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Sample records for euro payment area

  1. TARGET - NEW PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA VIOLETA DRĂGOI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At EU level, the funds transfer systems have undergone significant changes starting with the introduction of euro. The launch of the euro, the emergence of new technologies, introduction of financial innovations and the globalization have led to reorganization of funds transfer systems` infrastructure. The paper aims to offer an analysis of actual payment system for Euro area, a trans-European funds transfer system with gross settlement in real-time for payments in euro TARGET- to increase economical and operational efficiency of payments and also to reduce the risks in the electronic funds transfer system by creating efficient and secure payment systems.

  2. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

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    Pavel HNÁT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  3. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA IN ROMANIA AND THE EFFECTS ON EFFICIENCY

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    Mihaita-Cosmin POPOVICI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of the single currency, euro, on 1 January 2002, in 12 countries, then in other seven states, represents a step towards closer economic and monetary integration in the European Union. The banking market remains fragmented after euro adoption and cross-border transactions in the single currency involves high costs and long periods of settlement and clearing. European Union response to this problem came in the form of the Single Euro Payments Area. The objective of the papers is to analyze the degree of implementation of SEPA in Romania and to investigate the impact on banking efficiency. The results showed low degree of implementation, especially on direct debit, but Romania hasmore time until October 31, 2016 to make the necessary changes. The consumers will benefit from a quicker settlement and clearing and at lower costs.

  4. Purchasing Power Parity and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes purchasing power parity (PPP) for the euro area. We study the impact of the introduction of the euro in 1999 on the behavior of real exchange rates. We test the PPP hypothesis for a panel of real exchange rates within the euro area over the period 1973-2003. Our

  5. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

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    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  6. Current account imbalances in the euro area

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    Klára Plecitá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the current account balance for the euro area as a whole has been in balance, divergences in current account positions among the euro-area members have widened since the introduction of the common currency euro. During the last 13 years Portugal, Greece and Spain have run large and persistent current account deficits, whereas Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Finland or Germany have displayed during the same period large and persistent surpluses. However, there is no unambiguous agreement among economists, whether this divergence of current account positions of the euro-area countries mirrors growing intra-euro-area imbalances (Gros, 2012 or just reflects proper functioning of the European integration process (Schmitz and von Hagen, 2009. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to estimate equilibrium current account position for each of the original 12 euro area countries so that it is possible to assess whether the divergence of intra-euro current account balances could be explained on the basis of economic fundamentals or it just reflects misallocation of resources and thus macroeconomic imbalances. The equilibrium current account balance is estimated using a panel-econometric technique for a sample of 30 industrial countries, which represent euro-area member states and their main business partners, over the period 1993–2011. Economic fundamentals affecting the equilibrium current account position are selected on the basis of the saving-investment balance, the trade balance and the net income balance, to ensure that we take into an account all theoretically important explanatory variables. We find that the main determinants of current account norms in our sample are fiscal balance, a country’s net international investment position, oil balance and a country’s stage of economic development. The major part of the euro-area countries exhibits current account positions close to their equilibrium levels with the exception of the Netherlands and

  7. Disequilibria Management at the Euro Area Level

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    Iulia Lupu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current crisis has shown that an economic integration through a political and monetary approach is wrong. It seems to be more appropriate a social and economic approach, meaning both a betterpreparedness of the new countries joining the euro area and more flexibility of the economic structures of the old members of the euro zone, in order to make the more "harmonious" the way of the monetary area operation. For that purpose, this article has made an analysis of the imbalances management issue in the euro area in order to provide a few theoretical solutions for a better functioning of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU, based on the observation of developments in the euro area countries. This paper enriches theeconomic literature, but also it is relying on the research workings made by the authors in the field of European integration. The originality of this article arises from the extremely topical issue examined and its way of approach, but also from the conclusions outlined.

  8. Paying taxes in Euro area countries: issues behind tax morale

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    Virgilijus Rutkauskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates theoretical and practical aspects of tax morale in euro area countries. The attitude of households on tax payment – whether to pay taxes or not – is assessed quantitatively by employing dichotomous logit-probit regression analysis. Research is based on household level data received from World Values Survey and European Values Study. The results suggest that the main issues behind weak tax morale are corruption, disrespect to the country. Additionally tax morale is significantly affected by factors like age, gender, religiousness, gender, income and education. Article concludes on possible policy options in order to increase tax morale.

  9. 160 Adopting the Euro: A Long Path towards National Consensus within the Euro Area Candidate Countries

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    Adina Criste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis outbreak after 2007 has profoundly changed the course of the history of relations in the world economy, creating a complicated framework of political relations between countries and economic regions. In this context, it is important to depict the economic convergence stage of Euro Area candidate countries and to what extent this crisis has or has not changed the euro adoption objective for these countries. The present paper aimed to shed a light on this issue by analyzing both the state of the convergence process and the public attitude regarding euro adoption in four Euro Area candidate countries which have the same monetary policy strategy (inflation targeting. The research results show the way in which the global financial crisis “deviates” the convergence trajectory of the nominal indicators, but also the political and public sentiment against the euro adoption in the selected countries. The results represent a valuable groundwork for analyzing the way in which National Central Banks candidate to the Eurosystem are implied into the processing for euro adoption during turbulence times

  10. Post-Keynesian alternative policies to curb macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area

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    Hein Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline alternative post-Keynesian policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness and associated current account imbalances within the Euro area. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues making use of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s (1979, 2002 model of a “balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate” (BPCGR. Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then we discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes and fiscal policies in the Euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the Euro area periphery, in particular.

  11. Understanding inter-industry wage structures in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Genre, Véronique; Momferatou, Daphne; Kohn, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the euro area wage structure and its potential determinants from a sectoral viewpoint. Merging information from the OECD Structural Analysis database with data from the EU Labour Force Survey, we construct a cross-country panel of 22 industries in 8 euro area countries for 1991-2002. Data inspection confirms the existence of a fairly stable inter- industry wage structure that is similar across countries. We then apply panel data techniques to identify factors explaining ...

  12. Testing the Asymmetry of Shocks with Euro Area

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    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the demand and supply shocks affecting 13 EU member states and to estimate their degree of correlation with the Euro area shocks. This research ensures identifying the asymmetry of shocks degree with the monetary union, depending on which it’s judging the desirability of adopting a single currency. The analysis is also useful for the economies outside the Euro area, because they are strongly commercial and financial integrated especially with the core economies from union. Applying the Blanchard and Quah methodology to estimate the shocks in the period from 1998:1- 2010:3, I have found a weak and negative correlation between demand shocks and a medium to high correlation of the supply shocks. The results obtained suggest the presence of a structural convergence process with the Euro area, in the context of domestic macroeconomic policies rather different, both inside and outside the monetary union.

  13. The agony of unemployment in the Euro Area

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    Ristanović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the evolution of the unemployment problem in the Euro Area. Our goal is to look at what are the roots of the unemployment problem and to devise reasons of the already chronic unemployment problem. We show the main factors that prolong the agony of unemployment and whether it is likely that in the near future, the problem of unemployment in the Euro Area will bi past. In the Euro Area we follow the analysis of basic macroeconomic indicators of balance in an economy - GDP, inflation and unemployment. We consider whether the monetary strategy of inflation targeting has contributed to the unemployment problem, by reducing the potential output, but also to confirm that within the current global crisis there are some deviations from the theoretical concepts of basic macroeconomic relationships - Okun's law and the Phillips curve. We show that only Germany, with a 'small' sacrifice, can save the real sector in the peripheral Mediterranean countries, as well as in the entire Euro Area.

  14. Deflation Risk in the Euro Area and Central Bank Credibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Galati (Gabriele); Z. Gorgi (Zion); R. Moessner (Richhild); C. Zhou (Chen)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates how the perceived risk that the euro area will experience deflation has evolved over time, and what this risk implies for the credibility of the ECB. We use a novel data set on market participants’ perceptions of short- to long-term deflation risk implied by

  15. Macroeconomic adjustment: The Baltic states versus euro area crisis countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have succeeded in rapidly reducing their current account deficits despite fixed exchange rates. Which factors have played a major role in this? What similarities, and what differences, do the Baltic states show compared to Greece and Portugal? What insights can be gained for the political debate on the euro area debt crisis?

  16. Monetary dynamics in the euro area : a disaggregate panel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Kool, C.J.M.

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration estimation to analyze the determinants of heterogeneous monetary dynamics in ten euro area member countries over the period 1999-2013. In particular, we investigate the role of real house prices, real equity prices and cross border bank credit. For the

  17. Regime-dependent determinants of Euro area sovereign CDS spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommestein, H.J.; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Qian, Zongxin

    We study the determinants of sovereign CDS spreads of five Euro area countries (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain) after the collapse of Lehman Brothers. We find that global and/or European Monetary Union (EMU)-wide factors are the main drivers of changes in the sovereign CDS spreads in

  18. Instability and Nonlinearity in the Euro-area Philips Curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Musso; A. Stracca; D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the functional form of the euro-area Phillips curve over the past three decades. In particular, compared with previous literature, we analyze the stability of the relationship in detail, especially as regards the possibility of a

  19. Euro area Inflation as a Predictor of National Inflation Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Cavallo; Antonio Ribba

    2013-01-01

    The stability of inflation differentials is an important condition for the smooth working of a currency area, such as the European Economic and Monetary Union. In the presence of stability, changes in national inflation rates, while holding Euro-area inflation fixed contemporaneously, should be only transitory. If this is the case, the rate of inflation of the whole area can also be interpreted as a predictor, at least in the long run, of the different national inflation rates. However, in th...

  20. LABOUR MOBILITY AS AN ADJUSTMENT MECHANISM IN THE EURO AREA

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    Cristina Puiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the capacity of labour mobility in the euro area to act as an adjustment mechanism in the event of an asymmetric shock. According to the optimum currency area theory, labour mobility has been emphasized as one of the main adjustment mechanism. Given the present situation, where there are major concerns about the future of the euro area, it is necessary to study if the mechanism for stability works and if it can be improved. Considering the difficulty of quantifying the labour mobility, we have analyzed the net migration and the regulations regarding labour market. The empirical evidence shows that labour mobility does not act as a sufficient adjustment mechanism.

  1. Financial and economic approach: Financial & banking sector development pact from the perspective of the euro area European economic policy

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    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Powerful obstacles to the further integration of repot, bond and equity markets remain the still fragmented securities settlement industry in Europe, which charges much higher fees for cross border transactions than for domestic transactions, and differences in legal systems. This paper describes the main developments in the euro area financial markets before and after the introduction of the single currency. It looks at the evolution of the euro area financial structure in the last few years. Interestingly in various dimensions the financial structure of euro area countries seems to become more diverse over time. We assess the progress towards financial integration in the most important euro-area financial segments, namely money and equity markets, as well as banking. The available data suggest that the unsecured money market strongly integrated with the introduction of the euro, as the single currency and related euro-area-wide large-value payment systems link the different countries well. Also, some progress occurred in the integration of euro-area equity markets, as stock exchanges in a few countries merged to form Euronext and professional asset managers replaced country allocation by sector allocation strategies. Overall, while asset holdings have become more international in the euro area since the introduction of the single currency, securities markets are still much less integrated than in the US. In the area of retail banking the increased homogeneity of interest rates seems to be driven more by macroeconomic convergence than by market integration. In addition we consider a wide range of other determinants, such as foreign debt or net foreign assets, terms of trade, government debt and regulated prices.

  2. Poland’s Public Finance Convergence with the Euro Area

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    Elżbieta Kawecka-Wyrzykowska

    2013-06-01

    the euro area situation.

  3. Purchasing Power Parity between the UK and the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Canarella; Stephen M. Miller; Stephen K. Pollard

    2012-01-01

    We use the Johansen cointegration approach to assess the empirical validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) between the UK and the Euro Area, which we represent by Germany, the largest of its members. We conduct the empirical analysis in the context of the global financial crisis that began in 2007 and find that it directly affects the cointegration space. We fail to validate the Johansen and Juselius (1992) original hypothesis that nonstationarity of the PPP associates with the nonstati...

  4. Business Cycle Dynamics in the Euro Area: A Factor-SVAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atilim Seymen

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates the business cycle dynamics in the euro area using an empirical framework which comprises common global and euro area shocks as well as allows bilateral spillovers of country-specific shocks across the member economies. Three core questions lie at the heart of the analysis: (i) To what extent are the business cycles of the euro area countries driven by common and spillover shocks? (ii) What are the extent and sources of business cycle heterogeneity in the euro area? (ii...

  5. Impact of the asset purchase programme on euro area government bond yields using market news

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the impact of the Asset Purchase Programme (APP) by the European Central Bank (ECB) on euro area sovereign yields is challenging, because the monetary policy announcement in January 2015 was already implicitly communicated to the market in the second half of 2014. Therefore, to identify the APP for the euro area, we rely upon Bloomberg news on euro area APP. The econometric results suggest that the impact of APP on euro area long-term sovereign yields is sizeable, albeit the program...

  6. Real time uncertainty in fiscal planning and debt accumulation in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Paloviita, Maritta

    2012-01-01

    This study explores real time uncertainty in euro area fiscal policies since the late 1990s. Using real time data from the OECD Economic Outlook publications we investigate the impact of real time uncertainty on fiscal planning and debt accumulation separately for two country groups in the euro area: countries in geographical periphery (Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain) and other euro area countries (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany and the Netherlands). The results indica...

  7. Estonia's accession to the euro area / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti astumine Euroopa Liidu liikmeks mais 2004 tõi kaasa kohustuse liituda ka europiirkonnaga. Ettevalmistused kulgevad seaduse harmoniseerimise, euro kasutuselevõtu tehnilise ettevalmistuse ning majanduse stabiilsus- ja kasvupakti nõuetele vastavusse viimise osas

  8. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model...... of a set of coincident time series handling mixed frequencies of observation and ragged–edged data structures. They reflect both parameter and filtering uncertainty and are obtained by implementing a bootstrap algorithm for simulating from the distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators of the model...

  9. Institutional diversity in the Euro area : Any evidence of convergence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, Jo; Pérez-Moreno, Salvador; Bárcena-Martín, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The institutional characteristics of the 19 Euro countries, such as Government efficiency or undue influence or corporate ethics, have diverged in the period 2006-2015. This endangers the sustainability of the EMU, as institutional characteristics are an important element of competitiveness. We find

  10. SMEs’ Access to Finance in the Euro Area; What Helps or Hampers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Öztürk; Mico Mrkaic

    2014-01-01

    The monetary transmission mechanism in the euro area has been adversely affected by the recent crises. Using survey data on thousands of euro area firms, we study factors that affect the access to finance of SMEs. We find that changes in bank funding costs and borrower leverage matter for firms’ access to finance. Increases in bank funding costs and borrowers’ debt-to-asset ratios are significantly and negatively associated with firms’ access to finance. The use of subsidies significantly imp...

  11. Signalling fiscal stress in the euro area - a country-specific early warning system

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández de Cos, Pablo; Koester, Gerrit B.; Moral-Benito, Enrique; Nickel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has increased the interest in early warning indicators, with the aim to indicate the build?up of fiscal stress early on and to facilitate crisis prevention by a timely counteraction of fiscal and macroeconomic policies. This paper presents possible improvements to enhance existing early warning indicators for fiscal stress, especially for the euro area. We show that a country?specific approach could strongly increase the signalling power of early war...

  12. Bank output measurement in the euro area : A modified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, A.; Inklaar, R.

    Banks do not charge explicit fees for many of the services they provide, bundling the service payment with the offered interest rates. This output therefore has to be imputed using estimates of the opportunity cost of funds. We argue that rather than using the single short-term, low-risk interest

  13. New Technologies in the Payment System Industries: The SEPA Project

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Calabrese; Massimo Gastaldi; Irene Iacovelli; Nathan L. Ghiron

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) project plans to establish an integrated market for extending European integration to retail payments; it aims to provide incentives for using payment systems instead of cash for all micro payments, in order to improve both efficiency and competition in the Euro area. In this study we described the SEPA and its effects on competition and innovation in the payment systems. Moreover, we will discuss the main technologic...

  14. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Klára Plecitá; Luboš Střelec

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with ...

  15. Euro Area Scenarios and their Economic Consequences for Slovenia and Serbia

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    Klaus Weyerstrass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, divergences in international competitiveness led to an accumulation of current account deficits in the south and surpluses in the north of the euro area. With the aid of macroeconometric models, this paper estimates the effects of an exit of Greece or of all GIIPS countries (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Spain on the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of one or more countries would affect other economies via the trade channel and credit constraints. Euro area members would additionally suffer from an increase of public debt due to non-performing loans of the European Stability Mechanism and devaluations of public bonds purchased by the European Central Bank. An exit of Greece alone would only marginally affect the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of all GIIPS countries or a euro area breakup would have dramatic negative consequences for output, unemployment and public finances.

  16. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

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    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  17. The impact of oil price increase on the Euro area's growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    In a first part, the author of this article comments the increase of oil prices since 2002 and notices that the magnitude is similar to that noticed during the 1973 and 1979 oil-shocks. He outlines that several factors have limited the impact of the oil price increase in the Euro area, notably the Euro appreciation with respect to the dollar: the Euro appreciation has absorbed half of the oil price increase, the oil intensity of the European economy has decreased, a tax damping effect has been noticed, and more competitive markets limit the inflation risk. The author assesses the impact of oil price increase on the growth of the Euro zone since 2002: recessionary effect of oil price increase, an actual impact but limited by the appreciation of Euro. Perspectives for 2008 are discussed: predictable oil price evolution and its impact of growth in 2008, policy and action of the ECB (European Central Bank) in front of the impact of oil price increase on inflation and on activity

  18. On the impact of the global financial crisis on the euro area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Xiaoli; Jacobs, Jan; Kuper, Gerard; Ligthart, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Euro area utilizing a simple dynamic macroeconomic model with interaction between monetary policy and fiscal policy. The model consists of an IS curve, a Phillips curve, a term structure relation, a debt accumulation equation and a

  19. Is there a Core of Macroeconomics that Euro Area Forecasters Believe In?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch, Christian; Ruelke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The quantity theory of money, Okun’s law, and the Phillips curve are cornerstones of macroeconomic theory. But are they also of practical relevance? Using survey data for the euro area, we found that professional economists’ forecasts are consistent with a version of the quantity theory in which...

  20. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence on the effects of government spending shocks and the fiscal transmission mechanism in the euro area for the period 1980-2008. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we investigate changes in the macroeconomic impact of government spending shocks using time-varying

  1. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    This paper applies structural vector autoregressions with time-varying parameters in order to investigate changes in the effects of government spending shocks in the euro area, and the driving forces of those changes. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we present evidence that the short-run impact

  2. Will business cycles in the euro area converge? A critical survey of empirical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Inklaar, R.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    This survey of business cycle synchronization in the European monetary union focuses on two issues: have business cycles become more similar, and which factors drive business cycle synchronization. We conclude that business cycles in the euro area have gone through periods of both convergence and

  3. Structural changes in the Czech, Slovak and euro area economies during the Great Recession

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    Tvrz Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify and compare the most important changes in the structure of the Czech economy, as a small open economy with independent monetary policy, the Slovak economy, as a small open economy that entered monetary union, and the economy of the euro area, which has a common monetary policy, during the turbulent period of the Great Recession, the subsequent anaemic recovery and recent disinflationary period. Structural changes are identified with the help of nonlinear dynamic stochastic models of general equilibrium with time-varying parameters. The model parameters are estimated using Bayesian methods and a nonlinear particle filter. The results confirm the similarity of the Czech and Slovak economies and show that in certain respects the structure of the Czech economy might be closer to that of the euro area than that of Slovakia. The time-varying estimates reveal many similarities between the parameter changes in the Czech economy and those in the euro area. In Slovakia, the situation during the Great Recession was dominated by the country’s adoption of the euro, which caused large deviations in its Calvo parameters.

  4. Problems of Overcoming Market Failures in the Context of Economic Crisis in the Euro Area

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    Alexandra Y. Pluiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the manifestations of a market failure problem revealed during the economic crisis in the euro area, namely business cycles, market inability to ensure money circulation and avoid inflation. It is shown that the cyclicity of economic development has revealed in various degrees of economic contraction and different rates of its recovery. These differences have been exacerbated by the new procyclical factors emerged from the transition to a single currency. As for money circulation the crisis has almost no impact on the single currency functioning: the euro has maintained its position on the world market and properly performed money functions in the domestic. The goal to achieve economic development without inflation in the euro area generally has been solved successfully by the European Central Bank (ECB. However, due to the fact that the ECB in its monetary policy does not pay sufficient attention to the increased inflation in small and relatively poor countries, the crisis has been more acute in them than in large countries with low inflation. The goals of ensuring money circulation and avoiding inflation can be settled more effectively in the euro area in case of more tight coherence in economic policy and strengthening of supranational mechanisms of economic governance.

  5. How have inflation dynamics changed over time? Evidence from the euro area and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta; Vilmi , Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes euro area and U.S. inflation dynamics since the beginning of the 1990s by estimating New Keynesian hybrid Phillips curves with time-varying parameters. We measure inflation expectations by subjective forecasts from Consensus Economics survey and so do not assume rational expectations. Both rolling regressions and state-space models are employed. The results indicate that in both economic areas the inflation dynamics have steadily become more forward-looking over time. We a...

  6. A Comparison of Business Cycles Synchronization in the Euro Area and Some Potential Monetary Unions

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    Stanislav Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of business cycle is one of the main criteria for creation of a monetary union. With increasing synchronization of business cycle, a probability of occurrence of demand and supply shocks, which are asymmetric, decreases. The aim of this contribution is to evaluate synchronicity of business cycle in the euro area and some potential monetary unions. There are MERCOSUR (i.e. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, NAFTA (Canada, Mexico and the United States of America. For this aim, correlation analysis and two indexes of cyclical components of GDP are used. The cyclical components of GDP are obtained due to the Hodrick-Prescott filter. The results indicate a high degree of business cycles synchronization among states of the euro area (especially in countries of so called core of the euro area and states of NAFTA. In opposite, a lower degree of business cycles synchronization was reached among states of MERCOSUR. According to the criterion of business cycle synchronization, NAFTA is more appropriate candidate than MERCOSUR for creation monetary area.

  7. Rating agencies: role and influence of their sovereign credit risk assessment in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Credit ratings have a huge impact on the access to and costs of funding, regardless whether the rated entity is a private enterprise or a sovereign borrower. Since the beginning of the financial crisis there has been a vivid and controversial debate about methods, timing and procedures used by these agencies. In this compilation of five notes provided by members of the Monetary Expert Panel the role of the rating agencies and their influence on the euro area is discussed in more detail.

  8. Some Stylized Facts on Non-Systematic Fiscal Policy in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Marcellino, Massimiliano

    2002-01-01

    We derive a set of stylized facts on the effects of non-systematic fiscal policy in the four largest countries of the Euro area, and discuss their implications for the fiscal policy coordination debate, for the effectiveness of fiscal shocks in stabilizing the economies, and for the interaction of fiscal and monetary policy. We find relevant differences across countries in the effects of non-systematic fiscal policy, and substantial uncertainty about the size of these effects, which casts dou...

  9. Government debt management in the euro area - recent theoretical developments and changes in practices

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Wolswijk; Jakob de Haan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the management of government debt in the euro area, covering both theoretical and practical aspects. It focuses on key aspects of debt management; the objectives of debt management, its organisation, the maturity of debt, inflation-indexation, currency-denomination, the ownership of debt, and debt issuing and trading practices. Main adjustments include an increase in autonomy of debt management agencies, and a convergence in debt maturities and in deb...

  10. Doomsday for the Euro Area: Causes, Variants and Consequences of Breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Belke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the genesis of a doomsday scenario and discuss potential causes and motivations for a breakup of the euro area. For this purpose, we differentiate between the departure of weak and strong countries, and examine the impact of the reintroduction of a national currency on domestic debt, the domestic banking sector, EU membership and the freedom of trade. We also briefly analyze the social and political costs of the accompanying social disorder.

  11. Incorporating creditors' seniority into contingent claim models: Applicarion to peripheral euro area countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Puig, Marta; Singh, Manish Kumar; Sosvilla Rivero, Simón, 1961-

    2018-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of multilateral creditors (i.e., the ECB, IMF, ESM etc.) and their preferred creditor status in explaining the sovereign default risk of peripheral euro area (EA) countries. Incorporating lessons from sovereign debt crises in general, and from the Greek debt restructuring in particular, we define the priority structure of sovereigns' creditors that is most relevant for peripheral EA countries in severe crisis episodes. This new priority structure of creditors, t...

  12. Analysis of Structural Differences and Asymmetry of Shocks Between the Czech Economy and the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Slanicay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to examine asymmetry of shocks and structural differences between the Czech economy and the euro area. For this purpose I use a New Keynesian DSGE model of two economies. Structural differences are examined using the posterior distributions of structural parameters. Results suggest that prices are more sticky in the Czech economy, especially in the non-tradable sector, while wages are more sticky in the euro area. It seems that the ECB smooths less the interest rate and reacts more to the development in output and inflation than the Czech National Bank. It also seems that labor supply in the Czech economy is more elastic than labor supply in the euro area. Asymmetry of shocks is examined using correlations between smoothed shocks obtained from the estimation. The most asymmetric shocks are shocks in government expenditures, labor supply shocks, and productivity shocks in the tradable sector, while the most symmetric shocks are consumption preference shocks, monetary policy shocks, and investment efficiency shocks.

  13. Integration of Government Bond Market in the Euro Area and Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Velimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines analysis of evolution in euro area government bond market integration and interference of European Central Bank with functioning of respective market recently. Since the introduction of euro, government bond yields converged in the euro area, bonds of different countries have become close substitutes in the perception of investors, and overall integration of the market was rather high. At the end of 2008, dramatic shift occurred and ever since disintegrative forces were set in motion. The paper presents the following measures of integration of the government bond markets: yield spreads, dispersion in yield spreads and beta coefficient. All three measures suggest unprecedented market disintegration as of 2010. The paper highlighted relevance of sovereign bond market for the smooth functioning of the monetary policy transmission mechanism in a monetary union context. Three ECB’s programmes aimed at sovereign debt crisis resolution were analysed in details. They proved successful in lowering peripheral countries’ yields and spreads, and calming the markets. If one takes central bank function of the lender of last resort for banks, then these programmes may be viewed as the “buyer of last resort” device for government bonds. Although warranted by exceptional circumstances and need for swift response, a due caution should be paid to these programmes since they pose certain challenges for conduct of monetary policy and might even have unintended consequences.

  14. The (in)stability of money demand in the Euro Area: Lessons from a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nautz, Dieter; Rondorf, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    The instability of standard money demand functions has undermined the role of monetary aggregates for monetary policy analysis in the euro area. This paper uses country-specific monetary aggregates to shed more light on the economics behind the instability of euro area money demand. Our results obtained from panel estimation indicate that the observed instability of standard money demand functions could be explained by omitted variables like e.g. technological progress that are important for ...

  15. THE STRUCTURAL DEFICIT – A NEW MEASURE FOR FISCAL DISCIPLINE IN THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PUIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of the new limit for the government deficit in order to improve fiscal discipline in the Economic and Monetary Union in Europe. Since the introduction of the single currency there have been debates regarding the lack of fiscal integration. The monetary integration process triggered the centralization of monetary policies while the fiscal policies remained at national level. Although the member states of the euro area were subject to restrictions imposed by the Stability and Growth Pact in order to provide an assurance against asymmetric shocks, the recent financial crisis revealed high levels of public deficits. Thus, the measures were not enough to establish an environment of fiscal discipline in the currency area and the currency area proved to be suboptimal. Therefore, new limits were imposed through the Treaty of Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union. This study will provide a clear understanding of the concept of structural deficit, measures used to quantify it and the shortcomings of this indicator. Furthermore, it will show that, despite the limits of the indicator, it represents an improvement in achieving stability in the euro area.

  16. An alternative method for identifying booms and busts in the euro area housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdesmeier, Dieter; Roffia, Barbara; Lenarcic, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to apply a method based on fundamentals ─ which has already been applied in the stock market analysis ─ to detect boom/bust in the housing market, with a focus on the euro area. In this context, an underlying model is developed and tested. It turns out that the user cost rate, a demographic variable, the unemployment rate, disposable income (or disposable income per capita), the debt-to-income ratio and, finally, the housing stock are fundamental variables which ...

  17. Governance, Institutional Quality and the Euro Area Crisis: What Lessons to East Asian Integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Gwan Baek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We find that institutional quality of an individual country was highly and significantly correlated with its economic performance in the euro area. We argue that governance reforms proposed at present do not suffice to resolving the fundamental problems of the EMU governance system unless disparities of institutional quality in member states are dissolved. Regarding regional integration, East Asia is far behind the Eurozone not only in institutional elements of the governance system but also in institutional quality at the level of individual nations.

  18. The Macroeconomic Outlook and the Impact of the Global Crisis in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIRITA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides general analysis and evolution of macroeconomic and financial indicators in the euro area, during the recent crisis 2008-2009. The financial market turmoil that began in 2007 led to a severe global economic downturn. The causes of the crisis, the effects on global financial markets, and the spillover to the economy are permanently examined by the analysts, but the final conclusions are not clear yet. The conclusion of this paper is that the global activity is recovering at varying speeds in some countries, tepidly in many of the advanced economies but solidly in most emerging and developing economies.

  19. The Importance of Being Vigilant: Has ECB Communication Influenced Euro Area Inflation Expectations?

    OpenAIRE

    David-Jan Jansen; Jakob de Haan

    2007-01-01

    Using daily data on inflation-indexed bonds, we find evidence of a negative relationship between ECB communication regarding risks to price stability - measured on the basis of the frequency and strength of the keyword ‘vigilance’ - and changes in euro area break-even inflation. However, this result is only found for the second half of 2005. At that time, the start of a tightening of ECB monetary policy was increasingly likely. This suggests that communication should be closely in line wi...

  20. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Plecitá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with largest imbalances in 2010. Further the medium-run equilibrium exchange rates for Greece and Ireland are estimated applying the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER approach popularised by Clark and MacDonald (1998. In addition, the long-run equilibrium exchange rates are estimated using the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate (PEER model. Employing the BEER and PEER approaches on quarterly time series of real effective exchange rates (REER from 1997: Q1 to 2010: Q4 we identify an undervaluation of the Greek and Irish REER around their entrance to the euro area. For the rest of the period analysed their REER is broadly in line with estimated BEER and PEER levels.

  1. Measuring Financial Cycles in a Model-Based Analysis: Empirical Evidence for the United States and the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galati, E.B.G.; Hindrayanto, A.I.W.; Koopman, S.J.; Vlekke, M.

    2016-01-01

    We adopt an unobserved components time series model to extract financial cycles for the United States and the five largest euro area countries over the period 1970-2014. We find that financial cycles can parsimoniously be estimated by house prices and total credit or the credit-to-GDP ratio. We show

  2. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  3. Is the Region of Visegrad Countries on the Track to the Euro Area? Recent Evidence from the Real Convergence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stavárek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After enlargement of the European Union and subsequently joining of a new member states to the euro area, the question of economic convergence attracted considerable research interest. This paper adopts three alternative concepts to examine the level and trend of convergence in the Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia. We concurrently estimate the β-convergence, σ-convergence and business cycle synchronization to find out whether all countries are on the way towards higher convergence with the euro area. The results suggest that convergence of all countries has been increasing. However, the recent acceleration of the convergence process is caused mainly by external shocks in the form of the financial crisis and following economic slowdowns. Hence, the current level of convergence in the Visegrad countries cannot be considered as fully adequate.

  4. The impact of financial position on investment: an analysis for non-financial corporations in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Martínez-Carrascal; Annalisa Ferrando

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact that firms financial position has on investment decisions using panel data from a large sample of non-financial corporations(around 120,000 firms) in six euro area countries(Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain). The results indicate that financial position is important to explain capital expenditures, as financial pressure appears relevant in explaining investment dynamics when it is proxied by cash flow, indebtedness and debt burden. The ...

  5. Financial market implications of monetary policy coincidences: Evidence from the UK and Euro Area government-bond markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Phelps, P

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the financial market impact of international monetary surprises arising on the same trading day. This paper estimates a suite of multi-security factor models, which captures international monetary surprise effects on UK and Euro Area government-bond markets over the period 1999–2014. In doing so, we shed light on the relative importance of coinciding, non-coinciding monetary surprises and non-monetary surprises across the yield curve. We find some support for ...

  6. Reconstructing vegetation past: Pre-Euro-American vegetation for the midwest driftless area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika E. Shea; Lisa A. Schulte; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Historical reference conditions provide important context for creating ecological restoration and management plans. The U.S. 19th Century Public Land Survey (PLS) records provide extensive ecological information for constructing such reference conditions. We used PLS records to reconstruct pre-Euro-American tree species cover class and vegetation structure types for...

  7. Empirical Studies on Asset Pricing and Banking in the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Moerman (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractEuropean capital markets have changed dramatically over the last couple of years. Due to the harmonization of monetary and policy rules and the elimination of exchange rate risk (through the introduction of the euro) countries in the European Monetary Union (EMU) are becoming more

  8. Is There a Need for a New Fiscal Framework in the Euro Area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    The rules stipulated by the Stability and Growth Pact have proved impossible to enforce. However, to avoid unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing, and to prevent monetary policy from being undermined by self-interested governments, there is still a need for a fiscal framework within the Euro...

  9. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  10. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  11. Research on the Nominal Convergence of Romania to the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bărglăzan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available All the European Union (EU member states engaged to adopt, sooner or later, the euro. In order to do so, they must accomplish the convergence criteria concerning the inflation rate, the exchange rate, the interest rate, the public deficit and the public debt. The paper analyses the situation of Romania, based on the convergence criteria. Romania accomplishes only the criteria referring to public finances, while inflation still seems to be the worst problem.

  12. Wirtschaftliche Hindernisse für den Beitritt der Tschechischen Republik zur Eurozone. Economic barriers of the Czech Republic’s euro-area accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmir Helisek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The date of introduction of the euro in the Czech Republic has not been set. The Czech economy fulfils the inflation and interest rate convergence criteria, as well as the government debt criterion. The exchange rate stability criterion will be most likely fulfilled. The Czech economy possesses a high level of real convergence in respect of the euro area. Due to the economic recession, the government deficit criterion will probably not be fulfilled by 2012. The date of introduction of the euro in the Czech Republic is therefore postponed to 2015 at the earliest. The main reason for adopting the single currency is the growing interconnection between the Czech and the euro area economies. The exchange rate of the Czech crown to the euro has a higher stability than the exchange rate of the euro to the dollar, however, a long-term appreciation of the crown’s exchange rate weakens the competitiveness of the Czech exporters. The financial crisis and the recession have only complicated and postponed the adoption of the euro, but they have revealed no reasons to refuse the adoption.

  13. Defining the urban area for cross national comparison of health indicators: the EURO-URHIS 2 boundary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgerson, James; Birt, Christopher A; van Ameijden, Erik; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    Despite much research focusing on the impact of the city condition upon health, there still remains a lack of consensus over what constitutes an urban area (UA). This study was conducted to establish comparable boundaries for the UAs participating in EURO-URHIS 2, and to test whether the sample reflected the heterogeneity of urban living. Key UA contacts ( n = 28) completed a cross-sectional questionnaire, which included where available comparison between Urban Audit city and larger urban zone (LUZ) boundaries and public health administration areas (PHAAs). Additionally, broad health and demographic indicators were sought to test for heterogeneity of the EURO-URHIS 2 sample. Urban Audit city boundaries were found to be suitable for data collection in 100% ( n = 21) of UAs where Urban Audit data were available. The remainder ( n = 7) identified PHAA boundaries akin to the 'city' level. Heterogeneity was observed in the sample for population size and infant mortality rate. Heterogeneity could not be established for male and female life expectancy. This study was able to establish comparable boundaries for EURO-URHIS 2 data collection, with the 'city' area being selected for data collection. The homogeneity of life expectancy indicators was reflective of sub-regional similarities in life expectancy, whilst population estimates and rates of infant mortality indicated the presence of heterogeneity within the sample. Future work would trial these methods with a larger number of indicators and for a larger number of UAs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. EURO HAWK Project Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    Briefing charts from presentation on a EURO HAWK project overview; an airborne system with stand-off capability for wide-area intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance meeting European NATO countries' ISR requirements...

  15. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. European Sovereign Bond-Backed Securities – a Proposal to Mitigate Risks Arisen from the Lack of an Euro Area Common Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “European Sovereign Bond-Backed Securities” explores the complexities of having a fiscal unionfor Euro Area. All measures taken for fiscal integration are elements that need cohesion in order tobreak the vicious circle of unsustainable public debt affecting the balance sheets of banks anddeepening the need for rescue, which signals a further deterioration in asset valuation and marketsshrinking, worsening further the economic conditions. The need for a synthetic bond obtained bysecuritization of Euro Area governments’ debts emerges as viable proposal to break this public debt– private debt circle. Furthermore, it explores the “impossible trinity” (Mundell-Flemming and thetranslation into the Euro Area. The conclusions point to the need for institutionalized and officialapproach of introducing such derivative products like European Sovereign Bond-Backed Securitiesin the quest for safe assets, aiming to break the circle of debt (effect by substituting the absence of acommon fiscal policy (cause.

  17. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  18. Fiscal policy and rebalancing in the euro area: A critique of the German debt brake from a post-Keynesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The German debt brake is often regarded as a great success story and has therefore served as a role model for the Euro area and it’s Fiscal Compact. In this paper we fundamentally criticise the debt brake. Firstly, we show that it suffers from serious shortcomings and that its success is far from certain even from a mainstream point of view. Secondly, we show that, from a Post-Keynesian perspective, the debt brake completely neglects the requirements for fiscal policies of member countries in a currency union like the Euro area. It will prevent fiscal policy from contributing to the necessary rebalancing in the Euro area. Thirdly, we show that alternative scenarios, which could avoid the deflationary pressures of the German Debt Brake on domestic demand and contribute to internally rebalancing the Euro area, are extremely unlikely as they would have to rely on unrealistic shifts in the functional income distribution and/or investment and savings behaviour in Germany.

  19. Health status in Europe: comparison of 24 urban areas to the corresponding 10 countries (EURO-URHIS 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, E M; de Gelder, R; Di Nardo, F; Williams, G; Harrison, A; van Buren, L P; Lyshol, H; Patterson, L; Birt, C A; Higgerson, J; Achterberg, P W; Verma, A; van Ameijden, E J C

    2017-05-01

    : In Europe, over 70% of the population live in urban areas (UAs). Most international comparative health research is done using national level data, as reliable and comparable urban data are often unavailable or difficult to access. This study aims to investigate whether population health is different in UAs compared with their corresponding countries. : Routinely available health-related data were collected by the EURO-URHIS 2 project, for 10 European countries and for 24 UAs within those countries. National and UA level data for 11 health indicators were compared through the calculation of relative difference, and geographical patterns within Europe were investigated using the Mann Whitney U test. Linear regression modelling was used to adjust for population density, gross domestic product and urbanicity. : In general, the urban population in Eastern Europe is less healthy than the Western European urban population. However, people in Eastern Europe have significantly better broad health outcomes in UAs as compared with the corresponding country as a whole, whereas people in Western Europe have generally worse broader health outcomes in UAs. : For most European countries and UAs that were investigated, the national level health status data does not correspond with the health status at UA level. In order to identify health problems in UAs and to provide information for local health policy, health monitoring and international benchmarking should also be conducted at the local level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Collecting standardized urban health indicator data at an individual level for school-aged children living in urban areas: methods from EURO-URHIS 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D; Katreniak, Z; Guha, J; Puzzolo, E; Higgerson, J; Steels, S; Woode-Owusu, M; Bruce, N; Birt, Christopher A; Ameijden, E van; Verma, A

    2017-05-01

    Measuring health and its determinants in urban populations is essential to effectively develop public health policies maximizing health gain within this context. Adolescents are important in this regard given the origins of leading causes of morbidity and mortality develop pre-adulthood. Comprehensive, accurate and comparable information on adolescent urban health indicators from heterogeneous urban contexts is an important challenge. EURO-URHIS 2 aimed to develop standardized tools and methodologies collecting data from adolescents across heterogenous European urban contexts. Questionnaires were developed including (i) comprehensive assessment of urban health indicators from 7 pre-defined domains, (ii) use of previously validated questions from a literature review and other European surveys, (iii) translation/back-translation into European languages and (iv) piloting. Urban area-specific data collection methodologies were established through literature review, consultation and piloting. School-based surveys of 14-16-year olds (400-800 per urban area) were conducted in 13 European countries (33 urban areas). Participation rates were high (80-100%) for students from schools taking part in the surveys from all urban areas, and data quality was generally good (low rates of missing/spoiled data). Overall, 13 850 questionnaires were collected, coded and entered for EURO-URHIS 2. Dissemination included production of urban area health profiles (allowing benchmarking for a number of important public health indicators in young people) and use of visualization tools as part of the EURO-URHIS 2 project. EURO-URHIS 2 has developed standardized survey tools and methodologies for assessing key measures of health and its determinants in adolescents from heterogenous urban contexts and demonstrated the utility of this data to public health practitioners and policy makers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association

  1. The Euro area sovereign debt crisis: safe haven, credit rating agencies and the spread of the fever from Greece, Ireland and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Since the intensification of the crisis in September 2008, all euro area long-term government bond yields relative to the German Bund have been characterised by highly persistent processes with upward trends for countries with weaker fiscal fundamentals. Looking at the daily period 1 September 2008 - 4 August 2011, we find that three factors can explain the recorded developments in sovereign spreads: (i) an aggregate regional risk factor, (ii) the country-specific credit risk and (iii) the sp...

  2. Hydrological assessment of atmospheric forcing uncertainty in the Euro-Mediterranean area using a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Decharme, Bertrand; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Polcher, Jan; Fairbairn, David; Weedon, Graham P.

    2018-04-01

    Physically consistent descriptions of land surface hydrology are crucial for planning human activities that involve freshwater resources, especially in light of the expected climate change scenarios. We assess how atmospheric forcing data uncertainties affect land surface model (LSM) simulations by means of an extensive evaluation exercise using a number of state-of-the-art remote sensing and station-based datasets. For this purpose, we use the CO2-responsive ISBA-A-gs LSM coupled with the CNRM version of the Total Runoff Integrated Pathways (CTRIP) river routing model. We perform multi-forcing simulations over the Euro-Mediterranean area (25-75.5° N, 11.5° W-62.5° E, at 0.5° resolution) from 1979 to 2012. The model is forced using four atmospheric datasets. Three of them are based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis (ERA-I). The fourth dataset is independent from ERA-Interim: PGF, developed at Princeton University. The hydrological impacts of atmospheric forcing uncertainties are assessed by comparing simulated surface soil moisture (SSM), leaf area index (LAI) and river discharge against observation-based datasets: SSM from the European Space Agency's Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy and Climate Change Initiative projects (ESA-CCI), LAI of the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), and Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) river discharge. The atmospheric forcing data are also compared to reference datasets. Precipitation is the most uncertain forcing variable across datasets, while the most consistent are air temperature and SW and LW radiation. At the monthly timescale, SSM and LAI simulations are relatively insensitive to forcing uncertainties. Some discrepancies with ESA-CCI appear to be forcing-independent and may be due to different assumptions underlying the LSM and the remote sensing retrieval algorithm. All simulations overestimate average summer and early-autumn LAI. Forcing uncertainty impacts on simulated river discharge are

  3. Is Intra-Industry Trade Specialization a Precondition to Business Cycle Synchronization When Joining the Euro Area? The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawecka-Wyrzykowska Elżbieta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this paper is to present theoretical approaches to the impact of trade growth (induced by monetary integration on business cycle synchronization which is an important factor of a country’s readiness for a currency union accession. The main conclusion from the first part of the analysis is that business cycle convergence and the cost of the lack of an autonomous monetary policy depend on intra-industry trade (IIT intensity rather than on general trade growth. The second objective is to assess - using the IIT index as a measure of business cycle synchronization (and of susceptibility to asymmetric shocks transmitted mostly through trade channels - preparedness of the Polish economy to the euro adoption. Calculations reveal that the IIT intensity in Poland is already relatively high (in particular in relations with the euro area members and continues to rise. This confirms the increasing complementarity of Poland’s economy with the economic structures of the euro area partners which reduces the probability of asymmetric shocks.

  4. Boarding the Euro Plane : Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dandashly, Assem; Verdun, Amy

    2015-01-01

    What explains euro adoption strategies in the Czech Republic and Slovakia? How have each of these two countries performed under the regime they joined (Czech Republic: flexible exchange rates; Slovakia: in the euro area)? How has that experience affected Czech and Slovak policies towards euro

  5. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE AMOUNTS OF SINGLE AREA PAYMENT SCHEME IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Teszbir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the causes of regional variation in the direct payments. The publication data has been used from ARiMR, publications which spans the time included the amount of subsidies paid throughout the post-accession period. Both at national and regional level, the total amount of payments increased from year to year, average 10%, which was connected to the principle phasing in. The amount of aid received by individual regions and individual farms varied widely, which had a direct relationship with the agrarian structure and the average total area of farms in these areas. The bigger number of small farms, as well as the smaller average total surface area of a single voivodeship, the lower sum of the payments.

  6. The Net Stable Funding Ratio and banks� participation in monetary policy operations: some evidence for the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Scalia; Sergio Longoni; Tiziana Rosolin

    2013-01-01

    Based on a review of the analytical underpinnings of the effects of the NSFR on banks� choices, this paper attempts to relate banks� strategies to developments in the value of the ratio in the euro area. In spite of a not-so-near implementation date, the evidence is that the NSFR already matters for banks� choices, and it might be more relevant as a decision variable than alternative leverage indicators. As part of a convergence process towards the 100 per cent threshold, we estimate th...

  7. Risk of Zika virus transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area and the added value of building preparedness to arboviral threats from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Camille; Gaayeb, Lobna; Riccardo, Flavia; Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Picard, Marie; Dente, Maria Grazia; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel-Ángel; Declich, Silvia; Victoir, Kathleen; Robert, Vincent

    2016-12-03

    In the alarming context of risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area, there is a need to examine whether capacities to detect, diagnose and notify ZIKV infections in the region are in place and whether ongoing capacity-building initiatives are filling existing gaps.The MediLabSecure network, created in 2014, comprises 55 laboratories of virology and medical entomology and 19 public health institutions in 19 countries in the Balkans, North-Africa, the Middle-East and the Black Sea regions. It aims to set up awareness, risk assessment, monitoring and control of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne viruses. We here examine the actions and strategies that MediLabSecure has been implementing and how they will contribute to the prevention and control of the ZIKV threat in the Euro-Mediterranean area.Capacity-building for arbovirus diagnostics is a major objective of the project and follows a methodological rather than disease-driven approach. This enables the implementation of laboratory trainings on techniques that are common to several arboviruses, including ZIKV, and putting into action appropriate diagnostic tools in the target region.Moreover, by its One Health approach and the interaction of its four sub-networks in human virology, animal virology, medical entomology and public health, MediLabSecure is fostering intersectoral collaboration, expertise and sharing of information. The resulting exchanges (methodological, communication and operational) across disciplines and across countries, dedicated research on intersectoral collaboration and increasing diagnostic capacities are providing new paths and tools to public health professionals to face emerging viral threats such as a ZIKV epidemic in the Euro-Mediterranean region.

  8. Risk of Zika virus transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area and the added value of building preparedness to arboviral threats from a One Health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the alarming context of risk of Zika virus (ZIKV transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area, there is a need to examine whether capacities to detect, diagnose and notify ZIKV infections in the region are in place and whether ongoing capacity-building initiatives are filling existing gaps. The MediLabSecure network, created in 2014, comprises 55 laboratories of virology and medical entomology and 19 public health institutions in 19 countries in the Balkans, North-Africa, the Middle-East and the Black Sea regions. It aims to set up awareness, risk assessment, monitoring and control of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne viruses. We here examine the actions and strategies that MediLabSecure has been implementing and how they will contribute to the prevention and control of the ZIKV threat in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Capacity-building for arbovirus diagnostics is a major objective of the project and follows a methodological rather than disease-driven approach. This enables the implementation of laboratory trainings on techniques that are common to several arboviruses, including ZIKV, and putting into action appropriate diagnostic tools in the target region. Moreover, by its One Health approach and the interaction of its four sub-networks in human virology, animal virology, medical entomology and public health, MediLabSecure is fostering intersectoral collaboration, expertise and sharing of information. The resulting exchanges (methodological, communication and operational across disciplines and across countries, dedicated research on intersectoral collaboration and increasing diagnostic capacities are providing new paths and tools to public health professionals to face emerging viral threats such as a ZIKV epidemic in the Euro-Mediterranean region.

  9. The Accuracy of Forecasts Made for the Structure of Consumer Basket: A Comparative Analysis between Euro Area and Romania || La exactitud de las predicciones para la estructura de cesta del consumo: un análisis comparativo entre la zona euro y Rumanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratu (Simionescu, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Markov chain method was used to predict the structure of consumer basket for euro zone and Romania, a country that tries to fulfil the entrance conditions in euro area, by using the same methodology for the determination of harmonized index of consumer prices (HICP. The ex-post assessment of forecasts for 2010-2012 evidences the superiority of forecasts accuracy for euro area based on this method. The highest degree of accuracy in each territorial unit is registered for services weights, according to U Theil's statistic, even if the absolute indicators for accuracy are lower for other weights predictions. It is anticipated that for 2013 the Markov chain method will predict the best for each consumer basket the food weights forecasts for euro area and the services weights predictions for Romania. || En este estudio se aplica el método de las cadenas de Markov para predecir la estructura de la cesta de consumo para la zona euro y para Rumanía, un país que trata de cumplir las condiciones de entrada en la zona euro. En ambos casos, se sigue la misma metodología para la determinación del índice armonizado de precios al consumo (IPCA. La evaluación ex-post de las previsiones para el período 2010-2012 pone de manifiesto la mejora de la precisión de las previsiones para la zona euro al usar este método. El mayor grado de precisión en cada unidad territorial se ha registrado para los pesos de los servicios, de acuerdo con el estadístico U de Theil, aunque los indicadores absolutos de precisión son más bajos para otras predicciones de pesos. Se considera que las predicciones para el año 2013 por el método de las cadenas de Markov serán más precisas para cada cesta de consumo en las previsiones de los pesos para los alimentos para la zona euro y para las de los pesos de los servicios para Rumanía.

  10. A Cross-Country Empirical Study Towards the Impact of Following ISO Management System Standards on Euro-Area Economic Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Daniel Armeanu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of following ISO management system standards on economic sentiment indicator (ESI as proxy of economic agents’ general view concerning economic activity, for 21 European Union member states over 2005-2014. The empirical research comprises ISO standards with reference to management systems towards quality (ISO 9001, ISO 13485, ISO 16949, food safety (ISO 22000, environment (ISO 14001, and information security (ISO 27001. Panel data fixed effects regression models provide support for a positive impact of the quality management systems related to automotive industry, as well as information security management systems, on the ESI. Further, dynamic panel data approach by way of two-step system generalized method of moments emphasizes a positive influence of quality management systems standard for the medical device industry on Euro-area economic confidence, but a negative effect of food safety management systems. Also, ISO 9001, ISO 22000, and ISO 14001 Granger cause ESI.

  11. The Danish Euro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I analyse the political debate leading up to the Danish euro referendum in 2000. I show how the euro-positive government unintentionally reinforced the arguments of the euro-sceptics by framing the euro as something belonging to the nation-state. I argue that this paradoxical...... campaign strategy stems from the Danish conceptualisation of nation and state and from the close connection between national currencies and feelings of community and citizenship more general. The analysis confirms the suggestion made by Gilbert that new monetary organisation, such as European Monetary...

  12. Euro NCAP : een veiligheidsinstrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Het programma Euro NCAP test sinds 1996 de (bots)veiligheid van de meest gangbare personen-auto’s. Het feit dat de testresultaten bekend zijn bij de consumenten stimuleert de autofabrikanten om personenauto’s produceren die veelal veiliger zijn dan wettelijk is vereist. Euro NCAP test de

  13. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyler, Aidan [European Central Bank, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  14. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyler, Aidan

    2009-01-01

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  15. Energy, transport network and financial issues: PR perspectives for economic development in time of Euro-Med area change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2012-02-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  16. THE EURO AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Your UBS branch at CERN

    2001-01-01

    As part of the changeover to the euro, the UBS is pleased to announce the following information: From 28 December 2001, the cash dispensing machines will no longer issue French francs (FRF). At the beginning of January, all machines in the network will be modified to issue 50-euro notes. The wall machines in Buildings 500 and 504 will also issue 100-euro notes. Until 28 February 2002, it will be possible to sell notes in IN currencies (currencies of member countries of the economic and monetary union) in exchange for CHF over bank counters. In Switzerland, IN currencies are not directly convertible into euros. The conversion of cash from an IN currency to cash in euros is equivalent to a purchase and sale operation via Swiss francs. The UBS does not purchase or sell coins in euros (including IN currencies). Until 28 February 2002, it will be possible at all branches to deposit old coinage in IN currencies in Unicef 'Change for Good' envelopes. Until the second half of 2002, euro-denominated accounts will be a...

  17. Find Shortage Areas: HPSAs Eligible for the Medicare Physician Bonus Payment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HPSAs Eligible for the Medicare Physician Bonus Payment advisor tools allows the user (physician) to determine if an address is eligible for bonus payments....

  18. Romanian Policy-Mix to Adopting Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of Euro implementation in Monetary and EconomicUnion (EMU and Romanian position in this context. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007increased the interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix commonmonetary policy – different fiscal policy across the countries in the Euro area. Our study focuses on theconsequences of Romanian admittance in Euro Zone in 2014 and optimal policy-mix to good preparationto accomplish this target. The controversies between economists regarding the construction processof EMU remain large. What are the consequences of implementing the “tye-hands” strategy for Romanianfinancial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergencerelating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain afaster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits toadopting Euro in 2014?

  19. The euro: an international currency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies and reports are now readily available on how to come grips the Euro - its calendar, conversion factors, legal, financial and accounting aspects, and so forth. Typically, they point to a fixed-for-ever rate of exchange between participating countries, which of course may have strategic consequences for the location of many types of business. This survey does not seek to be exhaustive, nor to cover what is well documented elsewhere. Rather, it attempts to examine areas where uncertainty, or controversy continue to exist, as well as focus on aspects that are pertinent to the oil and gas industries. Two questions stand out. The first is a general one, concerning how the Euro is likely to fare in international currency markets, notably relative to the US Dollar. The second is closely linked to the first, but is specific to the hydrocarbons business: will European oil and gas prices be quoted in euros and, if so, over what time frame? Finally, this review looks briefly at a selection of other impacts relevant to the energy business

  20. The EURO, Prudent Coherence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.M. Arnold (Ivo); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractA flurry of recent articles has argued on the basis of constructed European wide monetary aggregates that the demand for EURO's will be more stable than the current demand for national currencies. In policy circles this seemingly moderating effect of monetary integration figures as an

  1. Roots of the weaknesses of the euro. Euro nõrkuste juured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart Sõrg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the euro was to speed up the integration process and economic development in Europe. History of euro showed us that these optimistic goals have been only partly fulfilled. This modest result has several essential roots. Our research showed that Europe have not been and is even not today the optimal currency area. The architecture of the EMU was incomplete: in building up it was not given enough power to ECB, also were underestimated vitality national interests in member states. Therefore common interests in euro area were not enough protected. Last global financial and economic crisis showed clearly main weaknesses of euro and enforced to start to liquidate them. We conclude that resent reforms and enlargement of the EMU (Estonia probably will strengthen this union

  2. Ist der Euro gefährdet? Is the European currency euro put at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Rohde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to high national debt in several member states of the Euro-Currency-Area which led to huge relief programmes the single European currency Euro seems to be at risk. Bur neither inflation rates nor exchange rate movements of the Euro since 1999 up to 2011 give reasons to believe that an up to now success story of the Euro will come to a sudden end in shortness. On the other hand it often had been argued that increasing national debt will inevitably lead to higher inflation rates and will endanger a currency by permanent devaluation. But the institutional and legal framework of the European monetary policy, if used correctly, will give sufficient protection against inflation pressure due to increasing national debt. The most danger for the European currency or for the European-Currency-Area can be seen in drifting apart of national competiveness between the member states of the Euro- Area, especially due to an existing lack of coordination in wage policy. Different wage policies in the member states of the Euro-Area in the past had led to different national inflation rates and had caused calculated real exchange rate movements which had lasting influence on national competiveness, which hamper international trade in the case of real appreciation or which promote international trade in the case of real depreciation..

  3. The effect of rounding on payment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Franses, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Theory predicts that dismissing the 1 and 2 euro cent coins from the denominational range of the euro facilitates payment efficiency. To examine whether this theory holds true in practice, data were collected for the Netherlands before and after September 2004, which marks the day that retail stores

  4. The Impact of Financial and Economic Crisis on EU-27 Member States’ Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of the present article is to analyze the impact of 2008 financial and economic crisis on the evolution of balance of payment of EU-27 member states. Specifically, the analyzed period is between the years 2006-2011. The article is structured in the following parts: (1 the analysis of the evolution of the current account and capital account balance in the EU27 with non-EU states, (2 the identification of the main factors of disparities and asymmetries between the Euro area member states concerning current account balance and international investment position; (3 the role of TARGET2 system in financing of current account deficits of the peripheral countries of Euro area, and capital flight from these states to other Euro area countries perceived as less risky by investors.

  5. L’euro, una moneta completa (The Euro Becomes a Complete Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vaciago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The euro changeover has been a success as millions of Europeans have become accustomed to using the new coins and banknotes. What comes next? So far the benefits of the euro are a product of the "vices" which have been taken away from us. In the case of Italy, the gains have been very low inflation and interest rates. Much more has still to come. First, the euro-zone has to become an optimum currency area: all national markets are required to integrate into one larger and more efficient market. This will lead to faster growth in line with Adam Smith's theory. Second, we still need to transfer foreign policy and defense, along with the euro, to a European level thereby completing the Union.   

  6. L’euro, una moneta completa (The Euro Becomes a Complete Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vaciago

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The euro changeover has been a success as millions of Europeans have become accustomed to using the new coins and banknotes. What comes next? So far the benefits of the euro are a product of the "vices" which have been taken away from us. In the case of Italy, the gains have been very low inflation and interest rates. Much more has still to come. First, the euro-zone has to become an optimum currency area: all national markets are required to integrate into one larger and more efficient market. This will lead to faster growth in line with Adam Smith's theory. Second, we still need to transfer foreign policy and defense, along with the euro, to a European level thereby completing the Union.

  7. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  8. FROM LEU TO EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the euro, we come to the conclusionthat we are not ready to accomplish this objective. Practically, we are not competitive, but adopting the euroshould be our goal. In what concerns Romania ’s national interest, we propose targeting the following domains:automotive industry, ecologic agriculture, education and research. The solution is in the triad: work –organization – innovation.

  9. Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    -adopters (UK, Sweden, and Denmark) to exercise various forms of real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The study furthermore shows that small, profitable and financially constrained firms...... are particularly likely to exercise such real options triggered by the introduction of the Euro. The results go beyond the immediate trade effects, which empirical studies have shown to be weak and without trade diversion as to the three non-adopters, and provide important insights about the potential long...

  10. Left ventricular assist device as destination therapy: application of the payment-by-results approach for the device reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, Andrea; Trippoli, Sabrina; Bonacchi, Massimo; Sani, Guido

    2009-08-01

    Value-based methods are increasingly used to reimburse therapeutic innovation, and the payment-by-results approach has been proposed for handling interventions with limited therapeutic evidence. Because most left ventricular assist devices are supported by preliminary efficacy data, we examined the effectiveness data of the HeartMate (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) device to explore the application of the payment-by-results approach to these devices and to develop a model for handling reimbursements. According to our model, after establishing the societal economic countervalue for each month of life saved, each patient treated with one such device is associated to the payment of this countervalue for every month of survival lived beyond the final date of estimated life expectancy without left ventricular assist devices. Our base-case analysis, which used the published data of 68 patients who received the HeartMate device, was run with a monthly countervalue of euro 5000, no adjustment for quality of life, and a baseline life expectancy of 150 days without left ventricular assist devices. Sensitivity analysis was aimed at testing the effect of quality of life adjustments and changes in life expectancy without device. In our base-case analysis, the mean total reimbursement per patient was euro 82,426 (range, euro 0 to euro 250,000; N = 68) generated as the sum of monthly payments. This average value was close to the current price of the HeartMate device (euro 75,000). Sensitivity testing showed that the base-case reimbursement of euro 82,426 was little influenced by variations in life expectancy, whereas variations in utility had a more pronounced impact. Our report delineates an innovative procedure for appropriately allocating economic resources in this area of invasive cardiology.

  11. Constructing EuroMan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie; Andersen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    the regional periphery in dynamic state-centred economies. In the course of the 1980s, however, interest has shifted towards regions as motors of growth, thereby making the region an actor in its own right rather than a passive receiver of subsidies. The shift in focus can be regarded a result of so...... and approaches. Eurman is possessing the ability and will to pursue rational-strategic goals and he appears in the form of an economic agent as well as a participant in political processes. Regionalisation, identity-formation and the key characteristics of EuroMan unite in EU regional policies and New...

  12. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  13. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Helísek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  14. The EuroMyositis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleker, James B; Vencovsky, Jiri; Wang, Guochun

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The EuroMyositis Registry facilitates collaboration across the idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) research community. This inaugural report examines pooled Registry data. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of IIM cases from 11 countries was performed. Associations between clinical subtyp...

  15. Adopting the EURO in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie ŞIMON

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the adoption of the Euro currency in 2014, as estimated in the National Programme. Based on the convergence criteria analysis on the current national background, we can foresee an earlier monetary integration.

  16. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  17. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share

  18. Risk Factors in Euro Adoption by Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Maria BĂDÎRCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of adopting a unique currency have been studied and outlined by the optimum currency areas theory. This theory of Mundell has suffered modifications, a series of economists identifying and introducing a series of subsequent or additional criteria in the analysis. Starting from the costs indicated by the optimum currency areas theory and its further developments, I have identified a series of factors that I believe to represent future risks for the Romanian economy within the process of adopting the unique euro currency.

  19. Determinants of self-rated health in elderly populations in urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK: findings of the EURO-URHIS 2 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic Jerkovic, Olivera; Sauliune, Skirmante; Šumskas, Linas; Birt, Christopher A; Kersnik, Janko

    2017-05-01

    Ageing imposes extra financial burdens on social and health services in developed countries. Self-rated health (SRH) is considered to be both a reliable measurement of overall health status including morbidity and mortality and an important predictor of hospitalization, functional impairment and greater demand for health-care services in the elderly. Our aim was to identify factors associated with poor SRH in elderly populations and investigate possible differences between urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK. Data were obtained from population-based surveys from the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 project. The stratified representative sample (41% men and 59% women) consisted of a total of 2547 respondents aged ≥65 from the urban areas in the three countries. The prevalence of poor SRH was highest in Lithuanian urban areas. The strongest factors associated with poor SRH were low education [OR (odds ratio) 4.3, 95% CI (confidence interval) 2.5-7.3, P Slovenia) (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7, P = 0,023), female sex (Lithuania) (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-4.2, P = 0.058) and inadequate physical activity (UK) (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6, P = 0,003). Despite different levels of poor SRH, the factors associated with poor SRH were similar for the urban areas of the three countries. Factors associated with poor SRH in the urban areas could also reflect either cultural differences or specific situations for elderly in that country, which need further research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. An Empirical Analysis of Romania’s Comovement with the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of adopting the euro in the near future, it is important to asses to which extent the Romanian business cycle evolves in a similar fashion with that of the euro zone. The present study is an empirical investigation of the degree of business cycle synchronization between Romania and the euro area, based on macroeconomic series that capture the cyclical features of the two economies. The results indicate that the most recent period, characterized by major economic and financial turmoil, has lead to an increase of the degree of comovement between of the Romanian economy with that of the euro area.

  1. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Euro NCAP, a safety instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Since early 1997, in Europe, a cooperation of consumer organizations, European governments, the European Commission, and car organizations have been doing crash tests to judge the safety of cars. This programme is called Euro NCAP. The test programme consists of four tests of new cars to see how

  3. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John

    2013-01-01

    Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member...

  4. Sequential assimilation of satellite-derived vegetation and soil moisture products using SURFEX_v8.0: LDAS-Monde assessment over the Euro-Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergel, Clément; Munier, Simon; Leroux, Delphine Jennifer; Dewaele, Hélène; Fairbairn, David; Lavinia Barbu, Alina; Gelati, Emiliano; Dorigo, Wouter; Faroux, Stéphanie; Meurey, Catherine; Le Moigne, Patrick; Decharme, Bertrand; Mahfouf, Jean-Francois; Calvet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a global land data assimilation system (LDAS-Monde) is applied over Europe and the Mediterranean basin to increase monitoring accuracy for land surface variables. LDAS-Monde is able to ingest information from satellite-derived surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI) observations to constrain the interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA, Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM) coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques) version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (ISBA-CTRIP) continental hydrological system. It makes use of the CO2-responsive version of ISBA which models leaf-scale physiological processes and plant growth. Transfer of water and heat in the soil rely on a multilayer diffusion scheme. SSM and LAI observations are assimilated using a simplified extended Kalman filter (SEKF), which uses finite differences from perturbed simulations to generate flow dependence between the observations and the model control variables. The latter include LAI and seven layers of soil (from 1 to 100 cm depth). A sensitivity test of the Jacobians over 2000-2012 exhibits effects related to both depth and season. It also suggests that observations of both LAI and SSM have an impact on the different control variables. From the assimilation of SSM, the LDAS is more effective in modifying soil moisture (SM) from the top layers of soil, as model sensitivity to SSM decreases with depth and has almost no impact from 60 cm downwards. From the assimilation of LAI, a strong impact on LAI itself is found. The LAI assimilation impact is more pronounced in SM layers that contain the highest fraction of roots (from 10 to 60 cm). The assimilation is more efficient in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Results shows that the LDAS works well constraining the model to the observations and that stronger corrections are applied to LAI than to SM. A comprehensive evaluation of

  5. A bitcoin framework: an alternative payment system for rural areas of South Africa using low-end mobile phones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, NP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer, decentralized payment system; that can be used as electronic money and as a payment method. Research done on Bitcoin has escalated due to the properties it possesses which are similar to fiat currency. Some...

  6. Hbo's: 1000 euro extra per allochtone leerling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Volkskrant

    2006-01-01

    De vier grote hogescholen in de Randstad willen 1000 euro extra voor elke student van laag opgeleide ouders. Bestuursvoorzitter Pim Breebaart van de Haag-se Hogeschool verwacht dat dit de schatkist bijna 20 miljoen euro zal kosten.

  7. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  8. Euro crisis in perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bogliacino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the process of monetary integration in Europe, identifying the structural determinants and the dysfunctional elements in the institutions of the European Union. Secondly, we explain two prevailing discourses that fail in interpreting the events: on the one hand, a purely ideological position that see integration as a process of convergence that should not be interfered with; on the other hand, a purely idealist perspective, according to which the ideal of integration will prevail over any contradiction engendered by the institutional system. The combination of these two perspectives helped justify post crisis interventions (fiscal consolidation and the institutional design that followed, which eventually aggravated the macroeconomic instability in the area.

  9. Fiscal Governance in the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallet, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2012-01-01

    for Europe, to make the excess debt protocol operational. The contribution also addresses the issue of moral hazard, by proposing that governments be abandoned to financial markets at the upper debt limit, a commitment to be spelled out in advance. Finally, this framework is set within the idea of fiscal...

  10. Euro-Multiculturalism and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    The underlying concept of multiculturalism in many European discussions is different from that made prominent by the classic cases, e.g. in Canada, that have functioned as paradigm cases which the most prominent theories of multiculturalism have been tailored to fit and justify. “Euro-multicultur......The underlying concept of multiculturalism in many European discussions is different from that made prominent by the classic cases, e.g. in Canada, that have functioned as paradigm cases which the most prominent theories of multiculturalism have been tailored to fit and justify. “Euro......, and b) that it is under-inclusive in the sense that it collapses multiculturalism into standard liberal political theory and fails to explain what is distinctive about multiculturalism. Finally the paper shows that multiculturalism in this sense can involve issues of toleration....

  11. Cognitive processing of currency: Euros and Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we evaluated whether the processing of currency was determined by familiarity of people with banknotes. In Experiment 1, participants who used the Euro currency named sequences of Euro banknotes and Dollar banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants showed an interference effect in the blocked context with Dollar banknotes but not with Euro banknotes. In Experiment 2, the interference effect was observed with Euro banknotes when participants were not familiar with the Euro currency. These results suggest that the semantic processing of banknotes depends on the participants' familiarity with currency. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Federally Administered SSI Payments, Recipients by State and Other Area, Eligibility Category, and Age, Table 10, December 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A statistical table of the number of recipients entitled to receive payments under Title 16 of the Social Security Act (Supplemental Security Income) by eligibility...

  13. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  14. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A gambling or “game” phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM. The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP and the willingness to accept (WTA the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39–2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25–5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are

  15. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    A gambling or "game" phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39-2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25-5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age. The

  16. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A gambling or “game” phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39–2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25–5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age

  17. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  18. Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measures – state data. This data set includes state-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart failure,...

  19. ROMANIA: THE WAY TO EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Gabriela DULGHERIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the Romanian process to join the euro, under the terms of the current economic-financial crisis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of achieving real and nominal convergence criteria, along with offering perspectives regarding European monetary integration. The adoption of the unique currency represents an important challenge and opportunity for Romania during the post-adherence period, which forces the political and administrative environment to conceive and implement coherent and responsible politics meant to ensure a simultaneous fulfillment of nominal and real convergence criteria of the Romanian economy. The results of this analysis illustrate that, despite the fact that the Romanian economy recorded significant progresses on the fulfillment of the Maastricht criteria, the current economic context has introduced an additional uncertainty factor and significantly made the adoption of a single currency harder, and the enforcement of real convergence criteria has become much more difficult. Under these circumstances, the National Bank of Romania gave up the target that 2015 represented, and also the one of establishing a new target-date to enter the eurozone, the perspective of joining a single currency exceeding the horizon of this decade. In order to achieve a real, profound and sustainable reorganization of the Romanian economy and to successfully recover the discrepancies between Romania and the EU standards, the road to the euro must be paved with much caution and wisdom.

  20. The Euro crisis. Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S. Weber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.

  1. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  2. Monetary policy rules for convergence to the Euro

    OpenAIRE

    Orlowski, Lucjan T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to devise a monetary policy instrument rule that is suitable for open economies undergoing monetary convergence to a common currency area. The open-economy convergence-consistent Taylor rule is forward-looking, consistent with monetary framework based on inflation targeting, containing input variables that are relative to the corresponding variables in the common currency area. The policy rule is tested empirically for three inflation targeting countries converging to the euro...

  3. Diesel passenger car PM emissions: From Euro 1 to Euro 4 with particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Samaras, Zissis

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of the emission control and fuel technology development on the emissions of gaseous and, in particular, PM pollutants from diesel passenger cars. Three cars in five configurations in total were measured, and covered the range from Euro 1 to Euro 4 standards. The emission control ranged from no aftertreatment in the Euro 1 case, an oxidation catalyst in Euro 2, two oxidation catalysts and exhaust gas recirculation in Euro 3 and Euro 4, while a catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF) fitted in the Euro 4 car led to a Euro 4 + DPF configuration. Both certification test and real-world driving cycles were employed. The results showed that CO and HC emissions were much lower than the emission standard over the hot-start real-world cycles. However, vehicle technologies from Euro 2 to Euro 4 exceeded the NOx and PM emission levels over at least one real-world cycle. The NOx emission level reached up to 3.6 times the certification level in case of the Euro 4 car. PM were up to 40% and 60% higher than certification level for the Euro 2 and Euro 3 cars, while the Euro 4 car emitted close or slightly below the certification level over the real-world driving cycles. PM mass reductions from Euro 1 to Euro 4 were associated with a relevant decrease in the total particle number, in particular over the certification test. This was not followed by a respective reduction in the solid particle number which remained rather constant between the four technologies at 0.86 × 10 14 km -1 (coefficient of variation 9%). As a result, the ratio of solid vs. total particle number ranged from ˜50% in Euro 1-100% in Euro 4. A significant reduction of more than three orders of magnitude in solid particle number is achieved with the introduction of the DPF. However, the potential for nucleation mode formation at high speed from the DPF car is an issue that needs to be considered in the over all assessment of its environmental benefit. Finally, comparison of the

  4.  Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger: An Empirical Study of EU15 Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    ) to exercise real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The results are robust after controlling for the size of the firms and their sales in the Euro-area. The results go beyond what...

  5. LE BINOME EURO-DOLLAR SOUS LE SIGNE DE L’INCERTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Dollar remain the dominant international currency (mainly as a reserve currency? To answer this question, the paper presents in the first part the opinions of the most prominent experts concerning the determinant factors of an international currency status, in the two sphere of utilization: public and private. The most important are: the magnitude of the economies of emission, the externalities of network, the liquidity of their financial market, the confidence in their stability. Then there follows the evaluations concerning the two international currencies, Dollar and Euro, from these perspectives. Finally, the paper evaluates their role as measure of value, instrument of reserve and instrument of payment in the international economic relations. In the second part, the paper evaluates the recent tendencies of the exchange rate Euro/Dollar (2006-2008 from the point of view of fundamentals. After a period of depreciation, from the middle of the year 2008 until now, the dollar marked an unexpected appreciation towards the euro. But, the global financial and economic crisis increases the incertitude concerning the evolution of the exchange rate euro/dollar. Undoubtedly the two currencies will remain the prominent international currencies and the dollar the main reserve currency. Finally the paper presents Mundell’s proposal of stabilization of the binomial euro/dollar.

  6. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  7. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  8. Ordoliberalizm a polityka makroekonomiczna w obliczu kryzysu strefy euro

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Moszynski

    2015-01-01

    The global economic crisis and the crisis in the euro zone exposed the deep differences of opinion between German economists and scientists from other European countries and the US. The German approach conceptually differs in the views on the strategies and tools of anti-crisis policy, especially fiscal stimulus in the Keynesian-style, quantitative easing monetary policy of the ECB, the question of financial assistance to Greece and restructuring its debt. The other areas of difference are th...

  9. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  10. Euro peal ja dollar all / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Viimastel päevadel on euro kurss USA dollari suhtes kerkinud oma olemasolu kaheksa aasta kõrgeimale tasemele. Diagramm. Vt. samas: USA mõju kahaneb; Nõrkuse põhjus intressipoliitikas; Dollari ohud seotud eelarve ja naftaga

  11. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  12. Payment Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantnerová Liběna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.

  13. Variation in Payment Rates under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky, Sam; Ryan, Andrew M; Mijanovich, Tod; Blustein, Jan

    2017-04-01

    To measure variation in payment rates under Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) and identify the main payment adjustments that drive variation. Medicare cost reports for all Medicare-certified hospitals, 1987-2013, and Dartmouth Atlas geographic files. We measure the Medicare payment rate as a hospital's total acute inpatient Medicare Part A payment, divided by the standard IPPS payment for its geographic area. We assess variation using several measures, both within local markets and nationally. We perform a factor decomposition to identify the share of variation attributable to specific adjustments. We also describe the characteristics of hospitals receiving different payment rates and evaluate changes in the magnitude of the main adjustments over time. Data downloaded from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the National Bureau of Economic Research, and the Dartmouth Atlas. In 2013, Medicare paid for acute inpatient discharges at a rate 31 percent above the IPPS base. For the top 10 percent of discharges, the mean rate was double the IPPS base. Variations were driven by adjustments for medical education and care to low-income populations. The magnitude of variation has increased over time. Adjustments are a large and growing share of Medicare hospital payments, and they create significant variation in payment rates. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  15. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  16. Euro crisis or public debt crisis? With a remedy for the latter case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European crisis did not originate with the Euro but with the excessive public debt of peripheral Eurozone countries. The ‘great moderation’ that had kept the euro sheltered from the storms proved a boon, because it granted the currency the status of a sound asset, but it was also a bane because it had led euro holders to believe that the euro area had implicitly reached such a degree of cohesion as to make a Greek or Italian government security almost as sound as a German one. If awareness of reality had dawned sooner, interest rates on the peripheral countries’ public debt would have been considerably higher and government leaders might have woken up sooner from the dream of governing a country that could outlast any storm thanks to its ample private wealth, despite its massive public debt.

  17. TRIPOLARISATION OF THE CURRENCIES IN THE WORLD ECONOMY: US DOLLAR – EURO – YEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TOMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the world economy is dominated by three poles – the USA, the European Union and Japan – among which there should be real co-operation to ensure the international stability on all levels. The introduction of the euro was perceived by the experts as the beginning of the competition among the currencies on the international financial markets. The European Monetary Union was conceived to cause an internal, not an external change, with an economic and financial purpose and as a further step of the European integration. Moreover, the international monetary system does not allow the European single currency to make gains that might cause losses to the US dollar. Both currencies have room in the world economy, but the euro has been beneficial to both the euro area and the rest of the world. At present, the euro is stronger than the sum of the twelve former national currencies. The consolidation of the national economies of the euro area becomes stronger due to the impact on liquidities, to the various investment opportunities for the entities that manage the financial portfolios and the central banks that manage the foreign currency reserves. The competition among the currencies means more opportunities in the world economy: the euro is an international currency used along with the US dollar and the yen, not against them.

  18. Provisional acceptance of installations and online data submission of PV and Hybrid kits in remote areas of Latin-America under the EC's EURO-SOLAR Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cendagorta, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Lopez-Manzanares, L.; Linares, A. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A. (ITER), Granadilla de Abona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The EURO-SOLAR Programme is providing 600 isolated and rural communities in the 8 lesser developed countries in Latin America, with an electricity production facility based on both PV or Hybrid (PV and Wind) RE technologies. These installations are meant to provide this energy for community uses, rather than home and private usage, with these uses (computing, telecommunications, lighting, water purification, etc.) aimed to increase the degree of development within the communities. Two different companies were awarded the installation of these systems, after an international tender procedure, where ITER played a technical advisor role for the EC's DG EuropeAid. In the present phase of the project, where the systems are being installed, ITER has designed a provisional acceptance procedure (PA), in which both remote and in-situ verifications are carried out. This procedure has been developed in conjunction with a web application in order to ensure both transparency and traceability either of all actions and all actors involved in the process (Companies, ITER, Technical Assistance, EC, Communities). This application is also meant to act as a central repository where all the technical and administrative information of each one of the 600 systems could be found. This paper describes in detail this procedure, how it has been designed and what are the outcomes of all the processes aimed to guarantee the technical quality and the sustainability of the systems. (orig.)

  19. IS READY ROMANIA FOR EURO ADOPTION? FROM STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE TO BUSINESS CYCLE SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius - Corneliu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify gaps between economic and commercial structures between Romania and the euro area and to explain whether the results obtained justify recently decision to delay euro adoption beyond 2015. According to theory of optimum currency areas, the existence of similar economic structures, increasing trade integration and synchronization of business cycles with monetary union will provide greater symmetry of shocks between Romania and the euro area. If the shocks are more symmetrical, then common monetary policy of the European Central Bank will act as a tool to neutralize the shocks in the case of Romania, and the euro adoption would have fewer adverse effects. To meet the research objective, we have structured this paper into three parts. In the first part we referred to the importance of the proposed theme in the economic literature. In the second part, we used several statistical methods to identify how divergent is Romania relative to the euro area economies. The results obtained show increasing divergence between economic structures until 2009 year using the NACE 6 methodology. In fact, Romania has the most divergent structure in EU-27 countries, being characterized by lowest contribution of services to GDP. However, structural differences do not constitute an obstacle to euro adoption, as long as Romania becomes more commercially integrated with other European countries. Thus, Romania is the seventh economy in terms of trade with the EU-27 (73.3% of exports and 74.3% of imports, and the degree of convergence between the structure of exports and imports have increased significantly compared with 2000 year. In the third part, we estimated the degree of synchronization of business cycles between Romania and the euro area, based on Hodrick-Prescott filter. Results showed an increasing correlation of business cycles as a result of increasing industrial activity and export synchronization.

  20. Are pound and euro the same currency?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Raul; Gleria, Iram; Figueiredo, Annibal; Silva, Sergio da

    2007-01-01

    Based on long-range dependence, some analysts claim that the exchange rate time series of the pound sterling and of an artificially extended euro have been locked together for years despite daily changes [M. Ausloos, K. Ivanova, Physica A 286 (2000) 353; K. Ivanova, M. Ausloos, False EUR exchange rates vs DKK, CHF, JPY and USD. What is a strong currency? in: H. Takayasu (Ed.), Empirical Sciences in Financial Fluctuations: The Advent of Econophysics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002, pp. 62-76]. They conclude that pound and euro are in practice the same currency. We assess the long-range dependence over time through Hurst exponents of pound-dollar and extended euro-dollar exchange rates employing three alternative techniques, namely rescaled range analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and detrended moving average. We find the result above (which is based on detrended fluctuation analysis) not to be robust to the changing techniques and parameterizing

  1. Scheduling EURO-k Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Pisinger, David; Vigo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    , areas are assigned to buildings, making sure that related research areas are located close to each other. Next, the goal is to allocate each stream to only one room, and to ensure that the stream consists of a sequence of consecutive time slots. Finally, we optimize the assignment of room sizes. We...

  2. Siracusa, EuroMediterranean Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Minozzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available About three years ago, the City of Siracusa has started a serious reflection about the crisis, about its model of development and its problems related to its territorial marginality. In this context, it lodged a service "Complex Programs and EU Policies" internal the Department of Public Works as the first embryo of the future Urban Center in Siracusa. The Smarter Cities Challenge program, sponsored by IBM, provides, for the years 2011-2012-2013 a selection through a call, a hundred cities around the world that offer a program of counseling on territorial issues, urban, social, exposed by the city in challenge. The program for 2012, selected Siracusa, the only Italian city in a hundred choices, with a theme that emphasizes the need to find methods (smart to integrate the two systems, the industrial and the historical, cultural, into the overall Siracusa system territorial. The advent of smart policies also confirms the trend that characterized the most evolved from the most marginal realities in Europe. For the realities of the Euro-Mediterranean area, such as Siracusa, the winners model’s urban policies originate from the most evolved and developed, where the economy is more structured and able to assume the active role of actors development and urban transformations. So, a universal language of transformations really exist? The same model development produces the same results everywhere, regardless the places and the people tribe? To promote smart Siracusa means, not only, economic innovation promotion, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, but also: Siracusa intends to strengthen its image as innovation land and to evolve into a center of excellence for smart policies.

  3. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  4. EURO ZONE AND ITS MONETARY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dumitru CHIRIŢESCU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article I have tried to make a short presentation of the Euro Zone and it’s monetary policy. At the present moment the Euro Zone has 16 countries that have adopted the Euro as a national currency and also 4 small countries that have monetary agreements with their neighbours. The monetary policy represents all the regulations of the money supply and interest rates adopted by the European Central Bank in order to control the inflation rate and to stabilize a specific currency, in this case, the Euro. Stabilizing the inflation rate to certain levels is the main goal of the monetary policy. The monetary policy is the second policy, next to the fiscal one which in which a government, in this case the European Union’s official bodies, can impact the economic situation of the Eurozone. The fiscal policy represents the way a government spends, borrows or applies different types of taxes. The Monetary policy can be either expansionary, when unemployement and recessions needs to be combated, or contractionary, when inflation is conbated byt raising the interest rates.

  5. THE FORESIGHTS OF THE ADOPTION OF EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Loredana Juncu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if the Euro critics showed the warning that the change of the national currency brings a loose of the control and the decision power about the monetary problems and the flexibility of the decisions, many consider that the adoption of the single currency would allow us to protect the economies from the external shocks. We have to eliminate the uncertainty, the high costs and we have to be able to avoid and / or manage the monetary fluctuations especially in situations like today’s economic crisis. One of the effects the crisis has created throughout the European Union and especially in Romania is connected with the return back in the country of the population that works in Western Europe and the reflux of money it implies. The structural problems of the Romanian economy that creates this workforce dynamic is to continue to affect the Euro adoption plan until significant solutions will be addressed in order to maintain the workforce in the country.Europe is facing a dilemma. For now there is a significant distrust in Euro. Romania needs to acknowledge the fact that a single European currency allows first of all the overpass of the actual internal fragmentation of the market and so to strengthen the national position in relation with the international. Romania can still be optimistic about the objective of adopting Euro if an efficient financial policy will be implemented.

  6. NOVOS ENFOQUES SOBRE O FORMATIVO EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre V. Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, discute-se o estatuto morfológico do formativo euro-, em construções como ‘euro-mercado’, ‘euro-cêntrico’ e ‘euro-trocínio’, observando como se comporta esse elemento morfológico em relação aos critérios propostos por Kastvosky (2009 e por Gonçalves & Andrade (2012 para diferenciar afixos de radicais. Com a realização deste trabalho, verifica-se em que medida o formativo comporta-se como radical e em que aspectos equivale a um afixo. Para tanto, procedeu-se à coleta de dados em dicionários (HOUAISS, 2009; COROMINAS & PASCUAL, 1980; CUNHA, 1982; MACHADO, 1967 e na rede mundial de computadores (uso da ferramenta eletrônica de busca Google. Recorreu-se, ainda, ao artigo de Correia (1989, que apresenta um apêndice com os dados utilizados para análise do formativo no português europeu. Palavras-chave: Morfologia. Composição. Derivação. Abstract In this paper, we discuss the status of the formative euro- in constructions as ‘euro-mercado’ (European market, ‘eurocêntrico’ (someone who finds the center of the world is the Europe and ‘eurotrocínio’ (sponsorship of Europe, noting how this element behaves in relation to morphological criteria proposed by Kastvosky (2009 and Goncalves & Andrade (2012 to differentiate affixes by radicals. With this work, we verify to what extent euro-behaves as a radical and in what respects is equivalent to an affix. Therefore, we collect data in dictionaries (HOUAISS, 2009; COROMINAS & PASCUAL, 1980; CUNHA, 1982; MACHADO, 1967 and in the World Wide Web (with the help of Google. We also used the paper by Correia (1989, which presents an appendix with the data used for the analysis of this formative in European Portuguese. Keywords: Morphology. Compounding. Derivation.

  7. The risks of Euro adoption in Romania – an analysis based on ten criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I have proposed and examined ten criteria to analyze the challenges of joining at Monetary Union, explaining the need to include them in government and multinational companies’ strategies. The criteria adopted in the case of Romania concern the potential impact of Euro adoption on economic activities, the common monetary policy effects on the Romanian economy, synchronization with the Euro area, labour market flexibility, as a tool of shocks adjustment etc. After stating each criterion, I have made a brief analysis of how that could affect the balance of costs and benefits of giving up own currency, using conclusions of the optimum currency areas theory.

  8. Euro roll rahvusvahelise valuutana / Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padoa-Schioppa, Tommaso

    2003-01-01

    Autor käsitleb euro erakasutust rahvusvahelises ulatuses, analüüsib euro ametlikku rolli reservvaluutana välisvaluutareservide mitmekesistamise üleüldise arengu tingimustes ning vaatleb euro kasutamist euroalale geograafiliselt lähedastes piirkondades. Lühendatud tõlge autori kõnest 2002. aasta 22. novembril Frankfurdis toimunud Euroopa panganduskongressil

  9. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cristi Spulbar; Mihai Nitoi

    2012-01-01

    Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent peri...

  10. THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC NEWS ON THE EURO/RON EXCHANGE RATE: A GARCH APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Niţoi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we try to capture the impact of political news and economic news from euro area on the exchange rate between Romanian currency and euro. In order to do this we used a GARCH model. As we observed, both variables influence the exchange rate, this fact implying national currency depreciation and a volatility growth. The political news and the economic news positively affect the euro/ron exchange rate volatility. The two factors conjugation, as it has happened in the recent period is to be avoided because it can have financial and economic consequences with a very high cost for Romania.

  11. PUBLIC SERVICES AND THE EURO-REGIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Alina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides the goods and private services, covering the specific needs of individual or groups based on specific mechanisms of demand and supply, human needs can be addressed also through public services. They are designed to meet the general interests of members of a community or society at large and established by public authorities, subject to certain fundamental principles of organization and operation, such as: the principle of efficiency, the principle of equity, the principle of continuity, the principle of movability and the principle of decentralization. In the same time, public services involve in many areas of economic and social life is not just a national issue, but also have characteristics and provision ways at international, regional and euro-regional level. This paper underlines the main areas of euro-regional co-operation interest in the public services sectors, such as: the sectors of environment, agriculture and territorial planning, the sectors of transportation, security and telecommunication, the sector of the economy and labour force, the sector of cross-border populations: social protection and public health, the sectors of education, research and culture.

  12. EuroSCORE II and STS as mortality predictors in patients undergoing TAVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Emer Egypto Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: the EuroSCORE II and STS are the most used scores for surgical risk stratification and indication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI. However, its role as a tool for mortality prediction in patients undergoing TAVI is still unclear. Objective: to evaluate the performance of the EuroSCORE II and STS as predictors of in-hospital and 30-day mortality in patients undergoing TAVI. Methods: we included 59 symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis that underwent TAVI between 2010 and 2014. The variables were analyzed using Student's t-test and Fisher's exact test and the discriminative power was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC and area under the curve (AUC with a 95% confidence interval. Results: mean age was 81±7.3 years, 42.3% men. The mean EuroSCORE II was 7.6±7.3 % and STS was 20.7±10.3%. Transfemoral procedure was performed in 88.13%, transapical in 3.38% and transaortic in 8.47%. In-hospital mortality was 10.1% and 30-day mortality was 13.5%. Patients who died had EuroSCORE II and STS higher than the survivors (33.7±16.7vs. 18.6±7.3% p=0,0001 for STS and 13.9±16.1 vs. 4.8±3.8% p=0.0007 for EuroSCORE II. The STS showed an AUC of 0.81 and the EuroSCORE II of 0.77 and there were no differences in the discrimination ability using ROC curves (p=0.72. Conclusion: in this cohort, the STS and EuroSCORE II were predictors of in-hospital and 30-days mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI.

  13. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  14. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  15. Analysis of the ecological conservation behavior of farmers in payment for ecosystem service programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas using social psychology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Sun, Pingsheng; Zhao, Fazhu; Han, Xinhui; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong

    2016-04-15

    Studies on the ecological conservation behavior of farmers usually focus on individual and socio-economic characteristics without consideration of the underlying psychological constructs, such as farmers' intention and perceptions. This study uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a typical social psychology construct, to analyze the factors affecting the intention and behavior of farmers for conserving the ecological achievements from payment for ecosystem service (PES) programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas. Questionnaires based on TPB were administered to 1004 farmers from the Grain to Green Program area in the Loess Plateau, China, with the resulting dataset used to identify the underlying factors determining farmers' intention and behavior based on the structural equation model. The results show that the farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements were explained well by TPB. The farmers'behavior was significantly positively affected by their intention toward conserving ecological achievements, and their intention was significantly influenced by their attitude (positive or negative value of performance), the subjective norm (social pressure in engaging behavior), and perceived behavioral control (perceptions of their ability). The farmers' degree of support for PES programs and their recognition of environmental effects were the factors that most influenced the farmers' attitude. Pressure from neighbors was the most potent driver of the subjective norm. Meanwhile, perceptions of their ability to perform the behavior were the most potent factors affecting intention and it was mostly driven by the farmers' feelings toward environmental improvement and perceived ability (time and labor) to participate in ecological conservation. The drivers of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control can be used by policy makers to direct farmers' intention and behavior toward conserving ecological achievements in fragile

  16. The euro and the European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey M. Wrase

    1999-01-01

    The formation of a monetary union by 11 European countries has received a lot of notice from the press since January 1, 1999, when the union's common currency, the euro, was officially introduced. To facilitate adoption of a single currency, these same countries have established a central bank that sets a common monetary policy for the members of the monetary union. In this article, Jeff Wrase gives some background on the European monetary union, outlines the procedure for introduction of the...

  17. EURO - Before Yesterday, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow...

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Pangsy-Kania

    2002-01-01

    The article was divided into four integrally connected parts concerning the EURO: before yesterday, yesterday, today and tomorrow. On the 1st January 2002 the common European currency became a fact. In eleven European countries there appeared jointly over 13 billion banknotes and 76 billion coins. The introduction of a common currency in the countries of the European Union is the greatest financial operation in world history with such a huge scale and degree of complication. Before yesterdayŠ...

  18. 7 CFR 634.27 - Cost-share payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... essential for meeting the water quality objectives in the project area. (c) Basis for cost-share payment. (1... administering agency for each project using cost data from the local area. These costs should be reviewed by the... responsibility to apply for payments. (f) Authorizations for payments to suppliers. (1) The contract may...

  19. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  20. ROMANIA’S FISCAL STRUCTURE IN VIEW OF EURO ADOPTION. A MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Isadora Lazar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to conclude whether the adoption of the single currency induced a trend of structural resemblance, and if so, to determine groups of countries with similar fiscal structures inside the Euro Area. Taking into consideration total revenues, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions, we analyzed primary data and completed it with multidimensional classification. Having in view Romania’s objective of adopting Euro currency we aim to establish to which subgroup is Romania more similar in terms of fiscal structure and whether this resemblance enhanced since the accession to the European Union.

  1. Adopting the euro: Romanian perspectives in the context of the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oros, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine Romania’s capacity to fulfil the nominal convergence criteria in the current context, in order to follow the calendar proposed for euro adoption in 2015. The paper analyzed the evolution of all five criteria under the impact of the current financial crisis and also looked at the forecast provided by national and international authorities. The study was conducted considering the relative situation with the euro area. The main finding is that the actual target for euro adoption could be complied with, provided further progress is made. We have also fond that the target should be achieved as it would represent a strong stimulus for the local government to implement additional measures to reduce public indebtedness and inflationary pressure.

  2. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral

  3. ADVANCE PAYMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative Circular Nº 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  4. Advance payments

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N 8 makes provision for the granting of advance payments, repayable in several monthly instalments, by the Organization to the members of its personnel. Members of the personnel are reminded that these advances are only authorized in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Director-General. In view of the current financial situation of the Organization, and in particular the loans it will have to incur, the Directorate has decided to restrict the granting of such advances to exceptional or unforeseen circumstances entailing heavy expenditure and more specifically those pertaining to social issues. Human Resources Division Tel. 73962

  5. Real-world NOx emissions of Euro V and Euro VI heavy duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, R.; Dekker, H.; Vonk, W.

    2012-04-15

    TNO regularly performs measurements to determine the in-service performance and durability with respect to the pollutant emissions of heavy-duty vehicles under representative driving conditions. The 2011 measurement programme yields new insights regarding the emission performance of the upcoming Euro VI technology for heavy-duty vehicles, mandatory as of 31 December 2013 and, together with the results from earlier performed programmes, leads to conclusions on the emission performance of past and present generations of heavy-duty vehicles (Euro V, EEV)

  6. Nierównowagi fiskalne i makroekonomiczne w strefie euro a nowe rozwiązania instytucjonalne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Tchorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the article is to assess the impact of new regulations introduced in the EU and the euro area in the face of the economic and financial crisis. Methodology: Literature review related to the functioning of the euro area, roots of the global crisis and financial market integration. The critical literature review was focused on two issues: identification of the causes of fiscal and macroeconomic imbalances in the euro area and assessment of the implemented instruments designed to prevent them.Findings: The basic feature of the six-pack measures and the European Semester, which complements them, is deeper coordination of macroeconomic, structural and competitiveness policies among Member States. Adopted measures are a big step towards strengthening the economic pillar of the monetary union. However, the progress and quality of their implementation will be critical in improving economic governance in the EU.Research implications: identification of strengths and weaknesses of the adopted reforms allows for using these results in the assessment of the balance of costs and benefits of the future functioning of the euro area as well as the implications for macroeconomic policies in the countries intending to join the euro area.Originality: The author tries to provide an overview of the roots of the crisis in the euro area with the assessment of the reforms aiming to prevent similar crises in the future. The arguments presented in the article are against the view that the main reason for the crisis was a weak fiscal policy of the euro area countries.

  7. EURO2008 - practical information from the police

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Geneva cantonal police have set up a toll-free telephone line to deal with questions and requests from the public as rapidly and simply as possible. The number is 0800 800 844, and the line will be open from 8 a.m. to 2 a.m. every day from 2 June to 30 June 2008. 0800 800 844 Detailed security recommendations for the individual matches will be posted at http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite_en.asp

  8. EURO2008 - Informations utiles de la police

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    (English version next week) Durant le mois de juin, afin de garantir une proximité maximale, la Police cantonale genevoise répond à toutes les questions et sollicitations avec un numéro de téléphone vert gratuit du 2 au 30 juin 2008, de 08h00 à 02h00 au 0800 800 844 Vous trouverez toutes les informations utiles concernant la sécurité, match par match, sur le site http://www.ge.ch/euro2008/securite/securite.asp

  9. Modular system design for plastic euro pallets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tepić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although pallet, as a tool, yields significant and widely recognized economic effects in production and distribution systems, it is still not fully utilized, indicating that it needs to be defined and developed as a specific product. Euro pallet product was designed using PRO/ENGINEER software system CAD module, as one of the most popular Cax systems, yielding a pallet of novel modular design that meets all the operational requirements of the existing range. The chosen material ensures high pallet longevity and durability, in line with the concept of sustainable development.

  10. Informal payments for healthcare services and short-term effects of the introduction of visit fee on these payments in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Petra; Pavlova, Milena; Gulácsi, László; Zsófia, Homolyáné Csete; Groot, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the short-term effects of the introduction of the visit fee in Hungary in 2007 on informal patient payments. We present the pattern of informal payments in primary, out-patient specialist and in in-patient care in the period before and shortly after the visit fee was introduced. We also analyse whether in the short run, the introduction of visit fee decreased the probability of paying informally. For the analysis, we use a dataset for a representative sample of 2500 respondents collected in 2007 shortly after the introduction of the visit fee, which contains data on informal payments for healthcare services. According to our results, 9% of the patients paid informally during their last visit to GP (2 Euros on average), 14% paid informally for specialist care (35 Euros on average) and 50% paid informally for hospitalisation (58 Euros on average). We find a significant reduction in the probability of paying informally only for elderly patients in case of in-patient care. Our results suggest that informal payments are widely spread in Hungary, especially in in-patient care. The short run potential of the introduction of the visit fee to reduce informal payments seems to be minor. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Fee-for-service will remain a feature of major payment reforms, requiring more changes in Medicare physician payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2012-09-01

    Many health policy analysts envision provider payment reforms currently under development as replacements for the traditional fee-for-service payment system. Reforms include per episode bundled payment and elements of capitation, such as global payments or accountable care organizations. But even if these approaches succeed and are widely adopted, the core method of payment to many physicians for the services they provide is likely to remain fee-for-service. It is therefore critical to address the current shortcomings in the Medicare physician fee schedule, because it will affect physician incentives and will continue to play an important role in determining the payment amounts under payment reform. This article reviews how the current payment system developed and is applied, and it highlights areas that require careful review and modification to ensure the success of broader payment reform.

  12. Safety assessment by Euro NCAP - objective test procedures instead of subjective inspection; Die Sicherheitsbewertung durch Euro NCAP - objektive Testverfahren statt subjektiver Fahrzeuginspektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeck, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Klanner, W. [ADAC Technik Zentrum Landsberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Development of objective testing procedures which may be able to replace subjective inspection of a vehicle following a crash test ist being pursued by Euro NCAP to an increasing degree. Three examples were given to show the capabilities as well as the difficulties connected with description of objective criteria and test procedures. Airbag bottoming-out was described pragmatically and clearly with the aid of criteria based on acceleration measurements in the head of the dummy. These criteria could therefore already be taken into consideration in development and layout of airbags. Practical testing at Euro NCAP has shown that head side airbags can provide considerably different protective effects in terms of accident reality during pole side impact and that these effects cannot always be recorded and differentiated using the evaluation criteria defined to date. For this reason extended and new evaluation criteria have been defined which allow differentiation of such systems. However, it was also found that marginal situations can occur which are difficult to evaluate. However, since such marginal situations can be described, it should be possible for automobile manufacturers in the future to design a system which is no longer devaluated by a modifier in cases of doubt. Evaluation of the knee impact area on the dashboard has probably caused the greatest criticism from the automotive industry to date regarding subjective inspection within the scope of Euro NCAP evaluation. A new committee from Euro NCAP is presently making efforts to define an objective test procedure with which modifiers resulting from the inspection can be refuted subsequently where applicable. However, since the knee mapping situation is very complex, it will probably not be possible to find an absolutely correct test procedure. On the contrary, a pragmatic procedure will probably be found which can then supply objective and comparable readings. This would then provide a testing method which would

  13. Markup heterogeneity, export status ans the establishment of the euro

    OpenAIRE

    Guillou , Sarah; Nesta , Lionel

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the establishment of the euro on the markups of French manufacturing firms. Merging firm-level census data with customs data, we estimate time-varying firm-specific markups and distinguish between eurozone exporters from other firms between 1995 and 2007. We find that the establishment of the euro has had a pronounced pro-competitive impact by reducing firm markups by 14 percentage points. By reducing export costs, the euro represented an opp...

  14. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  15. 20 CFR 617.28 - Transportation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation payments. 617.28 Section 617... ASSISTANCE FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Reemployment Services § 617.28 Transportation payments. (a... transportation expenses if the training is outside the commuting area, but may not receive such assistance if...

  16. Dilution effects on ultrafine particle emissions from Euro 5 and Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Martinet, Simon; D'Anna, Barbara; Valiente, Alvaro Martinez; Boreave, Antoinette; R'Mili, Badr; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; André, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Dilution and temperature used during sampling of vehicle exhaust can modify particle number concentration and size distribution. Two experiments were performed on a chassis dynamometer to assess exhaust dilution and temperature on particle number and particle size distribution for Euro 5 and Euro 6 vehicles. In the first experiment, the effects of dilution (ratio from 8 to 4 000) and temperature (ranging from 50 °C to 150 °C) on particle quantification were investigated directly from tailpipe for a diesel and a gasoline Euro 5 vehicles. In the second experiment, particle emissions from Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles directly sampled from the tailpipe were compared to the constant volume sampling (CVS) measurements under similar sampling conditions. Low primary dilutions (3-5) induced an increase in particle number concentration by a factor of 2 compared to high primary dilutions (12-20). Low dilution temperatures (50 °C) induced 1.4-3 times higher particle number concentration than high dilution temperatures (150 °C). For the Euro 6 gasoline vehicle with direct injection, constant volume sampling (CVS) particle number concentrations were higher than after the tailpipe by a factor of 6, 80 and 22 for Artemis urban, road and motorway, respectively. For the same vehicle, particle size distribution measured after the tailpipe was centred on 10 nm, and particles were smaller than the ones measured after CVS that was centred between 50 nm and 70 nm. The high particle concentration (≈106 #/cm3) and the growth of diameter, measured in the CVS, highlighted aerosol transformations, such as nucleation, condensation and coagulation occurring in the sampling system and this might have biased the particle measurements.

  17. Payment Instrument Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jacques; Kjeldsen, Martin; Hedman, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed payment innovations that fundamentally have changed the ways we pay. Payment innovations, such as mobile payments and on-line banking, include characteristics or features that are essential to understand if we want to know how and why payers choose among...... payment innovations. Using the Repertory Grid technique to explore 15 payers’ perception of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and on-line banking, we identify 16 payment characteristics. The characteristics aggregate seventy-six unique...

  18. Sequential assimilation of satellite-derived vegetation and soil moisture products using SURFEX_v8.0: LDAS-Monde assessment over the Euro-Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a global land data assimilation system (LDAS-Monde is applied over Europe and the Mediterranean basin to increase monitoring accuracy for land surface variables. LDAS-Monde is able to ingest information from satellite-derived surface soil moisture (SSM and leaf area index (LAI observations to constrain the interactions between soil–biosphere–atmosphere (ISBA, Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere land surface model (LSM coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (ISBA-CTRIP continental hydrological system. It makes use of the CO2-responsive version of ISBA which models leaf-scale physiological processes and plant growth. Transfer of water and heat in the soil rely on a multilayer diffusion scheme. SSM and LAI observations are assimilated using a simplified extended Kalman filter (SEKF, which uses finite differences from perturbed simulations to generate flow dependence between the observations and the model control variables. The latter include LAI and seven layers of soil (from 1 to 100 cm depth. A sensitivity test of the Jacobians over 2000–2012 exhibits effects related to both depth and season. It also suggests that observations of both LAI and SSM have an impact on the different control variables. From the assimilation of SSM, the LDAS is more effective in modifying soil moisture (SM from the top layers of soil, as model sensitivity to SSM decreases with depth and has almost no impact from 60 cm downwards. From the assimilation of LAI, a strong impact on LAI itself is found. The LAI assimilation impact is more pronounced in SM layers that contain the highest fraction of roots (from 10 to 60 cm. The assimilation is more efficient in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Results shows that the LDAS works well constraining the model to the observations and that stronger corrections are applied to LAI than to SM. A

  19. MONEY: FROM STATISTICAL DEFINITION TO MONETARY POLICY FOR ADOPTING EURO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapodeanu Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The evolution of monetary aggregates is closely related to the economic cycle, especially the evolution of GDP. The study aims to analyse the primary monetary aggregates (M1, the secondary (M2 and the tertiary (M3 in three Central and Eastern European countries: Romania, Bulgaria and Poland. The countries were chosen as follows: Romania and Bulgaria on the basis of the economic and geographical closeness and Poland as a benchmark for the first group. The data used are money supply, monetary aggregates: primary, secondary and tertiary, in Romania, Poland and Bulgaria, for the period January 2004 - March 2011, the monthly series are obtained from central bank websites, Poland's Central Bank and Bulgarian National Statistical Institute. The evolution of monetary aggregates of the three countries was compared with the Euro area and it was noticed a high degree of similarity between countries more developed economically as compared to less developed countries. From the viewpoint of optimum currency areas, it is necessary that the countries that adopt the Euro would respond symmetrically to external shocks and also have similar economic behaviour. Our study aims, in this respect, to analyse the components and the characteristics of the monetary aggregates, as well as the trends existing within them. The analysis of the correlation between monetary aggregates will show how the way in which the monetary mass and aggregates behave and which the sense of connection established between these countries is. We find that Romania and Bulgaria have a similar comportment, the correlation between these being the highest, we observe some differences between Romania and Bulgaria versus Poland.

  20. Which News Moves the Euro Area Bond Market?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Overby, Lars Jul; Sebestyén, Szabolcs

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a long dataset (1999-2005) of intraday prices on German long-term bond futures and examines market responses to major macroeconomic announcements and ECB monetary policy releases. German bond markets tend to react more strongly to the surprise component in US macro releases...

  1. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions in the Euro Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlberg, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The focus is on the union central bank, the German government, and the French government. The policy targets are price stability in the union, fall employment in Germany, and fall employment in France...

  2. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions in the Euro Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Balassa - Samuelson -Effekt, Nr. 3/2002, erschienen in: Stefan Reitz (Hg.): Theoretische und wirtschaftspolitische Aspekte der internatio- nalen Integration...156, 2000, S. 646-660. Friihere Diskussionsbeitriige zur Finanzwissenschaft Josten, Stefan, Crime, Inequality, and Economic Growth. A Classical Argument

  3. Inflation persistence : euro area and new EU member states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, K.

    -, č. 810 (2007), s. 1-39 ISSN 1725-2806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new EU member states * time varying mean Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp810.pdf

  4. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome...... the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen....

  5. Multinational cash management and conglomerate discounts in the euro zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash

  6. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  7. The Euro: Future Prospects and Consideration for Non-Euro Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Ghannadian; Irina Penovska

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Many more Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) have decided to adopt the euro. Given the attraction and uncertainties associated with moving into a common currency, the potential gains and losses of a currency adoption was of academic and political interest. The economic impact of implementing a common currency was examined by studying the before and after of those countries that have joined the currency union utilizing data from Eurostat. ...

  8. THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME AND THE EURO

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the euro is the common currency of 12 European countries and some 300 million people. Of course, such a change has some consequences on our Health Insurance Scheme. As you know, when filling in the medical expenses claim form, you are required to indicate a currency code, i.e. the currency in which you have incurred medical expenses. You may have noticed that the euro is not yet on the list of currencies which appear on the bottom left of the existing form. This will be changed very soon, once the stock of existing forms has been used up. Until then, please note that the currency code for the euro is 002 (easy to remember since the code for the Swiss franc is 001). If you forget this code, don't worry! Just indicate «euro» next to the amount of your medical bill, or simply use the euro symbol!

  9. Long-memory exchange rate dynamics in the euro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkoulas, John T.; Barilla, Anthony G.; Wells, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-run dynamics of a system of eight major exchange rates in the euro era using both integer and fractional cointegration methodologies. Contrary to the fragile evidence in the pre-euro era, robust evidence of linear cointegratedness is obtained in the foreign exchange market during the euro era. Upon closer examination, deviations from the cointegrating relationship exhibit nonstationary, long-memory dynamic behavior (Joseph effect). We find the long-memory evidence to be temporally stable in the most recent era. Finally, the foreign exchange system dynamics appears to be characterized by less persistence (smaller fractional exponent) in the euro era (as compared to pre-euro time periods), potentially indicating increased policy coordination by central banks in the recent period.

  10. Power and Changing Modes of Governance in the Euro Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Schmidt, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    Which European Union actors are most powerful in the governance of the euro crisis? The euro crisis has reignited the classic debate between intergovernmentalists, who tend to stress the coercive power of dominant member states in the European Council, and supranationalists, who maintain that thr......Which European Union actors are most powerful in the governance of the euro crisis? The euro crisis has reignited the classic debate between intergovernmentalists, who tend to stress the coercive power of dominant member states in the European Council, and supranationalists, who maintain...... that through the use of institutional power, the Commission, and the European Central Bank turned out the “winners” of the crisis. This article argues that euro crisis governance is best understood not just in terms of one form of power but instead as evolving through different constellations of coercive...

  11. Avrupa Merkez Bankası'nın (AMB Euro Yönetimindeki Etkinlik Sorununun Analizi ( Efficiency Management Problem Of European Central Bank (ECB About The Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZDEŞER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of a monetary integration process in the European Union is inarguable. Monetary Union has a corner stone role for letting Economy in the EU to act as a whole. Only 19 members of the EU take place in the Euro Zone. In this case; there is a long time needed for completion the monetary integration process. European Central Bank (ECB which is responsible for the monetary policy application in Euro Zone, will have serious weakness and desperation and having them is inevitable; because the economic and political integration of the EU is not completed yet. All kinds of conflicts in political and economic integration process of the EU and economic crises, will have negative impacts on the EU and also on Euro. ECB is helpless about any negative developments that take place or may take place in European Monetary Union (EMU Area and it does not have an efficient intervention chance for preventing the negative impacts occurring on the Euro. The aim of the study is to present the weakness and desperation of the ECB about applying policies for a stable Euro. Avrupa Birliği'nde (AB Parasal Birlik sürecinin gerekliliği tartışılmazdır. Parasal Birlik; ekonominin AB içerisinde bir bütünsel olarak hareketliliğinin sağlanabilmesi açısından köşe taşı niteliğindedir. AB'nde şu an için toplam 28 olan AB üyesi ülkeden yalnızca 19 üye euro bölgesinde yer almaktadır. Bu durum parasal entegrasyonun tamamlanabilmesi için uzun süreye ihtiyaç olduğunun göstergesidir. Euro bölgesinde para politikalarının uygylanmasından sorumlu olan Avrupa Merkez Bankası (AMB, AB'nin ekonomik ve siyasi entegrasyonunun tamamlanmamasından dolayı ciddi zaaflar ve çaresizlikler yaşamaktadır; ve yaşaması da kaçınılmazdır. AB ve euro bölgesinde yaşanan her türlü sayasi ve ekonomik entegrasyon süreçlerindeki çatışmalar ve aynı zamanda ekonomik krizler; AB'ni ve euroyu olumsuz etkilemektedir. Yalnızca euronun y

  12. Saving Euro by dividing Europe in multiple OCA’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Dapontas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On the aftermath of the global credit crunch was made clear thatthe Euro countries debtcrisis shows that the EMU is far from being an Optimal Currency Area (OCA under its current form.The countries accepted bailouts from their counterparts and international organizations in order toprevent the Eurozone collapse spreading the crisis further. Can the breakup to multiple areas help asTootel(1990 suggested?Three possible sets of OCA scenarios are analyzed along with thedemolition scenario. The breakup of the Eurozone to two currencies consisting possible OCAs alongwith a second one adding all the EU members and a third one applying in small regions. Thescenarios are analyzed by using eleven equally weighted optimum area criteria to make Eurozone asingle or a set of sustainable OCAs. These type and extension scenarios are presented for the firsttime for EU countries finding possible sets of independent country groups. The results show that theasymmetries lead to the crisis persist in a possible two or more “euros” area and this scenario cost ishigher than uniondissolution’s. Europe cannot become in its current form a set of OCAs under anycircumstances.

  13. Costs, advantages and drawbacks of the various means of payment

    OpenAIRE

    National Bank of Belgium

    2006-01-01

    The total macroeconomic costs of the payment instruments used in the points of sale can be estimated to be 2.034 million euros, or 0.74 p.c. of Belgian GDP in 2003. The payment costs arising from cash were 0.58 p.c. of GDP, compared to 0.11 p.c. for debit cards, 0.04 p.c. for credit cards and 0.02 p.c. for the electronic purse Proton. About 50.5 p.c. of the payment costs originate in points of sale, whilst 47.1 p.c. come from the financial sector and 2.3 p.c. from currency-issuing institution...

  14. Accounting principles, reporting rules, and payment practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovener, R R

    1979-12-01

    Misconceptions concerning the distinction between accounting principles, reporting rules, and payment practices and how they interrelate can lessen the effectiveness of hospital financial managers in these areas/clarification and recommendations are offered.

  15. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  16. Heart Attack Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – national data. This data set includes national-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  17. Heart Attack Payment - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – provider data. This data set includes provider data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  18. Heart Attack Payment - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment for heart attack patients measure – state data. This data set includes state-level data for payments associated with a 30-day episode of care for heart...

  19. Use of EuroSCORE as a predictor of morbidity after cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isaac Newton Guimarães; de Moraes Neto, Fernando Ribeiro; Andrade, Tamirys Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of the EuroSCORE as a predictor of postoperative morbidity after cardiac surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 900 patients operated on and admitted to the intensive care unit postoperatively at the Royal Portuguese Hospital of Recife. We included all patients with complete medical records, excluding those who died during surgery, underwent transplantation or correction of congenital heart disease. We evaluated the development of respiratory infection, cerebrovascular accident, and dialysis-dependent renal failure, and the EuroSCORE was compared in terms of the three complications using the Mann-Whitney test. The calibration model for predicting the morbidities being studied was evaluated using the test set of Homer-Lemeshow goodness. The accuracy of the model was assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). Results The model showed good calibration in predicting respiratory infection, acute renal failure and stroke (P=0.285, P=0.789, P=0.45, respectively), with good accuracy for respiratory infection (AUROC=0.710 and P<0.001) and dialysis-dependent renal failure (AUROC=0.834 and P<0.001), but no accuracy to predict stroke (AUROC=0.519). The high-risk patients were more likely to develop respiratory infection (OR=9.05, P<0.001) and dialysis-dependent renal failure (OR=39.6, P<0.001). The probability of developing respiratory infection and dialysis-dependent renal failure was less than 10% with EuroSCORE up to 7 and more than 70% with EuroSCORE greater than 15. Conclusion EuroSCORE proved to be a good predictor of major postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery: respiratory and dialysis-dependent renal failure. PMID:24896157

  20. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  1. Auctioning payment entitlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Payment entitlements is a new commodity that arises from the new European common agricultural policy. The agricultural subsidies are decoupled from the actual production and replaced by the so-called payment entitlements. A payment entitlement has a farm specific value and may be freely traded. T...

  2. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  3. The Race to Dominate the Mobile Payments Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The payment market has been stable for a number of decades with well-defined roles (acquirers and issuers), profitable business models (the card schemes) and a dominant design in which the merchants absorb the costs associated with payments. However, numerous digital payment solutions, which rely...... on new disruptive technologies, are emerging on the payment market, transforming the payment area from being established into a state of flux. In this article, we investigate the various factors that determine the success of a given solution. To this end, we build a framework to analyze the entry...

  4. Persuasive Technology for Learning and Teaching – The EuroPLOT Project

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, R; Soosay, M; Gram-Hansen, SB; Øhrstrøm, P; Sørensen, CG; Smith, C; Mikulecká, J; Winther-Nielsen, N; Winther-Nielsen, M; Herber, E

    2013-01-01

    The concept of persuasive design has demonstrated its benefits by changing human behavior in certain situations, but in the area of education and learning, this approach has rarely been used. To change this and to study the feasibility of persuasive technology in teaching and learning, the EuroPLOT project (PLOT = Persuasive Learning Objects and Technologies) has been funded 2010-2013 by the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) in the Life-long Learning (LLL) programme....

  5. Ordoliberalism and the macroeconomic policy in the face of the euro crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Moszynski

    2015-01-01

    The global economic crisis and the crisis in the euro zone exposed the deep differences of opinion between German economists and scientists from Anglo-Saxon countries. The German approach conceptually differs in the views on the strategies and tools of anti-crisis policy, especially fiscal stimulus in the Keynesian-style, quantitative easing monetary policy of the ECB, the question of financial assistance to Greece and restructuring its debt. The other areas of difference are the approach to ...

  6. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE PAYMENT DESIGNS FOR FARMLAND DEVELOPMENT RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Steven D.

    1999-01-01

    Four alternative payment rules were examined to evaluate their ability to accomplish the objectives of the development rights purchase program. Paying the true economic value for the development rights does not allow the program to target high quality agricultural land. Modifying the payment strategy by offering a minimum payment will provide some extra incentive for high quality agricultural land in areas with little development pressure, but will provide little help in areas with high devel...

  7. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    that impact payers’ choice of payment instruments. Design/methodology/approach: Through in-depth interviews using the repertory grid technique, the authors explored 15 payers’ perceptions of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and online banking....... The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology...... or checks. Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that payers view payment instruments in a much broader sense, including context, control, or cultural beliefs. Consequently, the authors suggest that researchers try to understand the essence of an innovation before assuming any economic...

  8. Use of Payment Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Runnemark, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of consumption value, this research-in-progress strives to provide a theoretical explanation of payment technology use by investigating the relationship between consumers’ perceptions of different consumption values associated with a certain payment technology and their choice...... to use the technology. We conducted the study in the context of Denmark, a Northern European country, with three well established payment technologies: cash, payment cards, and Internet banking. Following a focus group of identifying and defining four types of consumption values associated with each...... payment technology, a survey was then conducted by a national statistics agency in the country. Preliminary results have shown that different consumption values matter for the use of different payment technologies. The findings will potentially contribute to a better understanding of consumer payment...

  9. Book Review: Restorative justice and victimology: Euro-Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Restorative Justice and Victimology: Euro-Africa Perspectives, Author: Dr Don John O. Omale, Publisher: Wolf Publishers, Price: R354, Pages: 221, Availability: Published, ISBN: 978-90-5850-861-4 ...

  10. Psychological costs of currency transition: evidence from the euro adoption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otrachshenko, V.; Popova, Olga; Tavares, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, December (2016), s. 89-100 ISSN 0176-2680 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Euro introduction * currency changeover * subjective well-being Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.098, year: 2016

  11. 28 milliards d’euros, c’est grand comment ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Pierre; Salmon, Marc; Theunissen, Yannick

    2009-01-01

    J’ouvre mon quotidien. Fortis : 28 milliards d’euros de pertes en 2008. Ma fille de sept ans qui commence à lire et pose sans cesse des questions sur tout me lance : « Dis-moi, papa : 28 milliards d’euros, c’est grand comment ? ». Grande question… Je réfléchis et tente de trouver une parade parlante pour un enfant qui, in fine, se pose les mêmes questions que les grandes personnes.

  12. Assessment of perioperative mortality risk in patients with infective endocarditis undergoing cardiac surgery: performance of the EuroSCORE I and II logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Sérgio; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Tralhão, António; Santos, Miguel; Almeida, Carla; Marques, Marta; Ferreira, Jorge; Raposo, Luís; Neves, José; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) has been established as a tool for assisting decision-making in surgical patients and as a benchmark for quality assessment. Infective endocarditis often requires surgical treatment and is associated with high mortality. This study was undertaken to (i) validate both versions of the EuroSCORE, the older logistic EuroSCORE I and the recently developed EuroSCORE II and to compare their performances; (ii) identify predictors other than those included in the EuroSCORE models that might further improve their performance. We retrospectively studied 128 patients from a single-centre registry who underwent heart surgery for active infective endocarditis between January 2007 and November 2014. Binary logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of mortality and to create a new prediction model. Discrimination and calibration of models were assessed by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration curves and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The observed perioperative mortality was 16.4% (n = 21). The median EuroSCORE I and EuroSCORE II were 13.9% interquartile range (IQ) (7.0-35.0) and 6.6% IQ (3.5-18.2), respectively. Discriminative power was numerically higher for EuroSCORE II {area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.91]} than for EuroSCORE I [0.75 (95% CI, 0.66-0.85), P = 0.09]. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed good calibration for EuroSCORE II (P = 0.08) but not for EuroSCORE I (P = 0.04). EuroSCORE I tended to over-predict and EuroSCORE II to under-predict mortality. Among the variables known to be associated with greater infective endocarditis severity, only prosthetic valve infective endocarditis remained an independent predictor of mortality [odds ratio (OR) 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1-39.5; P = 0.04]. The new model including the EuroSCORE II variables and variables known to be associated with greater infective endocarditis severity showed an AUC of 0

  13. The EuroSITES network: Integrating and enhancing fixed-point open ocean observatories around Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; EuroSITES Consortium

    2010-05-01

    EuroSITES is a 3 year (2008-2011) EU collaborative project (3.5MEuro) with the objective to integrate and enhance the nine existing open ocean fixed point observatories around Europe (www.eurosites.info). These observatories are primarily composed of full depth moorings and make multidisciplinary in situ observations within the water column as the European contribution to the global array OceanSITES (www.oceansites.org). In the first 18 months, all 9 observatories have been active and integration has been significant through the maintenance and enhancement of observatory hardware. Highlights include the enhancement of observatories with sensors to measure O2, pCO2, chlorophyll, and nitrate in near real-time from the upper 1000 m. In addition, some seafloor missions are also actively supported. These include seafloor platforms currently deployed in the Mediterranean, one for tsunami detection and one to monitor fluid flow related to seismic activity and slope stability. Upcoming seafloor science missions in 2010 include monitoring benthic biological communities and associated biogeochemistry as indicators of climate change in both the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. EuroSITES also promotes the development of innovative sensors and samplers in order to progress capability to measure climate-relevant properties of the ocean. These include further developing current technologies for autonomous long-term monitoring of oxygen consumption in the mesopelagic, pH and mesozooplankton abundance. Many of these science missions are directly related to complementary activities in other European projects such as EPOCA, HYPOX and ESONET. In 2010 a direct collaboration including in situ field work will take place between ESONET and EuroSITES. The demonstration mission MODOO (funded by ESONET) will be implemented in 2010 at the EuroSITES PAP observatory. Field work will include deployment of a seafloor lander system with various sensors which will send data to shore in real

  14. Trends of NO-, NO 2-, and NH 3-emissions from gasoline-fueled Euro-3- to Euro-4-passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Norbert V.; Saxer, Christian J.; Forss, Anna-Maria; Brühlmann, Stefan

    Vehicular emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds (RNCs) such as nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and ammonia (NH 3) have a substantial impact on urban air quality. NO and NO 2 support the photochemical formation of ozone, and NH 3 is involved in the atmospheric formation of secondary aerosols. Vehicular NO is mainly formed during combustion, whereas NO 2 and NH 3 are both secondary pollutants of the catalytic converter systems. Herein we report on tail-pipe RNC emissions of gasoline-fueled Euro-3- and Euro-4-passenger cars at transient driving from 0 to 150 km h -1. Two sets of 10 in-use vehicles with comparable engine size and mileage were studied with time-resolved chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Each vehicle was tested in 7 different driving cycles including the legislative European (EDC) and the US FTP-75 driving cycles. Mean emission factors (EFs) for different traffic situations are reported and effects of cold start, velocity, acceleration, and deceleration are discussed. Furthermore, critical operating conditions supporting the de novo formation of NH 3 have been identified. In the EDC, mean NO- and NH 3-EFs of 57±26 and 16±12 mg km -1 were obtained for Euro-3-vehicles; those of the Euro-4-technology were lower by about 25% and 33% at the levels of 43±46 and 10±7 mg km -1, respectively. NO 2 emissions of the investigated three-way catalyst (TWC) vehicles accounted for exhaust. Velocity and acceleration had pronounced effects on the RNC emission characteristics. Mean velocity-dependent EFs for NO and NH 3 varied by about one order of magnitude from 10 to 74 and 15 to 161 mg km -1 for Euro-3-vehicles and from 12 to 44 and 7 to 144 mg km -1 for the Euro-4 fleet. We conclude that the investigated Euro-3- and Euro-4-vehicles are mainly operated under slightly reducing conditions, where the NH 3 emissions dominate over those of the NO. Under these conditions, both vehicle fleets on an average fulfilled the valid Euro-3 and Euro-4

  15. Invoicing, Payments Info

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Vendors Invoicing, Payments Info Bidding Opportunities Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts Business

  16. EuroCirCol kick-off event

    CERN Multimedia

    Hardre, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The EuroCirCol (http://cern.ch/eurocircol) kick-off event at CERN on June 2-4 brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on June 1 and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 million Euros includes a 2.99 million Euro contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme on developing new world-class research infrastructures (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/194962_en.html).

  17. Payments to the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management the Lab Make payments for event registrations, sponsorships, insurance, travel, other fees. Contact Treasury Team (505) 667-4090 Email If you need to make a payment to the Lab for an event registration

  18. Impact of Euro Adoption on Emerging European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Vodenska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of the euro on emerging European countriesby investigating three country groups: (1 seventeen Eurozonecountries, (2 seven EU Eastern and Central European (ECEmembers using local currencies, and (3 six EU Candidates. Weanalyze macroeconomic indicators and propose models to investigatewhether similar or different indicators influence sovereigndebt for each group. We find that exports and unemployment arepositively related to sovereign debt while market capitalizationshows negative relation with sovereign debt. We argue that the recentEuropean sovereign debt crisis has raised serious challengesfor the Eurozone, and propose that EU ECE members and eu candidatesdelay the adoption of the euro.

  19. Tropical influence on Euro-Asian autumn rainfall variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, A. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); ENEA, Rome (Italy); Ballabrera-Poy, J. [University of Maryland, ESSIC, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, N. [University of Maryland, ESSIC, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Meteorology,, College Park, MD (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The connection between autumn rainfall variability in the Euro-Asian domain and tropical climate is documented using state-of-the-art global observational datasets and re-analyses. Results suggest a robust statistical relationship between the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and autumn rainfall in parts of southwest Europe, northern Africa and southwest Asia. The correlation between area-mean anomalies over this region (P{sub ea}) and the NINO3.4 index is 0.68, stationary over the last 50 years. Global ENSO-like tropical climate anomalies are observed in conjunction with P{sub ea} anomalies confirming the relationship found with the NINO3.4 index. Overall, the connection with Indo-Pacific variability is stronger than that with the eastern Pacific.While rainfall anomalies in southwest Europe and southwest Asia appear to largely co-vary as one pattern under the influence of ENSO, our results suggest that different mechanisms may be contributing to the observed anomalies. In the North Atlantic/European region, it is speculated that while a PNA-like mode maybe the prevailing teleconnection mechanism for high P{sub ea}, for low P{sub ea} tropical Atlantic ENSO related SST anomalies may be playing a more relevant role forcing northeastward propagating Rossby waves. Over southwest Asia, a more direct connection to the Indo-Pacific region is suggested by the upper air anomaly observed over southern Asia, possibly the Rossby wave response to enhanced heating in the Indian Ocean. (orig.)

  20. In or Out: The Effect of Euro Membership on the Exercise of Real Business Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries goes beyond the trade statistics that have indicated only a small to negligible effect from the introduction of the Euro and shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve...... Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark) to undertake various forms of real actions (exercise real business options) such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch...

  1. ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM AND ITS PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All developed countries are in transition from the IT economy to a web economy - the biggest technological innovation that will have a long-term positive effect on the formation of the economic growth rate, the major structural changes and on the differentiated effects on the economic areas that are, at a faster or a slower rate, being included in this technological change. The electronic commerce or e-commerce has a huge potential for development. The electronic commerce between the companies (B-2-B is significantly greater compared to retail electronic commerce (B-2-C. In both spheres of trade, the Internet is used as a platform for the transfer of information and for concluding business deals. Market economy requires Accelerated Payment Processing which is achieved by introducing and improving the electronic payment procedures. There is an emphasized dichotomy between the two spheres of the payment system: large-value and small-value payments. The large value payment systems can be described as the arteries of the payment system, and the small-value transfer systems as a complex network of veins that bind the entire economy.

  2. PAYMENT INNOVATIONS IN POLAND: THE ROLE OF PAYMENT SERVICES IN THE STRATEGIES OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    Polasik, Michał; Piotrowski, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of innovations in the area of payment services for strategies implemented by commercial banks in Poland. We propose a definition of payment innovations and present the evolution of their introduction in the Polish market, indicating the impact of legal regulations and the critical character of the new FinTech phenomenon. The analysis that we conducted was based on the results of a survey which obtained responses from 24 commercial banks representing almost...

  3. The Future of the Mobile Payment as Electronic Payment System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezovski, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Internet and the arrival of e-commerce fostered digitalization in the payment processes by providing a variety of electronic payment options including payment cards (credit and debit), digital and mobile wallets, electronic cash, contactless payment methods etc. Mobile payment services with their increasing popularity are presently under the phase of transition, heading towards a promising future of tentative possibilities along with the innovation in technology. In thi...

  4. Child Support Payment: A Structural Model of Predictive Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David W.; Price, Sharon J.

    A major area of concern in divorced families is compliance with child support payments. Aspects of the former spouse relationship that are predictive of compliance with court-ordered payment of child support were investigated in a sample of 58 divorced persons all of whom either paid or received child support. Structured interviews and…

  5. Detecting gradual and abrupt changes in water quality time series in response to regional payment programs for watershed services in an agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tian; Lu, Yan; Cui, Yanping; Luo, Yabo; Wang, Min; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Kaijie; Zhao, Feifei

    2015-06-01

    Market-based watershed protection instruments can effectively improve water quality at various catchment scales. Two payments for watershed services (PWS) programs for water quality improvement have been successively implemented in the Huai River catchment and its sub-watershed, the Shaying River catchment, in Henan Province since 2009. To detect changes in water quality in response to PWS schemes, nonparametric statistical approaches were used to analyze gradual and abrupt trends in water quality, focusing on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) at 26 monitoring stations in the Huai River watershed during 2006-2013. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen estimator were used to identify trends and their magnitudes in weekly water quality observations and the Pettitt test was applied to change-point analysis of water quality time series. We found decreasing concentration trends in the weekly water quality data set in this catchment, with water quality at most stations affected by the PWS schemes. The COD and NH3-N concentrations decreased at 26 stations by an average of 0.05 mg/L wk and 0.01 mg/L wk, respectively, from 2006 to 2013. Meanwhile, the mean concentrations of COD and NH3-N decreased at the 26 stations by an average of 18.03 mg/L and 4.82 mg/L, respectively, after the abrupt change points of the time-series trends of these two pollutants. We also estimated annual reductions in COD and NH3-N for each station based on average flow observations using the Theil-Sen approach along with the resulting economic benefits from 2009 to 2010. The COD and NH3-N reductions were 14604.50 and 6213.25 t/y, respectively, in the Huai River catchment in Henan Province. The total economic benefits of reductions in these two pollutants were 769.71 million ¥ in 2009 and 2010, accounting for 0.08% and 0.06%, respectively, of the GDP in the entire Huai River watershed of Henan Province. These results provide new insights into the linkages

  6. A Capacity Payment Model for the Italian Electricity Market. Why It is Needed and How Can It Be Designed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, A.; Benini, M.; Gallanti, M [CESI RICERCA S.p.A(Italy)

    2007-06-15

    The capacity payment model proposed by the Regulatory Authority for the Italian electricity market has been described and its impact has been assessed by means of long-term dynamic simulations. By comparing the simulation results of scenarios with and without the proposed capacity payment models, as well as with a scenario characterized by a fixed-payment model, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. the proposed capacity payment model is able to sufficiently incentivize investments, so that a satisfactory amount of generation capacity results available over time, keeping the reserve margin substantially over the reference lower limit; 2. the proposed capacity payment model allows to substantially reduce price peaks, thus reducing both the average electricity prices and their volatility; 3. specific costs of the proposed capacity payment model are in the range between 2.5 to 5.5 Euro/MWh along the simulation period; 4. savings in buying energy from the power exchange due to price reductions substantially compensate the 'premium' related costs in the long term: this means that, with the proposed capacity payment model, it is possible to guarantee a better adequacy of the electric system without additional costs; 5. the simulations confirmed that the dynamic behavior of the proposed capacity payment model results in a better timing in providing incentive to investments in new generation capacity when needed, w.r.t. a simple conventional fixed-payment model.

  7. A Capacity Payment Model for the Italian Electricity Market. Why It is Needed and How Can It Be Designed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, A.; Benini, M.; Gallanti, M

    2007-06-01

    The capacity payment model proposed by the Regulatory Authority for the Italian electricity market has been described and its impact has been assessed by means of long-term dynamic simulations. By comparing the simulation results of scenarios with and without the proposed capacity payment models, as well as with a scenario characterized by a fixed-payment model, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. the proposed capacity payment model is able to sufficiently incentivize investments, so that a satisfactory amount of generation capacity results available over time, keeping the reserve margin substantially over the reference lower limit; 2. the proposed capacity payment model allows to substantially reduce price peaks, thus reducing both the average electricity prices and their volatility; 3. specific costs of the proposed capacity payment model are in the range between 2.5 to 5.5 Euro/MWh along the simulation period; 4. savings in buying energy from the power exchange due to price reductions substantially compensate the 'premium' related costs in the long term: this means that, with the proposed capacity payment model, it is possible to guarantee a better adequacy of the electric system without additional costs; 5. the simulations confirmed that the dynamic behavior of the proposed capacity payment model results in a better timing in providing incentive to investments in new generation capacity when needed, w.r.t. a simple conventional fixed-payment model.

  8. EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Johannes Gutleber

    2015-01-01

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.   Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN. The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures. EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an...

  9. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...

  10. Confidence building on euro convergence : Evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992–1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied

  11. Confidence building on Euro convergence: evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro, using data on currency option prices. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of implied

  12. Has the Euro Affected the Choice of Invoicing Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; Werner, S.E.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach to study empirically the effect of the introduction of the euro on currency invoicing. Our approach uses a compositional multinomial logit model, in which currency choice depends on the characteristics of both the currency and the country. We use unique quarterly panel data

  13. Baltic universities build on EuroFaculty's foundations / Gustav Kristensen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2005-01-01

    Balti Nõukogu eestvedamisel EuroFaculty programmi raames on pärast taasiseseisvumist Balti riikide ülikoolides asutatud Euroteaduskondi. 13 aastat kestnud programmi eesmärgiks oli valmistada riike ette Euroopa Liiduga liitumiseks ja anda majandus-, poliitika- ja õigusalast haridus

  14. The Term Structure of Credit Spreads on Euro Corporate Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Landschoot, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although there is a broad literature on structural credit risk models, there has been little empirical testing of these models.In this paper we examine the term structure of credit spreads on euro corporate bonds and the empirical validation of structural credit risk models.The latter provide a

  15. Cooperation Agreement between the European Central Bank and Europol for Combating Euro Counterfeiting. Some Critical Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Birzu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper there has been examined the Agreement between the European Police Office (Europol and the European Central Bank (ECB for preventing and combating euro counterfeiting, focusing on certain provisions which take into account the aim and the exchange of information between the two European institutions. The novelty of this paper relates to the achieved examination, where it is highlighted the importance of European legal instrument and the critical opinions and proposals for improving the agreement. The paper can be useful to academics and practitioners who conduct their activity within this area.

  16. 3rd Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Snášel, Václav; Sung, Tien-Wen; Wang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the ECC 2016, the Third Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications, which was held in Fuzhou City, China from November 7 to 9, 2016. The aim of the ECC is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the broad areas of intelligent data analysis, computational intelligence, signal processing, and all associated applications of artificial intelligence (AI). The third installment of the ECC was jointly organized by Fujian University of Technology, China, and VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. The conference was co-sponsored by Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, and Immersion Co., Ltd.

  17. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  18. Determinants of hardship financing in coping with out of pocket payment for care seeking of under five children in selected rural areas of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nazia Binte; Siddique, Md. Abu Bakkar; Ahmed, Sameen; Rahman, Mubashshira; Islam, Sajia; Rahman, Md. Mezanur; Amena, Bushra; Hoque, D. M. Emdadul; Huda, Tanvir M.; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-01-01

    Background Around 63% of total health care expenditure in Bangladesh is mitigated through out of pocket payment (OOP). Heavy reliance on OOP at the time of care seeking poses great threat for financial impoverishment of the households. Households employ different strategies to cope with the associated financial hardship. Objective The aim of this paper is to understand the determinants of hardship financing in coping with OOP adopted for health care seeking of under five childhood illnesses in rural setting of Bangladesh. Methods A community based cross sectional survey was conducted during August to October, 2014 in 15 low performing sub-districts of northern and north-east regions of Bangladesh. Of the 7039 mothers of under five children surveyed, 1895 children who suffered from illness and sought care for their illness episodes were reported in this study. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were conducted. Results A total number of 7,039 under five children reported to have suffered illness by their mothers. Among these children 37% suffered from priority illness. Care was sought for 88% children suffering from illnesses. Among them 26% went to a public or private sector medically trained provider. 5% of households incurred illness cost more than 10% of the household’s monthly expenditure. The need for assistance was higher among those compared to others (31% vs 13%). Different financing mechanisms adopted to meet OOP are loan with interest (6%), loan without interest (9%) and financial help from relatives (6%) Need for financial assistance varied from 19% among households in the lowest quintile to 9% in the highest wealth. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that burden of hardship financing increases by 2.17 times when care is sought from a private trained provider compared to care seeking from untrained provider (CI: 1.49, 3.17). Similarly, for families that incur a health care expenditure that is more than 10% of their total monthly

  19. Determinants of hardship financing in coping with out of pocket payment for care seeking of under five children in selected rural areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahsina, Tazeen; Ali, Nazia Binte; Siddique, Md Abu Bakkar; Ahmed, Sameen; Rahman, Mubashshira; Islam, Sajia; Rahman, Md Mezanur; Amena, Bushra; Hoque, D M Emdadul; Huda, Tanvir M; Arifeen, Shams El

    2018-01-01

    Around 63% of total health care expenditure in Bangladesh is mitigated through out of pocket payment (OOP). Heavy reliance on OOP at the time of care seeking poses great threat for financial impoverishment of the households. Households employ different strategies to cope with the associated financial hardship. The aim of this paper is to understand the determinants of hardship financing in coping with OOP adopted for health care seeking of under five childhood illnesses in rural setting of Bangladesh. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted during August to October, 2014 in 15 low performing sub-districts of northern and north-east regions of Bangladesh. Of the 7039 mothers of under five children surveyed, 1895 children who suffered from illness and sought care for their illness episodes were reported in this study. Descriptive statistics and ordinal regression analysis were conducted. A total number of 7,039 under five children reported to have suffered illness by their mothers. Among these children 37% suffered from priority illness. Care was sought for 88% children suffering from illnesses. Among them 26% went to a public or private sector medically trained provider. 5% of households incurred illness cost more than 10% of the household's monthly expenditure. The need for assistance was higher among those compared to others (31% vs 13%). Different financing mechanisms adopted to meet OOP are loan with interest (6%), loan without interest (9%) and financial help from relatives (6%) Need for financial assistance varied from 19% among households in the lowest quintile to 9% in the highest wealth. Ordinal regression analysis revealed that burden of hardship financing increases by 2.17 times when care is sought from a private trained provider compared to care seeking from untrained provider (CI: 1.49, 3.17). Similarly, for families that incur a health care expenditure that is more than 10% of their total monthly expenditure (CI:1.46, 3.88), the

  20. Advance Payment ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Advance Payment Model is designed for physician-based and rural providers who have come together voluntarily to give coordinated high quality care to the...

  1. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  2. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  3. Paying for Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    depends only on the relative costs of producing cash and card payments and can be used by regulators to assess privately set interchange fees. When calibrated to cost data, the model implies an optimal fee that is low and may even be negative. The findings are consistent with empirical evidence of high......Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how interchange fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay...... transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchange fees at too high a level, resulting in too few card payments. I derive an optimal interchange fee which...

  4. ESRD Payment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare payment to ESRD facilities for outpatient maintenance dialysis services furnished to Medicare beneficiaries with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is based on...

  5. Validación de EuroSCORE II en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Valentín

    2014-10-01

    Conclusiones: Los pacientes españoles presentan un perfil de riesgo alto. La mortalidad cruda es aceptable, más cercana al valor de EuroSCORE II que de EuroSCORE. Ambas escalas muestran mala calibración, EuroSCORE por sobreestimación y EuroSCORE II por infraestimación. El área bajo la curva ROC muestra buena discriminación para ambos modelos.

  6. 14. Euro summer school on exotic beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This school is intended for thesis students and young post-docs working in areas related to radioactive beams. It consists of several lecture courses given by specialists in their field, starting from a basic level. This document gathers only the slides of the following presentations: 1) clusters in nuclei, 2) the production of radioactive ion beams - in-flight methods, 3) ab-initio calculations for light nuclei, 4) the production of radioactive ion beams - ISOL methods, 5) neutrons for science, and 6) the production of radioactive ion beams - charge breeding.

  7. 14. Euro summer school on exotic beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This school is intended for thesis students and young post-docs working in areas related to radioactive beams. It consists of several lecture courses given by specialists in their field, starting from a basic level. This document gathers only the slides of the following presentations: 1) clusters in nuclei, 2) the production of radioactive ion beams - in-flight methods, 3) ab-initio calculations for light nuclei, 4) the production of radioactive ion beams - ISOL methods, 5) neutrons for science, and 6) the production of radioactive ion beams - charge breeding

  8. Euro Adoption in Central Europe Laggards by Default and Laggards by Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dandashly, Assem; Verdun, Amy

    2016-01-01

    How can we explain the politics of euro adoption in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland? How did the euro crisis influence their positions regarding euro adoption? This article builds on the domestic politics literature and argues: (i) countries that had joined the Exchange Rate Mechanism-2 early

  9. Accuracy, calibration and clinical performance of the EuroSCORE: can we reduce the number of variables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Menicanti, Lorenzo; Frigiola, Alessandro; Pelissero, Gabriele

    2010-03-01

    The European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is currently used in many institutions and is considered a reference tool in many countries. We hypothesised that too many variables were included in the EuroSCORE using limited patient series. We tested different models using a limited number of variables. A total of 11150 adult patients undergoing cardiac operations at our institution (2001-2007) were retrospectively analysed. The 17 risk factors composing the EuroSCORE were separately analysed and ranked for accuracy of prediction of hospital mortality. Seventeen models were created by progressively including one factor at a time. The models were compared for accuracy with a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and area under the curve (AUC) evaluation. Calibration was tested with Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics. Clinical performance was assessed by comparing the predicted with the observed mortality rates. The best accuracy (AUC 0.76) was obtained using a model including only age, left ventricular ejection fraction, serum creatinine, emergency operation and non-isolated coronary operation. The EuroSCORE AUC (0.75) was not significantly different. Calibration and clinical performance were better in the five-factor model than in the EuroSCORE. Only in high-risk patients were 12 factors needed to achieve a good performance. Including many factors in multivariable logistic models increases the risk for overfitting, multicollinearity and human error. A five-factor model offers the same level of accuracy but demonstrated better calibration and clinical performance. Models with a limited number of factors may work better than complex models when applied to a limited number of patients. Copyright (c) 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of physician payment reform on provision of home dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004, CMS reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the United States in the 3 years before and the 3 years after payment reform. We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Patients with traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-1.1%; P = .003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.4%; P home dialysis use following payment reform compared with patients living in areas with smaller facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively less lucrative for physicians). The transition from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service payment model for in-center hemodialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts.

  11. 25 CFR 23.13 - Payment for appointed counsel in involuntary Indian child custody proceedings in state courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Submit approved vouchers to the Area Director who certified eligibility for BIA payment, together with... payment of attorney fees and expenses in the amount requested in the voucher approved by the court unless... section. (f) No later than 15 days after receipt of a payment voucher, the Area Director shall send...

  12. Towards a global mobile payment service

    OpenAIRE

    Vilmos, A.; Karnouskos, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mobile payment’s promise is that users will be able to pay via their mobile phones any time anywhere in whatever currency easily. However the real world mobile payment efforts are still far away from materializing this vision. In this paper we take a view of where we are today and why mobile payments are not there where most experts had predicted some years ago. We also lay our views on how this interesting area will proceed and what are the underlying pros and cons for each actor. Finally we...

  13. On the EMSC and its roles in the Euro-Med region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Godey, S.; Mazet-Roux, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Euro-Med seismological Centre (EMSC) is a scientific non-profit NGO created back in 1975 by the seismological community to collate data, make them available and provide earthquake information at a Euro-Med and global scales. The aim of this talk is to provide an overview of the EMSC's activities and its roles in the integration of the seismological community. Its first activity has been rapid earthquake information on its web site (www.emsc-csem.org) as well as earthquake notification services (SMS, email) for potentially damaging earthquakes. More recently, online macroseismic questionnaires were introduced in more than 20 different languages as well as tools to collect pictures of the earthquake's effects from the public. An innovative way to map the area where an earthquake was felt within 5 to 8 minutes of its occurrence was developed. It plots the geographical origin of the observed surges of traffic following felt events. This method is now being implemented in several other institutes. The Euro-Med seismological bulletin, which started in 1998, complements this service by offering a reference bulletin for the region. It significantly improved the data availability especially on the fringes of the region and the data collection is now comprehensive. Thanks to its 84 institutes from 55 different countries, EMSC offers a significant networking capacity and it plays a significant role in the integration of our community in close collaboration with ORFEUS, the second European organisation in seismology. It devotes significant efforts to improve collaboration especially towards Northern Africa and the Middle East. For example, it recently led an EC-project to improve coordination of the earthquake surveillance of the Western Mediterranean region and improve data exchanges. It contributes to the initiation of the NERIES project. It is involved, within this framework, in improving accelerometric data availability, developing rapid loss estimates and it it is in

  14. BBC VERSUS EURO NEWS: DISCOURSE AND IDEOLOGY IN NEWS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare discursive strategies employed by two international news agencies including Euro News and BBC. Van Dijk’s (2004 model of CDA was adopted. Thirty pieces of news about internal affairs of Iran together with their Persian translations were downloaded from the corresponding website, i.e. 30 pieces of English news and their corresponding Persian translations from the Euro News website and 30 pieces of English news with their corresponding translations from the BBC website. The frequency of lexical items was observed to not differ significantly. Two sets of translations were compared to their source texts based on four discursive strategies of hyperbole, polarization, vagueness and euphemism. An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the frequency of strategies applied by the two news agencies. Results revealed no significant difference between the two agencies except for the discursive strategy of vagueness.

  15. Forgery detection and value identification of Euro banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Arcangelo; Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2013-02-18

    This paper describes both hardware and software components to detect counterfeits of Euro banknotes. The proposed system is also able to recognize the banknote values. Differently than other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach makes use of banknote images acquired with a near infrared camera to perform recognition and authentication. This allows one to build a system that can effectively deal with real forgeries, which are usually not detectable with visible light. The hardware does not use any mechanical parts, so the overall system is low-cost. The proposed solution is reliable for ambient light and banknote positioning. Users should simply lean the banknote to be analyzed on a flat glass, and the system detects forgery, as well as recognizes the banknote value. The effectiveness of the proposed solution has been properly tested on a dataset composed by genuine and fake Euro banknotes provided by Italy's central bank. 

  16. Forgery Detection and Value Identification of Euro Banknotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Battiato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes both hardware and software components to detect counterfeits of Euro banknotes. The proposed system is also able to recognize the banknote values. Differently than other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach makes use of banknote images acquired with a near infrared camera to perform recognition and authentication. This allows one to build a system that can effectively deal with real forgeries, which are usually not detectable with visible light. The hardware does not use any mechanical parts, so the overall system is low-cost. The proposed solution is reliable for ambient light and banknote positioning. Users should simply lean the banknote to be analyzed on a flat glass, and the system detects forgery, as well as recognizes the banknote value. The effectiveness of the proposed solution has been properly tested on a dataset composed by genuine and fake Euro banknotes provided by Italy's central bank.

  17. «EURO 2008» - EUROPEAN FOOTBALL CHAMPIONSHIPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  18. «EURO 2008» - European Football Championships

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  19. 1.6 billion euros for nuclear research through the 'Horizon 2020' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Council has approved the budget for the future European program for research and innovation called 'Horizon 2020'. A global funding of 77 billion euros has been allocated to 'Horizon 2020' for the 2014 to 2020 years. The share for nuclear sciences will reach 1.6 billion euros and will break down as follows: 316 million euros for fundamental research on fission, 728 million euros for fundamental research on fusion (ITER not included) and 560 million euros for the research projects of the European Joint Research Center (JRC). (A.C.)

  20. The DHL EuroCup: shots on goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Deutsche Post World Net, the German postal monopoly, faced significant challenges as it began the process of integrating three businesses: Deutsche Post Euro Express, its own ground-based parcel delivery service, and two companies it had acquired-DHL, the worldwide express delivery service, and Danzas, a worldwide air and ocean freight company. The cultural differences alone were imposing. For example, DHL was a privately held, entrepreneurial company in which most managers had international experience; Deutsche Post was until recently a state-owned monopoly in which few managers had worked outside their home country. Enter EuroCup. For 20 years, DHL employees had held a soccer tournament to strengthen company culture across national boundaries. Canceled the previous year due to budget constraints, the EuroCup tournament was revived in 2003-in part to help with the postmerger integration. But did the event really help? HBR senior editor Paul Hemp attended EuroCup 2003, joining nearly 2,500 DHL employees--about 600 of them players, the rest cheerleaders and other supporters--in the small Belgian town of Lommel. He set out to answer a number of questions relevant to any company staging an ambitious off-site intended to encourage teamwork and boost morale. How does a company determine whether such a large-scale event, even one that generates goodwill, is worth the investment? Does the team building extend to those back home who don't get to attend? Can intense competition between teams begin to overshadow the spirit of cooperation that such an event is meant to engender? In short, can a soccer tournament help a company achieve its corporate goal of creating a strong common culture?

  1. Euro tulek sõltub nafta hinnast maailmaturul / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2006-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi majandusanalüüsi osakonna juhataja Andrus Säälik nendib, et kui nafta hind maailmaturul tõuseb, on euro kasutuselevõtt Eestis ebatõenäoline isegi 2007. aastal. Rahandusministeeriumis on välja töötatud inflatsiooni alternatiivstsenaarium, mis näeb ette lükata aasta võrra edasi 1. juuliks planeeritud tubaka- ja alkoholiaktsiiside tõusu. Graafik: Inflatsiooni areng Eestis

  2. An Indoor Positioning-Based Mobile Payment System Using Bluetooth Low Energy Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yohan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology has paved the way for faster and more convenient payment process flows and new methodology for the design and implementation of next generation payment systems. The growth of smartphone usage nowadays has fostered a new and popular mobile payment environment. Most of the current generation smartphones support Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE technology to communicate with nearby BLE-enabled devices. It is plausible to construct an Over-the-Air BLE-based mobile payment system as one of the payment methods for people living in modern societies. In this paper, a secure indoor positioning-based mobile payment authentication protocol with BLE technology and the corresponding mobile payment system design are proposed. The proposed protocol consists of three phases: initialization phase, session key construction phase, and authentication phase. When a customer moves toward the POS counter area, the proposed mobile payment system will automatically detect the position of the customer to confirm whether the customer is ready for the checkout process. Once the system has identified the customer is standing within the payment-enabled area, the payment system will invoke authentication process between POS and the customer’s smartphone through BLE communication channel to generate a secure session key and establish an authenticated communication session to perform the payment transaction accordingly. A prototype is implemented to assess the performance of the proposed design for mobile payment system. In addition, security analysis is conducted to evaluate the security strength of the proposed protocol.

  3. An Indoor Positioning-Based Mobile Payment System Using Bluetooth Low Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohan, Alexander; Lo, Nai-Wei; Winata, Doni

    2018-03-25

    The development of information technology has paved the way for faster and more convenient payment process flows and new methodology for the design and implementation of next generation payment systems. The growth of smartphone usage nowadays has fostered a new and popular mobile payment environment. Most of the current generation smartphones support Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology to communicate with nearby BLE-enabled devices. It is plausible to construct an Over-the-Air BLE-based mobile payment system as one of the payment methods for people living in modern societies. In this paper, a secure indoor positioning-based mobile payment authentication protocol with BLE technology and the corresponding mobile payment system design are proposed. The proposed protocol consists of three phases: initialization phase, session key construction phase, and authentication phase. When a customer moves toward the POS counter area, the proposed mobile payment system will automatically detect the position of the customer to confirm whether the customer is ready for the checkout process. Once the system has identified the customer is standing within the payment-enabled area, the payment system will invoke authentication process between POS and the customer's smartphone through BLE communication channel to generate a secure session key and establish an authenticated communication session to perform the payment transaction accordingly. A prototype is implemented to assess the performance of the proposed design for mobile payment system. In addition, security analysis is conducted to evaluate the security strength of the proposed protocol.

  4. Payment card rewards programs and consumer payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ching; Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Card payments have been growing very rapidly. To continue the growth, payment card networks keep adding new merchants and card issuers try to stimulate their existing customers’ card usage by providing rewards. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of payment card rewards programs on consumer payment choice, by using consumer survey data. Specifically, we examine whether credit/debit reward receivers use credit/debit cards relatively more often than other consumers, if so how much more ofte...

  5. Human Aspects and Habitat Studies from EuroGeoMars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Pletser, V.; Foing, B. H.; Eurogeomars Team

    2009-04-01

    in the aim of optimizing the obtaining of scientific results. A mission off the land will be worth only with a real scientific gain. Moreover, as the schedule is focused on the work time, better working conditions will provide better general living resentment. Following this approach, observations and interviews of the crewmembers in the simulation will be done. That will cover several sides: layout, equipment, area, and mostly man-machine interface. This last side will be the most studied in different situation: during daily life, in the laboratory, in the workshop and during the EVA. Indeed, the specifications for such an interface will be different according to the use: easy use in EVA, but with a good layout in the habitat. Acknowledgements: We thank the EuroGeo-Mars teams for their support in this study, and Mars Society for the opportunity of such a campaign.

  6. Curriculum vitae of the LOTOS–EUROS (v2.0 chemistry transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. Manders

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of chemistry transport models has a long tradition. Within the Netherlands the LOTOS–EUROS model has been developed by a consortium of institutes, after combining its independently developed predecessors in 2005. Recently, version 2.0 of the model was released as an open-source version. This paper presents the curriculum vitae of the model system, describing the model's history, model philosophy, basic features and a validation with EMEP stations for the new benchmark year 2012, and presents cases with the model's most recent and key developments. By setting the model developments in context and providing an outlook for directions for further development, the paper goes beyond the common model description.With an origin in ozone and sulfur modelling for the models LOTOS and EUROS, the application areas were gradually extended with persistent organic pollutants, reactive nitrogen, and primary and secondary particulate matter. After the combination of the models to LOTOS–EUROS in 2005, the model was further developed to include new source parametrizations (e.g. road resuspension, desert dust, wildfires, applied for operational smog forecasts in the Netherlands and Europe, and has been used for emission scenarios, source apportionment, and long-term hindcast and climate change scenarios. LOTOS–EUROS has been a front-runner in data assimilation of ground-based and satellite observations and has participated in many model intercomparison studies. The model is no longer confined to applications over Europe but is also applied to other regions of the world, e.g. China. The increasing interaction with emission experts has also contributed to the improvement of the model's performance. The philosophy for model development has always been to use knowledge that is state of the art and proven, to keep a good balance in the level of detail of process description and accuracy of input and output, and to keep a good record

  7. Factors affecting the informal payments in public and teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Ali; Ghiasipour, Maryam; Rezapour, Aziz; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Tanoomand, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Informal payments in the health sector of many developing countries are considered as a major impediment to health care reforms. Informal payments are a form of systemic fraud and have adverse effects on the performance of the health system. In this study, the frequency and extent of informal payments as well as the determinants of these payments were investigated in general hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, 300 discharged patients were selected using multi-stage random sampling method. First, three hospitals were selected randomly; then, through a simple random sampling, we recruited 300 discharged patients from internal, surgery, emergency, ICU & CCU wards. All data were collected by structured telephone interviews and questionnaire. We analyzed data using Chi- square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The results indicated that 21% (n=63) of individuals paid informally to the staff. About 4% (n=12) of the participants were faced with informal payment requests from hospital staff. There was a significant relationship between frequency of informal payments with marital status of participants and type of hospitals. According to our findings, none of the respondents had informal payments to physicians. The most frequent informal payments were in cash and were made to the hospitals' housekeeping staff to ensure more and better services. There was no significant relationship between the informal payments with socio-demographic characteristics, residential area and insurance status. Our findings revealed that many strategies can be used for both controlling and reducing informal payments. These include training patients and hospitals' staff, increasing income levels of employees, improving the quantity and quality of health services and changing the entrenched beliefs that necessitate informal payments.

  8. The organisation and role of the Euro skin bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the treatment of burns, either superficial or deep, partial or full thickness, where sufficient autograft is lacking, wound covering by fresh or stored allogencic human skin is currently preferred over the use of (bio-) synthetic dressings by most physicians involved in burn care. Several methods to preserve, store and provide sufficient quantities of allograft (homo- or xeno-) at any given time have been developed over the last decades and have been extensively documented. Skin banks differ in their mode of operation (local, regional, national and international) and the techniques applied for preservation and storage of human skin. The Dutch National Skin Bank was established in 1976 as a subsidiary to the Dutch Bums Foundation with no other goal than providing human allograft skin for the treatment of bum victims to the Red Cross Hospital Bum Unit and later to other Dutch bum centres and general hospitals. The initial preservation technique the skin bank used was cryopreservation. In 1984 there was an important change in the preservation technique. Based on literature high concentrations of glycerol were introduced to preserve human skin for long-term storage. Meanwhile, a gradual increase in the yearly number of skin donors from 1984 onwards was observed, and by 1989 regular requests from bum centres in other countries for glycerol preserved donor skin were received. In 1992 the skin bank changed their name into Euro Skin Bank to express their international collaboration. The Euro Skin Bank operates on a non-profit basis and was until recently dependent on financial support of the Dutch Bums Foundation. Due to the large amount of requests for donor skin, the Euro Skin Bank started to set up satellite skin banks in various European countries. With this initiative it was not only possible to help the specific countries to supply their own bum centres with allograft skin, but also an amount of skin was send back to the Euro Skin Bank in order to distribute the

  9. Cash and Payments Management Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Prompt Payment Act, along with the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, requires the timely payment of commercial obligations for supplies and services using...

  10. Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) Payments This link provides you with information about Medicaid DSH Payments. You can find information on DSH Audit...

  11. Effects of Physician Payment Reform on Provision of Home Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients with end-stage renal disease can receive dialysis at home or in-center. In 2004 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reformed physician payment for in-center hemodialysis care from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service model, augmenting physician payment for frequent in-center visits. We evaluated whether payment reform influenced dialysis modality assignment. Study Design Cohort study of patients starting dialysis in the US in the three years before and after payment reform. Methods We conducted difference-in-difference analyses comparing patients with Traditional Medicare coverage (who were affected by the policy) to others with Medicare Advantage (who were unaffected by the policy). We also examined whether the policy had a more pronounced influence on dialysis modality assignment in areas with lower costs of traveling to dialysis facilities. Results Patients with Traditional Medicare coverage experienced a 0.7% (95% CI 0.2%–1.1%; p=0.003) reduction in the absolute probability of home dialysis use following payment reform compared to patients with Medicare Advantage. Patients living in areas with larger dialysis facilities (where payment reform made in-center hemodialysis comparatively more lucrative for physicians) experienced a 0.9% (95% CI 0.5%–1.4%; ppayment model for dialysis care resulted in fewer patients receiving home dialysis. This area of policy failure highlights the importance of considering unintended consequences of future physician payment reform efforts. PMID:27355909

  12. Effect of medicare payment on rural health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith J

    2002-01-01

    Medicare payments constitute a significant share of patient-generated revenues for rural providers, more so than for urban providers. Therefore, Medicare payment policies influence the behavior of rural providers and determine their financial viability. Health services researchers need to contribute to the understanding of the implications of changes in fee-for-service payment policy, prospects for change because of the payment to Medicare+Choice risk plans, and implications for rural providers inherent in any restructuring of the Medicare program. This article outlines the basic policy choices, implications for rural providers and Medicare beneficiaries, impacts of existing research, and suggestions for further research. Topics for further research include implications of the Critical Access Hospital program, understanding how changes in payment to rural hospitals affect patient care, developing improved formulas for paying rural hospitals, determining the payment-to-cost ratio for physicians, measuring the impact of changes in the payment methodology used to pay for services delivered by rural health clinics and federally qualified health centers, accounting for the reasons for differences in historical Medicare expenditures across rural counties and between rural and urban counties, explicating all reasons for Medicare+Choice plans withdrawing from some rural areas and entering others, measuring the rural impact of proposals to add a prescription drug benefit to the Medicare program, and measuring the impact of Medicare payment policies on rural economies.

  13. LA ZONE EURO ET LA MONNAIE UNIQUE FACE A L'ELARGISSEMENT DE L'UNION EUROPEENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lelart

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten countries from central and eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta, have applied for membership to the European Union. This fifth enlargement, which is the first one since the creation of the eurozone, is expected to have some impact on the institutional framework of the single currency area. This article examines, by stages, the consequences of the enlargement process on the use of the euro as an international currency, on the organisation of the ECB, and on the economic policies in the EU, including monetary and foreign exchange policies. The defined stages start with the current candidate countries (the outs, to the period when they become Member States of the EU (the pre-ins, and finally to the stage when they ultimately join the eurozone (the ins. With this current EU enlargement process, the consequences are nothing less than the beginning of a new era for the euro.

  14. Recursive and non-linear logistic regression: moving on from the original EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    EuroSCORE II, despite improving on the original EuroSCORE system, has not solved all the calibration and predictability issues. Recursive, non-linear and mixed recursive and non-linear regression analysis were assessed with regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the original EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II systems. The original logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and recursive, non-linear and mixed recursive and non-linear regression analyses of these risk models were assessed via receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic analysis with regard to the accuracy of predicting in-hospital mortality. Analysis was performed for isolated coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) (n = 2913), aortic valve replacement (AVR) (n = 814), mitral valve surgery (n = 340), combined AVR and CABG (n = 517), aortic (n = 350), miscellaneous cases (n = 642), and combinations of the above cases (n = 5576). The original EuroSCORE had an ROC below 0.7 for isolated AVR and combined AVR and CABG. None of the methods described increased the ROC above 0.7. The EuroSCORE II risk model had an ROC below 0.7 for isolated AVR only. Recursive regression, non-linear regression, and mixed recursive and non-linear regression all increased the ROC above 0.7 for isolated AVR. The original EuroSCORE had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was above 0.05 for all patients and the subgroups analysed. All of the techniques markedly increased the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The EuroSCORE II risk model had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was significant for all patients (P linear regression failed to improve on the original Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The mixed recursive and non-linear regression using the EuroSCORE II risk model was the only model that produced an ROC of 0.7 or above for all patients and procedures and had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was highly non-significant. The original EuroSCORE and the EuroSCORE II risk models do not have adequate ROC and Hosmer

  15. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants, I: description of surface-atmosphere exchange modules and implementation in EUROS.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Pul, van W.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Concerns a description of a model for the exchange of gaseous Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) at land and sea surfaces and its application in the Eulerian air pollution transport model EUROS. Sample simulations of the net deposition of lindane over Europe are discussed. For non-emission areas

  16. Full-Automatic Parking registration and payment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Lahrmann, Harry; Jørgensen, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As part of ITS Platform North Denmark, a full-automatic GNSS-based parking payment (PP) system was developed (PP app). On the basis of the parking position and parking time, the PP app can determine the price of parking and collect the amount from the car owner’s bank account. The driver...... is informed about any initiation of PP via SMS message. If the driver finds the payment erroneous, it can be cancelled via SMS message. Parking attendants can check if the car in question has an ongoing payment for parking. To handle the problems with GNSS-based positioning in densely built-up areas......, an advanced map matching algorithm was integrated in the PP app. 24 of the participating vehicles used the PP app, and 58 parking payments were carried out without errors. In a few cases, the wrong parking area was selected. This was due to lack of information in the map rather than errors in the map matching...

  17. Framework for Mobile Payments Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Fergal; Hedman, Jonas; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    consumers and merchants. These instruments are centralised, costly and lack decision support functionality. The ubiquity of the mobile phone has provided a decentralised platform for managing payment processes in a new way, but the value proposition for customers has yet to be elaborated clearly....... This inertia has stalled the design of sustainable revenue models for a mobile payments ecosystem. Merchants and consumers in the meantime are being seduced by the convenience of on‑line and mobile payment solutions. Adopting the purchase and payment process as the unit of analysis, the current mobile payment...

  18. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  19. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  20. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  1. Impact of cold temperature on Euro 6 passenger car emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Astorga, Covadonga

    2018-03-01

    Hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, NH 3 , N 2 O, CO 2 and particulate matter emissions affect air quality, global warming and human health. Transport sector is an important source of these pollutants and high pollution episodes are often experienced during the cold season. However, EU vehicle emissions regulation at cold ambient temperature only addresses hydrocarbons and CO vehicular emissions. For that reason, we have studied the impact that cold ambient temperatures have on Euro 6 diesel and spark ignition (including: gasoline, ethanol flex-fuel and hybrid vehicles) vehicle emissions using the World-harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at -7 °C and 23 °C. Results indicate that when facing the WLTC at 23 °C the tested vehicles present emissions below the values set for type approval of Euro 6 vehicles (still using NEDC), with the exception of NOx emissions from diesel vehicles that were 2.3-6 times higher than Euro 6 standards. However, emissions disproportionally increased when vehicles were tested at cold ambient temperature (-7 °C). High solid particle number (SPN) emissions (>1 × 10 11 # km -1 ) were measured from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and gasoline port fuel injection vehicles. However, only diesel and GDI SPN emissions are currently regulated. Results show the need for a new, technology independent, procedure that enables the authorities to assess pollutant emissions from vehicles at cold ambient temperatures. Harmful pollutant emissions from spark ignition and diesel vehicles are strongly and negatively affected by cold ambient temperatures. Only hydrocarbon, CO emissions are currently regulated at cold temperature. Therefore, it is of great importance to revise current EU winter vehicle emissions regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  3. Problems of the adoption of the Euro in Poland and the Baltic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Davulis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of Poland, Latvia and Lithuania to adopt the euro, which is one of most important task of the economic policy in these countries is analyzed in the article. The international importance of the euro, the advantages and disadvantages of the single currency are discussed. Experience of Germany in adopting of the euro is analyzed. The strategy of the adoption of the euro in Lithuania is presented. The analysis based on the data of Eurostat database shows that Poland is the country with most possibilities to adopt the euro. However both Lithuania and Latvia may become the euro zone member states, too, if they firstly will cope with financial problems of the government and will revitalise and develop their internal market.

  4. Informal cash payments for birth in Hungary: Are women paying to secure a known provider, respect, or quality of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Petra; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Szebik, Imre; Stoll, Kathrin; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2017-09-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe, many women make informal cash payments to ensure continuity of provider, i.e., to have a "chosen" doctor who provided their prenatal care, be present for birth. High rates of obstetric interventions and disrespectful maternity care are also common to the region. No previous study has examined the associations among informal payments, intervention rates, and quality of maternity care. We distributed an online cross-sectional survey in 2014 to a nationally representative sample of Hungarian internet-using women (N = 600) who had given birth in the last 5 years. The survey included items related to socio-demographics, type of provider, obstetric interventions, and experiences of care. Women reported if they paid informally, and how much. We built a two-part model, where a bivariate probit model was used to estimate conditional probabilities of women paying informally, and a GLM model to explore the amount of payments. We calculated marginal effects of the covariates (provider choice, interventions, respectful care). Many more women (79%) with a chosen doctor paid informally (191 euros on average) compared to 17% of women without a chosen doctor (86 euros). Based on regression analysis, the chosen doctor's presence at birth was the principal determinant of payment. Intervention and procedure rates were significantly higher for women with a chosen doctor versus without (cesareans 45% vs. 33%; inductions 32% vs. 19%; episiotomy 75% vs. 62%; epidural 13% vs. 5%), but had no direct effect on payments. Half of the sample (42% with a chosen doctor, 62% without) reported some form of disrespectful care, but this did not reduce payments. Despite reporting disrespect and higher rates of interventions, women rewarded the presence of a chosen doctor with informal payments. They may be unaware of evidence-based standards, and trust that their chosen doctor provided high quality maternity care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Informal payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, although these payments negatively affect public health and health care. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare...... various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common...... that informal payments are a complex phenomenon. Additionally, the data on bought and brought goods illustrate that not much is known about this matter. Although informal payments have been studied and described in several settings, there is still little research on the effectiveness of such strategies...

  6. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Buch Mejsner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a

  7. Source apportionment of PM2.5 across China using LOTOS-EUROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R.; Kranenburg, R.; Manders, A.; Hendriks, C.; Segers, A.; Dammers, E.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, Z.; Zeng, L.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2017-09-01

    China's population is exposed to high levels of particulate matter (PM) due to its strong economic growth and associated urbanization and industrialization. To support policy makers to develop cost effective mitigation strategies it is of crucial importance to understand the emission sources as well as formation routes responsible for high pollution levels. In this study we applied the LOTOS-EUROS model with its module to track the contributions of predefined source sectors to China for the year 2013 using the MEIC emission inventory. It is the first application of the model system to a region outside Europe. The source attribution was aimed to provide insight in the sector and area of origin of PM2.5 for the cities of Beijing and Shanghai. The source attribution shows that on average about half of the PM2.5 pollution in both cities originates from the municipality itself. About a quarter of the PM2.5 comes from the neighbouring provinces, whereas the remaining quarter is attributed to long range transport from anthropogenic and natural components. Residential combustion, transport, and industry are identified as the main sources with comparable contributions allocated to these sectors. The importance of the sectors varies throughout the year and differs slightly between the cities. During winter, urban contributions from residential combustion are dominant, whereas industrial and traffic contributions with a larger share of regional transport are more important during summer. The evaluation of the model results against satellite and in-situ observations shows the ability of the LOTOS-EUROS model to capture many features of the variability in particulate matter and its precursors in China. The model shows a systematic underestimation of particulate matter concentrations, especially in winter. This illustrates that modelling particulate matter remains challenging as it comes to components like secondary organic aerosol and suspended dust as well as emissions and

  8. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  9. EuroCirCol - Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Action

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108815; Benedikt, Michael; Zimmermann, Frank; Schulte, Daniel; Tommasini, Davide; Seryi, Andrei; Perez, Francis

    2015-01-01

    EuroCirCol is a conceptual design study for a post-LHC research infrastructure based on an energy-frontier 100 TeV circular hadron collider. ​The award of the 2013 Nobel Prize for Physics acknowledged the leading role of Europe in particle physics, which has a global community of over 10'000 scientists. To reinforce its pole position throughout the 21st century, Europe must be ready to propose an ambitious post-LHC accelerator project by 2018/19. This is one of the main recommendations of the updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council in May 2013. The EuroCirCol conceptual design study is a direct response to this recommendation, carried out through a collaboration of institutes and universities worldwide. A new research infrastructure of such scale depends on the feasibility of key technologies pushed beyond current state of the art. Innovative designs for accelerator magnets to achieve high-quality fields up to 16 T and for a cryogenic beam vacuum system to cope with unpre...

  10. The Finns Party: Euroscepticism, Euro Crisis, Populism and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Herkman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many European countries, populist right-wing parties have been most noticeable representatives of Euroscepticism. In Finland, the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset has been a constant promoter of organisational Euroscepticism through its leader, Timo Soini. The party broke through in Finland’s ‘big bang elections’ of 2011, when the most debated issue was the European economic crisis, which was dominated by Eurosceptic Soini. Research concerning the relationship between the media, populism and Euroscepticism usually focus on national or European Parliament elections. This study analyses the media portrayal of the Eurosceptic Finns Party during times other than elections, focusing on the Finland’s overall Euro crisis press coverage in 2010–2012. The analysis shows that the populist Finns Party has been a minor player in that coverage, which was dominated by the Euro positive political and economic elites. Differences between newspapers indicate that journalistic routines and political context direct media coverage toward particular framings, even when the media proclaims itself politically independent and neutral.

  11. Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour: Introduction to the special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärling, Tommy; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue "Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour" by briefly reviewing the contents of the included papers. The introduction follows the organization of the papers in three sections each focusing on a common set of issues. In the first section, research...... revealing the perceived and actual problems consumers face after the euro changeover is described. Research illuminating learning and adaptation to the euro changeover is the focus of the second section. A special problem is the misperception of inflation after the euro changeover. Research on this problem...

  12. BRANCH ASPECTS OF ACCOUNTING PAYMENTS BY COMPANIES OF MOBILE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Konovalova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some branch aspects of accounting payments by companies of mobile network are analyzed. Analyzed topical by regarded problem for Sverdlovskaya region. Researched civic-law notions, that applying at the telecommunication area. The authors gives recommendations for system of accounting specific aspects of payments on the basis of they economic essence, and gives sentences to change legislation activeing at the Russian Federation.

  13. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which

  14. THE UEFA EURO 2012 ANTI-DOPING PROGRAMME – SCIENTIFIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, M.; Kwiatkowska, D.; Turek-Lepa, E.; Pokrywka, A.; Saugy, M.; Baume, N.; Gmeiner, G.

    2014-01-01

    The final tournament of the UEFA European Football Championship is one of the top sporting events in the world, and a high-profile event of this kind requires a well-planned and well-executed anti-doping programme to ensure the integrity of results in the competition. UEFA EURO 2012 presented a unique logistical challenge, with the tournament spread across two countries, both covering a large geographical area. This paper discusses the planning and delivery of both the pre tournament out-of-competition (OOC) testing programme and the in-competition (IC) programme, as well as reviewing the activities of doping control officers (DCOs), the whereabouts programme and assessing the sample collection and transport process. The analytical approach applied is also discussed, along with an overview of the distribution of T/E ratios and blood parameters. PMID:24899771

  15. SME's contribution to the creation of the Euro-Mideterranean Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    The paper focuses on the manufacturing sector of 10 Mediterranean Partners, in particular on the industrial structures and their relationship with the market. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, and in particular the project of the free trade area, is placing the North-South relationship in a new...... industrial units are family businesses concentrated in traditional sectors utilizing low technology equipment, and supplying to the local markets. They are facing a shrinking purchasing power with changing patterns of consumption. Industrial modernization and export-oriented strategies can have an effect...... only on a particular type of SME while excluding the majority of the enterprises. The features of the local markets show that development strategies should take increasingly into account the structural characteristics of the production systems and of the markets in which they are embedded...

  16. 24 CFR 206.19 - Payment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment options. 206.19 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.19 Payment options. (a) Term payment option. Under the term payment option, equal monthly payments are made by the mortgagee to the...

  17. 24 CFR 983.352 - Vacancy payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.352 Vacancy payment. (a) Payment for move-out month. If an assisted family moves out of the unit, the owner may keep the housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacancy payment. 983.352 Section...

  18. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  19. 20 CFR 411.525 - What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EN payment systems? 411.525 Section 411.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment Systems § 411.525 What payments are available under each of the EN payment systems? (a) For payments for outcome payment months, both...

  20. Adoption of Mobile Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Numerous mobile payment solutions, which rely on new disruptive technologies, have been launched on the payment market in recent years. But despite the growing number of mobile payment apps, very few solutions have turned to be successful as the majority of them fail to gain a critical mass...... of users. In this paper, we investigate successful platform adoption strategies by using the Reach and Range Framework for Multi-Sided Platforms as a strategic tool to which mobile payment providers can adhere in order to tackle some of the main challenges they face throughout the evolution...... of their platforms. The analysis indicates that successful mobile payment solutions tend to be launched as one-sided platforms and then gradually be expanded into being two-sided. Our study showcases that the success of mobile payment platforms lies with the ability of the platform to balance the reach (number...

  1. Characteristics of Mobile Payment Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyer, Nina; Pousttchi, Key; Turowski, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Companies are not going to invest into the development of innovative applications or services unless these can be charged for appropriately. Thus, the existence of standardized and widely accepted mobile payment procedures is crucial for successful business-to-customer mobile commerce. The acceptance of mobile payment procedures depends on costs, security and convenience issues. For the latter, it is important that a procedure can be used over the different payment scenarios mobile commerce, ...

  2. Convergence and Heterogeneity in Euro Based Economies: Stability and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Haynes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analysis is used to explore the performance of key macroeconomic variables in European countries that share the euro, from the inception of the currency in 2002 through to 2013. An original applied statistical approach searches for a pattern synthesis across a matrix of macroeconomic data to examine if there is evidence for country clusters and whether there is convergence of the cluster patterns over time. A number of different clusters appear and these change over time as the economies of the member states dynamically interact. This includes some new countries joining the currency during the period of examination. As found in previous research, Southern European countries tend to remain separate from other countries. The new methods used, however, add to an understanding of some differences between Southern European countries, in addition to replicating their broad similarities. Hypotheses are formed about the country clusters existing in 2002, 2006 and 2013, at key points in time of the euro integration process. These hypotheses are tested using the rigour of a bivariate analysis and the multivariate method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA. The results confirm the hypotheses of cluster memberships in all three periods. The confirmation analysis provides evidence about which variables are most influencing cluster memberships at each time point. In 2002 and 2006, differences between countries are influenced by their different Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP and labour productivity scores. In 2013, after the crisis, there is a noticeable change. Long term interest rates and gross government debt become key determinants of differences, in addition to the continuing influence of labour productivity. The paper concludes that in the last decade the convergence of countries sharing the euro has been limited, by the joining of new countries and the circumstances of the global economic crisis. The financial crisis has driven

  3. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme: Challenges of Biodiversity Science in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I.

    2009-04-01

    In close cooperation with its Member Organisations, the European Science Foundation (ESF) has launched since late 2003 a series of European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) Programmes. Their aim is to enable researchers in different European countries to develop cooperation and scientific synergy in areas where European scale and scope are required in a global context. The EUROCORES instrument represents the first large scale attempt of national research (funding) agencies to act together against fragmentation, asynchronicity and duplication of research (funding) within Europe. Although covering all scientific fields, there are presently 13 EUROCORES Programmes dealing with cutting edge science in the fields of Earth, Climate and Environmental Sciences. The aim of the EuroDIVERSITY Programme is to support the emergence of an integrated biodiversity science based on an understanding of fundamental ecological and social processes that drive biodiversity changes and their impacts on ecosystem functioning and society. Ecological systems across the globe are being threatened or transformed at unprecedented rates from local to global scales due to the ever-increasing human domination of natural ecosystems. In particular, massive biodiversity changes are currently taking place, and this trend is expected to continue over the coming decades, driven by the increasing extension and globalisation of human affairs. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme meets the research need triggered by the increasing human footprint worldwide with a focus on generalisations across particular systems and on the generation and validation of theory relevant to experimental and empirical data. The EURODIVERSITY Programme tries to bridge the gaps between the natural and social sciences, between research work on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, and between research work on plants, animals and micro-organisms. The Programme was launched in April 2006 and includes 10 international

  4. The New Coordinates of Globalization and Regional Integration: Resizing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Moldoveanu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly strong process of interdependence between globalization and regionalization - in the context of the end of the bipolar power at world level - has engendered a new philosophy regarding the evolution of the world, a reconsideration of the strategy of political and diplomatic, economic and also cultural and human relationships. In my opinion, in a multipolar world, that will bring into the first line of international relations new big actors of regional and universal vocation (China, Rusia, Brasil, India, the European Union will play an extensive role in participating at the geostrategic, regional and global equilibrium, through promotion of an „open diplomacy” that will allow – by dialogue and cooperation – the resolving more rapidly and efficiently the great challenges of the beginning of the century and millenium: the reduction of the great development gaps, the regional and global security, in a very solid economic background. A new dimension of the EU enlargement policy at regional scale is represented by the cooperation relations and the attraction into the European circuit of material and spiritual values of the countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of deepening the interdependence and complementarities at regional and global level, more focus should be put on the viable ways and modalities to intensify the cooperation in the Danube-Black Sea and Euro-Mediterranean geo-economic and strategic areas. The two big geo-strategic regions of the world belong to the same civilization and are subject to similar changes as the other regions of the world, despite some specific features of history and culture. The intensification and diversification of the cooperation at the Central and South-Eastern European level, as well as the Euro-Mediterranean and Danube-Black Sea region, does not represent an alternative to the general objective process of integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures, but a

  5. Medicare Provider Payment Data - Home Health Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Home Health Agency PUF contains information on utilization, payment (Medicare payment and standard payment), and submitted charges organized by CMS Certification...

  6. UEFA EURO 2012™ in the Polish Sociopolitical Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaluk Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport constitutes an increasingly popular language of discourse in modern societies, providing a (formal system of signs, which is easily used by, among others, businesses, media, public persons, and, particularly willingly, politicians. Thus, sport as a system of meanings can transfer any values, being at the same time a pragmatic way of arguing in the practice of social life. An example we analyze, are the events that took place after Poland (and Ukraine had been chosen to be host countries of UEFA EURO 2012™, as well as those which took place during the tournament itself. In these analyses, we use the concept of semiotics and, in particular, pragmatism as well as Charles Sanders Peirce’s triadic sign relation.

  7. Euro coins, entrepreneurship and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, A.; Fraipont, C.

    2014-01-01

    During the first year of their master degree in Technical Engineering the students have to realized a large project. This year, we have decided to add an entrepreneurial aspect to the purely scientific aspect used until now, while focusing the students' attention on a customer oriented management of the project and on the project management itself, with the definition of accurate objectives, a planning time, the distribution of the tasks and responsibilities... This year, the retained subject is the study of the evolution of the precursors of our current euro coins, based on the fulfilling of numerous requirements as the ease to differentiate the coins by blind people, the possibility for automates to recognize the coins, the way the coins will interact with skin and perspiration, the magnetic properties of the coins... The project is the response of the nuclear group of ISIB to a concern of a Belgian numismatist. (authors)

  8. Penalty payments for placement of advertising boards and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ofiarska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the essence, premises of application and sentencing guidelines regarding penalty payments for placement of advertising boards or structures in the public space in violation of regulations and conditions for placement thereof stipulated in the Commune Council resolution (ordinance. Structural elements constituting penalty payments are specified in the Planning and Development Act. The amount of penalty is determined by a decision taken by commune administrator (town mayor, city mayor. The ordinance specifies criteria for establishing the amount of penalty payments, taking into consideration the size of the advertising board or structure and the multiple of applicable advertising fees specified by the Commune Council for a given area or maximum fee recognized in the ordinance. Proceeds from penalty payments constitute a source of municipality’s own revenue, and are included among the so-called non-tax budget receivables.

  9. Areva At September 30, 2010: Revenue growth to euro 6.168 bn: + 6.3%. Backlog growth to euro 42.7 bn: + 2.2%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 6.168 billion euros over the first nine months of 2010 for growth of 6.3% (+5.2% like-for-like) compared with the same period in 2009. The main revenue growth engines were the Reactors and Services Business Group and the Back End Business Group, with growth of 11.5% and 7.1% respectively. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 82 million euros over the period, while changes in consolidation scope had negligible impact. Third quarter 2010 revenue amounted to 2.011 billion euros for growth of 6.1% (+4.4% LFL) compared with the third quarter of 2009. The Reactors and Services Business Group and the Back End Business Group, posting increases of 11.2% and 9.0% respectively, continued to lead this growth. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 39 million euros, while changes in consolidation scope had negligible impact. The group's backlog came to 42.7 billion euros at September 30, 2010, an increase of 2.2% compared with September 30, 2009 (41.8 billion euros). For the full year of 2010, the group confirms its outlook for significant revenue and backlog growth, increased operating performance excluding particular items, negative operating income, and strong growth in net income attributable to owners of the group with the contribution of the gain on the sale of the Transmission and Distribution business

  10. The use of EuroCordex in marine climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Palmer, Matthew; Lowe, Jason; Howard, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The Northwest European Shelf seas (NWS, including the North Sea, Irish Sea and Celtic Sea) are of economic, environmental and cultural importance to a number of European countries. However, their representation by global climate models (GCMs) is very crude, due to their inability to represent the complex geometry and the absence of tides. Therefore, there is a need to employ dynamical downscaling methods when considering the potential impacts of climate change on the European (and other) shelf seas. Using a shelf seas model to dynamically downscale of the ocean component of the GCM is a well established method. While taking open ocean lateral boundary conditions from the GCM ocean is acceptable, using surface flux forcings from the GCM atmosphere is often problematic. The CORDEX project provides an important dataset of high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric forcings, derived from 'parent' CMIP5 GCM simulations. We drive the NEMO shelf seas model with data from CMIP5 models and EURO-CORDEX Regional Climate Model (RCM) data to produce a set of NWS climate projections. We require relatively high temporal resolution output, and run-off (for the river forcings), and so are limited to a subset of the available EURO-CORDEX RCMs. From these we select two CMIP5 GCMs with the same RCM with two emissions scenarios to give a minimum estimate of GCM model structural and emission scenario uncertainty. Other experiments allow an initial estimate of the uncertainty associated with the model structure of both the shelf seas and the RCM. Our analysis is focused on the uncertainty associated with the mean change in a number of physical marine impacts and the drivers of coastal variability and change, including sea level and the propagation of open ocean signals onto the shelf. Our work is part of the UK Climate Projections (UKCP18) and will inform the following UK Climate Change Risk Assessments, required as part of the Climate Change Act.

  11. Credit cycle coherence in the eurozone : Was there a euro effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Bezemer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines effects of the euro introduction on credit cycle coherence in the euro-zone through six channels. We construct and describe credit cycles for total bank credit, household mortgages and non-financial business loans for 16 EMU economies over 1990-2015. Credit cycle coherence is

  12. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For...

  13. Euro VI technologies and costs for Heavy Duty vehicles: the expert panels summary of stakeholders responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gense, N.L.J.; Riemersma, I.J.; Such, C.l; Ntziachristos, L.

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of the work carried out under on the Europeans Commission’s call for tender regarding “Technical support for the Commission DG Environment on the development of Euro 5 standards for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI standards for heavy-duty vehicles” (Reference:

  14. USD and Euro: competitive advantages of reserve currencies and leadership tussle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordyachkova O. V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the factors, affecting exchange rate, competitive advantages of USD and Euro as reserve currencies, the steps of fight of USD and Euro for the status of the “main” world's reserve currency. It was concluded that the main factor, affecting exchange rate, is a political impact.

  15. Talking heads : the effects of ECB statements on the euro-dollar exchange rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, DJ; De Haan, J

    This paper studies the reaction of the conditional mean and volatility of the euro-dollar exchange rate to statements by European Central Bank and national central bank officials. We focus on comments on monetary policy and the external value of the euro. We find that the Bundesbank has dominated

  16. Fingerprint start the next generation of payment method : Fingerprint payment: a new mode of mobile payment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    In the generation of mobile internet, fingerprint payment is one of the most popular topics at the moment. China has a big market and many users are using the mobile payment methods. There are a large number of mobile phones equipped with fingerprint recognition technology. As we know, fingerprint payment brings us more convenience and safety. We do not need to use many bankcards, and fingerprint also eliminates the users from the trouble of queuing to pay. However, users send traditional dig...

  17. The Arab Uprisings and Euro-Mediterranean Security: The Regional Security Agenda of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schima Viktoria Labitsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Arab uprisings led to profound changes in the political landscape of the Southern Mediterranean, and came at a time of staggering Euro-Mediterranean relations. With prevailing turmoil and violence in Europe’s closest proximity, the Euromed relationship – heavily dominated by security objectives and concerns in the past – is facing new social, political and economic challenges. This work analyses what challenges have made it onto the security agenda of the European Union in response to the uprisings in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt between December 2010 and 2013. It does so by analysing the discourse of three institutions: the European Commission, the European Council and the Council of Ministers. Accordingly, it argues that security in the Euro-Mediterranean context may be analysed in the framework of the wider constructivist Copenhagen school of security studies, treating threats as politically constructed in the process of securitization. It emphasizes the different degrees of institutional involvement in framing the regional security agenda, and the vast application of security logic to migration and mobility as well as its absence in areas of biological and chemical weapons, extremism and weapons of mass destruction. This work’s final argument is that whilst the overall level of securitization throughout the three years remains low and partially inconsistent with the security priorities before 2010, the EU exhibited a particularly strong regional focus on Libya as well as a thematic one on migration and external borders.

  18. A Comparison of a Machine Learning Model with EuroSCORE II in Predicting Mortality after Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Decision Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Jérôme; Allou, Nicolas; Augustin, Pascal; Philip, Ivan; Martinet, Olivier; Belghiti, Myriem; Provenchere, Sophie; Montravers, Philippe; Ferdynus, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of cardiac surgery are sometimes difficult to predict and the decision to operate on a given individual is complex. Machine Learning and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) are recent methods developed to create and evaluate prediction models. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a prospective collected database from December 2005 to December 2012, from a cardiac surgical center at University Hospital. The different models of prediction of mortality in-hospital after elective cardiac surgery, including EuroSCORE II, a logistic regression model and a machine learning model, were compared by ROC and DCA. Of the 6,520 patients having elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, 6.3% died. Mean age was 63.4 years old (standard deviation 14.4), and mean EuroSCORE II was 3.7 (4.8) %. The area under ROC curve (IC95%) for the machine learning model (0.795 (0.755-0.834)) was significantly higher than EuroSCORE II or the logistic regression model (respectively, 0.737 (0.691-0.783) and 0.742 (0.698-0.785), p machine learning model, in this monocentric study, has a greater benefit whatever the probability threshold. According to ROC and DCA, machine learning model is more accurate in predicting mortality after elective cardiac surgery than EuroSCORE II. These results confirm the use of machine learning methods in the field of medical prediction.

  19. The Vocal Euro-outsider: The UK in a Two-speed Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The EU is divided between member states that have adopted the euro and those that have not. This article looks at the issue of differentiated integration with particular reference to eurozone integration and the euro-outsiders. I explore the recent public debate in the UK on euro......-outsiderness, comparing this with debates in Denmark. The article highlights some striking differences between the UK and Denmark when it comes to the actual management of euro-outsiderness in Brussels as well as some of the dilemmas facing euro-outsiders such as the UK, Denmark, Sweden and Poland as the EU struggles...... to exit its crises. Finally, I discuss the future of two-speed European integration and the UK's possible exit from the EU. The UK cannot escape the dilemma of favouring either influence or autonomy; whether the UK remains in or leaves the EU, it will need to allow the eurozone to proceed in order...

  20. ROMÂNIA – TEMERI ŞI PREGĂTIRI PENTRU TRECEREA LA MONEDA EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Negrea

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The New Member States are going now, after joining the European Union in 2004 (ten ofthem and 2007(Romania and Bulgaria, on a new road, the one of introduction of the Europeancurrency – EURO. As various differences between them, in the economy stage, adoption of EURO willhave different periods in the states who are expecting these. Achieving only the economic conditions isnot the essential, an economic and social environment, favorable to the adoption of EURO is neededfor a success process.In this paper, we tray to see the stage of adhesion to the Euro, the perception in the newmember states, especially of the fears that are concern of the population and, in the end, a look at thestage and future actions of our country, hoping to introduce the Euro currency in 2014.

  1. Predicting European Union recessions in the euro era: The yield curve as a forecasting tool of economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gogas, Periklis; Chionis, Dionisios; Pragkidis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have established the predictive power of the yield curve, ie: the difference between long and short term bond rates, in terms of real economic activity, for the U.S. and various European countries. In this paper we use data from the European Union (EU15), ranging from 1994:Q1 to 2008:Q3. The seasonally adjusted real GDP is used to extract the long run trend and the cyclical component of the European output, while the European Central Bank’s euro area government benchmark bonds...

  2. Euro VI particulate limits. Methods of development for GDI engines; Euro VI Partikelgrenzwerte. Entwicklungsmethoden fuer GDI Motoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Heribert; Hopfner, Wolfgang; Kapus, Paul; Kortschak, Martin; Winklhofer, Ernst [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Development of direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines is focussing on techniques to provide mixture quality and charge motion suitable for clean and fuel efficient combustion. A significant number of such DISI engines employ turbo charging. They most often operate under homogeneous and stoichiometric conditions. Charge stratification and fuel rich combustion modes are, however, selected for specific drive conditions and must be included into emissions development strategies. Particle mass and number emissions allowed by forthcoming Euro VI legistation for the NEDC test impose engine out limits which require mixture formation quality otherwise achieved in natural gas engines and in modern port injection engines. Such high quality mixture formation targets with direct injection of liquid fuel need development techniques including all relevant steps from engine concept selection until final vehicle calibration. This paper describes testing techniques supporting such development efforts from first hardware tests on single cylinder optical engines up to in-cylinder evaluation of mixture quality in vehicle calibration work. (orig.)

  3. Managing bundled payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Results of Medicare's ACE demonstration project and Geisinger Health System's ProvenCare initiative provide insight into the challenges hospitals will face as bundled payment proliferates. An early analysis of these results suggests that hospitals would benefit from bringing full automation using clinical IT tools to bear in their efforts to meet these challenges. Other important factors contributing to success include board and physician leadership, organizational structure, pricing methodology for bidding, evidence-based medical practice guidelines, supply cost management, process efficiency management, proactive and aggressive case management, business development and marketing strategy, and the financial management system.

  4. Empirical Studies on Cash Payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kippers (Jeanine)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCash is still the most common means of daily payments. The large number of cash payments is supported by a costly distribution system in which retailers, banks and central banks participate. Currency is issued in a range of bank note and coin denominations to facilitate efficiency

  5. Build Your Own Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-07-01

    Physicians participating in MACRA have a unique opportunity to create and submit their own alternative payment models to the government and take command of their own future payments. At least one Texas physician is taking a crack at developing his own model.

  6. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  7. Poor performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score for prediction of perioperative mortality in octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhor, Vibol; Merceron, Sybille; Ricome, Sylvie; Baron, Gabriel; Daoud, Omar; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Aubier, Benjamin; Provenchere, Sophie; Philip, Ivan

    2010-08-01

    Although results of cardiac surgery are improving, octogenarians have a higher procedure-related mortality and more complications with increased length of stay in ICU. Consequently, careful evaluation of perioperative risk seems necessary. The aims of our study were to assess and compare the performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score in the prediction of perioperative mortality among octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and to compare these predictive performances with those obtained in younger patients. This retrospective study included all consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our institution between November 2005 and December 2007. For each patient, risk assessment for mortality was performed using logistic EuroSCORE, additive EuroSCORE and CARE score. The main outcome measure was early postoperative mortality. Predictive performances of these scores were assessed by calibration and discrimination using goodness-of-fit test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. During this 2-year period, we studied 2117 patients, among whom 134/211 octogenarians and 335/1906 nonoctogenarians underwent an aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. When considering patients with aortic stenosis, discrimination was poor in octogenarians and the difference from nonoctogenarians was significant for each score (0.58, 0.59 and 0.56 vs. 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77 for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and CARE score in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians, respectively, P performances of these scores are poor in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, especially aortic valve replacement. Risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in octogenarians should not be made with these scoring systems alone.

  8. Practice arrangement and medicare physician payment in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer; Ridge, John A; Egleston, Brian; Lango, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    Medicare Part B physician payment indicates a cost to Medicare beneficiaries for a physician service and connotes physician clinical productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was an association between practice arrangement and Medicare physician payment. Cross-sectional study. Medicare provider utilization and payment data. Otolaryngologists from 1 metropolitan area were included as part of a pilot study. A generalized linear model was used to determine the effect of practice-specific variables including patient volumes on physician payment. Of 67 otolaryngologists included, 23 (34%) provided services through an independent practice, while others were employed by 1 of 3 local academic centers. Median payment was $58,895 per physician for the year, although some physicians received substantially higher payments. Reimbursements to faculty at 1 academic department were higher than to those at other institutions or to independent practitioners. After adjustments were made for patient volumes, physician subspecialty, and gender, payments to each faculty at Hospital C were 2 times higher than to those at Hospital A (relative ratio [RR] 2.03; 95% CI, 1.27-3.27; P = .003); 2 times higher than to faculty at Hospital B (RR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7; P = .0001); and 1.6 times higher than to independent practitioners (RR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.04-2.7; P = .03). Payments to physicians in the other groups were not significantly different. Differences in reimbursement corresponded to an emphasis on procedures over office visits but not Medicare case mix adjustments for patient discharges from associated institutions. Variation in the cost of academic otolaryngology care may be subject in part to institutional factors. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. Are electricity prices affected by the US dollar to Euro exchange rate? The Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M. Pilar; Dickey, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationships between Spanish electricity spot prices and the US dollar/Euro (USD/Euro) exchange rate during the period 2005-2007, taking into account the study of the association between dollar and oil prices, in order to better understand the evolution of the former over time. The first finding in this study is that Spanish electricity spots prices, the USD/Euro exchange rate and oil prices are cointegrated; therefore there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three variables. Short-run relationships have been detected between oil prices and Spanish electricity prices and USD/Euro exchange rate in the sense that Spanish electricity prices and USD/Euro exchange rate are affected by oil prices in the short run. There is a transmission of volatility between USD/Euro exchange rate and oil prices to Spanish electricity prices; so although Spanish electricity prices are not affected in level by the movements of USD/Euro exchange rate, they are in volatility. In this kind of scenario the conclusions confirm that for countries so dependent on external causes as Spain, one possible solution for guarantying the energy security would be the promotion of the renewable energies. Therefore we cannot ignore the impact in the internal expenses of the cost of installation and generation of green energies so there must be a balance between the increase in renewables and the reasonable market price of the electricity. (author)

  10. Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M.; Eijssen, Lars M.T.; Geurts, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants...... of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi......Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges...

  11. 42 CFR 412.529 - Special payment provision for short-stay outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deviation from the geometric ALOS of the same DRG under the inpatient prospective payment system (the IPPS... hospital inpatient prospective payment system geometric average length of stay of the specific DRG... system DRG weighting factors. (B) Is adjusted for different area wage levels based on the geographic...

  12. Direct payments as an instrument of the environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Sadłowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the area of human activity that is accompanied by the formation of positive and negative external environmental effects. In order to motivate farmers to conduct production activities in a way that reduces the negative impact of these activities on the environment, the so-called principle of cross compliance has been incorporated into the direct support system. This study characterises the area payments as an instrument of the environmental policy and is a review of the European Commission’s different proposals for the reform of direct payments through the prism of environmental functions of this instrument.

  13. Survey of electronic payment methods and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helme, A.; Verbraeck, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  14. 32 CFR 751.13 - Partial payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voucher and all other information related to the partial payment shall be placed in the claim file. Action... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial payments. 751.13 Section 751.13 National... Claims Against the United States § 751.13 Partial payments. (a) Partial payments when hardship exists...

  15. 32 CFR 750.9 - Claims: Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requires submission of the payment voucher to the General Accounting Office. All other field authorized payment vouchers are submitted directly to the servicing disbursing office for payment. ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims: Payments. 750.9 Section 750.9 National...

  16. 12 CFR 412.11 - Payment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment guidelines. 412.11 Section 412.11 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES § 412.11 Payment guidelines. (a) Payments from a non-Federal source, other than...

  17. 10 CFR 603.805 - Payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment methods. 603.805 Section 603.805 Energy DEPARTMENT... Other Administrative Matters Payments § 603.805 Payment methods. A TIA may provide for: (a... progress. A fixed-support TIA must use this payment method (this does not preclude use of an initial...

  18. AREVA invests 610 million euro in new uranium conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    AREVA today announced the launch of the Comurhex II project which will see the group build new uranium conversion facilities on the Malvesi site in Narbonne and Tricastin. Through this 610 million euro investment, AREVA aims to maintain its position as world no. 1 for conversion within a context of global nuclear energy. COMURHEX II integrates technological innovations from major R and D programs and return of experience from processes in operation for over forty years. Nuclear safety and reducing the impact on the environment were top priorities when designing the project. These future facilities will also lead to major savings of water and energy consumption and reduce effluents. The groundwork of the Comurhex II project has taken 150,000 hours of engineering over the past three years. Four hundred people will work on the site which will be launched in summer 2007. First industrial production is scheduled for 2012, based on 15,000 metric tons of uranium per year. This figure may be increased to 21,000 tons to meet market requirements

  19. Fight with energy producers is a fight for the euro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, F.

    2006-01-01

    The battle between the cabinet and companies producing and distributing energy is not about meeting pre-election promises, i.e. decreasing the profits of companies in favour of consumers. The results of negotiations between the cabinet and companies will have a direct impact on Slovakians chances to adopt the common European currency by the planned deadline. Although in the pre-election period the Smer political party did not consider adoption of the euro in 2009 as a priority, the situation changed in the summer. In July, the Prime Minister supported the idea for the first time. His repeated statements supporting the plan to adhere to the original deadline were a part of his goal to stop the fall of the SKK exchange rate. Of all the Maastricht criteria applicable to Slovakia, the inflation criterion seems to be the most difficult one to meet assuming the cabinet keeps its word and government expenditure does not exceed its income by more than is permitted. It is more difficult to keep inflation below the set level than to meet the budget criterion. If Slovakia wants to join the monetary union on 1 January 2009, as of the end of first quarter 2007 inflation will have to be far lower than the current level. (author)

  20. Payment by Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan A. Rapple

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the public is demanding that it exercise more control over how tax dollars are spent in the educational sphere, with multitudes also canvassing that education become closely aligned to the marketplace's economic forces. In this paper I examine an historical precedent for such demands, i.e. the comprehensive 19th century system of accountability, "Payment by Results," which endured in English and Welsh elementary schools from 1862 until 1897. Particular emphasis is focused on the economic market-driven aspect of the system whereby every pupil was examined annually by an Inspector, the amount of the governmental grant being largely dependent on the answering. I argue that this was a narrow, restrictive system of educational accountability though one totally in keeping with the age's pervasive utilitarian belief in laissez-faire. I conclude by observing that this Victorian system might be suggestive to us today when calls for analogous schemes of educational accountability are shrill.

  1. 42 CFR 412.521 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals § 412.521 Basis of payment. (a) Method of payment. (1) Under the prospective payment system, long... furnished to Medicare beneficiaries. (2) The amount of payment under the prospective payment system is based...

  2. Paying for payments: free payments and optimal interchange fees

    OpenAIRE

    Korsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Do consumers and merchants use the most efficient payment instruments? I examine how inter- change fees, which are fees paid from merchants' banks to consumers' banks when card transactions take place, influence the choice between cash and payment cards. I show that when consumers do not pay transaction fees to banks - a common feature in bank contracts - card use is declining in interchange fees, and surcharging does not neutralize interchange fees. According to my model, banks set interchan...

  3. Retail payments and the real economy

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and the real economy. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995-2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates the overall economy, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macroeconomic impact. Retail payme...

  4. Study on payments through mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of information and communications technology, together with the increasing use of electronic commerce, phones and mobile applications, have facilitated mobile payments to become an alternative payment method for buyers and vendors. Mobile payments offer various opportunities to business environment and became a starting point in the transition from electronic to mobile. This paper aims to analyze the present situation of the mobile payment methods and to identify the effects that mobile payment systems have on electronic commerce.

  5. Preparing for budget-based payment methodologies: global payment and episode-based payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Use of budget-based payment methodologies (capitation and episode-based bundled payment) has been demonstrated to drive value in healthcare delivery. With a focus on high-volume, high-cost surgical procedures, inclusion of anaesthesiology services in these methodologies is likely. This review provides a summary of budget-based payment methodologies and practical information necessary for anaesthesiologists to prepare for participation in these programmes. Although few examples of anaesthesiologists' participation in these models exist, an understanding of the structure of these programmes and opportunities for participation are available. Prospective preparation in developing anaesthesiology-specific bundled payment profiles and early participation in pathway development associated with selected episodes of care are essential for successful participation as a gainsharing partner. With significant opportunity to contribute to care coordination and cost management, anaesthesiology can play an important role in budget-based payment programmes and should expect to participate as full gainsharing partners. Precise costing methodologies and accurate economic modelling, along with identification of quality management and cost control opportunities, will help identify participation opportunities and appropriate payment and gainsharing agreements. Anaesthesiology-specific examples with budget-based payment models are needed to help guide increased participation in these programmes.

  6. BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS ON THE NEW EUROPEAN REGULATION IN TERMS OF PAYMENT SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bulearcă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that each Member State of the European Union had its own regulation in the matter of payments, the European Commission considered it necessary to adopt an uniform legislation in this regard. Consequently was adopted Directive 2007/64/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council which regulated payment services in the EU and the EEA (European Economic Area. In virtue of the obligation to transpose into the national law the provisions of this Directive, with effect from November 1, 2009 Romania adopted the Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009 which regulated its own legislation on the provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC. Given the experience gained so far, considering the technological opportunities in the matter of payments and the change in habits of payment of the EU citizens and not only, in conjunction with the development of electronic commerce and increasing facilities offered by the payment service providers in the field of payments via mobile terminals, it has been concluded that provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC are largely overcome by the technological evolution. Wishing to maintain the regulations in the matter of payment services at the current technological level to guarantee the security of payment operations at the same time with the adaptation of the market of EU payments to the opportunities offered by the single market and simultaneously with supporting the EU economy growth, the European Commission has adopted a package of measures which include both a new directive relating to services of payment as well as a proposal for a regulation on inter-bank fees for card payments. The purpose of the regulation is the transparency of bank information on payment services; creating a single legal framework at the EU and EEA level in the matter of payment services and the protection of payment service consumers. The new regulation applies not only to payment transactions in the EU or EEA but also to payments made or received to

  7. 42 CFR 413.350 - Periodic interim payments for skilled nursing facilities receiving payment under the skilled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities receiving payment under the skilled nursing facility prospective payment system for Part A... nursing facilities receiving payment under the skilled nursing facility prospective payment system for... SNF receiving payment under the prospective payment system may receive periodic interim payments (PIP...

  8. Regional differences in self-reported HIV care and management in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Mocroft, Amanda; Lazarus, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV...... management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. METHODS: A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared...... with clinics in all other EuroSIDA regions combined (non-EE). Characteristics were compared between regions using Fishers exact test. RESULTS: A total of 80/97 clinics responded (82.5%, 12/15 in EE, 68/82 in non-EE). Participating clinics reported seeing a total of 133,532 patients [a median of 1300 per clinic...

  9. EURO-CARES as Roadmap for a European Sample Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, J. R.; Russell, S.; Smith, C.; Hutzler, A.; Meneghin, A.; Aléon, J.; Bennett, A.; Berthoud, L.; Bridges, J.; Debaille, V.; Ferrière, L.; Folco, L.; Foucher, F.; Franchi, I.; Gounelle, M.; Grady, M.; Leuko, S.; Longobardo, A.; Palomba, E.; Pottage, T.; Rettberg, P.; Vrublevskis, J.; Westall, F.; Zipfel, J.; Euro-Cares Team

    2018-04-01

    EURO-CARES is a three-year multinational project funded under the European Commission Horizon2020 research program to develop a roadmap for a European Extraterrestrial Sample Curation Facility for samples returned from solar system missions.

  10. Euro kasutuselevõtuks ametnikel töö tehtud / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti eurole üleminekut ette valmistanud ametnike koostatud infomaterjalid ja tegevuskavad on valmis, ent euro saabumise aeg pole veel teada. Diagramm: Inflatsioonimäär. Kommenteerivad Jan Linden ja Klas Eklund

  11. L'Europe prête 300 millions d'euros au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The BEI (Banque Européenne d'Investissement) will lent to CERN 300 millions of Euros, not only to build the new accelerator, but also to help to set up and european programm of research (1 paragraph)

  12. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  13. Payment changes require integrating records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, M A

    1990-06-01

    The greatest challenges for healthcare organizations facing radical changes in their payment and reporting structures lie in finding ways to integrate various forms of patient information. An analysis of how three New York City hospitals dealt with their state's switch to an all-payer diagnosis related group-based payment system reveals strengths and weaknesses in their existing information systems and in steps taken to adapt to the change.

  14. Monetary union and forest products trade- The case of the euro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of a monetary union in European countries had affected the international trade of forest products between the euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with panel data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for...

  15. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  16. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  17. Source apportionment using LOTOS-EUROS: module description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kranenburg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To design effective mitigation strategies, the origin of emissions which produce air pollutants needs to be known. Contributors to air pollutants can be emission sources, like road traffic or industry, but also be more specified to emission from one location or from a specified time. Chemistry transport models can be used to assess the origin of air pollution across a large domain. However, in traditional simulations the information on origin is lost and brute force scenario studies are performed to assess the origin. Alternatively, one can trace the origin of air pollutants throughout a simulation using a labeling approach. In this paper we document and demonstrate a newly developed labeling module for the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS which tracks the source allocation for all particulate matter components and precursor gases. Dedicated simulations confirmed that the new module functions correctly. The new module provides more accurate information about the source contributions than using a brute force approach with scenario runs as the chemical regime remains unchanged. An important advantage of the new module is the reduction of computation costs and analysis work associated with the calculations. The new module was applied to assess the origin of particulate nitrate across the Netherlands. Averaged across the Dutch territory, the main contributions to nitrate are derived from road and non-road transport as well as power plants. Overall, only one-fifth of the concentration derived from sources located inside the country. The new technology enables new research directions as improved information on pollution origin is desired for policy support as well as scientific applications.

  18. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  19. Episodic payments (bundling): PART I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-10-01

    Episodic, or bundled payments, is a concept now familiar to most in the healthcare arena, but the models are often misunderstood. Under a traditional fee-for-service model, each provider bills separately for their services which creates financial incentives to maximise volumes. Under a bundled payment, a single entity, often referred to as a convener (maybe the hospital, the physician group, or a third party) assumes the risk through a payer contract for all services provided within a defined episode of care, and receives a single (bundled) payment for all services provided for that episode. The time frame around the intervention is variable, but defined in advance, as are included and excluded costs. Timing of the actual payment in a bundle may either be before the episode occurs (prospective payment model), or after the end of the episode through a reconciliation (retrospective payment model). In either case, the defined costs over the defined time frame are borne by the convener. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1280-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  20. Areva At December 31, 2010: Revenue rises to euros 9.104 bn: + 6.7% Backlog rises to euros 44.2 bn: + 2.0%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, AREVA's consolidated revenue rose 6.7% to 9.104 billion euros (+ 5.1% growth like-for-like) compared with 2009. The Mining-Front End Business Group and the Reactors and Services Business Group were the leading growth engines, with revenue growth of 6.7% and 8.9% respectively. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 141 million euros and the scope of consolidation remained stable over the period. Fourth quarter 2010 revenue totaled 2.936 billion euros, an increase of 7.7% (+4.8% like-for-like) compared with the fourth quarter of 2009, due in particular to 18.1% growth in the Mining-Front End BG. Foreign exchange had an impact of 58 million euros over the period. The group's backlog came to 44.2 billion euros at December 31, 2010, up 2.0% in relation to December 31, 2009. The backlog grew in the Mining-Front End and Renewable Energies BGs. Installed Base Business operations held up well, replenishing the backlog for the Reactors and Services BG. The agreement with the Indian utility NPCIL concerning the construction of two EPR TM reactors and fuel cycle supply for 25 years was not recorded in the backlog at December 31, 2010. The change in the Back End BG's backlog reflects the implementation of contracts signed in previous years. Nearly one billion euros in letters of intent signed in 2010 with US utilities corresponding to pre-sold production from the future enrichment plant were not included in the Mining-Front End BG's backlog. The backlog of the Mining-Front End BG came to 28.902 billion euros at December 31, 2010, up 4% compared with the end of 2009. Contracts won in 2010 include: - the 10-year uranium supply contract with CGNPC for approximately 3.5 billion dollars; - several other multi-year contracts signed in the front end of the cycle with US and Asian utilities. For the full year of 2010, the Mining-Front End BG reported revenue of 3.704 billion euros, an increase of 6.7% on a reported basis and of 4.2% LFL. Foreign exchange had a positive

  1. Analisis Perbandingan Risiko Nilai Tukar Kurs Dinar (Emas, Dolar AS, Euro dan Yuan (Periode 2010 – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Triyawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Money is a tool intermediary humans to perform the transaction  payment  is national or international. In its development money undergoes several changes. Similarly, in the development of the world economy, there has been a financial crisis that hit in various countries, such as the global economic crisis. Crisis economic global is the crisis that occurred as a result of the problems of economic markets in the whole world who make entire sectors of the economy markets experienced a collapse and the impact on other sectors . Which becomes a problem in terms of this is the risk of the value of the exchange currency money and the occurrence of fluctuations in the value of exchange currency money internationally which led to a decrease in the value of the exchange currency for money in countries developing. That is, because the use of fiat money system based only on the belief of its value without any intrinsic value in fiat money form . The purpose of this research is to know how big is the risk of the value of exchange and volatility that is generated in the use of value exchange currency currency exchange rate of Dinar ( Gold , Dollars USA, Euro and Yuan as the eyes of money internationally. This research is a study of Library Research with quantitative research type, by obtaining secondary data from site Internet. By taking samples as much as 60 months of each exchange Dinar Gold, Dollars USA, Euro and Yuan by way of purposive sampling and using the Analysis Time Series with Eviews 7.2. The results of the research of this is that the volatility of the value of the exchange currency for money top is Dinar Emas with value of 0.036590, while the volatility of most small is the value of the exchange currency Yuan with a value of 0.018472. Dinar Gold has a value of volatility and risk value of the exchange of the most high , so that when the dinar gold is used in terms of trade internationally and the company would have borne the risk of market

  2. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  3. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  4. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  5. The Greek Crisis and the Generalization of Euro in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian PERPELEA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In December 1991 the question of a single European currency is born, perhaps the most powerful glue of a united Europe. It might sound weird, the Greek crisis finds its root causes in ambiguity and inconsistency that treaty and, in the depths of contemporary history, the decision by Churchill and Stalin to bring Greece, East-European with the most powerful communist movement in the area, under the Western sphere of influence. So it is that Greece, after has experienced extreme political (kingdom, civil war, republic, military dictatorship and strong passions left, is admitted in 1981, the EEC “(... treated recklessly and tolerant European partners who did not exercise any control over them, nor have forced on performance targets.” So, ideal conditions for real “debauchery” that this country financially practiced under the nose of the EU, especially after entering the euro zone. As a result, the global crisis was “the occasion and not the cause” of the crisis and it finds its roots in Greek behaviour – governments and the public alike. The rational “solutions” are actually are... is only one – agreement with the EU because GREXIT, although possible, is ...inconceivable.

  6. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  7. A CHALLENGE OF TRUST: CAN DISTRUST KILL THE EURO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kostiuchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the dynamics of trust in the ECB in the most recent period, to compare the findings with a previous study of Farvaque et al. (2010 and to explore the question of importance of citizen’s trust in public institution for the economic performance of the country. This paper is dedicated to the study of the determinants of trust in the European Central Bank. The study attempts to give an answer to a question posed in introduction: can distrust kill the euro? After the world economic crisis the trust in the ECB began to deteriorate. Citizen’s trust in public institutions plays an important role for the economic performance of the country. Methology. We rely on the micro data from the European Commission’s Eurobarometer survey. This paper contributes empirically to the existing literature dedicated to the issue of trust in public institutions. The responses in 15 EU-member countries were taken into account. The present work uses the model of Farvaque et al. (2010 extending the time frame considered previously, giving a broader picture on this issue using the most recent data. Results. In accordance with our findings, the population that support the ECB is approximately equal to the population that does not trust in the community bank, with a mean value of 0,51. Even if there are still more supporters of the ECB, this data should provide an alarm for the European institutional framework, in consideration that in 1999 (in accordance with Farvaque et al. (2010 the mean value was 0,67. Practical implications. According to our findings, still people with higher level of education, people with a higher social status, people with center or right-wing political orientation, people with optimistic expectations on the economic situation have more trust in the ECB. However, we have found that women have become more supportive about the ECB than men in contrast with the findings of Farvaque et al. (2010. Value

  8. Avaliação do EuroSCORE como preditor de mortalidade em cirurgia cardíaca valvar no Instituto do Coração de Pernambuco Assesment of the EuroSCORE as a predictor for mortality in valve cardiac surgery at the Heart Institute of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Newton Guimarães Andrade

    2010-03-01

    included in the study. Hospital death was the end-point of the study. In order to assess the applicability of the EuroSCORE it was used the non parametric test of Mann-Whitney. The calibration of the model was measured by comparing the morbidity observed with that expected, using the Hosmer-Lemeshow Test of Goodness of Fit. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The comparison of expected and observed mortality, by Hosmer-Lemershow test, showed good predictive capacity (P = 0.767 as well as when compared to each value of addictive EuroSCORE (P = 0,455. The area of ROC curve was 0.731 (IC 95%, 0.660 - 0.793 with P 6 included 131 patients, with a mortality of 20.6%. The regression logistic analyses allowed to identify the following risk-factors for death: age > 60 years, gender female, previous operation, active endocarditis, associated surgery of the thoracic aorta and extra-cardiac arteriopathy. CONCLUSION: The EuroSCORE, a simple and objective method, proved to be a satisfactory predictor of operative mortality and risk factors for death in patients submitted to valve cardiac operations in the Heart Institute of Pernambuco.

  9. The Impact of EuroSCORE II Risk Factors on Prediction of Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Dang, Nicholas C; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has not been tested yet for predicting long-term mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between EuroSCORE II and long-term mortality and to develop a new algorithm based on EuroSCORE II factors to predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Complete data on 10,033 patients who underwent major cardiac surgery during a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Mortality at follow-up was analyzed with time-to-event analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 1 and 5 were, respectively, 95.0% ± 0.2% and 84.7% ± 0.4%. Both discrimination and calibration of EuroSCORE II decreased in the prediction of 1-year and 5-year mortality. Nonetheless, EuroSCORE II was confirmed to be an independent predictor of long-term mortality with a nonlinear trend. Several EuroSCORE II variables were independent risk factors for long-term mortality in a regression model, most of all very low ejection fraction (less than 20%), salvage operation, and dialysis. In the final model, isolated mitral valve surgery and isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery were associated with improved long-term survival. The EuroSCORE II cannot be considered a direct estimator of long-term risk of death, as its performance fades for mortality at follow-up longer than 30 days. Nonetheless, it is nonlinearly associated with long-term mortality, and most of its variables are risk factors for long-term mortality. Hence, they can be used in a different algorithm to stratify the risk of long-term mortality after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. CMS announces new payment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On Tuesday, 1/9/18, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS announced a new voluntary bundled-payment model that will be considered an advanced alternative payment model under Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA (1. The new model is the first advanced Alternative Payment Model (APM to be introduced by the Trump administration. The Trump administration has been a vocal advocate of reducing administrative burden for clinicians and has touted voluntary models as a solution (2. The new, voluntary model comes less than two months after the CMS officially decided to eliminate two mandatory bundled-payment models created during the Obama administration. Under the model, clinician payment will be based on quality measures during a 90-day episode of care. Participants must select at least one of the 32 clinical episodes to apply to the model. The inpatient clinical episodes are listed in Table 1 (3. Table 1. Clinical inpatient episodes under …

  11. The impact of introducing patient co-payments in Germany on the use of IVF and ICSI: a price-elasticity of demand assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M P; Griesinger, G; Ledger, W; Postma, M J

    2009-11-01

    Authorities concerned by rising healthcare costs have a tendency to target reproductive treatments because of the perception that infertility is a low priority. In 2004 German health authorities introduced a 50% co-payment for patients, in an effort to save cost. We explored the impact of this pricing policy on the utilization of reproductive treatments in Germany. Using aggregated annual in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle data in Germany, we evaluated the relationship between changes in the number of cycles in relation to changes in costs faced by consumers following the introduction of a patient co-payment from 'no fees' to 1500-2000 euros by estimating the short-run price-elasticity of demand. The impact of introducing patient co-payments for IVF/ICSI on the likelihood of switching to other low-cost fertility treatments was evaluated using the cross-price elasticity methodology. RESULTS The reduction in demand for IVF and ICSI cycles in the year following the introduction of patient co-payments resulted in elasticities of -0.41 and -0.34, respectively. The price-elasticity for the combined reduction of IVF/ICSI in relation to the co-payment was estimated to be -0.36. The cross-price elasticity for clomifene was close to zero (-0.01) suggesting that demand for these interventions are independent of each other and no substitution occurred. We report price elasticities for IVF and ICSI of -0.41 and -0.34 after introducing a 500-2000 euros co-payment. These findings likely represent short-run elasticities that are likely to vary over time as factors that influence the supply and demand for fertility treatments change.

  12. Financial integration of stock markets among new EU member states and the euro area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babetskii, Ian; Komárek, L.; Komárková, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, 7-8 (2007), s. 341-362 ISSN 0015-1920 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA402/05/2758 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial integration * stock markets * European Union Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2007 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1083_fau_7_8_2007_000000000039.pdf

  13. Competitiveness in the Southern Euro Area; France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Lissovolik; Julio Escolano; Stefania Fabrizio; Werner Schule; Herman Z Bennett; Stephen Tokarick; Yuan Xiao; Marialuz Moreno Badia; Eva Gutierrez; Iryna V. Ivaschenko

    2008-01-01

    This collection of studies analyzes developments in nonprice external competitiveness of France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. While France, Italy, and Portugal have experienced substantial export market share losses, Greece and Spain performed relatively well. Export market share losses appear associated with rigidities in resource allocation (sectoral, geographical, technological) relative to peers and lower productivity gains in high value-added sectors. Disaggregated analysis of goo...

  14. Migration, financial flows and development in the Euro-Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    as to the conclusions: that by the turn of the twenty-first century migration would become an explosive issue for the Mediterranean region, and that today we are facing the consequences. The risk described as a ‘demographic bomb’ is no longer a risk; it has exploded and can be seen in the daily dramas along the Italian...

  15. Financial Globalisation and the Spatial Limitations of the Financial-monetary Integration in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Gál

    2015-01-01

    As countries of the world used large amounts of public funds to manage the 2008 financial crisis, public debt has risen to a critical level in many of them. Due to the drop in real economy, several countries faced unemployment and economic fallback that are still unresolved to this day. After the crisis, many were concerned how to restore the confidence in financial institutions and how banks can better contribute to sustainable social and economic growth. This paper discusses corporate socia...

  16. The Revenue Side of a Universal Basic Income in the EU and Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mencinger Jože

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to answer the question of whether universal basic income on the European level is a realistic option or an illusion. As UBI implies a much larger EU budget and a redistribution of collected budget revenues, the chance of introducing UBI depends on the required redistribution – the larger the redistribution, the lower the chance. The chance is indirectly assessed by an exercise in which 50 percent of actual tax revenues generated by indirect taxes of member states is collected at the center and distributed equally to all citizens. Though the net costs to the rich are relatively modest, the results indicate that the idea of introducing UBI on the European level is an illusion.

  17. Inflation persistence: is it similar in the new EU member states and the euro area members?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, K.

    -, 25/2008 (2008), s. 1-35 Grant - others:Česká národní banka(CZ) B4/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new EU member states * new hybrid Phillips curve Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/9070

  18. Inflation persistence in new EU member states: is it different than in the euro area members?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, Kateřina

    -, č. 10 (2007), s. 1-37 ISSN 1803-2397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new hybrid Phillips curve * new EU member states Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cnb.cz/m2export/sites/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/download/cnbwp_2007_10.pdf

  19. Forecasting Euro Area Inflation Using Single-Equation and Multivariate VAR–Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdesmeier Dieter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting inflation is of key relevance for central banks, not least because the objective of low and stable inflation is embodied in most central banks’ mandates and the monetary policy transmission mechanism is well known to be subject to long and variable lags. To our best knowledge, central banks around the world use conditional as well as unconditional forecasts for such purposes. Turning to unconditional forecasts, these can be derived on the basis of structural and non-structural models. Among the latter, vector autoregressive (VAR-models are among the most popular tools.

  20. Some Implications of New Regulatory Measures for Euro Area Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Doran, David; Kirrane, Caroline; Masterson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A number of banking and financial market regulations have been proposed in response to the financial crisis; in particular the Basel III solvency and liquidity rules. These enhanced regulatory standards intend to ensure that banks and banking systems are significantly more resilient in the future than was the case in the run-up to the financial crisis. However, there have been concerns that the extent and range of the new regulatory measures may lead to unintended shifts in market behaviour. ...

  1. Will business cycles in the Euro Area converge : a critical survey of empirical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Jakob de; Inklaar, Robert; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The industrial revolution is mostly seen as a supply side phenomenon. Ever since Gilboy stated that factors of demand may have been equally important, scholars have stressed the importance of investments and technological change. This paper re-considers Gilboy’s ideas, using the dataset of the Dutch

  2. Financial market fragmentation and monetary transmission in the euro area: what do we know?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman

    (2017) ISSN 1748-7870 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09190S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : financial market fragmentation * monetary transmission * European Central Bank Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.925, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/horvath-0478988.pdf

  3. Financial integration of stock markets among new EU member states and the euro area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, Jan; Komárek, L.; Komárková, Z.

    -, č. 849 (2008), s. 1-27 ISSN 0083-7350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : stock markets * convergence * new EU member states Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/ research /papers/twerp_849.pdf

  4. Low interest rates - do they revise household saving motives in the Euro area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kochaniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of decreasing MFI interest rates on household deposits and saving goals in 12 Monetary Union member countries in the years 2009-2015. It analyses tendencies in household deposits (overnight, with agreed maturity and redeemable at notice, and attempts to link them with certain household saving motives (target, retirement and precautionary. The paper identifies those deposit categories which appeared as sensitive to declining interest rates and indicates the Eurozone countries whose populations are expected to revise their savings plans. Precise implications are drawn for target saving motives of households in Austria, Cyprus and Malta. However, in the case of two other motives, the analysis does not conclude on the impact of decreasing MFI interest rates.

  5. 20 CFR 411.550 - How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system? 411.550 Section 411.550 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... the outcome payments calculated under the outcome payment system? The amount of each monthly outcome...

  6. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  7. Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year 2010...

  8. 32 CFR 756.7 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment is possible under another statute. In some cases, neither the NAFI nor its insurer may be legally responsible. In those instances when there is no negligence, and payment is authorized under some other...

  9. The novel EuroSCORE II algorithm predicts the hospital mortality of thoracic aortic surgery in 461 consecutive Japanese patients better than both the original additive and logistic EuroSCORE algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takahiro; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Oishi, Yasuhisa; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Atsuhiro; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2014-04-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II was developed to improve the overestimation of surgical risk associated with the original (additive and logistic) EuroSCOREs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the EuroSCORE II by comparing its performance with that of the original EuroSCOREs in Japanese patients undergoing surgery on the thoracic aorta. We have calculated the predicted mortalities according to the additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II algorithms in 461 patients who underwent surgery on the thoracic aorta during a period of 20 years (1993-2013). The actual in-hospital mortality rates in the low- (additive EuroSCORE of 3-6), moderate- (7-11) and high-risk (≥11) groups (followed by overall mortality) were 1.3, 6.2 and 14.4% (7.2% overall), respectively. Among the three different risk groups, the expected mortality rates were 5.5 ± 0.6, 9.1 ± 0.7 and 13.5 ± 0.2% (9.5 ± 0.1% overall) by the additive EuroSCORE algorithm, 5.3 ± 0.1, 16 ± 0.4 and 42.4 ± 1.3% (19.9 ± 0.7% overall) by the logistic EuroSCORE algorithm and 1.6 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2 and 18.5 ± 1.3% (7.4 ± 0.4% overall) by the EuroSCORE II algorithm, indicating poor prediction (P algorithms were 0.6937, 0.7169 and 0.7697, respectively. Thus, the mortality expected by the EuroSCORE II more closely matched the actual mortality in all three risk groups. In contrast, the mortality expected by the logistic EuroSCORE overestimated the risks in the moderate- (P = 0.0002) and high-risk (P < 0.0001) patient groups. Although all of the original EuroSCOREs and EuroSCORE II appreciably predicted the surgical mortality for thoracic aortic surgery in Japanese patients, the EuroSCORE II best predicted the mortalities in all risk groups.

  10. Payments and Central Bank Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Søren

    This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently......, they share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....

  11. The correlation between pedestrian injury severity in real-life crashes and Euro NCAP pedestrian test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2011-12-01

    was 17, 26, and 38 percent for 1, 5, and 10 percent of medical impairment, respectively. These results applied to urban areas with speed limits up to 50 km/h, although no significant reduction was found in higher speed zones. Regarding cars with BA, the null hypothesis could not be rejected at p = .05; hence, no significant results of injury reduction were found. A significant correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian score and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes was found. Injury reduction was found to be higher with increasing severity and level of permanent medical impairment. The difference between 1- and 2-star cars is 17 percent in mean risk of permanent medical impairment (mRSC) 1%+, 26 percent in mRSC 5%+, and 38 percent in mRSC 10%+ for crashes in speed zones up to 50 km/h. Brake assist was not found to provide a statistically significant injury reduction.

  12. Informal Payments in the Health Care System - Research, Media and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Cherecheş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments in the health system refer to any payment made outside the legal funding framework. The existence of the phenomenon in Central and Eastern European countries relates to the characteristics of the health systems in the communist period. The analysis is based on three types of data: a set of data gathered from literature review; a second set of data gathered from online media; and a third set of data collected from legislative and public policy. The analysis was pursued using the key words such as informal payment, under-the-table payment, out-of-pocket payment, envelope payment, healthcare corruption, under-the-counter payment. As reflected in the media reports and even publicly recognized by the officials of the Ministry of Health, informal payments are a serious problem of the Romanian healthcare system. Nevertheless, the studies pursued by local researchers are inconsistent with the actual magnitude of the problem. Besides that, there is a serious gap between the findings in this area and the policies intended to reduce the phenomenon.

  13. The Adaptation of Ways and Methods of Risk Minimization in Local Payment Systems in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdaev Mausar Yushaevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of risk management gain special relevance in the conditions of payment systems development in public passenger transport in Russia. The risk carriers as well as the sources of their occurrence are revealed; the characteristics of private risks of individual participants in the system of public passenger transport are presented. The directions of risk management in relation to the payment system in public transport are reasoned and structured. It is proved that the choice of specific ways to minimize the risks in local payment systems in public transport is conditioned by the following factors – the nature of the payment system integration in public transport areas, the temporary nature of risk components effect due to the improvement of organizational, economic and technological factors, the change of the stages of payment systems development, the evaluation of risks effects. The article reasons the possibility of using and adjusting traditional ways (risk evasion, risk compensation, decrease in risk level, risk transfer, distribution of risk between participants and the methods of risk management in the payment systems in public transport according to the stages of their development and functioning for the processing center, passenger motor transport organizations, financial center and passengers (payers. The authors justify the directions of integrating the local payment systems of public transport in the national payment system, taking into account the risks involved in the activity of its members.

  14. 36 CFR 51.79 - May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a franchise fee or other payments? 51.79 Section 51.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property....79 May the Director waive payment of a franchise fee or other payments? The Director may not waive the concessioner's payment of a franchise fee or other payments or consideration required by a...

  15. 42 CFR 412.540 - Method of payment for preadmission services under the long-term care hospital prospective payment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the long-term care hospital prospective payment system. 412.540 Section 412.540 Public Health CENTERS... PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Long-Term Care Hospitals... payment system. The prospective payment system includes payment for inpatient operating costs of...

  16. 42 CFR 408.65 - Payment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment options. 408.65 Section 408.65 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Individual Payment § 408.65 Payment options...

  17. 7 CFR 1599.6 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE McGOVERN-DOLE INTERNATIONAL FOOD FOR EDUCATION AND CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAM § 1599.6 Payments. (a... payment; the bank ABA number to which payment is to be made; the account number for the deposit at the bank; the participant's taxpayer identification number; and the type of the account into which the...

  18. 7 CFR 1499.6 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FOOD FOR PROGRESS PROGRAM § 1499.6 Payments. (a) If the... payment; the bank ABA number to which payment is to be made; the account number for the deposit at the bank; the participant's taxpayer identification number; and the type of the account into which the...

  19. 24 CFR 2002.15 - Advance payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... where the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees, or require an advance payment of an amount up to the full estimated charges in the case of requesters with no history of payment; or (2) Where a requester has previously failed to pay a fee charged in a timely fashion (i.e., within 30 days...

  20. 14 CFR 1206.704 - Advance payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... where the requester has a history of prompt payment of FOIA fees, or require an advance payment of an amount up to the full estimated charges in the case of requesters with no history of payment; or (2) A requester has previously failed to pay a fee in a timely fashion (within 30 days of billing), then NASA may...

  1. 20 CFR 435.22 - Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.22 Payment. (a) Introduction. Payment methods..., and (ii) Financial management systems that meet the standards for fund control and accountability as..., Payment Management System, Rockville, MD 20852. Interest amounts up to $250 per year may be retained by...

  2. 20 CFR 410.501 - Payment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment periods. 410.501 Section 410.501 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.501 Payment periods. Benefits are paid to...

  3. 20 CFR 627.430 - Grant payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... after receipt of a proper request for reimbursement. (e) Working capital advance payments. If a... working capital, the awarding agency may provide cash on a working capital advance payment basis. Under... reimburse the subrecipient for its actual cash disbursements. The working capital advance method of payment...

  4. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.112 Late payments. Pursuant to § 920.41(a), interest will be charged at a 1.5 percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received... late charge will be assessed when payment becomes 30 days late. Interest and late payment charges shall...

  5. 42 CFR 460.182 - Medicaid payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid payment. 460.182 Section 460.182 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Payment § 460.182 Medicaid payment. (a) Under a PACE program agreement, the State administering agency...

  6. 45 CFR 34.7 - Payment procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whole or part, the claims officer shall prepare and mail a payment voucher to the claimant. (b) This... payment voucher, the claims officer shall sign and forward the signed voucher to the office where the claimant is or was employed for processing. (d) Upon receipt of the signed payment voucher, the office in...

  7. 41 CFR 51-5.7 - Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payments. 51-5.7 Section... Payments. Payments for products or services of persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities shall be made within 30 days after shipment or receipt of a proper invoice or voucher. ...

  8. 5 CFR 1655.14 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1655.14 Section 1655.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.14 Loan payments. (a) Loan payments must be made through payroll deduction in accordance with the loan agreement. Once loan...

  9. 5 CFR 1620.35 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1620.35 Section 1620.35... Nonappropriated Fund Employees § 1620.35 Loan payments. NAF instrumentalities must deduct and transmit TSP loan... CFR part 1655 and Board procedures. Loan payments may not be deducted and transmitted for employees...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1186 - Payment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment issues. 27.1186 Section 27.1186 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1186 Payment issues. Payment of cost...

  11. Security of payment in Malaysian construction industry: issues on sub-contract's direct payment

    OpenAIRE

    Supardi, Azizan; Adnan, Hamimah

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, sub-contractors have to bear with the current structure of payment mechanisms in the standard forms of contract, which are payment upon certification, direct payment from the employer, and contingent or conditional payment. However, „direct payment‟ provision is applied for in most of the nominated sub-contracts and not to the domestic sub-contractors; thus the Construction Industry Payment and Adjudication (CIPA) Act is proposed. This paper, though, is to disclose the findings o...

  12. Media image of sport volunteering during the UEFA Euro 2012™ and the motives for social work and its style of volunteers working in Poznan and in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Brdak

    2015-11-01

    Abstract   Background: Volunteering in sport is the most popular and media form of pro-social work in Europe. In Poland, to such activity the conditions are still creating by the largest growth of numbers of institutions active in the public sector in the field of sport, recreation, tourism and hobbies. Interest in volunteering at sport events is increasing, especially among young people. The media image of sport volunteering is adopted by the organizer with chosen promotional strategy. The associated expectations of the participants, their motivation and style of behaving during participation in volunteer project as a consequence are also factors determining the media image of sport volunteering.   Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the style of engaging in social work of their participants and motives of taking that kind of work by volunteers working in Poznan. Material and Method: The analysis included data available on the Internet regarding to organization of volunteer work during the UEFA Euro 2012™ in Poland and Ukraine as well as literature review regarding to the motivation to unpaid work in Poland. The motives of engaging in to volunteering as well as style of that work was compared between groups of participants of volunteering at UEFA Euro 2012™ in Poznan and Poland.   Results: Volunteering at UEFA Euro 2012™ was separated on two areas, sports and urban and was coordinated by different organizers. The convergence between the motivational climate created by organizers of two independent volunteer projects at UEFA Euro 2012™ and motives for social work of its participants is visible. Encouraging volunteers to unpaid work in sport area of tournament by presenting it as a possibility to feel the sports atmosphere was similar to motives and significant more often reported by its volunteers than volunteers working in urban zone. Altruistic motives underlying in social activities significantly more often were reported by volunteers working in

  13. The impact of adopting the euro currency for the Romanian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandescu, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that Romania joined the European Union in the hope that in the future the population will have a standard of living similar to that of the community, at present we should continue the efforts to fulfil all the necessary conditions of entry into the great European family. Regardless of the economic problems that our country is facing to join the euro zone, imposed by the need to fulfil the convergence criteria, the adoption of the euro by Romania can be an important achievement of our country, resulting from a sustained process that started many years ago. Although the political decision makers have set a 2015 deadline for the completion of this process, the adoption of the euro currency should not be seen as a purpose itself, but should be followed for the benefits it could bring to the Romanian population.

  14. EuroPhenome and EMPReSS: online mouse phenotyping resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Ann-Marie; Blake, Andrew; Hancock, John M

    2008-01-01

    EuroPhenome (http://www.europhenome.org) and EMPReSS (http://empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) form an integrated resource to provide access to data and procedures for mouse phenotyping. EMPReSS describes 96 Standard Operating Procedures for mouse phenotyping. EuroPhenome contains data resulting from carrying out EMPReSS protocols on four inbred laboratory mouse strains. As well as web interfaces, both resources support web services to enable integration with other mouse phenotyping and functional genetics resources, and are committed to initiatives to improve integration of mouse phenotype databases. EuroPhenome will be the repository for a recently initiated effort to carry out large-scale phenotyping on a large number of knockout mouse lines (EUMODIC).

  15. Problems Regarding The Possible Withdrawal Of Some Member States From The Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Marius ȘEITAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By taking into consideration the actual difficult macroeconomic situation of some of the Member States of the Euro Zone, as it was already published, as a scenario, the possibility of the avoiding of the member State position, the present paper will propose, as analysis subjects, the main impact elements on the other European national economies of such producing scenario. The main risks associated of such scenario, even if such process will be an administrated one, are the following ones: - the depreciation of the Euro as a result of the economic instability perception at the Euro Zone level; - the reducing of the European Budget incomes; - the reducing of the European Central banks working founds; - a very important risk which also have the character of political risk and which have an important position being a source of complex and difficult European macroeconomic problems, could be the precedent thus created towards other member states possible process of avoiding the member state position.

  16. Uppermost mantle seismic velocity and anisotropy in the Euro-Mediterranean region from Pn and Sn tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Gallart, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10-15 years, the number of high quality seismic stations monitoring the Euro-Mediterranean region has increased significantly, allowing a corresponding improvement in structural constraints. We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath this complex area, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases sampling the whole region. The method of Hearn has been applied to the traveltime arrivals of the International Seismological Center catalogue for the time period 1990-2010. A total of 579 753 Pn arrivals coming from 12 377 events recorded at 1 408 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1 400 km have been retained after applying standard quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values …). Our results show significant features well correlated with surface geology and evidence the heterogeneous character of the Euro-Mediterranean lithosphere. The station terms reflect the existence of marked variations in crustal thickness, consistent with available Moho depths inferred from active seismic experiments. The highest Pn velocities are observed along a continuous band from the Po Basin to the northern Ionian Sea. Other high velocity zones include the Ligurian Basin, the Valencia Trough, the southern Alboran Sea and central part of the Algerian margin. Most significant low-velocity values are associated to orogenic belts (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines and Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides), and low-velocity zones are also identified beneath Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The introduction of an anisotropic term enhances significantly the lateral continuity of the anomalies, in particular in the most active tectonic areas. Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations subparallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The Sn tomographic image has lower resolution but confirms independently most of the

  17. Poweo - 2007 revenue of 363 million euro, up 48%; Poweo - Chiffre d'affaires 2007 de 363 millions euro, en hausse de 48%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Poweo, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents its key activity indicators for the 4. quarter 2007 and the overall 2007 year (non-audited data): electricity and gas sales, energy and service supplies, revenue, margin and income. The main results are summarized thereafter: 129.8 million euro revenue for the 4. quarter (67.1% of positive growth with respect to 2006); 363.1 million euro revenue for 2007 (48.5% increase with respect to 2006); 91431 active client sites on December 31, 2007 (80300 on December 31, 2006); 13000 new residential client sites registered since the beginning of 2008; more than 3800 MW of fossil fuel power plant projects and 1200 MW of renewable power plant projects (500 MW in offshore wind power) with 30 to 100% estimated rates of success; a 41 MW wind power capacity already in operation. (J.S.)

  18. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends

  19. PAH, BTEX, carbonyl compound, black-carbon, NO2 and ultrafine particle dynamometer bench emissions for Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesel and gasoline passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; Chaumond, Agnès; André, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Although implementing Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and other novel aftertreatment technologies makes it possible to achieve significant reductions in particle mass emissions, it may induce the release of ultrafine particles and emissions of many other unregulated compounds. This paper focuses on (i) ultrafine particles, black carbon, BTEX, PAH, carbonyl compounds, and NO2 emissions from Euro 4 and Euro 5 Diesel and gasoline passenger cars, (ii) the influence of driving conditions (e.g., cold start, urban, rural and motorway conditions), and (iii) the impact of additive and catalysed DPF devices on vehicle emissions. Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on four Euro 5 vehicles and two Euro 4 vehicles: gasoline vehicles with and without direct injection system and Diesel vehicles equipped with additive and catalysed particulate filters. The results showed that compared to hot-start cycles, cold-start urban cycles increased all pollutant emissions by a factor of two. The sole exception was NO2, which was reduced by a factor of 1.3-6. Particulate and black carbon emissions from the gasoline engines were significantly higher than those from the Diesel engines equipped with DPF. Moreover, the catalysed DPF emitted about 3-10 times more carbonyl compounds and particles than additive DPF, respectively, during urban driving cycles, while the additive DPF vehicles emitted 2 and 5 times more BTEX and carbonyl compounds during motorway driving cycles. Regarding particle number distribution, the motorway driving cycle induced the emission of particles smaller in diameter (mode at 15 nm) than the urban cold-start cycle (mode at 80-100 nm). The results showed a clear positive correlation between particle, black carbon, and BTEX emissions, and a negative correlation between particles and NO2.

  20. Bundled payment and enhanced recovery after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Medicare's fee-for-service (FFS) payment model may contribute to unsustainable spending growth. Payers are turning to alternative payment methods. The leading alternative payment model to the FFS problem is bundled payment. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is taking another step to improve healthcare quality at lower cost. The CMS's Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation developed four models of bundled payments and 48 discrete clinical condition episodes. Many surgical care procedures are included in the 48 different clinical condition episodes.

  1. Payment Instruments, Finance and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.; Ramrattan, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of a payment technology innovation (mobile money) on entrepreneurship and economic development in a quantitative dynamic general equilibrium model. In the model mobile money dominates fiat money as a medium of exchange, since it avoids the risk of theft, but comes with

  2. Payment instruments, finance and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Ramrattan, Ravindra; Uras, Burak R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of a payment technology innovation (mobile money) on entrepreneurship and economic development in a quantitative dynamic general equilibrium model. In the model mobile money dominates fiat money as a medium of exchange, since it avoids the risk of theft, but comes with

  3. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...

  4. The Impact of Macroeconomic News on the Euro-Dollar Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of macroeconomic "news" (market now-cast errors related to the flow of data releases on macroeconomic fundamentals) on the daily USD/EUR exchange rate. I consider a large number of real-time macroeconomic announcements from both the US and the euro-zone, and the related market expectations as reported by Bloomberg. For the euro-zone I also study country level announcements for the four biggest economies (Germany, France, Italy, Spain). The results for the whole s...

  5. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  6. Book reviews: Marsh David, The EURO – The Politics of the New Global Currency

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Isadora

    2011-01-01

    The EURO – The Politics of the New Global Currency, written by David Marsh and published in both English and German, is a very thorough chronicle of the birth of the European common currency, from its early days, almost half a century before, and of its development until nowadays and even beyond, as it includes considerations on short term dynamics. David Marsh describes the story of the euro in a very complex manner, through a detailed, comprehensive and up to date analysis of the gathered d...

  7. Hyperkalemia by Euro-Collins solution in anesthesia for renal transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Eunice Sizue; Pereira, Rosa Inês Costa; Filho, Gentil Alves; Braga, Angélica de Fátima Assunção

    2013-01-01

    To describe anesthesia for renal transplantation that progressed to a sharp potassium increase after kidney reperfusion with Euro-Collins' solution in the operative field. We will also report on diagnosis and treatment used. The use of infusion solutions in the surgical field requires careful monitoring, such as electrocardiography, measurement of serum potassium, and availability of calcium gluconate, insulin, and albuterol for immediate use. The replacement of Euro-Collins' solution for saline solution immediately before the implant may be a useful option in patients with high levels of potassium.

  8. Does €1 Per Prescription Make a Difference? Impact of a Capped Low-Intensity Pharmaceutical Co-Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Pilar; Mora, Toni; Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2018-06-01

    Increasing patient contributions and reducing the population exempt from pharmaceutical co-payment and co-insurance rates were one of the most common measures in the reforms adopted in Europe during 2010-2015. We estimated the association between the introduction of a capped co-payment of €1 per prescription and drug consumption of the publicly insured population of Catalonia (Spain). We used administrative data on monthly pharmaceutical consumption (defined daily doses [DDDs]) from January 2012 to December 2014, for a representative sample of 85,000 people. Our results showed that consumption increased in the 2 months previous to the introduction of the measure, and fell with the introduction of the 'Euro per prescription' co-payment. The average net response associated with the reform (including anticipation) was a reduction of 4.1 DDDs per person per month, representing a 6.4% reduction. The decrease in pharmaceutical consumption was larger for those individuals who had free medicines prior to the reform compared with those who already paid a co-insurance rate (9.7 vs. 1.4 DDDs per person per month). The largest reduction in DDDs per person occurred in the following groups: dermatologic drugs, antihypertensives, non-insulin antidiabetic drugs, insulin antidiabetic drugs, and laxatives. A uniform capped low co-payment may give rise to a major reduction in drug consumption to a much greater extent among those who previously had free prescriptions.

  9. [The Euro-orphans phenomenon and the courses in therapeutic work and psychiatric treatment--a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marta; Gaweda, Agnieszka; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Today, the phenomenon of Euro-orphan is more and more frequently reported in the literature. This term refers to children with one or both parents emigrated from the country for work purposes. In connection with the social transformations of orphan-hood types described in the literature (nature, spiritual, social), the definition has been broadened by the definition ofeuro-orphan. The Ministry of Education describes the euro-orphan as the destruction of the family structure, the disorder of the socialisation process of children and reduction of the emotional exchanges among family members, as a result of migration of their parents. It provides further that not every child whose parents are not present in the country is covered as an euro-orphan. However, this group has become an increasingly larger populations. Lack of physical proximity and accessibility of important persons may have some psychological and pedagogical implications. These in turn can be shaped over time, into pathological symptoms, which are diagnostic entities in developmental psychiatry. It is not know precisely how many children in Poland are Euro-orphans. The aim of this paper is an attempt to understand the social phenomenon of Euro-orphanhood in the light of the observed psychopathologies of children and adolescents. The case study of the psychotherapy of a patient suffering from the Euro-orphanhood syndrome. Euro-orphanhood is a social phenomenon that generates Euro-orphans with a wide range of psychopathological symptoms classified in different diagnostic categories. The type and intensification of the psychopathological symptoms depend on the quality of relationships with meaningful persons prior to the Euro-orphanhood period. The course of the psychotherapeutic work with Euro-orphans should cover an individual aspect taking into consideration the maturity of defensive mechanisms as well as the work-through of negative feelings cumulated due to becoming a Euro-orphan.

  10. THE RISKS OF A TOO QUICK EURO ADOPTION BY THE EU MEMBER STATES. THE CASE OF PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Stefan Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the risks faced by the new countries that have joined the European Union, and which also desire to adopt the euro currency as quickly as possible. We will analyze the existing literature regarding the ways these risks manifest themselves, depending on the economic conditions present in these countries. The risks are mostly caused by an incomplete fulfillment of the optimum currency area conditions, especially the ones regarding the synchronization of the business cycles, the existence of mitigation mechanisms in the case of asymmetric shocks, and to a lesser extent, the insufficient flexibility of the European labor markets. In addition, because there are different economic conditions between the countries that plan on introducing the euro currency and the ones that already had, mostly related to a lower economic development and lower prices, there are specific risks that affect the former countries. Moreover, the benefits of entering the EMU greater monetary stability, reduced transaction costs, lower exchange rate volatility and a decrease of the interest rates can in some specific cases become also costs. In order to quantify all these elements, we have constructed a case study of Portugal, which has entered the EMU in the first wave. We have determined that Portugal's experience after the euro introduction was a negative one, when compared with the previous period, because the convergence process did not actually happened, as expected. Not only that, but the economic differences between Portugal and the other EMU countries deepened, and the country's fiscal situation also deteriorated badly in all these years, up to the point where Portugal was forced to ask for external help. The case of Portugal is very important for the countries that are eager to adopt the common currency without first achieving a sustainable economic development, through increasing labor productivity and exports. It shows that fulfilling the

  11. Attribution of Extreme Rainfall Events in the South of France Using EURO-CORDEX Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, L. N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mediterranean region regularly undergoes episodes of intense precipitation in the fall season that exceed 300mm a day. This study focuses on the role of climate change on the dynamics of the events that occur in the South of France. We used an ensemble of 10 EURO-CORDEX model simulations with two horizontal resolutions (EUR-11: 0.11° and EUR-44: 0.44°) for the attribution of extreme rainfall in the fall in the Cevennes mountain range (South of France). The biases of the simulations were corrected with simple scaling adjustment and a quantile correction (CDFt). This produces five datasets including EUR-44 and EUR-11 with and without scaling adjustment and CDFt-EUR-11, on which we test the impact of resolution and bias correction on the extremes. Those datasets, after pooling all of models together, are fitted by a stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution for several periods to estimate a climate change signal in the tail of distribution of extreme rainfall in the Cévenne region. Those changes are then interpreted by a scaling model that links extreme rainfall with mean and maximum daily temperature. The results show that higher-resolution simulations with bias adjustment provide a robust and confident increase of intensity and likelihood of occurrence of autumn extreme rainfall in the area in current climate in comparison with historical climate. The probability (exceedance probability) of 1-in-1000-year event in historical climate may increase by a factor of 1.8 under current climate with a confident interval of 0.4 to 5.3 following the CDFt bias-adjusted EUR-11. The change of magnitude appears to follow the Clausius-Clapeyron relation that indicates a 7% increase in rainfall per 1oC increase in temperature.

  12. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of payments, by acceptable level of risks and by social efficiency, a national payment system, and a local payment system (characterized by the growth of economic and social efficiency of systems participants, by the process of money turnover optimization on the basis of saving transaction costs and increasing speed of money flows within the local payment systems. According to the economic levels, the payment systems are divided to macrosystems (national payment systems, mezosystems (payment systems localized on the operational and territorial basis, microsystems (payments by individual economic subjects. The establishment of qualitative features of payment systems, which is a basis of the author’s terminological interpretation, gave a possibility to reveal the cause-effect relations of payment systems influence on the state of money turnover in the involved subjects, and on the economy as a whole. The result of the present research consists in revealing the payment systems influence on the state of money turnover which is significant: at the state and regional level – in the optimization of budget and inter-budgetary relations, in acceleration of the money turnover, in deceleration of the money supply and inflation rate, in reduced need in money emission; at the level of economic entities – in accelerating the money turnover and accounts receivable, in the reduction of debit and credit loans, in the growth of profit (turnover; at the household level – in

  13. Payment of hospital cardiac services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, W J

    1991-01-01

    This report describes how acute-care community hospitals in the United States get paid for services when their patients either are entitled to Medicare or Medicaid benefits or subscribe to a Blue Cross or Blue Shield plan, a commercial insurance plan, a health maintenance organization, a preferred provider organization, or some other third-party payment mechanism. The focus of this report is on cardiac services, which are the most common type of inpatient services provided by acute-care community hospitals. Over the past three decades, extraordinary advances in medical and surgical technologies as well as healthier life-styles have cut the annual death rate for coronary heart disease in half. Despite this progress, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of hospitalization. On average nationwide, diseases and disorders of the circulatory system are the primary reason for 17 percent of all patient admissions, and among the nation's 35 million Medicare beneficiaries they are the primary reason for 25 percent of all admissions. In the United States heart disease is the leading cause of death and a major cause of morbidity. Its diagnosis and treatment are often complex and costly, often requiring multiple hospitalizations and years of medical management. To focus management attention and resources on the immense cardiology marketplace, many hospitals have hired individuals with strong clinical backgrounds to manage their cardiology programs. These "front-line" managers play a key role in coordinating a hospital's services for patients with cardiovascular disease. Increasingly, these managers are being asked to become active participants in the reimbursement process. This report was designed to meet their needs. Because this report describes common reimbursement principles and practices applicable to all areas of hospital management and because it provides a "tool kit" of analytical, planning, and forecasting techniques, it could also be useful to hospital

  14. The serum bank of EuroPrevall - the prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieths, Stefan; Reese, Gerald; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K.; Beyer, Kerstin; Burney, Peter; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Summers, Collin; Ree, Ronald van; Mills, Clare

    2008-01-01

    EuroPrevall is an EU-funded multidisciplinary project including 62 institutions from 22 countries. EuroPrevall studies the prevalence and distribution of food allergies in infants, children, adolescents, and adults in Europe, threshold doses for allergenic foods, the role of the environment in food

  15. 26 CFR 1.985-8 - Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-8 Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro). (a) Definitions—(1... euro is substituted for that legacy currency (in accordance with the Treaty on European Union); and (B... pursuant to the Treaty on European Union signed February 7, 1992. Assume that on January 1, 1999, X changes...

  16. Mapping ground water vulnerability to pesticide leaching with a process-based metamodel of EuroPEARL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiktak, A.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Vanclooster, M.

    2006-01-01

    To support EU policy, indicators of pesticide leaching at the European level are required. For this reason, a metamodel of the spatially distributed European pesticide leaching model EuroPEARL was developed. EuroPEARL considers transient flow and solute transport and assumes Freundlich adsorption,

  17. Cultural Differences in Parents' Facilitation of Mathematics Learning: A Comparison of Euro-American and Chinese-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    A longitudinal study examined differences in Chinese-American and Euro-American parents' facilitation of their young children's mathematics learning. Participating in the Time 2 data collection were 36 second-generation Chinese-American and 40 Euro-American first and second graders from well-educated suburban Chicago families. Children were given…

  18. Projections of meteorological and snow conditions in the Pyrenees using adjusted EURO-CORDEX climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Current and future availability of seasonal snow is a recurring topic in mountain regions such as the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenues in France, Spain and Andorra. Associated changes in river discharges, their consequences on water storage management, the future vulnerability of Pyrenean ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as debris flows and avalanches are also under consideration. However, to generate projections of snow conditions, a traditional dynamical downscaling approach featuring spatial resolutions typically between 10 and 50 km is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. Indeed, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Moreover, simulations from general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) suffer from biases compared to local observations, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted before they can be used to drive specific models such as land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. Meteorological observations used for the quantile mapping consist of the regional scale reanalysis SAFRAN, which operates at the scale of homogeneous areas on the order of 1000 km2 within which meteorological conditions vary only with elevation. SAFRAN combines large-scale NWP reanalysis (ERA40, ARPEGE) with in-situ meteorological observations. The SAFRAN reanalysis is available

  19. Modelling of migration and fate of selected persistent organic pollutants in the Gulf of Gdansk and the Vistula catchment (Poland): selected results from the EU ELOISE EuroCat project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowska, Barbara; Pacyna, Jozef; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2005-02-01

    The ELOISE EU EuroCat project integrated natural and social sciences to link the impacts affecting the coastal sea to the human activities developed along the catchments. In EuroCat project river catchments' changes and their impact on the inflow area were analysed. The information was linked with environmental models. The part of the EU ELOISE EuroCat project focusing on the Vistula River catchment and the Baltic Sea costal zone was named VisCat. Within the framework of the EU ELOISE EuroCat - VisCat project, CoZMo-POP (Coastal Zone Model for Persistent Organic Pollutants), a non-steady-state multicompartmental mass balance model of long-term chemical fate in the coastal environment or the drainage basin of a large lake environment was used. The model is parameterised and tested herein to simulate the long-term fate and distribution of selected HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in the Gulf of Gdansk and the Vistula River drainage basin environment. The model can also be used in the future to predict future concentrations in relation to various emission scenarios and in management of economic development and regulations of substance-emission to this environment. However, this would require more extensive efforts in the future on model parameterisation and validation in order to increase the confidence in current model outputs.

  20. ILEWG EuroMoonMars Research, Technology, and Field Simulation Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Lillo, A.; Evellin, P.; Kołodziejczyk, A.; Heinicke, C.; Harasymczuk, M.; Authier, L.; Blanc, A.; Chahla, C.; Tomic, A.; Mirino, M.; Schlacht, I.; Hettrich, S.; Pacher, T.; Maller, L.; Decadi, A.; Villa-Massone, J.; Preusterink, J.; Neklesa, A.; Barzilay, A.; Volkova, T.

    2017-10-01

    ILEWG developed since 2008, "EuroMoonMars" pilot research with a Robotic Test Bench (ExoGeoLab) and a Mobile Laboratory Habitat (ExoHab) at ESTEC. Field campaigns were e.g. in ESTEC, EAC, at Utah MDRS, Eifel, and LunAres base at Pila Poland in 2017.

  1. Price effects of sovereign debt auctions in the Euro-zone: the role of the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; de Jong, F.; Giuliodori, M.; Widijanto, D.

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the period since the inception of the euro, we show that secondary-market yields on Italian public debt increase in anticipation of auctions of new issues and decrease after the auction, while no or a smaller such effect is present for German public debt. However, these yield movements on

  2. Abacavir usage patterns and hypersensitivity reactions in the EuroSIDA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roen, A; Laut, K; Pelchen-Matthews, A

    2017-01-01

    prescribed ABC. METHODS: We calculated the proportion of EuroSIDA individuals receiving ABC-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among those receiving cART after 1 January 2009. Poisson regression was used to identify demographic, and current clinical and laboratory factors associated with ABC...

  3. Vitamin D and clinical disease progression in HIV infection: results from the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viard, Jean-Paul; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Kirk, Ole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: We examined the association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] level and disease progression in HIV infection. METHODS:: Within the EuroSIDA study, 2000 persons were randomly selected for 25(OH)D measurement in stored plasma samples closest to study entry. 25(OH)D results were stratified...

  4. Forest changes since Euro-American settlement and ecosystem restoration in the Lake Tahoe Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan H. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Pre Euro-American settlement forest structure and fire regimes for Jeffrey pine-white fir, red fir-western white pine, and lodgepole pine forests were quantified using stumps from trees cut in the 19th century to establish a baseline reference for ecosystem management in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Contemporary forests varied in different ways compared...

  5. Euro Feast for Estonia - Feast in Time of Plague? / Andres Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Andres, 1958-2017

    2010-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Eesti Pank ja valitsus peaksid selgitama rahvale euroga liitumise vajadust ajal, mil terve maailm kannatab majanduskriisi all ja euroala riigid ei suuda täita Maastrichti kriteeriume ning euro jaoks on saabunud rasked ajad. Kreeka majandusnäitajatest

  6. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  7. Subionospheric VLF signatures and their association with sprites observed during EuroSprite 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mika, A.; Haldoupis, C.; Marshall, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, VLF observations during EuroSprite-2003 are analyzed in connection with many sprites observed above thunderstorms in central France. The sprites were detected with a sensitive camera from the Observatoire du Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees overlooking storms monitored by the French nat...

  8. Confidence building on Euro conversion : theory and evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Perotti, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Using a new dataset of currency option prices, we study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-98 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the euro. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of

  9. Confidence building on euro convergence: theory and evidence from currency options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Perotti, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using a new dataset of currency option prices, we study the evolution of investor confidence in 1992-1998 over the chance of individual currencies to converge to the Euro. Convergence risk, which may reflect uncertainty over policy commitment as well as exogenous fundamentals, induces a level of

  10. Le "LHC", un défi scientifique à 6 milliards d'euros

    CERN Multimedia

    Féraud, Jean-Christope

    2006-01-01

    On the french-swiss border, CERN is building the LHC; this particle accelerator of 27km will be operational in autumn 2007; its goal: to go the heart of matter to discover the mysteries of the infinitely small. this technological challenge will cost 6 billions of euros. (2 pages)

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci for fibrin clot phenotypes: the EuroCLOT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Frances M K; Carter, Angela M; Kato, Bernet

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibrin makes up the structural basis of an occlusive arterial thrombus, and variability in fibrin phenotype relates to cardiovascular risk. The aims of the current study from the EU consortium EuroCLOT were to (1) determine the heritability of fibrin phenotypes and (2) identify QTLs as...

  12. Studies in cow’s milk allergy: results from the Dutch EuroPrevall birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, N.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cow’s milk allergy is a common disease in infancy. However, until recently accurate numbers were not available. To investigate how many infants suffered from cow’s milk allergy, the EuroPrevall study was designed. In this European, multicentre study, nine European hospitals followed over 12,000

  13. First quarter 2006: sales up by 13.3% to euros 2,476 million

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The AREVA group's first quarter 2006 sales was euros 2,476 million, compared with euros 2,186 million for the same period in 2005, representing 13.3% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 13.0%. Nuclear operations posted sales of euros 1,660 million, up 11.5% (up 11.6% like-for-like), and buoyant business volume marked by: net growth for the Front End Division (+20.4%), with 60% coming from volume-product mix effects and 40% from favorable price effects, especially for uranium supply and enrichment services; the contribution from the OL3 (Finland), Ling Ao-Phase II (China) and Flamanville 3 EPR (France) reactor projects, which boosted the Reactors and Services Division's sales by 13.2%; a slight decrease in the Back End Division (-2.5%). The Transmission and Distribution Division posted sales of euros 817 million, representing strong organic growth (up 16.6%), consistent with the increase in orders recorded in 2005. Orders booked in the first quarter of 2006 were up by 15.4% like-for-like (up 25.4% in reported data) compared with the first quarter of 2005. For 2006, the Group expects net growth in sales, like-for-like, although not at the particularly high levels of the first quarter

  14. Changes in Gambel oak densities in southwestern ponderosa pine forests since Euro-American settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Densities of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees have increased in southwestern ponderosa pine forests during a period of fire exclusion since Euro-American settlement in the late 1800s. However, less well known are potential changes in Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) densities during this period in these forests....

  15. The Weight of Euro Coins: Its Distribution Might Not Be as Normal as You Would Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedy, Ziv; Aerts, Marc; Callaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Classical regression models, ANOVA models and linear mixed models are just three examples (out of many) in which the normal distribution of the response is an essential assumption of the model. In this paper we use a dataset of 2000 euro coins containing information (up to the milligram) about the weight of each coin, to illustrate that the…

  16. Magnet measurement interfacing to the G-64 Euro standard bus and testing G-64 modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogrefe, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Magnet Measurement system utilizes various modules with a G-64 Euro (Gespac) Standard Interface. All modules are designed to be software controlled, normally under the constraints of the OS-9 operating system with all data transfers to a host computer accomplished by a serial link

  17. El euro, un gran laboratorio de las matemáticas cotidianas

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    La sustitución de la peseta por el euro está provocando la posibilidad de observar de cerca el uso cotidiano de algoritmos matemáticos no aprendidos en la escuela, lo que nos puede servir como banco de prueba para constatar hipótesis, encontrar otras nuevas y buscar implicaciones educativas a todo ello.

  18. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.; Kroon, P.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Larsen, J.C.; Speijers, G.; Kapsokefalou, M.; Sheehan, D.; Gry, J.; Finglas, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence, the

  19. Does the introduction of the Euro affect the debt-equity choice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joeveer, K.; Tóth, Peter

    -, 2006/22 (2006), s. 1-16 ISSN 1740-231x R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : Euro introduction * external finance dependence * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/ec/wpapers/kerp0622.pdf

  20. Talking about money: public participation and expert knowledge in the Euro referendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert

    2004-03-01

    This paper uses the proposed UK referendum on the single European currency as a means of investigating the effect of democratizing science on the scrutiny of conflicting expert advice. Although the referendum has not happened yet, and may not happen at all, the campaigners for and against the Euro have none the less been working for several years to ensure that if, and when, it does happen they are in a position to win it. By exploring how campaigners on both sides of the debate understand the concerns of voters, the paper shows how they are working towards a referendum in which the political dimensions of the Euro are actively minimized in order to avoid alienating key 'floating voters'. Instead, the campaign is expected to focus on the economic costs and benefits of the Euro for individuals and households, with only limited discussion of issues relating to sovereignty. Whether or not the campaign groups, particularly those that oppose the Euro, can maintain this line remains to be seen but if there is a full and frank public debate about the economic, social and political stakes, then this will be despite the referendum rather than because of it.

  1. Corporate Image and the Establishment of Euro Disney: Mickey Mouse and the French Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Janis

    1998-01-01

    Considers interweaving themes that characterized the construction of Euro Disney, drawing upon articles in the French press. Offers analysis of the historical context for and the implications of the park's construction, using the literature of French cultural studies and cross-cultural studies for support. Discusses possible consequences to the…

  2. External causes of euro zone inflation differentials : A re-examniation of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Verhoef, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on external causes of Euro Zone inflation differential. Persistent inflation differences may influence inflationary expectations and can amplify regional business cycles. With a uniform nominal interest rate, the domestic real interest rates will be lower in high inflation

  3. S&P ja Moody's : euro edasilükkumisest pole häda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 7 sept. lk. 9. Reitinguagentuurid Standard & Poor's ning Moody's Investors Service ei pea probleemiks Eestis euro kasutuselevõtmise edasilükkumist, kuid märgivad, et euroliiduga ühinemine võib vähendada kiire majandusarenguga kaasnevaid riske

  4. Primary Disseminated Multifocal Ewing Sarcoma: Results of the Euro-EWING 99 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladenstein, Ruth; Pötschger, Ulrike; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Whelan, Jeremy; Paulussen, Michael; Oberlin, Odile; van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Hjorth, Lars; Michon, Jean; Lewis, Ian; Craft, Alan; Jürgens, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To improve the poor prognosis of patients with primary disseminated multifocal Ewing sarcomas (PDMES) with a dose-intense treatment concept. Patients and Methods From 1999 to 2005, 281 patients with PDMES were enrolled onto the Euro-EWING 99 R3 study. Median age was 16.2 years (range, 0.4 to

  5. The 2010 euro crisis stand-off between France and Germany: leadership styles and political culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohn, F.; Jong, E. de

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the severity of the 2010 euro crisis was caused by and reveals differences in leadership styles and political culture between European countries, especially between France and Germany. We trace these differences to differences in underlying values: culture. There is a

  6. Võlakriisi lahendused ähvardavad euro püsimist / Hans-Werner Sinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinn, Hans-Werner, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Euro on ohus, sest viimastel aastatel on GIPS-riikide (Kreeka, Iirimaa, Portugal ja Hispaania) keskpangad raha juurde trükkinud. Lisaraha oli vajalik sisemise raharingluse tekitamiseks, et saaks kaubandusdefitsiiti säilitada ja hoida üleval kommertspankade varade väärtust

  7. Model Checking a Client-Side Micro Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaudhary, Kaylash; Fehnker, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Virtual payment systems overcome the drawbacks such as processing and operational cost of the traditional payment system. The main aim of the virtual payment system is to provide efficient services in terms of cost. Online payment using credit card is one of the most expensive of all payment means.

  8. 42 CFR 484.205 - Basis of payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... episode payment is subject to the following adjustments and additional payments: (1) A low-utilization... 5, 1997 unless the national 60-day episode payment is subject to a low-utilization payment... payment for initial episodes is paid to an HHA at 60 percent of the case-mix and wage adjusted 60-day...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.361 - Special skills payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Special Payments § 9701.361 Special skills payments... at the same time as basic pay or in periodic lump-sum payments. Special skills payments are not basic... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special skills payments. 9701.361 Section...

  10. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  11. Charging of mobile services by mobile payment reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  12. 31 CFR 203.10 - Electronic payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic payment methods. 203.10... TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM Electronic Federal Tax Payments § 203.10 Electronic payment methods. (a) General. Electronic payment methods for Federal tax payments available under this subpart include ACH debit entries...

  13. First half 2006: sales revenue up by 5.7% to euros 5,036 million

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The AREVA group reports first half 2006 sales revenue of 5,036 million euros, up from 4,764 million euros for the same period in 2005, representing 5.7% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 5.1%. In the second quarter 2006 the group had revenue of 2,560 million euros, down 0.7% from second quarter 2005 sales (-1.6% like-for-like). Nuclear operations reported first half 2006 revenue of 3,334 million euros, up 1.6% from the first half of 2005 (+1.3% like-for-like), marked by: net growth of 12.9% for the Front End Division, mainly attributable to uranium deliveries and enrichment services; the contribution from reactor projects in Finland (OL3), China (Ling Ao-Phase II) and France (Flamanville 3 EPR), which boosted sales for the Reactors and Services Division by 2.7%, despite the downturn in sales of reactor services; a 14.4% drop in the Back End Division, primarily in the used fuel treatment business. The Transmission and Distribution Division recorded sales revenue of 1,701 million euros, representing strong organic growth of 13.8%, consistent with the increase in orders booked in the second half of 2005. Orders for the first half of 2006 were up by 17.5% like-for-like compared with those of the first half of 2005. The group is targeting a net increase in revenue for 2006, like-for-like

  14. Switzerland advances payments to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the picture, Charles Kleiber (third from left) visits the TI8 tunnel with (left to right) Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council, Guy Hentsch, Personal adviser to the Director-General, Michel Buchs and Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger. The State Secretary for Science and Research in Switzerland, Charles Kleiber, signed an agreement with CERN last week for an advancement of contributions from his country. The Confédération Helvétique will make an advanced payment of 90 million CHF. There will be no interest involved in this payment and the amount of money will be deducted from Switzerland's ordinary contributions to CERN in later years.

  15. Capital financing in prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszustowicz, R J; Dreachslin, J L

    1984-03-01

    In the era of prospective payment, arranging financing for hospital capital projects is expected to become even more complicated than under cost-based reimbursement systems. This article outlines the information needed for a bond issue in the prospective payment environment, defines the roles and duties of several external persons and organizations involved with planning a major capital financing, and provides an overview of the entire process. This article assumes for illustrative purposes that a tax-exempt bond issue is going to be used to finance a facility expansion. This method was chosen since over 70% of all major capital financing for hospitals use the tax-exempt bond as the principal vehicle for attracting the necessary debt to finance a major construction project. The tax-exempt bond issue also requires the most detail in documentation and legal provisions.

  16. How effective are biodiversity conservation payments in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costedoat, Sébastien; Corbera, Esteve; Ezzine-de-Blas, Driss; Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Baylis, Kathy; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We assess the additional forest cover protected by 13 rural communities located in the southern state of Chiapas, Mexico, as a result of the economic incentives received through the country's national program of payments for biodiversity conservation. We use spatially explicit data at the intra-community level to define a credible counterfactual of conservation outcomes. We use covariate-matching specifications associated with spatially explicit variables and difference-in-difference estimators to determine the treatment effect. We estimate that the additional conservation represents between 12 and 14.7 percent of forest area enrolled in the program in comparison to control areas. Despite this high degree of additionality, we also observe lack of compliance in some plots participating in the PES program. This lack of compliance casts doubt on the ability of payments alone to guarantee long-term additionality in context of high deforestation rates, even with an augmented program budget or extension of participation to communities not yet enrolled.

  17. 42 CFR 484.220 - Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... address changes to the case-mix that are a result of changes in the coding or classification of different...-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels. 484.220 Section 484.220 Public Health... Calculation of the adjusted national prospective 60-day episode payment rate for case-mix and area wage levels...

  18. Genesis and Evolution of Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Payment transactions through the use of physical coins, bank notes or credit cards have for centuries been the standard formats of exchanging money. Recently online and mobile digital payment platforms has entered the stage as contenders to this position and possibly could penetrate societies...... thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment paltforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  19. An Investigation of Digital Payment Platform Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the triumph march of mobile phones that currently are annexing music players, navigation devices, and cameras as separate physical objects. The next target is set on payment. Through synthesizing available literature, we construct a framework for studying digital payment...... platforms that combines platform, technology and business design aspects. The framework is applied to conduct a comparative case study of digital payment platforms. Four types of market actors are considered: banks, mobile network operators, merchants, and startups, which are incumbents and disrupters....... By hosting third-party services, payment instruments are evolving from single-purpose to multi-functional ones. Our research extends existing payment literature from the MSP perspective to emphasize certain digital payment platform components, which impact strategies and complementary products....

  20. Specialty Payment Model Opportunities and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Andrew W.; Chan, Chris; Hirshman, Samuel; Huckfeldt, Peter J.; Kofner, Aaron; Liu, Jodi L.; Lovejoy, Susan L.; Popescu, Ioana; Timbie, Justin W.; Hussey, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gastroenterology and cardiology services are common and costly among Medicare beneficiaries. Episode-based payment, which aims to create incentives for high-quality, low-cost care, has been identified as a promising alternative payment model. This article describes research related to the design of episode-based payment models for ambulatory gastroenterology and cardiology services for possible testing by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The authors analyzed Medicare claims data to describe the frequency and characteristics of gastroenterology and cardiology index procedures, the practices that delivered index procedures, and the patients that received index procedures. The results of these analyses can help inform CMS decisions about the definition of episodes in an episode-based payment model; payment adjustments for service setting, multiple procedures, or other factors; and eligibility for the payment model. PMID:28083363