WorldWideScience

Sample records for eurodif

  1. Present status of EURODIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1953, in France, the Commissariat a' l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has studied and developed the gaseous diffusion process. EURODIF was formed as a joint venture to perform a feasibility study based on research and development carried out by CEA and on engineering and cost data put together by USSI. EURODIF, backed by the governments of Belgium, France, Italy, and Spain decided to start a plant in late 1981 to be located in France in the Tricastin district of the Rhone Valley. The general layout of the gaseous diffusion plant included the four process buildings, the buildings where UF 6 products are received and delivered, the central control room, the switchyard, the cooling towers, the surface coating workshop, and ancillary units and various workshops. Firm sales cover the whole production until 1990, nearly 90% of which is being made to the shareholders. Customers were found in Japan, Switzerland, and the Federal Republic of Germany. COREDIF, Compagnie de Realisation d'Usines de Diffusion Gazeuse, was incorporated in 1975 to build in Europe a second enrichment plant using gaseous diffusion. The EURODIF/COREDIF complex, with a production capacity of more than 20 million separative work units per year, is one the the most important private suppliers of enrichment services. Contracts are proposed that are flexible enough to meet the requirements of each electricity producer

  2. The Eurodif program. Present status of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, G.

    1975-01-01

    The reasons which led Eurodif to decide for the gaseous diffusion process and the benefits which such process offers for the present time are presented. The realization of the Eurodif project (description of the plant, time schedule of the realization, electric power supply, production time-schedule) is discussed. The Eurodif marketing policy, present and future, is reported [fr

  3. EURODIF: the uranium enrichment by gaseous diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    During the seventies the nuclear power programme had an extremely rapid growth rate which entailed to increase the world uranium enrichment capacity. EURODIF is the largest undertaking in this field. This multinational joint venture built and now operates and enrichment plant using the gaseous diffusion process at Tricastin (France). This plant is delivering low enriched uranium since two years and has contracted about 110 million SWU's till 1990. Description, current activity and prospects are given in the paper. (Author) [pt

  4. On the threshold of the nineteen-eighties... Eurodif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, Georges; Leduc, Christian; Ergalant, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    Eurodif will be the first European plant for the enrichment of uranium by gaseous diffusion. After having presented the project and the different agreements signed for its finalization, the authors give a description of the plant for which the construction work has started on the Tricastin site, and for which the supply of the first enrichment services is foreseen from and after 1979. A certain number of particular are given concerning the techniques which will be applied at level of the diffusion cascade (diffuser and barriers, compressor, heat exchanger) and also on the electric power supply of the plant and its construction cost. The position of Eurodif on the market of uranium enrichment (an essential position on account of the very rapid development of requirements) is defined [fr

  5. Technological aspects of the historical development of EURODIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The current enriched uranium market situation is characterized by overcapacity. Construction of new plants are anticipated but the uncertainties in the time frame and plant size have been forcing EURODIF to be ready for a long operational life. Originally, the Georges Besse plant was supposed to operate at its full capacity of 10.8 million SWUs, but drastic changes in the 1980s led to reduce its production. However, the excellent operating characteristics of the equipment and the great flexibility of the cascade permitted the plant to take advantage of the seasonal availability of electricity supplied by the EdF grid. To further improve the overall economy of the plant EURODIF undertook a vast refitting and investment program called MOCA (cascade modulation), the purpose of which was (i) to increase the flexibility of the cascade; and (ii) to extend the life span of the plant. The increased flexibility includes larger pressure limits and quicker change of flow rates and requires a new control system, more efficient maintenance, and several adjustments to the compressors and the piping flowsheet. Plant construction and operation have thus far been very successful, and the future looks even brighter and more economically efficient for the benefit of nuclear utilities. (author)

  6. Application of safeguards techniques to the Eurodif gas diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.; Goens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristic features of gas diffusion plants are such that safeguards procedures specifically suited for this technique can be proposed. The first of these features is the fact that appreciably altering the enrichment level of the plant product is not possible without making easily detectable changes either in the plant structure itself or in the movement of incoming and outgoing materials. Furthermore, because of the size of gas diffusion plants large stocks of uranium are present in them. Although inventory differences may be small in relative terms, they are large in abosolute terms and exceed the quantities of low-enriched uranium considered significant from the standpoint of safeguards. Lastly, the impossibility for economic reasons for taking a physical inventory of the plant after it has been emptied prevents a comparison of the physical inventory with the book inventory. It would therefore seem that the safeguarding of a gas diffusion plant should be focused on the movement of nuclear material between the plant and the outside world. The verification of inputs and outputs can be considered satisfactory from the safeguards standpoint as long as it is possible to make sure of the containment of the plant and of the surveillance for the purpose of preventing clandestine alterations of structure. The description of the Eurodif plant and the movement of materials planned there at present indicate that the application of such a safeguards technique to the plant should be acceptable to the competent authorities. For this purpose a monitoring area has been set aside in which the inspectors will be able to keep track of all movements between the outside world and the enrichment plant

  7. EURODIF: An enrichment plant for the present and beyond the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.F.; Barre, J.Y.

    1989-01-01

    EURODIF's George Besse uranium enrichment plant, which uses the gaseous diffusion process, was set up in France with European partners. It has the annual capacity to supply sufficient enriched uranium for 100 light water reactors of 900 MWe. The plant has been running for the last 10 years and its output is set to satisfy the market for enrichment, while making best use of the seasonal availability of electrical energy supplied by the EdF. In 80,000 hours of operation the plant has proved itself entirely satisfactory in terms of reliability, availability, safety and efficiency. From this, it can be predicted that, on the basis of current production, output can be maintained to beyond the year 2000. The improvement programme being undertaken at present will increase performance and flexibility and make the plant more competitive as it enters the market of the next decade

  8. EURODIF company - Tricastin gaseous diffusion plant. Requests following the safety re-evaluation of the facility after 20 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This decision from the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN) concerns the safety reevaluation of the EURODIF plant ('Georges Besse plant') of the Tricastin site at Pierrelatte (France) which uses the gaseous diffusion process to separate the uranium isotopes. Since the last safety reevaluation in 1988, several points have been improved: reduction of the frequency and importance of uranium hexafluoride leaks (control of the pitting corrosion in the exchangers), no incident linked with exo-thermal reactions or explosions, a mastery of the exposure to ionizing radiations etc.. On the other hand, several points need improvement: the prevention of criticality risks, the earthquake resistance of some structures, and the integration of some accident scenarios (aircraft crash, UF 6 leak) in the emergency plan to avoid the fast release of toxic materials in the environment. These points are detailed in the document. (J.S.)

  9. Knowledge gained from the founding and operation of EURODIF with respect to political and legal structures which may be used in the establishment of a multinational commercial plant for uranium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The political and legal problems and the decisions to be made in establishing a multi-national enrichment venture are reviewed in the context of the EURODIF facility. It is argued that location is important economically, since enrichment processes (especially diffusion) are highly energy-intensive, and strategically, in that diversity of location contributes to assurances of supply. Technology is also considered a fundamental factor. Potential partners are categorized according to: Those who are able to bring a viable enrichment technique, those who are able to make a commercial contribution, e.g. by contracting to purchase a portion of the product, those who are attracted by a potential profit and are able to make a financial contribution, those who are able to provide a source of energy, and those who have the engineering expertise needed to carry out a large-scale project. The development of the EURODIF facility, the partners selected, and the reasoning which led to some of the decisions are reviewed

  10. Deliberated opinion of the Environment Authority on the request of modification of the exploitation of the basic nuclear installation (INB) nr 93 'Georges Besse' by EURODIF-Production of the Tricastin site (Drome and Vaucluse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an environmental review of the content of a request for the modification of the decree authorizing the creation of the 'Georges Besse' INB 93 (basic nuclear installation), a uranium enrichment plant exploited by EURODIF-production on the Tricastin site. This modification notably deals with the PRISME operation. The report describes and discusses the objectives of this operation, its context and the concerned operation program. It indicated the concerned procedures. It discusses the style and content of the impact study from a general point of view, and outlines weaknesses and methodological problems. It more particularly discusses the analysis of the present site condition, the project presentation and justification, the analysis of impacts on the environment and on health, of impacts related to waste management, of non-radiological impacts on water, of impacts on air and on biodiversity, and of social and economic impacts. It also addresses the analysis of impacts of construction works. It finally discusses the analysis of the risk management study

  11. Decision no. 2011-DC-0218 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the EURODIF SA company to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the EURODIF SA company, operator of the George Besse I uranium enrichment plant of the Tricastin site (France). (J.S.)

  12. UF6 overfilling prevention at Eurodif production Georges Besse plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneaud, J.M. [Eurodif Production, Pierrelatte (France)

    1991-12-31

    Risk of overfilling exists on different equipments of Georges BESSE Plant: cylinders, desublimers and intermediate tanks. The preventive measures are composed of technical devices: desublimers weighing, load monitoring alarms, automatic controls ... and procedures, training, safety organization. In thirteen years of operation, some incidents have occurred but none of them has caused any personal injuries. They are related and discussed. The main factors involved in the Sequoyah fuel facility accident on 1/4/1986 have been analyzed and taken into account.

  13. Operation of the motors and capacitors in separate network at Eurodif plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudier, Jacques.

    1983-01-01

    The very high MVA installed capacity of the motors, capacitors and cables at the uranium enrichment plant at Tricastin required extensive investigations and experiments to avoid accidental phenomena of self-excitation that might cause overvoltages dangerous to equipment. An order of magnitude of the results from computation and from tests is given and the significance of taking into account, in calculations, the phenomena of saturation of the transformers is emphasized [fr

  14. Setting up problems raised by construction of the EDF-Eurodif complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, J.P.; Roux, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    After presentation of the Tricastin site and the nuclear complex to be built there, the main problems of social, economical or administrative order arising from the establishment of the site are analyzed and the solutions applied in order to overcome them are described. In conclusion they note that the largest site in Europe should be carried out up to completion in the best interests of local collectivities, of the Engineers and the populations concerned [fr

  15. The isotopic enrichment of uranium in 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, M.

    1979-01-01

    The Eurodif uranium enrichment plant built on the Tricastin site is described. The uranium isotope separation plants in service abroad are presented. The main characteristics of the international enrichment market are defined [fr

  16. Historical review of CEA researches on uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.

    1997-01-01

    The various uranium enrichment processes that have been studied at the CEA since 1953 are briefly reviewed: gaseous diffusion (which led to the construction of EURODIF plant), chemical treatments (which were abandoned in 1988 for cost reasons), gaseous ultracentrifugation, electromagnetic processes, laser techniques (since 1980) and especially the SILVA technique (atomic vapour laser isotopic separation) which could take the place of the gaseous diffusion technique when the EURODIF plant will need to be renewed before 2010

  17. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Leroyer, Veronique; Rollinger, Francois; Gauthier, Florence; Depauw, Denis; Reynal, Nathalie; Fraysse, Thierry; Burger, Eric; Bertrand, Adrien; Vallat, Christophe; Bernet, Philippe; Eimer, Michel; Boutin, Dominique; Bietrix, Philippe; Richard, Francoise; Piketty, Laurence; Mouchet, Chantal; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  18. 75 FR 67086 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... concerns the retransfer of 1,470,588.2 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium hexafluoride (68.00% U), 1,000,000... Areva Resources, will be transferred to Eurodif Production for enrichment and use as fuel in civilian...

  19. Operation problems as viewed by EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheimanoff, Andre; Gaborit, Jean; Thom, Roger

    1983-01-01

    The installation of a plant such as Eurodif, whose power will reach, when fully operational, a maximum of 3,200 MW, and of a nuclear power plant of 4x900 MW, such as the one located in the Tricastin area, has considerable effects on the structure and operation of the EDF's network, both at the national and regional levels. The paper presents the situation regarding the Tricastin-Eurodif complex in the context of the EDF's network, the main operation problems that are encountered and the organization that had to be created to tackle these problems. Finally, it affords the opportunity to give an appreciation of the situation about the operation of the complex in 1982 [fr

  20. The Solenarc circuit-breaker of high performance level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    After recalling the breaking principle involved in MV circuit-breakers manufactured by Merlin Gerin, it is showed how Solenarc technique enables specific problems to be solved that are set by the equipment of Eurodif plant at Tricastin and that represent constraints similar to those encountered with protective equipment for power station auxiliaries (high rated currents, long duration overloads, very high short-circuit currents, current breaks without natural passage through zero, etc.) [fr

  1. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF6 releases in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF 6 released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the french Atomic Energy Commission and Eurodif. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get informations about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF 6 , the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles

  2. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF6 releases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Geisse, C.; Iacona, L. [EURODIF, 26 - Pierrelatte (France)

    1992-12-31

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF{sub 6} released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the french Atomic Energy Commission and Eurodif. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get informations about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF{sub 6}, the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles.

  3. Principles and techniques of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, Claude; Mezin, Michel

    1975-01-01

    The main separation processes already used industrially or likely to be used before the end of century (gas diffusion, ultracentrifugation, laser, the nozzle process, a process developed in South Africa) are presented. Some data on the costs of the enrichment are clarified. The main characteristics of the enrichment market in which the Eurodif plant is called upon, on the expiration of five years, to take a foremost place are reported [fr

  4. Figures and information on nuclear safety and radiation protection on the Tricastin AREVA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and briefly comments figures concerning the environment (water consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, liquid releases in a canal, radioactive and hazardous industrial wastes), radiological impact and radiation protection (computed dose for a reference group, computed maximum dose for the reference group, radiological exposures of workers), nuclear safety (number of events, controls and audits), production (quantities of various materials) and transport (flows of radioactive products) for the whole Tricastin site for which only some general data are indicated, and more precisely the various installations and establishments it comprises: AREVA NC Pierrelatte, COMURHEX Pierrelatte, EURODIF Production, FBFC Pierrelatte, SET, SOCATRI

  5. Exporting nuclear wastes to Russia: how Greenpeace contributed to make a traffic stop which has been lasting for nearly 40 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having recalled how Greenpeace discovered the existence of contracts between the French CEA (and later AREVA) and Russia for the export of nuclear wastes to Russia, this document specifies which kinds of wastes are concerned: depleted uranium (from the EURODIF plant in Tricastin) and reprocessed uranium (from La Hague). It briefly reports the different actions performed by Greenpeace about this trade which occurred against the Russian law on the protection of the environment and against a European directive. It finally denounces the posture and statements of AREVA about a possible use of these wastes

  6. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  7. The Tricastin gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergalant, J.; Lebrun, C.; Leduc, C.; Perrault, M.

    1975-01-01

    The building of the EURODIF plant began just over a year ago. The documents on which this enterprise was based were already assembled, which allowed construction work to start without delay. A brief description of the equipment is given, together with an approach to the problems of planning and estimates. Mention is also made of running problems and those related to safety in operation. The present state of the project promises a successful outcome, regarding both the production start-up schedule and the respecting of the building estimate [fr

  8. Supply of the Federal Republic of Germany with enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboussier, F [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Supply Agency

    1976-08-01

    After giving a short historical background of past policies concerning uranium supply (policies which were mainly in the hands of the USAEC), the essential characteristics of the enrichment agreements with ERDA, URENCO, EURODIF, and the USSR are explained. A comparison is made difficult by completely different conditions. New side issues (the latest estimates on the development of electricity demand, delays in the licensing of nuclear power plants, etc.) lead to the assumption that demand will exceed supply by 1985/86, which means that the construction of new separation plants will be necessary.

  9. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  10. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF{sub 6} releases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G. [CEA/Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement et des Installations, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Geisse, C.; Iacona, L. [EURODIF/Production, Site de Tricastin, Pierrelatte Cedex (France)

    1992-07-01

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF{sub 6} released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the French Atomic Energy Commission and EURODIF. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get information about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF{sub 6}, the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles. (author)

  11. Information report of AREVA Tricastin site - 2015 Edition. This report is written in compliance with article L. 125-15 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report presents, first, the AREVA Tricastin site with its facilities (AREVA NC, EURODIF Production, SET, SOCATRI and AREVA NP Pierrelatte) and activities in the domain of uranium conversion and enrichment. Then, it takes stock of the dispositions implemented for the limitation and prevention of risks and summarizes the events declared in 2015. Next, it presents the management of the site effluents and wastes and the environmental monitoring. Finally, the actions of public information are presented. The recommendations of the Health and safety Committee are included in appendix

  12. HCTISN: no secret export of nuclear wastes to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a controversy has broken out about the EDF's exports of depleted uranium to Russia. This depleted uranium comes from 2 sources: the tailings of uranium enrichment (from EURODIF plant) and the recycling of spent fuels (from La Hague plant). Depleted uranium is sent to Russia to be enriched by centrifugation process, this enrichment generates new depleted uranium that is kept by Russia, enriched uranium is sent back to France. As it is stipulated in all enrichment contracts the company that operates the enrichment keeps the depleted material, it is the case of Tenex the Russian company. This depleted uranium can not be considered as a waste because it is stored to be used as fuel for future fast reactors. (A.C.)

  13. The new enrichment plant of AREVA, a worthy heir of Georges Besse's industrial visions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oursel, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Georges Besse II enrichment plant was inaugurated on December 14., 2010. This plant was the most important investment in France during the last decade, about 3 billion euros. This plant is based on the centrifugation technology instead of the gaseous diffusion that is still in operation in the Georges Besse plant of EURODIF. This plant has been designed in an environment-friendly approach: the centrifugation technology uses 50 times less electricity than gaseous diffusion, does not require taking water from the Rhone river for cooling, does not produce sound nuisances, and the moderate height of the buildings allows a better integration in the environment. The low amount of matter involved in the centrifugation process gives the plant a high level of safety. The plant has a capacity of 7.5 millions UTS with a possible extension to 11 millions UTS. (A.C.)

  14. Prescription by the 2013-2015 PNGMDR defined at the article 7.1 of the decree Nr 2013-1304: historical storages of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Within the frame of the French national plan for the management of radioactive wastes (PNGMDR), this report aims at confirming that, within basic nuclear installations, secrete basic nuclear installations, or in areas which have been historically used as outbuildings or satellite of these installations, there isn't any historical waste storage site which would not have been mentioned in statements made to the Andra for the inventory of radioactive materials and wastes. Thus, the report contains a synthesis of information on various sites: Areva NC La Hague, Somanu, Areva NC Malvesi, Areva NC Melox, Areva NC Pierrelatte, SET (Plant Georges Besse II), Eurodif Production, Socatri, FBFC Romans, SIGN Veurey, and SIGN Annecy

  15. COGEMA: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    CEA's 100%-owned subsidiary Cogema was set up in July 1966. 1979 was satisfactory and 1980 looks promising. Cogema is involved in all the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle except for the manufacture of the fuel itself, a gap that it is planning to fill. Cogema's discovery of the Coutras deposit in the Gironde is 'the good news' of the year. Work on the Eurodif uranium enrichment plant at Tricastin is almost finished and by the end of 1981 it will be operating at its full capacity of 10,8 million SWU. On the processing side, work on expanding existing facilities has begun (UP2 800 and UP3). In 1985 La Hague's foreign clients UP2 will process 1,200 tons and UP3 6000 tons [fr

  16. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarcat, Noel; Lafon, Alain; Perves, Jean-Pierre; Rosengard, Alex; Sauzay, Guy

    1993-05-01

    France has developed a very complete nuclear industry, from mining to reprocessing and radwastes management, and now has a major electro-nuclear park, with 55 power reactors, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity and representing 32% of its energy requirements. The modern multinational EURODIF enrichment plant in Pierrelatte in the south of the country supplies these reactors with enriched uranium as well as foreign utilities (30% exports). It works smoothly and has continuously been improved to reduce operating costs and to gain flexibility and longevity. Investment costs will be recovered at the turn of the century. The plant will be competitive well ahead of an aging production park, with large overcapacity, in other countries. Meanwhile, world needs will increase only slightly during the next 15 years, apart from the Asian Pacific area, but many world governments are becoming well aware of the necessity to progressively resume nuclear energy development worldwide from the year 2000 on.

  18. Present status of the development of uranium enrichment technology in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, P.; Coates, J.H.; Sauzay, G.

    1988-01-01

    EURODIF has been under full operation since 1982 in accordance with the market demand. Costs have been optimized in particular by taking advantage of power consumption modulation. No future need of capacity is foreseen before the eve of the next century. During the past years, the CEA has evaluated a number of different processes which could have been in competition for the next isotope separation plant. Experimental studies have been carried out on the plasma separation process as well as on the molecular laser isotope separation and discontinued after a first step of evaluation. Likewise R and D on Chemex is to be closed by the end of 1988 after successful operation of a full length pilot plant

  19. Managing a major R et D program: isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the choice (in 1969) of the pressurized water type reactors which use enriched uranium, it became imperative for France to have facilities to enrich the uranium. The choice of the industrial process, the correlative decisions related to research and development and the search for alliances with partners abroad in a disturbed and changing energy context are retraced in this article. The choice of the Eurodif plant was the gaseous diffusion process. It still remains necessary to maintain research efforts concerning competitive technologies, i.e. ultracentrifuging and chemical process. The oil crisis augured well for massive recourse to nuclear energy. Then there was a cut-back in nuclear programs and enrichment capacities became lastingly higher than needs. So it became necessary to optimally pilot a selection of research paths, with long term orientation. The techniques, based on the use of the laser, provide an advance glimpse of major, even spectacular prospects of lowering the costs of isotope separation [fr

  20. Uranium enrichment activities: the SILVA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, J.; Cazalet, J.; Camarcat, N.; Figuet, J.

    1994-01-01

    Through its commitment to a nuclear electricity generation policy, France holds today a specific position in the uranium enrichment market thanks to the modern multinational EURODIF gaseous diffusion plant. France has, altogether, a long-term goal in developing SILVA, a laser uranium enrichment process, based on the selective photo-ionization of U-235. After reviewing the fundamentals of SILVA (the laser system with copper vapor lasers and dye lasers and the separator system), a description of the general organization of the R and D program is provided going through basic research, subsystems assessment, production demonstrations and simulations (with the LACAN code), plant design and economics. The general schedule of SILVA is outlined, leading to the possible construction of a commercial plant. 7 figs., 11 refs

  1. The prefect facing emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of emergency procedures regarding the protection of life, property and the environment, the 'prefet' of a department is the only public authority both representative of the state and accountable. In France laws and regulations have been in recent years revised in order to modernize emergency situations management. The 'prefet' of the Drome 'department', Henri MASSE, presents a summary of recent developments and explains how his services are organised in order to be able to handle emergency situations. He also focuses on his experience of handling the specific difficulties of nuclear risks, his department sheltering numerous nuclear facilities: EURODIF Pierrelatte nuclear fuel enrichment plant, EDF Tricastin nuclear power plant, AREVA Valence FBFC nuclear fuel manufacturing unit, etc. (author)

  2. Italian activities in the field of uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullio, P.

    1977-01-01

    The Italian effort on uranium enrichment is principally developed along the two classical processes: gaseous diffusion, centrifuges. Research, development and industrial activities play different role in the two methods; a special working group (GIAU) was established by CNEN to help coordinating this activity. In the field of gaseous diffusion, research and development effort, was, from the starting of the program in 1968, mainly devoted to barriers and compressors. The aim was to gain a full understanding of the process and to demonstrate the capability to overcome the main problems of this technology. Isotope separation of UF 6 was demonstrated in 1974 at an experimental plant level. Cost sharing contracts were signed between CNEN and industries to build prototypes and ''first of a kind'' components; small production lines have been set up to evaluate economics and assess production quality: Eurodif is partially associated with the development of this activity. On the industrial level Agip Nucleare and CNEN were among the promoters of the Eurodif venture from the beginning in 1973 and now own 25% of the shares. In the field of ultracentrifugation the work is still devoted mainly to research and development on the machines. The demonstration of the separation process has been achieved in 1973 at laboratory level with a Zippe type centrifuge. Further on, work has been aimed to the development of high capacity machines and different solutions are under close scrutiny. Carbon fibers and multiple rotors machines have been mechanically tested; the first reference design of small cascade plant has been completed. In the field of laser separation, after a complete and critical survey of different process under development abroad, experimental research work is now being undertaken; experiments on basic aspects of the process are in progress [fr

  3. Uranium enrichment by laser: a technology for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalet, J.

    1999-01-01

    The SILVA (Isotopic Separation by Laser on atomic Vapor of uranium) process, developed by CEA and COGEMA, is an innovative system of production of enriched uranium, to be used as the fuel of nuclear reactors. It is a sound research program, calling on advanced technologies that are quickly changing. The goal is to cut drastically the production cost in comparison with the operating cost of the present plants based on gaseous diffusion. its industrialization is forecast for the beginning of next century. The SILVA process consists in putting a vapor of uranium through a beam of photons emitted by finely tuned lasers capable of ionising selectively the isotopes 235. The ionised isotopes are attracted on plates by an electric field, they are condensed and collected on these plates. The very high selectivity of enrichment technologies by laser, which are quite new, pave the way for compact and modular plants, which will consume little energy. Accordingly their production cost will be very low. So a new process could take a significant part of the uranium enrichment market after 2010. Even if the multinational EURODIF gaseous diffusion plant is modern and performing, it will be necessary to strengthen the French industry of uranium enrichment to maintain or improve its competitive position on the world market. This could be achieved by smoothly replacing EURODIF by a high performance laser plant. This is the common goal of CEA and COGEMA: all the efforts are concentrated on SILVA, the qualities of which (high selectivity, separation in one single step) have been demonstrated in the facilities of Saclay and Pierrelatte. 400 researchers and technicians are involved, as well as many industrial firms. The budget is equally by CEA and COGEMA through a cooperation agreement. The program includes: a phase of scientific and technical research, which has been highlighted in 1997-1998 by a demonstration of feasibility of the process; a phase of technological development, with

  4. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. Annual activity report. June 2008 - December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document is the first activity report of the High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), created on June 18, 2008. The HCTISN is a French authority of information, dialogue and debate about the risks linked with nuclear activities and about their impacts on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. The committee has the ability to express his opinion and recommendations about any question on the above topics and to propose any measure aiming at warranting or improving the transparency in the nuclear domain. This activity report offers a synthetic overview of the actions already undertaken: the plutonium imports from UK, the contamination incident at the Socatri facility (a Areva-Eurodif daughter company located at the Tricastin site), and the dismantling strategy of basic nuclear facilities. It presents the composition, organization, missions and means of the Committee, the different working groups and the follow-up of the different recommendations emitted so far by the Committee. (J.S.)

  5. The world enrichment industry since 1987, and the outlook to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleit, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The various uranium enrichment markets have experienced an increasing degree of diversification of supply since 1987. A number of major conclusions may be drawn from the actual development of the worldwide enrichment market from 1987 to 1995 and the anticipated development on to 2005. These are: up to 1995, the volume of the market has grown by about 10% only; no steep increase in growth is expected through to 2005; the US Enrichment Corporation, Eurodif, Tenex of Russia and Urenco remained the main suppliers up to 1995 with the market shares being substantially the same over the period; between 1996 and 2000, 80% of demand will be covered by these four suppliers and about 10% only will remain uncovered; from 2001 to 2005 there is promise of a competitive market, however, as the uncovered demand will exceed 50%. Regional variations occur within this global picture and these are examined. The supply and demand situation to 2005 is also considered. In 1995, some companies had tremendous surplus capacity because the gaseous diffusion technology they use is too inflexible to follow contracted demand. Others, using gas centrifuge technology which allows modular buildup, have been able to match capacity to demand. A new feature which must now be taken into account is the availability of surplus high enriched uranium from weapons for blending down to civil grade levels. An attempt is made to illustrate possible scenarios for the supply and demand situation in 2005. (10 figures). (UK)

  6. Georges Besse 2. A new era for enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Since 1978, AREVA group subsidiary EURODIF's Georges Besse plant has been using gaseous diffusion to enrich uranium and meet the requirements of electricity utilities. Georges Besse II plant, which will use far less electricity, will replace George Besse not so long. The Georges Besse II plant is located on the Tricastin nuclear site in southern France. AREVA ensure delivery of uranium enrichment services in accordance with customer expectations. AREVA obtained the right to use URENCO's centrifugation technology on July 3, 2006. This is the process to be used at Georges Besse II. The new uranium enrichment plant will comprise two enrichment units, with a total production capacity of 7.5 million separative work units, which can be extended to 11 million if needed. Each enrichment unit will include: a Centrifuge Assembly Building (CAB), a Centrifuge Utility Building (CUB) with offices and control room, annexes for purification, supply and extraction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), modules containing the halls that house the centrifuge cascades. The modular design of the Georges Besse II plant will allow production in the first cascade where as the others cascades are build. The first cascade should be operational in the first half of 2009. At an overall cost of 3 billion euros, this project is one of the largest investments of the decade in France On November 24, 2003, AREVA and URENCO signed an agreement under which AREVA would buy 50% of the shares in the Enrichment Technology Company (ETC), which designs and manufactures centrifuges

  7. How is uranium supply affecting enrichment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steve Kidd

    2007-01-01

    As a result of the enlivened uranium market, momentum has in turn picked up in the enrichment sector. What are the consequences of higher uranium prices? There is, of course, a link between uranium and enrichment supply to the extent that they are at least partial substitutes. On the enrichment supply side, the most obvious feature is the gradual replacement of the old gas diffusion facilities of Usec in the USA and EURODIF in France with more modern and economical centrifuge plants. Assuming Usec can overcome the financing and technical issues surrounding its plans, the last gas diffusion capacity should disappear around 2015 and the entire enrichment market should then be using centrifuges. On the commercial side, the key anticipated developments are mostly in Russia. Although there should still continue to be substantial quantities of surplus Russian HEU available for down blending in the period beyond 2013, it is now reasonable to expect that it will be mostly consumed by internal needs, to fuel Russian-origin reactors both at home and in export markets such as China and India. Finally, as a key sensitive area for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, the enrichment sector is likely to be a central point of the new international arrangements which must be developed to support a buoyant nuclear sector throughout this century.

  8. Review of world nuclear power programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1978-01-01

    Political, economic and environmental decisions are still affecting the growth of nuclear power generation throughout the world, but there are signs that proven past performance and increasing prices of energy from conventional sources are becoming overriding factors. In the USA, some uncertainty has been created by the moratorium on reprocessing enacted by the 1978 Non-Proliferation Act. The uncertainty has spread to importers of nuclear fuel and technology, but there is increasing international acceptance of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Isotope separation capacity to be installed by the US government, by the joint European organization Urenco and by the French Eurodif should ease the supply of fuel. There is little progress on waste-management policy in the USA, but in Germany a company (DWK) has been formed and a site for a rocksalt repository has been designated at Gorleben. In the UK the Windscale inquiry has a positive significance for nuclear energy generally as well as for reprocessing. An inquiry in Sweden has also come to positive conclusions. The status of nuclear energy in these and a number of other countries is discussed in terms of political and national policies. (N.D.H.)

  9. URENCO's view of the future of enrichment supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleit, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since three large diffusion plants were constructed in the US during 1944-53, several competing enrichment ventures and other processes have been introduced. France and Britain each constructed a diffusion plant for military purposes, but in fact, each has played a part in the development of commercial enrichment. These were followed by Eurodif, the French-Belgian-Italian-Spanish group, which constructed a solely commercial diffusion plant, and by URENCO, the British-Dutch-German group, which developed and constructed centrifuge plants and additions to them as business increased. The USSR not only supplied the Soviet nuclear power stations but also entered the Western market in the early 1970s, initially using diffusion plant capacity but shortly thereafter displacing it with centrifuge technology. The policy of constant and evolutionary improvement and modular plant installation is the optimum technical strategy for at least the next 10 yr; while it offers real commercial prices, it can be relied upon for steady cost improvement, certainty of supply, and flexibility of contracting, all of which are believed to be the combination of attributes that best meet the requirements of responsible nuclear utilities

  10. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed

  11. The ASN and nuclear facilities: towards a strengthening of safety margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The new measures taken by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) as a consequence of the complementary safety assessments performed recently on nuclear facilities are reviewed in this article. The main measures are the following. Concerning EDF: -) the setting of a hard core of measures in order to assure a few safety-vital functions in any case, for instance one of this measures is to bunker some of the emergency diesel sets; -) the setting of a rapid intervention force able to provide any damaged nuclear plant with extra means in cooling and power in a very short time; -) a better training of the staff in case of severe accident. Concerning AREVA: the setting of robust means to assure the water supply of the fuel pool at La Hague plant and the setting of efficient means to mitigate the consequences of a leak of ClF 3 , HF, UF 6 in the premises of Eurodif, Socatri, TU5, GB 2 and Comurhex. Concerning CEA: -) the removal of fissile materials from the Masurca facility, -) the setting up of improved means concerning flood and sodium fires at the Phenix reactor, -) the setting up of improved means concerning the loss of coolant at the Osiris reactor, -) the setting up of improved means in case of flood, earthquake and loss of coolant at the Jules Horowitz reactor. (A.C.)

  12. Challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, P.F.; Schilz, F.; Rondeau, J.M.; Piketty, L.; Dupraz, B.; Conte, D.; Duguey, M.; Louet, C.A.; Dorison, A.; Dutzer, M.; Boucau, J.; Eimer, M.; Boutin, D.; Revilla, J.L.; Golshan, M.; Smith, G.

    2015-01-01

    This document is made up of short articles whose issue is reactor dismantling. The first article presents the French strategy that can be featured by immediate dismantling (the dismantling process is prepared a long time before decommissioning and begins as soon as the reactor is shut down) and massive dismantling (a lot of nuclear facilities will be decommissioned in a near future). The following 4 articles give the viewpoints of ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority), EDF (for its fleet of PWRs), CEA (for its experimental reactors and nuclear facilities) and AREVA (for the EURODIF George Besse plant). Costs and financing are dealt with in an article that says that the cost is greatly dependent on the final state: a complete nuclear-free area or an area whose radioactivity is below safe standards and that law implies to constitute provisions all along the operating life of the facility to cover dismantling costs. Dismantling generates a huge amount of very low-level radioactive wastes particularly metal scraps that might be recycled and get out of nuclear industry, an article details the feasibility of such recycling. Another article shows the impact of massive dismantling on the management of radioactive wastes. In an article Westinghouse presents its experience in the cutting of internal equipment of the reactor core. The last 2 articles presents the dismantling strategies in Spain and in the UK. (A.C.)

  13. Annual progress report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The technical support activities of the IPSN to competent administrations in 1980 has been marked: namely by the authorizations of divergence for 9 units EdF-PWR of 900 MW, the authorization project of creation and extension of reprocessing plant of COGEMA at the Hague UP 2 -800 and the authorization of starting up of the third unit of production of the EURODIF enrichment plant at Tricastin. On the other hand, IPSN has participated at the elaboration of a certain number of legislative and regulation texts relative to the control of nuclear matter, to radioprotection standards and to criteria of safety. For the safety of breeder, the test made at CABRI pile, in the international research program has given confirmation of the validity of theoretical models used in accidents calculations, hypothetical accidents which has allowed to reactualize safety criteria which have to be used for the development of this type of reactor. In worker radioprotection the results obtained in laboratory on the effect of radon, the progress made in personal dosimetry and the action of radioprotection undertaken in uranium mines constitutes a coherent effort. The deep drilling in granit (1000 m) and the experimental associated program which has finished the indispensable scientific data for the future policy in matter of storage of radioactives wastes. IPSN has contributed to progress made in the rules of exploitation of reactors, in the definition of wastes containment -specially at the output of reprocessing plant- in handling machines in hazardeous areas and in the study of environment [fr

  14. Institutional arrangements for the reduction of proliferation risks formulation, evaluation, and implementation of institutional concepts. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this supporting analysis is to provide a foundation for developing a model, an international or multinational institution capable of accomodating the back end of the fuel cycle, while meeting US nonproliferation goals. The analysis is based on a review of selected, defunct and extant institutions which, although not necessarily concerned with nonproliferation, have faced a trade-off between acceptability and effectiveness in meeting their objectives. Discussion of the various institutions is divided into three categories: international organizations, multinational consortia, and cartels or producer associations. Examples of international organizations include the International Seabed Authority, Intelsat, the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The International Seabed Authority is discussed. Multinational consortia are organizations that have been developed primarily to meet common commercial objectives. Membership includes at least three member nations. Examples include the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS), URENCO, Unilever, Royal Dutch Shell, Eurochemic, Eurodif, Euratom, European Coal and Steel Community, and Serena. Cartels or producer associations are multinational agreements that restrict market forces; viz, production, market share, customers or prices. Examples include the Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and the Fifth International Tin Agreement (ITA), as well as agreements governing diamonds and uranium, bauxite and coffee. OPEC, CIPEC and ITA are discussed.

  15. Developments on uranium enrichment processes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frejacques, C.; Gelee, M.; Massignon, D.; Plurien, P.

    1977-01-01

    Gaseous diffusion has so far been the main source of supply for enriched uranium and it is only recently that the gas centrifuge came into the picture. Numerous other isotope separation processes have been considered or are being assessed, and there is nothing to exclude the future use of a new process. Developments on likely new processes have been carried out by many organizations both governmental and private. The French Commissariat a l'energie atomique, besides their very extensive endeavours already devoted to gaseous diffusion, have studied and developed the gas centrifuge, chemical exchange, aerodynamic and selective photoexcitation processes. The gaseous diffusion process, selected by Eurodif for the Tricastin plant, and which will also be used by Coredif, is discussed in another paper in these Proceedings. This process is the technico-economic yardstick on which our comparisons are based. Within the limits of their development level, processes are compared on the basis of the separative work cost components: specific investment, specific power consumption and power cost, and specific operating and maintenance costs. (author)

  16. The competitive enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.W.; Huffman, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    With the enactment of the ''Private Ownership of Special Nuclear Materials Act'' in 1964, the U.S. Government made provisions to enter into the uranium enrichment services business. Since nuclear power was in its infancy and the Government was promoting its growth as well as trying to help U.S. industry sell reactors overseas, the initial contracts (Requirements Contracts) for enrichment services placed most of the risks associated with the supplying of the services on the Government. Projections of nuclear power additions continued to grow and in 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) stopped contracting under Requirements Contracts in order to study which mode of contracting best suited the commercial development of the industry. In mid-1973, the AEC introduced the Long-Term Fixed Commitment (LTFC) contract which shifted the risk to the customer. By mid-1974, AEC had contracts which completely used the enrichment capacity of its complex and refused to accept requests for additional contracts. This action further convinced European nations that they should continue to develop their own enrichment capacity and resulted in the EURODIF and URENCO projects. Before this time the U.S. supplied 100% of the world market for enriching services

  17. The electronuclear program of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhisa

    1978-01-01

    Japan, depending on imports for 80% of its energy supply, introduced a nuclear power program, which now comprises 14 reactors in operation (8,000 MW., that is 8% of its electricity production), and 15 reactors (14,000MW) under construction or being investigated. The objective for 1985 is from 26,000 to 33,000 MW. Japanese industry committed the error of placing too much confidence in its American licensers and not undertaking enough of its own research. This resulted in having a too small number of nuclear stations available, approximately 50%. Japan secured its uranium supply (Niger), its enrichment facilities (U.S.A. and Eurodif), while studying the centrifugation process, and facilities for reprocessing irradiated fuels (France and U.K.) while, at the same time, seeking national independence regarding its entire fuel cycle. The siting of nuclear power stations comes up against local opposition, which is being overcome by a taxation on electricity used to subsidize local collectivities favorable to the construction of a power station, whether hydro-electric, thermal or nuclear [fr

  18. News of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    This article gathers information concerning nuclear industry from all over the world. The most relevant information follows. AREVA has announced to have qualified a new joint for hydrodynamical shafts that can resist for 120 hours to the consequences of a total station black-out. The lithuanian parliament has given its agreement for the construction of a nuclear plant (1300 MW) by the Hitachi group. Russia and Nigeria have signed an agreement for the construction of nuclear stations, Nigeria is an oil-rich country that suffers from regular power shortages. The construction of 2 new reactors (APR-1400) has began on the Shin-Ulchin site in South-Korea. The uranium enrichment plant of EURODIF, namely Georges Besse, stopped its activity last june after 33 years of service. The Jordanian French Uranium Mining Company has announced the discovery of a potential field of 20000 tonnes of uranium. The NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) considers sufficient and credible the safety analysis made by SKB (Swedish agency for the management of wastes and spent nuclear fuel) concerning the project of disposal of spent fuels in deep geological layers. The Tepco company has launched the construction of a shelter to protect the damaged Fukushima Daiichi 4 reactor. (A.C.)

  19. The political economy of development of nuclear energy in Iran: 1957-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, Nader

    2004-01-01

    'Atoms for Peace' was introduced in Iran under US initiative in 1957. The developing Iran of the era had of course no need of atomic technology. But paradoxically the technology will provide it some 45 years later the means of dissuasion against the United States itself; what we have labeled as 'virtual dissuasion' in this study. Iran's participation in the 'Atoms for Peace' program, like that of most other countries allowed the US to overcome its weakness for the control of this sector through creation of an international regime. The US will use the Indian explosion of 1974 as pretext to stop international cooperation in this field completely. With the entry of Europe and the Soviet Union in the commercial enrichment sector, the last means of control of the sector had escaped US power. The international nuclear sector presented no further interest to the US: its market share in the field of fabrication of reactors had diminished considerably with the entry of France and Germany in the market. With the entry of Urenco and Eurodif in the enrichment market, the international sector not only presented no more interest to the US, it also imposed a considerable detriment: that of increasing the cost of US military intervention abroad. The departure of British forces from the Golf had provided the Shah with the opportunity of assuming the role of regional superpower. But the Shah wanted sovereignty over his oil resources as payoff. Although the US had acquiesced this, the correction of falling petroleum prices through OPEC collective action was no longer acceptable. Added to this was the Shah's unwillingness to procure military and industrial equipment - including nuclear reactors - only from the US. The launch of the Iranian nuclear industry in 1974 takes place in this climate of tension between the US and Iran. The realization of this industry will be hindered by two types of US initiatives. On one hand the US will undertake actions to control nuclear suppliers, which

  20. Mortality (1968-2008) in a French cohort of uranium enrichment workers potentially exposed to rapidly soluble uranium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivin, Sergey; Guseva Canu, Irina; Samson, Eric; Laurent, Olivier; Grellier, James; Collomb, Philippe; Zablotska, Lydia B; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Until recently, enrichment of uranium for civil and military purposes in France was carried out by gaseous diffusion using rapidly soluble uranium compounds. We analysed the relationship between exposure to soluble uranium compounds and exposure to external γ-radiation and mortality in a cohort of 4688 French uranium enrichment workers who were employed between 1964 and 2006. Data on individual annual exposure to radiological and non-radiological hazards were collected for workers of the AREVA NC, CEA and Eurodif uranium enrichment plants from job-exposure matrixes and external dosimetry records, differentiating between natural, enriched and depleted uranium. Cause-specific mortality was compared with the French general population via standardised mortality ratios (SMR), and was analysed via Poisson regression using log-linear and linear excess relative risk models. Over the period of follow-up, 131 161 person-years at risk were accrued and 21% of the subjects had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed: all causes SMR=0.69, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.74. SMR for pleural cancer was significantly increased (2.3, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.4), but was only based on nine cases. Internal uranium and external γ-radiation exposures were not significantly associated with any cause of mortality. This is the first study of French uranium enrichment workers. Although limited in statistical power, further follow-up of this cohort, estimation of internal uranium doses and pooling with similar cohorts should elucidate potential risks associated with exposure to soluble uranium compounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Uranium enrichment by the gaseous diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    After a brief description of the process and technology (principle, stage constitution, cascade constitution, and description of a plant), the author gives the history of gaseous diffusion and describes the existing facilities. Among the different enrichment processes contemplated in the USA during and after the last world war, gaseous diffusion has been the only one to be developed industrially on a wide scale in the USA, then in the UK, in the USSR and in France. The large existing capacities in the USA provided the country with a good starting base for the development of a light-water nuclear power plant programme, the success of which led to a shortfall in production means. France and the USA, possessing the necessary know-how, have been able to undertake the realization of two industrial programmes: the CIP-CUP programme in the USA and the Eurodif project in France. Current plans still call for the construction of several plants by 1990. Can the gaseous diffusion process meet this challenge. Technically, there is no doubt about it. Economically, this process is mainly characterized by large energy consumption and the necessity to build large plants. This leads to a large investment, at least for the first plant. Other processes have been developed with a view to reducing both energy and capital needs. However, in spite of continuous studies and technological progress, no process has yet proved competitive. Large increments in capacities are still expected to come from gaseous diffusion, and several projects taking into account the improvements in flexibility, automatization, reliability and reduced investment, are analysed in the paper. Combining new facilities with existing plants has already proved to be of great interest. This situation explains why gaseous diffusion is being further investigated and new processes are being studied. (author)

  2. Market situation in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The existing uranium reserves cover the needs for at least 80 years, the probable ones are 2 to 5 times larger, seawater is an unlimited source of uranium. On the spot market the price was in 1985 355 SEK/kg U, the long-period contracts are expected to be at 700 SEK/kg U. Uranium is supplied to Finland and Sweden from Australia, Canada, France, Niger and Gabon. Conversion (about 50 SEK/kg U) is supplied to Finland and Sweden by Eldorado Resources Canada, Comurhex France, BNFL Great Britain and Allied Chemical USA. Prices for enrichment are at least 1200 SEK/kg SWU for USA and 900 SEK/kg SWU for European enrichment. Enrichment is supplied to Finland and Sweden by Eurodif France, Urenco Holland, West Germany and Great Britain, USA DOE and Techsnabexport USSR. There is about 90% exceeding capacity of fabrication. Fabrication is supplied by ASEA-ATOM Sweden, Exxon USA and FRG FRAGEMA France, KWU/FRG and Atomenergoexport USSR. These five suppliers offer 7 essentially different designs. Prices range from 1200 to 1800 SEK/kg U. Sweden established storage facility for used fuel CLAB in 1985, Finland will have such facility ready in 1987. Both Sweden and Finland are investigating disposal. Sweden has a contract for processing of a minor burnt-out fuel batch in England and France. Sweden attempts to reduce the quantities to be processed. A levellized fuel price for a nuclear power plant set into operation in 1990-ties is estimated as 6.6 SE oere/kWh. (eg)

  3. The progressive achievement of a closed fuel cycle in France; La mise en oeuvre progressive d'un cycle ferme en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugelmann, D.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2008-03-15

    The author reviews the progressive building of a strong nuclear fuel cycle industry in France. The first major step was the abandon of the graphite-gas reactor system to the PWR system. The government's decision to opt for reactors operating with enriched uranium opened the way to the application at an industrial scale of uranium enrichment technology that was only confined to military purposes. The legal entity 'EURODIF S A' was founded at that time and the different production units of the George-Besse-1 enrichment plant entered into service progressively from 1978 to 1982. The Comurhex company was created in 1969, and was in charge of producing the uranium hexafluoride necessary to the fabrication of nuclear fuels. La-Hague plant entered into service in 1966, its aim was to process spent fuels from graphite-gas reactors. Inside this plant the HAO (High Activity Oxide) dedicated to PWR spent fuels was operating in 1974. The MELOX plant dedicated to the fabrication of mixed oxides fuels (Mox) entered into operation in 1995 (till now more than 5000 Mox assemblies have been fabricated. Another important step was the processing of Mox fuels. During these 30 years, the nuclear industry has made impressing progress concerning: the increase of burn-up rates, the performance of fuels, the increase in the volume being processed, the packaging of radioactive wastes, the development of nuclear transport, and a reduction of the impact on the environment. In order to maintain its level of performance the nuclear industry has made important investments concerning: mining (a global investment of 2.3*10{sup 9} euros), Comurhex-2 (a 610*10{sup 6} euros investment) and Georges-Besse-2 plant (a 3*10{sup 9} euros investment for the enrichment of uranium through centrifugation). (A.C.)

  4. Complementary safety assessment assessment of nuclear facilities - Tricastin facility - AREVA; Evaluation complementaire de la surete des installations nucleaires de base - Site du Tricastin - AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This complementary safety assessment analyses the robustness of the Areva part of the Tricastin nuclear site to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident. This study includes the following facilities: Areva NC Pierrelatte, EURODIF production, Comurhex Pierrelatte, Georges Besse II plant and Socatri. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accidental sequence. Moreover, safety is not only a matter of design or engineered systems but also a matter of organizing: task organization (including subcontracting) as well as the setting of emergency plans or the inventory of nuclear materials are taken into consideration in this assessment. This report is divided into 10 main chapters: 1) the feedback experience of the Fukushima accident; 2) description of the site and its surroundings; 3) featuring of the site's activities and installations; 4) accidental sequences; 5) protection from earthquakes; 6) protection from floods; 7) protection from other extreme natural disasters; 8) the loss of electrical power and of the heat sink; 9) the management of severe accidents; and 10) subcontracting policy. This analysis has identified 5 main measures to be taken to limit the risks linked to natural disasters: -) continuing the program for replacing the current conversion plant and the enrichment plant; -) renewing the storage of hydrofluoric acid at the de-fluorination workshop; -) assessing the seismic behaviour of some parts of the de-fluorination workshop and of the fluorine fabrication workshop; -) improving the availability of warning and information means in case of emergency; and -) improving the means to mitigate accidental gaseous releases. (A.C.)

  5. Complementary safety assessment assessment of nuclear facilities - Tricastin facility - AREVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This complementary safety assessment analyses the robustness of the Areva part of the Tricastin nuclear site to extreme situations such as those that led to the Fukushima accident. This study includes the following facilities: Areva NC Pierrelatte, EURODIF production, Comurhex Pierrelatte, Georges Besse II plant and Socatri. Robustness is the ability for the plant to withstand events beyond which the plant was designed. Robustness is linked to safety margins but also to the situations leading to a sudden deterioration of the accidental sequence. Moreover, safety is not only a matter of design or engineered systems but also a matter of organizing: task organization (including subcontracting) as well as the setting of emergency plans or the inventory of nuclear materials are taken into consideration in this assessment. This report is divided into 10 main chapters: 1) the feedback experience of the Fukushima accident; 2) description of the site and its surroundings; 3) featuring of the site's activities and installations; 4) accidental sequences; 5) protection from earthquakes; 6) protection from floods; 7) protection from other extreme natural disasters; 8) the loss of electrical power and of the heat sink; 9) the management of severe accidents; and 10) subcontracting policy. This analysis has identified 5 main measures to be taken to limit the risks linked to natural disasters: -) continuing the program for replacing the current conversion plant and the enrichment plant; -) renewing the storage of hydrofluoric acid at the de-fluorination workshop; -) assessing the seismic behaviour of some parts of the de-fluorination workshop and of the fluorine fabrication workshop; -) improving the availability of warning and information means in case of emergency; and -) improving the means to mitigate accidental gaseous releases. (A.C.)

  6. Atomic vapour laser isotope separation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarcat, N.; Lafon, A.; Perves, J.P.; Rosengard, A.

    1993-01-01

    France has a specific position in the uranium enrichment market. It has a major nuclear park, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity. On one hand the modern multinational EURODIF gaseous diffusion plant (10.8 M.SWU/y) works smoothly, and its supply of nuclear generated electricity offers customers a good long term view on enrichment costs. A program to improve its performances and to extend its lifespan is well in progress. It will offer a fast modulation capability, with advantage of off-peak power for about 3/4 of its electrical requirements. On the other hand, today's situation of over capacity, accentuated by non-commercial practices, may lead to a brutal restructuring of the world-wide enrichment industry in the coming years. The French approach has a long term goal, with a priority for a high performance process, which will be available when world stocks of enriched uranium are exhausted, and aging enrichment plants have to be shut down. To reach this goal, French Atomic Energy Commission has focused since 1985 on the atomic laser route, SILVA, in agreement with the industrial operator, COGEMA. Fully integrated pre-industrial experience, too costly, will be delayed as long as possible, toward the end of the decade. It will benefit from the most advanced options, taking into account the difficulty of changing them once demonstration has been achieved. The SILVA program is periodically assessed from both the scientific and the industrial point of view and a general assessment is to be made between 1996 and 1997, prior to pre-industrial development

  7. 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This 4. European forum of radiation protection sciences was the occasion for nuclear professionals to share their experience and to present the tools and techniques implemented in dismantling operations in the respect of radiation protection rules. This document brings together the abstracts and the available presentations given at this forum: 1 - Dismantling organisation and management - regulations: dismantling environment (A. Gay, Areva NC); Dismantling at the CEA (Ph. Guiberteau, DEN-Saclay); Optimisation of future dismantlement at the design and operation stage of facilities (P. Poncet, Areva); Action of the labour Ministry for workers radiation protection (T. Lahaye, DGT); 2 - Dismantling experience feedbacks 1: Radiation protection and dismantlement at Marcoule (J. Chardin, Areva NC); INB 106 dismantling (N. Pauwels, UDIL); Dismantling wastes management and valorisation of ALS and Saturne accelerators at Saclay (C. Salmon, CEA-Saclay); Chooz power plant deconstruction (L. Bardou, EDF); 3-4 - Dismantling projects: Phenix power plant dismantling (C. Beretti, CEA-Marcoule); Radiological characterization impact on the DGB project (H.C. Turbatte, F. Lemperiere, DGB Eurodif); Contribution of scientific calculations to reactor dismantling studies (A. Van Lauwe, CEA-Saclay); Acceptance committee of radiological cleansing companies (S. Faure, DPSN); Externalizing of the radiation protection skilled person (J.P. Piferrer, ATSR); International network of radiation protection professionals (G. Abela, EDF); 5 - Dismantling experience feedback 2: gloveboxes dismounting at La Hague plant (R. Choquet, P. Mougnard, Areva NC); Nuclear submarines dismantling in Russia (C. Deregel, Topp-Decide); Radioactive waste management of CERN accelerators (Y. Algoet, CERN); Nuclear facilities decommissioning (M. Berton, CEA, B. Marc, DRIM Sogeris); Asbestos removal in radiological environment (R. Blanc, Areva NC); 6-7-8 - Tools and methods: Aspilaser, decontamination by laser ablation (F

  8. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  9. Industrial applications of membrane processes in chemistry and energy generation; Applications industrielles des procedes membranaires en chimie et production d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    process for the processing of industrial effluents; 6 - membrane reactors: membrane catalytic reactors: extraction, isobutane dehydrogenation and xylenes isomerization; selective oxidation of n-butane, water treatment by gas-liquid processes; selectiveness improvement of the butadiene selective hydrogenation with the use of a membrane reactor; comparison of the efficiency of three catalytic reactors for the destruction of VOCs; 7 - gases and vapors separation: a new generation of particulate filters with catalyst impregnation for DeNox function; use of membranes for uranium enrichment: example of the EURODIF plant; inorganic membranes for integration in power generation cycles and hydrogen production; treatment of natural gas with Air Liquide-MEDAL hollow fiber membranes; 8 - liquids separation: nano-filtration in organic environment: state-of-the-art; recycling of organic compounds by inverse osmosis and seawater sulfate removing by nano-filtration; use of organic and mineral membranes in chemistry; membrane separation in chemicals manufacture; advantages and drawbacks of different membrane systems for the treatment of industrial water; concentration and recovery of organic pigments using ceramic membranes; 9 - membranes, processes and simulation: industrial experience with hybrid distillation - pervaporation or vapor permeation applications; electro-dialysis integration in amines and glycol solutions purification processes; integration of MFI membranes in the light gasoline isomerization process. (J.S.)

  10. Government and energy - 19-20. century - 2002-2006 seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, A.; Bouneau, Ch.; Bouvier, Y.; Varaschin, D.; Williot, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    French oil policy during the 'glorious thirty years' era: between government pulses and adaptation to external disruptions; the 1928 laws, their enforcement and efficiency to create and maintain a national oil industry; the industrial strategy of the general power company in the nuclear domain from the 1960's to the end of the 1980's; the electro-nuclear program: EDF and its industrial choices; EDF's R and D; the CGT syndicate positions in front of the status change; the internal and external balance of public companies; 3 - the foreign window: response strategies in front of the oil crises: lessons learnt from experience feedback; opening of the electricity market to European competition (Germany, France, Italy, U.K.); privatization, deregulation and liberalization of the power distribution sector in UK, France and in the USA; Suez's international expansion over the years (1822-2005): from a golden age to the other?; CECA and the energy question; Pierrelatte's fuel enrichment plant; the CEA and the strategic importance of Eurodif; 4 - conclusions. (J.S.)

  11. Achievements of the French laser uranium enrichment program and final demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, G.

    2006-01-01

    The research on Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (SILVA in French) started in France during the seventies at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) through basic experiments on uranium spectroscopy and evaporation. The program gained momentum rapidly with the decision in 1985 to focus on SILVA while decreasing the research on chemical exchange process, centrifugation and laser molecular route. Similar orientations were taken during the same period in the US and in Japan. The French need in uranium enrichment service, around 5 MSWU (million Separation Work Units) for 45 electronuclear reactors in 1985, was fulfilled by gaseous diffusion in EURODIF (multinational consortium). But the expected increase in the international need, especially in Asia, and the high cost of the energy power supply necessary for gaseous diffusion were the main reasons to search for a very efficient and selective new generation enrichment process like SILVA. The scientific demonstration of the SILVA process was completed in the mid 1990's with grams of separated uranium at both the requested industrial enriched and tail assays simultaneously. However, in the late 90's, some technical difficulties appeared in the scaling up of the process to produce kilograms of enriched uranium. In 1998 a scientific peer review defined some general goals and improvements to be performed, partly reached on the Pelleas facility in Saclay, two years later. In parallel the centrifugation technology made important progress (in Europe, URENCO consortium and in Japan) related to the emergence of high performance carbon fibers. In September 2000, a French ministerial nuclear committee chose the centrifugation as the reference industrial technology to substitute for gaseous diffusion in 2010-2015: SILVA was not enough mature and competitive to be developed at an industrial scale within such a delay. In order to save properly the knowledge and to account for potential future uses, the committee settled on a

  12. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2005 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of 10 February 2000, RTE is required to draw up a multi-annual Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. The present 2005 edition has been compiled in close conjunction with the working group in charge of long-term power generation pluri-annual investment programs at the French Directorate for Energy Demand and Markets, DIDEME. The purpose of RTE's Generation Adequacy Report is to quantify the additional electric generating facilities that need to be commissioned in the years ahead. It is based on various scenarios for the development of supply and demand, adopted on January 1, 2005, and covers the period 2006-2016. Three different consumption forecast scenarios have been used. All include a substantial drop in consumption by the Eurodif plant between 2010 and 2015. The two upper scenarios (called R1 and R2) fall within current trends, with annual growth of 1.7% and 1.5% until 2010 and a slowing down thereafter; they can be considered as equally likely to occur in the short-term. The low consumption growth scenario (R3) is intended to depict a context of environmental commitments. It is based on the assumption that demand side management initiatives will have an immediate impact, which makes it rather unlikely in the short-term. Under the reference scenario (R2), French domestic consumption, which was 468.5 TWh in 2004, reaches 508 TWh by 2010 and 552 TWh by 2020. Consumption at peak time in winter increases by around 1,000 MW per year. Up until 2016, France's fleet of generating facilities will be determined by a number of changes: the recommissioning of three of EDF's fuel-oil-fired units, the expected arrival of the EPR in 2012, and the definitive shutdown by 2015 of coal-fired plants that do not meet the requirements imposed by environmental regulations. In the field of renewable energy sources (RES), three different scenarios are considered. The main difference between them is the