tomou como objeto o inusitado trabalho imaterial denominado Amigos de Aluguel, que teve visibilidade na mídia eletrônica a partir de 2009. As referências de análise emergiram de sites alusivos ao trabalho ofertado que anuncia atender indivíduos que sintam o peso do medo e da solidão na vida cotidiana. Autores como Zygmunt Bauman, Richard Sennett e Vincent de Gaulejac, em especial, mostraram-se importante suporte para a compreensão dos resultados, por indicarem o trabalho imaterial denominado Amigos de Aluguel como um modo de produção de estilos de vida ou de modos de existência e como um indicador do medo e da solidão na sociedade líquido-moderna justamente por sua eficácia, mesmo que momentânea, em mascarar a vivência de ambos.

  9. Evaluación ambiental de la arquitectura urbana moderna en Cali: análisis multidimensional de la arquitectura de Borrero, Zamorano y Giovanelli

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Velásquez, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Con este trabajo queremos poner en valor los criterios espaciales, formales, urbanos y ambientales que tuvo la arquitectura moderna tanto en la elaboración de los proyectos como en el proceso de construcción de ciudad, dando como resultado una unidad urbana. De esta manera contribuir al desmantelamiento de la idea errónea que versa sobre como la arquitectura moderna negó su entorno y sus condicionantes ambientales y urbanas, insertándose en el territorio como un objeto aislado....

  10. Peptide synthesis, characterization and 68Ga-radiolabeling of NOTA-conjugated ubiquicidin fragments for prospective infection imaging with PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebenhan, Thomas; Chadwick, Nicholas; Sathekge, Mike M.; Govender, Patrick; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Marjanovic-Painter, Biljana; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Human antimicrobial peptides are of interest for the development of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as they exhibit desirable characteristics that make them good candidates for targeting vectors. Due to their natural role in the innate immune system they selectively bind to pathogenic bacteria and yeast, whilst remaining minimally immunogenic and cytotoxic to humans. Research into ubiquicidin (UBI)-based tracers has focused on 99m Tc as a radionuclide, however, the use of bi-functional chelators such as 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA), in combination with 68 Ga as a radionuclide, allows for a simple radiolabeling procedure which is preferable in a clinical setting using PET/CT. Methods: The peptides fragments UBI29-41, UBI30-41 were synthesized by standard microwave Fmoc/tert-butyl (tBu)-solid phase synthetic protocols. Characterizations were performed using analytical HPLC and LC/MS. Both NOTA-conjugated peptides were exposed to nat Ga 3+ ; their complexed form was quantified by direct LC/MS injection. This complexation was utilized to testify bacterial and mammalian cell binding potential of fluorophore-linked NOTA-UBI29-41/30-41. 68 Ga labeled NOTA-UBI fragments were also tested for competitive interaction to Staphylococcus aureus to proof the binding target. 68 Ga was eluted from SnO 2 - and TiO 2 -based 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators using fractionated elution and anion exchanged-based post-procession. NOTA-peptide radiolabeling was carried out including optimization of buffer molarity, NOTA-peptide concentration(s), incubation temperature and –duration as well as considering various SPE purification cartridges. Results: Pure UBI29-41, UBI30-41 and NOTA-UBI30-41 were successfully characterized. Both, NOTA-UBI fragments exhibited complexation rates to nat Ga 3+ ≥ 99%. The percentage binding was significantly higher to Staphylococcus aureus bacilli over Mt4 human leucocytes (P > 0.05) for NOTA-UBI29-41[Lys(Abz)] < NOTA

  11. As valsas na Europa e na América do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Hélder António Moreira de

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação apresentado à Escola Superior de Artes Aplicadas do Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Performance. O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar a história da valsa, a sua origem e influência de países da Europa Ocidental para a Europa do Sul como também a sua exportação Transatlântica para a América do sul. Pretendemos assim, mostrar o interesse destes compositores, na escrita desta forma mu...

  12. The Heat Flux through the Ice Shell on Europa, Constraints from Measurements in Terrestrial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruba, J.; Kletetschka, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heat transport across the ice shell of Europa controls the thermal evolution of its interior. Such process involves energy sources that drive ice resurfacing (1). More importantly, heat flux through the ice shell controls the thickness of the ice (2), that is poorly constrained between 1 km to 30+ km (3). Thin ice would allow ocean water to be affected by radiation from space. Thick ice would limit the heat ocean sources available to the rock-ocean interface at the ocean's bottom due to tidal dissipation and potential radioactive sources. The heat flux structures control the development of geometrical configurations on the Europa's surface like double ridges, ice diapirs, chaos regions because the rheology of ice is temperature dependent (4).Analysis of temperature record of growing ice cover over a pond and water below revealed the importance of solar radiation during the ice growth. If there is no snow cover, a sufficient amount of solar radiation can penetrate through the ice and heat the water below. Due to temperature gradient, there is a heat flux from the water to the ice (Qwi), which may reduce ice growth at the bottom. Details and variables that constrain the heat flux through the ice can be utilized to estimate the ice thickness. We show with this analog analysis provides the forth step towards measurement strategy on the surface of Europa. We identify three types of thermal profiles (5) and fourth with combination of all three mechanisms.References:(1) Barr, A. C., A. P. Showman, 2009, Heat transfer in Europa's icy shell, University of Arizona Press, p. 405-430.(2) Ruiz, J., J. A. Alvarez-Gómez, R. Tejero, and N. Sánchez, 2007, Heat flow and thickness of a convective ice shell on Europa for grain size-dependent rheologies: Icarus, v. 190, p. 145-154.(3) Billings, S. E., S. A. Kattenhorn, 2005, The great thickness debate: Ice shell thickness models for Europa and comparisons with estimates based on flexure at ridges: Icarus, v. 177, p. 397-412.(4) Quick

  13. Trepartsforhandlinger i Danmark og Europa følges ikke ad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Trepartsforhandlinger med flere emner på dagsordenen flore-rede særligt i 1990’erne og tidligt i 00’erne rundt omkring i Europa, hvor de var fraværende i Danmark. Efter den øko-nomiske krise synes billedet at være vendt.......Trepartsforhandlinger med flere emner på dagsordenen flore-rede særligt i 1990’erne og tidligt i 00’erne rundt omkring i Europa, hvor de var fraværende i Danmark. Efter den øko-nomiske krise synes billedet at være vendt....

  14. Construyendo una nueva Europa. La europeización del modelo de seguridad en Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Janashvili, Lela; Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials. Barcelona, Catalunya

    2014-01-01

    La Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional de cada país se basa en el análisis de los valores, intereses y amenazas contra la seguridad interna y externa. Los intereses de Georgia y Europa con respecto al tema de seguridad coinciden plenamente uno con el otro, según se sostiene en este trabajo. La evolución de los últimos años confirma que es necesario tener grandes dosis de diálogo para construir el sistema de la seguridad europea. Para que Europa tenga una lógica común hay que trabajar para constr...

  15. Televisión regional en la Europa de las Identidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Europa cerca de trescientos emisoras ahora ofrecen varios servicios comparten una característica peculiar: sirven a pequeños territorios no estatales y/o comunidades étnico-culturales diferenciadas. Comenta de hacia dónde irá la televisión regional en Europa corresponde la palabra "incertidumbre". Tan solo mediante un estrechamiento de la relación con la audiencia y una política abierta e innovadora podrán las televisiones regionales afrontar el futuro con garantías.

  16. Mandatos y consejos en la filosofía práctica moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonnesu, Luca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the traditional distinction between commands and advices in modern practical philosophy as doctrine of duties. The distinction plays an essential role in Christian Thomasius’ thought for his differentiation between distinct spheres of practical life, iustum, honestum and decorum, i. e. the spheres of law (iustum, proper ethics (honestum and incoercible external behaviour – with ethical meaning –, including good manners (decorum. In Kant’s practical philosophy, the distinction between commands and counsels corresponds to the distinction between morality and prudence as pursuit of happiness. Moral life is ruled by moral law and by the idea of duty, that organizes in its own perspective the other aspects of practical activity and the different kinds of duties. As time passed, Kant is more and more interested to the historical realization of morality as Moralisierung through promotion of its external conditions such as pacific coexistence through the juridical law and improvement of intersubjective relations through Zivilisierung and good manners. Kant’s and eighteenth century’s doctrine of duties leave no space for a morality beyond duty as supererogation, a concept that has received a new attention in contemporary moral debate and can still be discussed in a Kantian perspective.

    Este artículo trata de la distinción entre órdenes y consejos en la filosofía práctica moderna como doctrina de deberes. La distinción juega un papel esencial en el pensamiento cristiano de Thomasius por su diferenciación entre las distintas esferas de la vida práctica, iustum, honestum y decorum, por ejemplo, las esferas de la ley (iustum, ética correcta (honestum e incoercible comportamiento externo —con significado ético—, incluyendo las buenas maneras (decorum. En la filosofía práctica de Kant, la distinción entre mandatos

  17. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  18. Safety, Dosimetry, and Tumor Detection Ability of 68Ga-NOTA-AE105

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard Lund, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2017-01-01

    The overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPARs) represents an established biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including breast cancer (BC), prostate cancer (PC), and urinary bladder cancer (UBC), and is therefore an important target for new...... cancer therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. In this study, uPAR PET imaging using a68Ga-labeled version of the uPAR-targeting peptide (AE105) was investigated in a group of patients with BC, PC, and UBC. The aim of this first-in-human, phase I clinical trial was to investigate the safety.......Conclusion:This first-in-human, phase I clinical trial demonstrates the safe use and clinical potential of68Ga-NOTA-AE105 as a new radioligand for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients....

  19. Reuniones, dispersiones. Notas sobre ideas literarias de Tomás Segovia

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    Juan Pascual Gay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo quiere dar cuenta de diferentes ideas expuestas por Tomás Segovia a lo largo de su oficio de escritor en ensayos, cuadernos de notas y entrevistas. Segovia no desarrolló un pensamiento unitario y sistemático, sino que, más bien, desarrolla esas ideas en diferentes contextos, textos y pretextos, pero esas ideas acaban por volver siem - pre a un ideario que otorga una cohesión insospechada en su obra. Además, muchas veces, sin decirlo, deja entrever la tradición literaria y cultural a la que se adscribe y que permea su obra entera.

  20. Notas sobre la Flora de Colombia y países vecinos, III

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    Dugand Armando

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuación (parte III de la nueva serie de notas botánicas iniciada hace tres años en Phytologia (vol. 13, no. 6: 379-400. 1966, y cuya segunda parte se publicó recientemente en Caldasia (vol, 10, no. 47: 173-213. 1968, relativas en su mayor parte a la flora xerófila y subxerófila de la región costera del Caribe en Colombia y países vecinos, particularmente Venezuela.  En ellas se hacen observaciones sobre la taxonomía, nomenclatura, morfología, distribución geográfica, hábitat, y otras varias, de las siguientes plantas: ASCLEPIADACEAE Matelea albiflra (Karst. Dugand. BIGNONIACEAE Anemopaegma chrysoleucum. (Kth. in H. & B. Sandw. # Arrabidaea candicans (L. C. Rich. DC. Arrabidaea conjugata (VeIl. Mart. ex DC. Arrabidaea florida DC. # Arrabidaea pleei DC. Clytostoma cuneatum Dugand. Clytostoma pterocalyx Spr. ex Urb. # Onohualcoa helicocalyx (O. Kze. Sandw. Phryganocydia uliginosa Dugand. Romeroa verticillata Dugand. # Roseodendron chryseum. (Blake Miranda. Tabebuia dugandii StandI. BOMBACACEAE Pseudobombax maximum A. Robyns. LEGUMINOSAE·FABOIDEAE Uribea tamarindoides Dugand & Romero. RUBIACEAE Guettarda eliadis StandI. Sickingia klugei StandI. Tal vez con la sola excepción de Arrabidaea florida DC., de cuya existencia en Colombia no hay -que yo sepa- ninguna información anterior (a menos que la colección original sea realmente del Caquetá colombiano como bien pudiera serlo, véase nota al pie de la página respectiva en este trabajo , todas las especies enumeradas arriba ya han sido catalogadas antes en la flora de este pais, ora con el mismo nombre con que figuran en la Iista, ora con otro que ha caido en desuso necesario o se considera sinonimo del que se da aqui. Las de este ultimo grupo se seiialan con el signo #.

  1. Europas ledere må gøre op med ' folkets vilje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Centerleder og professor Marlene Wind insisterer i dagens Politiken i debatindlægget: "Europas ledere må gøre op med ' folkets vilje'", at verdens ledere må stå fast ved de principper, der har været bærende for vores samfund siden anden verdenskrig. Domstolenes politiske uafhængighed, menneskeret...

  2. Ocean-driven heating of Europa's icy shell at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, K. M.; Schmidt, B. E.; Wicht, J.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    The ice shell of Jupiter's moon Europa is marked by regions of disrupted ice known as chaos terrains that cover up to 40% of the satellite's surface, most commonly occurring within 40° of the equator. Concurrence with salt deposits implies a coupling between the geologically active ice shell and the underlying liquid water ocean at lower latitudes. Europa's ocean dynamics have been assumed to adopt a two-dimensional pattern, which channels the moon's internal heat to higher latitudes. Here we present a numerical model of thermal convection in a thin, rotating spherical shell where small-scale convection instead adopts a three-dimensional structure and is more vigorous at lower latitudes. Global-scale currents are organized into three zonal jets and two equatorial Hadley-like circulation cells. We find that these convective motions transmit Europa's internal heat towards the surface most effectively in equatorial regions, where they can directly influence the thermo-compositional state and structure of the ice shell. We suggest that such heterogeneous heating promotes the formation of chaos features through increased melting of the ice shell and subsequent deposition of marine ice at low latitudes. We conclude that Europa's ocean dynamics can modulate the exchange of heat and materials between the surface and interior and explain the observed distribution of chaos terrains.

  3. Salinibater Ruber as a Model for the Habitability of Europa's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M. C.; Ramírez, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The moon Europa has an ocean enriched with sulfate compounds. This work evaluates the adaptation strategies of Salinibacter ruber, a halophilic bacterium, when subjected to MgSO4 and NaSO4, two of the main salty components of Europás ocean.

  4. Development of a European resource on the origins of pathogens of aquaculture: The Europa Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, M.; Barja, J.; Colquhoun, D.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop described the EUROPA project, an EU-funded program aimed at creating a web-based database of molecular sequence data-sets related to significant pathogens of aquaculture. The project aims to focus the efforts of fish health researchers into generating large, evolving and readily ava...

  5. Necesidad de una política coherente para minerales en Europa. Discusiones y acercamientos actuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Tiess

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo resume algunos aspectos relevantes de la política mineral en Europa. Hace un llamado a la Unión Europea para concertar políticas e instrmentos de trabajo que aseguren la disponibilidad de las materias primas esenciales y la sustentabilidad de su extración y su uso.

  6. New Bibles and Old Reading Habits around 1522 : The Position of the New Testament Translation of the Devotio Moderna among Dutch Printed Bibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, Suzan; Oostindiër, Arend Elias

    2017-01-01

    The medieval Northern Dutch New Testament translation, which originated in the context of the Devotio Moderna movement, was used by printers and readers well into the sixteenth century. This contribution demonstrates that studying copies of this translation is of vital importance for understanding

  7. Gabriel Sánchez Espinosa, ed., Pruebas de imprenta. Estudios sobre la cultura editorial del libro en la España moderna y contemporánea

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    Alejandra Ulla Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Gabriel Sánchez Espinosa, ed., Pruebas de imprenta. Estudios sobre la cultura editorial del libro en la España moderna y contemporánea, Iberoamericana / Vervuert, Madrid / Frankfurt am Main, 2013, 284 pp. ISBN: 9788484897637 (Iberoamericana, 9783954873074 (Vervuert.

  8. High Resolution Integral Field Spectroscopy of Europa's Sodium Clouds: Evidence for a Component with Origins in Iogenic Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Johnson, R. E.; Mendillo, M.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Moore, L.; O'Donoghue, J.; Leblanc, F.

    2015-12-01

    With the object of constraining Iogenic contributions and identifying drivers for variability, we report new observations of neutral sodium in Europa's exosphere. An R~20000 integral field spectrograph at McDonald Observatory is used to generate Doppler maps of sodium cloud structures with a resolution of 2.8 km/s/pixel. In the five nights of observations since 2011, measurements on UT 6.15-6.31 May 2015 uniquely feature fast (10s of km/s) neutral sodium clouds extending nearly 100 Europa radii, more distant than in any previous findings. During these measurements, the satellite geometry was favorable for the transfer of Na from Io to Europa, located at 1:55 to 4:00 and 3:38 to 4:39 Jovian local time, respectively. Eastward emission (away from Jupiter) extends 10-20 Europa radii retaining the moon's rest velocity, while westward emission blue-shifts with distance, and a broad range of velocities are measured, reaching at least 70 km/s at 80 Europa radii. These cloud features are distinct from Io's "banana" and "stream" features, the distant Jupiter-orbiting nebula, and from terrestrial OH and Na contaminant emissions. Io's production was quiescent during this observation, following an extremely active phase in February 2015. These results are consistent with previous findings that Europa's Na exosphere has peak emission between midnight and dawn Jovian local time and support the idea that sodium escape from Io can significantly enhance the emission intensity measured at Europa.

  9. Seismometers on Europa: Insights from Modeling and Antarctic Ice Shelf Analogs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerr, N. C.; Brunt, K. M.; Cammarano, F.; Hurford, T. A.; Lekic, V.; Panning, M. P.; Rhoden, A.; Sauber, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The outer satellites of the Solar System are a diverse suite of objects that span a large spectrum of sizes, compositions, and evolutionary histories; constraining their internal structures is key for understanding their formation, evolution, and dynamics. In particular, Jupiter's icy satellite Europa has compelling evidence for the existence of a global subsurface ocean beneath a surface layer of water ice. This ocean decouples the ice shell from the solid silicate mantle, and amplifies tidally driven large-scale surface deformation. The complex fissures and cracks seen by orbital flybys suggest brittle failure is an ongoing and active process in the ice crust, therefore indicating a high level of associated seismic activity. Seismic probing of the ice, oceanic, and rocky layers would provide altogether new information on the structure, evolution, and even habitability of Europa. Any future missions (penetrators, landers, and rovers) planning to take advantage of seismometers to image the Europan interior would need to be built around predictions for the expected background noise levels, seismicity, wavefields, and elastic properties of the interior. A preliminary suite of seismic velocity profiles for Europa has been calculated using moment of inertia constraints, planetary mass and density, estimates of moon composition, thermal structure, and experimentally determined relationships of elastic properties for relevant materials at pressure, temperature and depth. While the uncertainties in these models are high, they allow us to calculate a first-order seismic response using 1-D and 3-D high frequency wave propagation codes for global and regional scale structures. Here, we show how future seismic instruments could provide detailed elastic information and reduced uncertainties on the internal structure of Europa. For example, receiver functions and surface wave orbits calculated for a single seismic instrument would provide information on crustal thickness and

  10. Entre público y privado. El espacio colectivo en la vivienda moderna chilena: arquitectura y legislación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Bonomo Shakti Feuerhake

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora el surgimiento y la consolidación del espacio colectivo de uso común de los conjuntos de vivienda moderna en Chile. Se cruza el análisis morfológico a escala urbana de algunos conjuntos construidos en Santiago entre 1906 y 1959 con la mirada referida al ámbito legislativo habitacional, para dibujar la estrecha relación que existe entre ellos. El artículo concluye mostrando cómo las experiencias radicales de los años cincuenta y sesenta de Chile son el resultado de un profundo y complejo proceso de modernización del Estado y sus instituciones, de los avances disciplinares y de una nueva cultura metropolitana.

  11. What does Cassini ENA observations tell us about gas around Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Pontus; Mauk, Barry; Westlake, Joseph; Smith, Todd; Mitchell, Donald

    2015-04-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. A forward model is employed to derive column densities and assumes a neutral gas-plasma model and an energetic ion distribution based on Galileo in-situ measurements. We demonstrate that Jupiter observations by INCA are consistent with a column density peaking around Europa's orbit in the range from 2x1012 cm-2 to 7x1012 cm-2, assuming H2, and are consistent with the upper limits reported from the Cassini/UVIS observations. Most of the INCA observations are consistent with a roughly azimuthally symmetric gas distribution, but some appear consistent with an asymmetric gas distribution centred on Europa, which would directly imply that Europa is the source of the gas. Although our neutral gas model assumes a Europa source, we explore other explanations of the INCA observations including: (1) ENAs are produced by charge exchange between energetic ions and neutral hydrogen originating from charge-exchanged protons in the Io plasma torus. However, estimated densities by Cheng (1986) are about one order of magnitude too low to explain the INCA observations; (2) ENAs are produced by charge exchange between energetic ions and plasma ions such as O+ and S+ originating from Io. However, that would require O+ plasma densities higher than expected to compensate for the low charge-exchange cross section between protons and O+; (3) We re-examine the INCA Point-Spread Function (PSF) to determine if the ENA emissions in the vicinity of Europa's orbit could be explained by internal scattering of ENAs originating from Jupiter's high-latitude upper atmosphere. However, the PSF was well constrained by using Jupiter from distances where it could be considered a point source.

  12. Medicina moderna: rumo à prevenção, à cura, ao bem-estar e à longevidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A medicina moderna tem realizado muitas coisas nos campos de doenças infecciosas e de emergências para assistir a cura. Na maior parte dos outros campos, ela visa, sobretudo, ao controle, que é outro nome para o tratamento paliativo. A farmacologia, na qual se inclui a psicofarmacologia, é igualmente dirigida ao controle e ao alívio. Está na hora de profissionais da área e pesquisadores voltarem-se decisivamente para a prevenção e para a cura. Ademais, o outro grande desafio da medicina moderna é a longevidade aliada ao bem-estar. Avanços em vacinas contra hipertensão, diabetes, câncer etc. merecem atenção, bem como o papel da meditação, yoga, espiritualidade etc. na prevenção de doenças em vários níveis. Pesquisas sobre longevidade, mudanças no estilo de vida e centenários saudáveis merecem um exame especialmente minucioso na busca dos fatores que contribuem para a longevidade com bem-estar. Um olhar de perto para a medicina complementar e alternativa é necessário para encontrar modelos apropriados que esta possa vir a ter, à parte seus grandes discursos ou sua hostilidade para com o cuidado médico tradicional. A medicina é uma manifestação do Eros humano, e não deve tornar-se instrumento de seu Tanatos. Ela deve realizar seu verdadeiro potencial, de forma que Eros prevaleça, e Tanatos prevaleça apenas finalmente, não prematuramente.

  13. Good bye, Europa del Este. La desaparición de la Europa de los dos bloques y el difícil camino hacia una nueva identidad en la Europa del Este a través del cine

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    Labrador Ben, Julia María

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Generation of distinguishing marks is described in Europe after the Revolution Of October, the use of the movies in the United States as an element in the Cold War and the European Identity after the fall of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact.Se describe la generación de señas de identidad en Europa tras la revolución de Octubre, la utilización del cine en EEUU como elemento de combate en la guerra fría, y la nueva identidad europea tras la desaparición de la URSS y el Pacto de Varsovia.

  14. AMTB CHILE. INFORME TÉCNICO INACAP TEMUCO 2008: MOTIVACIÓN Y NOTAS EN INGLÉS

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    María Soledad Soza Roldán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La siguiente investigación trata la motivación como factor que impacta en el aprendizaje de inglés (notas en estudiantes de pregrado de Inacap Temuco, Región de la Araucanía, Chile. Para este fin, se aplicó el cuestionario AMTB (Test de Actitud y Motivación a una muestra de 305 estudiantes de carreras técnicas en Inacap Temuco (2008 para determinar el nivel de motivación según 12 variables del modelo socio-educacional de R C Gardner que sirve de paradigma en SLA (adquisición de un segundo idioma. Los hallazgos indican que la motivación explica el 41% de la nota; la ansiedad, deseo por aprender Inglés, intensidad de la motivación, el estímulo de los padres, y las actitudes frente al proceso de enseñanza tienen correlación significativa con las notas (95% de confianza. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las notas en Inglés desde otoño /primavera 2002 a otoño/primavera 2007 por nivel y promedio total (nivel I a VII. Se determinó que nivel promedio general de motivación es de un moderado 4.3 (escala Likert de 1 a 6 pero se dispara a 5.9 en el nivel VII permitiendo apreciar una correlación serial positiva desde el nivel I al VII. Los hallazgos son similares a los descubiertos por Gardner en Canadá (1960 y en 4 países europeos (1985. Los hallazgos fueron enviados a Gardner cuyos comentarios se detallan en el Informe.

  15. Nota sobre colisiones de aves en las ventanas de edificios universitarios en Puerto Vallarta, México

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    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota presenta las observaciones de 15 colisiones de aves en ventanas de edificios de la Universidad de Guadalajara en Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, a lo largo de 94 días de estudio (24 de enero al 27 de abril del 2003. Columbina passerina fue la especie que presentó el mayor número de fatalidades: ocho.

  16. Trabajar los géneros discursivos en clase de E/LE: la nota crítica

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    Eduardo España Palop

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo con géneros discursivos es esencial para adquirir una correcta competencia comunicativa. Mediante la secuencia didáctica que aquí se presenta, los alumnos adquirirán las principales herramientas para construir notas críticas, a la vez que trabajarán aspectos de la lengua española que les permitirán incrementar su competencia lectora y escrita.

  17. Nota editorial: Organización de las labores del Instituto de Higiene Social de Cundinamarca

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    Jorge E. Cavelier

    1933-10-01

    Full Text Available Con la fundación del Instituo de Higiene Social de Cundinamarca, la lucha contra las enfermedades  intersexuales ha entrado en un terreno que gracias al apoyo entusiasta de las altas autoridades, promete dar frutos de alta trascendencia para los intereses de la sociedad. El concepto estrecho y perjudicial de considerar las enfermedades venéreas como actos que envuelven culpabilidad, esperamos verlo reemplazado por un concepto más. acorde con las ideas de la higiene moderna, la cual las considera en un pie absoluto de igualdad con entidades como la fiebre tifoidea, y por consiguiente los preceptos generales para combatir las enfermedades contagiosas deben aplicárseles, poniendo de lado prejuicio inaceptables en estos tiempos.

  18. NOTA EDITORIAL

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    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available


    RESOLUCIÓN


    La Presidencia de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, resuelve cambiar y darle una nueva organización a las publicaciones de la institución en la siguiente forma:

    1o. Créase el Consejo Editorial compuesto por la Comisión Permanente de Biblioteca y Publicaciones integrada actualmente por los Académicos Mario Camacho Pinto, Juan Di Doménico, Juan Mendoza-Yega, Alvaro López Pardo y Fernando Serpa Flórez.

    2o. Se crean los cargos de Editores y se designó como Editor al Académico Mario Camacho Pinto y Coeditor al Académico Alberto Albornoz Plata; y como Editor Asociado al señor Alfonso Yelasco, de la Editorial Catálogo Científico.

    3o. Se crea la sección de Editores Asistentes, la cual estará constituida por un grupo de especialistas de las distintas ramas de la medicina representadas en la Academia, estos Editores Asistentes serán nombrados por la Junta Directiva. La misión principal del Editor Mario Camacho Pinto consistirá, además de coordinar las actividades del Consejo Editorial, la de decidir con el Coeditor y el Editor Asociado las publicaciones definitivas que se hayan seleccionado para los Anales. Los Editores Asistentes tendrán como misión especial la revisión de los trabajos científicos que se presenten a la Academia y darles el visto bueno para su publicación en los Anales...

  19. Nota Editorial

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    Carlos E. Sarmiento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Luego de más de tres lustros de intensa labor, J. Orlando Rangel-Ch. entrega su trabajo como editor general de Caldasia y ofrece una revista con un registro impecable de regularidad, excelentes indicadores bibliométricos nacionales y el ingreso a varias de las bases de datos más importantes en el ámbito de las publicaciones científicas. Nuestro anterior editor afrontó y supo desarrollar apropiadamente la revista ante los retos que han significado las variantes políticas nacionales de ciencia y tecnología y ha dado la continuidad propia de quienes entienden que las ciencias se consolidan mediante políticas estables que faciliten la actividad científica. Agradezco en nombre propio y de quienes han estado asociados a Caldasia la labor desarrollada por J. Orlando Rangel-Ch. Tales retos no han terminado, y como es conocido por la comunidad académica nacional, los estándares de evaluación de las publicaciones científicas nacionales van a cambiar de nuevo. Al igual que nuestro anterior editor, afrontaremos estos cambios con la mejor disposición, aunque también con la claridad de que tales políticas son un complemento en las labores centrales de una revista que busca establecerse en los primeros renglones de la comunidad científica nacional e internacional.

  20. Nota jurisprudencial

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    Miquel Peguera Poch

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available

    e l'entrada en vigor de la Llei 34/2002, d'11 de juliol, de serveis de la societat de la informació i de comerç electrònic (LSSICE, han estat poques les resolucions judicials que han abordat d'alguna manera el problema de la responsabilitat dels prestadors de serveis d'intermediació per continguts il·lícits de tercers. La LSSICE dedica els articles 13 a 17 a aquesta qüestió, incorporant, per a les activitats de mera transmissió de dades, de còpia de materials en memòria cau o cache i d'allotjament o hosting, les regles d'exempció de responsabilitat establertes en la Directiva 2000/31/CE sobre el comerç electrònic. La LSSICE afegeix a més una altra exempció, no prevista en la Directiva, per a la provisió d'enllaços i instruments de recerca.
    En aquest número d'IDP volem destacar dues resolucions sobre aquesta matèria. La primera és l'Acte de 10 de novembre de 2004, del Jutjat Mercantil núm. 2 de Madrid (ponent: PEDRO MARÍA GÓMEZ SÁNCHEZ [Diari La Ley, número 6186, dimecres, 9 de febrer de 2005]. La segona resolució és la Sentència de 15 de juny de 2005, del Jutjat de Primera Instància núm. 42 de Madrid (ponent: EDUARDO DELGADO HERNÁNDEZ.

  1. Nota editorial

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    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1940-07-01

    Full Text Available Comienzan con este número de la Revista de la Facultad de Medicina las funciones de sus recién nombrados redactores, y como siempre que nuevos hombres ingresan en cualquier empresas, el entusiasmo que el honor ha prestado a los médicos nombrados, se ha traducido en ciertos detalles de reforma al tipo de impresión, a la selección del material, etc.

  2. NOTA EDITORIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Cuesta Santos

    2009-01-01

    En este número de la revista Ingeniería Industrial: gestión del conocimiento respecto a procesos de dirección, comunicación organizacional, estrategias logísticas, redes de cooperación en el desarrollo local, planificación de la calidad, mejora de procesos, modelado de procesos (mejoramiento de flujos de trabajo...

  3. NOTA EDITORIAL

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    Armando Cuesta Santos

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Los procesos de trabajo atraviesan a todas las funciones de la gestión empresarial u organizacional en esta contemporaneidad. Hoy son la expresión mayor de la transdisciplinariedad comprendida por la actividad científica que es la Ingeniería Industrial, que desde su génesis se manifestara con un enfoque interdisciplinario mediante los estudios de métodos y tiempos de trabajo que realizara F. W. Taylor conformando su Scientific Management.

  4. NOTA EDITORIAL

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    Armando Cuesta Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se promulgó a fines del año 2007 el Decreto Ley No. 252 “Sobre la Continuidad y el Fortalecimiento del Sistema de Dirección y Gestión Empresarial Cubano”, que significa la continuidad del Proceso de Perfeccionamiento Empresarial en Cuba. Su impacto, que es estratégico para nuestra gestión empresarial, también lo es para el accionar de especialistas, investigadores, profesores, y profesionales en general dedicados a la gestión empresarial en el país.

  5. Nota editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Vides Luis Alfredo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En el trasegar de las actividades cotidianas, con frecuencia olvidamos los esfuerzos que hemos llevado a cabo en la realización de las mismas, solo cuando volvemos la vista al camino andado y confrontamos los desafíos que se tenían y las metas conseguidas, percibimos la incertidumbre ante la empresa y las satisfacciones de los logros.

    Henos un año después, nuevamente aquí, con la publicación del séptimo número de la revista Geofísica Colombiana, en la cual, con gran tesón y mediante el esfuerzo encomiable de investigadores latinoamericanos de las ciencias de la tierra, presentamos a la comunidad científica los resultados de investigaciones en los campos de la geofísica.

    Coincide esta ocasión con los cinco años de reapertura del programa de maestría en geofísica en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, en su sede Bogotá, labor que se ha visto fructificada con una nueva promoción de egresados de este programa de estudios avanzados, que con certeza va a redundar en el devenir de un mayor desarrollo de esta rama del saber en beneficio de la nación colombiana.

  6. Nota Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consejo Editorial Maestro y Sociedad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La Revista Maestro y Sociedad de la Universidad de Oriente ha decidido publicar este segundo número especial, donde se incluyen los artículos más destacados presentados en el III Taller Científico “Orientación educativa y desarrollo humano”, que se desarrolló en mayo del 2016 por el Centro de Estudios Pedagógicos Juan Bautista Sagarra Blez de la Facultad de Educación Infantil en la Universidad de Oriente. En este evento se socializaron resultados de investigaciones educativas, así como experiencias científico-metodológicas y pedagógicas desarrolladas por la comunidad científica de esta institución y del territorio, relacionadas con el papel de la orientación educativa como función esencial de los educadores en la formación y desarrollo de la personalidad de niños, adolescentes, jóvenes y adultos, en relación con las transformaciones y exigencias de la contemporaneidad.

  7. NOTA EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cuesta Santos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En el primer artículo de este nuevo número de la revista Ingeniería Industrial, la investigación conduce a realizar un análisis previo a la optimización concreta de problemas reales de enrutamiento. En el siguiente se refleja una investigación relativa a los sistemas de gestión del capital humano por competencias en empresas de mantenimiento; y en el artículo que continúa, se establecen las mejores alternativas sobre las cuales debe basarse la decisión, en un proyecto dirigido a dar respuesta al creciente mercado de neumáticos.

  8. NOTA EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cuesta Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este nuevo número de la revista está dedicado esencialmente al diseño, en sus diferentes manifestaciones. Comprende diseños para el desarrollo del diagnóstico, el establecimiento de métodos, y de sistemas, asociados aquí indistintamente a dos vertientes fundamentales: sistemas de calidad y de gestión de la seguridad y la salud. Se inicia con un artículo sobre el diagnóstico del clima laboral en una empresa de la industria médico farmacéutica, teniendo por objetivo la determinación de las variables que inciden negativamente sobre la percepción acerca de la calidad del trabajo que realizan las personas y la actitud que asumen al respecto. Un segundo trabajo trata la ergonomía y la simulación aplicadas a la industria, con la finalidad de mostrar el impacto de los rediseños ergonómicos realizados a estaciones de trabajo. En un tercer artículo se expone una interpretación, a través de una metodología en los proyectos de desarrollo de software, del requisito ISO para el diseño.

  9. NOTA EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Vigencia de la tradición.

    A propósito del cambio en la presentación de la portada de MEDICINA hacemos un comentario de tipo periodístico, ya que afrontamos varios aspectos que tanto por las Directivas de la Academia como por el Consejo Editorial fueron cuidadosamente analizados antes de tomar esta determinación. Sea el primero de ellos el de buscar para la Revista una identidad fiel y estable, trasunto representativo de su función académica de informar sobre la actividad que se mueve en su seno y que comprende las inquietudes de sus Directivas y miembros, traducidas en iniciativas y trabajos científicos propios u ocasionalmente también solicitados o aceptados a colaboradores notables, con la finalidad de estimular la calidad, altura y variedad para nuestra publicación.

    Otro aspecto de esa identidad no atañe el patrimonio científico y cultural, sino a la presentación, puesto que se consideró en las deliberaciones que la revista de la Academia Nacional de Medicina debe mostrar definidamente algo de la majestad inherente a su categoría auténticamente nacional que exige culto a la tradición ecuménica representada en este caso por el emblema de Esculapio y a la vez a la historia vernácula representada simbólicamente aquí. En primer lugar, por MEDICINA que es la continuidad de la original REVISTA MEDICA existente en el siglo pasado, a la sazón publicación periódica de la sociedad de MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS NATURALES cuando fue promulgada la Ley 71 de 1890 que la convirtió, por acuerdo y voluntad del Gobierno Nacional de esa época y de los siguientes, en ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA DE COLOMBIA Y cuyo artículo 70. reza así..."LA REVISTA MEDICA será el periódico oficial de la Academia"; y en segundo lugar por la diagramación interior ilustrada ahora con diseños de nuestro arte precolombino, cultura Tumaco para esta edición.

    Más aspectos comentables son los referibles a la en algo o en mucho ingenua aspiración de que MEDICINA pueda abrirse paso hacia el resto del mundo médico, poco a poco en busca de un equilibrio adecuado a nuestra contextura potencial y a nuestra vocación democrática. Esta por ahora imaginativa prospección, tiene algún fundamento en la compartida decisión de nuestro Presidente de elevar el tiraje a 8.000 ejemplares cuatro veces al año, sus páginas a un número promedio de 70, distribución internacional por medio de los consulados o embajadas y dos nuevas secciones de orden informativo y consistentes la una en resúmenes actualizados de los recientes adelantos médicos mundiales gracias a la colaboración de la Biblioteca Nacional de Washington, a través de un terminal de cumputador, y la otra sobre actividades nacionales en el ramo de la Salud por un acuerdo con el Ministerio.

    Acogimos el emblema de Esculapio porque se compagina mejor con lo anteriormente esbozado, ya que la más vistosa alternativa del Caduceo o heraldo, del bastón con dos alas extendidas y dos serpientes entrelazadas, fue símbolo de mercaderes en el Siglo XVI y solamente en 1856 el Hospital de la Marina de U.S.A, antecesor de la salubridad oficial actual, consideró que el Caduceo sería un buen sím bolo para significar el carácter no combatiente de la clase médica, aceptándose en 1902 por el cuerpo médico de ese país en sustitución de la cruz de San Juan. En cambio el emblema de Esculapio que adorna nuestra portada, fue médico desde la antigüedad habiendo hecho aparición unos 800 años a. de J.C. como símbolo del dios de la Medicina, Asklepio para los griegos y Aesculapius para los romanos. Actualmente es emblema del cuerpo médico del ejército de muchos países y de corporaciones civiles mayores como la American Medical Association 1912 y la Organización Mundial de la Salud desde su fundación en 1947.

    MEDICINA renueva la formal invitación a todos los Académicos a colaborar sin reservas, unidos para beneficio común.

  10. Notas editoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lampis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El número dedicado a Trabajos en la globalización: sus sujetos y sus conflictos en América Latina nos remite a realizar balances y prospectivas de más de cuatro décadas de globalización neoliberal que transformaron cabalmente el mundo del trabajo y que, aunque no haya quedado como un proceso irreversible, dejó claras huellas en los sujetos laborales, la acción colectiva y los modelos productivos. Así mismo, en los tres últimos lustros se ha evidenciado en algunos países el retroceso del rumbo marcado por las reformas neoliberales hegemónicas de los años noventa, lo que ha dado lugar a procesos de reactivación y reestructuración económica que, al mismo tiempo, conllevaron al fortalecimiento de las instituciones laborales. Actualmente dichos procesos están siendo cuestionados con el retorno al neoliberalismo, justamente en los países que habían buscado abandonarlo. En concordancia con el tema central, hemos seleccionado doce artículos, agrupados en tres ejes temáticos muy debatidos en los estudios del trabajo en América Latina, como son la precariedad, el trabajo leído desde la perspectiva de género, y la acción colectiva que forman los sujetos del mundo del trabajo.

  11. Notas para uma genealogia da Psicologia Social Notes for a genealogy of Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Neves da Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma "desnaturalização" do conceito de social, pretende-se situar as condições de possibilidade para a invenção da psicologia social. Utilizando uma estratégia genealógica, nosso objetivo é mostrar que, no lugar da psicologia explicar o social, é o próprio social que deve explicar o surgimento da psicologia moderna. Para tanto, é preciso deixar de considerar o social como sinônimo da noção de sociabilidade e passar a considerá-lo como algo essencialmente construído a partir de determinadas práticas humanas. Tal problematização permite entender como se produzem, no final do século XIX, as primeiras aproximações da psicologia moderna em direção ao social a partir das questões relacionadas ao fenômeno das multidões.The "denaturalization" of the concept "social" allow us to situate the conditions to the invention of social psychology. Using the genealogy strategy, our goal is to show that it is not psychology that explains the "social" but it is the "social" itself that explains the emergence of modern psychology. In order to attain our goal it is necessary to abandon the use of social as a synonym of sociability and to consider the "social" as a product essentially constructed by determinate human practices. This strategy allows us to understand how, at the end of the XIX century, modern psychology's firsts theoretical approaches towards the "social" were produced from matters related to the phenomena of the masses.

  12. Development of food crops by modern biotechnology techniques in Central America Desarrollo de cultivos y alimentos por técnicas de biotecnología moderna en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garro Monge

    2012-12-01

    écnicas de biotecnología moderna son Guatemala (papaya, Honduras (frijol y maíz y Costa Rica (algodón, soya y piña. En el 2010, los dos últimos países estaban entre los 29 países con mayor siem- bra de CGM a nivel mundial. Algunos países de la región han implementado estructuras gubernamen- tales para la regulación por medio de comisiones técnicas de Bioseguridad. Las características más importantes en términos del comercio siguen siendo aquellas que confieren tolerancia a herbicidas o resistencia a plagas. Sin embargo, se nota la incursión de nuevos productos que contienen modificaciones en su contenido y que se vislumbran como una alternativa con buenas perspectivas en la región. Estas experiencias de cultivo y regulación en Bioseguridad a escala regional podrían suponer un desarrollo acertado y progresivo de la biotecnología agrícola y alimentaria en un futuro cercano.

  13. Benefits to the Europa Clipper Mission Provided by the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Patel, Keyur

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) proposed Europa Clipper mission would provide an unprecedented look at the icy Jovian moon, and investigate its environment to determine the possibility that it hosts life. Focused on exploring the water, chemistry, and energy conditions on the moon, the spacecraft would examine Europa's ocean, ice shell, composition and geology by performing 32 low-altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years, allowing detailed investigations of globally distributed regions of Europa. In hopes of expediting the scientific program, mission planners at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are working with the Space Launch System (SLS) program, managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. Designed to be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, SLS is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS rocket will offer an initial low-Earth-orbit lift capability of 70 metric tons (t) beginning with a first launch in 2017 and will then evolve into a 130 t Block 2 version. While the primary focus of the development of the initial version of SLS is on enabling human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit using the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the rocket offers unique benefits to robotic planetary exploration missions, thanks to the high characteristic energy it provides. This paper will provide an overview of both the proposed Europa Clipper mission and the Space Launch System vehicle, and explore options provided to the Europa Clipper mission for a launch within a decade by a 70 t version of SLS with a commercially available 5-meter payload fairing, through comparison with a baseline of current Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) capabilities. Compared to that baseline, a mission to the Jovian system could reduce transit times to less than half, or increase mass to more than double, among other benefits. In addition to these primary benefits, the paper will

  14. Encuesta sobre la construcción política de Europa = Academic survey about constitutionalization of European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Balaguer Callejón, Francisco; Bar Cendón, Antonio; Gil Robles, José María; Linde Paniagua, Enrique; Pérez Calvo, Alberto; Tajadura Tejada, Javier; Balaguer Callejón, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    En esta encuesta un grupo de Catedráticos de Derecho Público responden a preguntas sobre la construcción constitucional de Europa relacionadas con la actual situación del proceso de integración europea, la existencia de un proceso constituyente europeo y de un poder constituyente europeo, a la organización institucional de Europa y a la existencia de un derecho constitucional europeo.Constitutionalization of Europe, European constituent process, European constituent power, European ...

  15. Europa Passage, Hamburg. Pumps ensure thermal comfort at all levels; Die Europa Passage in Hamburg. Pumpen sorgen fuer Komfort auf allen Ebenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teders, Klaus

    2009-07-01

    The Europa Passage at Hamburg is a new shopping mall located directly on the Binnenalster river. It was constructed in 2006 and has 30,000 m{sup 2} of shop floor on five levels, which makes it one of Germany's biggest shopping malls. It is frequented every day by up to 40,000 visitors and more than 50,000 visitors on saturdays. In order to ensure optimum comfort even in peak times, the passage is equipped with state-of-the-art technical facilities. Energy-efficient pumps ensure reliable supply of all technical facilities. (orig.)

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Geheimnisvolles Universum - Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lorenzen, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    The 25th birthday of ESO, in 1987, was celebrated by the publication of an illustrated popular book, "Exploring the Southern Sky" (Springer-Verlag 1987), which also saw editions in Danish, English, French, German, and Spanish. Written and illustrated by the ESO staff members Svend Laustsen, Claus Madsen and Richard M. West, its many pictures were mainly taken with the ESO 3.6m and Schmidt telescopes. The structure of the book - perhaps at that time somewhat unusual - started with things far away (Universe and galaxies), zoomed in to the Milky Way, and finally reached the Solar System (with a concluding chapter dealing with the La Silla observatory). Now, with the 4 units of the Very Large Telescope in full operation, and on the occasion of ESO's 40th birthday, another jubilee book has appeared: "Geheimnisvolles Universum: Europas Astronomen entschleiern das Weltall", written by the science journalist Dirk H. Lorenzen, of Hamburg, Germany, and prefaced by Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. Presumably, this book will also soon become available in more languages spoken in ESO member countries. Thus it may be worthwhile to review the first edition, although some readers may like to wait for more easily accessible editions. Before going into details, let me first mention that I find this a very impressing book, great to look at and refreshing to read. With ESO seen through the eyes of a visitor, things gain a perspective that is quite different from that of the previous book, and at least as attractive. It comes as no surprise that the book starts with a visit of ESO's showcase, the Paranal Observatory, and the writer not only notes down his own impressions, but also cites statements of some of the many people that keep Paranal going - technicians and staff astronomers. This mixture of texts provides a good impression of the operations at a large observatory for the general reader. The two more 'astronomical' parts that follow deal with star and planet

  17. Poderes probatorios de las partes y del juez en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Taruffo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo desmenuza con fuerza argumental, de fuentes, histórica y con pleno conocimiento del derecho procesal civil comparado los distintos postulados políticos, ideológicos y meta jurídicos contra el poder probatorio del juez en el proceso. Para el autor tres son los sistemas existentes en materia de actividad probatoria del juez en Europa: todos - en más o en menos - admiten la actividad probatoria de oficio por el juez. La conclusión es lapidaria: el asiento liberal de los críticos a esta realidad no es ni coherente ni preciso y que refieren al liberalismo del siglo XIX en los que estuvo vigente las concepciones del proceso civil típico del individualismo propietario. Consideraciones generales de este género serían probablemente suficientes para demostrar que las ecuaciones del tipo «poderes de instrucción del juez = régimen autoritario» y «juez pasivo = régimen liberal» son vagas y genéricas, y se reducen a slogans polémicos faltos de valor científico. Ello es, resulta un sofisma el "juez activo autoritario versus juez pasivo liberal". Existen así numerosos sistemas demócratas en los que el juez cuenta con amplios poderes de instrucción, como ocurre p.e. en Francia, en Suiza y en Alemania. En sustancia, cada decisión no es «buena» sólo porque pone punto final al conflicto; la decisión es «buena» si pone punto final al conflicto siendo fundada en criterios legales y racionales, entre los que asume importancia particular la veracidad de la comprobación de los hechos. Si se piensa en un «buen» juez, capaz de ejercer correctamente y racionalmente sus poderes, no hay razón de temer que él se vuelva parcial, e incapaz de valorar las pruebas, por el sólo hecho de haber dispuesto o sugerido su adquisición. Sólo si se piensa en un juez incapaz y psíquicamente débil se puede temer que él pierda su propia imparcialidadThe article treats different political and ideological and the meta judicial postulates

  18. A técnica moderna e o corpo do desafio the modern technique and the body of defiance La técnica moderna y el cuerpo del desafío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Buscamos contribuir neste artigo para uma reflexão sobre a configuração da técnica moderna e algumas de suas influências na concepção hegemônica de corpo da contemporânea sociedade ocidental. Partindo dos rastros e relevos do processo de consubstanciação da Modernidade, pudemos identificar uma profunda virada de sentido em nossa concepção de técnica, a qual passou a se apresentar com uma postura básica de extração, domínio e desafio em relação à natureza, seja ela externa ou interna ao corpo humano. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: modernidade – técnica – corpo –educação física Here we objectify to contribute with a reflection about the configuration of the modern technique and some of its influences in the hegemonic conception of the body inside our occidental and contemporaneous society. Starting with clues and relevancies of the process on Modernity’s consolidation, we can identify an important change in the meaning of our technique conception, which has turned into a basic posture of extraction, domination and challenge of nature, be it external or internal to human body. KEY-WORDS: modernity – technique – body – physical education Aquí buscamos contribuir con una reflexión sobre la configuración de la técnica moderna y algunas de sus influencias en la concepción hegemónica del cuerpo dentro de nuestra sociedad occidental contemporánea. Partiendo de los rastros y relieves del proceso de consolidación de la Modernidad, pudimos identificar un profundo cambio en el sentido de nuestra concepción de técnica, la cual pasó a presentarse con una postura básica de extracción, dominio y desafío de la naturaleza, sea ella externa o interna al cuerpo humano. PALABRAS-CLAVE: modernidad – técnica – cuerpo – educación física

  19. A moderna grafia dos passos: flânerie e olhar cinematográfico em Pathé-Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Spada Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathé-Baby (1926 marca a estreia editorial de António de Alcântara Machado (1901-1935. Também publicadas (em parte no Jornal do Comércio, de São Paulo, estas crônicas de sua viagem à Europa, em 1925, são aqui analisadas a partir de sua estreita ligação com a estética futurista, enfocando seu intenso e inovador diálogo entre literatura, cidade, cinema e artes plásticas, em que se destacam o ritmo alucinante (flashes, a busca pelo novo (o moderno e as ironias às cidades-museus do Velho Mundo visitadas pelo cronista-flâneur.

  20. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  1. Ethical, social and public awareness issues in gene therapy EuropaBio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    EuropaBio, the European Association for Bio-industries, represents 40 corporate members operating world wide and 14 national associations (totaling up to 700 small- and medium-sized enterprises) involved in research, development, testing, manufacturing, sales, and distribution of biotechnology-derived products and services in the field of health cae, agriculture, food, and the environment. AGE is a group of researchers and university professors involved in high-level professional activities related to bioethics, and particularly interested in ethical issues related to the development and use of modern technology. It is essential that industry actively participates in, and contributes to, the social debate on emerging technologies. Therefore, EuropaBio presents herein its view on gene therapy and its responsible development and use.

  2. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  3. The influence of meridional ice transport on Europa's ocean stratification and heat content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Manucharyan, G.; Thompson, A. F.; Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa likely hosts a saltwater ocean beneath its icy surface. Geothermal heating and rotating convection in the ocean may drive a global overturning circulation that redistributes heat vertically and meridionally, preferentially warming the ice shell at the equator. Here we assess thepreviously unconstrained influence of ocean-ice coupling on Europa's ocean stratification and heat transport. We demonstrate that a relatively fresh layer can form at the ice-ocean interface due to a meridional ice transport forced by the differential ice shell heating between the equator and the poles. We provide analytical and numerical solutions for the layer's characteristics, highlighting their sensitivity to critical ocean parameters. For a weakly turbulent and highly saline ocean, a strong buoyancy gradient at the base of the freshwater layer can suppress vertical tracer exchange with the deeper ocean. As a result, the freshwater layer permits relatively warm deep ocean temperatures.

  4. Biomass gasification in Europe - status and perspectives; Vergasung von Biomasse in Europa - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkelbach, L; Kaltschmitt, M [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1997-12-31

    Gasification of biomass is a promising option, especially in the fields of waste management and power generation, but there are considerable economic and technical problems that must be solved first. A critical analysis of biomass gasification in Europe today shows that this technology is not marketable today and cannot contribute to environmentally acceptable power supply on a short-term basis. (orig) [Deutsch] Von allen Moeglichkeiten einer energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse stellt die Technik der Vergasung insbesondere in den Bereichen Abfallentsorgung und Stromerzeugung eine vielversprechende Option dar. Einer weiteren Verbreitung dieser Technik stehen allerdings erhebliche wirtschaftliche und technische Probleme entgegen. Die kritische Analyse der derzeitigen Gegebenheiten der Biomassevergasung in Europa fuehrt zu dem Schluss, dass diese Technik noch nicht unmittelbar vor der Mrkteinfuehrung steht und somit kurzfristig keinen merklichen Beitrag zu einer umwelt- und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Europa leisten kann. (orig)

  5. ALMA Thermal Observations of a Proposed Plume Source Region on Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbo, Samantha K.; Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Butler, Bryan J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present a daytime thermal image of Europa taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The imaged region includes the area northwest of Pwyll Crater, which is associated with a nighttime thermal excess seen by the Galileo Photopolarimeter Radiometer and with two potential plume detections. We develop a global thermal model of Europa and simulate both the daytime and nighttime thermal emission to determine if the nighttime thermal anomaly is caused by excess endogenic heat flow, as might be expected from a plume source region. We find that the nighttime and daytime brightness temperatures near Pwyll Crater cannot be matched by including excess heat flow at that location. Rather, we can successfully model both measurements by increasing the local thermal inertia of the surface.

  6. La dimensión intercomprensiva en el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Vez, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Para la comunidad de naciones que formamos Europa, unido no significa uniforme. La riqueza, la diversidad y la originalidad de sus culturas representan su propia fuerza y las condiciones de respeto que pueden hacer valer antes los demás. No hay duda que la clave de vitalidad de una cultura es su lengua, lo que supone, a escala de todo un gran continente, la existencia de un plurilingüismo real, es decir vivo y militante.

  7. Science Goals, Objectives, and Investigations of the 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Kevin P.; Murray, Alison; Garvin, James; and the Europa Lander Science Definition Team, Project Science Team, and Project Engineering Team.

    2017-10-01

    In June of 2016 NASA convened a 21-person team of scientists to establish the science goals, objectives, investigations, measurement requirements, and model payload of a Europa lander mission concept. The NASA HQ Charter goals, in priority order, are as follows:1) Search for evidence of life on Europa, 2) Assess the habitability of Europa via in situ techniques uniquely available to a lander mission, 3) Characterize surface and subsurface properties at the scale of the lander to support future exploration of Europa.Within Goal 1, four Objectives were developed for seeking signs of life. These include the need to: a) detect and characterize any organic indicators of past or present life, b) identify and characterize morphological, textural, and other indicators of life, c) detect and characterize any inorganic indicators of past or present life, and d) determine the provenance of Lander-sampled material. Goal 2 focuses on Europa’s habitability and ensures that even in the absence of the detection of any potential biosignatures, significant ocean world science is still achieved. Goal 3 ensures that the landing site region is quantitatively characterized in the context needed for Goals 1 and 2, and that key measurements about Europa’s ice shell are made to enable future exploration.Critically, scientific success cannot be, and should never be, contingent on finding signs of life - such criteria would be levying requirements on how the universe works. Rather, scientific success is defined here as achieving a suite of measurements such that if convincing signs of life are present on Europa’s surface they could be detected at levels comparable to those found in benchmark environments on Earth, and, further, that even if no potential biosignatures are detected, the science return of the mission will significantly advance our fundamental understanding of Europa’s chemistry, geology, geophysics, and habitability.

  8. Seismic signal and noise on Europa and how to use it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panning, M. P.; Stähler, S. C.; Bills, B. G.; Castillo, J.; Huang, H. H.; Husker, A. L.; Kedar, S.; Lorenz, R. D.; Pike, W. T.; Schmerr, N. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Vance, S.

    2017-12-01

    Seismology is one of our best tools for detailing interior structure of planetary bodies, and a seismometer is included in the baseline and threshold mission design for a potential Europa lander mission. Guiding mission design and planning for adequate science return, though, requires modeling of both the anticipated signal and noise. Assuming ice seismicity on Europa behaves according to statistical properties observed in Earth catalogs and scaling cumulative seismic moment release to the moon, we simulate long seismic records and estimate background noise and peak signal amplitudes (Panning et al., 2017). This suggests a sensitive instrument comparable to many broadband terrestrial instruments or the SP instrument from the InSight mission to Mars will be able to record signals, while high frequency geophones are likely inadequate. We extend this analysis to also begin incorporation of spatial and temporal variation due to the tidal cycle, which can help inform landing site selection. We also begin exploration of how chaotic terrane at the bottom of the ice shell and inter-ice heterogeneities (i.e. internal melt structures) may affect predicted seismic observations using 2D numerical seismic simulations. We also show some of the key seismic observations to determine interior properties of Europa (Stähler et al., 2017). M. P. Panning, S. C. Stähler, H.-H. Huang, S. D. Vance, S. Kedar, V. C. Tsai, W. T. Pike, R. D. Lorenz, "Expected seismicity and the seismic noise environment of Europa," J. Geophys. Res., in revision, 2017. S. C. Stähler, M. P. Panning, S. D. Vance, R. D. Lorenz, M. van Driel, T. Nissen-Meyer, S. Kedar, "Seismic wave propagation in icy ocean worlds," J. Geophys. Res., in revision, 2017.

  9. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  10. Dusk/dawn atmospheric asymmetries on tidally-locked satellites: O2 at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Apurva V.; Johnson, Robert E.; Leblanc, François

    2018-05-01

    We use a simple analytic model to examine the effect of the atmospheric source properties on the spatial distribution of a volatile in a surface-bounded atmosphere on a satellite that is tidally-locked to its planet. Spatial asymmetries in the O2 exosphere of Europa observed using the Hubble Space Telescope appear to reveal on average a dusk enhancement in the near-surface ultraviolet auroral emissions. Since the hop distances in these ballistic atmospheres are small, we use a 1-D mass conservation equation to estimate the latitudinally-averaged column densities produced by suggested O2 sources. Although spatial asymmetries in the plasma flow and in the surface properties certainly affect the spatial distribution of the near-surface aurora, the dusk enhancements at Europa can be understood using a relatively simple thermally-dependent source. Such a source is consistent with the fact that radiolytically produced O2 permeates their porous regoliths and is not so sensitive to the local production rate from ice. The size of the shift towards dusk is determined by the ratio of the rotation rate and atmospheric loss rate. A thermally-dependent source emanating from a large reservoir of O2 permeating Europa's icy regolith is consistent with the suggestion that its subsurface ocean might be oxidized by subduction of such radiolytic products.

  11. Da TV pública europeia à "alienação" da Ideia de Europa

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    Francisco Rui Cádima

    Full Text Available Resumo As políticas europeias, em matéria de televisão pública e de produção audiovisual têm sido, de um modo geral, muito negativas para a experiência cultural europeia, e para a identidade e o reforço da Ideia de Europa. Ao fim de mais de 30 anos de políticas hesitantes e precárias que têm vindo sistematicamente a diminuir a esfera de ação cultural e a identidade europeia do audiovisual público dos Estados-membros da UE, estamos provavelmente a chegar a um ponto de não retorno, em plena fase de transição para o digital. No atual contexto político de revisão da Diretiva do audiovisual, ou essas políticas reforçam a competência das televisões públicas europeias para a construção da Ideia de Europa, ou será a própria Europa e os meios audiovisuais de difusão da sua cultura que entrarão definitivamente em perigo.

  12. Can a future mission detect a habitable ecosystem on Europa, or Ganymede?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela Flores, Julian

    2010-05-01

    The considerable evidence for the presence of a liquid ocean over a silicate core makes Europa a candidate for the emergence of a second evolutionary pathway of autochthonous life. The most urgent question in astrobiology is the origin of habitable ecosystems—a question in geochemistry—rather than the alternative search for the origin of life itself—a question in chemical evolution (Chela-Flores, 2010). Since certain bodies may share a similar geophysical past with the Earth, a question suggests itself: Can available instrumentation be the ‘pioneer' in the discovery of habitable ecosystems in geophysical environments similar to the early Earth, where oceans were in contact with a silicate core? A central aspect of this dilemma is the element sulphur (S). A reliable window on the nature of the early terrestrial habitable ecosystems is the Pilbara Craton (Australia), a rich fossiliferous archive of the early steps of evolution, having preserved details of ancient hydrothermal vents. It contains a 3.47 Ga barite deposit with microfossils of a complex set of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Shen and Buick, 2004). The large spread in the delta 34S values provides the earliest reliable biomarker from the early Earth. Europa may represent the only other case in the Solar System in which liquid water has been in contact with a silicate core over geologic time in perfect analogy with the early Earth (Bland et al., 2009). The following hypothesis is forced upon us: The presence of hydrothermal activity at the interface of the silicate core and the Europan ocean can provide a variety of biogenic chemicals that play a role in sustaining microbial life at the ocean floor. This is the source of microbial life elsewhere in the ocean and of biomarkers on its icy surface. This hypothesis is subject to a feasible experimental test: Europa's non-ice surficial elements were found to be widespread, patchy and, most likely, endogenous. We argue that penetrators should be inserted in

  13. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons--Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto--may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  14. Expected Recovery of Europa's Geophysical Attributes with Clipper Gravity Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashok Kumar; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2017-10-01

    The primary gravity science objective of NASA’s Clipper mission to Europa is to confirm the presence or absence of a global subsurface ocean beneath Europa's icy crust. Gravity field measurements obtained with a radio science investigation can reveal much about Europa's interior structure. Here, we conduct extensive simulations of the radio science measurements with the anticipated spacecraft trajectory and attitude (17F12V2) and assets on the spacecraft and the ground, including antenna orientations and beam patterns, transmitter characteristics, and receiver noise figures. In addition to two-way Doppler measurements, we also include radar altimeter crossover range measurements. We concentrate on +/-2 hour intervals centered on the closest approach of each one of the 46 flybys. Our covariance analyses reveal the precision with which the tidal Love number k2, second-degree gravity coefficients C20 and C22, and higher-order gravity coefficients can be determined. The results depend strongly on the Deep Space Network (DSN) assets that are deployed to track the spacecraft. We find that some DSN allocations are sufficient to conclusively confirm the presence or absence of a global ocean and to evaluate whether the ice shell is hydrostatic.

  15. Jovian longitudinal asymmetry in Io-related and Europa-related auroral hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessler, A.J.; Chamberlain, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Jupiter's internal magnetic field is markedly non-dipolar. We propose that Io- or Europa-generated auroral emissions (originating at the foot of either Io's or Europa's magnetic flux tube) are largely restricted to longitudes where Jupiter's ionospheric conductivity is enhanced. Trapped, energetic electrons that drift into Jupiter's atmosphere, in regions where the Jovian magnetic field is anomalously weak, produce the increased conductivity. The longitude range of enchanced auroral hot-spot emissions is thus restricted to an active sector that is determined from dekametric radio emission to lie in the northern hemisphere in the Jovian System III (1965) longitude range of 205 0 +- 30 0 . Relatively weaker auroral hot spots should occur in the southern hemisphere along the mgnetic conjugate trace covering the longitude range of 215 0 +- 55 0 . At other longitudes, the brightness of the hot spot should decrease by at least one order of magnitude. These results, with respect to both brightness and longitude, are in accord with the observations of Jovian auroral hot spots reported by Atreya et al. We show that the northern hemisphere foot of either Io's or Europa's magnetic flux tube was in the preferred longitude range (the active sector) at the time of each observation

  16. A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia? ¿La farmacobotánica, aún tiene lugar en la moderna anestesiología? Is there still a place for pharmacobotany in modern anesthesiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Recentemente, o uso de chás medicinais - infusões, decoctos, tisanas, tinturas - ou medicamentos de origem vegetal vem sendo retomado de maneira sistemática e crescente na profilaxia e tratamento das doenças, ao lado da terapêutica convencional, na maioria dos países ocidentais. A presente revisão objetiva analisar as principais plantas que serviram como base de progresso para a moderna terapêutica anestesiológica através de sua utilização como modelos moleculares para síntese orgânica na moderna química fina de ponta, bem como fornecer mais embasamento sobre benefícios, potenciais efeitos adversos, interações e risco de efeitos colaterais que possam afetar o ato anestésico no paciente cirúrgico usuário habitual de fitoterapia. CONTEÚDO: Considerações anestesiológicas selecionadas são discutidas focalizando uma pequena revisão sobre ervas medicinais mais populares que foram essenciais no desenvolvimento de uma farmacologia anestesiológica e, ainda, as potenciais interações de plantas medicinais usadas por pacientes para tratar suas doenças ou controlar seus sintomas com drogas sintéticas usadas na anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: Enquanto a Medicina especializada fascina-se cada vez mais com a tecnologia avançada de novos fármacos e de fantásticos monitores, cresce em vários países o número de pacientes que desejam uma abordagem mais holística com rejeição dos modernos métodos de tratamento, optando por chás, meditações, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre outros. Cabe ao anestesiologista avaliar quanto o conhecimento de farmacognosia e de farmacobotânica pode ajudá-lo na prática anestésica e, principalmente, na segurança de seu paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Recientemente, el uso de tés medicinales - infusiones, decocciones, tisanas, tinturas - o medicamentos de origen vegetal viene siendo retomado de manera sistemática y creciente en la profilaxis y tratamiento

  17. Notas sobre linguagem, texto e pesquisa histórica em educação

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    Maria do Rosário Longo Mortatti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Com o objetivo de contribuir para a discussão acerca dos problemas e possibilidades da pesquisa histórica em educação, apresentam-se nestas notas, com base na concepção interacionista de linguagem, reflexões problematizadoras sobre as relações entre as atividades de leitura e produção de textos e os processos: de recuperação, reunião, seleção e análise de fontes documentais escritas; de produção do texto final (monografia, dissertação ou tese em que se materializa discursivamente o objeto de investigação; e de constituição do sujeito desse discurso.Palavras-chave: linguagem, texto, pesquisa histórica em educação.   Abstract In order to contribute for the discussion on problems and possibilities of the historical research in education, it is shown in this text, based upon a linguistic interactional conception, reflexions about relations among the activities of reading and writing texts and the process of: recovering, reuniting, selecting and analyzing documental sources; producing the final text; and constituting the discours subject. Keywords: language, text, historical research in education. 

  18. Uma Nota sobre o Impacto da Corrupção no Endividamento dos Estados Brasileiros

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    Paulo Matos

    Full Text Available Esta nota agrega à discussão sobre as finanças públicas dos estados brasileiros, atendo-se à pela fragilidade fiscal e corrupção crescente. Propõe-se a estimação de três distintas abordagens utilizadas na literatura internacional com o intuito de mensurar o impacto do Índice de Corrupção Governamental na Dívida Consolidada Líquida como razão do Produto Interno Bruto desses entes federativos. A elasticidade-corrupção do endividamento é significativo a 1% e oscila entre 0,015 e 0,020. O exercício empírico aqui sugerido permite ainda inferir que a redução do endividamento nos estados através do combate à corrupção é mais eficiente se aliado à austeridade fiscal do que quando combinado com demais políticas econômicas.

  19. Un vistazo a los pilares de la Lingüística Moderna: Saussure, Chomsky Y Van Dijk. Del Estructuralismo a la Lingüística textual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSELYN CORREDOR TAPIAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende dar un vistazo a los postulados básicos del estructuralismo, del generativismo y de la lingüística del texto - con sus principales figuras: Ferdinand de Saussure, Noam Avram Chomsky y Teun Adrian Van Dijk, puesto que estas corrientes se consideran como los grandes paradigmas de la lingüística moderna.

  20. Can the biogenicity of Europa's surfical sulfur be tested simultaneously with penetrators and ion traps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Bhattacherjee, A. B.; Dudeja, S.; Kumar, N.; Seckbach, J.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest a biogenic interpretation of the sulfur patches on the Europan icy surface. This hypothesis is testable by LAPLACE, or a later mission, in which the instrumentation on board are penetrators, or ion traps, with component selection including miniaturized mass spectrometry. The argument in favor of such instrumentation and component selection is as follows: Extreme environments with microbes can act as models for extraterrestrial life (Seckbach et al., 2008). Suggestions have ranged from Venusian environments (Sagan, 1967, Seckbach and Libby, 1970) to Mars (Grilli Caiola and Billi, 2007). Active photosynthetic microbial communities are found on Antarctica, both in and on ice, in fresh water, in saline lakes and streams and within rocks. In the dry valley lakes of Antarctica close to the McMurdo Base, microbial mats are known to selectively remove a huge quantity of sulfur (Parker et al., 1982). Lake Vostok in Antarctica possesses a perennially thick (3 to 4 km) ice-cover that precludes photosynthesis, thus making this subglacial environment a good model system for determining how a potential Europan biota might emerge, evolve and distribute itself. Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a subsurface water ocean, which lies beneath an ice layer that might be too thick to allow photosynthesis, just as in Lake Vostok. However, disequilibrium chemistry driven by charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere could produce sufficient organic and oxidant molecules for an Europan biosphere (Chyba, 2000). We restrict our attention to microbial mats that could still be thriving in spite of the extreme conditions of radiation on Europa. We are especially concerned with sulfur patches discovered by the Galileo mission. In the near future there are technologies available to settle the question of habitability on Europa, such as penetrators that are currently being developed for preliminary trials nearer to the Earth—the Moon-Lite mission (Smith et al., 2008). If analogies

  1. Foundational Data Products for Europa: A Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archinal, B. A.; Laura, J.; Becker, T. L.; Bland, M. T.; Kirk, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Any Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), including a Planetary SDI (PSDI [1]), includes primary components such as "policy, access network, technical standards, people (including partnerships), and data" [2]. Data is largely categorized into critical foundational products and framework data products. Of data themes [3] previously identified for the U. S. National SDI, we identify [4] three types of products that are foundational to a PSDI: geodetic coordinate reference systems, elevation information, and orthomosaics. We previously listed examples of such products for the Moon (ibid.). Here, we list the current state of these three foundational products for Europa, a key destination in the outer Solar System. Geodetic coordinate reference systems for Europa are based on photogrammetric control networks generated from processing of Voyager and Galileo images, the most recent being that created by M. Davies and T. Colvin at The RAND Corporation in the late 1990s. The Voyager and Galileo images provide insufficient stereo coverage to derive a detailed global topographic model, but various global ellipsoidal shape models have been derived using e.g. the RAND network or limb profile data. The best-known global mosaic of Europa is a controlled orthomosaic produced by the U.S. Geological Survey [5], based on the RAND network and triaxial ellipsoid shape model. Near future needs include comparing the resolution and accuracy of these products with estimates for newer products that might supersede them, including released or unreleased regional products (such as digital terrain models or mosaics) and products that could be made by processing of extant data. Understanding these PSDI fundamental needs will also improve assessing and prioritizing products that are planned for by the upcoming NASA Europa Clipper mission. This effort is not only useful for Europa science, but is also a first step toward developing such summaries for all Solar System bodies with relevant data, which

  2. Exotismos próximos: reflexões sobre a cidade moderna na imagem das primeiras favelas cariocas

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    Viviane da Silva Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available No Rio de Janeiro, os primeiros anos do século XX foram marcados por uma série de reformas urbanas vinculadas aos objetivos das classes dirigentes de construir uma capital compatível com o nível de civilidade e cosmopolitismo que permitisse inserir não apenas a cidade, como também o país que ela era incumbida de representar, no rol do mundo moderno. Entretanto, o crescimento urbano não acarretou apenas efeitos entendidos como progressos, mas gerou uma cidade ainda mais complexa, heterogênea e conflituosa, características que cada vez mais definiriam a vida na cidade moderna. Este artigo analisa as fotografias de Augusto Malta desde a destruição dos cortiços até o surgimento das primeiras favelas no Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de refletir sobre o embate entre as expectativas de construção de um futuro moderno e civilizado e a apreensão de uma realidade multifacetada que parecia cada vez mais imprevisível.

  3. Los trastornos temporomandibulares y la oclusión dentaria a la luz de la posturología moderna

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    José Miguel Montero Parrilla

    Full Text Available Introducción: la posturología es una especialidad de la ciencia de la salud que estudia el sistema tónico postural del ser humano, descrito en estrecha interacción con la oclusión dentaria y los trastornos temporomandibulares. Objetivo: identificar los antecedentes de la posturología moderna y los factores que determinan el equilibrio postural del cuerpo, así como la asociación entre las variables posturales, oclusales y los trastornos temporomandibulares. Métodos: por medio del sistema PubMed, Lilacs y el buscador Google se obtuvo la bibliografía impresa y digital, referida la tema y publicada desde 1995 hasta la actualidad. Resultados: la mayoría de las investigaciones sugieren algún tipo de correlación entre el tipo de oclusión, la existencia de signos y síntomas de trastornos temporomandibulares, dimensiones cráneo-faciales y el desequilibrio postural. Conclusiones: Los estudios relacionados con el tema generalmente han sido realizados con un número reducido de sujetos o con pobre metodología, por lo que no son concluyentes en sus resultados.

  4. La normativización del cuerpo femenino en la Edad Moderna : el vestido y la virginidad

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    Isabel Pérez Molina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La legislación de la Edad Moderna, como parte del discurso dominante, situó a las mujeres en una posición de inferioridad con respecto a los hombres. Esta discriminación se manifestó incluso en las normativas impuestas al cuerpo femenino. Aquí se analizan dos aspectos de esas normativas: el referido a la necesidad de cubrir el cuerpo de una determinada manera y el que concierne a la virginidad, cuya exigencia es consecuencia del control de la sexualidad femenina por parte del hombre.Law in Early Modern Times, as a part of the the prevailing discourse, put women in a position of inferiority in relation to men. This discrimination became apparent even in the rules imposed on women's body. The article analyses two aspects of these rules: the exigence for women to cover their body in a concrete way and the exigence of virginity, as a consequence of men's control of feminine sexuality

  5. Religiosidad popular en Cuenca durante la Edad Moderna: El origen de las cofradías penitenciales de Semana Santa

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    Recuenco Pérez, Julián

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The author defends the necessity of the popular religiosity study to understand the History of the Church. He reviews some of the most recent theories about this issue. He also studies in depth the theory about the «cofradías» in Cuenca during the Modem Age. This study is based on the documents found in the «Archivo Histórico Provincial de Cuenca» and in the «Archivo Municipal» of its capital.

    El autor defiende la necesidad del estudio de la religiosidad popular para comprender la Historia de la Iglesia. Repasa algunas de las teorías más recientes sobre el tema. También profundiza en el estudio de las cofradías de Cuenca en la Edad Moderna basándose en los documentos del Archivo Histórico Provincial de Cuenca y en el Archivo Municipal de su capital.

  6. Género, espacio y lugar: la experiencia del servicio en el hogar rural de la temprana Edad Moderna

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    Amanda Flather

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la organización y el uso del espacio doméstico de los sirvientes durante el siglo XVII y en hogares de clase media. Relaciona los modelos de cambio arquitectónico y social con las formas en que los individuos describieron su experiencia y uso del espacio doméstico en los registros judiciales. Concluye que, si bien existía una tendencia a separar el trabajo y los espacios de vida de los sirvientes del resto de la familia, una casa moderna temprana no era aquella en la que los patrones sociales rígidos y estáticos estaban mapeados. Una serie de factores sociales lucharon por definir el carácter social de un espacio, una lucha que giró en torno a los conceptos de control y uso en lugar de separación o segregación según el estatus o el género. Los patrones espaciales fueron efímeros, no obstante, es posible ilustrar cómo algunos aspectos de las relaciones sociales de la familia se reflejaron y se reforzaron por la forma en que se organizó y utilizó el espacio doméstico.

  7. La "educación de las mujeres": el avance de las formas modernas de feminidad en Colombia

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    Zandra Pedraza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto estudia la constitución de mujeres modernas durante el siglo XIX en Colombia, y ahonda en los cambios que en los años de 1930 y 1940 inflamaron el debate sobre este tópico, justamente cuando aumentaron las reivindicaciones de igualdad entre los sexos, se agudizaron las luchas por la emancipación femenina y diversas transformaciones sociales hicieron inminente revisar la doctrina sobre la educación de las mujeres. Al margen de las diferencias expresadas respecto a la conveniencia de que las mujeres adquirieran el derecho al voto y ampliaran su educación escolar y su participación en la vida pública, tanto promotores como detractores de estas transformaciones coincidieron en proteger el núcleo básico de la educación de la mujer, constituido en el siglo XIX en sus expresiones de ama de casa, madre y esposa. Durante estos años se sumó la belleza al conjunto de deberes de la feminidad, que de don natural pasó a ser asequible mediante el consumo y el esfuerzo acumulados en el capital corporal femenino.

  8. Nota sobre una propuesta de traducción de rótulos del Alfabeto Fonético Internacional

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    Perry Carrasco Roberto Alfredo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota propone traducciones para algunos de los rótulos usados para las categorías fonéticas del Alfabeto Fonético Internacional. La introducción del texto plantea la temática de la nota; la segunda sección argumenta sobre cuál es el fundamento natural de los criterios con que se eligen tales rótulos; la tercera sección argumenta en defensa de algunas opciones y la cuarta y última discute algunos rótulos para los llamados símbolos diacríticos.

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a (18F-labeled high affinity NOTA conjugated bombesin antagonist as a PET ligand for GRPR-targeted tumor imaging.

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    Zohreh Varasteh

    Full Text Available Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR in prostate cancer suggests that this receptor can be used as a potential molecular target to visualize and treat these tumors. We have previously investigated an antagonist analog of bombesin (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2, RM26 conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (NOTA via a diethylene glycol (PEG2 spacer (NOTA-P2-RM26 labeled with (68Ga and (111In. We found that this conjugate has favorable properties for in vivo imaging of GRPR-expression. The focus of this study was to develop a (18F-labelled PET agent to visualize GRPR. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18F using aluminum-fluoride chelation. Stability, in vitro binding specificity and cellular processing tests were performed. The inhibition efficiency (IC50 of the [(natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 was compared to that of the (natGa-loaded peptide using (125I-Tyr(4-BBN as the displacement radioligand. The pharmacokinetics and in vivo binding specificity of the compound were studied. NOTA-P2-RM26 was labeled with (18F within 1 h (60-65% decay corrected radiochemical yield, 55 GBq/µmol. The radiopeptide was stable in murine serum and showed high specific binding to PC-3 cells. [(natF]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 showed a low nanomolar inhibition efficiency (IC50=4.4±0.8 nM. The internalization rate of the tracer was low. Less than 14% of the cell-bound radioactivity was internalized after 4 h. The biodistribution of [(18F]AlF-NOTA-P2-RM26 demonstrated rapid blood clearance, low liver uptake and low kidney retention. The tumor uptake at 3 h p.i. was 5.5±0.7 %ID/g, and the tumor-to-blood, -muscle and -bone ratios were 87±42, 159±47, 38±16, respectively. The uptake in tumors, pancreas and other GRPR-expressing organs was significantly reduced when excess amount of non-labeled peptide was co-injected. The low uptake in bone suggests a high in vivo stability of the Al-F bond. High contrast PET image was obtained 3 h p

  10. Seminario Internacional de Ordenes Militares. Nota acerca de autorías, responsabilidades y agradecimientos

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    Fernando ANDRÉS ROBRES

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Es ésta una obra verdaderamente colectiva, tanto en su planteamiento como en su ejecución. Se ha nutrido del trabajo, la reflexión y las sugerencias del conjunto de un amplio grupo no formalmente instituido de historiadores de universidades italianas, españolas y portuguesas que se autotituló una vez, es cierto que sin demasiada originalidad, Grupo internacional para el estudio de las Ordenes Militares («Las Ordenes Militares y Caballerescas en la Edad Moderna», Historia 16, n.° 225, Madrid, enero de 1995, pp. 53-74 y que de un tiempo a esta parte se viene reconociendo bajo el nombre de Seminario Internacional de Ordenes Militares, que refleja mejor su coordinación a través de encuentros científicos (a los que de inmediato se alude y que tiene su órgano de expresión en la revista Militarium Ordinum Analecta (que edita anualmente en Oporto y desde 1997 con ayuda de la Fundación Antonio de Almeida, aunque sus miembros han publicado y publican en muchos otros lugares y aunque, recíprocamente, la revista no está restringida a los miembros del Seminario.

  11. Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Luisa Elena

    2003-01-01

    1.- Artículos Cartay, Rafael. "Los productos típicos y su reglamentación. Una tentativa de aplicación de la denominación de origen al cacao venezolano" Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin. "Theobroma Cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud" Anido, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Alejandro. "La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995: Algunas evidencias empíricas" Molina, Luisa Elena. "Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Ven...

  12. Nota [N] Roja la vibrante historia de un género y una nueva manera de informar

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    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Presenta algunas reflexiones sobre el libro Nota[N]Roja, señala que se constituye en una guía mínima para periodistas de seguridad pública y justicia. En el se conceptualizan temas como absolución, acusación penal, daño moral querella, menores infractores, se aclaran y desarrollan temas de periodismo como autorregulación, cláusula de conciencia, derecho a la réplica, noticiabilidad, verificación de la información, etc.

  13. Los retos del proceso de socialización en los sistemas educativos de las sociedades modernas avanzadas Los retos del proceso de socialización en los sistemas educativos de las sociedades modernas avanzadas

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    José María PéREz-AGOTE

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The crisis of modernity is particularly evident in the educational systems of advanced societies. These societies project on school systems more paradoxes and contradictions than they can really cope with. In the face of the deep transformations that concepts such as globalization, information and consumer society, postmodernity or reflexive modernity appear to claim, schools are losing their ability to successfully transmit models of identity and citizenship. This article explores the crisis of the socialising function of educational systems, and in particular the decline of the emancipatory goals this function is aimed at in its bureaucratic, systemic and communicative dimensions. In this way, the traditional strategies of socialization in advanced societies loose pace, and a restructuring is required. This restructuring should be tackled by departing from an eligibility horizon which in turn should be articulated by an ethos of desire.La crisis de la modernidad se manifiesta con gran crudeza en los sistemas educativos de las sociedades avanzadas, que proyectan sobre aquéllos más contradicciones y paradojas de las que pueden superar. Ante las profundas transformaciones invocadas por conceptos como globalización, sociedad de la información y/o del consumo, postmodernidad o modernidad reflexiva, las instituciones escolares están perdiendo su capacidad de transmitir modelos de identidad y ciudadanía eficazmente. Este trabajo explora la crisis de la función socializadora de los sistemas educativos, entendida como un declive sistémico, burocrático y comunicativo. De este modo, las clásicas estrategias de socialización propias de las sociedades modernas pierden su eficacia, siendo precisa su reconversión. Ésta puede ser afrontada orientando los procesos de socialización desde un horizonte de elegibilidad articulado por un ethos del deseo.

  14. Antioxidant activities of some local bangladeshi fruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus, Annona squamosa, Terminalia bellirica, Syzygium samarangense, Averrhoa carambola and Olea europa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubir, Titov

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, antioxidant activities of the fruits of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were investigated. For this, at first matured fruits of them were sliced into small pieces and dried in the sun and finally crushed in a grinder to make powder. Ethanolic extracts of fruit powder were prepared using 99.99% ethanol. The antioxidative activities of these extracts were determined according to their abilities of scavenging 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. It was demonstrated that all the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. caranbola and O. europa showed antioxidant activities. The IC50 of the ethanolic extracts of A. heterophyllus, A. squamosa, T. bellirica, S. samarangense, A. carambola and O. europa were 410, 250, 34, 200, 30 and 76 microg/mL, respectively. Among them, A. carambola showed the highest antioxidant activities followed by T. bellirica, O. europa, S. samarangense, A. squamosa and A. heterophyllus indicating that fruits of A. carambola, T. bellirica and O. europa are very beneficial to human health.

  15. Assessing the potential for measuring Europa's tidal Love number h2 using radar sounder and topographic imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, G.; Schroeder, D. M.; Haynes, M. S.; Hussmann, H.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal Love number h2 is a key geophysical measurement for the characterization of Europa's interior, especially of its outer ice shell if a subsurface ocean is present. We performed numerical simulations to assess the potential for estimating h2 using altimetric measurements with a combination of radar sounding and stereo imaging data. The measurement principle exploits both delay and Doppler information in the radar surface return in combination with topography from a digital terrain model (DTM). The resulting radar range measurements at cross-over locations can be used in combination with radio science Doppler data for an improved trajectory solution and for estimating the h2 Love number. Our simulation results suggest that the absolute accuracy of h2 from the joint analysis of REASON (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface) surface return and EIS (Europa Imaging System) DTM data will be in the range of 0.04-0.17 assuming full radio link coverage. The error is controlled by the SNR budget and DTM quality, both dependent on the surface properties of Europa. We estimate that this would unambiguously confirm (or reject) the global ocean hypothesis and, in combination with a nominal radio-science based measurement of the tidal Love number k2, constrain the thickness of Europa's outer ice shell to up to ±15 km.

  16. Sobre los libros de oro del siglo XVI : notas críticas

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    Teodoro Martín Martín

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available De sobra es conocido que los Libros de Oro, que aparecen en el siglo XVI en el marco de la renovación pedagógica que introdujo el Humanismo y el Renacimiento, son colecciones de pensamientos, sentencias, máximas y proverbios morales entresacados de las obras de los mejores filósofos estoicos de la Antigüedad Clásica. Sin embargo, poco más es lo que se conoce de ellos fuera del marco de la Historia de la Literatura. Incidentalmente, al ocuparse de la preceptiva de príncipes, algo se ha dicho sobre los textos áureos de la vida, si bien de forma tangencial. Consciente de esta laguna historiográfica voy a redactar las siguientes notas críticas, que no tienen otro objeto más que colaborar en el debate que historiadores, filósofos, pedagogos y literatos han de sostener sobre el tema. Nuestro país aportó al pensamiento educativo del siglo xvi dos figuras señeras: Luis Vives y Pedro Simón Abril. Pero su obra quedó en el plano teórico por cuanto carecieron de capacidad u oportunidad política para implantar sus doctrinas en la sociedad española. Alguna posibilidad tuvo el segundo de los autores citados, pero las mismas se quedaron en forma de memoriales o apuntamientos dirigidos al Rey Felipe II.

  17. Lyman Alpha Camera for Io's SO2 atmosphere and Europa's water plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Sandel, Bill; Schneider, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The Student Lyman-Alpha Mapper (SLAM) was conceived for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission proposal (McEwen et al., 2014) to determine the spatial and temporal variations in Io's SO2 atmosphere by recording the H Ly-α reflection over the disk (Feldman et al., 2000; Feaga et al., 2009). SO2 absorbs at H Ly-α, thereby modulating the brightness of sunlight reflected by the surface, and measures the density of the SO2 atmosphere and its variability with volcanic activity and time of day. Recently, enhancements at the Ly-α wavelength (121.57 nm) were seen near the limb of Europa and interpreted as active water plumes ~200 km high (Roth et al., 2014). We have a preliminary design for a very simple camera to image in a single bandpass at Ly-α, analogous to a simplified version of IMAGE EUV (Sandel et al. 2000). Our goal is at least 50 resolution elements across Io and/or Europa (~75 km/pixel), ~3x better than HST STIS, to be acquired at a range where the radiation noise is below 1E-4 hits/pixel/s. This goal is achieved with a Cassegrain-like telescope with a 10-cm aperture. The wavelength selection is achieved using a simple self-filtering mirror in combination with a solar-blind photocathode. A photon-counting detector based on a sealed image intensifier preserves the poisson statistics of the incoming photon flux. The intensifier window is coated with a solar-blind photocathode material (CsI). The location of each photon event is recorded by a position-sensitive anode based on crossed delay-line or wedge-and-strip technology. The sensitivity is 0.01 counts/pixel/sec/R, sufficient to estimate SO2 column abundances ranging from 1E15 to 1E17 per cm2 in a 5 min (300 sec) exposure. Sensitivity requirements to search for and image Europa plumes may be similar. Io's Ly-α brightness of ~3 kR exceeds the 0.8 kR brightness of Europa's plume reported by Roth et al. (2014), but the plume brightness is a direct measurement rather than inferring column abundance from

  18. AS CONCEPÇÕES DE INFÂNCIA E AS TEORIAS EDUCACIONAIS MODERNAS E CONTEMPORÂNEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ghiraldelli Jr

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda concepções de infância e as liga com a filosofia da educação. Em um primeiro momento o texto apresenta Descartes e Rousseau como pensadores modernos - eles abriram nossas mentes para a infância. Lembra que Nietzsche e Nabokov falaram de modo diferente sobre a infância. Mas todos falaram de uma "natureza da criança", boa ou má. Nossas histórias sobre a infância começaram a mudar porque o historicismo de Hegel, Collodi e Ariés solicitou uma infância feita pela sociedade e pela história. Ela não é boa nem má. O texto explica que a filosofia da educação seguiu esse modo moderno com Herbart, Dewey e Paulo Freire. Esses pensadores falaram sobre a infância e, mais ou menos, sobre uma "natureza da criança" - mas não radicalizaram essa idéia. Mas toda idéia sobre infância é rompida em uma era pós-moderna. Pós-modernismo diz: não precisamos de uma concepção de infância. Assim, podemos ter uma educação diferente e uma filosofia da educação diferente - sem discriminação. Leis protegem as crianças - isso estava junto com a idéia de "natureza da criança", mas a discriminação veio junto - ela veio com o conceito de infância. O Pós-modernismo diz adeus ao conceito de infância, e advoga que, sem ele, estamos em uma situação melhor.

  19. «Con casa; familia y domicilio». Mercaderes extranjeros en Guipúzcoa durante la Edad Moderna

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    Alvaro ARAGÓN RUANO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} El presente trabajo analiza la presencia de mercaderes extranjeros en Guipúzcoa durante los siglos XVI al XVIII. Comerciantes, procedentes de países como Portugal, Francia, Inglaterra, Flandes, Alemania, etc., que durante la Edad Moderna recalaron y se establecieron en los puertos guipuzcoanos, con la mirada puesta en el acceso a los mercados españoles y coloniales. Trata, por tanto, de analizar el método utilizado para asentarse y establecerse en los principales puertos guipuzcoanos, sobre todo en San Sebastián, y las dificultades experimentadas. En definitiva, se intenta profundizar en las estrategias utilizadas por cada uno de ellos para lograr la integración social y el disfrute de los privilegios a los que tienen acceso los naturales.

  20. Hacia una Administración Pública moderna. Experiencia de la Administración ambiental vasca

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    Arantza Leturiondo Aranzamendi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de la novena legislatura del Gobierno Vasco se puso en marcha un nuevo modelo de gestión de la administración ambiental. Un modelo basado en la corresponsabilidad público – privada, la reducción de cargas administrativas, el refuerzo del control posterior, la mejora de la comunicación y la transparencia. Se tramitaron más de dieciséis normas que perseguían objetivos ambientales, pero también otros objetivos estratégicos. Se desarrolló un moderno sistema de información y gestión y se establecieron las entidades de colaboración ambiental. Estas medidas han sentado las bases para una administración ambiental moderna y eficiente, introduciendo una mayor racionalidad y eficiencia en la intervención administrativa (lo que se traduce en ahorro de costes y mayor productividad y proporcionando seguridad jurídica a las actividades económicas (lo que redunda en su competitividad y un mejor servicio al conjunto de la ciudadanía vasca. During the 9th legislature period of the Basque Government, the environmental department launched, a new model based in public - private co-responsibility, in reducing administrative burdens; in reinforcing the operational control, and in improving dialogue and transparency. Sixteen acts were approved aimed at achieving environmental and other strategic objectives, new and modern information and management system was implemented and the environmental collaboration entities were introduced. These actions set the basis for a modern and efficient management of the environmental administration, introducing rationality and efficiency in the environmental administrative process (entailing cost savings and increased productivity and provides legal certainty for economic activities (which implies more competitiveness and better service for all Basque citizens.

  1. Abraham Flexner y el Flexnerismo. Fundamento Imperecedero de la Educación Médica Moderna.

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    José Felix Patiño Restrepo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En pasadas publicaciones me he referido a la necesidad de revisar los planes de estudio y de reorientar la precaria condición de la educación médica colombiana, tan seriamente afectada, entre otros factores, por la crisis del sistema hospitalario público, sistema que ha sido el eje de la educación tanto de pregrado como de postgrado, y por las recientes disposiciones legales que han reformado los sistemas de salud y de seguridad social en Colombia (Patiño 1991,1992a,b,1993a,b,1998.

    Hace diez años Jiménez Arango se refería a los escenarios educativos en los servicios de salud y en los hospitales públicos, de tan mala calidad por su extrema pobreza y atraso tecnológico, que no constituían un ambiente favorable para una sólida formación en las ciencias clínicas. Hoy, en medio de la profunda crisis que afecta al sector hospitalario y al sector de la salud en general, la situación no ha mejorado y, por el contrario, aparece aún más deteriorada.

    En cuanto a los planes de estudios de las facultades de medicina, he planteado que un curriculum adecuado debe partir de la premisa de que el enorme volumen de conocimiento biomédico actual no puede ser transmitido en su totalidad al estudiante y que, forzosamente, se debe aceptar la imposibilidad de formar un médico que “sepa de todo”, mediante un curriculum único y rígido. Más bien deben identificarse los campos de acción que son previsibles en el ejercicio futuro de la medicina, y diseñar planes de estudio flexibles, diversificados y versátiles destinados a capacitar a los médicos para las diferentes áreas de la actividad profesional a través de programas que ofrezcan áreas de concentración o de “especialización” en el pregrado. Entre ellas, la principal sería la de la medicina familiar, que es la versión moderna de la medicina general (Patiño 1991, 1992a,b,1993ab.

    La moderna organización social y las nuevas modalidades de prestación de

  2. DETECTION OF A HYDROGEN CORONA IN HST Ly α IMAGES OF EUROPA IN TRANSIT OF JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Lorenz; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Schlatter, Nicola [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Retherford, Kurt D.; Becker, Tracy M.; Grava, Cesare [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Strobel, Darrell F. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We report far-ultraviolet observations of Europa in transit of Jupiter obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope on six occasions between 2014 December and 2015 March. Absorption of Jupiter’s bright hydrogen Ly α dayglow is detected in a region several moon radii above the limb in all observations. The observed extended absorption provides the first detection of an atomic hydrogen corona around Europa. Molecular constituents in Europa’s global sputtered atmosphere are shown to be optically thin to Ly α . The observations are consistent with a radially escaping H corona with maximum densities at the surface in the range of (1.5–2.2) × 10{sup 3} cm{sup −3}, confirming the abundances predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we search for anomalies around the limb of Europa from absorption by localized high H{sub 2}O abundances from active plumes. No significant local absorption features are detected. We find that an H{sub 2}O plume with line-of-sight column density in the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, as inferred by Roth et al. would not be detectable based on the statistical fluctuations of the transit measurements, and hence is not excluded or further constrained. The presence of plumes with line-of-sight column densities of >2 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} can be excluded at a 3- σ level during five of our six observations.

  3. Duda y posmodernidad: el ocaso de la secularización en Europa

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    EDUARDO BERICAT ALASTUEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un análisis empírico y teórico desarrollado con el objeto de determinar el estado actual de la religiosidad en Europa, es decir, el grado en que los europeos se adscriben bien a una cosmovisión religiosa, bien a una cosmovisión secular. Aplicando el Análisis de Correspondencias Múltiples y el Análisis de Cluster K-medias a los datos de la encuesta europea "Religión-II", del ISSP, se ha elaborado una tipología compuesta por cinco posiciones culturales básicas: religiosos, creyentes, escépticos, agnósticos y ateos. Estos resultados han puesto de manifiesto tanto la extensión cuantitativa como la importancia cualitativa del escepticismo. Mediante la interpretación del contenido de cada uno de los tipos, se muestra que el escepticismo frente a las opciones religiosa o secular constituye en este momento una clave esencial de la cultura europea. No puede hablarse de un claro retorno de lo religioso, pero es evidente que el proceso de secularización ha perdido parte de su fuerza original. La Europa posmoderna se encuentra inmersa en una encrucijada cultural, y tendrá que decidir sobre su futuro. El artículo termina exponiendo las tres posibles estrategias de salida de la duda: la resolución kierkegaardiana, mediante la que los europeos afirmarán posiciones religiosas o seculares excluyentes; la solución borgiana, mediante la que se hibridarán las formas y contenidos religiosos y seculares; y la disolución hegeliana, mediante la que quizás Europa despliegue en el futuro una síntesis cultural nueva construida con los restos de las viejas cosmovisiones religiosa y secular.

  4. Historiografía española sobre Europa Central y Oriental. Nacionalismo, transiciones poscomunistas y relaciones exteriores

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez García, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    La historiografía española no ha prestado especial atención a la Europa central y oriental pues sus objetivos han estado localizados en otros entornos geográficos como la Europa Occidental o América. Sin embargo, desde la caída de las dictaduras comunistas se despertó un gran interés por esta zona de Europa, interés que nació primero en los estudios económicos y políticos y que poco a poco ha ido trasladándose a la historia. [ABSTRAC]Traditionally, Spanish historiography hasn’t paid attent...

  5. Mujeres delincuentes e imaginarios. Criminología, cine y nota roja en México, 1940-1950

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    MARTHA SANTILLÁN ESQUEDA

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La modernización política y económica impulsada por los gobiernos tras la Revolución Mexicana, repercutió en la apertura de espacios para el desenvolvimiento de mujeres fuera del ámbito doméstico. La especialización de la criminología y la profesionalización de medios de comunicación, ligados a un fuerte conservadurismo, coadyuvaron en la conformación de un notorio temor ante tal fenómeno, asumiendo que ello pudiera provocar en las mujeres el relajamiento de la moral y, en consecuencia, conductas delictivas. El artículo analiza la conformación de imaginarios en torno a la mujer delincuente en un periodo de notorio auge tanto del cine como de la nota roja. Al presentar a las criminales como un ser monstruoso y perverso, imagen que no distaba mucho de las ideas criminológicas, se prolongaban temores existentes en torno a la delincuencia femenina pero también se fortalecía la concepción de una feminidad atada al espacio doméstico. Se estudian filmes, prensa nota roja, diarios de circulación nacional y artículos criminológicos.

  6. Historia política y social contemporánea de Europa. Siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Samaniego Boneu, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Materiales de clase: 1.1789-1870. La era de las revoluciones. El ascenso de la burguesía y la aparición del proletariado. Tema 1: La Revolución en Francia. La penetración de la revolución en Europa. Elsistema y la obra de Napoleón. (Parte 1) (Parte 2); Tema 2: La contrarrevolución europea: El Congreso de Viena. Francia: desde laetapa de la Restauración al Segundo Imperio. Reino Unido: Restablecimiento y reforma: la era Palmerston . (Parte 1) (Parte 2); Tema 3: El diagnóstico microbiológico e...

  7. Fault offsets and lateral crustal movement on Europa - Evidence for a mobile ice shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, P.M.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    An examination is conducted of Europa's cross-cutting structural relationships between various lineament types, in order to constrain the type of structure involved in each such case and, where possible, to also constrain the degree of extension across the lineaments. Evidence is adduced for significant lateral crustal movement, allowing alternative models and mechanisms for lineament formation to be discussed, as well as plausible lithospheric and crustal models. The question as to whether any of the water-ice layer has been, or currently is, liquid, is also treated in light of the evidence obtained. 53 refs

  8. Las cubiertas medievales de los templos del sur de Europa: procedimientos de intervención

    OpenAIRE

    Benitez Bodes, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Falta resumen y palabras claves Esta Tesis centra su estudio en las cubiertas de los templos medievales (s.XIII-s.XVI) resueltas mediante azoteas o trasdosados en el Sur de Europa, solución particular que fue posible gracias a, fundamentalmente, la climatología, el comportamiento sísmico del ámbito geográfico donde se utiliza, la disponibilidad y acceso a las materias primas necesarias y la integración de culturas y tradiciones constructivas heredadas presentes en todo el arco del mar Medi...

  9. El otro como punto de referencia para la educación en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Wulf, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    En Europa la educación se tiene que convertir en una responsabilidad intercultural que considere las similitudes y diferencias entre las diferentes culturas. Cada cultura es una diversidad profunda. Por eso es importante fortalecer eso que es "otro" y apoyar la particularidades de cada cultura dada. Aceptar las diferencias es condición para crear una conciencia intercultural. El otro es un espejo en el cual vemos, descubrimos y nos investigamos a nosotros mismos. Él es la contraparte de l...

  10. Hybrid Simulation of the Interaction of Europa's Atmosphere with the Jovian Plasma: Multiprocessor Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, V. J.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.; Cassidy, T. A.; Crary, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    We model the interaction of Europa's tenuous atmosphere with the plasma of Jupiter's torus with an improved version of our hybrid plasma code. In a hybrid plasma code, the ions are treated as kinetic Macro-particles moving under the Lorentz force and the electrons as a fluid leading to a generalized formulation of Ohm's law. In this version, the spatial simulation domain is decomposed in 2 directions and is non-uniform in the plasma convection direction. The code is run on a multi-processor supercomputer that offers 16416 cores and 2GB Ram per core. This new version allows us to tap into the large memory of the supercomputer and simulate the full interaction volume (Reuropa=1561km) with a high spatial resolution (50km). Compared to Io, Europa's atmosphere is about 100 times more tenuous, the ambient magnetic field is weaker and the density of incident plasma is lower. Consequently, the electrodynamic interaction is also weaker and substantial fluxes of thermal torus ions might reach and sputter the icy surface. Molecular O2 is the dominant atmospheric product of this surface sputtering. Observations of oxygen UV emissions (specifically the ratio of OI 1356A / 1304A emissions) are roughly consistent with an atmosphere that is composed predominantely of O2 with a small amount of atomic O. Galileo observations along flybys close to Europa have revealed the existence of induced currents in a conducting ocean under the icy crust. They also showed that, from flyby to flyby, the plasma interaction is very variable. Asymmetries of the plasma density and temperature in the wake of Europa were also observed and still elude a clear explanation. Galileo mag data also detected ion cyclotron waves, which is an indication of heavy ion pickup close to the moon. We prescribe an O2 atmosphere with a vertical density column consistent with UV observations and model the plasma properties along several Galileo flybys of the moon. We compare our results with the magnetometer

  11. LA REPRODUCCIÓN ASISTIDA EN EUROPA: LA LABOR ARMONIZADORA DEL TRIBUNAL EUROPEO DE DERECHOS HUMANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mª DEL PILAR MOLERO MARTÍN-SALAS

    2016-01-01

    Uno de los principales avances científicos de las últimas décadas ha sido la reproducción asistida. Ello ha provocado la aparición de nuevos problemas jurídicos que han sido resueltos en Europa por sus Estados miembro de manera heterogénea, convirtiendo la interpretación del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos en estos últimos años en necesaria y crucial para entender la regulación europea al respecto. En este trabajo se muestra la labor de interpretación realizada por el Tribunal respec...

  12. Revolucions, màquines i música a l'Europa de 1800

    OpenAIRE

    Brugarolas, Oriol, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Els processos revolucionaris que es desenvoluparen a Europa entre la segona meitat del segle XVIII i el primer terç del segle XIX varen soscavar els fonaments de l’Antic Règim i van portar a la formació del món contemporani. Tot es transformà, lenta i gradualment al llarg de tres generacions: la industria va substituir l’artesania i la manufactura; els sistemes monàrquics absolutistes van anar desapareixent per donar pas a sistemes polítics liberals parlamentaris; la societat estamental va de...

  13. La justiciabilidad de los derechos sociales en el Consejo de Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Nivard, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Los derechos sociales están generalmente menos protegidos que los derechos civiles y políticos. Sin embargo, en el ámbito del Consejo de Europa, los sistemas de la Carta social europea y del Convenio europeo de los derechos humanos ofrecen las condiciones para un avanzar hacia la justiciabilidad de los derechos sociales. El Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos evoluciona y adopta una interpretación dinámica que amplía los derechos del Convenio europeo hasta la esfera social. Por otra parte, e...

  14. A Europa, as migrações e o cosmopolitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Sacramento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO análise aqui delineado discute as posturas das fronteiras europeias em relação aos desafios colocados pelos fluxos migratórios externos. É dada especial atenção à forma como a Europa, através do Acordo de Schengen, estabelece uma combinação estratégica entre a livre circulação de certas categorias de pessoas e o bloqueio de muitas outras mobilidades “indesejados”. Ao mesmo tempo, são considerados resumidamente as políticas de identidade subjacentes a seletividade do espaço Schengen e seu impacto sobre um projecto europeu pós-nacional e cosmopolita. Palavras-chave: Europa, Migração externa, Fronteiras e limites, Seletividade, Cosmopolitismo. Resumen En el análisis esbozado aquí se analizan las actitudes en las fronteras europeas en relación con los retos que plantea la migración externa. Se presta especial atención a la forma en Europa a través del Acuerdo de Schengen, establece una combinación estratégica de la libre circulación de ciertas categorías de personas y el bloqueo de muchas otras movilida- des “no deseadas”. Al mismo tiempo, se consideran brevemente la política de la identidad subyacente en la selectividad de la zona Schengen y su impacto en un proyecto europeo post-nacional y cosmopolita. Palabras clave: Europa, La migración externa, Fronteras y límites, La selectividad, Cosmopolitismo. Abstract The analysis outlined in this paper discusses the attitudes of the European borders in relation to the challenges posed by external migration flows. Special attention is given to the way Europe, through the Schengen Agreement, establishes a strategic combination between the free movement of certain categories of people and the blocking of many other “un- wanted” mobilities. At the same time, the paper briefly considers the identity policies underlying the selectivity of the Schengen area and their impact on a post-national and cosmopolitan European project

  15. Bιβλιοκρισία: M. ALTRIPP (Ηrsg., Byzanz in Europa. Europas östliches Erbe. [BYZANTIOS. Studies in Byzantine History and Civilization 2], Turnhout 2011, ISBN 978-2-503-54153-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Στυλιανός ΛΑΜΠΑΚΗΣ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Βιβλιοκρισία: M. Altripp (Ηrsg., Byzanz in Europa. Europas östliches Erbe. Akten des Kolloquiums 'Byzanz in Europa' vom 11. bis 15. Dezember 2007 in Greifswald [BYZANTIOS. Studies in Byzantine History and Civilization 2], Turnhout 2011, σελ. X + 502, 79 πίν., ISBN 978-2-503-54153-2 (printed version- 978-2-503-54193-8 (online version.

  16. Heredabilidad y repetibilidad de la nota de tienta y de lidia en una ganadería de reses bravas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán C. Carlos Vicente

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A study in the bullfight herd of Ernesto González Caicedo located in the Department of Cauca, Colombia, mostly of Santa Coloma lineage (a strain of bull-fighting cattle, either pure bred or up graded, evaluated between 1963 and 1994. The information arose from 948 standing records of "Nota de Tienta" (a quantitative test given to females to evaluate their potential for the bullfight. The test is used to select breeding darns and also used in males to select the future sires and "Nota de Lidia" (a quantitative test given to bulls to evaluate their overall performance in the bullfight. The Nota de Tienta and Nota de Lidia may not allow to make comparisons due the differences between both practices, but a "t" test to determinate evaluation type and sex effects over the calculate parameters showed them to be comparable (P <0.05. The repeatability was estimated as 0.18, a value inferior to the estimated heritability index h2 = 0.24. The difference may be explained by a bias in the estimated values of temporal and permanent environmental variances resulting from special environmental effects which influence on the behavior of the animal when it is tested.

    Se realizó un estudio en la ganadería de lidia de Ernesto González Caicedo, fundamentalmente de origen Santa Coloma, pura o por cruza absorbente de ganado mexicano, ubicada en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia. La información utilizada constó de 948 Notas de Tienta y de Lidia entre 1963 y 1994. Las notas de Tienta y de Lidia, que por el desarrollo un tanto diferente de las dos prácticas, pueden no permitir comparaciones, resultaron equiparables luego de realizar una prueba de "t" para medir efectos del tipo de evaluación y el sexo sobre la nota obtenida (P<0.05. La repetibilidad estimada para estas variables resultó en rxx= 0.18, un valor inferior al índice de heredabilidad obtenido durante la misma investigación, calculado en h2 = 0.24, a través de diferentes

  17. Notas teóricas en torno al concepto de postproductivismo agrario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé A. Armesto López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el surgimiento del término postproductivismo y aportar una base teórica que pueda servir para el posterior empleo de este concepto por parte de los investigadores rurales interesados en estudiar este fenómeno en España. Así, después de una primera parte introductoria, se explican cuestiones acerca del origen y ubicación científica del término. Además se inscribe en el contexto rural a partir del cual deriva la materia agraria, de la misma manera que desde la Unión Europea (UE se pretende que se entiendan los nuevos campos europeos desde las premisas de la sostenibilidad y la multifuncionalidad. De este modo, el postproductivismo expresa esa nueva ruralidad que se predica nominalmente desde las instituciones públicas, a pesar de que la realidad sobre el terreno sea bien diferente ya que los sistemas productivistas siguen gozando de una gran aceptación entre la inmensa mayoría de los agricultores y ganaderos de toda Europa.

  18. Fingerprints of endogenous process on Europa through linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa harbors a very young surface dated, based on cratering rates, to 10-50 M.y (Zahnle et al. 1998, Pappalardo et al. 1999). This young age implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing, partially engendered by a global salty subsurface liquid ocean that could result in tectonic activity (Schmidt et al. 2011, Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and active plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface of Europa should contain important clues about the composition of this sub-surface briny ocean and about the potential presence of material of exobiological interest in it, thus reinforcing Europa as a major target of interest for upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE. To perform the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow mineral signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Until recently, a large majority of studies only proposed sulfate salts along with sulfuric acid hydrate and water-ice to be present on Europa's surface. However, recent works based on Europa's surface coloration in the visible wavelength range and NIR spectral analysis support the hypothesis of the predominance of chlorine salts instead of sulfate salts (Hand & Carlson 2015, Fischer et al. 2015). Our linear spectral modeling supports this new hypothesis insofar as the use of Mg-bearing chlorines improved the fits whatever the region. As expected, the distribution of sulfuric acid hydrate is correlated to the Iogenic sulfur ion implantation flux distribution (Hendrix et al

  19. Das margens para o centro: as geografias pós-modernas no estúdio da gentrificaçao

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Luís

    2011-01-01

    O desenvolvimento deste breve artigo constrói-se num percurso de discussão e reflexão teóricas das questões gerais inerentes às recentes tendências pós-modernas da evolução do pensamento geográfico, e do seu reflexo na metodologia e conceptualização a que recorrem os principais académicos dos estudos urbanos para o estudo da gentrificação. Procurar-se-á, assim, interpretar este tema da geografia urbana equacionando-o sob o signo dos posicionamentos normativos gerais deste moviment...

  20. Secretarios y secretarías en la Edad Moderna: de las manos del príncipe a relojeros de la Monarquía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria LÓPEZ-CORDÓN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Muchas clases de secretarios conviven en la cercanía del Monarca a lo largo de la Edad Moderna, y mucho cambian los más significativos de todos ellos, los del Consejo de Estado, definiendo unos perfiles originariamente borrosos y ampliando su campo de acción hasta situarse en el vértice del organigrama administrativo. Y no menos ha variado la perspectiva desde la que se ha venido contemplando este proceso, desde la puramente funcional a los intentos de caracterización sociológica de los últimos años.

  1. Andrea Caracausi e Antonio Conzato (a cura di) (2013). Formazione alla politica, politica della formazione a Venezia in Età moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Giani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Il volume raccoglie gli Atti del Convegno svoltosi nel maggio 2011 presso l’Università di Padova, avente come tema «La formazione dei ceti dirigenti, o comunque eminenti, della Serenissima in Età moderna» (p. 7). Dopo una breve introduzione a cura di Giuseppe Gullino, apre le danze un frizzante intervento di Gino Benzoni («Le accademie e il tabù della politica»), il quale miscela il discorso storico propriamente detto sulle accademie in territorio veneto con i propri ricordi personali di acca...

  2. À "frente" da Semana de Arte Moderna: a presença de Graça Aranha e Paulo Prado

    OpenAIRE

    Waldman,Thaís

    2010-01-01

    Reconhecidos como personagens centrais pelo grupo de intelectuais e artistas ligados à Semana de Arte Moderna de 1922, Graça Aranha e Paulo Prado são muitas vezes deixados de lado pelos estudiosos e, em geral, se fazem presentes nas análises de bastidores e/ou em referências de terceiros. Este artigo pretende observar mais atentamente suas redes de sociabilidade e inserção, o que revela, entre outras coisas, as ambivalências do engate de ambos os autores em um projeto "moderno", assim como ce...

  3. "Entre dos mundos" : las relaciones diplomáticas hispano-musulmanas durante la Edad Moderna : una breve síntesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernando Gómez Vozmediano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se ocupa, de forma breve y sintética, de una serie de contactos diplomáticos protagonizados durante la Edad Moderna por intermediarios (mercaderes, rescatadores de cautivos, renegados... que trabajaban al servicio de la Monarquía hispánica y de los gobiernos que conforman el actual Magreb.The present article briefly analyses a serie of diplomatic contacts carried out by intermediaries (merchants, redeemers of captives, renegades… serving the Spanish Monarchy and the North Africa governments all along the Early Modern Age.

  4. De conflictos y acuerdos: la estrategia familiar y el juego del género en la época moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas Peñarrocha, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Este breve escrito parte de una propuesta que puede significar un pequeño avance más en la historia del género. Se centra en una época que aunque lejana, la edad moderna, constituye el punto de partida del patriarcado: la construcción del Estado, Trento, constituyen eventos que van a tener lugar entonces y van a dejar sentir marcadamente su impronta sobre la familia y las relaciones de género. La propuesta exhibe la importancia de estudiar el género en el marco familiar desde el concepto de e...

  5. Growth and uptake of nutrients curves in star fruit plants budded with nota 10 cultivar Marcha de absorção de nutrientes e crescimento de mudas de caramboleira enxertada com a cultivar nota-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burani Arouca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of star fruit seedlings must be adequate for a successful field implementation. The objective of the present work was to study the growth and uptake of macro e micronutrients curves by star fruit plants budded with Nota 10 cultivar in nutrient solution conditions. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with four replications and six treatments, which were consisted by the times of collects during the 150 days of the experiment (each 25 days. In each collection, the plant growth was evaluated by the division of the plants in root, stem and leaves in order to obtain the height, diameter of the stem, leave area and the dry matter. The accumulation of dry matter followed sigmoidal adjustment, while the uptake of nutrients followed quadratic adjustment, except Mg, P, and Cu that followed sigmoidal adjustment. The accumulation of nutrients by star fruit seedlings ‘nota 10’ followed the sequence: NO adequado estado nutricional das mudas de caramboleira permite o sucesso da implantação de um pomar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a marcha de absorção de nutrientes e o crescimento de mudas enxertadas de caramboleira ‘Nota 10’ produzida em solução nutritiva. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos tempos de coleta (25; 50; 75; 100; 125 e 150 dias após o início da brotação das borbulhas. As plantas foram avaliadas quanto a: altura, diâmetro do enxerto e do porta-enxerto, área foliar e massa da matéria seca (folhas, caule e raízes. Nos diferentes órgãos das mudas, determinou-se o acúmulo de macronutrientes. O acúmulo de massa seca das mudas de caramboleira apresentou ajuste sigmoidal, enquanto o acúmulo de nutrientes apresentou incremento quadrático, exceto Mg, P e Cu, que foi sigmoidal, obedecendo à seguinte sequência: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg>Fe>Mn>Zn>B>Cu, sendo maior nas

  6. Improved OSC Amtec generator design to meet goals of JPL's candidate Europa Orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-01-01

    The preceding paper (Paper IECEC.98.244) described OSC's initial designs of AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) power systems, consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and with 16 refractory AMTEC cells containing 5 Beta Alumina Solid Electrolyte (BASE) tubes; and presented the effect of heat input and voltage output on the generator's BOM evaporator and clad temperatures and on its EOM system efficiency and power output. Comparison of the computed results with JPL's goals for the Europa Orbiter mission showed that all of the initial 16-cell design options yielded either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures or insufficient EOM power to satisfy the JPL-specified mission goals. The present paper describes modified OSC generator designs with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell. These efforts succeeded in identifying generator designs with only half the number of AMTEC cells which -- for the same assumptions -- can produce EOM power outputs substantially in excess of JPL's goals for NASA's Europa Orbiter mission while operating well below the prescribed BOM limits on evaporator and clad temperature; and revealed that lowering the emissivity of the generator's housing to raise the cells' condenser temperatures can achieve substantial additional performance improvement. Finally, the paper culminates in programmatic recommendations

  7. Fronteras imaginadas y estereotipos : la creación de un monstruo llamado Europa del Este

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esparza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se observa como se han formado en el «oeste», desde la Guerra Fría hasta hoy, algunos estereotipos negativos sobre la marca «Europa del Este», la cual está cargada de connotaciones negativas (ciudades grises, guerras, inmigración ilegal, pobreza o criminalidad. Al mismo tiempo, como si de un oasis se tratara, se observa parojicamente como la marca Praga o Budapest (capitales de países de «Europa del Este» no son percibidas negativamente, precisamente porque no están relacionadas directamente con el Este, sino con centroeuropa y con imágenes positivas asociadas a la herencia artístico-cultural de los imperios centrales: el sacro imperio germano-romano y el austrohúngaro.In this article it is observed how from the Cold War till today have been formed in the West significant stereotypes towards Eastern Europe, which are endowed with negative images, such as grey towns, illegal immigration, wars, poverty or criminality. At the same time it is observed, paradoxically, how the brand Prague or Budapest (capitals of «Eastern European» countries are not perceived negatively, precisely because they are not directly associated with the East, but with the cultural heritage form the old central empires: the Sacred Roman-German empire first, and the Habsburg empire later.

  8. Von der Europäischen Rechtsgeschichte zu einer Rechtsgeschichte Europas in globalhistorischer Perspektive

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    Thomas Duve

    2012-01-01

    In den letzten Jahren sind im Zuge der Diskussion um postkoloniale Perspektiven auf die Geschichte, um Transnationale und Globalgeschichte, viele Grundlagen der traditionellen Europahistoriographie kritisiert und massiv erschüttert worden. Das wirft Fragen auch an die Europäische Rechtsgeschichte auf: Welches Europabild liegt ihr zu Grunde? Auf welchen intellektuellen und konzeptionellen Grundlagen beruht sie? Wie antwortet sie auf die Vorwürfe des Eurozentrismus, des epistemischen Kolonialismus, wie auf die Forderung, Europa zu ›provinzialisieren‹? Wie definiert sie das Verhältnis der Europäischen zur Transnationalen und Globalen Rechtsgeschichte? – Diesen und ähnlichen Fragen wenden sich die folgenden Überlegungen zu. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf einer Auseinandersetzung mit der Tradition, ihren konzeptionellen Grundlagen und deren wissenschaftshistorischem Kontext (1. Teil, 1.–6.. Aus dieser kritischen Bestandsaufnahme und den Ergebnissen der Debatte um Globalgeschichte ergeben sich Ausgangspunkte und Aufgaben einer in Vielem auf den Leistungen der Disziplin aufbauenden, doch notwendigerweise auf einer anderen Konzeption beruhenden Rechtsgeschichte Europas in globalhistorischer Perspektive (2. Teil, 7.–11..

  9. El caso Breivik como paradigma de la nueva violencia política en Europa

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    Jesús Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras el doble atentado en Noruega del 22 de julio de 2011 cometido por Anders Behring Breivik, el terrorismo en Europa se enfrenta a una nueva amenaza. La novedad ideológica de Breivik es escasa, salvo por actualizar peligros que parecían del pasado. Por el contrario, su novedad operativa sí es relevante, ya que demuestra la posibilidad de la actuación de "lobos solitarios" en Europa y ejemplifica de qué manera el occidental medio puede actuar con un potencial muy alto de causar daños. Se concluye con el avance de un nuevo paradigma, el de sujetos que actúan movidos políticamente por un objetivo irrealizable, para favorecer a grupos que son extremadamente abstractos o no existen, lo que les proporciona un blindaje ideológico sin capacidad alta de movilización pero con destacadas cotas de destrucción.

  10. Commentary: The Feasibility of Subduction and Implications for Plate Tectonics on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenhorn, Simon A.

    2018-03-01

    A new modeling-based study by Johnson et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005370) lends support to the hypothesis that portions of Europa's surface may have been removed by the process of subduction, as suggested by Kattenhorn and Prockter (2014, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO2245). Using a simple 1-D model that tracks the thermal and density structure of a descending ice plate, Johnson et al. show that ice plates with 10% porosity and overall salt contents of 5%, which differ in salt content by 2.5% from the surrounding reference ice shell, are nonbuoyant and thus likely to sink through the underlying, convecting portion of the ice shell. The feasibility of subduction in an ice shell is critical to the existence of icy plate tectonics, which is hypothesized to exist at least locally on Europa, potentially making it the only other Solar System body other than Earth with a surface modified by plate tectonics.

  11. Czesław Miłosz’s Migrant Perspective in Rodzinna Europa [Native Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołodziejczyk Ewa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the impact of Czesław Miłosz’s first American stay on his image of Central Europe in Rodzinna Europa [Native Realm]. In the United States, the post-war immigrant from Vilnius learned to perceive, understand and evaluate American culture; he also gained a new perspective on his region of Europe and Slavic immigrants. This experience enabled him to adopt an American point of view in his autobiographical essay. Following William Faulkner, Miłosz carries on an analysis of Eastern and Central Europe’s history and identities. The uses Western historical and sociological glossary to describe processes that formed his “native realm.” Analogically, the poet from pre-war Vilnius reflects on American multi-ethnicity and religious diversity from a Central European perspective. In Rodzinna Europa, Miłosz takes the position of a migrant translator and a two-way mediator between East and West.

  12. Thermal Coupling Between the Ocean and Mantle of Europa: Implications for Ocean Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderlund, Krista M.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Wicht, Johannes; Blankenship, Donald D.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic induction signatures at Europa indicate the presence of a subsurface ocean beneath the cold icy crust. The underlying mantle is heated by radioactive decay and tidal dissipation, leading to a thermal contrast sufficient to drive convection and active dynamics within the ocean. Radiogenic heat sources may be distributed uniformly in the interior, while tidal heating varies spatially with a pattern that depends on whether eccentricity or obliquity tides are dominant. The distribution of mantle heat flow along the seafloor may therefore be heterogeneous and impact the regional vigor of ocean convection. Here, we use numerical simulations of thermal convection in a global, Europa-like ocean to test the sensitivity of ocean dynamics to variations in mantle heat flow patterns. Towards this end, three end-member cases are considered: an isothermal seafloor associated with dominant radiogenic heating, enhanced seafloor temperatures at high latitudes associated with eccentricity tides, and enhanced equatorial seafloor temperatures associated with obliquity tides. Our analyses will focus on convective heat transfer since the heat flux pattern along the ice-ocean interface can directly impact the ice shell and the potential for geologic activity within it.

  13. Detectability of thermal signatures associated with active formation of ‘chaos terrain’ on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Oleg; Rathbun, J.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Spencer, John R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent study by Schmidt et al. (2011) suggests that Thera Macula, one of the “chaos regions” on Europa, may be actively forming over a large liquid water lens. Such a process could conceivably produce a thermal anomaly detectable by a future Europa orbiter or flyby mission, allowing for a direct verification of this finding. Here, we present a set of models that quantitatively assess the surface and subsurface temperatures associated with an actively resurfacing chaos region using constraints from Thera Macula. The results of this numerical study suggest that the surface temperature over an active chaos region can be as high as ∼200 K. However, low-resolution Galileo Photo-Polarimeter Radiometer (PPR) observations indicate temperatures below 120 K over Thera Macula. This suggests that Thera Macula is not currently active unless an insulating layer of at least a few centimeters in thickness is present, or activity is confined to small regions, reducing the overall intensity of the thermal signature. Alternatively, Thera may have been cooling for at least 10–100 yr and still contain a subsurface lake, which can take ∼300,000 yr to crystallize. According to the present study, a more sensitive instrument capable of detecting anomalies ∼5 K above ambient could detect activity at Thera Macula even if an insulating layer of ∼50 cm is present.

  14. Rutas y lugares de patrimonio industrial en Europa : consideraciones sobre su aprovechamiento turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Pardo Abad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas zonas de Europa se han caracterizado en los dos últimos siglos a través de la actividad industrial. Los edificios industriales son tanto el testimonio del desarrollo económico y social como la expresión de la identidad regional. Conservándolos y haciendo de ellos algo útil para la población se consigue mantener vivo un importante aspecto de la historia europea, creando una base potencial para un nuevo desarrollo económico y regional. El patrimonio industrial ofrece muchas oportunidades como recurso turístico y hay muchos ejemplos al respecto en Europa: museos, centros culturales y de interpretación se han abierto en viejas fábricas ya abandonadas.Many areas of Europe have been characterised in recent centuries by industrial activity. Industrial buildings are both the witness of economic and social development and the expression of regional identity. Preserving them and making them available to the population helps to keep this important aspect of European history alive, and creates a potential basis for new economic and regional development. Industrial heritage offers many opportunities as a tourist resource and there are numerous examples in Europe: museums, cultural and interpretation centres have been created in old abandoned faetones.

  15. The San Andreas Fault and a Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The mosaic on the right of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault on Earth which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. The left mosaic shows the portion of the San Andreas fault near California's san Francisco Bay that has been scaled to the same size and resolution as the Europa image. Each covers an area approximately 170 by 193 kilometers(105 by 120 miles). The red line marks the once active central crack of the Europan fault (right) and the line of the San Andreas fault (left). A strike-slip fault is one in which two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. The overall motion along the Europan fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the entire length of the feature, with a path resembling stepson a staircase crossing zones which have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. Opposite sides of the fault can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides as well as older individual cracks and ridges that had been broken by its movements. Bends in the Europan fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This pulling-apart along the fault's bends created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, and in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may

  16. Radiation Testing at Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia – JPL Collaboration for Europa Lander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Ion Beam Lab.; Olszewska-Wasiolek, Maryla Aleksandra [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Gamma Irradiation Facility

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is assisting Jet Propulsion Laboratory in undertaking feasibility studies and performance assessments for the Planetary Protection aspect of the Europa Lander mission. The specific areas of interest for this project are described by task number. This white paper presents the evaluation results for Task 2, Radiation Testing, which was stated as follows: Survey SNL facilities and capabilities for simulating the Europan radiation environment and assess suitability for: A. Testing batteries, electronics, and other component and subsystems B. Exposing biological organisms to assess their survivability metrics. The radiation environment the Europa Lander will encounter on route and in orbit upon arrival at its destination consists primarily of charged particles, energetic protons and electrons with the energies up to 1 GeV. The charged particle environments can be simulated using the accelerators at the Ion Beam Laboratory. The Gamma Irradiation Facility and its annex, the Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility, offer irradiations using Co-60 gamma sources (1.17 and 1.33 MeV), as well as Cs-137 gamma (0.661 MeV) AmBe neutron (0-10 MeV) sources.

  17. Acuidade visual: Medidas e notações Visual acuity: Measurements and notations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley E. A. Bicas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliações da função visual são muito complexas por dependerem de mecanismos aferentes, eferentes e cognitivos, além de fatores externos à pessoa examinada, como o tipo de estímulo e o de sua apresentação. O exame da acuidade visual é discutido em seus aspectos formais de definições, quantificações (critérios de medição de um ângulo e tamanho dos optotipos, notações (decimal ou fracionárias, escalas (representando relações angulares, lineares, logarítmicas e unidades em que os valores são expressos (recíproca do minuto de arco, número puro, freqüência espacial, decibéis e oitavas. Como conseqüência, referências numéricas sobre a acuidade visual e operações que as envolvem (p.ex., cálculo de valores médios, determinação de variações, relações entre elas podem levar a interpretações muito diferentes e até opostas num mesmo estudo, dependendo dos critérios nele empregados.Evaluations of the visual function are very intricate since they depend on afferent, efferent and cognitive mechanisms, besides external factors of the examined subject, such as the type of the stimulus and of its presentation. Testing the visual acuity is discussed in its formal aspects related to definitions, quantifications (criteria for the measurements of an angle, size of optotypes, notations (decimal or fractionary, scales (representing angular, linear or logarithmic relationships and units in which the values are expressed (reciprocal of minutes of arc, pure number, spacial frequency, decibels, octaves. As a consequence, numerical references about visual acuity and respective operations (e.g., calculations of average values, determinations of variations, relationships between them may lead to very different interpretations of a study, sometimes even opposite, according to the criteria which are used.

  18. Design of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle to Calibrate the Europa Clipper Ice-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W.; Siegel, V.; Kimball, P.; Richmond, K.; Flesher, C.; Hogan, B.; Lelievre, S.

    2013-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has been prioritized as the target for the Europa Clipper flyby mission. A key science objective for the mission is to remotely characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange. This objective is a critical component of the mission's overarching goal of assessing the habitability of Europa. The instrument targeted for addressing key aspects of this goal is an ice-penetrating radar (IPR). As a primary goal of our work, we will tightly couple airborne IPR studies of the Ross Ice Shelf by the Europa Clipper radar team with ground-truth data to be obtained from sub-glacial sonar and bio-geochemical mapping of the corresponding ice-water and water-rock interfaces using an advanced autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The ARTEMIS vehicle - a heavily morphed long-range, low drag variant of the highly successful 4-degree-of-freedom hovering sub-ice ENDURANCE bot -- will be deployed from a sea-ice drill hole adjacent the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) and will perform three classes of missions. The first includes original exploration and high definition mapping of both the ice-water interface and the benthic interface on a length scale (approximately 10 kilometers under-ice penetration radius) that will definitively tie it to the synchronous airborne IPR over-flights. These exploration and mapping missions will be conducted at up to 10 different locations along the MIS in order to capture varying ice thickness and seawater intrusion into the ice shelf. Following initial mapping characterization, the vehicle will conduct astrobiology-relevant proximity operations using bio-assay sensors (custom-designed UV fluorescence and machine-vision-processed optical imagery) followed by point-targeted studies at regions of interest. Sample returns from the ice-water interface will be triggered autonomously using real-time-processed instrument data and onboard decision-to-collect algorithms

  19. The rotation and fracture history of Europa from modeling of tidal-tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose

    Europa's surface displays a complex history of tectonic activity, much of which has been linked to tidal stress caused by Europa's eccentric orbit and possibly non-synchronous rotation of the ice shell. Cycloids are arcuate features thought to have formed in response to tidal normal stress while strike-slip motion along preexisting faults has been attributed to tidal shear stress. Tectonic features thus provide constraints on the rotational parameters that govern tidal stress, and can help us develop an understanding of the tidal-tectonic processes operating on ice covered ocean moons. In the first part of this work (Chapter 3), I test tidal models that include obliquity, fast precession, stress due to non-synchronous rotation (NSR), and physical libration by comparing how well each model reproduces observed cycloids. To do this, I have designed and implemented an automated parameter-searching algorithm that relies on a quantitative measure of fit quality to identify the best fits to observed cycloids. I apply statistical techniques to determine the tidal model best supported by the data and constrain the values of Europa's rotational parameters. Cycloids indicate a time-varying obliquity of about 1° and a physical libration in phase with the eccentricity libration, with amplitude >1°. To obtain good fits, cycloids must be translated in longitude, which implies non-synchronous rotation of the icy shell. However, stress from NSR is not well-supported, indicating that the rotation rate is slow enough that these stresses relax. I build upon the results of cycloid modeling in the second section by applying calculations of tidal stress that include obliquity to the formation of strike-slip faults. I predict the slip directions of faults with the standard formation model---tidal walking (Chapter 5)---and with a new mechanical model I have developed, called shell tectonics (Chapter 6). The shell tectonics model incorporates linear elasticity to determine slip and stress

  20. Florence Nightingale: Apontamentos sobre a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna Florence Nightingale: Apuntes sobre la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna Florence Nightingale: Notes on the founder of Modern Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Marlene Macário Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avançada para a sua época, mas ao mesmo tempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizou o exercício da Enfermagem, permitindo o estabelecimento de uma nova profissão para a mulher. Mulher bem formada e culta, recorreu aos seus conhecimentos e estatuto social para influenciar a política de saúde e educação, na sua época. Prestou cuidados de enfermagem aos doentes, durante a Guerra da Crimeia (1854-1856, afirmando a profissão de Enfermagem e dando início à sua caminhada para o estatuto de ícone e lenda. Este artigo constitui uma pequena recolha bibliográfica que pretende homenagear e dar a conhecer o percurso daquela que é considerada a fundadora da Enfermagem Moderna. Ao longo de 90 anos de vida, Florence Nightingale escreveu aproximadamente 20 mil cartas a amigos e conhecidos distinguidos e redigiu cerca de 200 obras repartidas entre livros, relatórios e panfletos que tiveram profundo impacto na saúde e na reorganização dos serviços de saúde. A sua obra foi de tal forma revolucionária e avançada que lhe permitiu um alcance mundial considerado, ainda hoje, pedra basilar na profissionalização da Enfermagem.Avanzada para su época, aunque al mismo tiempo conservadora, Florence Nightingale popularizó el ejercicio de la Enfermería, permitiendo el establecimiento de una nueva profesión para la mujer. Mujer bien formada y culta, recurrió a sus conocimientos y estatuto social para influenciar la política de salud y educación, en su época. Prestó cuidados de enfermería a enfermos, durante la Guerra de la Crimea (1854-1856, afirmando la profesión de la Enfermería y dando inicio a su recorrida hacia el estatuto de ícono y leyenda. Este artículo constituye una pequeña recolección bibliográfica que pretende homenajear y dar a conocer el trayecto de aquella que es considerada la fundadora de la Enfermería Moderna. A lo largo de 90 años de vida, Florence Nightingale escribió aproximadamente 20 mil cartas a

  1. Poder municipal y oligarquías urbanas en la Galicia moderna. Un balance y algunas reflexiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María LÓPEZ DÍAZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Tras dos décadas de estudios sobre el poder municipal y las oligarquías urbanas en la Galicia moderna, parece llegado el momento de hacer un alto en el camino para valorar los hallazgos y pensar en nuevas líneas de investigación. Tal es el objetivo de este artículo, donde la autora se plantea realizar un balance crítico de la producción historiografía sobre el tema. Para ello empieza ofreciendo un breve estado de la cuestión, donde señala algunas de las principales líneas de trabajo y problemas implícitos a una producción diversificada en métodos y planteamientos. Después, trata de calibrar los logros y aportaciones de las principales investigaciones, prestando una especial atención a las monografías y tesis de doctorado leídas durante estos años. Y, finalmente, expone algunas reflexiones en torno a aquellos aspectos y campos de investigación que, en su opinión, urgen o pueden estar llamados a prosperar en el futuro.ABSTRACT: After two decades of studies regarding local power and the urban oligarchy in modern Galicia, the time has come to make a pause to evaluate de findings and to consider new paths for research. This constitutes the aim of this article, where the author's purpose is to make a critical balance of the history research about this subject. Starting with a brief introduction resuming the advances made in the field, pointing out some of the lines of work and the problems raised by a diversified production in terms of methods and approaches of the subject. The author then attempts to evaluate the achievements and the contributions of the most important research work up to date, with a special emphasis on the monographs and doctorate thesis presented throughout the years, to finish with some considerations regarding those aspects, hypothesis and research fields which, in her opinion, need to be developed further or may constitute important paths of investigation in the future.

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Using NOTA and DOTA Derivatives as Bifunctional Chelating Agents in the Preparation of 68Ga-Labeled Porphyrin: Impact on Pharmacokinetics and Tumor Uptake in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleria, Mohini; Das, Tapas; Amirdhanayagam, Jeyachitra; Sarma, Haladhar D; Dash, Ashutosh

    2018-02-01

    Both NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) and DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) derivatives have been used as bifunctional chelating agents (BFCAs) for the preparation of 68 Ga-labeled target-specific agents having potential for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of cancerous lesions. In the present work, the authors have attempted a comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation between 68 Ga-labeled porphyrins prepared using NOTA and DOTA derivatives as the BFCAs. A symmetrical porphyrin derivative, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(p-carboxymethyleneoxyphenyl)porphyrin, was synthesized and coupled with two different BFCAs viz. p-NH 2 -benzyl-NOTA and p-NH 2 -benzyl-DOTA. Both the porphyrin-BFCA conjugates were radiolabeled with 68 Ga. A comparative bioevaluation involving pharmacokinetics and tumor affinity was performed in a tumor-bearing small animal model. Gallium-68-labeled porphyrin-amido-benzyl-NOTA and porphyrin-amido-benzyl-DOTA complexes were prepared with high radiochemical purity. Both radiolabeled complexes exhibited almost similar stability in human serum and near-identical tumor affinity and pharmacokinetic behavior in animal studies. The present study demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic behavior of 68 Ga-labeled porphyrin derivatives, prepared using either NOTA or DOTA derivatives as BFCAs, remains almost identical and hence both NOTA and DOTA derivatives could be considered equivalent for developing 68 Ga-based PET agents for imaging of tumorous lesions.

  3. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  4. Chemistry of Frozen NaCl and MgSO4 Brines - Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. V.; Hodyss, R. P.; Choukroun, M.; Vu, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The composition of Europa's subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability, but current analysis of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the Europan surface. While there is observational evidence indicating that ocean materials make their way to the surface, our understanding of the chemical processes that can alter this material under Europan surface conditions is limited. We present experimental data on the chemistry of mixed solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 as they are frozen to 100 K, replicating the conditions that may occur when subsurface ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa's surface. Confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to study the formation of salts during the freezing process, and the interaction of ions in the frozen brines. Our data indicate that mixed aqueous solutions of NaCl and MgSO4 form Na2SO4 and MgCl2 preferentially when frozen, rather than making NaCl and MgSO4 precipitates. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4Ÿ•7H2O) on Europa's surface may therefore imply an ocean composition relatively low in sodium, unless radiolytic chemistry converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Hand and Brown 2013 (ApJ 145 110). These results have important implications for the interpretation of remote sensing data of Europa's surface.

  5. Tuta absoluta: una nueva plaga para el cultivo del tomate en Europa (Sesión Técnia: Hortalizas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, W.; Griepink, F.C.; Deventer, van P.

    2009-01-01

    Tuta absoluta es una polilla originaria de Chile cuyas larvas producen minas en las hojas de las plantas de tomate. En las últimas décadas de este insecto se ha extendido por gran parte del continente sudamericano. Después de su primera observación en Europa (España, Valencia) en 2007, esta polilla

  6. Moderna mimo centra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), s. 242-244 ISSN 0042-4544 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : modern architecture * Josep Lluis Sert * Fondation Maeght Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture , Cultural Heritage

  7. Modern Traditions: reconfigurations of school mathematics in the 1960s Tradições Modernas: reconfigurações da matemática escolar nos anos 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Zardo Búrigo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding school curricula as social constructions, in this paper we analyze the building up of a tradition, which goes back to the 1960s, related to the introduction of Algebra in elementary school. This tradition is presented as an inheritance of the modern mathematics movement and it is argued that the analysis of curricular innovation processes should not take into account only their proclaimed purposes, but should consider broader effects related to the breakdown of older traditions. Keywords: History of Mathematics Education. Curriculum. Modern Mathematics. Teaching of Algebra.Na linha dos estudos que investigam os currículos escolares como construções sociais, este artigo examina a constituição de uma tradição relativa à iniciação em Álgebra na escola, cuja origem remonta aos anos 1960. Ao apresentar essa tradição como uma herança do movimento da matemática moderna, argumenta que os processos de inovação curricular não devem ser analisados apenas no confronto com suas intenções anunciadas, mas pelos efeitos mais amplos que produzem de desconstituição das tradições mais antigas. Palavras-chave: História da Educação Matemática. Currículo. Matemática Moderna. Ensino de Álgebra.

  8. Leviatán como pretexto: T Hobbes y la invención moderna de la Razón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MOYA VALGAÑÓN

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available T. Hobbes inventó el concepto moderno de estado y el discurso político racional. En Leviatán se equipara razón con gobierno. Se examina la historia occidental que precedió la redacción de Leviatán, comenzando con la cristianización progresiva de los reinos bárbaros. Fue la noción secularizada de razón, en contraposición al reinado de Dios sobre el mundo, la que proporcionó a la burguesía el fundamento epistemológico necesario para su ascensión social. La monarquía absoluta se convirtió en la primera forma del estado moderno. El desarrollo de la imprenta fue el instrumento tecnológico-industrial de la moderna revolución burguesa en la cristiandad occidental. La Reforma Protestante surgió de la nueva libertad para leer libros otrora prohibidos, constituyendo el primer ímpetu para el crecimiento industrial y el desarrollo de la empresa. Así, las revelaciones de la Santa Escritura dieron paso a la investigación científica y a la ciencia moderna.

  9. Arquitectura moderna en Argentina: el Automóvil Club Argentino y la representación del poder (1935 -1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lucchesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A mediados de la década de los años treinta YPF y el ACA acordaron una alianza que aún sigue vigente. El plan elaborado incluyó la construcción de estaciones de servicio y sedes sociales del Automóvil Club. Su concreción, que demandó alrededor de una década, supuso de una compleja organización por la diversidad del programa y por la extensión de la red por cubrir. A través de las dimensiones territorial, arquitectónica e institucional explicamos cómo a partir de un programa funcional innovador se gestó la producción arquitectónica del ACA, reflejando la mentalidad oscilante de su tiempo, aquella que se debatía entre expresar una imagen moderna o revelar una identidad asociada a la cultura vernácula. En las obras concebidas entre 1935 y 1946 verificamos el modo en que el poder se representó a través de la expresión moderna de la arquitectura con el propósito de resaltar la eficiencia de las instituciones entre otros aspectos.

  10. Características en contenido y afiliación de Notas Clínicas publicadas en la revista CIMEL, 2001- 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Montenegro-Idrogo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Determinar frecuencia y características de contenido y afiliación de Notas clínicas (casos clínicos publicados en la Revista CIMEL período 2001-2009. Diseño, Descriptivo, bibliométrico Lugar, Se utilizó el sistema de base de datos de la biblioteca central de la UNMSM. Participantes, artículos publicados en la revista CIMEL como Notas clínicas (Casos clínicos en el período citado. Intervenciones, Se determinó la frecuencia según años, además de las características de afiliación según país, región, y de contenido (tema de especialidad y condición de importancia en publicación. Principales medidas de resultados, Distribución de frecuencias y gráfico lineal para representar producción de esta categoría en la revista según años. Resultados, Total de notas clínicas (n=34, hubo mayor número de publicaciones a partir del año 2005. Mayor porcentaje de notas clínicas según país de afiliación fue: Venezuela (35,3%, Colombia (17,6%, Chile (17,6%, Bolivia (11,8%, y según tema de especialidad, Cirugía (21%, Oncología (14,7% y Hematología (11,8%. Las condiciones más frecuentes que justifican publicación de notas clínicas son: enfermedad rara o infrecuente (79,4% y presentación o complicación inusual de enfermedad (26,5%. La distribución de autores más frecuente fue, un médico y más de un estudiante de medicina (47,5%. Conclusiones, La frecuencia de publicación de notas clínicas en la revista CIMEL ha aumentado desde la periodicidad semestral, siendo la principal justificación de publicación, presentación de enfermedad rara o infrecuente. Es preocupante no refleje la participación de la mayoría de instituciones estudiantiles afiliadas a la Federación del cual es órgano oficial de difusión.

  11. PET imaging of angiogenesis after myocardial infarction/reperfusion using a one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Haokao [The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China); National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), Bethesda, MD (United States); Lang, Lixin; Guo, Ning; Quan, Qimeng; Hu, Shuo; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan [National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), Bethesda, MD (United States); Cao, Feng [The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi' an (China)

    2012-04-15

    The {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin represents a potential target for noninvasive imaging of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel one-step labeled integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) probe, {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for angiogenesis imaging in a myocardial infarction/reperfusion (MI/R) animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 45-min transient left coronary artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. The myocardial infarction was confirmed by ECG, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging, and cardiac ultrasound. In vivo PET imaging was used to determine myocardial uptake of {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 at different time points following reperfusion. The control peptide RAD was labeled with a similar procedure and used to confirm the specificity. Ex vivo autoradiographic analysis and CD31/CD61 double immunofluorescence staining were performed to validate the PET results. Myocardial origin of the {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 accumulation was confirmed by {sup 18}F-FDG and autoradiography. PET imaging demonstrated increased focal accumulation of {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 in the infarcted area which started at day 3 (0.28 {+-} 0.03%ID/g, p < 0.05) and peaked between 1 and 3 weeks (0.59 {+-} 0.16 and 0.55 {+-} 0.13%ID/g, respectively). The focal accumulation decreased but still kept at a higher level than the sham group after 4 months of reperfusion (0.31 {+-} 0.01%ID/g, p < 0.05). Pretreatment with unlabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide significantly decreased tracer uptake, indicating integrin specificity of this tracer. At 1 week after MI/R, uptake of the control tracer {sup 18}F-AlF-NOTA-RAD that does not bind to integrin, in the infarcted area, was only 0.21 {+-} 0.01%ID/g. Autoradiographic imaging showed the same trend of uptake in the myocardial infarction area. The time course of focal tracer uptake was consistent with the pattern of vascular density and integrin {beta

  12. A inquietude do tradutor: notas sobre uma lógica das partes em La chute du ciel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Schuler Zea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2012v2n30p171   A partir do processo de composição de La chute du ciel, o livro de Davi Kopenawa e Bruce Albert, busco circunscrever nas tarefas do tradutor e do antropólogo os alcances de uma fórmula que, adotando diversas figuras, converte reiteradamente a relação em uma forma de unidade. Como alternativa, tendo em vista outras passagens do mesmo texto, onde os termos resistem à sua dissolução em uma relação, aponto através dos momentos da inquietude e do clamor para uma eventual lógica das partes como modo diferente de articulação. Por último, apresento algumas notas sobre o potencial efeito político desta distinção.

  13. Sobre los vínculos entre España y Argentina en La Nota [1915-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Delgado

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its object weekly Argentinian La Nota to read between 1915 and 1917, in the light of the Great War, some emergencies of the reconfiguration related to specific topics of the dominant literary and intellectual debates, which took place the years immediately preceding and still in force, as it was the problems of national and associated to it, the place assigned to cultural relations between Spain and Argentina in that field. Thus, through the interventions of various authors, the magazine shows how to think the function of culture -and therefore of the intellectuals-, and at the same time, it offers a more or less critical sight into those relationships. Thus, for example, happens to "El centenario de Cervantes" [Rodó] or the "Meditaciones sobre el nacionalismo" [Rojas], "America and España" [Blanco Fombona], or "Manifiesto germanista de los intelectuales españoles" [Unamuno], "El cuento de la raza" [Del Campo

  14. Life habitability in the solar system: testing the universality of biology on Europa with microprobes or lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    2007-05-01

    We discuss whether it is possible to test the universality of biology, a quest that is of paramount relevance for one of its most recent branches, namely astrobiology. We review this topic in terms of the relative roles played on the Earth biota by contingency and evolutionary convergence. We raise the related question of whether the molecular events that were precursors to the origin of life on Earth are bound to occur elsewhere in the solar system, wherever the environmental conditions are similar to the terrestrial ones. The set of hypotheses for addressing the question of the universality of biology can be tested by future experiments that are feasible with current technology. We focus on landing on the Jovian satellite Europa and its broader implications, including selecting a landing site. We also discuss the corresponding miniaturized equipment that is already in existence. The second objective is to discuss in more detail whether sulphur traces on Jupiter's moon Europa could be of biogenic origin, and could be tested with the present level of technology readiness. To achieve reliable biosignatures in the solar system in the foreseeable future, it seems essential to go back to Europa, in addition to continuing the multiple well-funded Mars programmes. Our work highlights the type of biogenic signatures that can be searched, when probing Europa's icy and patchy surface. Definite answers can be retrieved in situ on the icy surface with instrumentation for the corresponding biogeochemistry. The measurements can be performed by, for instance, microprobes, or by landers (of the type of the original JPL studies that sadly have been suspended). Such on-site measurements could make a modest contribution to the overall question of settling one of the most significant problems in astrobiology, namely the origin of the surficial sulphur on Europa. (author)

  15. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  16. SIIOS in Alaska - Testing an `In-Vault' Option for a Europa Lander Seismometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, V. J.; Weber, R. C.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Bailey, H.; Schmerr, N. C.; Pettit, E. C.; Dahl, P.; Albert, D.; Avenson, B.; Byrne, S.; Siegler, M.; Bland, M. T.; Patterson, G. W.; Selznick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The surface environment of Europa within the radiation-heavy jovian system, poses extreme technical challenges for potential landed missions. The need for radiation shielding and protection from the cold requires instruments to be housed within a thermally insulated and radiation protected `vault'. Unfortunately, this is non-ideal for seismometers as instrument-to-surface coupling is an important factor in the quality of returned data. Delivering a seismic package to an icy world would therefore benefit from the development of a cold-tolerant, radiation-hardened sensor that can survive outside of a protective vault. If such an instrument package were not technologically mature enough, or if lander safety considerations prevent deployment on lander legs, an in-vault location is still a viable option. For such a case, a better understanding of the transmission of seismic signals received through the lander legs is necessary for interpretation of the received signals. The performance, mass, and volume of the `Seismometer to investigate ice and ocean structure' (SIIOS) already meet or exceed flight requirements identified in lander studies for the icy moon Europa. We are testing this flight-candidate in several configurations around and within a lander mock-up, assuming a 1x1 meter vault with extended legs. We compare the received signals from a SIIOS device on the ice with those received by an identical sensor directly above it in the `vault'. We also compare the data from these single-point receivers to that received by two short base-line arrays - A 4-point "in-vault" array and another 4-point array arranged at the ice surface at the base of the lander legs. Our field-testing is performed at Gulkana Glacier, Alaska. The summer melt season provides kilometer-scale regions of coexisting ice, water, and silicate material, thereby providing seismic contrasts analogous to the ice-water layers and possible sub-surface lakes expected at Europa. We demonstrate the

  17. Modeling Thermal Transport and Surface Deformation on Europa using Realistic Rheologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneman, D.; Lavier, L.; Becker, T. W.; Soderlund, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Most existing studies of Europa's icy shell model the ice as a Maxwell visco-elastic solid or viscous fluid. However, these approaches do not allow for modeling of localized deformation of the brittle part of the ice shell, which is important for understanding the satellite's evolution and unique geology. Here, we model the shell as a visco-elasto-plastic material, with a brittle Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic layer on top of a convective Maxwell viscoelastic layer, to investigate how thermal transport processes relate to the observed deformation and topography on Europa's surface. We use Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC) code, which employs an explicit time-stepping algorithm to simulate deformation processes in Europa's icy shell. Heat transfer drives surface deformation within the icy shell through convection and tidal dissipation due to its elliptical orbit around Jupiter. We first analyze the visco-elastic behavior of a convecting ice layer and the parameters that govern this behavior. The regime of deformation depends on the magnitude of the stress (diffusion creep at low stresses, grain-size-sensitive creep at intermediate stresses, dislocation creep at high stresses), so we calculate effective viscosity each time step using the constitutive stress-strain equation and a combined flow law that accounts for all types of deformation. Tidal dissipation rate is calculated as a function of the temperature-dependent Maxwell relaxation time and the square of the second invariant of the strain rate averaged over each orbital period. After we initiate convection in the viscoelastic layer by instituting an initial temperature perturbation, we then add an elastoplastic layer on top of the convecting layer and analyze how the brittle ice reacts to stresses from below and any resulting topography. We also take into account shear heating along fractures in the brittle layer. We vary factors such as total shell thickness and minimum viscosity, as these parameters are

  18. Thermal state and complex geology of a heterogeneous salty crust of Jupiter's satellite, Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Kargel, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The complex geology of Europa is evidenced by many tectonic and cryomagmatic resurfacing structures, some of which are "painted" into a more visible expression by exogenic alteration processes acting on the principal endogenic cryopetrology. The surface materials emplaced and affected by this activity are mainly composed of water ice in some areas, but in other places there are other minerals involved. Non-ice minerals are visually recognized by their low albedo and reddish color either when first emplaced or, more likely, after alteration by Europan weathering processes, especially sublimation and alteration by ionizing radiation. While red chromophoric material could be due to endogenic production of solid sulfur allotropes or other compounds, most likely the red substance is an impurity produced by radiation alteration of hydrated sulfate salts or sulphuric acid of mainly internal origin. If the non-ice red materials or their precursors have a source in the satellite interior, and if they are not merely trace contaminants, then they can play an important role in the evolution of the icy crust, including structural differentiation and the internal dynamics. Here we assume that these substances are major components of Europa's cryo/hydrosphere, as some models have predicted they should be. If this is an accurate assumption, then these substances should not be neglected in physical, chemical, and biological models of Europa, even if major uncertainties remain as to the exact identity, abundance, and distribution of the non-ice materials. The physical chemical properties of the ice-associated materials will contribute to the physical state of the crust today and in the geological past. In order to model the influence of them on the thermal state and the geology, we have determined the thermal properties of the hydrated salts. Our new lab data reveal very low thermal conductivities for hydrated salts compared to water ice. Lower conductivities of salty ice would

  19. Slush Fund: The Multiphase Nature of Oceanic Ices and Its Role in Shaping Europa's Icy Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.

    2017-12-01

    The role of Europa's ice shell in mediating ocean-surface interaction, constraining potential habitability of the underlying hydrosphere, and dictating the surface morphology of the moon is discussed extensively in the literature, yet the dynamics and characteristics of the shell itself remain largely unconstrained. Some of the largest unknowns arise from underrepresented physics and varying a priori assumptions built into the current ice shell models. Here we modify and apply a validated one-dimensional reactive transport model designed to simulate the formation and evolution of terrestrial sea ice to the Europa environment. The top-down freezing of sea ice due to conductive heat loss to the atmosphere is akin to the formation of the Jovian moon's outer ice shell, albeit on a different temporal and spatial scale. Nevertheless, the microscale physics that govern the formation of sea ice on Earth (heterogenous solidification leading to brine pockets and channels, multiphase reactive transport phenomena, gravity drainage) likely operate in a similar manner at the ice-ocean interface of Europa, dictating the thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of the ice shell. Simulations of the European ice-ocean interface at different stages during the ice shell's evolution are interpolated to produce vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, solid fraction, and eutectic points throughout the entire shell. Additionally, the model is coupled to the equilibrium chemistry package FREZCHEM to investigate the impact a diverse range of putative European ocean chemistries has on ice shell properties. This method removes the need for a priori assumptions of impurity entrainment rates and ice shell properties, thus providing a first principles constraint on the stratigraphic characteristics of a simulated European ice shell. These insights have the potential to improve existing estimates for the onset of solid state convection, melt lens formation due to eutectic melting, ice

  20. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: obstacles and opportunities for constraining shell thickness and thermal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, Klara; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    With its strikingly young surface and possibly recent endogenic activity, Europa is one of the most exciting bodies within our Solar System and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future missions to Europa are expected to carry ice penetrating radar instruments which are powerful tools to investigate the subsurface thermophysical structure of its ice shell.Several authors have addressed the 'penetration depth' of radar sounders at icy moons, however, the concept and calculation of a single value penetration depth is a potentially misleading simplification since it ignores the thermal and attenuation structure complexity of a realistic ice shell. Here we move beyond the concept of a single penetration depth by exploring the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's ice shell as well as for a low loss and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. The possibility to detect brines is also investigated.Our results indicate that: (i) for all ice shell thicknesses investigated (5-30 km), a nominal satellite-borne radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth strongly varies laterally with the deepest penetration possible through the cold downwellings, (iii) the direct detection of the ice/ocean interface might be possible for shells of up to 15 km if the radar signal travels through the cold downwelling, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not detected, the penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through the loss of signal, and (v) for all plausible ice shells the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≤30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow structure.Part of this work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. K.K. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the

  1. Una Nota sobre la Construcción de Series de Precios de Activos Reales: Tierra y Casas en Chile Una Nota sobre la Construcción de Series de Precios de Activos Reales: Tierra y Casas en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Soto; Felipe Morandé

    1992-01-01

    Una Nota sobre la Construcción de Series de Precios de Activos Reales: Tierra y Casas en Chile This note presents previously unpublished data on prices of agricultural land in Chile's central region and houses (both rental and purchasing prices) in Santiago, with the corresponding methodology. As such, it is a follow-up to an Appendix in Morande (1992).

  2. The gravity fields of Ganymede, Callisto and Europa: how well can JUICE do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marzia; Iess, Luciano; Finocchiaro, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    With 20 flybys of Callisto, 2 of Europa and an extended orbital phase around Ganymede, ESA's JUICE mission offers an excellent opportunity to investigate the interiors of the three Galilean satellites. All of these moons can host an internal ocean, but the evidence is compelling only for Europa, where Galileo's measurements of the induced magnetic field are not marred by an intrinsic field as for Ganymede. However, both Europa's and Ganymede's appear to be differentiated (Showman and Malhotra, 1999), and probably hosting a subsurface liquid water ocean underneath the icy surface (Khurana et al., 1998; Kivelson et al., 2002). But even for Callisto, which appears as an undifferentiated body of ice and rock (Showman and Malhotra, 1999), a global or partial subsurface ocean cannot be ruled out (Khurana et al., 1998). The determination of the interior structure of the Galilean satellites, one of the main goal of the JUICE mission, can be accomplished by a combination of gravity, altimetric and magnetic measurements. Gravity measurements are addressed by the 3GM (Geodesy and Geophysics of Jupiter and the Galilean Moons) by means of highly accurate Doppler tracking of the spacecraft from ground antennas. Precise range rate measurements are enabled by a dedicated Ka-band (32-34 GHz) transponder, heritage from the Juno and BepiColombo missions. The expected range rate accuracies are around 0.01 mm/s at 60 s integration time, at nearly all solar elongation angles. A complete cancellation of the interplanetary plasma noise is indeed possible by operating simultaneously the links at X and Ka band. The current mission profile envisages two, low altitude, orbital phases around Ganymede: a circular polar, orbit at an altitude of 500 km for the first 102 days, and circular polar orbit at an altitude of 200 km for the last 30 days. The low altitude will permit the determination of Ganymede's gravity field with a relative accuracy of about 10^-5 for both J2 and C22. The 18 tidal

  3. Zweiwegintegration durch zweisprachige Bildung? Ergebnisse aus der Staatlichen Europa-Schule Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gabriela

    2012-06-01

    While there is no simple recipe of how to respond to the multitude of languages present in many European schools, this article presents a promising alternative to monolingual education. The focus is on Staatliche Europa-Schule Berlin (SESB), a two-way immersion (TWI) model that unites children whose mother tongue is German with children whose mother tongue is another locally spoken language in one class and teaches them together in two languages. Thus in this model, offered by 17 primary schools and 13 secondary schools in Berlin, pupils learn in two languages from and with each other. Based on a largely quantitative, quasi-experimental study with 603 students, evidence is provided that there are a number of peace-linguistic benefits that can promote two-way social integration, besides fostering personal and societal multilingualism. This suggests that TWI education as practised in Berlin could serve as an educational model for other multilingual parts of Europe.

  4. Las Comunidades Terapéuticas para el Tratamiento de la Drogodependencia en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Stocco

    2008-01-01

    Después de una breve introduccción sobre el concepto de drogodependencia que se podría entender como un modo de auto curación y un modo errado de resolver problemas personales y de relación y después de brindar una visión panorámica sobre el consumo de sustancias en Europa, el artículo aborda el tema de los tratamientos de rehabilitación en las comunidades terapéuticas y brinda un panorama general sobre la evolución de los escenarios terapéuticos de los tratamientos residenciales en las com...

  5. Unión Europa: deudas soberanas y financiarización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña al libro de Alicia Girón y Marcia Solorza, Europa, deudas soberanas y financiarización, IIEc-UNAM, México, D. F, 2012, ISBN 978-607 02-3977-9 La crisis de deuda que aqueja a la zona euro en los últimos años ha sido definida como la crisis más grave desde la Gran Depresión de 1929. La profundidad de la crisis, los graves problemas que trajo, pero sobre todo las fuertes medidas de austeridad en la zona euro como parte de la solución, obligan a un estudio más profundo y amplio de la crisis; ya que se trata de cambios de gran calado que se evidencian en las graves secuelas que ha impuesto la hegemonía del sistema financiero.

  6. Uso de las redes sociales en el sur de Europa. Género y adolescencia

    OpenAIRE

    Málaga Pescador, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Investigamos en esta tesis el uso de las redes sociales virtuales entre los adolescentes (de 12 a 18 años) de tres países del sur de Europa: España, Italia y Portugal. En concreto se van a estudiar el nivel de penetración de estas redes, su utilización concreta, las pautas de acceso a internet y el uso del teléfono móvil, sus hábitos como clientes o consumidores y el papel de las redes en las actividades de socialización. La información proviene de una encuesta que se aplicó a una muestra de ...

  7. Europa en crisis: El desencanto de la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Shmite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las desigualdades y las tensiones sociales se manifiestan territorialmente en las ciudades europeas, las que se constituyen en espacios estratégicos donde se materializan las reivindicaciones sociales. La combinación del proceso de globalización y la organización institucional supranacional de Europa, junto a las profundas transformaciones que afectan la economía y por lo tanto, al sistema social característico del Estado de Bienestar, conducen a la emergencia de sentimientos de insatisfacción e incertidumbre que se expresan en los movimientos sociales. En este artículo se aborda el rol de la Unión Europea frente a la crisis, las respuestas institucionales, las consecuencias económicas y sociales y la emergencia de un cuestionamiento de la sociedad al funcionamiento de los Estados y la estructura supranacional.

  8. Modernizar la Agricultura: Una nueva corriente en europa y latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Restrepo Rivera

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de los procesos naturales de forma integral en las actividades agropecuarias de producción como son las relaciones simbíoticas de los ciclos minerales con el mundo vivo; la eliminación del uso de todos los insumos nocivos y practias que perjudiquen el medio ambiente , Ia salud de los trabajadores agrícolas y de los consumidores, relacionados con la mayor utilidad del potencial natural productivo, biológico de las plantas y de los animales asociadas al manejo de las unidades productivas de acuerdo con sus limitaciones, estan determinando Ia eficiencia y la viabilidad económica de Ia modernización de Ia agricultura en Europa y Latinoamérica, con énfasis en el manejo y conservación del suelo, del agua, de la energía y de los recursos naturales.

  9. Teoría social: Las relaciones entre Europa y Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉP PICÓ LÓPEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available la sociologia mundial perderia la comprension de su perspectiva y la variedad de sus enfoques respecto a la realidad social si continua sufriendo la estandarizacion de la sociologia profesional americana. la sociologia europea necesita resistir a esta tendencia de la misma manera en que europa ha de resistir la macdonalizacion de la cultura con el fin de preservar la diversidad de si misma y el mundo. contra esta tesis de r. münch, jeffrey c. alexander cuestiona la forma particular en que el sociologo aleman investiga la dimension social de la ciencia y el reduccionismo de su enfoque, es decir, la asimetria entre las causas sociales y la logica teorica en su analisis de la sociologia europea y americana. este articulo trata de situar, resumir y clarificar algunos de los temas de esta polemica teorica.

  10. La evolución de la imagen literaria del paisaje urbano: de la ciudad moderna a la ciudad actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillet Capdepón, Félix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally divided into three stages (pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial, we have summarised the process of urban development into two key moments: the modern city (industrial stage and the present-day, post-modern city (post-industrial stage. This new approach consists in analysing the process of urban development using various literary works that describe urban morphology as key points of reference. With this aim in mind, we have focused on Spanish (Castilian literature from the beginning of the 19th century to present day that refers to the main Spanish cities, being, and appearing in the following order in this study: Oviedo, Madrid, Cuenca, Segovia, Salamanca, Granada, Barcelona, Sevilla and Alicante. These cities are analysed alongside New York, which has been the grand metropolis since the beginning of the previous century and is the city to have captured the imagination of our writers like no other.El proceso de urbanización de la ciudad, dividido tradicionalmente en tres etapas (ciudad preindustrial, industrial y postindustrial o actual, lo hemos sintetizado en dos grandes momentos: la ciudad moderna (fase industrial y la ciudad en la actual posmodernidad (fase postindustrial. La novedad de este trabajo consiste en analizar el proceso de urbanización tomando como referencia aquellas obras literarias, que hayan descrito la morfología urbana. Para este objetivo se ha tenido en cuenta la literatura española en lengua castellana desde comienzos del siglo XIX hasta la actualidad que hiciera referencia a las principales ciudades españolas, que son las siguientes, tal y como han ido apareciendo en el estudio: Oviedo, Madrid, Cuenca, Segovia, Salamanca, Granada, Barcelona, Sevilla y Alicante; junto a la que ha sido la gran metrópoli desde comienzos del siglo pasado: Nueva York, por ser la que más ha interesado a nuestros escritores. [fr] Nous avons synthétisé le processus d’urbanisation de la ville, traditionnellement

  11. The Influence of Ice-Ocean Interactions on Europa's Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P.; Manucharyan, G. E.; Thompson, A. F.; Goodman, J. C.; Vance, S.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa appears to have a global liquid ocean, which is located beneath an ice shell that covers the moon's entire surface. Linking ocean dynamics and ice-ocean interactions is crucial to understanding observed surface features on Europa as well as other satellite measurements. Ocean properties and circulation may also provide clues as to whether the moon has the potential to support extraterrestrial life through chemical transport governed by ice-ocean interactions. Previous studies have identified a Hadley cell-like overturning circulation extending from the equator to mid latitudes. However, these model simulations do not consider ice-ocean interactions. In this study, our goal is to investigate how the ocean circulation may be affected by ice. We study two ice-related processes by building idealized models. One process is horizontal convection driven by an equator-to-pole buoyancy difference due to latitudinal ice transport at the ocean surface, which is found to be much weaker than the convective overturning circulation. The second process we consider is the freshwater layer formed by ice melting at the equator. A strong buoyancy contrast between the freshwater layer and the underlying water suppresses convection and turbulent mixing, which may modify the surface heat flux from the ocean to the bottom of the ice. We find that the salinity of the ocean below the freshwater layer tends to be homogeneous both vertically and horizontally with the presence of an overturning circulation. Critical values of circulation strength constrain the freshwater layer depth, and this relationship is sensitive to the average salinity of the ocean. Further coupling of temperature and salinity of the ice and the ocean that includes mutual influences between the surface heat flux and the freshwater layer may provide additional insights into the ice-ocean feedback, and its influence on the latitudinal difference of heat transport.

  12. LA RESPUESTA A LOS PELIGROS NATURALES Y AL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO EN EUROPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Schmidt-Thomé

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los peligros naturales son la causa de desastres terribles y también la fuente de importantes ventajas naturales, por lo que desempeñan un papel crucial al crear tanto restricciones como oportunidades para el desarrollo territorial. Por lo pronto, si la comparamos con el resto del mundo, probablemente Europa no sea propensa a sufrir los efectos más catastróficos de los desastres, aunque este continente está afectado por algunos de los más considerables. En el presente estudio, se analizan los riesgos resultantes, incluidos los efectos potenciales del cambio climático en toda Europa, con el objeto de crear medidas adecuadas para sostener el desarrollo territorial. La ordenación territorial constituye un elemento destacado en la gestión de los riesgos y de las repercusiones del cambio climático. La creciente importancia de los peligros naturales en el entorno vital ha provocado un aumento de las prácticas nacionales de ordenación territorial en las últimas décadas y, en la actualidad, también centra la atención de la Unión Europea. Aquí examinamos unaincorporación más sólida de los peligros, los impactos del cambio climático y los riesgos resultantes en la ordenación territorial y en la gestión pública de los riesgos en el ámbito nacional y local y además esbozamos propuestas para el ámbito europeo.

  13. Waste management in a Europe in the process of unification; Abfallwirtschaft in einem zusammenwachsenden Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangen, H.O. [comp.

    1998-12-31

    In a Europe in the process of unification, waste management is an important and topical issue. Decisions in the environmental protection and waste management sectors are increasingly being taken in Brussels, at the European level, and no longer by national parliaments and governments. A unified economy calls for unified conditions of production. Environmental protection cannot stop at state frontiers.- The principle of waste disposal at short distance from the source of pollution, and the demand for Europe-wide tenders and contracts for services encompass a large field of tension, not only at first glance. The European sanitary landfills recommendation, valid also for the countries of the Mediterranean, and the ambitious aims of the technical code on municipal waste are an indication of the range of the economic and political issues due to arise at least transiently. The meeting should sharpen the problem awareness of persons involved with waste management and point out the dynamics of the process leading Europe into a unified waste management. (orig.) [Deutsch] Abfallwirtschaft in einem zusammenwachsenden Europa ist ein wichtiges und aktuelles Problem. Immer mehr Entscheidungen im Bereich des Umweltschutzes und der Abfallwirtschaft werden in Bruessel auf europaeischer Ebene und nicht mehr von den nationalen Parlamenten und Regierungen getroffen. Ein einheitlicher Wirtschaftsstandort verlangt auch einheitliche Produktionsbedingungen. Umweltschutz kann an Laendergrenzen nicht Halt machen. Das Prinzip der Naehe bei der Abfallbeseitigung und die Forderung der europaweiten Ausschreibung und Vergabe von Leistungen beinhaltet nicht nur auf den ersten Anschein ein grosses Spannungsfeld. Europaeische Deponierichtlinie, gueltig auch fuer die Laender des Mittelmeerraumes, und die hochgesteckten Ziele der TA-Siedlungsabfall zeigen die Spannweite und die wirtschaftliche und politische Problematik auf, die zumindest uebergangsweise auftritt. Die Tagung soll das

  14. Ley de matrimonio igualitario y aborto en Argentina: notas sobre una revolución incompleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Belgrano Rawson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2012000100010 La ley de “matrimonio igualitario”, votada en 2010 por el parlamento argentino, convirtió a este país en el primero de Latinoamérica en legalizar el matrimonio homosexual. Se trata de una victoria para un grupo históricamente discriminado por sus preferencias eróticas y hasta entonces ausente de la legislación. En este contexto, aparentemente auspicioso para la igualdad sexual, considero, sin embargo, que la nueva ley no se corresponde con el orden sexual que regula los cuerpos de las mujeres argentinas. En efecto, desde 1921 el Código Penal argentino tipifica al aborto como un “delito contra la vida” y, pese a ello, cada año unas cien mujeres mueren por abortos clandestinos. En base a esta situación, en este artículo analizaré el desfasaje que encuentro entre las políticas homosexuales y las políticas reproductivas de Argentina. A diferencia de Europa, donde los derechos reproductivos precedieron a las políticas homosexuales, en este país se ha operado lo inverso. Allí, el reconocimiento legal de las parejas de mismo sexo coincide con las medidas impulsadas por otras democracias, tendientes a alcanzar lo que algunos autores denominan ciudadanía sexual. Sin embargo, mientras la Argentina no reconozca el derecho a la interrupción gratuita y segura del embarazo, esta noción, que legitima la aplicabilidad universal de derechos sexuales, seguirá siendo problemática. Considero que sin el derecho a la libre disposición del propio cuerpo, el cual comprende la libertad sexual y el derecho a decidir sobre la gestación, en el actual contexto argentino la ley de matrimonio gay representa un episodio aislado.

  15. Las abejas de Porce familia colletidae (hymenoptera: apoidea notas y claves para los géneros presentes en la zona de influencia del embalse Porce ii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Pardo Allan H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan claves taxonómicas a nivel de género para la identificación de las abejas colletidas de la zona de Influencia del Embalse Porce II (Porce, Antioquía, Colombia S.A. Adicionalmente se presentan algunas notas para los géneros de colletidos capturados durante el inventario de las abejas silvestres de la zona.

  16. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  17. Mirada desde Europa, una encrucijada de los medios en América Latina y España: quando la Anaconda empieza a mudar la piel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chaparro Escudero

    Full Text Available Pensar, escribir desde Europa, o sobre Europa obliga hoy a hacer la insidiosa observación de si Europa es capaz de mirar otra cosa que no sea así misma y si, además, tiene algo nuevo que decir. La Europa que soñamos, la Europa que sirvió de modelo a las llamadas sociedades democráticas se diluye en el dibujo de una sociedad más económica que social, más especulativa que solidaria. No es una afirmación ni gratuita, ni exagerada. Europa tiene poco que decir porque hace rato que perdió su brújula. Sólo los movimientos ciudadanos surgidos en el último año (entre ellos el 15-M sugieren un fin de ciclo de una forma de hacer política que se resiste a cambiar. Frente a esta situación América Latina empieza desde hace algunos años a ofrecer regulaciones de medios más comprometidas con los intereses ciudadanos.

  18. Las narrativas de los pioneros. Construcción y trasmisión del conocimiento en la danza moderna argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Osswald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una variedad de materiales textuales, el trabajo propone analizar los discursos de bailarinas y coreógrafas de danza moderna, así como su participación en la escena artística argentina durante las décadas de 1940 y 1950. El estudio de las moralidades vinculadas a verbalizaciones sobre el cuerpo en movimiento y el cuerpo en escena en las narrativas de “las pioneras”, nos informa sobre la emergencia de modelos de feminidad alternativos al de la bailarina clásica y la mujer tradicional occidental. Se busca abordar antropológicamente el estudio de estos procesos, explorando los modos en que las personas construyen sus elecciones en determinados contextos y configuraciones de ideas, sentimientos y creencias. Fecha de recepción: 23 de marzo de 2010. Fecha de aceptación: 19 de julio de 2010.

  19. Las narrativas de los pioneros. Construcción y trasmisión del conocimiento en la danza moderna argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Osswald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una variedad de materiales textuales, el trabajo propone analizar los discursos de bailarinas y coreógrafas de danza moderna, así como su participación en la escena artística argentina durante las décadas de 1940 y 1950. El estudio de las moralidades vinculadas a verbalizaciones sobre el cuerpo en movimiento y el cuerpo en escena en las narrativas de “las pioneras”, nos informa sobre la emergencia de modelos de feminidad alternativos al de la bailarina clásica y la mujer tradicional occidental. Se busca abordar antropológicamente el estudio de estos procesos, explorando los modos en que las personas construyen sus elecciones en determinados contextos y configuraciones de ideas, sentimientos y creencias.

  20. A “crise” do marxismo e as geografias pós-modernas no estudo da gentrificação

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Luís

    2014-01-01

    O presente artigo constrói-se a partir da discussão e reflexão teóricas das questões gerais inerentes ao paradigma marxista e às recentes tendências pós-modernas da evolução do pensamento geográfico, e do seu reflexo na metodologia e conceptualização a que recorrem os principais académicos dos estudos urbanos para a análise da gentrificação. Procurar-se-á interpretar este tema da geografia urbana contextualizando-o no quadro destes regimes explicativos da realidade sócio-espacial....

  1. À "frente" da Semana de Arte Moderna: a presença de Graça Aranha e Paulo Prado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Waldman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconhecidos como personagens centrais pelo grupo de intelectuais e artistas ligados à Semana de Arte Moderna de 1922, Graça Aranha e Paulo Prado são muitas vezes deixados de lado pelos estudiosos e, em geral, se fazem presentes nas análises de bastidores e/ou em referências de terceiros. Este artigo pretende observar mais atentamente suas redes de sociabilidade e inserção, o que revela, entre outras coisas, as ambivalências do engate de ambos os autores em um projeto "moderno", assim como certas ambivalências presentes no interior do próprio movimento modernista.

  2. Las alamedas en la España Moderna. Interpretación histórica de un espacio urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Chaves, Manuel F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work offers an historiographical synthesis about the origin and historical and urbanistic significance represented by the creation and spreading of the alamedas in Early Modern Spain. Through an exhaustive bibliographical survey about the most important alamedas, the author pays special attention to the reasons behind their creation and the evolution that they experimented all along the studied period.El presente trabajo constituye una síntesis historiográfica sobre el origen y el significado histórico y urbanístico que representa el surgimiento y difusión de las alamedas en la España moderna. En él se realiza un exhaustivo recorrido bibliográfico sobre las alamedas más importantes, prestando especial atención a las causas de su creación y la evolución que fueron experimentando a lo largo del periodo de estudio.

  3. Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century: the intellectual field in Criminalogia Moderna magazine and its relation to the positivist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Carvalho Quinta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the beginning of criminology in Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to understand how it was articulated during the nation-state building process. To achieve this purpose, a state project reflection unfolded in criminological perspective that is based on legal positivism of the period was made. The country was forefront in interest in criminology in that some intellectuals jurists published numerous articles on the crime studies in the first criminology journal of Argentina, Criminalogia Moderna magazine, founded in 1898 and directed by the teacher, lawyer and intellectual Italian, Pietro Gori. The influence of European sociological perspective in Argentina criminology can be seen from a literature review. The examination of some articles published in the journal indicates how criminology introduced in Europe grounds the buenosairean intellectuality. Some authors have linked criminology with social phenomena of a nation increasingly industrialized, proletarianized, politicized and urbanized.

  4. Desarrollo de un modelo de gestión de la inteligencia organizacional para la compañía Gráficas Modernas S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lozano Oviedo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available La inteligencia organizacional (io es un tema que ha sido investigado desde la literatura administrativa, lo que es interesante para el contexto organizacional, dadas las implicaciones que una mejora de la io puede tener en el éxito, la conservación en el tiempo y el desarrollo de una compañía. Este artículo incorpora los resultados de una investigación sobre la io realizada en el contexto de la compañía Gráficas Modernas S.A. El presente trabajo se propuso desarrollar un modelo de gestión de la io para esta empresa.

  5. Estimativa da área de folhas de cultivares antigas e modernas de soja por método não destrutivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean Leonardo Richter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar um modelo matemático empírico que estime a área de folhas em cultivares de soja a partir de dimensões lineares da folha, com ênfase para cultivares modernas e recentemente em uso por agricultores no Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, foi realizado um experimento de campo em Santa Maria com 13 cultivares (NS 4823 RR, BMX Energia RR, Igra RA 518 RR, BMX Turbo RR, NA 5909 RG, TMG 7161 RR Inox, TEC 5936IPRO, IAS 5, BMX Potência RR, Fepagro 36 RR, BRS 246 RR, Bragg e CD 219 RR durante três anos agrícolas (2010/2011, 2012/2013 e 2013/2014. Foram coletadas 20 folhas de cada cultivar para a calibração do modelo e outras 50 folhas para testar a capacidade preditiva do mesmo, nas quais foi medido o comprimento (C e a maior largura (L de cada folíolo central dos trifólios. A partir da relação entre área da folha e as dimensões lineares do folíolo central foi ajustado um modelo linear para cada cultivar e um modelo geral para todas as cultivares. A capacidade preditiva das equações foi avaliada pelas estatísticas raiz quadrada média do erro, BIAS, índice de concordância modificado e coeficiente r. Os resultados indicam que o método não destrutivo, baseado nas dimensões lineares do folíolo central, é apropriado para a estimativa da área de folhas individuais em soja e que a equação geral AF = 2,0185.(C.L pode ser utilizada para várias cultivares modernas de soja.

  6. La definición de las trayectorias literarias en dos escritoras chilenas modernas: María Flora Yáñez y Marta Brunet

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    Natalia Cisterna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone analizar la configuración de la trayectoria literaria en dos escritoras chilenas modernas, María Flora Yáñez y Marta Brunet, considerando que sus distintas inserciones en el campo cultural de su época están determinadas por sus respectivos orígenes sociales y las normas de género sexual. María Flora Yáñez y Marta Brunet son parte de una generación de autoras profesionales que entienden su ejercicio escritural como una actividad pública, reconociendo en ella características propias, distintas a otras prácticas discursivas y que debe ser perfeccionada a través del tiempo a partir de una labor permanente de lectura, escritura y divulgación de sus obras. Para las mujeres, sin embargo, la profesionalización se experimentó con dificultades producto de la persistencia de discursos que limitaban su ingreso en las esferas públicas y, por tanto, culturales. El silencio letrado al que históricamente ha sido sometido el género femenino impulsó el surgimiento de voces críticas que leían con desconfianza o rechazo el trabajo de las autoras modernas, lo que las obligó a definir trayectorias literarias a partir de distintas estrategias que posibilitarán su reconocimiento en los campos culturales. Estas estrategias dieron lugar a un campo profesional femenino heterogéneo, en donde el habitus de clase social y las normas de género jugaron un papel fundamental al configurar sus particulares relaciones con el campo cultural y, en definitiva, sus trayectorias.

  7. Search for microorganisms on Europa and Mars in relation with the evolution of intelligent behavior on other worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, Julian

    2001-11-01

    Within the context of how to search for life in the Solar System, we discuss the need to consider universal evolutionary biomarkers, in addition to those of biochemical nature that have already been selected for in the biology experiments of the old Viking and future Beagle-2 landers. For the wider problem of the evolution of intelligent behavior on other worlds (the SETI program), the type of experiments suggested below aim at establishing a direct connection between Solar System exploration and the first steps along the pathway toward the evolution of intelligent behavior. The two leading sites for the implementation of the proposed first whole-cell experiments would be, firstly, Europa after the Europa-Orbiter mission, either on the ice-crust, or in the ocean itself by means of a submersible; secondly, such experiments could be implemented once isolated liquid water oases are identified in the Martian substratum. (author)

  8. La Comunità Energetica del Sud Est Europa quale fattore di stabilità nell’area Balcanica

    OpenAIRE

    Massari, Saverio Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Il lavoro cerca di valutare il possibile ruolo della Comunità Energetica del Sud Est Europa quale fattore di stabilita’ nell’area Balcanica. Il Trattato fondativo della Comunita’ assegna a questa l’obiettivo di condurre una cooperazione in campo energetico al fine diffondere istituzioni e normative condivise, quali elementi di superamento del conflitto: tuttavia, sono molti gli ostacoli posti su questo cammino sia di natura interna alla regione che esterna, per l’influenza di fattori e poter...

  9. The Possibilities and Challenges in Missions to Europa and Titan for Exploration and as a Stepping Stone to Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Rohan M.

    This enthusiastic project describes a long-term development plan to enable human exploration of the outer solar system, with a focus on Europa and Titan. These are two of the most interesting moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, because they are the places in the solar system with the greatest potential for harboring extraterrestrial life. Since human expeditions to these worlds are considered impossible with current capabilities, the proposal of a well-organized sequence of steps towards making this a reality is formulated. The project includes the necessary development strategies in key scientic and technological areas that are essential for identifying the requirements for the exploration of the outer planetary moons. Some of the topics that are analyzed throughout the project plan include: scientic observations at Europa and Titan, advanced propulsion and nuclear power systems, in-situ resource utilization, radiation mitigation techniques, closed life support systems, habitation for long-term space flight, and artificial gravity. In addition to the scientic and technological aspects of this project, it is recognized that before any research and development work may begin, some level of program management must be established. Within this paper, legal issues, national and international policy, motivation, organization and management, economic considerations, outreach, education, ethics, and social implications are all considered with respect to possible future scenarios which enable human missions to the outer solar system. This project illustrates how such accomplishments could influence a mission to Europa to search for evidence of life in its subsurface oceans. The future remains unpredictable, as does the realization of any of these possibilities. However, projects such as this remind us that the final frontier for humans is truly outer space, and only our imagination will determine where the frontier stops. We can dream of visiting other planetary

  10. An Examination of the Sagan-Coleman formula for application to planetary protection for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengoltz, Jack

    2016-07-01

    The Sagan-Coleman formulafootnote{ Sagan, C.; Coleman, S. (1965). "Spacecraft sterilization standards and contamination of Mars". Journal of Astronautics and Aeronautics 3 (5): 22-27.} was originally published as a method to estimate the probability of contamination of Mars by a spacecraft. This estimate was required to satisfy the NASA planetary protection requirements for Mars, which were at the time specified in terms of a maximum allowed value for the probability of contamination. The form of the formula is: P{}_{c} = N{}_{0}{}_{ }P{}_{1}*P{}_{2}*....P{}_{n}*P{}_{g} Here P{}_{c}, the probability of contamination is the probability that one or more of N{}_{0} microbes on the spacecraft will survive to a release on the surface of Mars and reproduce. P{}_{g} is the probability of growth (reproduction, per microbe). Before the identification of the necessary parameters for a flight mission to Europa, it is worthwhile to clarify the mathematical origin of the formula. In fact, the phrase ``one or more'' of the N{}_{0}{}_{ }microbes provides{}_{ }a clue. The exact mathematical form is: [P_c=1-{(1-p)}^{N_0}] Here p is the probability per microbe that it will survive and grow, 1-p is the probability that it won't, {(1-p)}^{N_0} is the probability that all N{}_{0} microbes fail to survive and grow. Thus the last value subtracted from unity is the probability of ``one or more'' surviving and growing. For the case that N{}_{0} p factor (and possibly others) may not be used to demonstrate N{}_{0} p factors may not be automatically small enough to justify the approximation. The difference in the other two categories is subtler. It concerns the difference between a reduction factor that applies to all of the microbes as a group, versus a true probability per microbe. The former factors should multiply N{}_{0} in the exact formula; the latter factors should be included in the value of p. Fortunately, there is no effect in the approximate formula. There is again some effect in

  11. Water cycle and salinity dynamics in the mangrove forests of Europa and Juan de Nova Islands, southwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambs, Luc; Mangion, Perrine; Mougin, Eric; Fromard, François

    2016-01-30

    The functioning of mangrove forests found on small coralline islands is characterized by limited freshwater inputs. Here, we present data on the water cycling of such systems located on Europa and Juan de Nova Islands, Mozambique Channel. In order to better understand the water cycle and mangrove growth conditions, we have analysed the hydrological and salinity dynamics of the systems by gauge pressure and isotopic tracing (δ18O and δ2H values). Both islands have important seawater intrusion as measured by the water level change and the high salinities in the karstic ponds. Europa Island displays higher salinity stress, with its inner lagoon, but presents a pluri-specific mangrove species formation ranging from shrub to forest stands. No freshwater signal could be detected around the mangrove trees. On Juan de Nova Island, the presence of sand and detrital sediment allows the storage of some amount of rainfall to form a brackish groundwater. The mangrove surface area is very limited with only small mono-specific stands being present in karstic depression. On the drier Europa Island, the salinity of all the water points is equal to or higher than that of the seawater, and on Juan de Nova the groundwater salinity is lower (5 to 20 PSU). This preliminary study shows that the karstic pothole mangroves exist due to the sea connection through the fractured coral and the high tidal dynamics.

  12. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: Obstacles and opportunities for constraining the shell thickness and its thermal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousová, Klára; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.

    2017-03-01

    Young surface and possible recent endogenic activity make Europa one of the most exciting solar system bodies and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future Europa missions are expected to carry ice-penetrating radar instruments designed to investigate its subsurface thermophysical structure. Several authors have addressed the radar sounders' performance at icy moons, often ignoring the complex structure of a realistic ice shell. Here we explore the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's shell (determined by reference viscosity, activation energy, tidal heating, surface temperature, and shell thickness) as well as for low and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. We found that (i) for all investigated ice shell thicknesses (5-30 km), the radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth varies laterally, with deepest penetration possible through cold downwellings, (iii) direct ocean detection might be possible for shells of up to 15 km thick if the signal travels through cold downwelling ice or the shell is conductive, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not directly detected, penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through returns from deep non-ocean interfaces or the loss of signal itself, and (v) for all plausible ice shells, the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≲30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow thermophysical structure.

  13. Counterintuitive Constraints on Chaos Formation Set by Heat Flux through Europa's Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the formation of disruptive chaos features on the icy surface of Europa fall into two broad categories: either chaos is formed when basal heating causes localized melting and thinning of the ice shell, or basal heating drives diapiric convection within the ice shell. We argue that in both of these cases, heating of the ice shell from below does not lead to chaos formation at the location of heating. If chaos is formed when a localized oceanic heat source, such as a hydrothermal plume, "melts through" the ice crust, we must consider what happens to the melted liquid. If Europa's ocean is salty, the melt will form a buoyant pool inside the melted cavity, leading to a stable interface between cold fresh meltwater and warm salty seawater. This stable interface acts like an ablative heat shield, protecting the ice from further damage. Some heat can be transferred across the stable layer by double diffusion, but this transfer is very inefficient. We calculate that local ocean heating cannot be balanced by local flux through the stable layer: instead, the warm ocean water must spread laterally until it is delivering heat to the ice base on a regional or global scale (a heating zone hundreds or thousands of km across, for conservative parameters.) If chaos is formed by diapiric solid-state convection within the ice shell, many investigators have assumed that diapirism and chaos should be most prevalent where the basal heat flux is strongest. We argue that this is not the case. In Rayleigh-Benard convection, increasing the heat flux will make convection more vigorous --- if and only if the convecting layer thickness does not change. We argue that increased basal heat flux will thin the ice shell, reducing its Rayleigh number and making convection less likely, not more. This insight allows us to reverse the logic of recent discussions of the relationship between ocean circulation and chaos (for instance, Soderlund et al, 2013 LPSC). We argue that global oceanic

  14. Política y secularización en la Europa contemporánea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel ÁLVAREZ TARDÍO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo se ocupa de la relación entre la política y los procesos de secularización en la Europa contemporánea, estudia sus variantes y opciones ideológicas, así como sus diferentes tradiciones y situaciones nacionales, poniendo de relieve la existencia de dos grandes modelos. El primero —el de Gran Bretaaña, Bélgica y Holanda— se caracterizó por su gradualismo, tras la renuncia por parte del bloque político secular a apropiarse del Estado y su aceptación de la idea de que éste debía limitarse a proteger la libertad inherente al individuo. En cambio, el modelo de laicismo estatista —vigente en Francia, Italia y, en su versión más extrema, en la España de la II República—, partía de la idea de que el Estado era intérprete absoluto de un poder que no puede fragmentarse sin dejar de ser democrático, y se tradujo en el intento de contrarrestar la presencia católica mediante la imposición de políticas laicas, especialmente en el ámbito de la educación. Palabras Clave: Historia Contemporánea de Europa, Religión, Política, Secularización, Laicismo. ABSTRACT: This study deals with the relationship between politics and secularization processes in contemporary Europe, and studies its ideological variants and options as well as its different national traditions and situations, emphasizing the existence of two large models. The first, that of Great Britain, Belgium and Holland, is characterized by its gradualism, after the secular political block renounced appropriation of the State and accepted the idea that the State should be limited to protecting the inherent freedom of the individual. However, the model of state laicism, prevailing in France, Italy and in its most extreme versión in the Spain of the Second Republic, was based on the idea that the State was the absolute interpreter of a power that could not be fragmented without becoming undemocratic, and was expressed in the attempt to counter Catholic

  15. Educational use assessment of Geomorphosites applied to the Picos de Europa National Park (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazán, Héctor; Serrano, Enrique; Ruiz-Flaño, Purificación

    2014-05-01

    information have been applied after assess 51 geomorphosites in Picos de Europa. Applying the accessibility criteria, 15 geomorphosites have an educational value and so the educational assessment has been made. Each geomorphosite shows educational qualities for different topics and educational or leisure levels, all of them based in experiential education. The educational assessment sheets of geomorphosites allow greater accuracy of the didactic use in the National Park of the Picos de Europa and they are a tool to be used in the teaching task as well as leisure activities. The results permit to make use of the relief in educational curricula and develop leisure strategies to divulgation and interpretation of geomorphosites in NPA.

  16. Modelos explicativos da chamada economia colonial e a ideia de Monarquia Pluricontinental: notas de um ensaio Explanatory models from the called colonial economy and the idea of multi-continental monarchy: an essay notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fragoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta ideias debatidas no grupo Antigo Regime nos Trópicosdo CNPq e com investigadores portugueses (Universidade de Lisboa, Universidade Nova de Lisboa e Universidade de Évora sobre o Brasil e o império luso entre os séculos XVI e XVIII. Entre tais ideias temos a de Monarquia Pluricontinental, cuja intensão é de ultrapassar a tese da sociedade da América lusa como um simples canavial escravista submetido aos humores de um suposto capitalismo comerciale de um Estado Absolutista. Ao invés, disto, grosso modo, compreende-se as relações periferia e centro na Monarquia lusa ("metrópole e colônia" pautadas na concepção de mundo predominante na Europa do Sul daquela época, qual seja uma visão corporativa e polissinodal. Segundo esta concepção o príncipe era a cabeça da sociedade, porém não se confundia com ela. Dai a possibilidade de existir negociações entre os Poderes locais, inclusive os das Conquistas ultramarinas, e o Poder Central. A ideia de Monarquia Pluricontinetal sublinha ainda que as histórias do Brasil e de Portugal da época moderna devem ser compreendidas através da dinâmica do império ultramarino luso. Ou seja, uma das chaves (mas, não a única para a compreensão da sociedade americana eram os traços do Antigo Regime, tais como a hierarquia social estamental, a disciplina católica e o autogoverno dos municípios. Da mesma forma, para Portugal, aquele conceito implica em sublinhar a existência de um reino e de uma aristocracia dependentes do ultramar. A partir deste cenário o artigo desenvolve a hipótese de Antigo Regime nos trópicos. Através dela tenta-se ver as tensões e a dinâmica de uma sociedade baseada, ao mesmo tempo, no Antigo Regime católico e na escravidão africana. Um dos resultados de tal dinâmica era o entrelaçamento da hierarquia estamental com a mobilidade social na forma de grupos sociais saídos da escravidão (forros, mestiços etc e de uma nobreza da terra (sem ser

  17. Surface Composition Near the Trailing Hemisphere Apex on Europa: The Manannán Impact Crater and Neighboring Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Shirley, J. H.; Kamp, L.; Phillips, C. B.; Valenti, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Manannán impact crater and surrounding areas were imaged by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) during the C3 orbital encounter. We have applied a linear mixture model based on cryogenic infrared reflectance spectroscopy to a "despiked" version of this NIMS observation (C3ENLINEA01A) to estimate abundances of sulfuric acid hydrate, hydrated sulfate salts, water ice and brines in surface exposures. Here we supplement our previously reported abundance estimates (Dalton et al., 2011) with additional results from our ongoing investigation. New geologic mapping precisely registered to the NIMS observation allows the extraction of high-quality near-infrared spectra specific to individual geologic units and morphological features. Detailed high resolution geologic mapping indicates the likely presence of extensive deposits of impact melt materials largely filling the crater floor (Moore et al. 2001), together with surrounding continuous ejecta deposits that may have been excavated from Europa's interior. We find that the crater floor and nearby ejecta exhibit low sulfuric acid abundance relative to the surroundings, with the abundance increasing with radial distance. Where the ejecta begins to thin and break up, the spectral mixture resembles a combination of pre-existing, high-acid-content materials and cleaner, excavated water ice. Several geologic units exhibit significantly lower sulfuric acid hydrate than expected for this region near the trailing hemisphere apex, varying from 53-64 wt% over the observation. This suggests that these surface units have received a reduced cumulative radiation dose (electrons and ions) compared to nearby terrain; this in turn implies geologic youth. We will present model compositions for several of Manannán's key stratigraphic units, including the crater floor deposits and the adjacent chaos and linea. We will interpret these results in the context of ongoing investigations of the interplay of exogenic and

  18. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  19. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF EUROPA: THE DISTINCT SPECTRUM OF LARGE-SCALE CHAOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E.; Hand, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of spatially resolved moderate spectral resolution near-infrared spectra obtained with the adaptive optics system at the Keck Observatory. We identify three compositionally distinct end member regions: the trailing hemisphere bullseye, the leading hemisphere upper latitudes, and a third component associated with leading hemisphere chaos units. We interpret the composition of the three end member regions to be dominated by irradiation products, water ice, and evaporite deposits or salt brines, respectively. The third component is associated with geological features and distinct from the geography of irradiation, suggesting an endogenous identity. Identifying the endogenous composition is of particular interest for revealing the subsurface composition. However, its spectrum is not consistent with linear mixtures of the salt minerals previously considered relevant to Europa. The spectrum of this component is distinguished by distorted hydration features rather than distinct spectral features, indicating hydrated minerals but making unique identification difficult. In particular, it lacks features common to hydrated sulfate minerals, challenging the traditional view of an endogenous salty component dominated by Mg-sulfates. Chloride evaporite deposits are one possible alternative

  20. A Physical Model of the Proton Radiation Belts of Jupiter inside Europa's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nénon, Q.; Sicard, A.; Kollmann, P.; Garrett, H. B.; Sauer, S. P. A.; Paranicas, C.

    2018-05-01

    A physical model of the Jovian trapped protons with kinetic energies higher than 1 MeV inward of the orbit of the icy moon Europa is presented. The model, named Salammbô, takes into account the radial diffusion process, the absorption effect of the Jovian moons, and the Coulomb collisions and charge exchanges with the cold plasma and neutral populations of the inner Jovian magnetosphere. Preliminary modeling of the wave-particle interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves near the moon Io is also performed. Salammbô is validated against in situ proton measurements of Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Galileo Probe, and Galileo Orbiter. A prominent feature of the MeV proton intensity distribution in the modeled area is the 2 orders of magnitude flux depletion observed in MeV measurements near the orbit of Io. Our simulations reveal that this is not due to direct interactions with the moon or its neutral environment but results from scattering of the protons by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  1. An Approach to Searching for Life on Mars, Europa, and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2008-03-01

    Near-term missions may be able to access samples of organic material from Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. The challenge for astrobiology will be to determine if this material is the remains of dead microorganisms or merely abiotic organic material. The remains of life that shares a common origin with life on Earth will be straightforward to detect using sophisticated methods such as DNA amplification. These methods are extremely sensitive but specific to Earth-like life. Detecting the remains of alien life—that does not have a genetic or biochemical commonality with Earth life—will be much more difficult. There is a general property of life that can be used to determine if organic material is of biological origin. This general property is the repeated use of a few specific organic molecules for the construction of biopolymers. For example, Earth-like life uses 20 amino acids to construct proteins, 5 nucleotide bases to construct DNA and RNA, and a few sugars to construct polysaccharides. This selectivity will result in a statistically anomalous distribution of organic molecules distinct from organic material of non-biological origin. Such a distinctive pattern, different from the pattern of Earth-like life, will be persuasive evidence for a second genesis of life.

  2. A New Energy Source for Organic Synthesis in Europa's Surface Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Jerome G.; Khare, Bishun; Cruikshank, Dale P.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Colored regions on Jupiter's satellite Europa and other icy bodies in the outer Solar System may be contaminated by organic macromolecular solid material that is produced when surface ices are exposed to electrical energy. Hypervelocity meteorite impacts and fracture release tidal and tectonic stresses in icy crusts in the form of electrical discharges, which provide the energy for in situ synthesis of the organic solids. We report measurements of electrical discharge, light emission, and magnetic phenomena in hypervelocity impacts into ice with projectiles with V approx. 5 km/s. Part of the projectile's kinetic energy is converted into electrical potential, while the mechanical disruption of the impact also releases stress energy as light, heat, electrical, and magnetic fields as secondary emissions. These newly recognized energy sources suggest that the dark material in the area of impact craters are tholins generated from the energy of the impacts and that well up from the fracture zone. Large pools of liquid water would persist under the meteorite crater for thousands of years, with the potential for prebiotic chemistry to take place at an accelerated rate due to energy pumped in from the secondary emissions.

  3. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF EUROPA: THE DISTINCT SPECTRUM OF LARGE-SCALE CHAOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P. D.; Brown, M. E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hand, K. P., E-mail: pfischer@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of spatially resolved moderate spectral resolution near-infrared spectra obtained with the adaptive optics system at the Keck Observatory. We identify three compositionally distinct end member regions: the trailing hemisphere bullseye, the leading hemisphere upper latitudes, and a third component associated with leading hemisphere chaos units. We interpret the composition of the three end member regions to be dominated by irradiation products, water ice, and evaporite deposits or salt brines, respectively. The third component is associated with geological features and distinct from the geography of irradiation, suggesting an endogenous identity. Identifying the endogenous composition is of particular interest for revealing the subsurface composition. However, its spectrum is not consistent with linear mixtures of the salt minerals previously considered relevant to Europa. The spectrum of this component is distinguished by distorted hydration features rather than distinct spectral features, indicating hydrated minerals but making unique identification difficult. In particular, it lacks features common to hydrated sulfate minerals, challenging the traditional view of an endogenous salty component dominated by Mg-sulfates. Chloride evaporite deposits are one possible alternative.

  4. Discursos sobre la identidad como recurso adaptativo entre inmigrantes colombianos en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Hernández Pulgarín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca comprender el papel de los discursos que integran la identidad nacional en el proceso de adaptación en condiciones límite de inmigrantes colom - bianos en Europa. El abordaje, parte de un estudio etnográfico de colombianos inmigrantes por razones económicas en Bordeaux, Francia y Sevilla, España en di - ferentes períodos, de 2006 a 2012, y de la aplicación de entrevistas a migrantes colombianos en ambos países, retornados a Pereira, Colombia. Los resultados ob - tenidos muestran que en las situaciones límite, los inmigrantes colombianos suelen responder a los retos del proceso de adaptación, basados en discursos sobre la iden - tidad nacional que producen un efecto performativo con consecuencias favorables para la concepción de sí mismos, para la adaptación a las circunstancias adversas y para continuar el proyecto migratorio.

  5. Notas sobre el “nombre simbólico” en Hispanoamérica”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yván Pozuelo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el momento de la iniciación, los masones eligen un nombre simbólico que les identificará en sus acciones dentro de la Orden. En el proceso de iniciación, los masones poseen la oportunidad de escoger un nombre simbólico diferente a su nombre de pila. Estos nombres simbólicos revelan sus percepciones del mundo y transmiten un aspecto vital del que quisieron informar a los demás miembros. ¿Por qué este uso fue exclusivo de las masonerías hispanoamericanas? ¿Cuándo y por qué se extendió la costumbre? El estudio de caso analizado fue la comunidad asturiana, ya que fue una de los más importantes grupos de inmigrantes españoles en América. Con estas notas y el estudio regional se pretende contestar a estos interrogantes: ¿Fue el nombre simbólico un uso originado por los masones? ¿Fue exclusivo de la masonería? ¿Qué informaciones destacan de los nombres simbólicos hispanoamericanos de los masones de Asturias? ¿Qué datos revelan los nombres simbólicos hispanoamericanos de los masones asturianos residentes en Hispanoamérica?

  6. A oikonomia nas epístolas de Paulo: notas sobre a “hermenêutica” de Agamben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Venturini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhando a reconstrução da origem do conceito teológico de oikonomia, que Giorgio Agamben oferece na obra O Reino e a Glória: Uma Genealogia Teológica da Economia e do Governo: Homo sacer II, 2 (2011, o artigo propõe uma releitura dos trechos nos quais, em suas cartas às igrejas, o apóstolo Paulo utiliza o termo grego. Essa releitura confirma a proposição geral do filósofo italiano, de que a compreensão da oikonomia como uma “administração” dos homens e das coisas, como um paradigma gerencial, não parece ter sofrido alterações semânticas expressivas nos escritos de Paulo e na linguagem corrente entre os cristãos até o fastígio do Império Romano. Não obstante, tal releitura acaba por indicar fragilidades significativas em O Reino e a Glória, as quais podem ser constatadas tanto pelo leitor não especializado como pelos estudiosos de Agamben nos campos da filosofia, da teologia e da economia política. Essas notas sobre a obra de Agamben são, por fim, uma tentativa de estabelecer um diálogo com outros textos recentemente publicados no Brasil sobre o autor.

  7. Notas acerca del movimiento natural de la población para el estudio de la salud perinatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Pía Juárez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El movimiento natural de la población, publicado por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE, constituye una fuente de enorme importancia para el estudio de la salud perinatal en el ámbito nacional. Sin embargo, se desconocen las características de la recogida de la información que afectan a la calidad y la interpretación de los estudios epidemiológicos que utilizan esta fuente. El objetivo de este estudio es dar a conocer cómo se recoge la información y algunos problemas asociados. Este trabajo es el resultado de un análisis de las notas metodológicas del INE y de la información recogida de primera mano en hospitales de Madrid, en el Registro Civil central de Madrid y en el Instituto de Estadística de Madrid (IEM. Es necesaria una mayor integración entre las instituciones involucradas para mejorar la calidad de las estadísticas de nacimientos y muertes fetales tardías.

  8. Las notas al pie en la traducción de Fifty Shades (Footnotes in the Translation of Fifty Shades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Valverde Jara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el recurso de las notas a pie de página insertas en la traducción independiente de literatura comercial en versión digital, de la trilogía Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker y Fifty Shades Freed, de E. L. James. Se examina el grado de influencia de esos elementos extratextuales, y se concluye que todos ellos, organizados en un complejo proceso de traducción, en especial los del contexto de llegada, condicionan la estrategia traductológica. Abstract This study examines the use of footnotes as a translation strategy in the independent translation of commercial literature in digital format, based on the trilogy written by E. L. James, Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed. The analysis measures the influence of these extratextual elements within the complex translation process, specifically those of the target language context, and it is concluded that they condition the translation strategies used.

  9. Uma Nota Sobre o Impacto do Comércio Internacional no Crescimento de Economias em Desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE LOURES

    Full Text Available Esta nota investiga o impacto do comércio internacional sobre o crescimento econômico de um grupo de países em desenvolvimento. Para tanto, emprega-se o modelo estrutural proposto por Anderson et al. (2014. Os resultados indicam que o crescimento é estimulado pelo comércio bilateral. Os exercícios contrafactuais sugerem que a liberalização comercial, seja ela fruto de uma redução dos custos do North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, ou de um processo de hiperglobalização, possui um impacto expressivo e positivo sobre o bem-estar social para alguns dos países analisados. No caso do Brasil, a melhora no bem-estar é de 0,25% e 9,13%, respectivamente. Em geral, os resultados demonstram que o comércio internacional pode ser utilizado como instrumento para alavancar o crescimento do PIB e o bem-estar dos países.

  10. Etnografía concéntrica y didáctica Notas para no-antropólogos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ramos Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la necesidad de capacitar a estudiantes y profesionales que no son antropólogos en el quehacer etnográfico se han publicado múltiples manuales que presentan esta labor como exclusivamente metodológica, incluso como un digno ejemplo del enfoque cualitativo; sin embargo al revisar la figura que se oferta en esta literatura encuentro que es una imagen que no hace justicia a la complejidad que significa la Etnografía. Por ello, en este ensayo presento una serie de notas aclaratorias para que se visualicen sus distintos aspectos o caras que muestra la denominada Etnografía. También, incluyo el reto que significa llevar a cabo investigaciones etnográficas en espacios más urbanos y contemporáneos, siendo un ejemplo el caso de la Etnografía Organizacional. Para concluir, anoto algunas recomendaciones, destacando un esquema de trabajo que denomino “Etnografía Concéntrica”, dirigidas a los jóvenes investigadores interesados en incursionar en este campo del conocimiento para orientar sus pesquisas respectivas y que no son antropólogos.

  11. A proteção de dados pessoais nos programas de Nota Fiscal: um estudo de caso do “Nota Fiscal paulista” | Protection of personal data in programs for tax-evasion prevention by collecting invoices: the case of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Machado

    2016-11-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to build a picture of privacy protection in programs that collect invoices to prevent tax evasion. The survey is done by analyzing the active transparency –published in a proactive way by the State Department of Finance – on the program's  home-page. This survey includes information regarding data protection policy, how the information is used, who has access to data, data storage time, information shared with third parties, cooperation with other authorities and the possibility of the consumer deleting his/her data. As a case study, we will analyze the Program Nota Fiscal Paulista, compulsory for outlets located in São Paulo State. Keywords: Data Protection; Privacy; Tax Evasion: Nota Fiscal Paulista.

  12. "Notae in cartulis" en la documentación madrileña del siglo XIII : contribución al estudio de la elaboración del documento privado en Castilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Carrasco Lazareno

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Edición y análisis diplomático de tres «notae in cartulis» o notas preparatorias del documento definitivo, redactadas en hojas sueltas de pergamino, pertenecientes a la colección del convento de Santo Domingo el Real de Madrid. Datadas en la segunda mitad del siglo xiii y escritas por «scriptores» profesionales, antecedentes inmediatos del «publicus notarius», resumen los aspectos esenciales de dos apeos y de una permuta. Estas «notae» tienen interés como antecedentes de las minutas y de los protocolos notariales y por ser escasos los testimonios originales conservados. Además, nos permiten constatar que la validez jurídica de la nota en la etapa prenotarial —aún no «scriptura matrix»— podía ser similar a la de la «scriptura originalis», pues en estos casos no debieron redactarse las correspondientes cartas, siendo la nota el único título acreditativo de la consecución del negocio jurídico.Edition and diplomatic analysis of tíiree «notae in cartulis» or preparatory notes of the final document, written on loóse sheet of parchment, from the documentary resources of the monastery of Saint Dominio the Royal in Madrid. Dated in the second part of the thirteenth century and written by professional «scriptores», inmediate precedent of the «publicus notarius», they sum up the most esential aspects of two fixing of boundaries and one barter. These «notae» are important considered as an antecedent of notes and notarial registers, being quite rare the original testimonies kept. Besides, the allow us to confirm that the «notae» juridical validity in the prenotarial phase —not yet «scriptura matrix»— could be similar to the «scriptura originalis», because in these cases the respective documents were not written, being the note the only evidential title of the juridical «negotium» obtaining.

  13. Calidad de las notas de enfermería en los registros clínicos del servicio de hospitalización y emergencia del Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas Lima 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cucho Martínez, Liliana Luz

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio titulado “calidad de las notas de enfermería en los registros clínicos del servicio de hospitalización y emergencia del hospital emergencias pediátrica, Lima 2016” tuvo como objetivo general, comparar la calidad de las notas de enfermería en los registros clínicos entre los servicio de hospitalización y emergencia del hospital emergencias pediátricas. El tipo de investigación fue cuantitativo, retrospectivo, de diseño no experimental, de corte transversal...

  14. El despertar de la arquitectura moderna a orillas del Mediterráneo: debate y controversia en los contextos de Italia y España

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Vicario, P. M. (Pedro Miguel); Antonucci, M. (Micaela)

    2016-01-01

    Arquitectos y teóricos españoles e italianos identificaron las nuevas tendencias arquitectónicas procedentes de Europa como elementos exógenos. Corrían los años 20 y se presentaba ante ellos el problema de encontrar razones locales que justificasen la adopción de las ideas y las formas de la nueva arquitectura. Para ello acudieron a la tradición que les era propia: la tradición mediterránea, clásica y vernácula. Dilucidar el papel que la arquitectura vernácula tuvo en un proceso de búsqueda c...

  15. RETRATANDO SUEÑOS. FOTOGRAFÍAS DE MAQUETAS DE ARQUITECTURA MODERNA EN ESPAÑA / Portraying dreams. Photographs of Modern Architecture models in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Bergera Serrano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Referirse a la fotografía de maquetas implica enfrentarse a un desatendido subgénero fotográfico. Si la fotografía como disciplina, en relación con la arquitectura, no ha despertado hasta tiempos recientes la atención historiográfica y teórica que merece, cuando se trata de fotografía de maquetas, la genérica condición instrumental de esta la confina a los márgenes del discurso de la representación, alejada de las narrativas canónicas tanto de la arquitectura como de la fotografía. Rescatar y plantear un primer y explícito análisis, en el contexto de la arquitectura moderna en España, de este amplio y particular legado fotográfico —hasta la fecha nunca atendido y valorado como tal— plantea el reto de ver en qué medida es posible trazar los mimbres de un discurso reivindicativo que haga justicia con la fortuna crítica de ambas, fotografías y maquetas, como canales de visualización de la arquitectura moderna mediante un discurso autónomo que trasciende su mera naturaleza documental. Subsidiariamente esta revisión apunta a una posible historia paralela de la arquitectura moderna española a través de sus maquetas y refiere por tanto no ya a la historia transitada sino a aquella otra —en aletargada miniatura— que podría haber sido. SUMMARY To consider the photography of architectural models is to confront one of its most neglected sub-genres. The discipline of the photography of architecture has not captured until recently the attention of scholars and historians that it deserves. Its generic functionality seems to confine it to the margins of any discourse on representation, far removed from the canonical narratives of both architecture and photography. To reevaluate and make the first explicit analysis of such an extensive and unique photographic legacy in the context of modern architecture in Spain — up to now underrated and ignored — poses the challenge of seeing how far it is possible to sketch out

  16. Genes, visibilidad mediática y discursos emergentes. Análisis semántico-pragmático de notas cortas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Pineda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó una nota corta sobre “descubrimiento de genes” para develar recursos y estrategias utilizadas por el emisor del mensaje para llegar al público meta. Se aplicó el enfoque integrado semántico-pragmático del discurso combinado con el análisis semiodiscursivo. Los resultados muestran en cada fase del enfoque seleccionado los mecanismos que contribuyen con la reducción de la complejidad de la información cuando se utiliza el lenguaje con fines comunicativos. Las conclusiones son las siguientes: 1. La nota corta es un género discursivo híbrido que se mueve entre los discursos referido y comentado. 2. El análisis devela la complementariedad entre tradicionales estrategias lingüístico-discursivas y las emergentes que rescatan la visibilización de los procesos colectivos y de equipo en la realización de las actividades de investigación y desarrollo y que describen, explican y argumentan sobre procesos de investigación y no solo sobre sus productos. 3. El plan discursivo de la nota corta muestra, fundamentalmente, que la combinación de recursos y estrategias obedeció a la finalidad de lograr: (a el mantenimiento del referente. (b “hacer creer” o persuadir sobre los resultados obtenidos mediante la creación de “efecto de verdad”, que se cumple mediante la estrategia de argumentación, en un intento por lograr credibilidad en el receptor. c la integración semántica-pragmática del discurso y el diseño de planes discursivos puede favorecer la comunicación pública de la ciencia y la tecnología en las organizaciones que gestionan la ciencia, tecnología e innovación

  17. La historia rural de la España oriental durante la Edad Moderna: un estado de la cuestión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel ARDIT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La historia rural de la España oriental durante la Edad Moderna: un estado de la cuestión. En este artículo se traza un estado de la cuestión de la historia agraria de los territorios de la antigua Corona de Aragón y la región murciana durante la Edad Moderna. Se analiza en primer lugar la evolución cronológica de ciertas variables fundamentales, como son la población y los indicadores de producción agraria, repasándose las consecuencias de ciertos acontecimientos considerados puntos de ruptura fundamentales, como la sentencia arbitral de Guadalupe o la expulsión de los moriscos. Seguidamente se estudian los aspectos esenciales de la historia agraria propiamente dicha, como son los cultivos, la ganadería, el bosque, el regadío y las técnicas agrarias. Finalmente se dedica un tercer y último apartado a la historia social agraria, en el que se trata el señorío, la propiedad, las formas de cesión y explotación de la tierra, los procesos de diferenciación social, las normas hereditarias y la confl ictividad social.ABSTRACT: The Rural History of Oriental Spain during the Early Modern Period: a State of the Art. In this article it’s outlined a state of the art of the agrarian history of the territories of the ancient Crown of Aragon and the Murcian Country during the Early Modern period. In the fi rst place are analyzed the chronological evolution of some basic variables, such as population and the indicators of the agrarian production, being checked too the results of some basic historical events, considered main breaking historical points, such as the arbitral verdict of Guadalupe or the expulsion of the Moriscos. Next are studied the essential aspects of the agrarian history properly said, that’s to say, cultivations, cattle farming, wood, irrigation and the agrarian techniques. Eventually a third and last paragraph is devoted to the agrarian social history, in which are discussed themes such as feudalism, property

  18. Rendimiento térmico de calderas bagaceras modernas en Tucumán, R. Argentina Thermal efficiency of modern bagasse boilers in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron tres calderas de vapor modernas instaladas en ingenios azucareros de Tucumán, R. Argentina, equipos que se encuadran dentro de las tecnologías de producción más limpia. Tomando como base la metodología de cálculo de la eficiencia térmica de generadores de vapor desarrollada en 2008 por la Sección Ingeniería y Proyectos Agroindustriales de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, y a partir de los datos recolectados por medio de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, se determinaron sus principales variables características de operación. Las eficiencias energéticas determinadas para cada una fueron del 73,5%; 75,2% y 77,3%. Se realizó además una comparación con las calderas de vapor convencionales y se determinó el ahorro de bagazo que puede obtenerse con las calderas modernas, el cual resultó ser de un 27,6%. Como una ventaja adicional, se hace mención a la posibilidad de mejora del rendimiento térmico del ciclo motriz de la planta, que viene acompañada con el aumento de la presión de trabajo de la caldera.Three modern steam boilers, installed in sugar mills in Tucumán, R. Argentina, to attain a cleaner production, were evaluated. Their major operating variables were determined using the methodology for calculating thermal efficiency of steam generators developed by Sección Ingeniería y Proyectos Agroindustriales of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres in 2008, and data obtained from measurements and material and energy balances. Energy efficiency values determined for each boiler were 73.5%, 75.2% and 77.3%, respectively. A comparison with conventional steam boilers was drawn and it was found that bagasse savings amounted to about 27.6% when modern boilers were used. The possibility of improving the thermal efficiency of the plant cycle by increasing boiler pressure is mentioned as an additional advantage.

  19. El lugar de la construcción inevitable: la arquitectura moderna en Brasil a través de la producción crítica de Mário Pedrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amalia Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, que indaga sobre la producción crítica de Mário Pedrosa en torno a la arquitectura moderna brasileña, toma en consideración tres núcleos de análisis: el diferencial brasileño en relación con las propuestas del estilo moderno y las pervivencias de la tradición nativa y barroca, la conceptualización de Brasilia y las críticas y contradicciones vinculadas a la representación simbólica del poder estatal. Este trabajo sostiene que Pedrosa —entendiendo Latinoamérica como el espacio de relocalización del poder transformador de las vanguardias— invistió al desarrollo de la arquitectura moderna en Brasil como un fenómeno capaz de reactivar la utopía de un arte total.

  20. Da Semana de Arte Moderna de 22 ao Ministério da Educação e da Saúde: processo de consolidação do moderno no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Faim Lazarini

    2007-01-01

    Trabalho que se destina a analisar aspectos da trajetória de consolidação do moderno da arte e da arquitetura no Brasil, percorrendo o período que se estende da Semana de Arte Moderna (1922) à formulação do projeto do edifício do Ministério da Educação e da Saúde (1936), a fim de verificar de que forma acontecimentos de ordem econômica, política, social e, sobretudo, cultural contribuíram para o surgimento dessa arquitetura moderna brasileira que seria, nas décadas seguintes, objeto de elogio...

  1. Avaliando a avaliação escolar: notas escolares e inteligência fluida Evaluando la evaluación escolar: las notas escolares y inteligencia fluida Evaluating the school evaluation: the grade schools and fluid intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o ENEM, o ensino deve promover o desenvolvimento da inteligência (competências. Este artigo discute a qualidade de duas avaliações escolares enquanto indicadores desse princípio. Foram realizados dois estudos. O primeiro analisa dados de 230 estudantes de uma escola da rede federal de Ensino Médio de Belo Horizonte e o segundo faz o mesmo procedimento em relação a 273 estudantes do ensino médio de uma escola particular da mesma cidade. Foram empregados os mesmos instrumentos e métodos de coleta e análise de dados nos dois estudos, para fins de comparação dos resultados. Foram analisadas relações entre inteligência fluida, notas escolares e uma competência escolar geral. Foi utilizado o modelamento por equações estruturais. Os resultados indicaram que as avaliações escolares dos dois estudos se relacionaram aos princípios do ENEM. As implicações são analisadas e discutidas.Por medio del ENEM, la educación brasileña estipula que la enseñanza debe promover el desenvolvimiento de la inteligencia (competencias.. Este artículo discute la cualidad de dos evaluaciones escolares, como indicadores de este principio. Fueron hechos dos estudios. El primero analiza datos de 230 estudiantes de una escuela de la red federal de enseñanza mediana de Belo Horizonte. El segundo analiza datos de 273 estudiantes de al enseñanza mediana de una escuela particular de Belo Horizonte. Fueron utilizados los mismos instrumentos y métodos de colecta y análisis en los dos estudios, para fines de comparación. Fueron analizadas relaciones entre inteligencia fluida, notas escolares y una competencia escolar general. Fue utilizado el modelamento por ecuación estructural. Los resultados indicaron que las evaluaciones de los dos estudios si relacionaron con los principios del ENEM. Las implicaciones fueron analizadas y discutidas.Brazilian education defines through ENEM that teaching must promote development of intelligence (scholar

  2. Evaluation of an [18F]AlF-NOTA Analog of Exendin-4 for Imaging of GLP-1 Receptor in Insulinoma

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    Dale O. Kiesewetter, Ning Guo, Jinxia Guo, Haokao Gao, Lei Zhu, Ying Ma, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The GLP-1 receptor plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and thus is a very important target for diabetes therapy. The receptor is also overexpressed in insulinoma, a tumor of pancreatic beta-cells. We previously evaluated two fluorine-18-labeled analogs of exendin-4 prepared by conjugation with [18F]FBEM (N-[2-(4-[18F]fluorobenzamideethyl]maleimide. Both compounds demonstrated good tumor uptake, but the synthesis of the radiotracers was time consuming. To overcome this challenge, we developed a NOTA analog and performed radiolabeling using aluminum [18F]fluoride complexation.Methods: Cys40-exendin-4 was conjugated with NOTA mono N-ethylmaleimide. [18F]AlF conjugation was conducted and the radiolabeled product purified by preparative HPLC. Dynamic and static PET imaging scans were conducted on nude mice with established INS-1 xenografts. Uptake of tumor and other major organs in static images was quantitated (%ID/g and comparison with blocking studies was made. PET quantification was also compared with ex vivo biodistribution results.Results: The radiosynthesis provided [18F]AlF-NOTA-MAL-cys40-exendin-4 in 23.6 ± 2.4 % radiochemical yield (uncorrected, n = 3 after HPLC; the process required about 55 min. The specific activity at time of injection ranged from 19.6 to 31.4 GBq (0.53-0.85 Ci/µmol. Tumor uptake had reached its maximum (16.09 ± 1.18% ID/g, n = 4 by 5 min and remained nearly constant for the duration of the study. Kidney uptake continued to increase throughout the entire one hour time course. Pre-injection of exendin-4 caused a marked reduction in tissue uptake with the major exception of liver and kidneys, in which uptake was not affected. HPLC analysis of the radioactive components in extracts of the tumor and plasma showed primarily parent compound at 60 min post-injection, whereas extracts of kidney and urine contained exclusively one polar radioactive component.Conclusion: The radiotracer is prepared in

  3. Performance of OSC's initial Amtec generator design, and comparison with JPL's Europa Orbiter goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-01-01

    The procedure for the analysis (with overpotential correction) of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells described in Paper IECEC 98-243 was applied to a wide range of multicell radioisotope space power systems. System design options consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 stacked GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) modules, identical to those used on previous NASA missions, were analyzed and performance-mapped. The initial generators analyzed by OSC had 8 AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack, with five beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tubes per cell. The heat source and converters in the Orbital generator designs are embedded in a thermal insulation system consisting of Min-K fibrous insulation surrounded by graded-length molybdenum multifoils. Detailed analyses in previous Orbital studies found that such an insulation system could reduce extraneous heat losses to about 10%. For the above design options, the present paper presents the system mass and performance (i.e., the EOM system efficiency and power output and the BOM evaporator and clad temperatures) for a wide range of heat inputs and load voltages, and compares the results with JPL's preliminary goals for the Europa Orbiter mission to be launched in November 2003. The analytical results showed that the initial 16-cell generator designs resulted in either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures and/or insufficient power outputs to meet the JPL-specified mission goals. The computed performance of modified OSC generators with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell are described in Paper IECEC.98.245 in these proceedings

  4. L'integrazione delle pratiche di Sanitá Pubblica in Europa

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    H. Waller

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Rilevanza dell’argomento: questo tema è diventato un importante problema di Sanità Pubblica anche in Europa. Studi epidemiologici mostrano che quasi tutti i problemi di salute e la prevalenza di malattie e di disabilità sono più frequenti negli strati sociali più bassi, indipendentemente dal modo in cui la classe sociale viene misurata (con qualche eccezione come ad esempio il cancro della mammella e le allergie. Inoltre, l’associazione tra svantaggio sociale e malattia è divenuta sempre più forte negli ultimi decenni (Marmot e Wilkinson, 1999.

     La rilevanza del tema è diventata ancora più grande dal momento che in molti Paesi candidati all’ingresso nell’Unione Europea sono frequenti povertà e disgregazione sociale (Mackenbach e Bakker, 2002. Future necessita’ di ricerca: in futuro, tutte le indagini nazionali sulla salute dovranno includere la classe sociale tra le variabili registrate regolarmente. La ricerca dovrà infatti concentrarsi sulla spiegazione della correlazione tra classe sociale e malattia usando studi longitudinali ed includendo fattori sociali, oltre a determinanti medico-sanitari.

    La correlazione tra classe sociale e la presenza di problemi di salute va studiata in entrambe le direzioni: un basso status sociale come determinante di malattia, come pure la presenza di problemi di salute come causa della discesa nella “scala sociale”. La pratica di Sanità Pubblica e lo sviluppo di politiche sociali devono affrontare adeguatamente entrambe le ipotesi.

  5. EXTENSÃO UNIVERSITÁRIA NA EUROPA: A TERCEIRA MISSÃO

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    Pedro Nunes Teixeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, interest in greater openness and integration of universities to social and economic environment is growing. Driven by society and the knowledge economy and the social demands, the University Extension has gained increasing importance, both in Latin America where the main focus is on direct social actions, interventions promoting citizenship and fomenting local leadership, whether in developed economies where services and technology transfer receive greater attention. In continental Europe the term correlate to the most widely adopted extension is "Third Mission", and is subdivided into three sub-areas: Continuing Education, Technology Transfer and Innovation, and Social Engagement. This Academy playing field also gains strength in the "old continent".Em vários países, o interesse por maior abertura e integração das universidades ao meio social e econômico é crescente. Impulsionada pela sociedade e economia do conhecimento e pelas demandas sociais, a Extensão Universitária ganha cada vez mais importância, seja na América Latina onde o foco principal são ações sociais diretas, intervenções promotoras da cidadania e fomentadoras do protagonismo local, seja em economias mais desenvolvidas onde os serviços e a transferência de tecnologia recebem maior atenção. Na Europa continental o termo correlato à extensão mais adotado é “Terceira Missão” (Third Mission1, e subdivide-se em três sub-áreas: Educação Continuada, Transferência de Tecnologia e Inovação, e Engajamento Social. Este campo de atuação da academia também ganha força no “velho continente”.

  6. La criminalità organizzata nell'Europa Centro-Orientale dopo il 1989. Una prospettiva geopolitica

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    Stefan Bielański

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo riguarda lo sfondo geopolitico e i meccanismi della criminalità organizzata nell’Europa centro-orientale. L’autore presenta le caratteristiche principali della situazione geopolitica in quella regione dopo la dissoluzione dell’Unione Sovietica. La sua attenzione è rivolta in particolare alla nascita, alla struttura e alle modalità di funzionamento della criminalità organizzata sulla nuova frontiera orientale dell’Unione europea. In tal senso si sofferma sui rapporti tra la criminalità organizzata e il nuovo terrorismo indicandone il pericolo per la stabilità sociale, politica ed economica dell’Europa centro-orientale. Similmente agli studiosi ed esperti polacchi egli indica il rischio, di una “evoluzione” della criminalità organizzata al terrorismo, sostenendo che le autorità degli stati europei debbano tenerne conto con la massima responsabilità per la sicurezza dei loro paesi e dei loro cittadini. Parole chiave: Geopolitica, Europa centro-orientale, Unione europea, Criminalità organizzata, Terrorismo   The paper concerns the geopolitical background of the emergence and functioning of organized crime in Central-East Europe. The author outlines the main characteristics of the geopolitical situation of the region after the transformation. A special focus is given to the rise, structure and operational manners of organized crime at the new, eastern border of EU. Eventually the author considers the relations between organized crime and new terrorism, acknowledging both these phenomena as a threat towards social, political and economic stability in the Central-East Europe. Likewise to several Polish scholars and experts, the author recognizes the patterns of the highly dangerous process of organized crime's evolution into terrorism. The author emphasizes that authorities of the European states must take into account both dangers as deeply relevant issue for security of their countries and citizens. Keywords

  7. Cuerpo y alma en el Carmelo descalzo femenino. Una aproximación a la alimentación conventual en la Cataluña moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercé GRAS I CASANOVAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Cuerpo y alma en el Carmelo descalzo femenino. Unaaproximación a la alimentación conventual en la Cataluña moderna. A través del análisis de un conjunto de fuentes diversas: regla y cosntituciones, ceremoniales, cartas pastorales, hagiografías, epistolarios, polémicas internas, cuentas conventuales y libros de cocina, hemos pretendido reconstruir el marco teórico, la realidad material, el ritual y la contradictoria vivencia de la experencia alimentaria en un colectivo social específico.ABSTRACT: Body and soul in the feminine Discalced Carmel. An approach to the conventual alimentation in modern Catalonia. Through the analysis of an ensemble of sources of different kinds: Rule ans constitutions, ceremonials, pastoral letters, hagiographies, internal polemics, conventual account-books and kitchen's books, we have tried to recreate the theoretical archetype, the material reality, the ritual, and the contradictory experience of the alimentary life in a specific social collectivity.

  8. Un balance personal de 25 años de gestión sanitaria moderna en el Sistema Nacional de Salud

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    Belenes R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La transferencia, a principios del año 2002, del INSALUD a todas las comunidades autónomas que no disponían todavía de las competencias sobre servicios sanitarios de la Seguridad Social cierra un ciclo de gestión sanitaria moderna en España que, no obstante, no ha tenido el dinamismo ni la capacidad de innovación de la gestión empresarial. A pesar de ello, ha conocido, en estos 25 años de existencia, un auge y florecimiento espectaculares. Los problemas de nuestro sistema sanitario, o bien están vinculados a los inherentes a un sistema público de cobertura universal, generosas prestaciones y subfinanciación clara, o son los propios de un modelo organizativo obsoleto con falta de autonomía de los centros y de los profesionales, o guardan relación con las mayores expectativas de los ciudadanos y con la enorme complejidad de la medicina del futuro. Todo ello debe abordarse desde la perspectiva de una nueva gestión propia del nuevo siglo. El Sistema Nacional de Salud es apreciado por los ciudadanos, a la vez que tiene carencias y problemas muy serios; el principal riesgo es una deslegitimación crónica y progresiva, por la que los ciudadanos pierdan la fe y la confianza en el sistema sanitario público.

  9. Identificando señales de evolución no estocástica en la morfología craneofacial de poblaciones humanas modernas

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    Azevedo, Soledad de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las poblaciones humanas varían significativamente en su morfología craneana. Aún se debate hasta dónde ésta variabilidad se ha acumulado a través de procesos neutrales (e.g. deriva genética o bien por efecto de la selección natural. Entender los procesos evolutivos que dieron origen a esta variación es una de las metas de la biología humana en particular y de la biología evolutiva en general. Para analizar la relación entre los patrones de cambio y variación morfológica observados y los esperados bajo un escenario de evolución neutral, aplicamos un modelo genético cuantitativo sobre una muestra muy amplia de poblaciones que abarcan el continente Americano, Asia y Oceanía. La morfología craneofacial se estudió a partir de medidas lineales correspondientes al método craneofuncional, en donde treinta variables métricas describen los distintos componentes funcionales observables en el cráneo. Los resultados indican que los procesos aleatorios, tales como la deriva genética, no son suficientes para explicar la variación morfológica del cráneo en las poblaciones humanas modernas.

  10. Malos tratos y violencia doméstica entre los judeoconversos hispanos en el tránsito de la Edad Media a la Moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La lectura atenta de procesos inquisitoriales de fines del siglo XV y de los primeros decenios del XVI, permite rastrear abundantes noticias acerca del uso de los malos tratos en el seno de las familias judeoconversas españolas en el tránsito de la Edad Media a la Moderna. El recurso a la violencia doméstica es particularmente frecuente en las relaciones señores-criados, y todo permite sospechar que este tipo de actuaciones no debía ser objeto de condena social ni de sanción penal, siempre que el castigo fuera «oportuno y moderado».The careful reading of the Inquisition trials at the end of the XV century and the first decades of the XVI century, allows us to track the abundant news about the maltreatments inside the converted Spanish Jewish families in the transition of the Middle Ages to the Modern Age. The use of the domestic violence is particularly frequent in the relations lord-servant, and everything allows us to suspect that this type of behaviours did not have to be object of social condemnation nor of penal sanction, provided that the punishment was «appropriate and moderate».

  11. Para além da autoconsciência moderna: a historiografia de Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht Beyond modern self-consciousness: the historiography of Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht

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    Valdei Lopes de Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresento uma análise dos aspectos historiográficos da obra de Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht. Acompanhado o desenvolvimento de sua teoria da modernidade e das conseqüências dessa teoria para a escrita da história e para a auto-consciência disciplinar. Por fim, proponho uma releitura da história da historiografia através dos dois tipos de culturas propostas por Gumbrecht, ou seja, culturas de sentido e culturas de presença. Argumento que mesmo que a historiografia moderna possa ser caracterizada como predominantemente ancorada na produção de sentido, aspectos centrais de sua história só podem ser explicados através de elementos típicos da produção de presença.This paper analyses some historiographical aspects of Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht's work, particularly his theory of modernity and its consequences to the writing of history and its disciplinary self-conscious. Finally, it is proposed a reinterpretation of the history of historiography based on the distinction between cultures of presence and cultures of meaning. It is argued that despite the fact that the elements of meaning are predominant in the constitution of modern historiography, the forces acting in its constitution cannot be explained without typical elements of a culture of presence.

  12. Paisaje de atraso: Aprovechamiento tradicional de la tierra y economía moderna en Huixquilucan, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara J. Williams

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Las economías modernas que funcionan dentro de paisajes tradicionales van siendo un fenómeno creciente en muchas partes del mundo. El lugar, motivo del presente estudio, es Huixquilucan, México, un municipio complejo en el borde montañoso del Valle de México, que la ciudad de México ha comenzado a invadir. La apariencia general y la distribución del uso del suelo dentro del municipio dan todavía la impresión de que la población está dedicada al cultivo de maíz, actividad típica del México pre–industrial. Sin embargo, el análisis de la estructura de ocupación del municipio revela lo contrario: la población se dedica a actividades que no son agrícolas, particularmente tiene empleos en la ciudad de México. Esta situación se describe en este trabajo como un "paisaje de atraso" en el que la estructura de ocupación del campo no refleja ya el uso primario del suelo. En el análisis se plantean problemas fundamentales de persistencia, cambio y predicción.

  13. Don Quijote, Hamlet y el cogito. Sobre las raíces de la estética en la filosofía moderna

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    Serrano, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the two main characters of Shakespeare and Cervantes with Cartesian cogito, to find out if they express aspects of modernity that cartesian cogito hides. In particular are analyzed from the point of view of the absence, whose expression is compared with the loss of the metaphysics of being and the pre-modern notion of nature. It explores the possibility that the aesthetic is rooted in modern philosophyEl artículo compara los dos grandes personajes de Shakespeare y Cervantes con el cogito cartesiano a fin de averiguar si expresan aspectos de lo moderno que este último oculta. En particular se analizan desde la perspectiva de la ausencia, cuya expresión se compara con la pérdida de la metafísica del ser y de la noción de naturaleza premodernas. Se indaga la posibilidad de que en esa ausencia hunda sus raíces la estética de la filosofía moderna.

  14. Organizações automatizadas - desenvolvimento e estrutura da empresa moderna. Nélio Oliveira. Rio de Janeiro: Editora LTC, 2007. 228p. ISBN: 8521614985.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Paula Freitas Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A Editora LTC lançou, em 2007, o livro de Nélio Oliveira, Organizações automatizadas: desenvolvimento e estrutura da empresa moderna. Mestre em Administração pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, atuou durante anos em diversas organizações públicas, privadas e de economia mista. Nélio Oliveira, no momento atual, é conceituado professor dos cursos de Administração e Sistemas de Informações na Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais. No meio de muitas literaturas disponíveis, a obra destaca-se pela simplicidade, pela objetividade e pelo cuidado com os quais ele trata uma nova configuração, as organizações automatizadas. Em linhas gerais, o autor concentra-se em um trabalho descritivo e procura caracterizar um novo formato organizacional, o qual surge em muitas empresas, em substituição às formas anteriores, vinculadas a modelos mecanizados ou mecanísticos. A obra tem como foco o modelo de cinco estruturas de Henry Mintzberg, base para todo o trabalho. O autor tem como propósito retratar uma realidade, na qual se observam as mudanças do mundo organizacional contemporâneo, o qual está cada vez mais adquirindo espaço no mundo empresarial.

  15. O baile do monstro: o mito da paz de vestfália na história das relações internacionais modernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar o mito da Paz de Vestfália nas relações internacionais modernas, trazendo interpretações alternativas para tal evento e para seus impactos no estudo da história das relações internacionais e nas relações internacionais contemporâneas. Problematizando, primeiramente o marco histórico, o argumento central aponta que a Paz de Vestfália não promoveu profunda inovação nem ruptura em relação à perspectiva anterior à Guerra dos Trinta Anos no que diz respeito aos aspectos essenciais das unidades constitutivas do Sacro Império Romano e das prerrogativas do imperador, apenas confirmou uma ordem cooperativa legal de entidades autônomas não-soberanas. O questionamento da existência empírica de um sistema inviolável de Estados soberanos evidencia, a seguir, as brechas nos princípios de autonomia e de territorialidade do modelo vestfaliano de relações internacionais. Finalmente, as interpretações alternativas do impacto da Paz de Vestfália para as relações internacionais e para seu estudo indicam que a igualdade formal entre os Estados intensifica dificuldades na resposta às diferenças na cultura, na religião e no modo de vida.

  16. Sobre la razón histórica moderna y su posteridad. Esbozo de una investigación histórico-conceptual

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    Carles Llinàs i Puentes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende esbozar algunos de los momentos más importantes del despliegue de la razón histórica moderna. Los complejos hilos que los conectan entre sí y con las aceleradamente cambiantes circunstancias de los últimos siglos constituyen la dificultad y, quizás, el interés del artículo. Sin querer proponer interpretaciones que agoten el sentido de las ideas y de los acontecimientos, la sucesión de Estado absoluto, crítica filosófico-histórica ilustrada liberal y, después, socialista, y, finalmente, crítica postilustrada (postmoderna genealógico-mitológica, sugiere muy probablemente la existencia de relaciones «ideales» y «materiales» con frecuencia no atendidas y abre tal vez nuevos caminos para tratar de ver en qué dirección se mueven las cosas.

  17. EL USO DE LAS NUEVAS TECNOLOGIAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y LA COMUNICACIÓN (NTICs EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA FÍSICA MODERNA

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    Leda María Roldán Santamaría

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo consiste en una reseña de una experiencia de aula donde se aprovecha el conocimiento en el campo de las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TICs para que los estudiantes del Colegio Científico Costarricense, con sede en San Pedro, San José de Costa Rica, logren investigar sobre temáticas de física moderna y comprender los principios básicos del tema de su interés. Las investigaciones en temáticas que presenta el programa de Física al concluir el undécimo año, involucraron a los estudiantes para que formaran parejas para realizar estos estudios sobre diversos temas. Indagaron en la WEB, capturaron imágenes que les permitieran reflejar los conceptos estudiados. Crearon afiches con los textos y las figuras que lograron relacionar, asimismo las presentaron a sus compañeros de colegio, respondiendo las preguntas que estos temas generaban en los espectadores.

  18. Aplicação de Data Mining na Área de CRM como Ferramenta Gerencial para Tomada de Decisão em Empresas Modernas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Borges Araujo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta inicialmente os conceitos envolvidos no Gerenciamento do Relacionamento de Clientes (CRM em empresas modernas, discutindo os principais aspectos associados. São apresentados os principais objetivos e funções envolvidos neste tema. São apontadas as principais dificuldades no processo de CRM e identificada a potencialidade da utilização agressiva de Tecnologia da Informação como forte candidata para otimização dos processos da área de CRM. São apresentados os conceitos envolvidos na técnica de Mineração de Dados – Data Mining e sua aplicação no campo de CRM. São apresentadas as diversas técnicas associadas e discutida a sua aplicação particular na área do gerenciamento do Relacionamento de Clientes. São apresentadas exemplos de utilização desta metodologia.

  19. Turismo y arquitectura moderna en el reconocimiento de los territorios desérticos del norte de Chile: El Consorcio Hotelero Nacional y Honsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Galeno-Ibaceta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La modernidad arquitectónica del norte chileno ha sido un tema poco investigado, y menos aún han sido los estudios sobre la revaloración de su paisaje como destino turístico. Hasta el momento las publicaciones que se ha realizado se han centrado más bien en el paisaje de la zona central y del sur del Chile. Por lo tanto indagar en las relaciones entre arquitectura moderna, paisaje desértico y cultura del turismo permite detenerse sobre iniciativas que desencadenaron obras de interés en su mayoría asentadas en el borde marítimo del desierto. Una serie de sucesos principian el proceso, por ejemplo en 1944 fue fundado el Consorcio Hotelero, que declaró su voluntad de construir hoteles en el norte chileno y desde fines de los años 50, el Consorcio y la Organización Nacional Hotelera fueron anexados a la Hotelera Nacional S.A. (HONSA.

  20. Da obediência ao consentimento: reflexões sobre o experimento de Milgram à luz das instituições modernas

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    Sandra Leal de Melo Dahia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente ensaio é fornecer uma leitura sobre os resultados do clássico experimento de Stanley Milgram em torno da obediência à autoridade a partir de algumas categorias extraídas dos estudos teóricos do sociólogo Anthony Giddens e da filósofa Hannah Arendt. O texto está estruturado em torno de dois aspectos centrais. O primeiro afirma o contexto das tendências culturais e as características das instituições modernas como fatores decisivos para a compreensão dos resultados experimentais. Enfatiza, para tanto, a modalidade de confiança que os sistemas sociais, como os sistemas peritos, instauram na vida hodierna, capaz de produzir uma peculiar subordinação ao conhecimento científico e técnico, concomitante a uma plena desinformação sobre seus princípios de funcionamento. O segundo aspecto do artigo visa realçar a importância da responsabilidade moral dos sujeitos experimentais, propondo, com base nas reflexões de Hannah Arendt, o deslocamento do eixo central da análise do experimento da categoria obediência para a categoria consentimento.