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Sample records for euro area bond

  1. Which News Moves the Euro Area Bond Market?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Overby, Lars Jul; Sebestyén, Szabolcs

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a long dataset (1999-2005) of intraday prices on German long-term bond futures and examines market responses to major macroeconomic announcements and ECB monetary policy releases. German bond markets tend to react more strongly to the surprise component in US macro releases...

  2. Integration of Government Bond Market in the Euro Area and Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Velimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines analysis of evolution in euro area government bond market integration and interference of European Central Bank with functioning of respective market recently. Since the introduction of euro, government bond yields converged in the euro area, bonds of different countries have become close substitutes in the perception of investors, and overall integration of the market was rather high. At the end of 2008, dramatic shift occurred and ever since disintegrative forces were set in motion. The paper presents the following measures of integration of the government bond markets: yield spreads, dispersion in yield spreads and beta coefficient. All three measures suggest unprecedented market disintegration as of 2010. The paper highlighted relevance of sovereign bond market for the smooth functioning of the monetary policy transmission mechanism in a monetary union context. Three ECB’s programmes aimed at sovereign debt crisis resolution were analysed in details. They proved successful in lowering peripheral countries’ yields and spreads, and calming the markets. If one takes central bank function of the lender of last resort for banks, then these programmes may be viewed as the “buyer of last resort” device for government bonds. Although warranted by exceptional circumstances and need for swift response, a due caution should be paid to these programmes since they pose certain challenges for conduct of monetary policy and might even have unintended consequences.

  3. Wealth, Labour Income, Stock Returns and Government Bond Yields, and Financial Stress in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Sousa

    2011-01-01

    I show that when the ratio of asset wealth to human wealth falls, investors become more exposed to idiosyncratic shocks and demand higher stock and government bond risk premia. I find that the residuals from the cointegrating vector among asset wealth and labour income, wy, predict both future stock and bond returns in the Euro Area. Consequently, it can be used to track time-variation in risk premium. The results are robust to the inclusion of control variables and vis-a-vis other benchmark ...

  4. Flight-to-quality or flight-to-liquidity?: evidence from the Euro-area bond market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, A.; Brandt, M.W.; Kavajecz, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Do bond investors demand credit quality or liquidity? The answer is both, but at different times and for different reasons. Using data on the Euro-area government bond market, which features a unique negative correlation between credit quality and liquidity across countries, we show that the bulk of

  5. Financial market implications of monetary policy coincidences: Evidence from the UK and Euro Area government-bond markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Phelps, P

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the financial market impact of international monetary surprises arising on the same trading day. This paper estimates a suite of multi-security factor models, which captures international monetary surprise effects on UK and Euro Area government-bond markets over the period 1999–2014. In doing so, we shed light on the relative importance of coinciding, non-coinciding monetary surprises and non-monetary surprises across the yield curve. We find some support for ...

  6. Fiscal Policy Stance in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu Marinas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The budgetary position in the euro area and the EU improved significantly in 2007 compared to the previous year. The headline deficit declined to 1.6 % of GDP in 2006 and 1.1 % of GDP in 2007, down from 2.5% of GDP in 2005. The structural budget deficit diminished from 2% of GDP in 2005 to 0.8% in 2007, reflecting a restrictive fiscal policy in euro area. The fiscal policy became pro-cyclically because the economy of euro area is characterized by a slightly negative output-gap (estimated at 0.2% of potential GDP in 2007.

  7. EURO AREA FISCAL STRUCTURES. A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HURDUZEU Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European framework for fiscal policies is constructed mainly on the objective of monitoring budget balances and public debt, allowing national governments to decide on the specific fiscal policy that is more suitable to their internal context and public needs. However, for Euro Area member states this autonomy is restricted by the conditions imposed through the Stability and Growth Pact. As the recent macroeconomic dynamics underlined the necesity of improving the fiscal outcomes, the fiscal framework was updated and modified by the provisions of the new European economic governance meant to avoid unsound and unsustainable fiscal policies that could affect the stability of other Euro Area member states. The Six-Pack, the Fiscal Compact and the other conditions imposed by the reform of the fiscal governance framework are meant to ensure more discipline in drafting and executing national budgets. Even so, national authorities maintain their fiscal sovereignty and the decision regarding fiscal structures remains at their disposal, as long as the drafts are approved and the outcomes are maintained in the limits imposed through the supranational fiscal framework. Regardless of the numerous differences between member states, similar trends regarding tax mixes can be noticed in time. The objectives of this paper is to analyze fiscal structures of Euro Area member states and to determine, if any, groups with similar fiscal structures, their composition and the similarities that characterize Euro Area in this respect. In order to have a clear overview of fiscal structures within Euro Area, we analyzed data for 17 member states, for year 2012, taking into consideration total general government revenue, indirect taxation, direct taxation and social contributions. As one of the aims of this paper is to determine whether in Euro Area the main contributors are corporations or individuals, we also analyzed the structure of direct taxation, dividing it into

  8. HOW FAR FROM THE EURO AREA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article performs a comparative analysis between the European Union member states from Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania in terms of real economic convergence with the Euro area. Specifically, the paper emphasizes the assessment of the time required to catch up with the average level of GDP per capita in the euro area. To determine these developments, we use a system of chain indices, calculated based on the growth rate of the GDP per capita. Assuming that the average growth specific to the period 1999-2014 will continue in the future, the results illustrate that the shortest period of catching up belongs to Poland, while Croatia remains by far the most distant country from the euro area.

  9. After the Fall: Euro Area Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holinski, N.; Kool, C.J.M.; Piplack, J.

    2014-01-01

    Macroeconomic adjustment in the Southern countries of the euro area after the financial crisis appears well under way as external imbalances in these countries have almost disappeared. However, in this paper, we argue the underlying strctural problems persist and recovery is fragile. Both sovereign

  10. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel HNÁT; Martina JIRÁNKOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent e...

  11. Are there political budget cycles in the euro area?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, Mark; de Haan, Jakob

    This article examines whether there is a political budget cycle (PBC) in countries in the euro area. Using a multivariate model for 1999-2004 and various election indicators we find strong evidence that, since the start of the Stability and Growth Pact, fiscal policy-makers in the euro area have

  12. TARGET - NEW PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA VIOLETA DRĂGOI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At EU level, the funds transfer systems have undergone significant changes starting with the introduction of euro. The launch of the euro, the emergence of new technologies, introduction of financial innovations and the globalization have led to reorganization of funds transfer systems` infrastructure. The paper aims to offer an analysis of actual payment system for Euro area, a trans-European funds transfer system with gross settlement in real-time for payments in euro TARGET- to increase economical and operational efficiency of payments and also to reduce the risks in the electronic funds transfer system by creating efficient and secure payment systems.

  13. 160 Adopting the Euro: A Long Path towards National Consensus within the Euro Area Candidate Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis outbreak after 2007 has profoundly changed the course of the history of relations in the world economy, creating a complicated framework of political relations between countries and economic regions. In this context, it is important to depict the economic convergence stage of Euro Area candidate countries and to what extent this crisis has or has not changed the euro adoption objective for these countries. The present paper aimed to shed a light on this issue by analyzing both the state of the convergence process and the public attitude regarding euro adoption in four Euro Area candidate countries which have the same monetary policy strategy (inflation targeting. The research results show the way in which the global financial crisis “deviates” the convergence trajectory of the nominal indicators, but also the political and public sentiment against the euro adoption in the selected countries. The results represent a valuable groundwork for analyzing the way in which National Central Banks candidate to the Eurosystem are implied into the processing for euro adoption during turbulence times

  14. The macroeconomic impact of quantitative easing in the euro area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ...% over the medium term. As the euro area has no experience, to date, with the effectiveness of quantitative easing of this kind on real economic developments and inflation, model-based analyses play an important role...

  15. Competitiveness and external imbalances within the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The onset of the financial crisis in 2008 has highlighted the problems of diverging external imbalances within Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the role of persistent losses in competitiveness. This paper starts by investigating some of the competitiveness factors which contributed to external imbalances in euro area countries. The evidence suggests significant heterogeneity across countries in both price/cost and non-price competitiveness in the euro area and that there is no one factor...

  16. Euro Area Scenarios and their Economic Consequences for Slovenia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Weyerstrass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, divergences in international competitiveness led to an accumulation of current account deficits in the south and surpluses in the north of the euro area. With the aid of macroeconometric models, this paper estimates the effects of an exit of Greece or of all GIIPS countries (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Spain on the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of one or more countries would affect other economies via the trade channel and credit constraints. Euro area members would additionally suffer from an increase of public debt due to non-performing loans of the European Stability Mechanism and devaluations of public bonds purchased by the European Central Bank. An exit of Greece alone would only marginally affect the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of all GIIPS countries or a euro area breakup would have dramatic negative consequences for output, unemployment and public finances.

  17. Testing the Asymmetry of Shocks with Euro Area

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    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the demand and supply shocks affecting 13 EU member states and to estimate their degree of correlation with the Euro area shocks. This research ensures identifying the asymmetry of shocks degree with the monetary union, depending on which it’s judging the desirability of adopting a single currency. The analysis is also useful for the economies outside the Euro area, because they are strongly commercial and financial integrated especially with the core economies from union. Applying the Blanchard and Quah methodology to estimate the shocks in the period from 1998:1- 2010:3, I have found a weak and negative correlation between demand shocks and a medium to high correlation of the supply shocks. The results obtained suggest the presence of a structural convergence process with the Euro area, in the context of domestic macroeconomic policies rather different, both inside and outside the monetary union.

  18. Euro

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La crise de la finance mondiale a révélé au grand jour les imperfections de l’UEM, ou plutôt l’état d’inachèvement à la fois du processus d’intégration monétaire et économique européen. La prise de conscience du faible degré de convergence des économies au sein de la zone euro le souligne également. Pourtant, dix ans après sa création, le bilan de la monnaie unique est largement positif, malgré un certain nombre « d’idées fausses » que BARTHOLON et al., en européens convaincus, se plaisent à ...

  19. Euro area enlargement: dilemmas and strategies after the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges for the New Member States after joining the European Union were Euro adoption and dealing with the economic crisis. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on the New Member States of European Union, both to the four NMS countries that joined the euro area, and also for the eight countries which intend to do this in the next few years. The paper begins with an overview of the current situation and analyses the economic performance of the 12 NMS of EU based on the Maastricht Treaty criteria. Finally, we are considering an answer he question: is it necessary to reshape the Euroarea entry rules?

  20. The agony of unemployment in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the evolution of the unemployment problem in the Euro Area. Our goal is to look at what are the roots of the unemployment problem and to devise reasons of the already chronic unemployment problem. We show the main factors that prolong the agony of unemployment and whether it is likely that in the near future, the problem of unemployment in the Euro Area will bi past. In the Euro Area we follow the analysis of basic macroeconomic indicators of balance in an economy - GDP, inflation and unemployment. We consider whether the monetary strategy of inflation targeting has contributed to the unemployment problem, by reducing the potential output, but also to confirm that within the current global crisis there are some deviations from the theoretical concepts of basic macroeconomic relationships - Okun's law and the Phillips curve. We show that only Germany, with a 'small' sacrifice, can save the real sector in the peripheral Mediterranean countries, as well as in the entire Euro Area.

  1. Euro area Inflation as a Predictor of National Inflation Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Antonella; Ribba, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The stability of inflation differentials is an important condition for the smooth working of a currency area, such as the European Economic and Monetary Union. In the presence of stability, changes in national inflation rates, while holding Euro-area inflation fixed contemporaneously, should be only transitory. If this is the case, the rate of inflation of the whole area can also be interpreted as a predictor, at least in the long run, of the different national inflation rates. However, in th...

  2. Poland’s Public Finance Convergence with the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kawecka-Wyrzykowska

    2013-06-01

    the euro area situation.

  3. Financial and economic approach: Financial & banking sector development pact from the perspective of the euro area European economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoropoulos Theodore E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Powerful obstacles to the further integration of repot, bond and equity markets remain the still fragmented securities settlement industry in Europe, which charges much higher fees for cross border transactions than for domestic transactions, and differences in legal systems. This paper describes the main developments in the euro area financial markets before and after the introduction of the single currency. It looks at the evolution of the euro area financial structure in the last few years. Interestingly in various dimensions the financial structure of euro area countries seems to become more diverse over time. We assess the progress towards financial integration in the most important euro-area financial segments, namely money and equity markets, as well as banking. The available data suggest that the unsecured money market strongly integrated with the introduction of the euro, as the single currency and related euro-area-wide large-value payment systems link the different countries well. Also, some progress occurred in the integration of euro-area equity markets, as stock exchanges in a few countries merged to form Euronext and professional asset managers replaced country allocation by sector allocation strategies. Overall, while asset holdings have become more international in the euro area since the introduction of the single currency, securities markets are still much less integrated than in the US. In the area of retail banking the increased homogeneity of interest rates seems to be driven more by macroeconomic convergence than by market integration. In addition we consider a wide range of other determinants, such as foreign debt or net foreign assets, terms of trade, government debt and regulated prices.

  4. ASPECTS OF THE EURO AREA FINANCIAL SYSTEM FRAGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta ALINICA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the global financial and economic crisis, a number of side effects have been felt both in the U.S. and especially within Europe, particularly in the euro area. Among those, it stands out the financial-banking market fragmentation issue, a phenomenon discussed and analysed by financial experts, analysts, researchers and political leaders. The term fragmentation can be seen in antithesis with the concept of integration, the presence of one not involving the entirely cancellation of the existence and the effects of the second. However, a reduction in the effects of fragmentation may contribute to the increase of the economic and monetary integration, which is the desired facet for a fully functional European Union (EU. Moreover, in order to create a viable Economic and Monetary Union (EMU, it is essential to reverse the phenomenon of fragmentation of financial markets and restore the path of European integration. Thus, this article proposes to follow the conduct of the phenomenon of fragmentation in the euro area in order to develop some measures which would allow the diminishing of its negative effects.

  5. Bank-Lending Standards, Loan Growth and the Business Cycle in the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Sylvia; Scharler, Johann

    2013-01-01

    We study the relationship between bank lending standards, loan growth and the business cycle in the euro area and the US within a vector error correciton model using Bayesian estimation methods. To deal with the short data series available for the euro area, we exploit information from the estimated US system to improve the estimation of the euro area system. We find that tighter bank lending standards are associated with lower loan growth as well as lower output growth in both areas. Differe...

  6. Euros(c)eptic - The Theory of the Optimum Currency Area and the Practice of the Euro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Annamária Artner; Péter Róna

    2012-01-01

    .... The original the optimum currency area ("OCA") theory appears to have been valid, and the departure from it, as embodied in the Maastricht Treaty, amounted to an unjustified departure in light of the experience of the five weak countries of the euro...

  7. EuroMInd-D: A Density Estimate of Monthly Gross Domestic Product for the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Marczak, Martyna; Mazzi, Gianluigi

    EuroMInd-D is a density estimate of monthly gross domestic product (GDP) constructed according to a bottom–up approach, pooling the density estimates of eleven GDP components, by output and expenditure type. The components density estimates are obtained from a medium-size dynamic factor model of ...... and evaluated with different tests based on the probability integral transform and by applying scoring rules....

  8. Money Overhang, Credit Overhang and Financial Imbalances in the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; de Regt, E.; van Veen, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focusses on the relation between external imbalances and domestic money and credit growth in the euro area. We compute money and credit overhang both for the euro area as a whole and for individual member countries. Our results show that both aggregate money and credit overhang have

  9. Estonia's accession to the euro area / Mart Sõrg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõrg, Mart, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti astumine Euroopa Liidu liikmeks mais 2004 tõi kaasa kohustuse liituda ka europiirkonnaga. Ettevalmistused kulgevad seaduse harmoniseerimise, euro kasutuselevõtu tehnilise ettevalmistuse ning majanduse stabiilsus- ja kasvupakti nõuetele vastavusse viimise osas

  10. A multi-country trend indicator for euro area inflation: computation and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Elena; Henry, Jérôme; Mestre, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper applies the 'diffusion indices' approach proposed by Stock and Watson [1998] to the euro area. Following their methodology a set of factors are extracted from a balanced and unbalanced panel dataset comprising nominal variables for 11 countries of the euro area. The estimated factors appear to be fairly stable over time. It is also shown that the first factor is cointegrated with area wide HICP and private consumption deflator supporting the idea that it represents 'a common trend ...

  11. How strong is the impact of exports and other demand components on German import demand? Evidence from euro-area and non-euro-area imports

    OpenAIRE

    Stirböck, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a single error-correction analysis of German total, euro-area (intra) and non-euro-area (extra) import demand for the 1980-2004 period and the more recent 1993-2004 period. German import demand is mainly driven by domestic demand and foreign demand for German goods; by contrast, the price sensitivity of German imports is low. We note a greater propensity to import with respect to an increase in investment compared to a rise in consumption, yet find that export goods have t...

  12. Structural changes in the Czech, Slovak and euro area economies during the Great Recession

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanislav Tvrz; Osvald Vasícek

    2016-01-01

    ..., as a small open economy that entered monetary union, and the economy of the euro area, which has a common monetary policy, during the turbulent period of the Great Recession, the subsequent anaemic...

  13. Anti-crisis Politics Assumed by Some Governs from Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIRITA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many governments from euro area continue to adopt the EU reglementations and policies anti crisis. Members of governments and parliaments of the euro area try to maintain liquidity in the economic system at this fragile moment of transition between crisis and growth and to develop exit strategies for winding down stimulus programmers once recovery has firmly taken root and to adopt medium-term measures to restore budgetary level. In this work are presented some of the most significant anti-crisis measures taken by some governments in the euro area. A comparative analysis for some representative countries from the euro area has been done in order to conclude that some anti-crisis measures had the desired effect, while others have side effects that required further actions.

  14. ROMANIA: CLIMBING THE LADDER FOR A BETTER FUTURE. WHEN WILL IT REACH EU AND EURO AREA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tatomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the evolution of Romania’s economic convergence with the European Union (EU and Euro area, during the period 2000-2010. In order to determine the number of years required to reach the EU and Euro area average, we employ an economic convergence index, made up of real and structural convergence indexes. The analysis shows that Romania has been climbing the ladder in the process of catching-up with the EU and the Euro area until 2008 when, because of the international crisis, the economic convergence index started decreasing. We report that Romania will reach the EU average in April 2056 and the Euro area average in September 2062.As revealed by the analysis, it will take decadesto attain the European levels of economic convergence, this being the most important challenge for Romania on the long term.

  15. Equilibrium real interest rates and secular stagnation: An empirical analysis for euro area member countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Klose, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Is secular stagnation a valid concern for Euro Area countries? We tackle this question using the well-established Laubach-Williams model to estimate the unobservable equilibrium real interest rate and compare it to the actual real rate. We apply our approach to twelve Euro Area countries, since heterogeneity among member countries has become considerably extensive since the beginning of the financial crisis. Hence, the question of secular stagnation has to be answered at the country level. Ou...

  16. The euro area ten years after its creation: (Divergent competitiveness and the optimum currency area theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebelo João Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the euro is on its second decade, the European sovereign debt crisis and the ever more evident disparities in competitiveness among member states are prompting many to question whether monetary union is bringing more benefits than costs. The optimum currency area (OCA theory provides a framework with several criteria for such analysis. In such context, we start by a descriptive analysis of the first twelve euro countries under six criteria, leading to a mixed conclusion on whether the EMU is closer or farther to fulfil them. Then we assess the impact of five OCA criteria on countries’ relative competitiveness. Differences in the growth of unit labour costs, the dissimilarity of trade and the differences in output growth were found to be the most significant. This way, we identify some causes of the divergent competitiveness between some EMU countries that contributed to weaker economic growth in some of them.

  17. Post-Keynesian alternative policies to curb macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline alternative post-Keynesian policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness and associated current account imbalances within the Euro area. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues making use of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s (1979, 2002 model of a “balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate” (BPCGR. Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then we discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes and fiscal policies in the Euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the Euro area periphery, in particular.

  18. A new production function estimate of the euro area output gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemoine, M.; Mazzi, G.L.; Monperrus-Veroni, P.; Reynes, F.G.D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new version of the production function (PF) approach for estimating the output gap of the euro area. Assuming a CES (constant elasticity of substitution) technology, our model does not call for any (often imprecise) measure of the capital stock and improves the estimation of the trend

  19. Is there a Core of Macroeconomics that Euro Area Forecasters Believe In?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch, Christian; Ruelke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The quantity theory of money, Okun’s law, and the Phillips curve are cornerstones of macroeconomic theory. But are they also of practical relevance? Using survey data for the euro area, we found that professional economists’ forecasts are consistent with a version of the quantity theory in which...

  20. Will business cycles in the euro area converge? A critical survey of empirical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Inklaar, R.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    This survey of business cycle synchronization in the European monetary union focuses on two issues: have business cycles become more similar, and which factors drive business cycle synchronization. We conclude that business cycles in the euro area have gone through periods of both convergence and

  1. How have inflation dynamics changed over time? Evidence from the euro area and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta; Vilmi , Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes euro area and U.S. inflation dynamics since the beginning of the 1990s by estimating New Keynesian hybrid Phillips curves with time-varying parameters. We measure inflation expectations by subjective forecasts from Consensus Economics survey and so do not assume rational expectations. Both rolling regressions and state-space models are employed. The results indicate that in both economic areas the inflation dynamics have steadily become more forward-looking over time. We a...

  2. Doomsday for the Euro Area: Causes, Variants and Consequences of Breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Belke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the genesis of a doomsday scenario and discuss potential causes and motivations for a breakup of the euro area. For this purpose, we differentiate between the departure of weak and strong countries, and examine the impact of the reintroduction of a national currency on domestic debt, the domestic banking sector, EU membership and the freedom of trade. We also briefly analyze the social and political costs of the accompanying social disorder.

  3. Convergence between the business cycles of Central and Eastern European countries and the Euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Nenad Stanisic

    2013-01-01

    Although entry to the Euro area (EA) is based only on fulfilment of the Maastricht criteria, implementation of optimum currency criteria and real economic convergence determines the benefits and costs of monetary integration. This paper focuses on the synchronization of business cycles among Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs) and the EA. Business cycles are extracted from GDP data series using a double Hodrick–Prescott filter method. The degree of co-movement of cycles is evaluate...

  4. Is There a Need for a New Fiscal Framework in the Euro Area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    The rules stipulated by the Stability and Growth Pact have proved impossible to enforce. However, to avoid unsustainable fiscal policies reappearing, and to prevent monetary policy from being undermined by self-interested governments, there is still a need for a fiscal framework within the Euro...... Area. To achieve co-ordination between monetary and fiscal policies, this paper suggests an intertemporal assignment, where fiscal policy focuses on long-term objectives (e.g., social security, public provision of education and research) and monetary policies focus on short run objectives...... region within which the debt target must operate. Making these factors explicit would both improve the credibility of the Euro Area’s fiscal policies and reduce the risk premia in borrowing costs. However stabilising the stock of debt by fiscal means alone is not always possible....

  5. The Macroeconomic Outlook and the Impact of the Global Crisis in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara CHIRITA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides general analysis and evolution of macroeconomic and financial indicators in the euro area, during the recent crisis 2008-2009. The financial market turmoil that began in 2007 led to a severe global economic downturn. The causes of the crisis, the effects on global financial markets, and the spillover to the economy are permanently examined by the analysts, but the final conclusions are not clear yet. The conclusion of this paper is that the global activity is recovering at varying speeds in some countries, tepidly in many of the advanced economies but solidly in most emerging and developing economies.

  6. Economic Growth in the Euro-Med Area through Trade Integration: Focus on Agriculture and Food. Regional impact analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kavallari, Aikaterini; RAU Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the simulations of deeper economic integration in the Euro-Mediterranean area by applying the general equilibrium model MAGNET. The scenarios are conducted in order to provide insight about how growth in North Africa, specifically Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, could potentially be promoted. The focus is on the agri-food sectors, which are investigated in the context of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, framed within the negotiations of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Ag...

  7. Determinants of Business Cycle Convergence in Euro Area. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu Marinas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the OCA theory, the higher economic openness and closer economic cooperation automatically lead to the convergence of business cycles. Krugman (1993 presented and alternative view on this issue. In his opinion, closer trade ties result in better allocation of resources and higher output specialization of individual countries. As the industrial production in individual countries is becoming narrowly specialized, economies of such countries become more vulnerable and more predisposed to respond to shocks asymmetrically. The probability that shocks will be asymmetric or have asymmetric impact depends on the structure of the economy. If the structure of the economy is significantly different from the euro area, even the same shocks may have a different impact on a country and lead to asynchronous business cycle.

  8. Determinants of Business Cycle Convergence in Euro Area. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu Marinas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the OCA theory, the higher economic openness and closer economic cooperation automatically lead to the convergence of business cycles. Krugman (1993 presented and alternative view on this issue. In his opinion, closer trade ties result in better allocation of resources and higher output specialization of individual countries. As the industrial production in individual countries is becoming narrowly specialized, economies of such countries become more vulnerable and more predisposed to respond to shocks asymmetrically. The probability that shocks will be asymmetric or have asymmetric impact depends on the structure of the economy. If the structure of the economy is significantly different from the euro area, even the same shocks may have a different impact on a country and lead to asynchronous business cycle.

  9. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Plecitá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with largest imbalances in 2010. Further the medium-run equilibrium exchange rates for Greece and Ireland are estimated applying the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER approach popularised by Clark and MacDonald (1998. In addition, the long-run equilibrium exchange rates are estimated using the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate (PEER model. Employing the BEER and PEER approaches on quarterly time series of real effective exchange rates (REER from 1997: Q1 to 2010: Q4 we identify an undervaluation of the Greek and Irish REER around their entrance to the euro area. For the rest of the period analysed their REER is broadly in line with estimated BEER and PEER levels.

  10. How Domestic is the Fama and French Three-Factor Model? An Application to the Euro Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Moerman (Gerard)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe euro area has faced a high number of monetary and policy changes in the recent past as a consequence of the European integration process and, naturally, these developments have important implications for portfolio diversification and asset pricing. Therefore, this paper concentrates

  11. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  12. Size Effects of Fiscal Policy and Business Confidence in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios A. Michail

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the European sovereign debt crisis (2009–2014, the management of expectations has risen in importance. However, policy responses have emphasized the management of fiscal spending without examining the impact changes in the business confidence have on the economy. This paper uses a Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive specification, which allows for a larger information set covering both domestic and international developments, to measure the responses of five Euro Area economies to a one percent shock in government consumption and business confidence. The evidence suggests that even though the response to a government consumption shock is strong, a shock in expectations has an even greater effect. This points out to the fact that perceptions about the future and trust in the policymaker are much more important than previously considered. Thus, especially in (but not limited to times of turbulence, or during efforts of stabilization and/or structural reforms, more emphasis should be placed on the overall credibility of the decisions, which could help to mitigate any potential adverse effects from the policies.

  13. Is the Region of Visegrad Countries on the Track to the Euro Area? Recent Evidence from the Real Convergence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stavárek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After enlargement of the European Union and subsequently joining of a new member states to the euro area, the question of economic convergence attracted considerable research interest. This paper adopts three alternative concepts to examine the level and trend of convergence in the Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia. We concurrently estimate the β-convergence, σ-convergence and business cycle synchronization to find out whether all countries are on the way towards higher convergence with the euro area. The results suggest that convergence of all countries has been increasing. However, the recent acceleration of the convergence process is caused mainly by external shocks in the form of the financial crisis and following economic slowdowns. Hence, the current level of convergence in the Visegrad countries cannot be considered as fully adequate.

  14. Distinguishing the components of household financial wealth: the impact of liabilities on assets in Euro Area countries

    OpenAIRE

    Merike Kukk

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the interdependence of household financial liabilities and assets, with special focus on the impact of liabilities on households’ holdings of financial assets. The paper uses the new ECB Household Finance and Consumption Survey from 2009–2010 covering euro area countries. The paper estimates a system of equations for households’ financial liabilities and assets, taking account of endogeneity and selection bias. The results indicate that higher household liabilities are ...

  15. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  16. Research on the Nominal Convergence of Romania to the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bărglăzan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available All the European Union (EU member states engaged to adopt, sooner or later, the euro. In order to do so, they must accomplish the convergence criteria concerning the inflation rate, the exchange rate, the interest rate, the public deficit and the public debt. The paper analyses the situation of Romania, based on the convergence criteria. Romania accomplishes only the criteria referring to public finances, while inflation still seems to be the worst problem.

  17. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  18. Note: Anodic bonding with cooling of heat-sensitive areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Henriksen, Toke Riishøj

    2010-01-01

    Anodic bonding of silicon to glass always involves heating the glass and device to high temperatures so that cations become mobile in the electric field. We present a simple way of bonding thin silicon samples to borosilicate glass by means of heating from the glass side while locally cooling heat......-sensitive areas from the silicon side. Despite the high thermal conductivity of silicon, this method allows a strong anodic bond to form just millimeters away from areas essentially at room temperature....

  19. Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued the current eurozone crisis is neither new nor surprising. Fiscal discipline in the eurozone was weak from its creation in 1999, but ongoing economic prosperity limited the damage. Economic recession deepened the impact of crisis on public finance and pushed some eurozone countries to the edge of bankruptcy. Options available now are costly and painful: foreign bailouts, cuts to expenditures, higher revenues and some combination of the three. They may be conducted both inside and outside the eurozone. If eurozone problems are not solved, financial markets may turn down the euro as a currency, possibly marking the beginning of Euro-disintegration.

  20. Fiscal policy and rebalancing in the euro area: A critique of the German debt brake from a post-Keynesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The German debt brake is often regarded as a great success story and has therefore served as a role model for the Euro area and it’s Fiscal Compact. In this paper we fundamentally criticise the debt brake. Firstly, we show that it suffers from serious shortcomings and that its success is far from certain even from a mainstream point of view. Secondly, we show that, from a Post-Keynesian perspective, the debt brake completely neglects the requirements for fiscal policies of member countries in a currency union like the Euro area. It will prevent fiscal policy from contributing to the necessary rebalancing in the Euro area. Thirdly, we show that alternative scenarios, which could avoid the deflationary pressures of the German Debt Brake on domestic demand and contribute to internally rebalancing the Euro area, are extremely unlikely as they would have to rely on unrealistic shifts in the functional income distribution and/or investment and savings behaviour in Germany.

  1. Investigating future climate change impacts on drougt patterns over the Euro-Mediterranean area based on a probabilistic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Peres, David Johnny; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2017-04-01

    As extensively documented by the IPCC assessment reports, impacts from recent climate-related extremes, such as heat waves, droughts, floods, cyclones and wildfires, reveal significant vulnerability of many environmental and anthropic systems to climate change. Compared to other extreme weather events, droughts evolve slowly in time. Based on this feature, effective drought preparedness and mitigation strategies could be implemented by decision makers, if appropriate tools, able to anticipate drought evolution in time and space, were available. Climate models' projections combined with probabilistic tools for drought characterization could help in understanding the time evolution of drought hazard in the future. Within the delineated context, the aim of the present study is to investigate potential scenarios of space-time variability of drought occurrences over Europe, by comparing the return periods of design drought events for different future time intervals. More specifically, annual precipitation data from Regional Climate Models (RCMs) of the Med-CORDEX initiative, covering the Euro-Mediterranean area (Northern Africa and Southern and Central Europe) at a grid resolution of about 50 km, are used to assess drought characteristics for three future periods (i.e. 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100), and compared to those in the baseline period (1971-2000). Specifically, three precipitation RCM datasets - produced by the CMMC (Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change, IT), the LMD (Laboratorie del Météorologie Dynamique, FR) and the GUF (Goethe University Frankfurt, DE) - for two Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP 4.5 (intermediate) and RCP8.5 (high emissions), are considered for multi-year drought identification and characterization. First, the goodness of fit of several probability distributions to the considered precipitation gridded dataset is examined cell by cell by the Lilliefors test, and the best distribution is chosen for each cell based on

  2. Migration, financial flows and development in the Euro-Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The migration issue in the Mediterranean region has been widely monitored and assessed in the last decade. Its various socioeconomic causes and impacts—demographic, social, political and economic—have been largely analysed, and, despite differences in the approaches, there has been broad consensus...... as to the conclusions: that by the turn of the twenty-first century migration would become an explosive issue for the Mediterranean region, and that today we are facing the consequences. The risk described as a ‘demographic bomb’ is no longer a risk; it has exploded and can be seen in the daily dramas along the Italian...... and Spanish coasts of the Mediterranean basin. The root of the issue can be mainly attributed to the impacts of globalisation: economic marginalisation of the peripheral areas and the political destabilisation of both the countries and the region at large. The failure of the Barcelona Process, followed...

  3. Is Intra-Industry Trade Specialization a Precondition to Business Cycle Synchronization When Joining the Euro Area? The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawecka-Wyrzykowska Elżbieta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this paper is to present theoretical approaches to the impact of trade growth (induced by monetary integration on business cycle synchronization which is an important factor of a country’s readiness for a currency union accession. The main conclusion from the first part of the analysis is that business cycle convergence and the cost of the lack of an autonomous monetary policy depend on intra-industry trade (IIT intensity rather than on general trade growth. The second objective is to assess - using the IIT index as a measure of business cycle synchronization (and of susceptibility to asymmetric shocks transmitted mostly through trade channels - preparedness of the Polish economy to the euro adoption. Calculations reveal that the IIT intensity in Poland is already relatively high (in particular in relations with the euro area members and continues to rise. This confirms the increasing complementarity of Poland’s economy with the economic structures of the euro area partners which reduces the probability of asymmetric shocks.

  4. A Cross-Country Empirical Study Towards the Impact of Following ISO Management System Standards on Euro-Area Economic Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Daniel Armeanu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of following ISO management system standards on economic sentiment indicator (ESI as proxy of economic agents’ general view concerning economic activity, for 21 European Union member states over 2005-2014. The empirical research comprises ISO standards with reference to management systems towards quality (ISO 9001, ISO 13485, ISO 16949, food safety (ISO 22000, environment (ISO 14001, and information security (ISO 27001. Panel data fixed effects regression models provide support for a positive impact of the quality management systems related to automotive industry, as well as information security management systems, on the ESI. Further, dynamic panel data approach by way of two-step system generalized method of moments emphasizes a positive influence of quality management systems standard for the medical device industry on Euro-area economic confidence, but a negative effect of food safety management systems. Also, ISO 9001, ISO 22000, and ISO 14001 Granger cause ESI.

  5. Euro on ohus ja euro ei ole ohus / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel teatas, et euro on ohus. Prantsuse majandusminister Christine Lagarde avaldas arvamust, et euro pole ohus, et euro on kindel ja usaldusväärne valuuta. Kreekas toimunud üldstreik halvas majanduse

  6. THE EURO AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Your UBS branch at CERN

    2001-01-01

    As part of the changeover to the euro, the UBS is pleased to announce the following information: From 28 December 2001, the cash dispensing machines will no longer issue French francs (FRF). At the beginning of January, all machines in the network will be modified to issue 50-euro notes. The wall machines in Buildings 500 and 504 will also issue 100-euro notes. Until 28 February 2002, it will be possible to sell notes in IN currencies (currencies of member countries of the economic and monetary union) in exchange for CHF over bank counters. In Switzerland, IN currencies are not directly convertible into euros. The conversion of cash from an IN currency to cash in euros is equivalent to a purchase and sale operation via Swiss francs. The UBS does not purchase or sell coins in euros (including IN currencies). Until 28 February 2002, it will be possible at all branches to deposit old coinage in IN currencies in Unicef 'Change for Good' envelopes. Until the second half of 2002, euro-denominated accounts will be a...

  7. Energy, transport network and financial issues: PR perspectives for economic development in time of Euro-Med area change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Jane Succi

    2012-02-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  8. 19 CFR Appendix A to Part 113 - Airport Customs Security Area Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airport Customs Security Area Bond A Appendix A to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Pt. 113, App. A Appendix A to Part 113—Airport Customs Security Area...

  9. Romanian Policy-Mix to Adopting Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of Euro implementation in Monetary and EconomicUnion (EMU and Romanian position in this context. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007increased the interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix commonmonetary policy – different fiscal policy across the countries in the Euro area. Our study focuses on theconsequences of Romanian admittance in Euro Zone in 2014 and optimal policy-mix to good preparationto accomplish this target. The controversies between economists regarding the construction processof EMU remain large. What are the consequences of implementing the “tye-hands” strategy for Romanianfinancial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergencerelating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain afaster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits toadopting Euro in 2014?

  10. SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA (SEPA – STRATEGIC VALUE ON THE HIGH DEGREE OF INTEROPERABILITY FOR ALL ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN THE FINANCIAL TRANSACTION MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Dumitru Andrei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of euro currency in 1999 paved the way for policymakers - EU governments, the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Central Bank - to adopt the SEPA initiative. This is a complex process that aims to integrate the euro payments market, integration that also takes into account Romanian State Treasuries as payment service providers for local and central public administrations. In this context, premises were created for developing an integrated financial market that would allow a better use of capital and an accelerating economic development in the EU.

  11. The making of a fault sources model for seismic hazard assessment: Project SHARE's latest achievements for the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.; Kastelic, V.; Valensise, G.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the GEM initiative, the EU Project SHARE (http://www.share-eu.org/) has recently completed a task (Task 3.2) devoted to compiling a database of seismogenic sources for the Euro-Mediterranean area. The final release of the database includes about one thousand records of fully parameterized crustal fault sources for a total mapped length of about 66 thousand kilometers plus parametric data about all Mediterranean subduction zones. The database is being made available to the public through a web-based GIS application (http://diss.rm.ingv.it/SHARE/). With a project area encompassing 53 countries in three different continents and a partnership limitation to 18 institutions, one of the main challenges in the making of such database was to put together a community of experts - many of whom from outside the project - willing to adopt common definitions and standards and to contribute their own original data. These circumstances make it difficult to acknowledge the local scientific legacies and to honor the contributions by each individual expert while preserving the intellectual property of original data. The project area is also renowned for being tectonically very complex, with two major plates (Europe and Africa) and a number of minor plates (Adria, Ionian Sea, Aegean Sea, Anatolia) colliding, extending, subducting, and sliding past each other. Also, the most active plate boundaries are largely located offshore in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Seas. Ongoing tectonic activity affects also continental interiors like the Rhine Graben, Pyrenees, Sicily-Tunisia Channel, or Vrancea, each of these areas being characterized by different tectonic styles and seismic release modes. This varied tectonic setting has been the playground for generations of geoscientists, who often developed different, or even alternative, views that had to be reconciled to fit into the given database framework. This presentation will summarize the various phases in the making of the

  12. Roots of the weaknesses of the euro. Euro nõrkuste juured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart Sõrg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the euro was to speed up the integration process and economic development in Europe. History of euro showed us that these optimistic goals have been only partly fulfilled. This modest result has several essential roots. Our research showed that Europe have not been and is even not today the optimal currency area. The architecture of the EMU was incomplete: in building up it was not given enough power to ECB, also were underestimated vitality national interests in member states. Therefore common interests in euro area were not enough protected. Last global financial and economic crisis showed clearly main weaknesses of euro and enforced to start to liquidate them. We conclude that resent reforms and enlargement of the EMU (Estonia probably will strengthen this union

  13. Adopting the Euro: Costs or Benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Socol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the present estate of euro implementation in Monetary and Economic Union (EMU. The Romanian admittance in EU at January 2007 increases interest to study the transmission and coordination mechanisms, related to mix common monetary policy - different fiscal policy across the countries in the euro area. Our study focuses on Euro Zone using the Optimum Currency Area Theory and empirical evidences. The controversies beetwen economists regarding the construction process of EMU remain large. The paper evaluates the costs and benefits of adopting the euro and the main effects of Romanian integration in European Monetary Union. What are the consequences of implementing the "tye hands" strategy for Romanian financial authorities? Can Romania solve the potential conflict between real and nominal convergence relating the European integration? What is the best strategy for Romania with the aim to obtain a faster real convergence with the European Union countries? Can Romania maximize the benefits to adopting euro in 2014? Is the European Union a Optimum Currency Area?

  14. ASSESSMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF ADOPTION OF THE EURO IN ROMANIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuela Nita

    2014-01-01

      The changeover to euro is an older objective of Romania, but whose implementation has suffered numerous delays depending on the degree of economic integration with the euro area and the fulfilment...

  15. IS THE ESTONIAN MODEL APPLICABLE TO ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN ADOPTING THE EURO?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I Radu; M-L Ciupac-Ulici; A Petcu

    2013-01-01

    .... Since the Euro adoption process is a controversial one, in this paper the authors aim to express their concerns regarding the major changes driven from other member states of the Euro Area, i.e. the Estonian model...

  16. ADOPTING THE EURO: ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Oros; P O'Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    .... The study was conducted considering the relative situation with the euro area. The main finding is that the actual target for euro adoption could be complied with, provided further progress is made...

  17. The EuroGEOSS Advanced Operating Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Vaccari, L.; Stock, K.; Diaz, L.; Santoro, M.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of multidisciplinary interoperability for managing societal issues is a major challenge presently faced by the Earth and Space Science Informatics community. With this in mind, EuroGEOSS project was launched on May 1st 2009 for a three year period aiming to demonstrate the added value to the scientific community and society of providing existing earth observing systems and applications in an interoperable manner and used within the GEOSS and INSPIRE frameworks. In the first period, the project built an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) in the three strategic areas of Drought, Forestry and Biodiversity; this was then enhanced into an Advanced Operating Capacity (AOC) for multidisciplinary interoperability. Finally, the project extended the infrastructure to other scientific domains (geology, hydrology, etc.). The EuroGEOSS multidisciplinary AOC is based on the Brokering Approach. This approach aims to achieve multidisciplinary interoperability by developing an extended SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) where a new type of "expert" components is introduced: the Broker. These implement all mediation and distribution functionalities needed to interconnect the distributed and heterogeneous resources characterizing a System of Systems (SoS) environment. The EuroGEOSS AOC is comprised of the following components: • EuroGEOSS Discovery Broker: providing harmonized discovery functionalities by mediating and distributing user queries against tens of heterogeneous services; • EuroGEOSS Access Broker: enabling users to seamlessly access and use heterogeneous remote resources via a unique and standard service; • EuroGEOSS Web 2.0 Broker: enhancing the capabilities of the Discovery Broker with queries towards the new Web 2.0 services; • EuroGEOSS Semantic Discovery Broker: enhancing the capabilities of the Discovery Broker with semantic query-expansion; • EuroGEOSS Natural Language Search Component: providing users with the possibilities to search for

  18. EuroGeoSurveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demicheli, L.; Ludden, J. N.; Robida, F.

    2012-04-01

    In order to create safe, healthy and wealthy places to live in, it is vital that we understand our planet. At national level the collection of information on the state of the solid Earth and its processes is normally mandated to Geological Surveys. In fact, a Geological Survey is the national institution responsible for the geological inventory, monitoring, knowledge and research for the security, health and prosperity of the society. And EuroGeoSurveys (EGS) is the organisation representing the Geological Surveys from 33 countries around Europe. With one member for each country of the European Union and beyond, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the EGS network covers the whole continent. EGS'principal purpose is to provide geoscientific knowledge that underpins European policies and regulations for the benefit of society. Naturally, in our day-to-day activities, we contribute to the merging of economic, environmental and social agendas. Engaging a joint workforce of several thousands of geoscientists, also involving regional geological surveys in Germany, Italy and Spain, we strive to be the first body to be contacted when there is an international need for European geodata, or'geo-help'. For this reason we work on a daily basis with the EU institutions, and are considered the natural source of information on Earth science issues and relevant downstream applications in Europe. Our General Secretariat is based in the European Quarter of Brussels close to the European Commission, the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the political seat of NATO. Our operational strategy is based on the cooperation between national institutions, which enables to synergistically integrate both information and activities of our member organisations. This has allowed us to make significant progress over the years, permitting geology to become a topic deserving great attention on the European agenda. In order to enable a quick but high quality response to requests for

  19. Menu Costs at Work: Restaurant Prices and the Introduction of the Euro

    OpenAIRE

    Hobijn, Bart; Ravenna, Federico; Tambalotti, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Restaurant prices in the euro area saw an unprecedented increase after the introduction of the euro. We use an extension of commonly used models of sticky prices and argue that the increase in restaurant prices can be explained by menu costs. The extension we use involves the state-dependent decision of firms about when to adopt the euro. Two main mechanisms drive the result. First, our model concentrates otherwise staggered price increases around the introduction of the euro. Second, before ...

  20. Scheduling EURO-k Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Pisinger, David; Vigo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    EURO-k conferences are among the largest Operations Research conferences in the world, typically including more than 2000 presentations. As opposed to many other conferences, EURO-k conferences are hierarchically organized, and the conference schedule should reflect this structure to make...

  1. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  2. How Far Along is Euro Adoption in the Czech Republic? Benefits for Businesses Still Remain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Helísek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to assess the reasons for the current negative position of the Czech Government towardeuro adoption and to find out whether the expected benefits of euro adoption for Czech companies still remain. Thepostponement of euro adoption in the Czech Republic has mainly been caused by the current problems of the euroarea. The benefits arising from euro adoption are subject to the reduction of the exchange rate volatility and of thetransaction costs, whereas they also depend on the degree of integration with the euro area. These benefits may stillbe expected – neither the financial crisis nor the economic recession has affected them. The integration of the Czecheconomy with the euro area is high and still growing. Therefore, euro adoption will lead to the stimulation of mutual tradeof the Czech Republic and the euro area.

  3. Effect of surface area and air-drying distance on shear bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammed Sabry El-Askary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of air-drying distance and bond surface area on the shear bond strength of a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 120 bovine anterior teeth were equally divided into 6 main groups based on bonding surface area. The main groups were divided into sub-groups (n = 5 according to air-drying distance. The shear strength was determined using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The averaged results were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05. Two-way ANOVA testing identified no significant cross-product interactions (p > 0.05, but the main factors of area (p < 0.0001 and air-drying distance (p < 0.00001 significantly affected the mean bond strength. Shorter air-drying distances improved bond strength, and increased surface area decreased the bond strength.

  4. Wind power for 33 Euro; Windkraft fuer 33 Euro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, Denny

    2013-03-15

    Auctions based on the model of Brazil are ideal for the expansion of wind energy at favourable prices. But the first impression is deceptive. 33 Euro are the measure for the price decline. This is the newest floor price for 1 MWh wind power in Brazil. Brazil has awarded projects in a magnitude of 280 megawatts to project developers under consideration of an average price of 33 Euro / MWh.

  5. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Li; Angelica Tirado; I. C. Nlebedim; Orlando Rios; Brian Post; Vlastimil Kunc; Lowden, R.R.; Edgar Lara-Curzio; Robert Fredette; John Ormerod; Lograsso, Thomas A.; M. Parans Paranthaman

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer...

  6. Sealing and dentin bond strength of adhesive systems in selected areas of perfused teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, N; Del-Nero, O; de la Macorra, J C

    2001-03-01

    (1) Test the sealing capacity and tensile strength of various adhesive systems: Scotch Bond 1 (Single Bond in USA)(SB1)+Z100, Syntac Sprint (SYN)+Tetric Ceram, Prime and Bond 2.1 (PB21)+TPH Spectrum, F2000 (Adhesive+Compomer) (F2000) and Optibond Solo (OPT)+Prodigy, to perfused teeth (30 cm distilled H2O), in select areas. (2) Determine the relationship between sealing ability and size of adhesive area (BA) with tensile strength (TS). Segments of human third molars (n=67) sealed with amalgam on their coronal side were connected to a perfusion system (30 cm distilled H2O), to measure the basal permeability. Access cavities were drilled through the amalgam to expose dentin (area range: 8.7-20.8 mm2) and measure the permeability of that area. Cavities were sealed with one of the test materials and permeability measured prior to tensile testing. The percentage of decrease in permeability (PPD) that occurred with the different combinations of materials was also measured. RESULTS. TENSILE STRENGTH: there were no statistically significant differences among groups. PERMEABILITY: ANOVA showed that there were statistically significant differences in the mean % decrease in permeability (PPD) among groups (p=0.018). Student-Newman-Keuls test (pvariables: a linear correlation was found defined by the formula TS=7.47+0.008 x PPD-0.23 x BA, with a significance of the model p=0.0097. None of the materials studied reduced permeability up to 100%. They all produced low tensile bond strengths (maximum mean value of groups: 5.51 MPa (OPT)).

  7. The EuroMyositis registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleker, James B; Vencovsky, Jiri; Wang, Guochun

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The EuroMyositis Registry facilitates collaboration across the idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) research community. This inaugural report examines pooled Registry data. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of IIM cases from 11 countries was performed. Associations between clinical subtyp...

  8. Adopting the EURO in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie ŞIMON

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the adoption of the Euro currency in 2014, as estimated in the National Programme. Based on the convergence criteria analysis on the current national background, we can foresee an earlier monetary integration.

  9. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  10. Determinants of self-rated health in elderly populations in urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK: findings of the EURO-URHIS 2 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic Jerkovic, Olivera; Sauliune, Skirmante; Šumskas, Linas; Birt, Christopher A; Kersnik, Janko

    2017-05-01

    Ageing imposes extra financial burdens on social and health services in developed countries. Self-rated health (SRH) is considered to be both a reliable measurement of overall health status including morbidity and mortality and an important predictor of hospitalization, functional impairment and greater demand for health-care services in the elderly. Our aim was to identify factors associated with poor SRH in elderly populations and investigate possible differences between urban areas in Slovenia, Lithuania and UK. Data were obtained from population-based surveys from the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 project. The stratified representative sample (41% men and 59% women) consisted of a total of 2547 respondents aged ≥65 from the urban areas in the three countries. The prevalence of poor SRH was highest in Lithuanian urban areas. The strongest factors associated with poor SRH were low education [OR (odds ratio) 4.3, 95% CI (confidence interval) 2.5-7.3, P urban areas of the three countries. Factors associated with poor SRH in the urban areas could also reflect either cultural differences or specific situations for elderly in that country, which need further research.

  11. An Empirical Analysis of Romania’s Comovement with the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of adopting the euro in the near future, it is important to asses to which extent the Romanian business cycle evolves in a similar fashion with that of the euro zone. The present study is an empirical investigation of the degree of business cycle synchronization between Romania and the euro area, based on macroeconomic series that capture the cyclical features of the two economies. The results indicate that the most recent period, characterized by major economic and financial turmoil, has lead to an increase of the degree of comovement between of the Romanian economy with that of the euro area.

  12. Euro-Multiculturalism and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    commitments fundamentally different from liberalism. The paper considers two objections to the proposed understanding of Euro-multiculturalism, namely a) that it over-inclusive in the sense that it includes religion as a central category and thereby neglects important differences between religion and culture...

  13. Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puymirat, Etienne; Battler, Alex; Birkhead, John

    2013-01-01

    Detailed data on patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on a European-wide basis are lacking. The Euro Heart Survey 2009 Snapshot was designed to assess characteristics, management, and hospital outcomes of AMI patients throughout European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member...

  14. Sequential assimilation of satellite-derived vegetation and soil moisture products using SURFEX_v8.0: LDAS-Monde assessment over the Euro-Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergel, Clément; Munier, Simon; Leroux, Delphine Jennifer; Dewaele, Hélène; Fairbairn, David; Lavinia Barbu, Alina; Gelati, Emiliano; Dorigo, Wouter; Faroux, Stéphanie; Meurey, Catherine; Le Moigne, Patrick; Decharme, Bertrand; Mahfouf, Jean-Francois; Calvet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a global land data assimilation system (LDAS-Monde) is applied over Europe and the Mediterranean basin to increase monitoring accuracy for land surface variables. LDAS-Monde is able to ingest information from satellite-derived surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI) observations to constrain the interactions between soil-biosphere-atmosphere (ISBA, Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere) land surface model (LSM) coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques) version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (ISBA-CTRIP) continental hydrological system. It makes use of the CO2-responsive version of ISBA which models leaf-scale physiological processes and plant growth. Transfer of water and heat in the soil rely on a multilayer diffusion scheme. SSM and LAI observations are assimilated using a simplified extended Kalman filter (SEKF), which uses finite differences from perturbed simulations to generate flow dependence between the observations and the model control variables. The latter include LAI and seven layers of soil (from 1 to 100 cm depth). A sensitivity test of the Jacobians over 2000-2012 exhibits effects related to both depth and season. It also suggests that observations of both LAI and SSM have an impact on the different control variables. From the assimilation of SSM, the LDAS is more effective in modifying soil moisture (SM) from the top layers of soil, as model sensitivity to SSM decreases with depth and has almost no impact from 60 cm downwards. From the assimilation of LAI, a strong impact on LAI itself is found. The LAI assimilation impact is more pronounced in SM layers that contain the highest fraction of roots (from 10 to 60 cm). The assimilation is more efficient in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Results shows that the LDAS works well constraining the model to the observations and that stronger corrections are applied to LAI than to SM. A comprehensive evaluation of

  15. Kas euro uppumissurm solgipanges? / Margo Kokerov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kokerov, Margo, 1978-

    1999-01-01

    Euro kasutuselevõtmine Euroopa riikides. Euro ajalugu. Tabelid: töötuse määr ja sisemajanduse koguprodukti muutumine kvartaalselt USA-s, Jaapanis ja Euroopa Liidu 11 riigis; euro-dollari kurss jaanuar-juuni 1999

  16. Euro adoption in Romania: Facts and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.-C. Enache

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to link the nominal convergence criteria with Romanian citizens perceptions about euro adoption. Based on convergence reports and Euro-barometer data, the 2010 and 2012 years are analysed. It is shown that even if the nominal convergence achievements are improving, the perceptions regarding the euro adoption are deteriorating. A better communication strategy is advised.

  17. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  18. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials. PMID:27796339

  19. Fiscal Governance in the Euro Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallet, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2012-01-01

    for Europe, to make the excess debt protocol operational. The contribution also addresses the issue of moral hazard, by proposing that governments be abandoned to financial markets at the upper debt limit, a commitment to be spelled out in advance. Finally, this framework is set within the idea of fiscal...

  20. The bonding area of intra- and extra-coronal tooth preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörmann, Werner H; Bindl, Andreas

    2006-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of preparation surface area measurements (mm2) using the Cerec digital mouth camera in vitro and to analyze a collection of 514 Cerec camera in vivo optical impressions of preparations from 274 patients according to the size of preparation/bonding area (mm2) The surface area (mm2) of model preparations with known dimensions namely of one occlusal (1) and one mesio-occluso-distal (2) cavity as well as of one central incisor (3) and one molar (4) crown preparation was calculated from linear (a) design dimensions, (b) slide-gauge and (c) coordinate-measuring-machine data as benchmark measurements and from repeated (n=10) (d) laser-scan (control), (e) Cerec-camera mounted on a support, (f) handheld Cerec-camera measurements. Data of (d), (e) and (f) was statistically analyzed. From a collection of data sets clinically recorded with the Cerec camera, the surface areas of 514 preparations from 274 patients were analyzed according to the type of tooth and type of preparation. Occlusal cavity mm2 data 1(d) 48 +/- 0.4, 1(e) 48 +/- 0.2, 1(f) 48 +/- 0.6 and mod cavity mm2 data 2(d) 137 +/- 2, 2(e) 138 +/- 1, 2(f) 138 +/- 4 did not differ between (d), (e) and (f) (P> 0.05) confirming the hypothesis for inlay cavities. Incisor crown preparation mm2 data 3(d) 82+0.4 differed (Ppreparation mm2 data 4(d) 133 +/- 0.6 differed by 3.5% (Ppreparation area data obtained from in vivo Cerec camera recordings differentiated between type of tooth and type of cavity. 2D data of "classic", "reduced" and "endo" type crown preparations did not differentiate clearly.

  1. Effect of thermal aging on the tensile bond strength at reduced areas of seven current adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, Bruno; Fuentes, M Victoria; Garrido, Miguel A; González-López, Santiago; Ceballos, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the micro-tensile bond strength (MTBS) to dentin of seven adhesive systems (total and self-etch adhesives) after 24 h and 5,000 thermocycles. Dentin surfaces of human third molars were exposed and bonded with two total-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and XP Bond), two two-step self-etch adhesives (Adper Scotchbond SE and Filtek Silorane Adhesive System) and three one-step self-etch adhesives (G-Bond, Xeno V and Bond Force). All adhesive systems were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Composite buildups were constructed and the bonded teeth were then stored in water (24 h, 37 °C) or thermocycled (5,000 cycles) before being sectioned and submitted to MTBS test. Two-way ANOVA and subsequent comparison tests were applied at α = 0.05. Characteristic de-bonded specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 h water storage, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, Adper Scotchbond 1 XT, Filtek Silorane Adhesive System and Adper Scotchbond SE and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. After thermocycling, MTBS values were highest with XP Bond, followed by Filtek Silorane Adhesive System, Adper Scotchbond SE and Adper Scotchbond 1 XT and lowest with the one-step self-etch adhesives Bond Force, Xeno V and G-Bond. Thermal aging induced a significant decrease in MTBS values with all adhesives tested. The resistance of resin-dentin bonds to thermal-aging degradation was material dependent. One-step self-etch adhesives obtained the lowest MTBS results after both aging treatments, and their adhesive capacity was significantly reduced after thermocycling.

  2. The Euro crisis. Causes and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S. Weber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Euro crisis is mainly a consequence of the international financial crisis of 2008. Thereby, the term Euro crisis is misleading as there is no currency crisis. First, the article shows some of the birth defects of the Euro. Second, it shows that the increase in public debt was caused by rescue measures for banks and anti-cyclical fiscal policy. Third, we argue that the Euro crisis is not just one crisis (a sovereign debt crisis but it is a combination of several macroeconomic crises including a growth crisis, a labour market crisis, a public debt crisis, and a current account crisis.

  3. ROMANIA: THE WAY TO EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Gabriela DULGHERIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the Romanian process to join the euro, under the terms of the current economic-financial crisis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of achieving real and nominal convergence criteria, along with offering perspectives regarding European monetary integration. The adoption of the unique currency represents an important challenge and opportunity for Romania during the post-adherence period, which forces the political and administrative environment to conceive and implement coherent and responsible politics meant to ensure a simultaneous fulfillment of nominal and real convergence criteria of the Romanian economy. The results of this analysis illustrate that, despite the fact that the Romanian economy recorded significant progresses on the fulfillment of the Maastricht criteria, the current economic context has introduced an additional uncertainty factor and significantly made the adoption of a single currency harder, and the enforcement of real convergence criteria has become much more difficult. Under these circumstances, the National Bank of Romania gave up the target that 2015 represented, and also the one of establishing a new target-date to enter the eurozone, the perspective of joining a single currency exceeding the horizon of this decade. In order to achieve a real, profound and sustainable reorganization of the Romanian economy and to successfully recover the discrepancies between Romania and the EU standards, the road to the euro must be paved with much caution and wisdom.

  4. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  5. Kas Eesti saab 2007. a. euro?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Sisaldab artikleid: Maris Lauri. Inflatsioonikriteeriumi täitmine pea võimatu; Joaquin Almunia. Eesti vastuvõtmiseks EL oma eeskirju ei muuda; Euro kasutuselevõtu mõjud Eestile; Ruta Eier. Kokkuvõttes on tegemist ikkagi poliitilise otsusega; Euro kasutuselevõtuga kaasnevad muutused; Reitinguagentuur eeldab liitumist 2007. aastal

  6. "EuroPrix 99" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    1999-01-01

    1998. a. algatasid Austria Majandusministeerium ja Euroopa Nõukogu võistluse "EuroPrix MultiMediaArt" väljapaistvate multimeediatoodete esiletõstmiseks. "EuroPrix 99" tutvustus. Tööde saatmise tähtaeg 30. juuni 1999. Multimeediaturust Eestis. Salzburgis korraldatud workshop multimeediaturu stimuleerimise strateegiatest. Ilmunud ka kogumikus "Ekraan kui membraan". Tartu, 2007, lk. 193-194

  7. Detachment of agglutinin-bonded red blood cells. III. Mechanical analysis for large contact areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, D.; Evans, E

    1991-01-01

    An experimental method and analysis are introduced which provide direct quantitation of the strength of adhesive contact for large agglutinin-bonded regions between macroscopically smooth membrane capsules (e.g., red blood cells). The approach yields intrinsic properties for separation of adherent regions independent of mechanical deformation of the membrane capsules during detachment. Conceptually, the micromechanical method involves one rigid test-capsule surface (in the form of a perfect s...

  8. Euro peal ja dollar all / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    Viimastel päevadel on euro kurss USA dollari suhtes kerkinud oma olemasolu kaheksa aasta kõrgeimale tasemele. Diagramm. Vt. samas: USA mõju kahaneb; Nõrkuse põhjus intressipoliitikas; Dollari ohud seotud eelarve ja naftaga

  9. EuroPlus+ Reward / Alar Hammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hammer, Alar

    2000-01-01

    EuroPlus+ Reward on mitmes versioonis ilmunud inglise keele õppeprogramm, milles on ühendatud multimeedia võimalused ning distantsõpe ning mis loob täiesti uued võimalused keele omandamiseks arvuti abil

  10. Innovative MAN Euro V engines without exhaust aftertreatment; Innovative MAN Euro V Motorisierung ohne Abgasnachbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, W.; Raab, G.; Schaller, K.V.; Gotre, W.; Lehmann, H.; Moeller, H.; Schroeppel, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Nuernberg (Germany); MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Steyr (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) always is eager to offer products for the respective markets whereby the products are interesting for the customer under economic criteria. Additionally, the products shall not lack in the travelling comfort under consideration of the legal emission borders. Thus, a AdBlue {sup registered} free technology for all MAN series was already offered before the legal introduction of EURO IV. This technology is based on an internal-motor solution with external, cooled AGR and a PM-Cat {sup registered} -filter. This solution is esteemed highly by our customers because apart from the well-known advantages in relation to a SCR technology there were no losses with the operating cost. With EURO V which is inserted in some countries MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG returns to a long-term experience with SCR technology. The motivation for the development of a AdBlue {sup registered} free solution was the positive feedback of our customers on the basis of MAN EURO IV AGR/PM Cat technology. With the developed EURO V AGR solution, other EURO IV solutions in line with market conditions for the 'Emerging markets' can be derived with which a technology without exhaust post-treatment can be offered worldwide for our customers. This technology presents the basis for a platform concept EURO IV/V and EURO VI. In this concept, EURO IV can be presented without subsequent treatment of exhaust gases, EURO V in connection with an Oxicat and EURO VI with a SCRT system. Here, the vehicle/engine concept presents the most important components for the individual series in particular. By means of these components, the goal EURO V was achieved internal-motor without losses of operating cost and life span in relation to SCR technologies.

  11. IS READY ROMANIA FOR EURO ADOPTION? FROM STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE TO BUSINESS CYCLE SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas Marius - Corneliu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify gaps between economic and commercial structures between Romania and the euro area and to explain whether the results obtained justify recently decision to delay euro adoption beyond 2015. According to theory of optimum currency areas, the existence of similar economic structures, increasing trade integration and synchronization of business cycles with monetary union will provide greater symmetry of shocks between Romania and the euro area. If the shocks are more symmetrical, then common monetary policy of the European Central Bank will act as a tool to neutralize the shocks in the case of Romania, and the euro adoption would have fewer adverse effects. To meet the research objective, we have structured this paper into three parts. In the first part we referred to the importance of the proposed theme in the economic literature. In the second part, we used several statistical methods to identify how divergent is Romania relative to the euro area economies. The results obtained show increasing divergence between economic structures until 2009 year using the NACE 6 methodology. In fact, Romania has the most divergent structure in EU-27 countries, being characterized by lowest contribution of services to GDP. However, structural differences do not constitute an obstacle to euro adoption, as long as Romania becomes more commercially integrated with other European countries. Thus, Romania is the seventh economy in terms of trade with the EU-27 (73.3% of exports and 74.3% of imports, and the degree of convergence between the structure of exports and imports have increased significantly compared with 2000 year. In the third part, we estimated the degree of synchronization of business cycles between Romania and the euro area, based on Hodrick-Prescott filter. Results showed an increasing correlation of business cycles as a result of increasing industrial activity and export synchronization.

  12. Provisional acceptance of installations and online data submission of PV and Hybrid kits in remote areas of Latin-America under the EC's EURO-SOLAR Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cendagorta, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Lopez-Manzanares, L.; Linares, A. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A. (ITER), Granadilla de Abona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The EURO-SOLAR Programme is providing 600 isolated and rural communities in the 8 lesser developed countries in Latin America, with an electricity production facility based on both PV or Hybrid (PV and Wind) RE technologies. These installations are meant to provide this energy for community uses, rather than home and private usage, with these uses (computing, telecommunications, lighting, water purification, etc.) aimed to increase the degree of development within the communities. Two different companies were awarded the installation of these systems, after an international tender procedure, where ITER played a technical advisor role for the EC's DG EuropeAid. In the present phase of the project, where the systems are being installed, ITER has designed a provisional acceptance procedure (PA), in which both remote and in-situ verifications are carried out. This procedure has been developed in conjunction with a web application in order to ensure both transparency and traceability either of all actions and all actors involved in the process (Companies, ITER, Technical Assistance, EC, Communities). This application is also meant to act as a central repository where all the technical and administrative information of each one of the 600 systems could be found. This paper describes in detail this procedure, how it has been designed and what are the outcomes of all the processes aimed to guarantee the technical quality and the sustainability of the systems. (orig.)

  13. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L; Tirado, A.; Nlebedim, I.C.; Rios, O.; Post, B.; Kunc, V.; Lowden, R.R.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Fredette, R.; Ormerod, J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing

  14. euro a ser una moneda internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Hortensia Lacayo Ojeda

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia cuáles son los principales factores económicos y financieros que llevan al euro, la nueva moneda común europea, a ser una moneda internacional junto al dólar y al yen. Entre dichos factores se encuentran, en primer lugar, el respaldo económico de los doce países de la Unión Económica y Monetaria medido a través de su importancia demográfica, su producto interno bruto (PIB y su grado de apertura comercial; en segundo lugar, la dimensión financiera de la zona euro en lo referente a las inversiones realizadas en la moneda europea, su utilización como moneda de reserva y como moneda de intercambio; en tercer término, la confianza que inspire el euro a los actores económicos

  15. Possible Risks of a too Early Adoption of Euro in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana BĂDÎRCEA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify a possible risks generated by the Euro adoption for the Romanian economy, starting from the costs identified by the Optimal Currency Area theory. In this respect, we analyse the degree of convergence of Romanian economy related to the Euro Area. We use for this comparison of the Structural Convergence Index and the Index of Occupational Convergence, the Commercial Integration Degree using the trade intensity, and the Synchronization Degree of Business Cycles of Romania with the Euro Area through the analysis of correlation coefficients for business activity indicators i.e. GDP and Industrial Production Index. The background of the economic crisis was a test for the perspectives of Euro adoption by Romania; where, the negative external shock was transmitted through the trade channels with foreign partners. The monetary policy of the country proved to be inefficient in neutralizing the corresponding negative effects. The solution envisaged by the authorities was the use of an external adjustment mechanism rather than an internal one. However, in this case, the negative effects of the crisis will persist in the economy and will increase the adoption costs under the circumstances of a structural divergence between the Romanian economy and the Euro Area.

  16. CHANGES IN GHG EMISSIONS AND EURO STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljko Kokić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An enormous price increase of crude oil, limited fossil resources and the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions on global warming have strengthened the efforts to develop alternatives- renewable to the classical-oil fuel. The world leading manufacturers of the motor vehicles have relatively easily satisfied increasingly more stringent EURO standards, ECE Regulations or EEC Directives. The vehicle manufacturers of Serbia may satisfy EURO standards primarily by purchasing the appropriate foreign made engines. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, it is concluded that Florida model with diesel engine, is very environmentally friendly vehicle for our conditions.

  17. The CDS and the Government Bonds Markets During the Last Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Križanič France

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial market had developed a special instrument to insure the buyers of bonds. This instrument is so called Credit Default Swap (CDS. The CDS price is a kind of insurance premium that the buyer of CDS pays to the seller of CDS in exchange for compensation of possible loss in operation. Paper analyses causality between CDS price and dynamics of bond yields and influence of macroeconomic factors on it in four selected countries during the last financial crisis. Analysis results show that there is no important macroeconomic variable included in the analysis that preceded the CDS prices connected with German government bonds. Sellers of CDS were apparently aware of the systemic nature of the financial crisis in the euro area. In the case of the United Kingdom, Russia and Slovenia we can observe the unemployment rate as the most important macroeconomic variable that preceded the CDS prices for government bonds.

  18. How to measure Corporate Bond Liquidity?

    OpenAIRE

    Houweling, Patrick; Mentink, A.A.; Vorst, Ton

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe consider eight different measures (issued amount, coupon, listed, age, missing prices, price volatility, number of contributors and yield dispersion) to approximate corporate bond liquidity and use a five-variable model to control for maturity, credit and currency differences between bonds. The null hypothesis that liquidity risk is not priced in our data set of euro corporate bonds is rejected for seven out of eight liquidity measures. We find significant liquidity premia, ran...

  19. Cern faces 260m euro budget cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "The Cern particle-physics lab near Geneva is to slash about 260m euro ($340m) from its budget for 2011-2015. The cut, which was approved by Cern's council last month, will require the lab to scale back research into future particles accelerators" (0.5 page)

  20. The risks of Euro adoption in Romania – an analysis based on ten criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu MARINAŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I have proposed and examined ten criteria to analyze the challenges of joining at Monetary Union, explaining the need to include them in government and multinational companies’ strategies. The criteria adopted in the case of Romania concern the potential impact of Euro adoption on economic activities, the common monetary policy effects on the Romanian economy, synchronization with the Euro area, labour market flexibility, as a tool of shocks adjustment etc. After stating each criterion, I have made a brief analysis of how that could affect the balance of costs and benefits of giving up own currency, using conclusions of the optimum currency areas theory.

  1. RIP and the shift toward a monetary union: Looking for a “euro effect” by a structural break analysis with panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Maveyraud-Tricoire, Samuel; Rous, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper aims to evaluate how the ex ante real interest rates of Euro area countries have been modified by the introduction of the euro. We use cointegration analysis with endogenous breaks in a panel data context. Our results show that the "euro effect" is significant in our sample and that after the introduction of the euro, the real interest parity (RIP) holds. This last conclusion is due to a decrease in the nominal interest rate differentials rather than to a re...

  2. Euro esimene kümme / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 7. mai lk. 32. Euroopa ühisraha euro asutamine ja areng. Arvamust avaldavad Siim Kallas ja Vahur Kraft. Kommenteerib Raivo Vare: Eesti võib euro saada 2015-2017. Vt. samas: Luukamber uusliikmetele on praegu karmim; Taust; Diagramm: Euro tervis on kümne aastaga tugevamaks muutunud

  3. Euro roll rahvusvahelise valuutana / Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padoa-Schioppa, Tommaso

    2003-01-01

    Autor käsitleb euro erakasutust rahvusvahelises ulatuses, analüüsib euro ametlikku rolli reservvaluutana välisvaluutareservide mitmekesistamise üleüldise arengu tingimustes ning vaatleb euro kasutamist euroalale geograafiliselt lähedastes piirkondades. Lühendatud tõlge autori kõnest 2002. aasta 22. novembril Frankfurdis toimunud Euroopa panganduskongressil

  4. Advokaat: lepinguid euro tulek ei muuda / Kadrin Karner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karner, Kadrin

    2010-01-01

    Tark & Co advokaat Hannes Vallikivi rääkis konverentsil "Mida toob euro?", et kõik lepingud jäävad euro tulekul kehtima ja euro tulek ei anna alust ka lepingut muuta. Lisa: mis juhtub enne ja pärast euroga liitumist?

  5. Riik ei loobu plaanitud euro-kampaaniast / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi eurole ülemineku projektijuht Anne Sulling kinnitab, et Eesti ei ole loobunud eesmärgist võtta euro kasutusele 2007. aastal. Koos Euroopa Liiduga plaanib riik kulutada euro teavitamiskampaaniale kuni ühe euro inimese kohta ehk kokku ligi 1,4 miljonit eurot. Lisa: Poolt ja vastu

  6. Turismo lungo le aree costiere euro- mediterranee: dalla scoperta, al consumo, al progetto del paesaggio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Salizzoni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The critical implications for the landscape which have been caused by seaside tourism are today evident along the Euro-Mediterranean coastal areas. This typology of demand for tourism, consolidating since the second half of the twentieth century, deeply alterated the coasts of Spain, France and Italy. The value and vulnerability of Euro-Mediterranean coastal landscapes as well as the expected growth of the number of tourists along these areas, highlight the need to develop policies able to manage such phenomenon, also by way of an enhancement of alternative tourism typologies. This is the main objective of the policies developed in the context of three Protected Landscapes situated along the Euro-Mediterranean coast, explicitly aimed at identifying specific forms of integration between tourism development and landscape conservation.

  7. PUBLIC SERVICES AND THE EURO-REGIONAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badulescu Alina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides the goods and private services, covering the specific needs of individual or groups based on specific mechanisms of demand and supply, human needs can be addressed also through public services. They are designed to meet the general interests of members of a community or society at large and established by public authorities, subject to certain fundamental principles of organization and operation, such as: the principle of efficiency, the principle of equity, the principle of continuity, the principle of movability and the principle of decentralization. In the same time, public services involve in many areas of economic and social life is not just a national issue, but also have characteristics and provision ways at international, regional and euro-regional level. This paper underlines the main areas of euro-regional co-operation interest in the public services sectors, such as: the sectors of environment, agriculture and territorial planning, the sectors of transportation, security and telecommunication, the sector of the economy and labour force, the sector of cross-border populations: social protection and public health, the sectors of education, research and culture.

  8. IMPACT OF EURO ON ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana Horvat

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Slovenian experiences, the purpose of the paper is therefore to analyse the impact of the changeover to the euro on the main fields in accounting and accounting information system, and to form on this basis a model of activities for the preparation for the changeover to the euro in the states which are to adopt the euro. From 1 January 2007 the official currency of Slovenia has been the euro, and the changeover itself to the euro presented additional risks in the field of informa...

  9. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  10. Does the Euro enhance Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of economic integration in Europe. The aim of this article is to investigate whether the EU and EZ memberships enhance growth of their members. In order to perform our empirical analysis, we apply an augmented Solow growth model using convergence analysis and the panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM......One of the major economic reasons for the creation of the European Union (EU) and of the Euro-zone (EZ) was an expected bonus of economic growth associated to member states. While several studies exist on the growth bonus of the EU membership, there are none for the EZ, the latest and deepest step......) to estimate its coefficients. We restrict the time frame of our research on the first 14 years of the Euro - from 1999 to 2012. In line with economic intuition we find a positive and neutral impact of EU and EZ memberships on economic growth respectively. These economic results can be considered especially...

  11. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  12. Minister denies fudging in quest for euro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Rahandusminister Jürgen Ligi kinnitas, et Eesti ei ole eurokriteeriumi täitmiseks mingeid pettusi rakendanud. Mart Laar leiab, et euro kasutuselevõttu võib segada tööpuuduse kõrge tase. Riigikogu rahanduskomisjoni esimees Taavi Rõivas ei usu, et kõrge tööpuudus võiks euroga liitumist edasi lükata

  13. Wind power in the Euro-Mediterranean region: development and prospects; Energia eolica en la region euromediterranea: desarrollo y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Latorre, F. M.; Ventura Fernandez, J.

    2011-07-01

    This work is a first approach to wind development in the Euro-Mediterranean region and identifies the major initiatives underway as well as development conditions. It includes a study case of wind power management in the Strait of Gibraltar area. Wind development is analyzed in the Euro-Mediterranean territories by comparing Spanish regions with different States using various indicators. Key countries are noted for their potential and policies to promote wind based alternatives. (Author)

  14. Did Inflation Really Soar After the Euro Cash Changeover? Indirect Evidence from ATM Withdrawals

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Angelini; Francesco Lippi

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of the euro notes and coins during the first months of 2002 was followed by a lively debate on the alleged inflationary effects of the new currency. In Italy, as in the rest of the euro area, survey-based measures signaled a much sharper rise in inflation than measured by the official price indices, whose quality was called into question. In this paper we gather indirect evidence on the behaviour of prices from the analysis of cash withdrawals from ATM and their determinants....

  15. Adopting the euro: Romanian perspectives in the context of the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oros, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine Romania’s capacity to fulfil the nominal convergence criteria in the current context, in order to follow the calendar proposed for euro adoption in 2015. The paper analyzed the evolution of all five criteria under the impact of the current financial crisis and also looked at the forecast provided by national and international authorities. The study was conducted considering the relative situation with the euro area. The main finding is that the actual target for euro adoption could be complied with, provided further progress is made. We have also fond that the target should be achieved as it would represent a strong stimulus for the local government to implement additional measures to reduce public indebtedness and inflationary pressure.

  16. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral

  17. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive/dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Ritts, Andy Charles; Staller, Corey; Yu, Qingsong; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and verify the effectiveness of plasma treatment for improving adhesive/dentin interfacial bonding by performing micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) test using the same-tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used by removing the crowns to expose the dentin surface. For each dentin surface, one half of it was treated with a non-thermal argon plasma brush, while another half was shielded with glass slide and used as untreated control. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were then applied as directed. The teeth thus prepared were further cut into micro-bar specimens with cross-sectional size of 1×1 mm2, 1×2 mm2 and 1×3 mm2 for μTBS test. The test results showed that plasma treated specimens gave substantially stronger adhesive/dentin bonding than their corresponding same tooth controls. As compared with their untreated controls, plasma treatment gave statistically significant higher bonding strength for specimens having cross-sectional area of 1×1 mm2 and 1×2 mm2, with mean increases of 30.8% and 45.1%, respectively. Interface examination using optical and electron microscopy verified that plasma treatment improved the quality of the adhesive/dentin interface by reducing defects/voids and increasing the resin tag length in dentin tubules. PMID:23841788

  18. On The Road to Euro: How Synchronized Is Estonia with the Euro zone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brixiova, Zuzana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available While the currency board served Estonia well during transition in the 1990s, it has limited its ability to counter the impact of the global financial crisis and heightened the currency risks. The euro adoption has thus become a top policy priority again. However, this paper finds that even after almost two decades of hard peg with the core of the euro zone shocks affecting Estonia are relatively weakly synchronized with those of the zone, contributing to large output volatility. Nevertheless, the case for euro adoption by Estonia holds, since the costs of the loss of independent monetary policy were paid, and - as the global financial crisis demonstrated - the currency board is no substitute for the common currency. To reduce future output volatility, Estonia should move to counter-cyclical fiscal policies, maintain labor and product market flexibility, and adopt policies stimulating rise in the knowledge and high-tech content of its production.

  19. Real-world NOx emissions of Euro V and Euro VI heavy duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, R.; Dekker, H.; Vonk, W.

    2012-04-15

    TNO regularly performs measurements to determine the in-service performance and durability with respect to the pollutant emissions of heavy-duty vehicles under representative driving conditions. The 2011 measurement programme yields new insights regarding the emission performance of the upcoming Euro VI technology for heavy-duty vehicles, mandatory as of 31 December 2013 and, together with the results from earlier performed programmes, leads to conclusions on the emission performance of past and present generations of heavy-duty vehicles (Euro V, EEV)

  20. Electric Vehicle Plan [in France]. 4 billion euros for 2020; Plan Voiture Electrique. 4 miljard euro tot 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zutphen, E.

    2009-11-15

    On October 1st 2009 two ministries (Environment and Industry) announced fourteen measures for promoting plug-in and hybrid vehicles in their 'Plan Voiture Electrique'. The investments amount to up to 4 billion euros until 2020. The aim is to have 450 thousand hybrids and electric vehicles on the roads of France in 2015. In 2020 there should be 2 million of them and in 2025 4.5 million. The plan has three areas of attention: incentives for the purchase of electric or hybrid vehicles, the infrastructure (charging points) and the production of the vehicle and the batteries within France. [Dutch] Op 1 oktober 2009 werden door 2 ministeries (Milieu en Industrie) in het 'Plan Voiture Electrique' veertien maatregelen bekendgemaakt waarmee plug-in-hybrides en elektrische autos zullen worden gepromoot. De investeringen bedragen tot 2020 4 miljard euro. Het doel is om in 2015 450 duizend hybrides en elektrische voertuigen op de Franse wegen te laten rijden. In 2020 moeten dat er 2 miljoen zijn en in 2025 4,5 miljoen. Het plan betreft drie verschillende actiegebieden: stimulering van de aankoop van elektrische- of hybride voertuigen, de infrastructuur (oplaadpunten), en de productie in eigen land van zowel het voertuig als de batterijen.

  1. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  2. Perception of Euro in Poland – Economic and Psychological Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Matyja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diagnosis of the opportunities and threats associated with the introduction of the euro in Poland was the main focus of this study. The research had two main objectives: exploratory and operational. The exploratory objective was to capture the structure of convictions affecting Poles’ attitudes toward the introduction of the euro. The operational objective was to verify which of those convictions have the most infl uence on the lack of support for the introduction of the euro. Methodology: The research was conducted with a national random sample (n=509 of Polish citizens. The CAPI/ CASI face-to-face questionnaire was used. Findings: There exists a multi-level structure of attitudes towards the euro. The attitude toward the introduction of the euro is explained by attitudes toward the euro and the Polish zloty, perceived gains and losses from introduction of the euro and life attitudes. One cannot force another individual to support the introduction of the euro. However, one can act upon the convictions of the nation, which has a major impact on raising euro acceptance. The most impact is from strengthening of national beliefs, which strongly and positively affect the level of euro acceptance, whereas any reduction lowers the acceptance of the introduction of a new currency. Limitations: As any other social phenomena, money perception is very dynamic and dependent on current political and social issues. Therefore, despite the fact that the model seems to defi ne the factors and their influence on euro perception very accurately, it is essential that every time it is applied, the current state of mind of the society is measured. Furthermore, additional research should be conducted for groups deviating from the average results for the society. Originality: The practical aspect of this research is the opportunity to point out convictions, which need to be modified to increase euro acceptance.

  3. Dilution effects on ultrafine particle emissions from Euro 5 and Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Martinet, Simon; D'Anna, Barbara; Valiente, Alvaro Martinez; Boreave, Antoinette; R'Mili, Badr; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; André, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Dilution and temperature used during sampling of vehicle exhaust can modify particle number concentration and size distribution. Two experiments were performed on a chassis dynamometer to assess exhaust dilution and temperature on particle number and particle size distribution for Euro 5 and Euro 6 vehicles. In the first experiment, the effects of dilution (ratio from 8 to 4 000) and temperature (ranging from 50 °C to 150 °C) on particle quantification were investigated directly from tailpipe for a diesel and a gasoline Euro 5 vehicles. In the second experiment, particle emissions from Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles directly sampled from the tailpipe were compared to the constant volume sampling (CVS) measurements under similar sampling conditions. Low primary dilutions (3-5) induced an increase in particle number concentration by a factor of 2 compared to high primary dilutions (12-20). Low dilution temperatures (50 °C) induced 1.4-3 times higher particle number concentration than high dilution temperatures (150 °C). For the Euro 6 gasoline vehicle with direct injection, constant volume sampling (CVS) particle number concentrations were higher than after the tailpipe by a factor of 6, 80 and 22 for Artemis urban, road and motorway, respectively. For the same vehicle, particle size distribution measured after the tailpipe was centred on 10 nm, and particles were smaller than the ones measured after CVS that was centred between 50 nm and 70 nm. The high particle concentration (≈106 #/cm3) and the growth of diameter, measured in the CVS, highlighted aerosol transformations, such as nucleation, condensation and coagulation occurring in the sampling system and this might have biased the particle measurements.

  4. Sequential assimilation of satellite-derived vegetation and soil moisture products using SURFEX_v8.0: LDAS-Monde assessment over the Euro-Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Albergel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a global land data assimilation system (LDAS-Monde is applied over Europe and the Mediterranean basin to increase monitoring accuracy for land surface variables. LDAS-Monde is able to ingest information from satellite-derived surface soil moisture (SSM and leaf area index (LAI observations to constrain the interactions between soil–biosphere–atmosphere (ISBA, Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere land surface model (LSM coupled with the CNRM (Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques version of the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (ISBA-CTRIP continental hydrological system. It makes use of the CO2-responsive version of ISBA which models leaf-scale physiological processes and plant growth. Transfer of water and heat in the soil rely on a multilayer diffusion scheme. SSM and LAI observations are assimilated using a simplified extended Kalman filter (SEKF, which uses finite differences from perturbed simulations to generate flow dependence between the observations and the model control variables. The latter include LAI and seven layers of soil (from 1 to 100 cm depth. A sensitivity test of the Jacobians over 2000–2012 exhibits effects related to both depth and season. It also suggests that observations of both LAI and SSM have an impact on the different control variables. From the assimilation of SSM, the LDAS is more effective in modifying soil moisture (SM from the top layers of soil, as model sensitivity to SSM decreases with depth and has almost no impact from 60 cm downwards. From the assimilation of LAI, a strong impact on LAI itself is found. The LAI assimilation impact is more pronounced in SM layers that contain the highest fraction of roots (from 10 to 60 cm. The assimilation is more efficient in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Results shows that the LDAS works well constraining the model to the observations and that stronger corrections are applied to LAI than to SM. A

  5. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive-dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Ritts, Andrew C; Staller, Corey; Yu, Qingsong; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yong

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and verify the effectiveness of plasma treatment for improving adhesive-dentin interfacial bonding by performing microtensile bond-strength (μTBS) testing using the same-tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Extracted unerupted human third molars were used after removal of the crowns to expose the dentin surface. One half of each dentin surface was treated with a non-thermal argon plasma brush, whilst the other was shielded with glass slide and used as an untreated control. Adper Single Bond Plus adhesive and Filtek Z250 dental composite were then applied as directed. The teeth thus prepared were further cut into micro-bar specimens, with cross-sectional sizes of 1 × 1 mm², 1 × 2 mm², and 1 × 3 mm², for μTBS testing. The test results showed that plasma-treated specimens gave substantially stronger adhesive-dentin bonding than their corresponding same-tooth controls. Compared with their untreated controls, plasma treatment gave statistically significant higher bonding strength for specimens with a cross-sectional area of 1 × 1 mm² and 1 × 2 mm², with mean increases of 30.8% and 45.1%, respectively. Interface examination using optical and electron microscopy verified that plasma treatment improved the quality of the adhesive-dentin interface by reducing defects/voids and increasing the resin tag length in dentin tubules. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  6. Multinational cash management and conglomerate discounts in the euro zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, Henk von; Westerman, Wim

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the impact of liberalisation, deregulation and the introduction of a single currency on cash management within multinationals in the euro zone. The developments in the euro zone reduce financial market imperfections in transferring cash and diminish the need for separate local cash

  7. Late-breaking papers of EuroGP-99

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. Langdon; R. Poli; P. Nordin; T. Fogarty

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis booklet contains the late-breaking papers of the Second European Workshop on Genetic Programming (EuroGP'99) held in G'oteborg Sweden 26--27~May~1999. EuroGP'99 was one of the EvoNet workshops on evolutionary computing, EvoWorkshops'99. The purpose of the late-breaking papers was to

  8. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  9. Limits to Arbitrage in Sovereign Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    ), and (ii) the liquidity in the cash market, and not in the futures market, has a significant impact on the basis between the price of the futures contract and that of the cash bond that is cheapest to deliver. However, the interventions of the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis, had......, through changes in the quotes posted by market makers and the reactions of arbitrageurs, and price discovery, through the transmission of price shocks between markets. We use data from the cash and futures markets, at the millisecond level, in the context of the Italian sovereign bond markets during...... the recent Euro-zone sovereign bond crisis and, surprisingly, find that: (i) even though the futures market leads the cash market in price discovery, the cash market leads the futures market in liquidity discovery, i.e., the willingness of market makers to trade (measured by market depth and bid-ask spread...

  10. L'euro et le dollar

    OpenAIRE

    Bénassy-Quéré, Agnès; Pisani-Ferry, Jean; Martin, Philippe

    1997-01-01

    La question des incidences externes de l'union monétaire européenne a longtemps été un sujet de préoccupation quasi-exclusivement français. Elle fait depuis peu l'objet d'un intérêt croissant hors d'Europe. En se dotant d'une monnaie commune, les pays de l'UE mettront en effet à disposition du reste du monde un instrument attrayant d'échange et de placement : la constitution monétaire qu'ils ont choisie garantira la stabilité interne de l'euro ; celui-ci prendra appui sur une économie puissan...

  11. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen.......While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome...

  12. The Euro Crisis in Online Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Kaun, Anne

    2013-01-01

    of a national economy to withstand, adapt and overcome the financial crisis), disregarding the consequences of growing inequalities and the dismantling of welfare state. Consequently, reports on resilience at the civil society level (i.e. the ability of citizens and communities to withstand, adapt and overcome......While Scandinavian countries may be coping with the Euro crisis relatively better than most other European countries, they are far from unaffected. Nonetheless, the mainstream media have represented Scandinavia and Sweden as prime examples of resilience at a governmental level (i.e. the ability...... the financial crisis) remain largely absent from mainstream media reports. Instead, civil society initiatives that respond to the consequences of the crisis have to rely on self-representation and sharing of resources in online media. One example is the Swedish grassroots organisation, Megafonen....

  13. THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME AND THE EURO

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Since 1 January 2002, the euro is the common currency of 12 European countries and some 300 million people. Of course, such a change has some consequences on our Health Insurance Scheme. As you know, when filling in the medical expenses claim form, you are required to indicate a currency code, i.e. the currency in which you have incurred medical expenses. You may have noticed that the euro is not yet on the list of currencies which appear on the bottom left of the existing form. This will be changed very soon, once the stock of existing forms has been used up. Until then, please note that the currency code for the euro is 002 (easy to remember since the code for the Swiss franc is 001). If you forget this code, don't worry! Just indicate «euro» next to the amount of your medical bill, or simply use the euro symbol!

  14. Inflation persistence : euro area and new EU member states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, K.

    -, č. 810 (2007), s. 1-39 ISSN 1725-2806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new EU member states * time varying mean Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp810.pdf

  15. The Euro Changeover and Its Effects on Price Transparency, and Inflation. Mission Euro, Mission Accomplished!

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Mastrobuoni; Wioletta Dziuda

    2005-01-01

    Despite the expectations of economists that the euro changeover would have no effect on prices, we show that European consumers perceive the contrary. The data indicate that consumers based their perceptions about inflation on goods that are cheaper and more frequently purchased. We use this insight to develop and estimate a model of imperfect information that explains why these goods were subject to higher price growth after the changeover. The data indicate that some retailers, aware of the...

  16. Saving Euro by dividing Europe in multiple OCA’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Dapontas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On the aftermath of the global credit crunch was made clear thatthe Euro countries debtcrisis shows that the EMU is far from being an Optimal Currency Area (OCA under its current form.The countries accepted bailouts from their counterparts and international organizations in order toprevent the Eurozone collapse spreading the crisis further. Can the breakup to multiple areas help asTootel(1990 suggested?Three possible sets of OCA scenarios are analyzed along with thedemolition scenario. The breakup of the Eurozone to two currencies consisting possible OCAs alongwith a second one adding all the EU members and a third one applying in small regions. Thescenarios are analyzed by using eleven equally weighted optimum area criteria to make Eurozone asingle or a set of sustainable OCAs. These type and extension scenarios are presented for the firsttime for EU countries finding possible sets of independent country groups. The results show that theasymmetries lead to the crisis persist in a possible two or more “euros” area and this scenario cost ishigher than uniondissolution’s. Europe cannot become in its current form a set of OCAs under anycircumstances.

  17. Use of EuroSCORE as a predictor of morbidity after cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isaac Newton Guimarães; de Moraes Neto, Fernando Ribeiro; Andrade, Tamirys Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of the EuroSCORE as a predictor of postoperative morbidity after cardiac surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 900 patients operated on and admitted to the intensive care unit postoperatively at the Royal Portuguese Hospital of Recife. We included all patients with complete medical records, excluding those who died during surgery, underwent transplantation or correction of congenital heart disease. We evaluated the development of respiratory infection, cerebrovascular accident, and dialysis-dependent renal failure, and the EuroSCORE was compared in terms of the three complications using the Mann-Whitney test. The calibration model for predicting the morbidities being studied was evaluated using the test set of Homer-Lemeshow goodness. The accuracy of the model was assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). Results The model showed good calibration in predicting respiratory infection, acute renal failure and stroke (P=0.285, P=0.789, P=0.45, respectively), with good accuracy for respiratory infection (AUROC=0.710 and P<0.001) and dialysis-dependent renal failure (AUROC=0.834 and P<0.001), but no accuracy to predict stroke (AUROC=0.519). The high-risk patients were more likely to develop respiratory infection (OR=9.05, P<0.001) and dialysis-dependent renal failure (OR=39.6, P<0.001). The probability of developing respiratory infection and dialysis-dependent renal failure was less than 10% with EuroSCORE up to 7 and more than 70% with EuroSCORE greater than 15. Conclusion EuroSCORE proved to be a good predictor of major postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery: respiratory and dialysis-dependent renal failure. PMID:24896157

  18. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA CENUŞE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating a single European currency has, undoubtedly two great advantages: on the one hand, lower transaction costs resulting from exchanging various national currencies and, on the other hand, removing the uncertainty arising from these exchanges. Mugur Isarescu, the Governor of the NBR, has recently said that the adoption of the euro in 2014 could not be possible, if inflation does not drop a sustainable level in 2010 and 2011. He noted that current experience with the inflation and devaluation of the national currency shows that reducing inflation without improving other indicators is counterproductive. The problem of estimating the main advantages of a single currency and of a monetary union in general is that it is difficult to clearly distinguish them from those resulting from other aspects of economic integration. The success of a monetary integration requires a certain degree of coordination of macroeconomic policies. It is unanimously agreed that if countries cooperate with each other, together they shall have better results than in the case they do not cooperate. In budgetary process local authorities have the right to establish, observe, control, follow and charge municipal taxes. In this process they also have to report local budgets implementation and rectification.

  19. Psychological costs of currency transition: evidence from the euro adoption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otrachshenko, V.; Popova, Olga; Tavares, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, December (2016), s. 89-100 ISSN 0176-2680 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Euro introduction * currency changeover * subjective well - being Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.098, year: 2016

  20. EuroTraining - Supporting University Programmes in Nanoelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ivan Ring; Bruun, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how the EuroTraining project supports a timely introduction of new nanoelectronics university programmes in Europe. The provisions include training courses, training material and training roadmaps describing the structure and content of nanoelectronics curricula. In order...

  1. Book Review: Restorative justice and victimology: Euro-Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Restorative Justice and Victimology: Euro-Africa Perspectives, Author: Dr Don John O. Omale, Publisher: Wolf Publishers, Price: R354, Pages: 221, Availability: Published, ISBN: 978-90-5850-861-4 ...

  2. Real world NOx emissions of Euro V vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Vonk, W.A.; Verbeek, R.P.; Dekker, H. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the past decade, vehicle emissions have been reduced substantially as a result of the European emission legislation. Air quality problems are still present, however, in particular in urban areas where local authorities have difficulty meeting European limits regarding air quality (mainly NO2). Therefore, the emission performance of vehicles under urban conditions is of increasing importance for air quality improvement in cities. In this context, TNO was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) to investigate the real-world NOx emissions of Euro V trucks and buses during the past two years. The investigation has shown that, in general, there is a large variety in real-world emissions between different vehicles, in particular under urban conditions. Some vehicles demonstrate the possibility of achieving low emissions under urban conditions, but the results also clearly show that this is not the case for most of the trucks. This outcome is based on two lines of research. Firstly, the real world emissions of eleven trucks and one bus were measured on-road using a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), under conditions typical of everyday use. Secondly, AdBlue consumption data for a number of Dutch vehicle fleets were analysed. AdBlue is the reagent that is used for NOx emission reduction in SCR systems (catalytic after treatment systems), and the amount of reagent used in daily practice is related to the real-world NOx emissions. Both lines of research support the general outcome.

  3. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  4. Euro-VO-Coordination of virtual observatory activities in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Françoise; Allen, Mark G.; Arviset, Christophe; Lawrence, Andy; Pasian, Fabio; Solano, Enrique; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    The European Virtual Observatory Euro-VO has been coordinating European VO activities through a series of projects co-funded by the European Commission over the last 15 years. The bulk of VO work in Europe is ensured by the national VO initiatives and those of intergovernmental agencies. VO activities at the European level coordinate the work in support of the three "pillars" of the Virtual Observatory: support to the scientific community, take-up by the data providers, and technological activities. Several Euro-VO projects have also provided direct support to selected developments and prototyping. This paper explains the methodology used by Euro-VO over the years. It summarises the activities which were performed and their evolutions at different stages of the development of the VO, explains the Euro-VO role with respect to the international and national levels of VO activities, details the lessons learnt for best practices for the coordination of the VO building blocks, and the liaison with other European initiatives, documenting the added-value of European coordination. Finally, the current status and next steps of Euro-VO are briefly addressed.

  5. Bonding with Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in infant massage in your area. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are both natural times for bonding. Infants respond ... milk you've pumped, the staff, including a lactation consultant, can help you make the transition to ...

  6. Wafer bonding using Cu-Sn intermetallic bonding layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flötgen, C.; Pawlak, M.; Pabo, E.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Hayes, G.R.; Dragoi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Wafer-level Cu-Sn intermetallic bonding is an interesting process for advanced applications in the area of MEMS and 3D interconnects. The existence of two intermetallic phases for Cu-Sn system makes the wafer bonding process challenging. The impact of process parameters on final bonding layer

  7. EuroCirCol kick-off event

    CERN Multimedia

    Hardre, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The EuroCirCol (http://cern.ch/eurocircol) kick-off event at CERN on June 2-4 brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on June 1 and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 million Euros includes a 2.99 million Euro contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme on developing new world-class research infrastructures (http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/194962_en.html).

  8. Uniunea fiscală și problema datoriilor Zonei euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Bălțătescu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper summarizes the main characteristics of the Eurozone institutional setup and the related economic and political incentives that drive Eurozone governments to increase their public debts, disregarding the limits agreed in the European treatises. The first part of the paper contains a review of the Eurozone institutional setup and of the incentives it creates for Eurozone member states to increase their deficits and public debts. The second part of the paper carries out a short review and criticism of the main strategies and policy tools to fight Eurozone debt problem: ECB bond buying, EFSF/ESM leverage, Eurobonds and Euro-TARP. The main conclusion of the paper is that establishing a fiscal union in EU does not solve by itself the public debt problem of Eurozone member states if the institutional mechanism of debt accumulation, debt rollover and risk socialization are not dismantled.

  9. In or Out: The Effect of Euro Membership on the Exercise of Real Business Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries goes beyond the trade statistics that have indicated only a small to negligible effect from the introduction of the Euro and shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve...... Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark) to undertake various forms of real actions (exercise real business options) such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch...

  10. Comparison of EuroSCORE and STS risk parameters in patients performed with coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Aydın

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the feasibility of the EuroSCORE and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scoring systems for predicting the surgical mortality of isolated coronary artery bypass surgery patients. Methods: The risk scoring of 148 patients who were operated on between April 2005 and March 2009 was performed prospectively according to the EuroSCORE and STS risk scoring systems. The predicted and observed mortality rates according to each scoring system were compared. Results: Hospital mortality was 13.2% (24 patients. The predicted mortality rate according to EuroSCORE was 4.71±4.9%, whereas it was 1.17±1.35% for STS. There were no significant differences between predicted and observed mortality rates according to either scoring system. The area under the ROC curve was 0.712 for EuroSCORE and was 0.727 for STS. Conclusion: Both scoring systems were efficient for predicting mortality rates for our study. It is an advantage of STS that it also gives valuable information about morbidity but for our not found satisfactory. In conclusion new risks scores for our country’s population are needed.

  11. Solar plan Mediterranean and Euro-Mediterranean energy integration; El plan solar Mediterraneo y la integracion energetica Euro-Mediterranea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Quemada, J. M.; Escribano Frances, G.

    2010-07-01

    The Euro-mediterranean Partnership, the EU energy policy and the neighbourhood policy have shown their limits in fostering Euro-mediterranean energy integration. This article argues that an adequate design of the Mediterranean Solar Plan could offer a functioning driver for physical, and more importantly, normative integration of renewable energies that could subsequently ease the integration of conventional energies. In order to achieve such a result, it will be needed to develop well-defined and predictable regulatory mechanisms and institutional frameworks that facilitate investments. (Author) 33 refs.

  12. 3rd Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Snášel, Václav; Sung, Tien-Wen; Wang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the ECC 2016, the Third Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications, which was held in Fuzhou City, China from November 7 to 9, 2016. The aim of the ECC is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the broad areas of intelligent data analysis, computational intelligence, signal processing, and all associated applications of artificial intelligence (AI). The third installment of the ECC was jointly organized by Fujian University of Technology, China, and VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. The conference was co-sponsored by Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, and Immersion Co., Ltd.

  13. Survival after major cardiac surgery: performance and comparison of predictive ability of EuroSCORE II and logistic EuroSCORE in a sample of Mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáiz-García, María Elena; González-Santos, Jose María; López-Rodríguez, Javier; Dalmau-Sorlí, María José; Bueno-Codoñer, María; Arévalo-Abascal, Adolfo

    2014-06-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has been recently introduced to improve mortality prediction in cardiac surgery. We compare the predictive ability of the new EuroSCORE II with that of the original logistic EuroSCORE and we made an evaluation of a sample of our population submitted to major cardiac surgery in the context of a Mediterranean country. Predicted and observed mortality were recorded in 1,200 consecutive patients undergoing major cardiac surgery at our institution with both logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II. Patients were grouped according to type of surgery: isolated valvular (n = 538), isolated coronary (n = 322), combined (n = 192), and miscellaneous (n = 148). Predictive capacity of both scales was compared for overall population and for each group in terms of calibration and discrimination using the observed by expected mortality rate, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and C-statistic. Overall mortality was 6.8%, whereas that predicted by logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II was 9.7 and 3.7%, respectively. Mortality in our population was higher than mortality expected according to the original EuroSCORE II database. For all groups included in our population, logistic EuroSCORE overestimated mortality and EuroSCORE II underestimated the outcome even more. However, EuroSCORE II showed better calibration than logistic EuroSCORE for overall, valvular, and combined surgery. In contrast, logistic EuroSCORE demonstrated better calibration for coronary surgery. Discrimination capacity was good for both risk scores, but it was superior for logistic EuroSCORE than for EuroSCORE II in all considered subgroups unless combined surgery. Mortality in our population was higher than the mortality that would have been expected by the new EuroSCORE II analysis. Although EuroSCORE II has good calibration and discrimination capacity, both are worse than those demonstrated by logistic EuroSCORE. Forthcoming evaluations are

  14. The impact of the Euro on securities markets | Duplat | Securities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of the Euro on securities markets. J-L Duplat. Abstract. No Abstract. Securities Market Journal Vol. 10 (2) 2005: pp. 42-44. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  15. The Euro Changeover and Price Adjustments in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Girardi, Alessandro; Ventura, Marco

    2011-01-01

    By estimating a staggered price model over the period 1980q1-2010q2, this paper documents that, after the euro changeover, Italian retailers have increased the number of price adjustments, which has translated into a higher inflation rate, with a detrimental effect on the competitiveness of the Italian economy.

  16. EuroCirCol: A key to New Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Johannes Gutleber

    2015-01-01

    Monday 1 June saw the start of EuroCirCol, the EC-funded part of the FCC study that will develop the conceptual design for an energy-frontier hadron collider.   Attendees at the EuroCirCol meeting at CERN. The EuroCirCol kick-off event at CERN on 2 to 4 June brought together 62 participants to constitute governance bodies, commit to the project plan and align the organisation, structures and processes of 16 institutions from 10 countries. The goal of the project is to conceive a post-LHC research infrastructure around a 100 km circular energy-frontier hadron collider capable of reaching 100 TeV collisions. The project officially started on 1 June and will run for four years. The total estimated budget of 11.2 MEUR includes a 2.99 MEUR contribution from the Horizon 2020 programme dedicated to the development of new world-class research infrastructures. EuroCirCol will deliver a design for a hadron collider as part of the broader Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. It will provide input to an...

  17. Has the euro affected the choice of invoicing currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; Werner, S.E.V.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to study empirically the effect of the introduction of the euro on the pattern of currency invoicing. Our approach uses a compositional multinomial logit model, in which currency choice is explained by both currency-specific and country-specific determinants. We use unique

  18. Overview of the ECOWAS & Single Currency: Lessons from the Euro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ECOWAS has made little progress towards the realization of true monetary union since the institution of the West African Clearing House 25 years ago. The author points to the performance of the Euro following its introduction in Europe in January 1999, and highlights the factors that may bring ECOWAS to a quicker ...

  19. Has the Euro Affected the Choice of Invoicing Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; Werner, S.E.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach to study empirically the effect of the introduction of the euro on currency invoicing. Our approach uses a compositional multinomial logit model, in which currency choice depends on the characteristics of both the currency and the country. We use unique quarterly panel data

  20. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Euro-Atlantic Integrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Filipović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to highlight reasons of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s slow progress on its Euro-Atlantic path, in order to propose a final solution. The importance of this issue is relevant particularly now, because on the one hand, Bosnia and Herzegovina submitted its official application to join the European Union in February 2016, and on the other hand, it has been blocked since April 2010 on its NATO integration path due to the Dayton Peace Agreement Constitution’s paradoxes and historical disagreements. Many authors have previously written about Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Euro-Atlantic Integrations but not many of them published academic works after the Bosnian formal application for the European Union membership, which represents an important step for this post-war country. The main approach used is analytical; which includes academic research and understanding of Bosnian contemporary history as a root of current political, economic and social crisis. Finally, the result is that Bosnia and Herzegovina’s progress is not satisfactory and moreover, the only solution for the future of Euro-Atlantic Integrations is a reform of its current Constitution, but equally a change of the international community’s attitude towards Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper aims to contribute to further academic research in the field of international relations regarding future integration of the Western Balkans in the Euro-Atlantic bloc.

  1. Baltic universities build on EuroFaculty's foundations / Gustav Kristensen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2005-01-01

    Balti Nõukogu eestvedamisel EuroFaculty programmi raames on pärast taasiseseisvumist Balti riikide ülikoolides asutatud Euroteaduskondi. 13 aastat kestnud programmi eesmärgiks oli valmistada riike ette Euroopa Liiduga liitumiseks ja anda majandus-, poliitika- ja õigusalast haridus

  2. Euro crisis or public debt crisis? With a remedy for the latter case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-01-01

    .... The 'great moderation' that had kept the euro sheltered from the storms proved a boon, because it granted the currency the status of a sound asset, but it was also a bane because it had led euro...

  3. Validación de EuroSCORE II en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Valentín

    2014-10-01

    Conclusiones: Los pacientes españoles presentan un perfil de riesgo alto. La mortalidad cruda es aceptable, más cercana al valor de EuroSCORE II que de EuroSCORE. Ambas escalas muestran mala calibración, EuroSCORE por sobreestimación y EuroSCORE II por infraestimación. El área bajo la curva ROC muestra buena discriminación para ambos modelos.

  4. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment reveals that NOx emissions of a number of tested Euro 6 diesel passenger vehicles are significantly higher under real-world conditions than would be expected on the basis of the Euro 6 standard. The Euro 6

  5. The Vocal Euro-outsider: The UK in a Two-speed Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The EU is divided between member states that have adopted the euro and those that have not. This article looks at the issue of differentiated integration with particular reference to eurozone integration and the euro-outsiders. I explore the recent public debate in the UK on euro-outsiderness, co...

  6. 14. Euro summer school on exotic beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This school is intended for thesis students and young post-docs working in areas related to radioactive beams. It consists of several lecture courses given by specialists in their field, starting from a basic level. This document gathers only the slides of the following presentations: 1) clusters in nuclei, 2) the production of radioactive ion beams - in-flight methods, 3) ab-initio calculations for light nuclei, 4) the production of radioactive ion beams - ISOL methods, 5) neutrons for science, and 6) the production of radioactive ion beams - charge breeding.

  7. Il cambio dollaro/euro, il prezzo del petrolio e la Banca Centrale Europea (Dollar/Euro Exchange Rate, Oil Price and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Sylos Labini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis on dollar/euro exchange rate, oil price and European Central Bank monetary policy is worked out. Firstly, data on the main variables related with the exchange rate and an equation to explain the variation of the exchange rate in the period March 1998-September 2000 are presented; secondly, the consequences of oil price growth and eurodevaluation on the US and European economies are taken into account; lastly, different policy strategies to stop eurodevaluation are discussed. The European Central Bank strategy, that consists of small increases of the interest rate, is not reaching any result. An alternative strategy is based on innovative public demand, that should be financed by European bonds using "central bank excess funds" as security. Public demand of infrastructures and new technologies should aim at reducing oil dependence and would stimulate growth and sustainable development in Europe, with positive effects on the exchange rate.       JEL Codes: E58, F31Keywords: Devaluation, Exchange Rates, Monetary

  8. «EURO 2008» - EUROPEAN FOOTBALL CHAMPIONSHIPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  9. «EURO 2008» - European Football Championships

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland wishes to alert CERN to the potential impact of the three football matches to be staged at Geneva’s La Praille Stadium on 7, 11 and 15 June 2008 as part of the "Euro 2008" European Football Championships: hotel capacity and air, rail and road infrastructures will be heavily in demand, special security and transportation measures commensurate with the exceptional nature of this event will be put in place by the relevant authorities. The Mission recommends that these circumstances should be taken into account in the planning of meetings or other events which may take place over this period, and in particular that necessary hotel bookings be made as far in advance as possible. Further information can be found at the following website: http://www.geneve.ch/euro2008/ Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.chhttp://www.cern.ch/relations

  10. BBC VERSUS EURO NEWS: DISCOURSE AND IDEOLOGY IN NEWS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare discursive strategies employed by two international news agencies including Euro News and BBC. Van Dijk’s (2004 model of CDA was adopted. Thirty pieces of news about internal affairs of Iran together with their Persian translations were downloaded from the corresponding website, i.e. 30 pieces of English news and their corresponding Persian translations from the Euro News website and 30 pieces of English news with their corresponding translations from the BBC website. The frequency of lexical items was observed to not differ significantly. Two sets of translations were compared to their source texts based on four discursive strategies of hyperbole, polarization, vagueness and euphemism. An independent-samples t-test was conducted to compare the frequency of strategies applied by the two news agencies. Results revealed no significant difference between the two agencies except for the discursive strategy of vagueness.

  11. Forgery Detection and Value Identification of Euro Banknotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Battiato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes both hardware and software components to detect counterfeits of Euro banknotes. The proposed system is also able to recognize the banknote values. Differently than other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach makes use of banknote images acquired with a near infrared camera to perform recognition and authentication. This allows one to build a system that can effectively deal with real forgeries, which are usually not detectable with visible light. The hardware does not use any mechanical parts, so the overall system is low-cost. The proposed solution is reliable for ambient light and banknote positioning. Users should simply lean the banknote to be analyzed on a flat glass, and the system detects forgery, as well as recognizes the banknote value. The effectiveness of the proposed solution has been properly tested on a dataset composed by genuine and fake Euro banknotes provided by Italy's central bank.

  12. Forgery detection and value identification of Euro banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Arcangelo; Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2013-02-18

    This paper describes both hardware and software components to detect counterfeits of Euro banknotes. The proposed system is also able to recognize the banknote values. Differently than other state-of-the-art methods, the proposed approach makes use of banknote images acquired with a near infrared camera to perform recognition and authentication. This allows one to build a system that can effectively deal with real forgeries, which are usually not detectable with visible light. The hardware does not use any mechanical parts, so the overall system is low-cost. The proposed solution is reliable for ambient light and banknote positioning. Users should simply lean the banknote to be analyzed on a flat glass, and the system detects forgery, as well as recognizes the banknote value. The effectiveness of the proposed solution has been properly tested on a dataset composed by genuine and fake Euro banknotes provided by Italy's central bank. 

  13. L’euro ou l’oubli de la politique

    OpenAIRE

    Lordon, Frédéric; Lamarche, Thomas; Ahmed, Pepita Ould; Ponsot, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    RR : Selon vous, quelle est la nature de la crise actuelle de l’euro ? S’agit-il d’une crise liée à une politique monétaire ou à un taux de change inapproprié ? Ou bien, plus fondamentalement, s’agit-il d’une crise monétaire structurelle, essentielle et politique ? Frédéric Lordon : D’emblée, donc, la question fondamentale ! Il n’y aurait rien de pire, en effet, que la vue exclusivement, étroitement économiciste sur la crise de l’euro. Assurément, cette vue a-t-elle sa part de pertinence. Ell...

  14. The euro zone crisis: What would John Maynard do?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehnts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In his letter to US President Franklin D. Roosevelt Keynes (1933) wrote about "the technique of recovery itself". An increase in output is brought about by an increase in purchasing power, Keynes argues, which can come from three sectors: households, firms and government. Using the IS/MY macroeconomic model developed by Ehnts (2014), which features sectoral balances and endogenous money, the situation of some euro zone members is examined with a focus on the three techniques of recovery: incr...

  15. Flussi migratori, religione e diritto nella polis euro-mediterranea

    OpenAIRE

    Freni, Fortunato

    2012-01-01

    Contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. L’incremento dell’immigrazione in Europa nell’attuale contesto politico e religioso - 2. La “Primavera araba” e le tensioni afferenti alla libertà religiosa nei nuovi equilibri geopolitici - 3. Gli odierni fermenti culturali e giuridici nell’Islam mediterraneo - 4. La prospettiva di una laicità inclusiva euro-mediterranea avverso gli esclusivi schemi “mondialatinizzanti” - 5. Il ruolo dell’Europa nel bacino del Mediterraneo - 6. Alcuni strum...

  16. Curriculum vitae of the LOTOS–EUROS (v2.0 chemistry transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. Manders

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and application of chemistry transport models has a long tradition. Within the Netherlands the LOTOS–EUROS model has been developed by a consortium of institutes, after combining its independently developed predecessors in 2005. Recently, version 2.0 of the model was released as an open-source version. This paper presents the curriculum vitae of the model system, describing the model's history, model philosophy, basic features and a validation with EMEP stations for the new benchmark year 2012, and presents cases with the model's most recent and key developments. By setting the model developments in context and providing an outlook for directions for further development, the paper goes beyond the common model description.With an origin in ozone and sulfur modelling for the models LOTOS and EUROS, the application areas were gradually extended with persistent organic pollutants, reactive nitrogen, and primary and secondary particulate matter. After the combination of the models to LOTOS–EUROS in 2005, the model was further developed to include new source parametrizations (e.g. road resuspension, desert dust, wildfires, applied for operational smog forecasts in the Netherlands and Europe, and has been used for emission scenarios, source apportionment, and long-term hindcast and climate change scenarios. LOTOS–EUROS has been a front-runner in data assimilation of ground-based and satellite observations and has participated in many model intercomparison studies. The model is no longer confined to applications over Europe but is also applied to other regions of the world, e.g. China. The increasing interaction with emission experts has also contributed to the improvement of the model's performance. The philosophy for model development has always been to use knowledge that is state of the art and proven, to keep a good balance in the level of detail of process description and accuracy of input and output, and to keep a good record

  17. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  18. LA ZONE EURO ET LA MONNAIE UNIQUE FACE A L'ELARGISSEMENT DE L'UNION EUROPEENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Lelart

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten countries from central and eastern Europe, as well as Cyprus and Malta, have applied for membership to the European Union. This fifth enlargement, which is the first one since the creation of the eurozone, is expected to have some impact on the institutional framework of the single currency area. This article examines, by stages, the consequences of the enlargement process on the use of the euro as an international currency, on the organisation of the ECB, and on the economic policies in the EU, including monetary and foreign exchange policies. The defined stages start with the current candidate countries (the outs, to the period when they become Member States of the EU (the pre-ins, and finally to the stage when they ultimately join the eurozone (the ins. With this current EU enlargement process, the consequences are nothing less than the beginning of a new era for the euro.

  19. Climate change impacts on crop yield in the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, Andrea; Ceglar, Andrej; Dentener, Frank; Niemeyer, Stefan; Dosio, Alessandro; Fumagalli, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is strongly influenced by climate variability, climate extremes and climate changes. Recent studies on past decades have identified and analysed the effects of climate variability and extremes on crop yields in the Euro-Mediterranean region. As these effects could be amplified in a changing climate context, it is essential to analyse available climate projections and investigate the possible impacts on European agriculture in terms of crop yield. In this study, five model runs from the Euro-CORDEX initiative under two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) have been used. Climate model data have been bias corrected and then used to feed a mechanistic crop growth model. The crop model has been run under different settings to better sample the intrinsic uncertainties. Among the main results, it is worth to report a weak but significant and spatially homogeneous increase in potential wheat yield at mid-century (under a CO2 fertilisation effect scenario). While more complex changes seem to characterise potential maize yield, with large areas in the region showing a weak-to-moderate decrease.

  20. The role of Mediterranean mesoscale eddies on the climate of the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, A.; Gualdi, S.; Scoccimarro, E.; Sanna, A.; Oddo, P.; Navarra, A.

    2010-09-01

    In this study, two numerical simulations of the 20th Century climate performed with two global GCM are analysed, with the ultimate goal of isolating the impact of oceanic mesoscale features on the climate of the euro- mediterranean region, and its interannual variability. In the first experiment (L), a T159 atmosphere (equivalent to ~80 Km horizontal resolution) is coupled to a 2x2-degree global ocean model, with a locally enhanced 0.5-degree resolution over the Mediterranean Sea region. In the second experiment (H), the same T159 atmosphere is coupled to a global ocean model regional high-resolution 1/16-degree (~7 Km) ocean model for the Mediterranea Sea, which is connected to a low-resolution OGCM for the global ocean (identical to the ocean model used in L) . Thus, in H, as far as the Mediterranean area is concerned, the atmosphere is coupled to an ocean model which resolves mesoscale features ("turbulent" ocean), whereas in L the atmosphere interacts with a more "laminar" oceanic system. Since these two experiments are identical except for the resolution of the ocean model over the Mediterranean Sea , the systematic comparison of H and L will allow the assessment of the net effects on the climate of the Euro-Mediterranean region from explicitly resolving mesoscale oceanic features in the coupled model.

  1. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  2. Impact of cold temperature on Euro 6 passenger car emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Astorga, Covadonga

    2017-11-27

    Hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, NH3, N2O, CO2 and particulate matter emissions affect air quality, global warming and human health. Transport sector is an important source of these pollutants and high pollution episodes are often experienced during the cold season. However, EU vehicle emissions regulation at cold ambient temperature only addresses hydrocarbons and CO vehicular emissions. For that reason, we have studied the impact that cold ambient temperatures have on Euro 6 diesel and spark ignition (including: gasoline, ethanol flex-fuel and hybrid vehicles) vehicle emissions using the World-harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at -7 °C and 23 °C. Results indicate that when facing the WLTC at 23 °C the tested vehicles present emissions below the values set for type approval of Euro 6 vehicles (still using NEDC), with the exception of NOx emissions from diesel vehicles that were 2.3-6 times higher than Euro 6 standards. However, emissions disproportionally increased when vehicles were tested at cold ambient temperature (-7 °C). High solid particle number (SPN) emissions (>1 × 1011 # km-1) were measured from gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and gasoline port fuel injection vehicles. However, only diesel and GDI SPN emissions are currently regulated. Results show the need for a new, technology independent, procedure that enables the authorities to assess pollutant emissions from vehicles at cold ambient temperatures. Harmful pollutant emissions from spark ignition and diesel vehicles are strongly and negatively affected by cold ambient temperatures. Only hydrocarbon, CO emissions are currently regulated at cold temperature. Therefore, it is of great importance to revise current EU winter vehicle emissions regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Amo, Javier; Llorente, Francisco; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C; Moreno, Ana M; Cordioli, Paolo; Weissenböck, Herbert; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2014-03-19

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arboviral pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes in a cycle involving wild birds as reservoir hosts. The virus has recently emerged in North America and re-emerged in Europe. North American WNV outbreaks are often accompanied by high mortality in wild birds, a feature that is uncommon in Europe. The reason for this difference is unknown, but the intrinsic virulence of the viruses circulating in each continent and/or the susceptibility to the disease of Palearctic as opposed to Nearctic wild bird species could play a role. To assess this question, experimental inoculations with four lineage 1 WNV strains, three from southern Europe (Italy/2008, Italy/2009 and Spain/2007) and one from North America (NY99) were performed on house sparrows (Passer domesticus), a wild passerine common in both continents. Non-significant differences which ranged from 0% to 25% were observed in mortality for the different WNV strains. Viremias lasted from 1 to 5-6 days post-inoculation (dpi) in all cases; individuals inoculated with NY99 had significantly higher titres than those inoculated with any of the Euro-Mediterranean strains. Remarkably, host competence was found to be higher for NY99 than for the other strains. Consequently, albeit being pathogenic for house sparrows, some Euro-Mediterranean strains had reduced capacity for replication in -and transmission from- this host, as compared to the NY99 strain. If applicable also to other wild bird host species, this relatively reduced transmission capacity of the Euro-Mediterranean strains could explain the lower incidence of this disease in wild birds in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

  4. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  5. Incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in euroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, Wendy P; Friis-Møller, Nina; Mocroft, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of abacavir-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and associated deaths in EuroSIDA HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Poisson regression models were developed to compare incidence of abacavir discontinuation according to the line...... in first-line therapy, which could indicate increased over-diagnosis. HSR incidence has decreased in recent years, which might reflect the wider availability of genetic screening and improved awareness of symptoms. There were no reported deaths due to abacavir HSR....

  6. Pressing the Reset Button in Euro-Mediterranean Security Relations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Barrinha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost two decades after the Barcelona Declaration, the European Union (EU is still struggling to engage positively with its southern neighbours. Security has been the key concern in this relationship, with the EU putting forward a short-term agenda, often inconsistent with the policies, institutions and long-term goals of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. This article argues that the so-called Arab Spring has induced a soul-searching process within the European institutions that has opened the possibility for Brussels to reinvent its relations with the Middle East and North Africa countries, particularly in the field of security.

  7. EuroGEOSS/GENESIS ``e-Habitat'' AIP-3 Use Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Dubois, G.; Santoro, M.; Peedell, S.; de Longueville, B.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Natural ecosystems are in rapid decline. Major habitats are disappearing at a speed never observed before. The current rate of species extinction is several orders of magnitude higher than the background rate from the fossil record. Protected Areas (PAs) and Protected Area Systems are designed to conserve natural and cultural resources, to maintain biodiversity (ecosystems, species, genes) and ecosystem services. The scientific challenge of understanding how environmental and climatological factors impact on ecosystems and habitats requires the use of information from different scientific domains. Thus, multidisciplinary interoperability is a crucial requirement for a framework aiming to support scientists. The Group on Earth Observations (or GEO) is coordinating international efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This emerging public infrastructure is interconnecting a diverse and growing array of instruments and systems for monitoring and forecasting changes in the global environment. This “system of systems” supports multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary scientific researches. The presented GEOSS-based interoperability framework facilitates the discovery and exploitation of datasets and models from heterogeneous scientific domains and Information Technology services (data sources). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) launched the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP) Initiative to develop and deploy new processes and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) and the broader GEOSS architecture. The current AIP Phase 3 (AIP-3) aims to increase GEOSS capacity to support several strategic Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) including: Disaster Management, Health/Air Quality, Biodiversity, Energy, Health/Disease and Water. As to Biodiversity, the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (http://www.eurogeoss.eu) and GENESIS (http://www.genesis-fp7.eu) projects have developed a use scenario called

  8. Bonding: Mothering Magic or Pseudo Science: A Critical Review of Some of the Research in the Area. Selected Papers Number 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Deidre

    This article commences with a review of the issues in the empirical literature surrounding the concept of 'bonding,' and notes some particular parallels with the concept of 'attachment,' demonstrating links between the two. The comparison is followed by a review of empirical findings of studies involving animals and humans, including those dealing…

  9. Source apportionment of PM2.5 across China using LOTOS-EUROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R.; Kranenburg, R.; Manders, A.; Hendriks, C.; Segers, A.; Dammers, E.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, Z.; Zeng, L.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.

    2017-09-01

    China's population is exposed to high levels of particulate matter (PM) due to its strong economic growth and associated urbanization and industrialization. To support policy makers to develop cost effective mitigation strategies it is of crucial importance to understand the emission sources as well as formation routes responsible for high pollution levels. In this study we applied the LOTOS-EUROS model with its module to track the contributions of predefined source sectors to China for the year 2013 using the MEIC emission inventory. It is the first application of the model system to a region outside Europe. The source attribution was aimed to provide insight in the sector and area of origin of PM2.5 for the cities of Beijing and Shanghai. The source attribution shows that on average about half of the PM2.5 pollution in both cities originates from the municipality itself. About a quarter of the PM2.5 comes from the neighbouring provinces, whereas the remaining quarter is attributed to long range transport from anthropogenic and natural components. Residential combustion, transport, and industry are identified as the main sources with comparable contributions allocated to these sectors. The importance of the sectors varies throughout the year and differs slightly between the cities. During winter, urban contributions from residential combustion are dominant, whereas industrial and traffic contributions with a larger share of regional transport are more important during summer. The evaluation of the model results against satellite and in-situ observations shows the ability of the LOTOS-EUROS model to capture many features of the variability in particulate matter and its precursors in China. The model shows a systematic underestimation of particulate matter concentrations, especially in winter. This illustrates that modelling particulate matter remains challenging as it comes to components like secondary organic aerosol and suspended dust as well as emissions and

  10. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE EURO CHANGEOVER ON THE INFLATION AFTER 2007

    OpenAIRE

    PATRIK BÖHM; GABRIELA BÖHMOVÁ; JANA GAZDÍKOVÁ

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the so-called changeover effect in six states that adopted Euro after 2007. We developed the new model for computation of the changeover effect. It is based on the comparison of the inflation in state that adopted Euro with average inflation in other states that are geographically near the evaluated state and have similar economics. To capture long-term impact of Euro introduction on inflation we monitored the inflation for 18 months: 6 months before Euro in...

  12. 2nd Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Xin; Snášel, Václav; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2015-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented in the main track of ECC 2015, the Second Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications. The aim of ECC is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the broad area of intelligent data analysis, computational intelligence, signal processing, and all associated applications of AIs. The second edition of ECC was organized jointly by VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, and Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, China. The conference, organized under the patronage of Mr. Miroslav Novak, President of the Moravian-Silesian Region, took place in late June and early July 2015 in the Campus of the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.

  13. 28th Annual DIA EuroMeeting (April 6-8, 2016 - Hamburg, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M D; Fernández, J

    2016-05-01

    The 28(th) Drug Information Association (DIA) Annual EuroMeeting took place in Hamburg, Germany, gathering together participants from different industries, organizations, academic research centers, regulatory agencies and health ministries, mainly from the E.U. The conference began with a regulatory Town Hall meeting focusing on the E.U. Medicines Agencies Network strategy to 2020. This was followed by an opening plenary session where the diverse roles of innovation in drug development were discussed. Areas for discussion over the meeting were classified into 14 main themes, and for each session, profession¬als from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies and health ministries, as well as delegates from patient organizations, presented their considerations for debate. This report covers some regulatory sessions presented at the meeting. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparing for Euro 2012: developing a hazard risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evan G; Razek, Tarek; Luhovy, Artem; Mogilevkina, Irina; Prudnikov, Yuriy; Klimovitskiy, Fedor; Yutovets, Yuriy; Khwaja, Kosar A; Deckelbaum, Dan L

    2015-04-01

    Risk assessment is a vital step in the disaster-preparedness continuum as it is the foundation of subsequent phases, including mitigation, response, and recovery. To develop a risk assessment tool geared specifically towards the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) Euro 2012. In partnership with the Donetsk National Medical University, Donetsk Research and Development Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Donetsk Regional Public Health Administration, and the Ministry of Emergency of Ukraine, a table-based tool was created, which, based on historical evidence, identifies relevant potential threats, evaluates their impacts and likelihoods on graded scales based on previous available data, identifies potential mitigating shortcomings, and recommends further mitigation measures. This risk assessment tool has been applied in the vulnerability-assessment-phase of the UEFA Euro 2012. Twenty-three sub-types of potential hazards were identified and analyzed. Ten specific hazards were recognized as likely to very likely to occur, including natural disasters, bombing and blast events, road traffic collisions, and disorderly conduct. Preventative measures, such as increased stadium security and zero tolerance for impaired driving, were recommended. Mitigating factors were suggested, including clear, incident-specific preparedness plans and enhanced inter-agency communication. This hazard risk assessment tool is a simple aid in vulnerability assessment, essential for disaster preparedness and response, and may be applied broadly to future international events.

  15. The Finns Party: Euroscepticism, Euro Crisis, Populism and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Herkman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many European countries, populist right-wing parties have been most noticeable representatives of Euroscepticism. In Finland, the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset has been a constant promoter of organisational Euroscepticism through its leader, Timo Soini. The party broke through in Finland’s ‘big bang elections’ of 2011, when the most debated issue was the European economic crisis, which was dominated by Eurosceptic Soini. Research concerning the relationship between the media, populism and Euroscepticism usually focus on national or European Parliament elections. This study analyses the media portrayal of the Eurosceptic Finns Party during times other than elections, focusing on the Finland’s overall Euro crisis press coverage in 2010–2012. The analysis shows that the populist Finns Party has been a minor player in that coverage, which was dominated by the Euro positive political and economic elites. Differences between newspapers indicate that journalistic routines and political context direct media coverage toward particular framings, even when the media proclaims itself politically independent and neutral.

  16. Domestication of the Euro Crisis: Legal and Political Manifestations of Euroscepticism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Scicluna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The euro crisis points towards the limits of the post-war pro-European integration consensus in Germany, a trend that has manifested itself in both the legal and political realms. In the legal arena, the powerful German Constitutional Court (GCC has heard complaints on several key rescue measures, including the European Stability Mechanism (ESM and the European Central Bank’s (ECB bond buying programme. The Court’s ruminations on these initiatives both reflect and feed German eurosceptics’ concerns. They also have implications for the Eurozone as a whole, insofar as they limit the German government’s room to manoeuvre. In the political arena, a new eurosceptic party, Alternative für Deutschland (AfD, contested the September 2013 federal election and the May 2014 European parliamentary election, winning a handful of seats in the latter. AfD’s emergence potentially marks a shift towards a more overtly eurosceptical political discourse in Germany. Thus, both legal and political developments have the potential to constrain the choices for the EU as a whole by reconfiguring the political and policy landscape of Germany, the Union’s reluctant hegemon.

  17. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme: Challenges of Biodiversity Science in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I.

    2009-04-01

    In close cooperation with its Member Organisations, the European Science Foundation (ESF) has launched since late 2003 a series of European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) Programmes. Their aim is to enable researchers in different European countries to develop cooperation and scientific synergy in areas where European scale and scope are required in a global context. The EUROCORES instrument represents the first large scale attempt of national research (funding) agencies to act together against fragmentation, asynchronicity and duplication of research (funding) within Europe. Although covering all scientific fields, there are presently 13 EUROCORES Programmes dealing with cutting edge science in the fields of Earth, Climate and Environmental Sciences. The aim of the EuroDIVERSITY Programme is to support the emergence of an integrated biodiversity science based on an understanding of fundamental ecological and social processes that drive biodiversity changes and their impacts on ecosystem functioning and society. Ecological systems across the globe are being threatened or transformed at unprecedented rates from local to global scales due to the ever-increasing human domination of natural ecosystems. In particular, massive biodiversity changes are currently taking place, and this trend is expected to continue over the coming decades, driven by the increasing extension and globalisation of human affairs. The EuroDIVERSITY Programme meets the research need triggered by the increasing human footprint worldwide with a focus on generalisations across particular systems and on the generation and validation of theory relevant to experimental and empirical data. The EURODIVERSITY Programme tries to bridge the gaps between the natural and social sciences, between research work on terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems, and between research work on plants, animals and micro-organisms. The Programme was launched in April 2006 and includes 10 international

  18. The New Coordinates of Globalization and Regional Integration: Resizing the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Moldoveanu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly strong process of interdependence between globalization and regionalization - in the context of the end of the bipolar power at world level - has engendered a new philosophy regarding the evolution of the world, a reconsideration of the strategy of political and diplomatic, economic and also cultural and human relationships. In my opinion, in a multipolar world, that will bring into the first line of international relations new big actors of regional and universal vocation (China, Rusia, Brasil, India, the European Union will play an extensive role in participating at the geostrategic, regional and global equilibrium, through promotion of an „open diplomacy” that will allow – by dialogue and cooperation – the resolving more rapidly and efficiently the great challenges of the beginning of the century and millenium: the reduction of the great development gaps, the regional and global security, in a very solid economic background. A new dimension of the EU enlargement policy at regional scale is represented by the cooperation relations and the attraction into the European circuit of material and spiritual values of the countries in the Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of deepening the interdependence and complementarities at regional and global level, more focus should be put on the viable ways and modalities to intensify the cooperation in the Danube-Black Sea and Euro-Mediterranean geo-economic and strategic areas. The two big geo-strategic regions of the world belong to the same civilization and are subject to similar changes as the other regions of the world, despite some specific features of history and culture. The intensification and diversification of the cooperation at the Central and South-Eastern European level, as well as the Euro-Mediterranean and Danube-Black Sea region, does not represent an alternative to the general objective process of integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures, but a

  19. Convergence and Heterogeneity in Euro Based Economies: Stability and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Haynes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster analysis is used to explore the performance of key macroeconomic variables in European countries that share the euro, from the inception of the currency in 2002 through to 2013. An original applied statistical approach searches for a pattern synthesis across a matrix of macroeconomic data to examine if there is evidence for country clusters and whether there is convergence of the cluster patterns over time. A number of different clusters appear and these change over time as the economies of the member states dynamically interact. This includes some new countries joining the currency during the period of examination. As found in previous research, Southern European countries tend to remain separate from other countries. The new methods used, however, add to an understanding of some differences between Southern European countries, in addition to replicating their broad similarities. Hypotheses are formed about the country clusters existing in 2002, 2006 and 2013, at key points in time of the euro integration process. These hypotheses are tested using the rigour of a bivariate analysis and the multivariate method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA. The results confirm the hypotheses of cluster memberships in all three periods. The confirmation analysis provides evidence about which variables are most influencing cluster memberships at each time point. In 2002 and 2006, differences between countries are influenced by their different Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP and labour productivity scores. In 2013, after the crisis, there is a noticeable change. Long term interest rates and gross government debt become key determinants of differences, in addition to the continuing influence of labour productivity. The paper concludes that in the last decade the convergence of countries sharing the euro has been limited, by the joining of new countries and the circumstances of the global economic crisis. The financial crisis has driven

  20. A Comparison of a Machine Learning Model with EuroSCORE II in Predicting Mortality after Elective Cardiac Surgery: A Decision Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Jérôme; Allou, Nicolas; Augustin, Pascal; Philip, Ivan; Martinet, Olivier; Belghiti, Myriem; Provenchere, Sophie; Montravers, Philippe; Ferdynus, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of cardiac surgery are sometimes difficult to predict and the decision to operate on a given individual is complex. Machine Learning and Decision Curve Analysis (DCA) are recent methods developed to create and evaluate prediction models. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a prospective collected database from December 2005 to December 2012, from a cardiac surgical center at University Hospital. The different models of prediction of mortality in-hospital after elective cardiac surgery, including EuroSCORE II, a logistic regression model and a machine learning model, were compared by ROC and DCA. Of the 6,520 patients having elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, 6.3% died. Mean age was 63.4 years old (standard deviation 14.4), and mean EuroSCORE II was 3.7 (4.8) %. The area under ROC curve (IC95%) for the machine learning model (0.795 (0.755-0.834)) was significantly higher than EuroSCORE II or the logistic regression model (respectively, 0.737 (0.691-0.783) and 0.742 (0.698-0.785), p machine learning model, in this monocentric study, has a greater benefit whatever the probability threshold. According to ROC and DCA, machine learning model is more accurate in predicting mortality after elective cardiac surgery than EuroSCORE II. These results confirm the use of machine learning methods in the field of medical prediction.

  1. Veel melkveebedrijven komen in problemen bij melkprijs lager dan 30 euro

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    De huidige melkprijs die melkveehouders ontvangen ligt met een jaargemiddelde van rond de 27 euro per 100 kg op een zeer laag niveau. Ruim 70% van de bedrijven heeft echter een melkprijs van minimaal 30 euro nodig om alle betalingsverplichtingen, zowel bedrijf en privé, te kunnen voldoen

  2. Credit cycle coherence in the eurozone : Was there a euro effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Bezemer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines effects of the euro introduction on credit cycle coherence in the euro-zone through six channels. We construct and describe credit cycles for total bank credit, household mortgages and non-financial business loans for 16 EMU economies over 1990-2015. Credit cycle coherence is

  3. Performance of the EuroQol in children with imperforate anus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, E.A; Busschbach, J.J.V.; Vogels, T.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and validity of a proxy version of the EuroQol in children treated for imperforate anus. Methods: Patients included were between 1 and 51 years of age. Instruments included were the EuroQol, the TACQOL and a disease specific questionnaire, the Langemeijer

  4. 26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For...

  5. EuroSoil2012: Soil science for the benefit of mankind and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EuroSoil2012 was convened in Bari ITALY from 2-6 July 2012 as the 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). The theme of EuroSoil2012 as “soil science for the benefit of mankind and environment” aimed to cover several broad aspects of soil science w...

  6. The Arab Uprisings and Euro-Mediterranean Security: The Regional Security Agenda of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schima Viktoria Labitsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Arab uprisings led to profound changes in the political landscape of the Southern Mediterranean, and came at a time of staggering Euro-Mediterranean relations. With prevailing turmoil and violence in Europe’s closest proximity, the Euromed relationship – heavily dominated by security objectives and concerns in the past – is facing new social, political and economic challenges. This work analyses what challenges have made it onto the security agenda of the European Union in response to the uprisings in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt between December 2010 and 2013. It does so by analysing the discourse of three institutions: the European Commission, the European Council and the Council of Ministers. Accordingly, it argues that security in the Euro-Mediterranean context may be analysed in the framework of the wider constructivist Copenhagen school of security studies, treating threats as politically constructed in the process of securitization. It emphasizes the different degrees of institutional involvement in framing the regional security agenda, and the vast application of security logic to migration and mobility as well as its absence in areas of biological and chemical weapons, extremism and weapons of mass destruction. This work’s final argument is that whilst the overall level of securitization throughout the three years remains low and partially inconsistent with the security priorities before 2010, the EU exhibited a particularly strong regional focus on Libya as well as a thematic one on migration and external borders.

  7. HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES IN THE EURO-MEDITERRANEAN REGION: TYPOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline SCOUARNEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the project “Agora RH”, we would like to propose a framework for theanalysis of Human Resource practices in the Euro-Mediterranean region.This article is theoretical; it is a reflection of the state of the art and thoughtswhich led to the construction of a framework for analysis, used for anempirical investigation currently being carried out in the eight countriesinvolved in this project (France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria,Tunisia, and Slovenia. In this article, we will attempt to define key conceptsabout the evolution of the HR function. We propose in a forthcoming article toexpand on our work, presenting the theoretical foundations with particularemphasis on the possible cultural variables.

  8. Flussi migratori, religione e diritto nella polis euro-mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunato Freni

    2012-11-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. L’incremento dell’immigrazione in Europa nell’attuale contesto politico e religioso - 2. La “Primavera araba” e le tensioni afferenti alla libertà religiosa nei nuovi equilibri geopolitici - 3. Gli odierni fermenti culturali e giuridici nell’Islam mediterraneo - 4. La prospettiva di una laicità inclusiva euro-mediterranea avverso gli esclusivi schemi “mondialatinizzanti” - 5. Il ruolo dell’Europa nel bacino del Mediterraneo - 6. Alcuni strumenti per estendere la libertà di coscienza a tutte le tendenze culturali: a il dialogo interreligioso - 7. Segue: b le normative concordate - 8. Il decentramento comunitario e l’esigenza di una duttile (ma anche non discriminatoria governance europea.

  9. UEFA EURO 2012™ in the Polish Sociopolitical Narration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaluk Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport constitutes an increasingly popular language of discourse in modern societies, providing a (formal system of signs, which is easily used by, among others, businesses, media, public persons, and, particularly willingly, politicians. Thus, sport as a system of meanings can transfer any values, being at the same time a pragmatic way of arguing in the practice of social life. An example we analyze, are the events that took place after Poland (and Ukraine had been chosen to be host countries of UEFA EURO 2012™, as well as those which took place during the tournament itself. In these analyses, we use the concept of semiotics and, in particular, pragmatism as well as Charles Sanders Peirce’s triadic sign relation.

  10. Semantics Enabled Queries in EuroGEOSS: a Discovery Augmentation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Mazzetti, P.; Fugazza, C.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main challenges in Earth Science Informatics is to build interoperability frameworks which allow users to discover, evaluate, and use information from different scientific domains. This needs to address multidisciplinary interoperability challenges concerning both technological and scientific aspects. From the technological point of view, it is necessary to provide a set of special interoperability arrangement in order to develop flexible frameworks that allow a variety of loosely-coupled services to interact with each other. From a scientific point of view, it is necessary to document clearly the theoretical and methodological assumptions underpinning applications in different scientific domains, and develop cross-domain ontologies to facilitate interdisciplinary dialogue and understanding. In this presentation we discuss a brokering approach that extends the traditional Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) adopted by most Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) to provide the necessary special interoperability arrangements. In the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (A European approach to GEOSS) project, we distinguish among three possible functional brokering components: discovery, access and semantics brokers. This presentation focuses on the semantics broker, the Discovery Augmentation Component (DAC), which was specifically developed to address the three thematic areas covered by the EuroGEOSS project: biodiversity, forestry and drought. The EuroGEOSS DAC federates both semantics (e.g. SKOS repositories) and ISO-compliant geospatial catalog services. The DAC can be queried using common geospatial constraints (i.e. what, where, when, etc.). Two different augmented discovery styles are supported: a) automatic query expansion; b) user assisted query expansion. In the first case, the main discovery steps are: i. the query keywords (the what constraint) are “expanded” with related concepts/terms retrieved from the set of federated semantic services. A default expansion

  11. EuroSCORE and mortality in coronary artery bypass graft surgery at Pernambuco Cardiologic Emergency Medical Services [Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Soares, Evelyn Figueira; Santos, Cecília Andrade; Figueredo, Omar Jacobina; Lima, Renato Oliveira Albuquerque; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of EuroSCORE in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery at the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pernambuco Cardiologic Emergency Medical Services--PROCAPE. A retrospective study involving 500 patients operated between May 2007 and April 2010. The registers contained all the information used to calculate the EuroSCORE. The outcome of interest was death. Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis by backward logistic regression were applied to assess the association between each variable in the EuroSCORE and deaths. The following parameters were calculated: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The power of concordance between the predicted mortality by the EuroSCORE and the observed mortality was measured using the Kappa coefficient. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve. The incidence of death was 13%. In multivariate analysis, nine variables remained independent predictors of death: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, creatinine >2,3mg/dL, active endocarditis, preoperative critical state, unstable angina, ejection fraction 30% to 50%, acute myocardial infarction < 90 days, emergency surgery and additional surgery. The score had a sensitivity of 88.4%, specificity of 79.3%, positive predictive value of 40.7%, negative predictive value of 97.7% and 80.6% concordance. The accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was 0.892 (95% CI 0.862-0.922). The EuroSCORE proved to be a simple and objective index, revealing a satisfactory discriminator of postoperative evolution in patients undergoing CABG surgery at our institution.

  12. Advancing food, nutrition, and health research in Europe by connecting and building research infrastructures in a DISH-RI: Results of the EuroDISH project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, Harriëtte M.; Eijssen, Lars M.T.; Geurts, Marjolein

    2018-01-01

    more effectively. Approach In the EuroDISH project we mapped existing RIs in the food and health area in Europe, identified outstanding needs, and synthesised this into a conceptual design of a pan-European DISH-RI. The DISH model was used to describe and structure the research area: Determinants......Background Research infrastructures (RIs) are essential to advance research on the relationship between food, nutrition, and health. RIs will facilitate innovation and allow insights at the systems level which are required to design (public health) strategies that will address societal challenges...... of food choice, Intake of foods and nutrients, Status and functional markers of nutritional health, and Health and disease risk. Key findings The need to develop RIs in the food and health domain clearly emerged from the EuroDISH project. It showed the necessity for a unique interdisciplinary and multi...

  13. Did the Euro Foster Online Price Competition? Evidence from an International Price Comparison Site

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Michael R; Gatti, J. Rupert J.; Paul Kattuman; John Morgan

    2005-01-01

    We study the impact of the Euro on prices charged by online retailers within the EU. Our data spans the period before and after the Euro was introduced, covers a variety of products, and includes countries inside and outside of the Eurozone. After controlling for cost, demand, and market structure effects, we show that the pure Euro changeover effect is to raise average prices in the Eurozone by 3% and average minimum prices by 7%. Finally, we develop a model of online pricing in the context ...

  14. Abstracts of the 12th European Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference (EuroBIC 12)

    OpenAIRE

    Freisinger Eva; Sigel Roland K. O.

    2014-01-01

    Dear colleagues we cordially welcome you to the 12th European Biological Inorganic Chemistry Conference EuroBIC 12 to be held August 24 28 2014. 22 years after EuroBIC 1 took place in Newcastle UK this conference series is now coming to Switzerland for the first time. The biannual EuroBIC conferences have become one of the major international events in the field of Biological Inorganic Chemistry. Its interdisciplinarity is well reflected in the broad wealth of topics covered in this year's ...

  15. Press Coverage of the Implementation of the Euro in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Joaquín Sotelo González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the press coverage of matters connected with the European Union, we have established a map of coordinates based on research carried out during a period of time. Firstly, we have identified and described the methods and attitudes used by journalists, especially by press correspondents located in Brussels covering EU community news. At the same time, we have studied the ideological and cultural conditioning factors of these correspondents in relation to their professional work. Once we had identified their professional practice, on the one hand, and the ideological and cultural attitudes of European journalists on the other, we carried out a study on the articulation of the different types of discourse in order to obtain a series of interrelations that establish the limits of different open spaces regarding the future of European journalism. In this article, we have used the information gathered and applied it to a conceptual framework in order to study the journalistic coverage given by the Spanish press to a very important European community event: the implementation of the Euro.

  16. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...

  17. Rahvaliit nõuab enne euro kasutuselevõttu rahareferendumit / Mart Helme ; interv. Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    ERL-i kandidaat Euroopa Parlamendi valimistel vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ERL-i vastuseisu euro kasutuselevõtu suhtes, euroskeptikute kandideerimist europarlamenti, Eesti saadikute positsiooni EL-i Vene-poliitika kujundamisel. Lisa: Rahvaliidu nimekiri

  18. Euro on sama tähtis kui NATO ja Euroopa Liit / Vahur Kraft

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kraft, Vahur, 1961-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 3. juuni lk 2. Eesti Panga presidendi sõnul on euro aluseks oleva majandus- ja rahaliidu peamisteks eesmärkideks stabiilne majanduskasv ja madal inflatsioon. Väljavõte esinemisest Riigikogus

  19. Euro kasutuselevõtuks ametnikel töö tehtud / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti eurole üleminekut ette valmistanud ametnike koostatud infomaterjalid ja tegevuskavad on valmis, ent euro saabumise aeg pole veel teada. Diagramm: Inflatsioonimäär. Kommenteerivad Jan Linden ja Klas Eklund

  20. Is Euro-Collins better than ringer lactate in live related donor renal transplantation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, G Siva; Ninan, Chacko N; Devasia, Antony; Gnanaraj, Lionel; Kekre, Nitin S; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    .... There are no guidelines regarding the perfusion fluids in live donor renal transplantation. We studied whether Euro-Collins was better than Ringer lactate in terms of protecting allograft function...

  1. L'Europe prête 300 millions d'euros au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The BEI (Banque Européenne d'Investissement) will lent to CERN 300 millions of Euros, not only to build the new accelerator, but also to help to set up and european programm of research (1 paragraph)

  2. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  3. Monetary union and forest products trade- The case of the euro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of a monetary union in European countries had affected the international trade of forest products between the euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with panel data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for...

  4. Multi-label classification of Croatian legal documents using EuroVoc thesaurus

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić, Frane; Dalbelo Bašić, Bojana; Moens, Marie-Francine; Šnajder, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The automatic indexing of legal documents can improve access to legislation. In this paper we describe the work on EuroVoc indexing of Croatian legislative documents. We focus on the machine learning aspect of the problem. First, we describe the manually indexed Croatian legislative documents collection, which we make freely available. Secondly, we describe the multi-label classification experiments on this collection. A challenge of EuroVoc indexing is class sparsity, and we discuss some...

  5. Did public health travel advice reach EURO 2012 football fans? A social network survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiec, J; Zielicka-Hardy, A; Polkowska, A; Rogalska, J; Sadkowska-Todys, M

    2012-08-02

    We posted a survey on the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA)’s EURO 2012 Facebook profile to evaluate whether public health travel advice, specifically on the importance of measles vaccination,reached fans attending EURO 2012. Responses suggested that these messages were missed by 77% of fans. Social networks could serve as innovative platforms to conduct surveys, enabling rapid access to target populations at low cost and could be of use during upcoming mass gatherings such as the Olympics.

  6. The Protestant Fiscal Ethic:Religious Confession and Euro Skepticism in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Chadi, Adrian; Krapf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    During the European sovereign debt crisis, most countries that ran into fiscal trouble had Catholic majorities, whereas countries with Protestant majorities were able to avoid fiscal problems. Survey data show that, within Germany, views on the euro differ between Protestants and Non-Protestants, too. Among Protestants, concerns about the euro have, compared to Non-Protestants, increased during the crisis, and significantly reduce their subjective wellbeing only. We use the timing of survey i...

  7. Chemical Bonds II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  8. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  9. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and…

  10. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  11. MIGRATION PROCESSES IN BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the analysis of migration processes in the Barents Euro-Arctic region (BEAR. The main focus is the balance of interests between ethnic immigrants and citizens of the accepting country as well as formation and dynamics of ethno-social structure.The research of the migration problems is done through socio-cultural focus. It implies that a research of nation’s constant norms, values and traditions creates a scientific basis for creation of poly-cultural society and it’s stable structure.The novelty of the work is the regional aspect. The transformational trends of modern society and specifics of the BEAR are taken into account and studied on the example of the Murmansk region which is characterized as a region of heavy migration.The study describes migration processes intertwined with the realities of the multi-cultural society in BEAR (with the example of Murmansk region. The factors of upkeep of ba-lanced inter-ethnic relationship and formation of poly-cultural society are highlighted. The role of each ethnic group and national diasporas within ethno-social processes is highlighted. Authors suggest that the success of socio-cultural adaptation of immigrants is not only due to knowledge of language and culture of the accepting society, but also is due to traditions and trends of poly-culture of the accepting nation.The results of the study may be used for managing solutions in stabilizing of ethno-cultural processes within BEAR but also within the framework of the study courses, such as «Ethno-sociology» or «Sociology of migration».

  12. Source apportionment using LOTOS-EUROS: module description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kranenburg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To design effective mitigation strategies, the origin of emissions which produce air pollutants needs to be known. Contributors to air pollutants can be emission sources, like road traffic or industry, but also be more specified to emission from one location or from a specified time. Chemistry transport models can be used to assess the origin of air pollution across a large domain. However, in traditional simulations the information on origin is lost and brute force scenario studies are performed to assess the origin. Alternatively, one can trace the origin of air pollutants throughout a simulation using a labeling approach. In this paper we document and demonstrate a newly developed labeling module for the chemistry transport model LOTOS-EUROS which tracks the source allocation for all particulate matter components and precursor gases. Dedicated simulations confirmed that the new module functions correctly. The new module provides more accurate information about the source contributions than using a brute force approach with scenario runs as the chemical regime remains unchanged. An important advantage of the new module is the reduction of computation costs and analysis work associated with the calculations. The new module was applied to assess the origin of particulate nitrate across the Netherlands. Averaged across the Dutch territory, the main contributions to nitrate are derived from road and non-road transport as well as power plants. Overall, only one-fifth of the concentration derived from sources located inside the country. The new technology enables new research directions as improved information on pollution origin is desired for policy support as well as scientific applications.

  13. Climate classification for Euro-CORDEX simulations assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Kalvova, Jaroslava; Holtanova, Eva

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of climate patterns can be performed for each climatic variable separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. a kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. This way climate classifications also represent a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. Basic concepts are presented on global CRU data and the analysis is shown on CMIP5 family of GCM simulations. Different performance of individual GCMs can be seen, but with clear indication of some similarities given by the model dependencies. This evaluation can provide first insight on the driving GCM performance in individual region for downscaling. There are significant changes for some types in most models (e.g. increase of savana, decrease of tundra) for the future. The results of CMIP5 models are compared for the same analysis over European domain with the similar analysis based on the ensemble of EuroCORDEX regional simulations. E-OBS data are used for the present climate assesssment, validation for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution is presented. Climate change signal is analysed as well. Different combinations of the biases coming either from GCM or RCM appear. From the future simulations the shift of the boundary between the boreal zone and continental temperate zone to the north is clearly seen as well as eastern move the maritime and continental type of temperate zone.

  14. The Greek Crisis and the Generalization of Euro in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian PERPELEA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In December 1991 the question of a single European currency is born, perhaps the most powerful glue of a united Europe. It might sound weird, the Greek crisis finds its root causes in ambiguity and inconsistency that treaty and, in the depths of contemporary history, the decision by Churchill and Stalin to bring Greece, East-European with the most powerful communist movement in the area, under the Western sphere of influence. So it is that Greece, after has experienced extreme political (kingdom, civil war, republic, military dictatorship and strong passions left, is admitted in 1981, the EEC “(... treated recklessly and tolerant European partners who did not exercise any control over them, nor have forced on performance targets.” So, ideal conditions for real “debauchery” that this country financially practiced under the nose of the EU, especially after entering the euro zone. As a result, the global crisis was “the occasion and not the cause” of the crisis and it finds its roots in Greek behaviour – governments and the public alike. The rational “solutions” are actually are... is only one – agreement with the EU because GREXIT, although possible, is ...inconceivable.

  15. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  16. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  17. Avaliação do EuroSCORE como preditor de mortalidade em cirurgia cardíaca valvar no Instituto do Coração de Pernambuco Assesment of the EuroSCORE as a predictor for mortality in valve cardiac surgery at the Heart Institute of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Newton Guimarães Andrade

    2010-03-01

    included in the study. Hospital death was the end-point of the study. In order to assess the applicability of the EuroSCORE it was used the non parametric test of Mann-Whitney. The calibration of the model was measured by comparing the morbidity observed with that expected, using the Hosmer-Lemeshow Test of Goodness of Fit. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The comparison of expected and observed mortality, by Hosmer-Lemershow test, showed good predictive capacity (P = 0.767 as well as when compared to each value of addictive EuroSCORE (P = 0,455. The area of ROC curve was 0.731 (IC 95%, 0.660 - 0.793 with P 6 included 131 patients, with a mortality of 20.6%. The regression logistic analyses allowed to identify the following risk-factors for death: age > 60 years, gender female, previous operation, active endocarditis, associated surgery of the thoracic aorta and extra-cardiac arteriopathy. CONCLUSION: The EuroSCORE, a simple and objective method, proved to be a satisfactory predictor of operative mortality and risk factors for death in patients submitted to valve cardiac operations in the Heart Institute of Pernambuco.

  18. The Microstructure of the European Sovereign Bond Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    We explore the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, during the Euro-zone crisis, in the Italian sovereign bond market, using a unique tick-by-tick dataset, from the period June 2011-December 2012. We document a strong, dynamic relationship between changes in sovereign credit risk...... and market liquidity, conditional on the credit default swap (CDS) spread: When the CDS is above 500 basis points (bp), market liquidity adjusts more rapidly and signicantly to changes in the credit risk. Other global systemic factors also aect market liquidity, while, surprisingly, the specic credit risk...

  19. EURO-CORDEX regional climate models: Performance over Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilinović, Tomislav; Güttler, Ivan; Srnec, Lidija; Branković, Čedo

    2017-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are high-resolution version of a global climate models (GCMs) designed to achieve simulations at horizontal resolutions relevant for human activities on local and regional spatial scales, and to simulate relevant processes in historical and potential future climate conditions. In this study, a set of experiments the EURO-CORDEX simulations are evaluated over the Mediterranean region. All simulations were made at the two horizontal resolutions (50 km and 12.5 km) and compared with gridded pan-European gridded dataset E-OBSv11 at the regular 0.25°×0.25° grid for the two periods (1989-2008 for the ERA-Interim-driven ensemble of simulations; 1971-2000 for the GCMs-driven ensemble of simulations). We will evaluate the impacts of (1) the boundary conditions, (2) different horizontal resolutions (0.44°/50 km vs. 0.11°/12.5 km), and (3) the impact of convective parametrization on systematic errors, specialy in case of the RegCM4 model extensively used at DHMZ. For each simulation commonly used evaluation metrics are applied. They include: (1) spatially-averaged differences between RCMs and observations, (2) the spatial 95 th percentiles of simulated and observed temperature and precipitation, (3) spatial correlation coefficients between models and observations, (4) the ratio of spatial standard deviations between simulated and observed fields, and (5) the Spearman rank correlations between simulated and observed time-series of spatially-averaged temperature and precipitation. As commonly found in other studies, the total precipitation in RCM simulations is often overestimated and spatial correlations are noticeably lower than for temperature. The results highlight that, the RegCM4 is able to capture the (observed) spatial variability of the Mediterranean temperature climate. This is indicated by high spatial correlations with values larger than 0.9 and values of normalized standard deviation below 1 for Mediterranean region. The results

  20. The novel EuroSCORE II algorithm predicts the hospital mortality of thoracic aortic surgery in 461 consecutive Japanese patients better than both the original additive and logistic EuroSCORE algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takahiro; Sonoda, Hiromichi; Oishi, Yasuhisa; Tanoue, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Atsuhiro; Shiokawa, Yuichi; Tominaga, Ryuji

    2014-04-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II was developed to improve the overestimation of surgical risk associated with the original (additive and logistic) EuroSCOREs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of the EuroSCORE II by comparing its performance with that of the original EuroSCOREs in Japanese patients undergoing surgery on the thoracic aorta. We have calculated the predicted mortalities according to the additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II algorithms in 461 patients who underwent surgery on the thoracic aorta during a period of 20 years (1993-2013). The actual in-hospital mortality rates in the low- (additive EuroSCORE of 3-6), moderate- (7-11) and high-risk (≥11) groups (followed by overall mortality) were 1.3, 6.2 and 14.4% (7.2% overall), respectively. Among the three different risk groups, the expected mortality rates were 5.5 ± 0.6, 9.1 ± 0.7 and 13.5 ± 0.2% (9.5 ± 0.1% overall) by the additive EuroSCORE algorithm, 5.3 ± 0.1, 16 ± 0.4 and 42.4 ± 1.3% (19.9 ± 0.7% overall) by the logistic EuroSCORE algorithm and 1.6 ± 0.1, 5.2 ± 0.2 and 18.5 ± 1.3% (7.4 ± 0.4% overall) by the EuroSCORE II algorithm, indicating poor prediction (P algorithms were 0.6937, 0.7169 and 0.7697, respectively. Thus, the mortality expected by the EuroSCORE II more closely matched the actual mortality in all three risk groups. In contrast, the mortality expected by the logistic EuroSCORE overestimated the risks in the moderate- (P = 0.0002) and high-risk (P < 0.0001) patient groups. Although all of the original EuroSCOREs and EuroSCORE II appreciably predicted the surgical mortality for thoracic aortic surgery in Japanese patients, the EuroSCORE II best predicted the mortalities in all risk groups.

  1. The correlation between pedestrian injury severity in real-life crashes and Euro NCAP pedestrian test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Sternlund, Simon; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2011-12-01

    was 17, 26, and 38 percent for 1, 5, and 10 percent of medical impairment, respectively. These results applied to urban areas with speed limits up to 50 km/h, although no significant reduction was found in higher speed zones. Regarding cars with BA, the null hypothesis could not be rejected at p = .05; hence, no significant results of injury reduction were found. A significant correlation between Euro NCAP pedestrian score and injury outcome in real-life car-to-pedestrian crashes was found. Injury reduction was found to be higher with increasing severity and level of permanent medical impairment. The difference between 1- and 2-star cars is 17 percent in mean risk of permanent medical impairment (mRSC) 1%+, 26 percent in mRSC 5%+, and 38 percent in mRSC 10%+ for crashes in speed zones up to 50 km/h. Brake assist was not found to provide a statistically significant injury reduction.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE EURO CHANGEOVER ON THE INFLATION AFTER 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRIK BÖHM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the so-called changeover effect in six states that adopted Euro after 2007. We developed the new model for computation of the changeover effect. It is based on the comparison of the inflation in state that adopted Euro with average inflation in other states that are geographically near the evaluated state and have similar economics. To capture long-term impact of Euro introduction on inflation we monitored the inflation for 18 months: 6 months before Euro introduction and 12 months after it. We observed that the biggest changeover effect in 18 months was in Estonia. The inflation was 2.53% bigger than the average inflation in benchmark states. Similarly, the changeover effect in Malta was 1.08%, 1.86% in Slovenia and 0.93% in Cyprus. We did not observe any changeover effect in Latvia nor Slovakia. We also formed three regression models to predict the behavior of inflation in 2015. We used them to estimate the total inflation in Lithuania, the last state that adopted Euro on 1 January 2015. The linear model gives interval estimation of the total inflation in 18 months (1.27%; 4.76% and logarithmic model gives interval (-0.09%; 3.34%.

  3. Stress in an Island kangaroo? The Barrow Island euro, Macropus robustus isabellinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J M; Bradshaw, S D

    2010-05-15

    Selected physiological parameters were monitored over a 4-year period in the Barrow Island euro, Macropus robustus isabellinus, in Western Australia in a study of this species' homeostatic capabilities in an extremely arid habitat where individuals are exposed to high environmental temperatures and a lack of free water for much of the year. Evidence was found of a significant change in the animal's milieu intérieur on only one occasion on Barrow Island: in November 1994, following a protracted 8-month drought. Euros had significantly elevated levels of plasma osmolality, cortisol, anti-diuretic hormone (lysine vasopressin - LVP), and a reduced eosinophil count. This suggests that these animals may have been dehydrated, despite the operation of appropriate physiological responses to water deprivation. Lower eosinophil counts also suggest that immune function may have been suppressed as a result of the elevated corticosteroid levels. Comparisons with the mainland sub-species of the euro revealed the presence of a non-generative normocytic hypochromic anaemia in Barrow Island euros that potentially compromises their aerobic capacity. Barrow Island is Australia's most important A Class Reserve, harbouring 8 species of marsupials, 4 of which are now extinct, or virtually so, on the adjacent mainland. This study reveals the remarkable effectiveness of the euro's homeostatic capacities, however, its future conservation depends on ensuring that potential stress due to declining water availability and environmental change is avoided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Main Economic Policies in order to Manage an Optimum Accession of Romania to the Euro Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian ANGHEL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing several options concerning the economic policies Romania should adopt in the following years, in order to attenuate the long term vulnerabilities within the process of joining to the Euro zone, with the observation that, the economic policies proposed in the current work were selected mainly based on the decisive factors for the real equilibrium exchange rate in Romania. Fulfilling the nominal criteria for adhesion can prove itself to be more facile but not able to ensure, on a long term and in a sustainable manner, reaching an optimum for the economy that adheres irreversibly to the Euro zone. It is important to analyze how the competitiveness of other economies evolved prior and after joining the Euro zone, from the perspective of identifying some economic policies meant to ensure the accomplishment of the real convergence criteria to the Euro zone for Romania’s case, on a long term. The economic policies proposed by the authors try to help covering the greatest delays for Romania in comparison with other states in the Euro zone and which, unsolved, can create in time significant vulnerabilities on a long term, having a negative impact for many generations of Romanians from now on.

  5. EuroPhenome: a repository for high-throughput mouse phenotyping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Gates, Hilary; Adams, Niels; Debouzy, Guillaume; Leblanc, Sophie; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Melvin, David; Meziane, Hamid; Richardson, Dave; Wells, Sara; White, Jacqui; Wood, Joe; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Brown, Steve D M; Hancock, John M; Mallon, Ann-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The broad aim of biomedical science in the postgenomic era is to link genomic and phenotype information to allow deeper understanding of the processes leading from genomic changes to altered phenotype and disease. The EuroPhenome project (http://www.EuroPhenome.org) is a comprehensive resource for raw and annotated high-throughput phenotyping data arising from projects such as EUMODIC. EUMODIC is gathering data from the EMPReSSslim pipeline (http://www.empress.har.mrc.ac.uk/) which is performed on inbred mouse strains and knock-out lines arising from the EUCOMM project. The EuroPhenome interface allows the user to access the data via the phenotype or genotype. It also allows the user to access the data in a variety of ways, including graphical display, statistical analysis and access to the raw data via web services. The raw phenotyping data captured in EuroPhenome is annotated by an annotation pipeline which automatically identifies statistically different mutants from the appropriate baseline and assigns ontology terms for that specific test. Mutant phenotypes can be quickly identified using two EuroPhenome tools: PhenoMap, a graphical representation of statistically relevant phenotypes, and mining for a mutant using ontology terms. To assist with data definition and cross-database comparisons, phenotype data is annotated using combinations of terms from biological ontologies.

  6. LE BINOME EURO-DOLLAR SOUS LE SIGNE DE L’INCERTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Dollar remain the dominant international currency (mainly as a reserve currency? To answer this question, the paper presents in the first part the opinions of the most prominent experts concerning the determinant factors of an international currency status, in the two sphere of utilization: public and private. The most important are: the magnitude of the economies of emission, the externalities of network, the liquidity of their financial market, the confidence in their stability. Then there follows the evaluations concerning the two international currencies, Dollar and Euro, from these perspectives. Finally, the paper evaluates their role as measure of value, instrument of reserve and instrument of payment in the international economic relations. In the second part, the paper evaluates the recent tendencies of the exchange rate Euro/Dollar (2006-2008 from the point of view of fundamentals. After a period of depreciation, from the middle of the year 2008 until now, the dollar marked an unexpected appreciation towards the euro. But, the global financial and economic crisis increases the incertitude concerning the evolution of the exchange rate euro/dollar. Undoubtedly the two currencies will remain the prominent international currencies and the dollar the main reserve currency. Finally the paper presents Mundell’s proposal of stabilization of the binomial euro/dollar.

  7. Suitability of modelled and remotely sensed essential climate variables for monitoring Euro-Mediterranean droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypta, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Maignan, F.; Dorigo, W.; Baret, F.; Ciais, P.

    2014-05-01

    Two new remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) and surface soil moisture (SSM) satellite-derived products are compared with two sets of simulations of the ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic EcosystEms (ORCHIDEE) and Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere, CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs) land surface models. We analyse the interannual variability over the period 1991-2008. The leaf onset and the length of the vegetation growing period (LGP) are derived from both the satellite-derived LAI and modelled LAI. The LGP values produced by the photosynthesis-driven phenology model of ISBA-A-gs are closer to the satellite-derived LAI and LGP than those produced by ORCHIDEE. In the latter, the phenology is based on a growing degree day model for leaf onset, and on both climatic conditions and leaf life span for senescence. Further, the interannual variability of LAI is better captured by ISBA-A-gs than by ORCHIDEE. In order to investigate how recent droughts affected vegetation over the Euro-Mediterranean area, a case study addressing the summer 2003 drought is presented. It shows a relatively good agreement of the modelled LAI anomalies with the observations, but the two models underestimate plant regrowth in the autumn. A better representation of the root-zone soil moisture profile could improve the simulations of both models. The satellite-derived SSM is compared with SSM simulations of ISBA-A-gs only, as ORCHIDEE has no explicit representation of SSM. Overall, the ISBA-A-gs simulations of SSM agree well with the satellite-derived SSM and are used to detect regions where the satellite-derived product could be improved. Finally, a correspondence is found between the interannual variability of detrended SSM and LAI. The predictability of LAI is less pronounced using remote sensing observations than using simulated variables. However, consistent results are found in July for the croplands of the Ukraine and southern Russia.

  8. Inflation persistence in new EU member states: is it different than in the euro area members?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, Kateřina

    -, č. 10 (2007), s. 1-37 ISSN 1803-2397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new hybrid Phillips curve * new EU member states Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cnb.cz/m2export/sites/www.cnb.cz/en/research/research_publications/cnb_wp/download/cnbwp_2007_10.pdf

  9. Inflation persistence: is it similar in the new EU member states and the euro area members?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Michal; Saxa, Branislav; Šmídková, K.

    -, 25/2008 (2008), s. 1-35 Grant - others:Česká národní banka(CZ) B4/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : inflation persistence * new EU member states * new hybrid Phillips curve Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/9070

  10. Financial market fragmentation and monetary transmission in the euro area: what do we know?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman

    (2017) ISSN 1748-7870 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09190S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : financial market fragmentation * monetary transmission * European Central Bank Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.925, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/horvath-0478988.pdf

  11. The relationship between liquidity risk and probability of default: Evidence from the Euro area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doriana Cucinelli

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyze the type of relationship that exists between liquidity risk - measured with the liquidity coverage ratio and the net stable funding ratio - and the probability of default...

  12. The relationship between liquidity risk and probability of default: Evidence from the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Cucinelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the type of relationship that exists between liquidity risk - measured with the liquidity coverage ratio and the net stable funding ratio - and the probability of default. The sample is composed of 575 listed and non-listed Eurozone banks and the methodology applied in the analysis is OLS regression based on panel data. The results show a relationship only between the liquidity coverage ratio and credit rating, while there is no relationship between the longterm liquidity measure and probability of default. In relation to the crisis, the results highlight divergent bank liquidity management only in the short time horizon.

  13. The Revenue Side of a Universal Basic Income in the EU and Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mencinger Jože

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to answer the question of whether universal basic income on the European level is a realistic option or an illusion. As UBI implies a much larger EU budget and a redistribution of collected budget revenues, the chance of introducing UBI depends on the required redistribution – the larger the redistribution, the lower the chance. The chance is indirectly assessed by an exercise in which 50 percent of actual tax revenues generated by indirect taxes of member states is collected at the center and distributed equally to all citizens. Though the net costs to the rich are relatively modest, the results indicate that the idea of introducing UBI on the European level is an illusion.

  14. Financial integration in the euro area : Pro-cyclical effects and economic convergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Ewijk, van S.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of financial integration in the macro-economic adjustment process of countries inside EMU. We employ a confidential bilateral version of the locational banking statistics granted to us by the Bank of International Settlements. We use this dataset to measure the

  15. Uppermost mantle seismic velocity and anisotropy in the Euro-Mediterranean region from Pn and Sn tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Gallart, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10-15 years, the number of high quality seismic stations monitoring the Euro-Mediterranean region has increased significantly, allowing a corresponding improvement in structural constraints. We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath this complex area, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases sampling the whole region. The method of Hearn has been applied to the traveltime arrivals of the International Seismological Center catalogue for the time period 1990-2010. A total of 579 753 Pn arrivals coming from 12 377 events recorded at 1 408 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1 400 km have been retained after applying standard quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values …). Our results show significant features well correlated with surface geology and evidence the heterogeneous character of the Euro-Mediterranean lithosphere. The station terms reflect the existence of marked variations in crustal thickness, consistent with available Moho depths inferred from active seismic experiments. The highest Pn velocities are observed along a continuous band from the Po Basin to the northern Ionian Sea. Other high velocity zones include the Ligurian Basin, the Valencia Trough, the southern Alboran Sea and central part of the Algerian margin. Most significant low-velocity values are associated to orogenic belts (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines and Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides), and low-velocity zones are also identified beneath Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The introduction of an anisotropic term enhances significantly the lateral continuity of the anomalies, in particular in the most active tectonic areas. Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations subparallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The Sn tomographic image has lower resolution but confirms independently most of the

  16. EuroSCORE e mortalidade em cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica no Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco EuroSCORE and mortality in coronary artery bypass graft surgery at Pernambuco Cardiologic Emergency Medical Services [Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira Sá

    2010-12-01

    : sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. The power of concordance between the predicted mortality by the EuroSCORE and the observed mortality was measured using the Kappa coefficient. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The incidence of death was 13%. In multivariate analysis, nine variables remained independent predictors of death: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, creatinine >2,3mg/dL, active endocarditis, preoperative critical state, unstable angina, ejection fraction 30% to 50%, acute myocardial infarction < 90 days, emergency surgery and additional surgery. The score had a sensitivity of 88.4%, specificity of 79.3%, positive predictive value of 40.7%, negative predictive value of 97.7% and 80.6% concordance. The accuracy measured by the area under the ROC curve was 0.892 (95% CI 0.862-0.922. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroSCORE proved to be a simple and objective index, revealing a satisfactory discriminator of postoperative evolution in patients undergoing CABG surgery at our institution.

  17. The Price Convergence of the Czech Republic and Euro Zone Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovářová Jana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article was to study a price convergence of the Czech Republic (CR and Euro zone countries in the two aspects: spatial and time aspect. In the first one the convergence of selected economies to the Euro zone average price level was researched. In the second one the convergence or divergence process was studied in the individual years of the analysis. The main aim was to prove the hypothesis that the price level of the CR converged to the average price level of the Euro zone in the selected time period 1995-2010. An analysis was conducted by the panel data regression model. The data of comparative price levels of GDP (CPL used in the analysis were obtained in the Eurostat database.

  18. Regional differences in self-reported HIV care and management in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Kamilla Grønborg; Mocroft, Amanda; Lazarus, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    for tobacco use, alcohol consumption and drug use (Figure 1). Screening for cervical cancer and for anorectal cancer was low in both regions (Figure 1). CONCLUSIONS: We found significant regional variability in self-reported HIV management across Europe, with less resistance testing, screening for CVD......INTRODUCTION: EuroSIDA has previously reported a poorer clinical prognosis for HIV-positive individuals in Eastern Europe (EE) as compared with patients from other parts of Europe, not solely explained by differences in patient characteristics. We explored regional variability in self-reported HIV...... management at individual EuroSIDA clinics, with a goal of identifying opportunities to reduce the apparent inequalities in health. METHODS: A survey (www.chip.dk/eurosida/csurvey) on HIV management was conducted in early 2014 in all currently active EuroSIDA clinics. Responders in EE were compared...

  19. [Effects of fuel properties on the performance of a typical Euro IV diesel engine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-miao; Wang, Jian-xin; Shuai, Shi-jin

    2008-09-01

    With the purpose of establishing diesel fuel standard for China National 4th Emission Standard, as one part of Beijing "Auto-Oil" programme, engine performance test has been done on a typical Euro IV diesel engine using eight diesel fuels with different fuel properties. Test results show that, fuel properties has little effect on power, fuel consumption, and in-cylinder combustion process of tested Euro IV diesel engine; sulfate in PM and gaseous SO2 emissions increase linearly with diesel sulfur content increase; cetane number increase cause BSFC and PM reduce and NOx increase; T90 decrease cause NOx reduce while PM shows trend of reduce. Prediction equations of tested Euro IV diesel engine's ESC cycle NOx and PM emissions before SCR response to diesel fuel sulfur content, cetane number, T90 and aromatics have been obtained using linear regression method on the base of test results.

  20. Poweo - 2007 revenue of 363 million euro, up 48%; Poweo - Chiffre d'affaires 2007 de 363 millions euro, en hausse de 48%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    Poweo, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents its key activity indicators for the 4. quarter 2007 and the overall 2007 year (non-audited data): electricity and gas sales, energy and service supplies, revenue, margin and income. The main results are summarized thereafter: 129.8 million euro revenue for the 4. quarter (67.1% of positive growth with respect to 2006); 363.1 million euro revenue for 2007 (48.5% increase with respect to 2006); 91431 active client sites on December 31, 2007 (80300 on December 31, 2006); 13000 new residential client sites registered since the beginning of 2008; more than 3800 MW of fossil fuel power plant projects and 1200 MW of renewable power plant projects (500 MW in offshore wind power) with 30 to 100% estimated rates of success; a 41 MW wind power capacity already in operation. (J.S.)

  1. Shock monetari e reali, ciclo economico e valore dell’euro (Monetary and Real Shocks, the Business Cycle and the Value of the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Filosa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The appreciation of the dollar in the aftermath of the euro launch came as a surprise to most observers; furthermore, the traditional models fail to capture its dynamics. Is this a confirmation of Mussa's, Meese's and Rogoff's results, according to which no structural model can perform better than a random walk? More optimistically, this study shows that a structural VAR model of the Mundell-Fleming type satisfactorily explains the behaviour of the euro and its relationships with the fundamentals. My estimates indicate that dollar appreciation is primarily due to the cyclical strength of US demand. By contrast, they do not support the often-voiced theory that dollar appreciation is to be accounted for with the "new economy." Finally, the model shows that monetary shocks have limited effects on the exchange rate and very strong effects on inflation. This justifies the emphasis placed by central banks on the pursuit of internal objectives rather than exchange rate stability.

  2. PAH, BTEX, carbonyl compound, black-carbon, NO2 and ultrafine particle dynamometer bench emissions for Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesel and gasoline passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; Chaumond, Agnès; André, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Although implementing Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and other novel aftertreatment technologies makes it possible to achieve significant reductions in particle mass emissions, it may induce the release of ultrafine particles and emissions of many other unregulated compounds. This paper focuses on (i) ultrafine particles, black carbon, BTEX, PAH, carbonyl compounds, and NO2 emissions from Euro 4 and Euro 5 Diesel and gasoline passenger cars, (ii) the influence of driving conditions (e.g., cold start, urban, rural and motorway conditions), and (iii) the impact of additive and catalysed DPF devices on vehicle emissions. Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on four Euro 5 vehicles and two Euro 4 vehicles: gasoline vehicles with and without direct injection system and Diesel vehicles equipped with additive and catalysed particulate filters. The results showed that compared to hot-start cycles, cold-start urban cycles increased all pollutant emissions by a factor of two. The sole exception was NO2, which was reduced by a factor of 1.3-6. Particulate and black carbon emissions from the gasoline engines were significantly higher than those from the Diesel engines equipped with DPF. Moreover, the catalysed DPF emitted about 3-10 times more carbonyl compounds and particles than additive DPF, respectively, during urban driving cycles, while the additive DPF vehicles emitted 2 and 5 times more BTEX and carbonyl compounds during motorway driving cycles. Regarding particle number distribution, the motorway driving cycle induced the emission of particles smaller in diameter (mode at 15 nm) than the urban cold-start cycle (mode at 80-100 nm). The results showed a clear positive correlation between particle, black carbon, and BTEX emissions, and a negative correlation between particles and NO2.

  3. Infectious diseases among travellers and migrants in Europe, EuroTravNet 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, P; Cramer, J P; Field, V; Caumes, E; Jensenius, M; Gkrania-Klotsas, E; de Vries, P J; Grobusch, M P; Lopez-Velez, R; Castelli, F; Schlagenhauf, P; Hervius Askling, H; von Sonnenburg, F; Lalloo, D G; Loutan, L; Rapp, C; Basto, F; Santos O'Connor, F; Weld, L; Parola, P

    2012-06-28

    To investigate trends in travel-associated morbidity with particular emphasis on emerging infections with the potential for introduction into Europe, diagnoses of 7,408 returning travellers presenting to 16 EuroTravNet sites in 2010 were compared with 2008 and 2009. A significant increase in reported Plasmodium falciparum malaria (n=361 (6% of all travel-related morbidity) vs. n=254 (4%) and 260 (5%); ptravellers, captured by EuroTravnet, continue to highlight the potential role of travellers in the emergence of infectious diseases of public health concern in Europe and the relevance of offering medical travel advice and enforcing specific and adequate prophylaxis.

  4. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  5. THE RISKS OF A TOO QUICK EURO ADOPTION BY THE EU MEMBER STATES. THE CASE OF PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Stefan Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the risks faced by the new countries that have joined the European Union, and which also desire to adopt the euro currency as quickly as possible. We will analyze the existing literature regarding the ways these risks manifest themselves, depending on the economic conditions present in these countries. The risks are mostly caused by an incomplete fulfillment of the optimum currency area conditions, especially the ones regarding the synchronization of the business cycles, the existence of mitigation mechanisms in the case of asymmetric shocks, and to a lesser extent, the insufficient flexibility of the European labor markets. In addition, because there are different economic conditions between the countries that plan on introducing the euro currency and the ones that already had, mostly related to a lower economic development and lower prices, there are specific risks that affect the former countries. Moreover, the benefits of entering the EMU greater monetary stability, reduced transaction costs, lower exchange rate volatility and a decrease of the interest rates can in some specific cases become also costs. In order to quantify all these elements, we have constructed a case study of Portugal, which has entered the EMU in the first wave. We have determined that Portugal's experience after the euro introduction was a negative one, when compared with the previous period, because the convergence process did not actually happened, as expected. Not only that, but the economic differences between Portugal and the other EMU countries deepened, and the country's fiscal situation also deteriorated badly in all these years, up to the point where Portugal was forced to ask for external help. The case of Portugal is very important for the countries that are eager to adopt the common currency without first achieving a sustainable economic development, through increasing labor productivity and exports. It shows that fulfilling the

  6. Strain Rate Tensor in the Euro-mediterranean Domain from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Yann; Masson, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we compute the strain rate tensor (SRT) in several areas of the Euro-mediterranean domain using the so-called STIB method (Strain Tensor from Inversion of Baselines), which uses the length variations of the baselines between each pair of the geodetic stations to provide a map of the deformation over the whole area covered by the network, reducing the impact of erroneous data and noise. We use the GPS data compilation of Nocquet (2012) and compute the SRT in the following Mediterranean regions, from West to East: Iberia-Nubia, Italy, Balkans, Greece, Anatolia and Dead Sea. In addition to the major tectonic features (extension in the Apennine Mountains, Corinthian Gulf opening, North Anatolian Fault and so on) our results highlight new evidence of deformation in these different zones. In Iberia-Nubia, along with the compression in the Moroccan Rif and Atlas, extension appears clearly in the western part of the Alboran Sea in spite of a lack of GPS data in oceanic areas. Moreover, small extensions inside the Iberian Peninsula could nuance the common statement about the rigidity of this area. In Italy, our results emphasise the strong extension in the Apennines and on the Calabrian cost. The compression in the subduction zone north of Sicily and the extension colocated with the Etna volcano are equally well recovered. In the Balkans, a diffuse extension appears in the Pannonian Basin, west of the Carpathians and the northward convergence of the Adria-Apulia microplates with its associated shortening in the Dinarides is another feature of the Balkanic SRT map. Greece shows three well-known tectonic patterns: the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) ending, the Corinthian Gulf opening and the Hellenic subduction zone. Compression is retrieved along the Cephalonian Fault but we still lack data south of the Aegean Sea to reveal the shortening related to the subduction of the African plate. In Anatolia, apart from the NAF, important deformations are located between the

  7. EuroWordNet : a multilingual database of autonomous and language-specific wordnets connected via Inter-Lingual-Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, P.T.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the multilingual design of the EuroWordNet database. The EuroWordNet database stores wordnets as autonomous language -specific structures that are interconnected via an Inter-Lingual-Index (ILI). In this paper, we discuss the possibilities to create mappings from each wordnet

  8. 26 CFR 1.985-8 - Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at €1= DM2. Assume further that the euro/guilder conversion rate is set at €1 = fl2.25. Accordingly.... Assume that the euro/deutschmark conversion rate is set by the European Council at €1 = DM2. Assume...

  9. Utilidad de EuroSCORE-II en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Álvarez-Cabo

    2017-03-01

    Conclusiones: Los 2 modelos sobrestiman mortalidad; sin embargo, EuroSCORE-II supera a EuroSCORE-Logístico para estimación de mortalidad en cirugía coronaria, con mejor discriminación y calibración.

  10. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.

    1991-02-01

    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  11. Phenylacetylene and H bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... all resembling H bonds. Non-linear H bonds due to secondary interactions. C-H stretching frequency shows blue shift. Heavy atom distances are longer than the sum of van der Waals radii. Formed a task group through IUPAC to come up with a modern definition of H bond. 15 international experts including Desiraju.

  12. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  13. Projections of meteorological and snow conditions in the Pyrenees using adjusted EURO-CORDEX climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Déqué, Michel; Morin, Samuel; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Lafaysse, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Current and future availability of seasonal snow is a recurring topic in mountain regions such as the Pyrenees, where winter tourism and hydropower production are large contributors to the regional revenues in France, Spain and Andorra. Associated changes in river discharges, their consequences on water storage management, the future vulnerability of Pyrenean ecosystems as well as the occurrence of climate-related hazards such as debris flows and avalanches are also under consideration. However, to generate projections of snow conditions, a traditional dynamical downscaling approach featuring spatial resolutions typically between 10 and 50 km is not sufficient to capture the fine-scale processes and thresholds at play. Indeed, the altitudinal resolution matters, since the phase of precipitation is mainly controlled by the temperature which is altitude-dependent. Moreover, simulations from general circulation models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) suffer from biases compared to local observations, and often provide outputs at too coarse time resolution to drive impact models. RCM simulations must therefore be adjusted before they can be used to drive specific models such as land surface models. In this study, time series of hourly temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and short- and longwave radiation were generated over the Pyrenees for the period 1950-2100, by using a new approach (named ADAMONT for ADjustment of RCM outputs to MOuNTain regions) based on quantile mapping applied to daily data, followed by time disaggregation accounting for weather patterns selection. Meteorological observations used for the quantile mapping consist of the regional scale reanalysis SAFRAN, which operates at the scale of homogeneous areas on the order of 1000 km2 within which meteorological conditions vary only with elevation. SAFRAN combines large-scale NWP reanalysis (ERA40, ARPEGE) with in-situ meteorological observations. The SAFRAN reanalysis is available

  14. Prospective bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  15. ILEWG EuroMoonMars Research, Technology, and Field Simulation Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Lillo, A.; Evellin, P.; Kołodziejczyk, A.; Heinicke, C.; Harasymczuk, M.; Authier, L.; Blanc, A.; Chahla, C.; Tomic, A.; Mirino, M.; Schlacht, I.; Hettrich, S.; Pacher, T.; Maller, L.; Decadi, A.; Villa-Massone, J.; Preusterink, J.; Neklesa, A.; Barzilay, A.; Volkova, T.

    2017-10-01

    ILEWG developed since 2008, "EuroMoonMars" pilot research with a Robotic Test Bench (ExoGeoLab) and a Mobile Laboratory Habitat (ExoHab) at ESTEC. Field campaigns were e.g. in ESTEC, EAC, at Utah MDRS, Eifel, and LunAres base at Pila Poland in 2017.

  16. Studies in cow’s milk allergy: results from the Dutch EuroPrevall birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, N.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cow’s milk allergy is a common disease in infancy. However, until recently accurate numbers were not available. To investigate how many infants suffered from cow’s milk allergy, the EuroPrevall study was designed. In this European, multicentre study, nine European hospitals followed over 12,000

  17. Corporate Image and the Establishment of Euro Disney: Mickey Mouse and the French Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Janis

    1998-01-01

    Considers interweaving themes that characterized the construction of Euro Disney, drawing upon articles in the French press. Offers analysis of the historical context for and the implications of the park's construction, using the literature of French cultural studies and cross-cultural studies for support. Discusses possible consequences to the…

  18. EuroStemCell: A European infrastructure for communication and engagement with stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfoot, Jan; Doherty, Kate; Blackburn, C Clare

    2017-10-01

    EuroStemCell is a large and growing network of organizations and individuals focused on public engagement with stem cells and regenerative medicine - a fluid and contested domain, where scientific, political, ethical, legal and societal perspectives intersect. Rooted in the European stem cell research community, this project has developed collaborative and innovative approaches to information provision and direct and online engagement, that reflect and respond to the dynamic growth of the field itself. EuroStemCell started as the communication and outreach component of a research consortium and subsequently continued as a stand-alone engagement initiative. The involvement of established European stem cell scientists has grown year-on-year, facilitating their participation in public engagement by allowing them to make high-value contributions with broad reach. The project has now had sustained support by partners and funders for over twelve years, and thus provides a model for longevity in public engagement efforts. This paper considers the evolution of the EuroStemCell project in response to - and in dialogue with - its evolving environment. In it, we aim to reveal the mechanisms and approaches taken by EuroStemCell, such that others within the scientific community can explore these ideas and be further enabled in their own public engagement endeavours. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. EuroFIR quality approach for managing food composition data; where are we in 2014?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbrink, Susanne; Roe, Mark; Oseredczuk, Marine; Castanheira, Isabel; Finglas, Paul

    2016-02-15

    A EuroFIR quality management framework was developed to assure data quality of food composition data, incorporating several recommendations developed or improved during the EuroFIR projects. A flow chart of the compilation process with standard operating procedures to assure critical steps was the starting point. Recommendations for food description, component identification, value documentation, recipe calculation, quality evaluation of values, guidelines to assess analytical methods, document and data repositories and training opportunities were harmonized as elements of the quality framework. European food composition database organizations reached consensus on the EuroFIR quality framework and started implementation. Peer reviews of the European compiler organizations were organized to evaluate the quality framework, focusing on what was achieved and on improvements needed. The reviews demonstrated that European food database compilers have made good use of standards and guidelines produced by EuroFIR, as well as a common understanding that a quality framework is essential to assure food composition data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Satisfaction with quality of ICU care for patients and families : the euroQ2 project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Curtis, J Randall; Spronk, Peter E; Zijlstra, Jan G; Ørding, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Background: Families' perspectives are of great importance in evaluating quality of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). This Danish-Dutch study tested a European adaptation of the "Family Satisfaction in the ICU" (euroFS-ICU). The aim of the study was to examine assessments of satisfaction with

  1. Credit cycle coherence in the eurozone: Was there a euro effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samarina, Anna; Zhang, L.; Bezemer, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines effects of the euro introduction on credit cycle coherence in the eurozone through six channels. We construct and describe credit cycles for total bank credit, household mortgages and non-financial business loans for 16 EMU economies over 1990–2015. Credit cycle coherence is

  2. Clinimetric properties of the EuroQol-5D in patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, R.; Reneman, M.F.; Speijer, B.L.; Coppes, M.H.; Vroomen, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Clinimetric properties of the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP) are largely unknown. PURPOSE: To study the criterion validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important change (MCIC) of EQ-5D in patients with CLBP. STUDY DESIGN:

  3. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  4. [Additive and logistic EuroSCORE in assessment of operative mortality in cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacila, Mirsad; Granov, Nermir; Omerbasić, Edin; Memisević, Nedim

    2008-01-01

    Patients benefit, reduction of treatment costs, as well as providing data needed for the science progress, are only some of the items that implicate the importance of preoperative evaluation of operative risk and mortality. In order to determine the risk profile of adult cardiac patients and identify the mortality in different procedures, a set of multicentric clinical studies has been carried out in the past decade. A study involving 19030 patients in 128 centers from 8 European countries was conducted at the end of 1995. Product of that study is EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation). In this survey we will point out the results of two different EuroSCORE forms (Additive and Logistic) which we applied in 145 cases of patients operated in Sarajevo Heart Center in the first half-year of 2007. From 145 procedures 124 (85%) was bypass procedures, 18 (12.4%) valvular and 3 (2,6%) other procedures (dissection of AA, mixoma LA). Aditive EuroSCORE model is use friendly and simple for bedside use. In mortality prediction Logistic EuroSCORE is more sensitive (exclude mortality in larger patient groups), and is also more precise in mortality prediction in all groups of patients.

  5. Le "LHC", un défi scientifique à 6 milliards d'euros

    CERN Multimedia

    Féraud, Jean-Christope

    2006-01-01

    On the french-swiss border, CERN is building the LHC; this particle accelerator of 27km will be operational in autumn 2007; its goal: to go the heart of matter to discover the mysteries of the infinitely small. this technological challenge will cost 6 billions of euros. (2 pages)

  6. Training a multilayer neural network for the Euro-dollar (EUR/ USD) exchange rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaime Alberto Villamil Torres; Jesús Alberto Delgado Rivera

    2010-01-01

    ... (as first approximation) a random walk. This paper reports the results of using ANNs for Euro/USD exchange rate trading and the usefulness of the algorithm for chemotaxis leading to training networks thereby maximising an objective function re predicting a trader’s profits. JEL: F310, C450.

  7. External causes of euro zone inflation differentials : A re-examniation of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Verhoef, B.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on external causes of Euro Zone inflation differential. Persistent inflation differences may influence inflationary expectations and can amplify regional business cycles. With a uniform nominal interest rate, the domestic real interest rates will be lower in high inflation

  8. Tartu maraton tõi sisse üle 650 000 euro / Tiina Rekand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rekand, Tiina, 1985-

    2011-01-01

    Konjunktuuriinstituut uuris Tartu maratoni majanduslikku mõju. Maratoni piirkond sai tänu üritusele üle 650 000 euro majanduslikku kasu. Uuringus osalenud ettevõtete ettepanekuid maratoni majandusliku mõju suurendamiseks ja sujuvamaks korraldamiseks

  9. Kui euro saab saatuslikuks / Paul Krugman ; tõlkinud Priit Simson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krugman, Paul, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    USA majandusprofessori hinnangul ei ole eelarvedistsipliin Euroopa hädade kogu põhjus, ka mitte Kreekas. Tegelik põhjus peitub poliitilises eliidis, mis survestas Euroopat eurole üle minema oluliselt varem, kui Euroopa selliseks katsetuseks valmis oli. Kriisi keskmes asetseb euro paindumatus, mitte eelarvedefitsiidini viiv kulutamine

  10. Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour: Introduction to the special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärling, Tommy; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue "Effects of the euro changeover on consumer behaviour" by briefly reviewing the contents of the included papers. The introduction follows the organization of the papers in three sections each focusing on a common set of issues. In the first section, research...

  11. Võlakriisi lahendused ähvardavad euro püsimist / Hans-Werner Sinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinn, Hans-Werner, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Euro on ohus, sest viimastel aastatel on GIPS-riikide (Kreeka, Iirimaa, Portugal ja Hispaania) keskpangad raha juurde trükkinud. Lisaraha oli vajalik sisemise raharingluse tekitamiseks, et saaks kaubandusdefitsiiti säilitada ja hoida üleval kommertspankade varade väärtust

  12. Euro Feast for Estonia - Feast in Time of Plague? / Andres Arrak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arrak, Andres, 1958-2017

    2010-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Eesti Pank ja valitsus peaksid selgitama rahvale euroga liitumise vajadust ajal, mil terve maailm kannatab majanduskriisi all ja euroala riigid ei suuda täita Maastrichti kriteeriume ning euro jaoks on saabunud rasked ajad. Kreeka majandusnäitajatest

  13. Papers presented at EuroSun'96 Congress 1996 in Freiburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Heller, Alfred; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    A collection of presented papers at EuroSun'96 Congress in Freiburg, Germany. Four papers are presented orally, two by poster.Verbally presented papers* Furbo Simon and Shah Jivan Louise, OPTIMUM SOLAR COLLECTOR FLUID FLOW RATES.* Holck Ole, MODELLING OF MICROCLIMATE IN COLLECTORS.* Saxhof Bjarne...

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci for fibrin clot phenotypes: the EuroCLOT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Frances M K; Carter, Angela M; Kato, Bernet

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibrin makes up the structural basis of an occlusive arterial thrombus, and variability in fibrin phenotype relates to cardiovascular risk. The aims of the current study from the EU consortium EuroCLOT were to (1) determine the heritability of fibrin phenotypes and (2) identify QTLs as...

  15. The 2010 euro crisis stand-off between France and Germany: leadership styles and political culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohn, F.; Jong, E. de

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the severity of the 2010 euro crisis was caused by and reveals differences in leadership styles and political culture between European countries, especially between France and Germany. We trace these differences to differences in underlying values: culture. There is a

  16. DAF Euro-4 heavy-duty diesel engine with TNO EGR system and CRT particulates filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Aken, M.G. van; Verkiel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the TNO venturi EGR system and the Johnson Matthey CRT particulates trap on a DAF 355 kW engine. The results obtained indicate that this EGR-CRT combination is an effective means to achieve EURO-4 emission level, while maintaining good fuel economy. EGR strategy,

  17. VLF observations of ionospheric disturbances in association with TLEs from the EuroSprite-2007 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NaitAmor, S.; AlAbdoadaim, M. A.; Cohen, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Two Very Low Frequency (VLF) AWESOME remote sensing systems located at Algiers, Algeria (36.45°N, 3.28°E) and Sebha, Libya (27.02°N, 14.26°E) monitor VLF signal perturbations for evidence of ionospheric disturbances. During the EuroSprite-2007 campaign a number of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs...

  18. Training aspects in the use and production of food composition databases. The EuroFIR experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Witthöft, C.; Busstra, M.C.; Elburg, L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of national food databases have been published on the internet. However, these internet databases can only be searched individually, and the data have been compiled at a national level, resulting in incompatibilities. To resolve these problems, the Network of Excellence EuroFIR

  19. Limits to Arbitrage in Sovereign Bonds Price and Liquidity Discovery in High Frequency Quote Driven Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    therefore, the limits to arbitrage) between the prices of the futures contract and the cash bond that is cheapest to deliver. However, the European Central Bank (ECB) intervention through the Long Term Refinancing Operations (LTRO) had an effect on the arbitrage relationship, fostering the convergence......, the transmission of liquidity between markets linked to each other through arbitrage, such as cash bond and futures markets, which we term liquidity discovery, is likely to be even stronger. This paper investigates the microstructure of the relationship between price discovery, the transmission of price shocks...... between markets, and liquidity discovery, the transmission of liquidity shocks, through changes in the quotes posted by market makers and the reactions of arbitrageurs. Our analysis is in the context of the Italian sovereign bond cash and future markets, during the recent Euro-zone sovereign bond crisis...

  20. Selective disruption of disulphide bonds lowered activation energy and improved catalytic efficiency in TALipB from Trichosporon asahii MSR54: MD simulations revealed flexible lid and extended substrate binding area in the mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Gupta, Namita; Verma, Ved Vrat; Goel, Manisha; Gupta, Rani

    2016-03-25

    TALipB (33 kDa) is a solvent stable, enantioselective lipase from Trichosporon asahii MSR54. It is cysteine-rich and shows activation in presence of thiol reducing agents. DIANNA server predicted three disulphide bridges C53-C195 (S1), C89-C228 (S2) and C164-C254 (S3) in the enzyme. Selective disruption of disulphide bonds by cysteine to alanine mutations at Cys53 and Cys89 of S1 and S2 bonds resulted in enzyme activation. Mutant mTALipB (S1+S2) showed increase in specific activity by ∼4-fold (834 mM/mg) and improved Vmax of 6.27 μmol/ml/min at 40 °Con pNP caprate. Temperature optima of mTALipB shifted from 50 to 40 °C and activation energy decreased by 0.7 kcal mol(-1). However, the mutant was less thermostable with a t1/2 of 18 min at 60 °C as compared to t1/2 of 38 min for the native enzyme. Mutant also displayed an improved activity on all pNP esters and higher enantiomeric excess (61%) during esterification of (±) 1-phenylethanol. Far-UV CD analysis showed significant changes in secondary structure after S-S bridge disruption with 7.16% decrease in α-helices and 1.31% increase in β-sheets. In silico analysis predicted two lids (α5 and α9) in TALipB. Molecular dynamic simulations at 40 °C and 50 °C revealed that in the mTALipB, both the lids opened at 40 °C with clockwise and anticlockwise rotations in Lid1 and Lid2, respectively. In the native protein, however, the lid was only partially open even at 50 °C. Concomitant to lid flexibility, there was an extension of accessible catalytic triad surface area resulting in improved catalytic efficiency of the mutant enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of three risk evaluation systems for patients aged ≥70 in East China: performance of SinoSCORE, EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingtong; Ge, Wen; Pu, Yiwei; Cheng, Hong; Cang, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qifan; Xu, Anyang; Wang, Qi; Gu, Chang; Zhang, Yangyang

    2018-01-01

    To assess and compare the predictive ability of three risk evaluation systems (SinoSCORE, EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system) in patients aged ≥70, and who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in East China. Three risk evaluation systems were applied to 1,946 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG from January 2004 to September 2016 in two hospitals. Patients were divided into two subsets according to their age: elderly group (age ≥70) with a younger group (age evaluation system were 0.78(0.64)%, 1.43(1.14)% and 0.78(0.77)%, respectively. SinoSCORE achieved the best discrimination (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.829), followed by the STS risk evaluation system (AUC = 0.790) and EuroSCORE II (AUC = 0.769) in the entire cohort. In the elderly group, the observed mortality rate was 4.82% while it was 1.38% in the younger group. SinoSCORE (AUC = .829) also achieved the best discrimination in the elderly group, followed by the STS risk evaluation system (AUC = .730) and EuroSCORE II (AUC = 0.640) while all three risk evaluation systems all had good performances in the younger group. SinoSCORE, EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system all achieved positive calibrations in the entire cohort and subsets. The performance of the three risk evaluation systems was not ideal in the entire cohort. In the elderly group, SinoSCORE appeared to achieve better predictive efficiency than EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system.

  2. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  3. Future snowfall in the Alps: projections based on the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Prisco; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.; Schär, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Twenty-first century snowfall changes over the European Alps are assessed based on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM) data made available through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Fourteen different combinations of global and regional climate models with a target resolution of 12 km and two different emission scenarios are considered. As raw snowfall amounts are not provided by all RCMs, a newly developed method to separate snowfall from total precipitation based on near-surface temperature conditions and accounting for subgrid-scale topographic variability is employed. The evaluation of the simulated snowfall amounts against an observation-based reference indicates the ability of RCMs to capture the main characteristics of the snowfall seasonal cycle and its elevation dependency but also reveals considerable positive biases especially at high elevations. These biases can partly be removed by the application of a dedicated RCM bias adjustment that separately considers temperature and precipitation biases.Snowfall projections reveal a robust signal of decreasing snowfall amounts over most parts of the Alps for both emission scenarios. Domain and multi-model mean decreases in mean September-May snowfall by the end of the century amount to -25 and -45 % for representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Snowfall in low-lying areas in the Alpine forelands could be reduced by more than -80 %. These decreases are driven by the projected warming and are strongly connected to an important decrease in snowfall frequency and snowfall fraction and are also apparent for heavy snowfall events. In contrast, high-elevation regions could experience slight snowfall increases in midwinter for both emission scenarios despite the general decrease in the snowfall fraction. These increases in mean and heavy snowfall can be explained by a general increase in winter precipitation and by the fact that, with increasing temperatures

  4. Future snowfall in the Alps: projections based on the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Frei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-first century snowfall changes over the European Alps are assessed based on high-resolution regional climate model (RCM data made available through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Fourteen different combinations of global and regional climate models with a target resolution of 12 km and two different emission scenarios are considered. As raw snowfall amounts are not provided by all RCMs, a newly developed method to separate snowfall from total precipitation based on near-surface temperature conditions and accounting for subgrid-scale topographic variability is employed. The evaluation of the simulated snowfall amounts against an observation-based reference indicates the ability of RCMs to capture the main characteristics of the snowfall seasonal cycle and its elevation dependency but also reveals considerable positive biases especially at high elevations. These biases can partly be removed by the application of a dedicated RCM bias adjustment that separately considers temperature and precipitation biases.Snowfall projections reveal a robust signal of decreasing snowfall amounts over most parts of the Alps for both emission scenarios. Domain and multi-model mean decreases in mean September–May snowfall by the end of the century amount to −25 and −45 % for representative concentration pathway (RCP scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. Snowfall in low-lying areas in the Alpine forelands could be reduced by more than −80 %. These decreases are driven by the projected warming and are strongly connected to an important decrease in snowfall frequency and snowfall fraction and are also apparent for heavy snowfall events. In contrast, high-elevation regions could experience slight snowfall increases in midwinter for both emission scenarios despite the general decrease in the snowfall fraction. These increases in mean and heavy snowfall can be explained by a general increase in winter precipitation and by the fact that, with

  5. Cold pressure welding - the mechanisms governing bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the bonding surface in scanning electron microscope after fracture confirm the mechanisms of bond formation in cold pressure welding to be: fracture of work-hardened surface layer, surface expansion increasing the area of virgin surface, extrusion of virgin material through cracks...... of the original surface layer, and establishment of real contact and bonding between virgin material. This implies that normal pressure as well as surface expansion are basic parameters governing the bond strength. Experimental investigations of pressure welding Al-Al under plane strain compression in a specially...... developed equipment allowing independent variation of normal pressure and surface expansion confirm this. Based upon a slip-line analysis of the extrusion through cracks of the surface layer and upon the establishment of real contact between virgin material, a theory for the bond strength as a function...

  6. Chemical bonding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plueddemann, E.

    1986-01-01

    Primers employed in bonding together the various material interfaces in a photovoltaic module are being developed. The approach develops interfacial adhesion by generating actual chemical bonds between the various materials bonded together. The current status of the program is described along with the progress toward developing two general purpose primers for ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), one for glass and metals, and another for plastic films.

  7. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  8. Desarrollo e implementación de un plan estratégico para la industria automotriz. Caso Euro Garage

    OpenAIRE

    Vaca Peñafiel, Dolores Carolina

    2012-01-01

    156 hojas:ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 4333 Esta tesis de maestría "Desarrollo e Implementación de un Plan Estratégico para la Industria Automotriz. Caso Euro Garage", a partir del análisis del sector transporte, industria automotriz, talleres automotrices y taller Euro Garage. Analiza el marco teórico correspondiente para el diseño del plan estratégico, a partir del cual se elabora el plan estratégico y operativo para Euro Garage, a ser implementado, controlado y evaluado; mediant...

  9. European contribution to the study of ROS: A summary of the findings and prospects for the future from the COST action BM1203 (EU-ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Egea

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better understanding redox biology and medicine and, in the long run, to finding new therapeutic strategies to target dysregulated redox processes in various diseases. This report highlights the major achievements of EU-ROS as well as research updates and new perspectives arising from its members. The EU-ROS consortium comprised more than 140 active members who worked together for four years on the topics briefly described below. The formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS is an established hallmark of our aerobic environment and metabolism but RONS also act as messengers via redox regulation of essential cellular processes. The fact that many diseases have been found to be associated with oxidative stress established the theory of oxidative stress as a trigger of diseases that can be corrected by antioxidant therapy. However, while experimental studies support this thesis, clinical studies still generate controversial results, due to complex pathophysiology of oxidative stress in humans. For future improvement of antioxidant therapy and better understanding of redox-associated disease progression detailed knowledge on the sources and targets of RONS formation and discrimination of their detrimental or beneficial roles is required. In order to advance this important area of biology and medicine, highly synergistic approaches combining a variety of diverse and contrasting disciplines are needed.

  10. Collecting urban health indicators from routinely available sources: development and piloting of a tool for the collection of existing data for EURO-URHIS 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgerson, James; Pope, Dan; Birt, Christopher A; van Ameijden, Erik; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    EURO-URHIS 2 aimed to collect comparable health indicators across a large number of urban areas (UAs) across Europe and Vietnam using four data collection tools. This paper outlines the process for the selection of indicators to be collected from routinely available sources, and the piloting of the data collection tool. A long-list of indicators potentially collectable from routinely available sources was generated by the EURO-URHIS 2 consortium. Key contacts from each UA completed an e-mail survey reporting for each indicator whether it could be collected using the given definition, an alternative definition or not at all. Additionally participants listed the 20 leading causes of death for their UAs from the Eurostat 65. Results were compiled to inform indicator selection for the main data collection phase. Responses were received for 25 of 28 eligible UAs. Of the 29 proposed indicators, 55.1% ( n = 16) were accepted without change, 24.1% ( n = 7) were re-allocated to other data collection tools and 17.2% ( n = 5) were accepted after a modification of the EURO-URHIS 2 definition. This scoping exercise and piloting phase for the 'existing data tool' for the project was useful and informative. It provided detailed information on what could be collected, and an opportunity to modify indicator definitions to maximize response rates. These results are only applicable to those UAs returning results and cannot be generalized. Detailed interrogation of definitions is essential to this sort of data collection, and the process described was designed with cross-national comparability in mind.

  11. European contribution to the study of ROS: A summary of the findings and prospects for the future from the COST action BM1203 (EU-ROS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Javier; Fabregat, Isabel; Frapart, Yves M; Ghezzi, Pietro; Görlach, Agnes; Kietzmann, Thomas; Kubaichuk, Kateryna; Knaus, Ulla G; Lopez, Manuela G; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Petry, Andreas; Schulz, Rainer; Vina, Jose; Winyard, Paul; Abbas, Kahina; Ademowo, Opeyemi S; Afonso, Catarina B; Andreadou, Ioanna; Antelmann, Haike; Antunes, Fernando; Aslan, Mutay; Bachschmid, Markus M; Barbosa, Rui M; Belousov, Vsevolod; Berndt, Carsten; Bernlohr, David; Bertrán, Esther; Bindoli, Alberto; Bottari, Serge P; Brito, Paula M; Carrara, Guia; Casas, Ana I; Chatzi, Afroditi; Chondrogianni, Niki; Conrad, Marcus; Cooke, Marcus S; Costa, João G; Cuadrado, Antonio; My-Chan Dang, Pham; De Smet, Barbara; Debelec-Butuner, Bilge; Dias, Irundika H K; Dunn, Joe Dan; Edson, Amanda J; El Assar, Mariam; El-Benna, Jamel; Ferdinandy, Péter; Fernandes, Ana S; Fladmark, Kari E; Förstermann, Ulrich; Giniatullin, Rashid; Giricz, Zoltán; Görbe, Anikó; Griffiths, Helen; Hampl, Vaclav; Hanf, Alina; Herget, Jan; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Hillion, Melanie; Huang, Jingjing; Ilikay, Serap; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Jaquet, Vincent; Joles, Jaap A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kaminskyy, Danylo; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Kleanthous, Marina; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Korac, Bato; Korkmaz, Kemal Sami; Koziel, Rafal; Kračun, Damir; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Křen, Vladimír; Krieg, Thomas; Laranjinha, João; Lazou, Antigone; Li, Huige; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Matsui, Reiko; McBean, Gethin J; Meredith, Stuart P; Messens, Joris; Miguel, Verónica; Mikhed, Yuliya; Milisav, Irina; Milković, Lidija; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Mojović, Miloš; Monsalve, María; Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Mulvey, John; Münzel, Thomas; Muzykantov, Vladimir; Nguyen, Isabel T N; Oelze, Matthias; Oliveira, Nuno G; Palmeira, Carlos M; Papaevgeniou, Nikoletta; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Pedre, Brandán; Peyrot, Fabienne; Phylactides, Marios; Pircalabioru, Gratiela G; Pitt, Andrew R; Poulsen, Henrik E; Prieto, Ignacio; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Robledinos-Antón, Natalia; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Rolo, Anabela P; Rousset, Francis; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Saraiva, Nuno; Sasson, Shlomo; Schröder, Katrin; Semen, Khrystyna; Seredenina, Tamara; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Smith, Geoffrey L; Soldati, Thierry; Sousa, Bebiana C; Spickett, Corinne M; Stancic, Ana; Stasia, Marie José; Steinbrenner, Holger; Stepanić, Višnja; Steven, Sebastian; Tokatlidis, Kostas; Tuncay, Erkan; Turan, Belma; Ursini, Fulvio; Vacek, Jan; Vajnerova, Olga; Valentová, Kateřina; Van Breusegem, Frank; Varisli, Lokman; Veal, Elizabeth A; Yalçın, A Suha; Yelisyeyeva, Olha; Žarković, Neven; Zatloukalová, Martina; Zielonka, Jacek; Touyz, Rhian M; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Grune, Tilman; Lamas, Santiago; Schmidt, Harald H H W; Di Lisa, Fabio; Daiber, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better understanding redox biology and medicine and, in the long run, to finding new therapeutic strategies to target dysregulated redox processes in various diseases. This report highlights the major achievements of EU-ROS as well as research updates and new perspectives arising from its members. The EU-ROS consortium comprised more than 140 active members who worked together for four years on the topics briefly described below. The formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is an established hallmark of our aerobic environment and metabolism but RONS also act as messengers via redox regulation of essential cellular processes. The fact that many diseases have been found to be associated with oxidative stress established the theory of oxidative stress as a trigger of diseases that can be corrected by antioxidant therapy. However, while experimental studies support this thesis, clinical studies still generate controversial results, due to complex pathophysiology of oxidative stress in humans. For future improvement of antioxidant therapy and better understanding of redox-associated disease progression detailed knowledge on the sources and targets of RONS formation and discrimination of their detrimental or beneficial roles is required. In order to advance this important area of biology and medicine, highly synergistic approaches combining a variety of diverse and contrasting disciplines are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shariah Bond as Financial Instrument For Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anim Rahmayati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the potential of sharia bonds in the region as an alternative to local financing. This research is a kind of literary descriptive qualitative research using SWOT analysis. The results of this study indicate that in the area of sharia bonds is an alternative worth considering regional funding compared to other funding. Support policy, very large financing needs for region infrastructure development, the market potential in the area of sharia bonds is an opportunity for local governments in Indonesia to immediately issue sharia bonds in the area.DOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3126

  13. Spontaneous and specific activation of chemical bonds in macromolecular fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Insun; Shirvanyants, David; Nese, Alper; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei S

    2010-09-08

    Mechanical activation of chemical bonds typically involves the application of external forces, which implies a broad distribution of bond tensions. We demonstrate that controlling the flow profile of a macromolecular fluid generates and delineates mechanical force concentration, enabling a hierarchical activation of chemical bonds on different length scales from the macroscopic to the molecular. Bond tension is spontaneously generated within brushlike macromolecules as they spread on a solid substrate. The molecular architecture creates an uneven distribution of tension in the covalent bonds, leading to spatially controlled bond scission. By controlling the flow rate and the gradient of the film pressure, one can sever the flowing macromolecules with high precision. Specific chemical bonds are activated within distinct macromolecules located in a defined area of a thin film. Furthermore, the flow-controlled loading rate enables quantitative analysis of the bond activation parameters.

  14. Shock monetari e reali, ciclo economico e valore dell’euro (Monetary and Real Shocks, the Business Cycle and the Value of the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Filosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The appreciation of the dollar in the aftermath of the euro launch came as a surprise to most observers; furthermore, the traditional models fail to capture its dynamics. Is this a confirmation of Mussa's, Meese's and Rogoff's results, according to which no structural model can perform better than a random walk? More optimistically, this study shows that a structural VAR model of the Mundell-Fleming type satisfactorily explains the behaviour of the euro and its relationships with the fundamentals. My estimates indicate that dollar appreciation is primarily due to the cyclical strength of US demand. By contrast, they do not support the often-voiced theory that dollar appreciation is to be accounted for with the "new economy." Finally, the model shows that monetary shocks have limited effects on the exchange rate and very strong effects on inflation. This justifies the emphasis placed by central banks on the pursuit of internal objectives rather than exchange rate stability.   JEL Codes: E31, E32, E58, F31, F33Keywords: Business Cycle, Cycle, Monetary

  15. Modelling the reactive nitrogen budget across Germany using LOTOS-EUROS between 2000 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Martijn; Banzhaf, Sabine; Hendriks, Carlijn; Kranenburg, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen deposition causes soil acidification and enhances eutrophication causing biodiversity loss. Currently, a major contribution to N-deposition derives from ammonia. Furthermore, ammonia contributes to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol, a major contributor to atmospheric particulate matter levels. The aerosol formation provides a means of long range transport of reactive nitrogen as the life time of the aerosols is larger than that of ammonia itself. Despite its central role in these environmental threats, little is known about the ammonia budget. In this study we report on recent modelling study to assess the ammonia and reactive nitrogen budget over Germany for a period of 14 years (2000-2013). Prior to the long term simulation the process descriptions in the LOTOS-EUROS CTM were updated and a sensitivity simulation was performed showing that the impact of the compensation point for ammonia and the changes in aerosol deposition had the largest impact against earlier studies. Next, sensitivity simulations were performed to assess the impact of newly reported emissions totals (with 30 higher emissions caused by adjusted emission factors for fertilizer spreading), different spatial and temporal emission variability. Long term evaluation showed that the model is well able to reproduce the variability in wet deposition fluxes induced by varying precipitation amounts, but that systematic changes remain. These sensitivity simulations showed that detailing the seasonal emission variability is more important to remove systematic differences than lowering the uncertainty in dry deposition parametrization. Evaluation with the ammonia retrievals of the IASI satellite confirm that the newly reported emission data for fertilizer application have positive impacts on the modelled ammonia distribution. The new emission information confirms an emission area observed by the satellite in the northeast of Germany, which was previously absent from the national scale

  16. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Euro-Mediterranean region: outcome of the TRANSFER European project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Hélène; Roger, Jean; Sahal, Alexandre; Allgeyer, Sébastien; Schindelé, François

    2010-05-01

    The FP6 TRANSFER project (2006-2009) (led by University of Bologna) focused its activities on tsunami hazard assessment for the Euro-Mediterranean area, based on updated databases, tsunami hazard assessment through numerical modeling and propositions of operational tools for warning purposes. Within the project, the activities in CEA were devoted to three main fields. First, the numerical methods have been tested against several benchmark problems which were able to demonstrate the efficiency of the methods used. Then a statistical approach has been proposed to analyze the tsunami variability along shorelines. This study was inferred from the numerous databases gathered after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. First order numerical models have been carried out without grid refinement, compared to available observations and discussed with respect to the well accepted coastal amplification laws (Green, Synolakis). The method thereby defined was finally applied to the Balearic Islands to consider the tsunami threat for earthquake sources originating from northern Africa. The results underline the relative tsunami exposure for the different sections of the coastline for the Balearic Islands. Finally two detailed hazard studies have been conducted in Palma (Majorca, Balearic) and Istanbul (Turkey), based on scenarios of tsunamigenic earthquakes. The results show that the harbour of Palma in Majorca is rather protected from the tsunamis considered in the study (i.e. earthquakes with magnitude 7.0 to 7.3 along northern Africa), whereas the southeastern coastline of Majorca seems to be more significantly exposed. In Istanbul, for the given scenarios (earthquakes with magnitude 7.1 to 7.4 in the Sea of Marmara), the tsunami exposure is more important for several coastal low-lying sites where inundations can occur. Beyond these results, the project also gave the opportunity to refine databases of tsunami observations in France, namely for the 2003 tsunami triggered by the Mw 6

  17. Can We Predict the Outcome of the International Football Tournaments? : the Case of Euro 2000 = Uluslararası Futbol Turnavalarının Sonuçları Tahmin Edilebir mi? Euro 2000 Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda HALICIOĞLU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper statistically analyses and attempts to predict the most likely winners of the Euro 2000 football tournament on the basis of the seasonal coefficients of variation (CVs of the end-of-season points, which were computed from the top division final standings of participating countries of Euro 2000.The CV values computed from over ten seasons for the respective countries were used as a sole measurement value to rank the countries and to determine the most likely winners of Euro 2000.According to the three scenarios (long-term, mid-term, and short-term based on the respective CV values of fifteen countries, France appeared to be the most likely country to win Euro 2000 and was closely followed by Spain.

  18. The Semantic Management of Environmental Resources within the Interoperable Context of the EuroGEOSS: Alignment of GEMET and the GEOSS SBAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialone, Claudia; Stock, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    EuroGEOSS is a European Commission funded project. It aims at improving a scientific understanding of the complex mechanisms which drive changes affecting our planet, identifying and establishing interoperable arrangements between environmental information systems. These systems would be sustained and operated by organizations with a clear mandate and resources and rendered available following the specifications of already existent frameworks such as GEOSS (the Global Earth Observation System of systems)1 and INSPIRE (the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community)2. The EuroGEOSS project's infrastructure focuses on three thematic areas: forestry, drought and biodiversity. One of the important activities in the project is the retrieval, parsing and harmonization of the large amount of heterogeneous environmental data available at local, regional and global levels between these strategic areas. The challenge is to render it semantically and technically interoperable in a simple way. An initial step in achieving this semantic and technical interoperability involves the selection of appropriate classification schemes (for example, thesauri, ontologies and controlled vocabularies) to describe the resources in the EuroGEOSS framework. These classifications become a crucial part of the interoperable framework scaffolding because they allow data providers to describe their resources and thus support resource discovery, execution and orchestration of varying levels of complexity. However, at present, given the diverse range of environmental thesauri, controlled vocabularies and ontologies and the large number of resources provided by project participants, the selection of appropriate classification schemes involves a number of considerations. First of all, there is the semantic difficulty of selecting classification schemes that contain concepts that are relevant to each thematic area. Secondly, EuroGEOSS is intended to accommodate a number of

  19. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  20. Poweo 2006 consolidated revenue at euro 244 million, up 121%; Poweo chiffre d'affaires 2006 de 244 millions euro, en hausse de 121%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    POWEO, the leading independent energy operator in France, presents in this document its key business indicators for the 4. quarter of 2006 and the full year: POWEO records again a strong rise of its annual revenue, exceeding its euro 220 million target. This progression relates to all the business components. The particularly soft climatic conditions recorded in France at the end of the year did not result in a significant fall of revenue compared to initial forecasts. The number of customer sites amounts to 80.300 at December 31, 2006, in progression of 23% compared to the end of 2005. The customer base remained overall stable during the second half of 2006, POWEO limiting voluntarily the acquisition of customers in electricity during the preparation of the opening to competition of the residential market due to take place on July 1, 2007. The gas customer base for its part more than doubled compared to end June 2006, with more than 5.000 customer sites transferred as at December 31, 2006. The Energy Management net margin, realised or un-realised, amounted to euro 49.7 million in 2006, recognised as revenue under IFRS standards. This includes the euro 22 million exceptional capital gain mentioned in previous financial releases in 2006, as well as a euro 7.9 million un-realised capital gain resulting from the transfer of some contracts into the Energy Management portfolio further to the capacity swap agreement with EDF announced publicly on January 3, 2007. The services provided by POWEO to its customers enjoy a high level of acceptance and represented revenue of euro 2.9 million in 2006. As from 2007, the revenue realised through these services will be presented separately from other components of revenue in order to better reflect its expected growth. The services offering will be indeed a key element of the marketing strategy of POWEO in the years to come, with a potentially significant impact on the results taking into account their level of gross margin which

  1. 27 CFR 24.147 - Operations bond or unit bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operations bond or unit... § 24.147 Operations bond or unit bond. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.146, each person... amended, give an operations bond or unit bond in accordance with the applicable provisions of 27 CFR part...

  2. EuroQoL in assessment of the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Brøndum, Eva; Martinez, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on EuroQol in COPD patients has not been investigated previously. METHODS/MATERIALS: Two hundred and twenty nine consecutive COPD patients who had completed a 7-week pulmonary rehabilitation programme were assessed with EuroQol five......-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT), and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) before and after the programme, and at the 3-month follow-up visit. RESULTS: Two hundred and two (88.4%) patients had FEV(1)... scale. At completion of the programme, statistical significant improvements were seen for ESWT 157.3s; prehabilitation on ESWT and SGRQ were maintained at 3-month follow-up (158.9s...

  3. Comment lutter contre la fragmentation du système bancaire de la zone euro

    OpenAIRE

    Céline Antonin; Christophe Blot; Jérôme Creel; Fabien Labondance; Vincent Touze; Paul Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Le système bancaire de la zone euro a été fortement touché par deux crises : celle des subprime puis celle des dettes souveraines. Il s'en est suivi un processus de fragmentation du système bancaire qui s'est traduit par des difficultés de financement pour les banques des pays en crise et par une hétérogénéité des conditions de financement – taux des prêts aux ménages et aux entreprises de la zone euro. Si la BCE est parvenue à éviter une crise systémique majeure, cette situation a perturbé l...

  4. The effects of the Euro adoption on the timber market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonoaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential effects of adopting the Euro currency in Romania on the timber prices. We begin from the current situation of Romanian wood auctions (starting price, selling price, timber type, volume auctioned, volume sold and compare it to the situation in Slovakia. In this case, an in depth analysis on the effects of the currency change will be presented, focusing on the changes that have occurred in the prices of general goods and materials, especially on the timber market, taking into account the changes that have taken place on the Slovakian timber market. We will apply the same trend to Romania and set up a forecasting model and study the potential effects, both immediate and long term of adopting the Euro currency for the timber market (variation in price and timber volume.

  5. Dissimilar Effects of World News Announcements on Euro/Dollar/Yen Exchange Rates: An Econophysics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Matesanz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the issue of the influence of macro-economic announcements over the exchange rates volatility, but from a different perspective as it is the usual in the econometric literature. By quantifying the impact of world-wide macroeconomic information published in the economic calendar in several recent years we were able to construct long events’ time series with the objective to test whether they influence exchange rate volatilities in several currencies. In order to do that, Granger causality test was employed by using a computational approach. Our results show that announcements from U.S.A are, by far, the most important influence over the three spot forex quotes, Euro/Dollar, Euro/Yen and Dollar/Yen. The method proposed here opens the door to address several open questions until now.

  6. REFERENCE POINTS FOR FINANCIAL INSTABILITY IN THE EURO ZONE CANDIDATES COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina CRISTE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of financial instability has been intensely debated over the past few decades both within the academia and by the economy decision-makers. The complexity of the concept and the range of meanings hinder the development of a general, unanimously accepted definition. However, the historical analysis of the episodes of financial instability, which were rather frequent particularly after World War Two, as well as the specific literature, may outline some characteristics of the state if financial instability. Starting from these general aspects, this article aims to identify some traits which define the financial instability in the countries candidate to the Euro zone, taking into account the European integration and all the challenges of this process. The ideas presented in the paper will be used to analyse the actions taken by a national central bank candidate to the Euro zone, to cope with the challenges of the financial instability.

  7. Leishmaniasis acquired by travellers to endemic regions in Europe: a EuroTravNet multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehehalt, Urs; Schunk, Mirjam; Jensenius, Mogens; van Genderen, Perry J J; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Chappuis, François; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Castelli, Francesco; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Parola, Philippe; Burchard, Gerd D; Cramer, Jakob P

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis include cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). About 90% of cases occur in the tropics or subtropics but the disease is also endemic in the Mediterranean area. No systematic analysis on leishmaniasis in travellers visiting endemic areas in Europe is available. Within the European travel medicine network EuroTravNet, we performed a retrospective analysis in travellers who acquired leishmaniasis within Europe diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. Forty cases of leishmaniasis (30 CL and 10 VL) were identified; the majority were acquired in Spain (n = 20, 50%), Malta and Italy (each n = 7, 18%). Median age was 48 years (range 1-79). Three of eight (37.5%) of the VL patients were on immunosuppressive therapy. The most frequent reason for travel was tourism (83%). Median duration of travel for patients with CL and VL was 2 weeks with ranges of 1-21 weeks in CL and 1-67 weeks in VL, respectively (P = 0.03). Health professionals should include leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis in patients returning from southern Europe - including short-term travellers - with typical skin lesions or systemic alterations like fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Land-atmosphere feedbacks in EURO-CORDEX: analysis and impact on the precipitation recycling in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita M.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Rios, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    Land-atmosphere interactions are known to play a key role on climate and are expected to be critical to understand its evolution as a consequence of climate change. These land-air feedbacks are of utmost importance in those regions and periods when the intensity of evapotranspiration is high and, at the same time, controlled by soil moisture availability. In the Mediterranean Basin, the amount of rainfall coming from evapotranspiration over land represents a relevant fraction of the total precipitation in the year. Furthermore, many of these areas are affected by water limitations and are expected to be more sensitive to the impact of climate change along the upcoming decades. The latent and sensible heat fluxes in the Euro-CORDEX simulations (0.11 and 0.44) are the starting point for an assessment of the expected changes in the surface evapotranspiration and evaporative fraction (EF) in a changing climate. The changes in the heat fluxes and EF between 2071-2100 and 1971-2000 exhibit a large spread. The majority of the models forecast an increase in EF in Scandinavia and a decrease in the Mediterranean and Iberia. The WRF model, is also used to explore 3D land-atmosphere coupling over the different regions within the European CORDEX domain, at 0.44 horizontal resolution and for a high resolution domain (9km) over the Iberian Peninsula (IP). We start our analysis by computing the recycling ratio, for the hindcast (1989-2009), through the method of Eltahir and Bras, as a first approach to quantify the intensity of land-atmosphere feedbacks and their impact on the rainfall regime. This method, much more accurate than analytical Integral Moisture Budget recycling models, allows us to explore the spatial distribution of recycling over Europe and therefore focus our analysis on the most sensitive regions. The highest recycling ratio occurs in central and eastern Europe in late spring and summer; where the percentage of precipitation from evapotranspiration is higher than

  9. The Euro Changeover and its Effects on Price Transparency and Inflation.

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Mastrobuoni; Wioletta Dziuda

    2005-01-01

    Despite the expectations of economists that the euro changeover would have no effect on prices, we show that European consumers perceived the contrary. The data indicate that consumers based their perceptions about inflation on goods that are cheaper and more frequently purchased. We use this insight to develop and estimate a model of imperfect information that explains why these goods were subject to higher price growth after the changeover. The data indicate that some retailers, aware of th...

  10. Economic Integration in the EuroMed: Current Status and Review of Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Jarreau

    2011-01-01

    This article draws a picture of the current status of the liberalization process in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and reviews existing studies of this process. Economic integration among the South-Med countries (SMCs) has started in the middle 1990s through intra-regional agreements (GAFTA, Agadir Agreement) and bilateral agreements with the EU. Econometric studies using gravity models generally found important trade creation effects for intra-regional trade, but smaller and asymmetric effec...

  11. Sport Mega Events and the Need for Critical Sociological Research: the Case of Euro 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Woźniak, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Euro 2012 was the first Sport Mega Event held in Poland. It has been presented in public discourse in Poland as unprecedented opportunity for modernization and unquestionable success. However, looking at a multitude of data concerning the political, economic and social consequences of the event, allows putting these opinions into question. The paper discusses these topics using the numbers and information from various resources, considering also uncritical support of politic...

  12. Medición de la inflación en la zona euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Ruíz, Julián.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este documento consiste en analizar si los movimientos en la “inflación medida” recogen adecuadamente el fenómeno inflacionario para algunos países de la zona euro. Para ello se utiliza la metodología propuesta por Quah y Valhey basada en sistemas de Vectores Autorregresivos Estructurales. La aproximación es consistente con la interpretación de la curva de Phillips a largo plazo.

  13. Using volunteer motives and expectations as a management tool - case EuroBasket 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Kuivalainen, Tero

    2017-01-01

    Finland is one of the four hosting countries for the European Basketball Championship in 2017. It has been already 50 years since Finland last hosted the European Championship and therefore being a significant achievement for the Finnish basketball. The Local Organizing Committee of Finland for the EuroBasket 2017, which is responsible for hosting the event, is dependent on volunteers to pull of the event. Understanding the motives and expectations of volunteers, enable sport event managers t...

  14. CEEPRA - Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solatie, D.; Leppaenen, A.P. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Kasatkina, N. [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (Russian Federation); Nalbandyan, A. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute (Finland); Reinikainen, K.; Nissi, M. [Poeyry Finland Oy (Finland); Vaaramaa, K. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    CEEPRA (Collaboration Network on EuroArctic Environmental Radiation Protection and Research) is an EU-funded project acting under the Kolarctic ENPI CBC programme. The CEEPRA project's main aim is to develop a collaboration network between key radiation research institutions in the EuroArctic region, which will lead to improved emergency preparedness capabilities in the event of any nuclear accidents. The project is studying the current state of radioactive contamination in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the EuroArctic region by examining environmental samples collected from Lapland in Finland, Finnmark and Troms in Norway, the Kola Peninsula in Russia and in the Barents Sea. The results provide updated information on the present levels, occurrence and the fate of radioactive substances in the Arctic environments and food chains. Special attention is given to collection and analyses of natural products widely used by general public in Finland, Russia and Norway, such as berries, mushrooms, fish and reindeer meat. The region-specific risk assessments are carried out through modelling and studying of long-term effects of potential nuclear accidents in the EuroArctic region and possible impacts on the region's indigenous population, terrestrial and marine environments, reindeer husbandry, the natural product sector, tourism and industries. The project partners are Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) from Finland, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) from Russia, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Finnish Meteorological Institute and Poeyry Finland Oy. The Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SSC RAS) and Norwegian Meteorological Institute (MET) are taking part in the project as well. The main results of the project are presented in this study. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  15. Chain coordinators’ strategic leadership and coordination effectiveness: New Zealand-Euro agri-food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Punjaisri, K; Akhtar, P.; Kaur, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - Although suitable leadership styles are crucial for chain coordinators (CEOs,managing directors and head of departments) to achieve the effectiveness of supply chain coordination (operational and social performances contributing to financial performance), the potential caveats in New Zealand-Euro agri-food supply chains are the lack of theoretical as well as empirical investigations that scrutinize the linkages between leadership styles, their interactions and the effectiveness of s...

  16. Comparison of Gold Bonding with Mercury Bonding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraka, Elfi; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Nine AuX molecules (X = H, O, S, Se, Te, F, Cl, Br, I), their isoelectronic HgX(+) analogues, and the corresponding neutral HgX diatomics have been investigated using NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) and B3LYP theory to determine relativistic effects for bond dissociation

  17. Mother-Child Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  18. Chemical Bonds I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical bonding is discussed from a bond energy, rather than a wave mechanics, viewpoint. This approach is considered to be more suitable for the average student. (The second part of the article will appear in a later issue of the journal.) (AL)

  19. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate......Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...

  20. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  1. Shaping of Czech Debate on the Euro: Position of Václav Klaus in 1999–2002 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kaniok

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has been changing since the start of the economic crisis in 2008. Many previously uncontested issues – among them the euro - have been challenged. As a result of these developments, attitudes usually labelled as Euroscepticism have become more accepted as a part of the political mainstream. This article tries to identify – on the basis of the analysis of the euro discourse of Václav Klaus, former Czech president and prominent Eurosceptic – whether the current critical atmosphere in the EU can be explained through assumptions of theoretically defined soft and hard Euroscepticism and can be thus seen as a manifestation of Euroscepticism. The article concludes that even if the euro discourse of Václav Klaus contains both elements of soft and hard Euroscepticism, an important level of expertise critique towards the euro that can be found in Klaus’ discourse can not be explained by Euroscepticism.

  2. Effect of moist bonding on composite/enamel bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Karlheinz; Gärtner, Thomas; Haller, Bernd

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of moist bonding on shear bond strength of resin-based composite to enamel using different adhesive systems. Six restorative systems were selected for this study: OptiBond FL/Prodigy, Solid Bond/Charisma F, Syntac Single Component/Tetric, Prime&Bond 2.1/Spectrum TPH, Single Bond/Z100, Etch&Prime 3.0/Degufill Mineral. Flat enamel surfaces were ground on the buccal and lingual aspects of 80 extracted human molars. OptiBond FL and Solid Bond were tested with and without primer application. Prior to application of the adhesives, the enamel was either carefully dried with compressed air (dry bonding) or blot dried with a cotton pellet (moist bonding). Shear bond strength was determined with a universal testing machine after 24-hour storage in 0.9% NaCl at 37 degrees C. Moist bonding did not significantly affect shear bond strength to enamel of the adhesives tested except for Solid Bond without primer application. Primer contamination of the etched enamel did not significantly influence bond strength, neither in the dry bonding nor in the moist bonding group. Of all adhesives tested in both groups, the highest mean bond strength was observed with Prime&Bond 2.1 and the lowest with Etch&Prime 3.0.

  3. Infrastructure and distributed learning methodology for privacy-preserving multi-centric rapid learning health care: euroCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo M. Deist

    2017-06-01

    The euroCAT infrastructure has been successfully implemented in five radiation clinics across three countries. SVM models can be learned on data distributed over all five clinics. Furthermore, the infrastructure provides a general framework to execute learning algorithms on distributed data. The ongoing expansion of the euroCAT network will facilitate machine learning in radiation oncology. The resulting access to larger datasets with sufficient variation will pave the way for generalizable prediction models and personalized medicine.

  4. Hiperpotassemia pela Solução Euro-Collins na Anestesia para Transplante Renal: Relato de Caso

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Eunice Sizue; Pereira, Rosa Inês Costa; Filho, Gentil Alves; Braga, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe anesthesia for renal transplantation that progressed to a sharp potassium increase after kidney reperfusion with Euro-Collins' solution in the operative field. We will also report on diagnosis and treatment used. CONCLUSION: The use of infusion solutions in the surgical field requires careful monitoring, such as electrocardiography, measurement of serum potassium, and availability of calcium gluconate, insulin, and albuterol for immediate use. The replacement of Euro-Co...

  5. Empirical Results for Some Monetary Areas According to Optimum Currency Area Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Adámek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The euro area is the biggest monetary union in the World. In post-crisis time, the possibilities of creation a new monetary union are discussed again. The aim of this article is to evaluate, according to OCA criteria, an appropriateness of selected countries for a membership in a monetary union or for creation new monetary union. The second aim is to confront the existing monetary union – the euro area, with two potential monetary areas – NAFTA and MERCOSUR. The criteria are based on the OCA theory and partly on the so called OCA index. According to the results, there are countries (so called core countries such as Austria or Luxemburg which reach satisfactory values. On the other hand there are countries such as Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Greece or Italy which reach worse values. Quite surprisingly, the values of most indicators (except for DISSIM have worsened since the crisis in the euro area. It seems to be convenient for both Canada and Mexico to adopt a common currency with the USA. In case of MERCOSUR we could barely find a pair of countries with better values compare with euro area’s all-time average.

  6. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kübra Yıldırım; Banu Sağlam Aydınatay

    2016-01-01

    ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment...

  7. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  8. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system......This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... and for the treatment of covered bonds in capital regulation....

  9. Handbook of wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V

    2011-01-01

    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  10. The Euro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of Germany in 1918 and 1945. The two strategies the elite tried were very different, but they both failed. A heavy war indemnity in 1919 and the common European currency in 1990 were seen by the French elite as instruments to suppress Germany’s potential economic (and political) superiority. The French...... (and later president of the European Commission), Jacques Delors. He headed the Committee for the Study of Economic and Monetary Union, which unanimously recommended a common European currency “to the benefit of European prosperity.” According to Parguez, the resulting common currency created......Alain Parguez is right when he claims that the “euro” is a political failure and an economic disaster, in which French politicians and economists seem to have played a significant role. France’s elite envisaged being a dominant political power on the Continent after the two military defeats...

  11. The Euro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    of Germany in 1918 and 1945. The two strategies the elite tried were very different, but they both failed. A heavy war indemnity in 1919 and the common European currency in 1990 were seen by the French elite as instruments to suppress Germany’s potential economic (and political) superiority. The French...... at a French initiative is the prime reason for the present European economic defeat, which has frustrated the French aspiration to play a leading role as primus inter pares on the Continent. This is so because the rules we are bound to follow make no economic sense for Europe as a whole, which is collectively......Alain Parguez is right when he claims that the “euro” is a political failure and an economic disaster, in which French politicians and economists seem to have played a significant role. France’s elite envisaged being a dominant political power on the Continent after the two military defeats...

  12. The European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURO NHEED) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, John; Ulmann, Philippe; Glanville, Julie; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Drummond, Michael; de Pouvourville, Gérard

    2004-06-01

    This paper provides a first outline of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURO NHEED) project. The project is funded by the European Commission and will implement, in 7 European centres based in France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, databases on the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. The network will be based on two existing and well-established resources, namely the UK's NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and France's Connaissances et Décision en EConomie de la Santé (CODECS) database. EURO NHEED will initially cover 17 European countries and will provide its users with bibliographic records, detailing the main characteristics of all included studies. In addition, structured abstracts will be provided for articles identified as full economic evaluations (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness or cost-utility), which will offer a detailed critique of the findings and the methodology used. These databases will be accessible free of charge on the Internet. The EURO NHEED project is the first attempt to develop such a resource on a multi-national basis. The project will bring together Health Economists and Information Scientists from the European Union and beyond and is anticipated to facilitate a number of benefits and advances in the field of Health Economics. These include harmonisation and increased understanding of the theory and methodology of economic evaluation in healthcare, the interpretation of the generalisability of studies to target settings, and the influence of healthcare system variations among the European countries. The project will therefore advance the state of the art in collecting, summarising, critiquing and disseminating economic evaluations of healthcare conducted within Europe.

  13. Fundamentals of fiber bonding in thermally point-bonded nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Aparna

    Thermal point bonding (TPB) uses heat and pressure to bond a web of fibers at discrete points imparting strength to the manufactured fabric. This process significantly reduces the strength and elongation of the bridging fibers between bond points while strengthening the web. Single fiber experiments were performed with four structurally different polypropylene fibers to analyze the inter-relationships between fiber structure, fiber properties and bonding process. Two fiber types had a low birefringence sheath or surface layer while the remaining had uniform birefringence profiles through their thickness. Bonds were formed between isolated pairs of fibers by subjecting the fibers to a calendering process and simulating TPB process conditions. The dependence of bond strength on bonding temperature and on the type of fiber used was evaluated. Fiber strengths before and after bonding were measured and compared to understand the effect of bonding on fiber strength. Additionally, bonded fiber strength was compared to the strength of single fibers which had experienced the same process conditions as the bonded pairs. This comparison estimated the effect of mechanical damage from pressing fibers together with steel rolls while creating bonds in TPB. Interfiber bond strength increased with bonding temperature for all fiber types. Fiber strength decreased with increasing bonding temperature for all fiber types except for one type of low birefringent sheath fibers. Fiber strength degradation was unavoidable at temperatures required for successful bonding. Mechanical damage from compression of fibers between rolls was an insignificant factor in this strength loss. Thermal damage during bonding was the sole significant contributor to fiber strength degradation. Fibers with low birefringence skins formed strong bonds with minimal fiber strength loss and were superior to fibers without such surface layers in TPB performance. A simple model to predict the behavior of a two-bond

  14. Eastern Europe as the source of horror and humor: Examples films, "Hostel" and "Euro Trip"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2004. to 2007. three films belonging to two different genres were complete in the American production-a horror and a comedy. These being, Hostel (I and II and Euro Trip. The only similarity found in these films is the same stimulus that motivates the horror and the humor segment in them. That stimulus was identifies where all three films are placed, and that is Eastern Europe, more precisely Slovakia. This phenomenon was considered in Noel Carroll’s theory concerning the relationship of horror and humor in order to explain and understand their existence.

  15. INTEGRACIÓN FINANCIERA EUROPEA. El Impacto del Euro en las PYMES

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera García, Beatriz; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Castro Herrera, Soraya; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    La creación de la Unión Monetaria Europea (UME) y la introducción del Euro constituyen un acontecimiento histórico que, sin duda, tendrá repercusiones de grandes magnitudes para el orden económico mundial. A pesar de ello, el estudio de sus implicaciones ha adoptado, básicamente, una perspectiva regional al ocuparse sobre todo de los efectos de la Unión Monetaria en los propios países integrantes del área. Más aún, los estudios se han centrado en evaluar el impacto en los diversos sectores ec...

  16. First Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Snasel, Vaclav; Corchado, Emilio; Abraham, Ajith; Wang, Shyue-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The First Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications (ECC 2014), which was hosted by Shenzhen Graduate School of Harbin Institute of Technology and was held in Shenzhen City on June 13-15, 2014. ECC 2014 was technically co-sponsored by Shenzhen Municipal People’s Government, IEEE Signal Processing Society, Machine Intelligence Research Labs, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava (Czech Republic), National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences (Taiwan), and Secure E-commerce Transactions (Shenzhen) Engineering Laboratory of Shenzhen Institute of Standards and Technology.

  17. After Euro 620 m arbitration ruling. What next for Bulgaria's Belene nuclear project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-08-15

    Iran is considering Bulgaria's offer to sell it the Russian-made reactor equipment produced for the abandoned Belene nuclear project. The Belene project was initially planned and started in the 1980s, but was stopped in the early 1990s. In 2008 the project was formally given new life, but suspended again in 2010 and abandoned in 2012. The International Court of Arbitration (ICA) ordered the Bulgarian operator Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD to pay Euro 620 m in compensation to Russia's Atomstroyexport.

  18. Book review: Euro-Latin American cooperation and relations and South-South cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Agudelo Taborda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed books: Tassara, Carlo Cooperación para el desarrollo, relaciones internacionales y políticas públicas: Teorías y prácticas del diálogo euro-latinoamericano. Ediciones UNAULA, 2013. 302 págs. Marín Aranguren, Erli Margarita y Ro­mero Amaya, María Claudia (eds. Cuando el Sur piensa el Sur: Los giros de la cooperación al desarrollo. Univ. Externado de Colombia, 2013. 362 págs.

  19. ECONOMIC VALUE OF UKRAINE POLICY ON STANDARTIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF EURO INTGRATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna KATRAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of standardization in the context of euro integration process is considerate in this article. The standards are the instrument of assistance trading development in not only commodities but also services, in the modern global world, and they also promote integrations of countries in the world economic system. Production function Cobb-Douglas and official statistics and data of Patent Foundation are used in this article. Our study shows that the impact of standardization is about 0.7% of the GDP. The urgency of this problem for Ukraine is determined.

  20. Euro-Climhist - a data platform for weather-, climate- and disaster history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Euro-Climhist data base (http://www.euroclimhist.unibe.ch/de)/ presents evidence about weather and climate in space and time mostly originating from the archives of societies. It facilitates the cross-checking of proxy data with contemporaneous high-resolution narrative weather reports. Contemporary and non-contemporary data are distinguished for quality control. The original Euro-Climhist database was established between 1992 and 1994 to investigate weather patterns in Europe during the cold period of the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715). The present-day internet version of Euro-Climhist went online in November 2015 with the Module Switzerland. It currently provides 160'000 records from 1501 to present, available in German, French, Italian and English. The module serves as a pilot project for developing an adequate methodology and user-friendly software. Currently a module "Middle Ages" led by Christian Rohr from the Bern University is being worked out. It includes evidence for the whole of Europe prior to 1501. Further modules may be established by regional working groups. The classification scheme includes 300 categories. A complementary facility—COMP—has been also been created to permit a still more precise description of events. For example, the facility can be used to describe in detail the impacts of nature-induced hazards. Moreover, it makes possible to rate quantitative evidence such as phenological data or the frequency of rain-days at a given location according to standard criteria. The elements of COMP are translated and can be augmented to an almost unlimited extent. The data are mapped according to the administrative organization of a country and to geographical units. Results are presented in the form of text and geographical charts. The structure of Euro-Climhist may be readily adapted to amplifications in relationship to content, spatial dimension and translation into further languages. In the long term, it may be possible to release

  1. EuroSCORE II underestimates mortality after cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrat-Delon, Soléne; Rouxel, Adrien; Gacouin, Arnaud; Revest, Matthieu; Flécher, Erwan; Fouquet, Olivier; Le Tulzo, Yves; Lerolle, Nicolas; Tattevin, Pierre; Tadié, Jean-Marc

    2016-03-01

    To better select for patients who most likely will benefit from cardiac surgery among those with infective endocarditis (IE), we aimed to identify preoperative markers associated with poor outcome after cardiac surgery for IE, and to evaluate the accuracy of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II to predict mortality. We enrolled all adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery during the acute phase of definite IE (Duke Criteria) in two referral centres for cardiac surgery. Patients were identified through intensive care unit (ICU) electronic databases, and data were collected from medical charts on standardized questionnaire. Between 2002 and 2013, 149 patients (117 males), with a median age of 64 years [interquartile range 52-73], fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Main complications before surgery were left ventricular dysfunction (23%), central nervous system symptomatic events (34%) and septic shock (24%). Most patients (95%) presented with valve regurgitation, and 49% had perivalvular abscess. Surgery was performed with a median delay of 12 days [5-24] after IE diagnosis, and mean EuroSCORE II was 15.8 (13.4-18.1). In-hospital mortality was 21%. Preoperative variables associated with mortality in multivariate analysis were obesity [odds ratio (OR) 3.67 [1.10-12.19], P = 0.03], vegetation >15 mm (OR 6.72 [1.46-30.98], P = 0.01), septic shock (OR 4.87 [1.67-14.28], P = 0.004) and mechanical prosthetic valve IE (OR 4.99 [1.72-28.57], P = 0.007). EuroSCORE II underestimated mortality in patients with predicted mortality over 10%. Factors independently predictive of mortality after cardiac surgery for IE are obesity, septic shock, large vegetation and a mechanical prosthetic valve IE. EuroSCORE II underestimates post-cardiac surgery mortality in patients with IE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Are we 'Nazi Germans' or 'Lazy Greeks'? Negotiating International Hierarchies in the Euro Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    . Scholars, politicians and media see Germany as the leader and economic power-house of Europe, while Greece is represented as ‘bankrupt’ and ‘dysfunctional’ with high levels of unemployment. What we often overlook, however, is that it was not inevitable that these particular countries would occupy...... the subordination of Greece (and other Southern states); the euro crisis generates a series of more complex, self-reflective national debates and political gestures of repair and embarrassment. These dynamics reveal a deep concern in both Greece and Germany about how they are perceived on the international scene...

  3. Brokerage services for Earth Science data: the EuroGEOSS legacy (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Pearlman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Global sustainability research requires an integrated multidisciplinary effort underpinned by a collaborative environment discovering and accessing heterogeneous data across disciplines. Traditionally, interoperability has been achieved by implementing federation of systems. The federating approach entails the adoption of a set of common technologies and standards. This presentation argues that for complex (and uncontrolled) environments (such as global, multidisciplinary, and voluntary-based infrastructures) federated solutions must be completed and enhanced by a brokering approach -making available a set of brokerage services. In fact, brokerage services allows a cyber-infrastructure to lower entry barriers (for both data producers and users) and to better address the different domain specificities. The brokering interoperability approach was successfully experimented by the EuroGEOSS project, funded by the European Commission in the FP7 framework (see http://www.eurogeoss.eu). The EuroGEOSS Brokering framework provided the EuroGEOSS Capacity with multidisciplinary interoperability functionalities. This platform was developed applying several of the principles/requirements that characterize the System of Systems (SoS) approach and the Internet of Services (IoS) philosophy. The framework consists of three main brokers (middleware components implementing intermediation and harmonization services): a basic Discovery Broker, an advanced Semantic Discovery Broker, and an Access Broker. They are empowered by a suite of tools developed by the ESSI-lab of the CNR-IIA, called: GI-cat, GI-sem, and GI-axe. The EuroGEOSS brokering framework was considered and successfully adopted by cross-disciplinary initiatives (notably GEOSS: Global Earth Observation System of Systems). The brokerage services have been advanced and extended; the new brokering framework is called GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker). New brokerage services have been developed in the framework of other

  4. Dove sta andando l'analisi musicale? Riflessioni sul VII EuroMac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baroni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Come tutti i lettori della Rivista ormai sapranno, si è svolto a Roma dal 29 settembre al 2 ottobre di quest’anno, presso il Conservatorio di S. Cecilia, il settimo convegno europeo di analisi musicale (VII European Music Analysis Conference ossia VII EuroMac. Nel convegno, organizzato dal GATM e diretto da Giorgio Sanguinetti, sono state presentate 197 relazioni e svolti otto laboratori. Tutti i materiali sono stati riassunti in un volume (Programme and Abstract Book, Iter Edizioni di Subiaco curato da Egidio Pozzi e Antonio Cascelli.

  5. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  6. [Accidents and injuries in the EU. Results of the EuroSafe Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, R; Steiner, M; Kisser, R; Macey, S M; Thayer, D

    2014-06-01

    Accidents and injuries are a relevant although largely preventable public health problem. Information on the causes of accidents is the basis for accident prevention and product safety. The current report "Injuries in the European Union", edited by EuroSafe, the European Association for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, is a summary of key statistics on accidents and injuries at the EU level. In addition to international data on cause of death, the data of the European Injury Data Base (IDB) in particular are presented. The IDB is a unique data source for the EU based on an internationally standardized dataset of external causes and circumstances of injuries, which is collected in the emergency department of hospitals. Thus, the IDB covers the entire spectrum of accidents and injuries in sufficient detail as is necessary for the derivation of preventive measures and the knowledge of involved products. The currently available IDB data are collected by the participating Member States (2012: Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, and Sweden) in self-interest (i.e., without legal obligation) with the support of the EU health programs. The central database for the IDB is run by the European Commission and provides public access to the aggregated data of the participating countries. Currently, over 100 IDB hospitals in the EU upload around 300,000 cases per year into the EU database. The IDB contains information on all accident sectors (transport, workplace, school etc.) with a focus on leisure and sports accidents. Depending on the accident sector, up to 25 variables (activities, products involved, means of transport etc.) and often also short narratives are recorded for each case. The report shows that 40 million people are treated in a hospital annually in the EU after accidents and violence, and that about 233,000 people die as a consequence of injury. There are large differences between countries

  7. A GIS interface to the new Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue produced by the TRANSFER Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallazzi, Sara Carolina; Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Maramai, Alessandra; Patera, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    TRANSFER, acronym standing for "Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region", is a three-year EU-funded research project that tackled all the main fields of interest in tsunami research, ranging from the improvement of the existing tsunami catalogue and the inventory of seismic and non-seismic tsunami sources, to the assessment of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk through innovative deterministic and statistical methodologies, with the final goal of identifying the best strategies for the reduction of tsunami risk. One of the largest efforts produced by the TRANFER consortium has been to convey all the results obtained during the project life into a unique and standardised GIS platform. We present here in some detail the GIS implementation of the improved version of the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue, which is the result of a careful revision, re-analysis, correction and integration of the results produced in the nineties by the EU funded GITEC and GITEC-TWO projects. All the TRANSFER partners involved in this work made some relevant improvements of the quality of the database, in terms of inclusion of new events or updating (or even exclusion) of existing events. The major improvements introduced in the TRANSFER tsunami catalogue with respect to the previous ones are: 1) the enlargement of the geographical area containing historical events (now the catalogue integrates events belonging to the Levantine sea and to Iceland); 2) the inclusion of the tide-gauge data relative to specific historical events; 3) for few events, the position of the places for which tsunami run-up and inundation data are available; 4) the introduction of the 12-points tsunami intensity scale by Papadopoulos and Imamura (2001). The GIS environment and the power of the underlying Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) allows to query the database in several respects. The most obvious starts from the geographical map containing the position of the historical events

  8. "Der Euro überfordert die Lohnpolitik systematisch": Interview mit Martin Höpner über die Aussichten einer transnationalen Lohnkoordination in Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Höpner, M.; Geisen, R

    2015-01-01

    Mit der Einführung des Euro wurde die Geldpolitik zentralisiert, die innereuropäischen Wechselkurse wurden unwiderruflich fixiert. Lohnaushandlungen finden aber weiterhin auf nationaler Ebene statt, die Gewerkschaften und Arbeitgeberverbände sind in allen Teilnehmerländern ganz unterschiedlich organisiert, und eine transnationale Koordination der Lohnpolitik findet bisher nicht statt. Kann der Euro ohne Lohnkoordiantion funktionieren? Warum gab es in Deutschland seit Einführung des Euro eine ...

  9. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  10. Asymmetric bifurcated halogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Martin; Foroutan-Nejad, Cina; Marek, Radek

    2015-03-07

    Halogen bonding (XB) is being extensively explored for its potential use in advanced materials and drug design. Despite significant progress in describing this interaction by theoretical and experimental methods, the chemical nature remains somewhat elusive, and it seems to vary with the selected system. In this work we present a detailed DFT analysis of three-center asymmetric halogen bond (XB) formed between dihalogen molecules and variously 4-substituted 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The energy decomposition, orbital, and electron density analyses suggest that the contribution of electrostatic stabilization is comparable with that of non-electrostatic factors. Both terms increase parallel with increasing negative charge of the electron donor molecule in our model systems. Depending on the orientation of the dihalogen molecules, this bifurcated interaction may be classified as 'σ-hole - lone pair' or 'σ-hole - π' halogen bonds. Arrangement of the XB investigated here deviates significantly from a recent IUPAC definition of XB and, in analogy to the hydrogen bonding, the term bifurcated halogen bond (BXB) seems to be appropriate for this type of interaction.

  11. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  12. An in vitro shear bond strength study of enamel/dentin bonding systems on enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifeis, P E; Cochran, M A; Moore, B K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the enamel shear bond strengths achieved with four acid conditioners employed by current enamel/dentin bonding systems (maleic acid, citric acid, nitric acid, oxalic acid) with a 37% phosphoric acid etching technique. The study also compared enamel shear bond strengths between the manufacturers' enamel/dentin conditioner used with an unfilled enamel bonding resin. The facial surfaces of 135 bovine incisors were ground flat and divided into nine test groups of n=15. Conditioning and bonding procedures were carried out following manufacturers' instructions. The phosphoric acid groups were etched for 15 seconds, rinsed for 30 seconds, and dried for 20 seconds with compressed air. All bonding was accomplished at a constant temperature of 21 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. A single composite restorative resin (Z-100) was used with all specimens to eliminate variables between composite materials. All specimens were thermocycled 2500 times (5 to 45 degrees C) and had a total storage time of 21 days prior to shear testing on an Instron at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. Shear strengths were calculated by dividing load at failure by specimen area. A light microscope was used to determine failure mode. The data were subjected to Bartlett's test for homogeneity of variance and were found not to be homogeneous. The Welch Test was applied and indicated that the treatments used had influence on bond strength at Pbond strength values between traditional phosphoric acid/enamel bonding resin and Mirage Bond Dentin and Enamel Adhesive, Clearfil Liner Bond System, and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Dental Adhesive System.

  13. Impact of Poland accession to the euro zone on the trade policy with the European Union countries and with third country

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslawa Laszuk

    2013-01-01

    The accession of Poland to the Euro Zone is a crucial condition for the country’s functioning in the European Union. Poland has not stated the date of the accession to the Euro Zone yet. The feasible date of the acceptance of the Euro by Poland is the end of the present decade. The accession of Poland to the Euro Zone should contribute to the significant increase of Polish trade and, in consequence, in accordance with the conventional trade theory – increase the level of specialization, produ...

  14. La relación euro-dólar: seis años después que el euro presentase su mínimo nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo García Rendón

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra la relación del tipo de cambio euro-dólar desde que el euro empezó a circular. Específicamente, después de considerar algunos elementos teóricos que determinan el tipo de cambio, explica los principales hechos que llevaron a que el euro a partir de octubre de 2000 revertiera su tendencia decreciente frente al dólar y qué aspectos están influyendo en la actualidad sobre su desempeño, llegando a la conclusión que no es posible establecer un modelo que pondere las variables de forma racional y significativa, haciendo que el comportamiento del tipo de cambio no pueda ser explicado en su totalidad por la teoría económica existente.

  15. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  16. Differences in sexual guilt and desire in east Asian and Euro-Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Woo, Jane S T; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-01-01

    Differences in sexual desire between individuals of East Asian and European descent are well-documented, with East Asian individuals reporting lower sexual desire. The mechanisms that underlie this disparity have received little empirical attention. Recent research has found that sex guilt, "a generalized expectancy for self-mediated punishment for violating or for anticipating violating standards of proper sexual conduct" (Mosher & Cross, 1971 , p. 27), mediates the relationship between culture and sexual desire in East Asian and Euro-Canadian women. The goal of this study was to explore this role of sex guilt in men. Male Euro-Canadian (n = 38) and East Asian (n = 45) university students completed online questionnaires. The East Asian men reported significantly lower sexual desire and significantly higher sex guilt. Sex guilt was a significant mediator of the relationship between ethnicity and sexual desire, as well as a significant mediator between mainstream acculturation and sexual desire. Among the East Asian men, mainstream acculturation was significantly and negatively correlated with sex guilt such that increasing mainstream acculturation was associated with less sex guilt. The diagnostic and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. The EURO-GANEX process: current status of flowsheet development and process safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.; Carrott, M.; Maher, C.; Mason, C.; Rhodes, C.; Sarsfield, M. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Galan, H. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Geist, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Heres, X.; Miguirditchian, M. [Radiochemistry and Processes Development Department, CEA Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Marcoule (France); Malmbeck, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, G.; Wilden, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - IEK-6, Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A new hydrometallurgical grouped actinide extraction process has been developed to separate the transuranic actinide ions from dissolved spent fuel solution (after an initial uranium extraction cycle). This EURO-GANEX process is aimed towards the homogeneous recycling of plutonium and minor actinides in a future closed fuel cycle. The separation process is based on the co-extraction of actinides and lanthanides from aqueous nitric acid into an organic phase followed by selective co-stripping of actinides. A suitable organic phase has been formulated and distribution ratios determined for lanthanides, actinides and some problematic fission products under extraction and stripping conditions. The process flowsheet has been proven on surrogate feed solutions as well as with spent fast reactor fuel; excellent recoveries of the actinides and good decontamination factors from the lanthanides and other fission products were obtained. A variation on the EURO-GANEX flowsheet (the TRU-SANEX process) has now been designed to produce separate Pu+Np and Am+Cm products for heterogeneous recycling. Progress on underpinning process chemistry and safety studies as well as flowsheet tests are summarized. (authors)

  18. Food Price Inflation Rates in the Euro Zone: Distribution Dynamics and Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that inflation as a monetary phenomenon is determined by money supply changes. In the short run, however, several factors may lead to inflation rate differentials among different regions in the same country or among different countries in a monetary union. This paper examines the mean reversion attitude of food price inflation rates in the Euro zone, borrowing the concepts and developments from the recent growth literature and using panel unit root tests. Additionally, in order to capture sufficiently the evolving distributional dynamics, nonparametric econometric methods are also implemented. Finally, the comovement of the inflation rates among different food subgroups is also explored. The data consist of monthly observations of the EU harmonized consumer price indices of food and three different food subgroups (meat, bread and cereals, and vegetables for the 12 older member states of the Euro zone, covering the period from 1997 to 2010. The results do not fully support the hypothesis of the food price inflation rates convergence for the whole period under investigation. Mean reversion shows up in different time periods and in different food categories. Moreover, the analysis of distribution dynamics sheds light to different aspects of convergence and highlights processes like club formation and polarization.

  19. La crisis de deuda soberana de los PIGS de la zona euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdy V. James Heredia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal, Irlanda, Grecia y España, nombrados por sus iniciales los PIGS de la zona euro, desde el 2010 hasta la actualidad han reflejado desequilibrios fiscales considerables y niveles de endeudamiento que se han hecho inmanejables. A la vez que padecen profundas crisis en sus sistemas bancarios, pobres tasas de crecimiento económico y altos niveles de de desempleo. Ante esta situación la investigación analiza las diferentes políticas económicas (monetaria, fiscal, así como el tipo de cambio en la zona euro y se llega a la conclusión que la salida de la actual situación de crisis de los PIGS depende del logro de un crecimiento económico sostenido. Sobre esta base, la solución al problema económico de los PIGS parecer ser política y, a corto plazo incluye: la necesidad de una cooperación mayor dentro de la eurozona así como cambios en la política económica seguida hasta el momento y en la principal institución monetaria de la zona, entre otros elementos.

  20. EuroFIR Guideline on calculation of nutrient content of foods for food business operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machackova, Marie; Giertlova, Anna; Porubska, Janka; Roe, Mark; Ramos, Carlos; Finglas, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a Guideline for calculating nutrient content of foods by calculation methods for food business operators and presents data on compliance between calculated values and analytically determined values. In the EU, calculation methods are legally valid to determine the nutrient values of foods for nutrition labelling (Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011). However, neither a specific calculation method nor rules for use of retention factors are defined. EuroFIR AISBL (European Food Information Resource) has introduced a Recipe Calculation Guideline based on the EuroFIR harmonized procedure for recipe calculation. The aim is to provide food businesses with a step-by-step tool for calculating nutrient content of foods for the purpose of nutrition declaration. The development of this Guideline and use in the Czech Republic is described and future application to other Member States is discussed. Limitations of calculation methods and the importance of high quality food composition data are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of major heat waves' mechanisms in EURO-CORDEX RCMs over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of the study is to evaluate the capability of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) to simulate major heat waves in Central Europe and their associated meteorological factors. Three reference major heat waves (1994, 2006, and 2015) were identified in the E-OBS gridded data set, based on their temperature characteristics, length and spatial extent. Atmospheric circulation, precipitation, net shortwave radiation, and evaporative fraction anomalies during these events were assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The analogous major heat waves and their links to the aforementioned factors were analysed in an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCMs driven by various global climate models in the 1970-2016 period. All three reference major heat waves were associated with favourable circulation conditions, precipitation deficit, reduced evaporative fraction and increased net shortwave radiation. This joint contribution of large-scale circulation and land-atmosphere interactions is simulated with difficulties in majority of the RCMs, which affects the magnitude of modelled major heat waves. In some cases, the seemingly good reproduction of major heat waves' magnitude is erroneously achieved through extremely favourable circulation conditions compensated by a substantial surplus of soil moisture or vice versa. These findings point to different driving mechanisms of major heat waves in some RCMs compared to observations, which should be taken into account when analysing and interpreting future projections of these events.

  2. The surface of 1-euro coins studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, F.; Gleeson, M. A.; Villette, J.; Kleyn, S. E. F.; Kleyn, A. W.

    2004-03-01

    The two alloy surfaces (pill and ring) that are present on 1-euro coins have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Comparison is made between coins from general circulation and coin surfaces that have been subjected to a variety of cleaning and oxidation treatments. The concentrations and possible oxidation states of the metals (nickel, copper and zinc) at the surface were derived from analysis of the 2p 3/2 core levels. The surface atomic ratios measured for the pill and the ring parts of the euro coins were compared to the official bulk ratios. This study shows a clear nickel enrichment of both pill and ring surfaces. Nickel at surface seems to be present mainly in hydroxide form although the chloride form cannot be excluded. A small concentration of zinc was present on the surface of the pill, even though it is not present in the bulk alloy. Evidence of both nickel and zinc surface enrichment is observed for the ring. No surface enrichment is observed for the atomically clean or oxidized alloy surfaces over a 60-h time scale.

  3. The surface of 1-euro coins studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, F.; Gleeson, M.A.; Villette, J.; Kleyn, S.E.F.; Kleyn, A.W

    2004-03-30

    The two alloy surfaces (pill and ring) that are present on 1-euro coins have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Comparison is made between coins from general circulation and coin surfaces that have been subjected to a variety of cleaning and oxidation treatments. The concentrations and possible oxidation states of the metals (nickel, copper and zinc) at the surface were derived from analysis of the 2p{sub 3/2} core levels. The surface atomic ratios measured for the pill and the ring parts of the euro coins were compared to the official bulk ratios. This study shows a clear nickel enrichment of both pill and ring surfaces. Nickel at surface seems to be present mainly in hydroxide form although the chloride form cannot be excluded. A small concentration of zinc was present on the surface of the pill, even though it is not present in the bulk alloy. Evidence of both nickel and zinc surface enrichment is observed for the ring. No surface enrichment is observed for the atomically clean or oxidized alloy surfaces over a 60-h time scale.

  4. ANALYSIS OF TIME SERIES FOR THE CURRENCY PAIR CROATIAN KUNA / EURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Martinović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic currency Croatian kuna (HRK was introduced in May 1995. To date, the Croatian National Bank (HNB, as a regulator and formulator of monetary policy in Croatia has operated a policy of stable exchange rate, typically referenced to the formal currency of the European Union euro (EUR. From the date of introduction of the euro 01/01/1999 until 01/01/2016 the value of the currency pair HRK / EUR changed in value by only 4.25% (HNB. Although the value of the Croatian kuna is relatively stable, there are some fluctuations on an annual level (e.g. in ­­­the last few years because of the global crisis as well as  on periodic levels within a year. The aim of this paper is to show the movement of the value of the currency pair since the beginning of 2002 to the present day (the time curve, analyze the correctness, trends and periodicity (seasonal behavior, if any exist.The research will be done using the method of Time Series Analysis, assuming that the external (global economy and internal factors (economic policy remain similar or the same. According to the results, further assessment of price developments in the period followed will be made by using the obtained predicative models. In the event that the curve contains the component of periodicity, the observed patterns will be studied further.

  5. Discursive Contextures of Science: Euro/West-Centrism and Science and Technology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Science and Technology Studies (STS by the very act of showing the multiplicity, contingency, and context-dependence of scientific knowledge and practice, provincialized modern science. Postcolonial interventions within STS have pursued this goal even further. Nevertheless, Euro/West-centrism continues to inflect not only scientific practices and lay imaginaries, but also sociological and historical analyses of sciences. In this article, drawing on my own training within STS – first under J.P.S. Uberoi, who was concerned with structuralist analysis of modernity and science, and thereafter under Andy Pickering, when we focused on material agency and temporal emergence and extensively engaged with Actor Network Theory - I emphasize the continuing role of Euro/West-centric discourses in defining the “self” and the “other” and in impacting epistemological and ontological interventions. More broadly, building on a concept of Michael Lynch’s, I call for excavation and analysis of discursive contextures of sciences. In the second section of the article, through a brief analysis of embryonic stem cell therapy in a clinic in Delhi, I show how with shifting transnational landscape of technoscience certain discursive contextures are being “deterritorialized” and left “stuttering.”

  6. The EuroPhysiome, STEP and a roadmap for the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, J W; Brook, B; Clapworthy, G; Coveney, P V; Feipel, V; Gregersen, H; Hose, D R; Kohl, P; Lawford, P; McCormack, K M; Pinney, D; Thomas, S R; Van Sint Jan, S; Waters, S; Viceconti, M

    2008-09-13

    Biomedical science and its allied disciplines are entering a new era in which computational methods and technologies are poised to play a prevalent role in supporting collaborative investigation of the human body. Within Europe, this has its focus in the virtual physiological human (VPH), which is an evolving entity that has emerged from the EuroPhysiome initiative and the strategy for the EuroPhysiome (STEP) consortium. The VPH is intended to be a solution to common infrastructure needs for physiome projects across the globe, providing a unifying architecture that facilitates integration and prediction, ultimately creating a framework capable of describing Homo sapiens in silico. The routine reliance of the biomedical industry, biomedical research and clinical practice on information technology (IT) highlights the importance of a tailor-made and robust IT infrastructure, but numerous challenges need to be addressed if the VPH is to become a mature technological reality. Appropriate investment will reap considerable rewards, since it is anticipated that the VPH will influence all sectors of society, with implications predominantly for improved healthcare, improved competitiveness in industry and greater understanding of (patho)physiological processes. This paper considers issues pertinent to the development of the VPH, highlighted by the work of the STEP consortium.

  7. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  8. Nigerian Concept Of Bonded Warehouses And Dry Ports | Ndikom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bonded warehouse and ICDs are seen as mini-ports or an extension of a port, where usual ports operations take place. A custom bonded warehouse is a building or other secured areas in which dutiable goods may be stored, manipulated or undergo manufacturing operations, customs inspections while examinations are ...

  9. Top-down NOX emissions over European cities from LOTOS-EUROS simulated and OMI observed tropospheric NO2 columns using the Exponentially Modified Gaussian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Folkert Boersma, K.; Douros, John; Williams, Jason E.; Eskes, Henk H.; Delcloo, Andy

    2017-04-01

    High nitrogen oxides concentrations at the surface (NOX = NO + NO2) impact humans and ecosystem badly and play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. Surface NOX emissions drive major processes in regional and global chemistry transport models (CTM). NOX contributes to the formation of acid rain, act as aerosol precursors and is an important trace gas for the formation of tropospheric ozone (O3). Via tropospheric O3, NOX indirectly affects the production of the hydroxyl radical which controls the chemical lifetime of key atmospheric pollutants and reactive greenhouse gases. High NOX emissions are mainly observed in polluted regions produced by anthropogenic combustion from industrial, traffic and household activities typically observed in large and densely populated urban areas. Accurate NOX inventories are essential, but state-of the- art emission databases may vary substantially and uncertainties are high since reported emissions factors may differ in order of magnitude and more. To date, the modelled NO2 concentrations and lifetimes have large associated uncertainties due to the highly non-linear small-scale chemistry that occurs in urban areas and uncertainties in the reaction rate data, missing nitrogen (N) species and volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions, and incomplete knowledge of nitrogen oxides chemistry. Any overestimation in the chemical lifetime may mask missing NOX chemistry in current CTM's. By simultaneously estimating both the NO2 lifetime and concentrations, for instance by using the Exponentially Modified Gaussian (EMG), a better surface NOX emission flux estimate can be obtained. Here we evaluate if the EMG methodology can reproduce the emissions input from the tropospheric NO2 columns simulated by the LOTOS-EUROS (Long Term Ozone Simulation-European Ozone Simulation) CTM model. We apply the EMG methodology on LOTOS-EUROS simulated tropospheric NO2 columns for the period April-September 2013 for 21 selected European urban areas under windy

  10. Bond strength comparison of color change adhesives for orthodontic bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duers, Michael W; English, Jeryl D; Ontiveros, Joe C; Powers, John M; Bussa, Harry I; Frey, Gary N; Gallerano, Ronald L; Paige, Sebastian Z

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated whether three different color change light-cured orthodontic bonding adhesives have comparable shear bond strengths to a conventional light-cured orthodontic bonding adhesive. The sample of 240 bovine incisors was divided into four groups of 60 each. Each group tested one of four orthodontic bonding adhesives: 3M Unitek Transbond PLUS, Ormco Gréngloo, Ormco Blúgloo, and 3M Unitek Transbond XT (control). The four groups were further divided into two subgroups of 30 with shear bond strength tested at two different times (15 minutes and 24 hours) post-bond. The shear bond strength was measured on a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc comparisons (Fisher's PLSD) at the 0.05 level of significance. The average shear bond strength was greater at 24 hours than at 15 minutes for Transbond PLUS, Blúgloo, and Transbond XT. For Gréngloo, the average shear bond strength was greater at 15 minutes than at 24 hours. Gréngloo tested at 15 minutes had the highest average shear bond strength. Gréngloo tested at 24 hours had the lowest average shear bond strength. All four orthodontic bonding adhesives demonstrated bond strengths considered to be clinically acceptable for orthodontic purposes.

  11. [Direct bonding in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablützel, W

    1976-03-01

    Composite materials have been used to attach orthodontic brackets on the conditioned enamel surface. A method of direct bonding with Enamelite of metal brackets with a mechanical retention on the basis is described. Clinical experience with the adhesive technique, its range of indication and possible failures are discussed in several case reports.

  12. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R

    2005-02-01

    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  13. Bonding to caries-affected dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Nakajima

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentin adhesive systems have dramatically developed during the past decades. In a prepared cavity for an adhesive composite restoration, large areas of the cavity floor are composed of caries-affected dentin after removal of caries-infected dentin, not normal dentin. Caries-affected dentin is different in morphological, chemical and physical characteristics from normal dentin. Therefore, caries-affected dentin has still problems as bonding substrate compared with normal dentin. That is, caries-affected dentin produces lower bond strength and poor quality of the hybrid layer than normal dentin. In addition, when exposed the adhesive interface of caries-affected dentin in oral environment, the poor quality of the hybrid layer would compromise the longevity of the composite restoration due to hydrolysis of the resin and collagen fibrils. The improvement of bonding potential to caries-affected dentin could lead to reinforcement of tooth-composite restoration complex, protecting secondary caries and tooth fracture.

  14. Outreach and education from EuroGeoMoonMars2009 Field Campaign in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    The goal of the EuroGeoMoonMars mission at Utah Desert Research station(from 24 January to 28 February 2009) was to demonstrate instruments from ExoGeoLab pilot project, to support the interpretation of ongoing lunar and planetary missions, to validate a procedure for surface in-situ and return science, to study human performance aspects, and perform outreach and education projects. The EuroGeoMoonMars campaign included four sets of objectives: 1) Technology demonstration aspects: a set of instruments were deployed, tested, assessed, and training was provided to scientists using them in subsequent rotations 2) Research aspects: a series of field science and exploration investigations were conducted in geology, geochemistry, biology, astronomy, with synergies with space missions and research from planetary surfaces and Earth extreme environments. 3) Human crew related aspects, i.e. (a) evaluation of the different functions and interfaces of a planetary habitat, (b) crew time organization in this habitat, (c) evaluation of man-machine interfaces of science and technical equipment; 4) Education, outreach, communications, multi-cultural public relations Outreach, education and inspiration: We produced written, pictures, and video materials that can be used for education, outreach and public relations. Daily reports were posted on the MDRS website. We had during the Technical crew preparation, the visit of film producer Mark Arabella and film crew for a Moon related National Geographics documentary "Earth without the Moon". Two media crew visitors stayed also in the Hab to film our activities documenting the operational, research, human, simulation, imaginative and fantasy aspects of Moon-Mars-extreme Earth exploration. They contributed a journalist report, and even performed an EVA outreach filming a sortie to Hanksville village on Earth. Other film and journalists visited the EuroGeoMars crew for interviews and exchange. Specific crew reports were also prepared for

  15. EURO-CARES: European Roadmap for a Sample Return Curation Facility and Planetary Protection Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    A mature European planetary exploration program and evolving sample return mission plans gathers the interest of a wider scientific community. The interest is generated from studying extraterrestrial samples in the laborato-ry providing new opportunities to address fundamental issues on the origin and evolution of the Solar System, on the primordial cosmochemistry, and on the nature of the building blocks of terrestrial planets and on the origin of life. Major space agencies are currently planning for missions that will collect samples from a variety of Solar Sys-tem environments, from primitive (carbonaceous) small bodies, from the Moon, Mars and its moons and, final-ly, from icy moons of the outer planets. A dedicated sample return curation facility is seen as an essential re-quirement for the receiving, assessment, characterization and secure preservation of the collected extraterrestrial samples and potentially their safe distribution to the scientific community. EURO-CARES is a European Commission study funded under the Horizon-2020 program. The strategic objec-tive of EURO-CARES is to create a roadmap for the implementation of a European Extraterrestrial Sample Cu-ration Facility. The facility has to provide safe storage and handling of extraterrestrial samples and has to enable the preliminary characterization in order to achieve the required effectiveness and collaborative outcomes for the whole international scientific community. For example, samples returned from Mars could pose a threat on the Earth's biosphere if any living extraterrestrial organism are present in the samples. Thus planetary protection is an essential aspect of all Mars sample return missions that will affect the retrival and transport from the point of return, sample handling, infrastructure methodology and management of a future curation facility. Analysis of the state of the art of Planetary Protection technology shows there are considerable possibilities to define and develop

  16. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  17. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  18. Making Weak Bonds (cooling) and Breaking Strong Bonds (heating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Making Weak Bonds (cooling) and Breaking Strong Bonds (heating) with Supersonic Techniques · Acknowledgements · Outline · Slide 4 · A comparison of the two techniques · What is a hydrogen bond? Phenylacetylene and its complexes · Slide 8 · Phenylacetylene and PAH · phenylacetylene · Complexes in the interstellar ...

  19. First quarter 2006: sales up by 13.3% to euros 2,476 million; 1. trimestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires de 2476 millions d'euros, en hausse de 13,3%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The AREVA group's first quarter 2006 sales was euros 2,476 million, compared with euros 2,186 million for the same period in 2005, representing 13.3% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 13.0%. Nuclear operations posted sales of euros 1,660 million, up 11.5% (up 11.6% like-for-like), and buoyant business volume marked by: net growth for the Front End Division (+20.4%), with 60% coming from volume-product mix effects and 40% from favorable price effects, especially for uranium supply and enrichment services; the contribution from the OL3 (Finland), Ling Ao-Phase II (China) and Flamanville 3 EPR (France) reactor projects, which boosted the Reactors and Services Division's sales by 13.2%; a slight decrease in the Back End Division (-2.5%). The Transmission and Distribution Division posted sales of euros 817 million, representing strong organic growth (up 16.6%), consistent with the increase in orders recorded in 2005. Orders booked in the first quarter of 2006 were up by 15.4% like-for-like (up 25.4% in reported data) compared with the first quarter of 2005. For 2006, the Group expects net growth in sales, like-for-like, although not at the particularly high levels of the first quarter.

  20. From Security to Development: Migration contribution to Euro-Mediterranean Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    In the current European Union (EU) debate on migration despite the positive linkage between Migration and Development gaining momentum, emphasis is still greater on how to guarantee borders security and curb irregular migration. This is possibly due also to the lack of concrete indications on how...... theories and practice by proposing the path towards a more comprehensive analytical framework that takes into account the intertwining of the internal resources (i.e. migrants' financial, human, social and symbolic capital) and external - the social, political, economic and cultural environment in which...... on the migration  trends in the Euro-Mediterranean region and concrete and utilisation of migrants' resources and a  final section concluding and highlighting the potential for regional co-operation in creating, enhancing and mobilising migrants' resources. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  1. The best of 2005 in echocardiography back from EuroEcho 9 – Florence, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicari Rosa

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ninth edition of the congress of the European Association of Echocardiography (EAE (former working group of Echocardiography held in Florence has just finished with a great success of participant attendance (2.842 and abstract submissions. Hot topics at EuroEcho 9 were: 1-live 3-dimensional echocardiography and surgical decision making; in pediatric cardiology; in resynchronization therapy 2- stress echocardiography beyond wall motion: from valve diseases to contractility to coronary flow reserve to diastolic function; 3- pulmonary cardiogenic interstitial thickening recognized by ultrasonic lung comets; 4- the "proven clinical inefficacy" of the many technologies sold as breakthrough: color kinesis, tissue characterization, strain rate, tissue Doppler, applied to stress echocardiography.

  2. Subionospheric VLF signatures and their association with sprites observed during EuroSprite 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mika, A.; Haldoupis, C.; Marshall, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    national lightning detection network. The VLF observations were made in Crete, Greece with a narrowband receiver, and in Nancay, France with a broadband receiver. The storms were in the vicinity of a VLF transmitter (HWV) at Le Blanc, France, whose signal was received on Crete, arriving over a great circle......In this study, VLF observations during EuroSprite-2003 are analyzed in connection with many sprites observed above thunderstorms in central France. The sprites were detected with a sensitive camera from the Observatoire du Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees overlooking storms monitored by the French...... path that cut through the storms to the southeast. The Nancay broadband receiver was located near HWV to the northeast of the transmitter. This setup provided a unique observational set for investigation. The receiver in Crete observed early VLF perturbations in nearly one-to-one association...

  3. The Eurozone Crisis: Muddling through on the Way to a More Perfect Euro Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Aizenman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking a historical perspective of economic changes, this paper argues that muddling through crises-induced reforms characterizes well the evolutionary process of forming currency unions. The economic distortions facing the euro include structural challenges in the labor and product markets, and financial distortions. While both structural and financial distortions are costly and prevalent, they differ in fundamental ways. Financial distortions are moving at the speed of the Internet, and their welfare costs are determined more by the access to credit lines and leverage, than by the GDP of each country. In contrast, the structural distortions are moving at a slow pace relative to the financial distortions, and their effects are determined by inter-generational dynamics. These considerations suggest that the priority should be given to dealing with the financial distortions. A more perfect Eurozone is not assured without successfully muddling through painful periodic crises.

  4. Application of Physics Model in prediction of the Hellas Euro election results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magafas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use chaos theory to predict the Hellenic Euro election results in the form of time series for Hellenic political parties New Democracy (ND, Panhellenic Socialistic Movement (PASOK, Hellenic Communistic Party (KKE , Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA and (Popular Orthodox Rally LAOS, using the properties of the reconstructed strange attrac-tor of the corresponding non linear system, creating a new scientific field called “DemoscopoPhysics”. For this purpose we found the optimal delay time, the correlation and embedding dimension with the method of Grassberger and Procassia. With the help of topological properties of the corresponding strange attractor we achieved up to a 60 time steps out of sample pre-diction of the public survey.

  5. Training a multilayer neural network for the Euro-dollar (EUR/ USD exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alberto Villamil Torres

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical tool or model for predicting how an economic variable like the exchange rate (relative price between two currencies will respond is a very important need for investors and policy-makers. Most current techniques are based on statistics, particularly linear time series theory. Artificial neural networks (ANNs are mathematical models which try to emulate biological neural networks’ parallelism and nonlinearity; these models have been successfully applied in Economics and Engineering since the 1980s. ANNs appear to be an alternative for modelling the behaviour of financial variables which resemble (as first approximation a random walk. This paper reports the results of using ANNs for Euro/USD exchange rate trading and the usefulness of the algorithm for chemotaxis leading to training networks thereby maximising an objective function re predicting a trader’s profits. JEL: F310, C450.

  6. EuroFIR eBASIS: application for health claims submissions and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiely, M.; Black, L.J.; Plumb, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) network has established the eBASIS (Bioactive Substances in Food Information System) online food composition and biological effects database for plant-derived bioactive compounds (phytochemicals). On the basis of submitted evidence...... of phytochemicals. Currently included are 4750 records from 445 studies providing data on 56 validated biomarkers, mainly relating to cardio-metabolic and bone health outcomes. The data cover 144 bioactive compounds from 17 compound classes. Using the EFSA Register of Questions and the database of general function...... health claims, we identified claims relating to phytochemicals made under articles 13.1, 13.5 and 14 and compared them with the eBASIS database to identify overlap between them. Results: The EFSA online health claims database contains 4240 submissions under article 13.1, of which 2157 pertain to plants...

  7. The Forty-Sixth Euro Congress on Drug Synthesis and Analysis: Snapshot †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mucaji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The 46th EuroCongress on Drug Synthesis and Analysis (ECDSA-2017 was arranged within the celebration of the 65th Anniversary of the Faculty of Pharmacy at Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia from 5–8 September 2017 to get together specialists in medicinal chemistry, organic synthesis, pharmaceutical analysis, screening of bioactive compounds, pharmacology and drug formulations; promote the exchange of scientific results, methods and ideas; and encourage cooperation between researchers from all over the world. The topic of the conference, “Drug Synthesis and Analysis,” meant that the symposium welcomed all pharmacists and/or researchers (chemists, analysts, biologists and students interested in scientific work dealing with investigations of biologically active compounds as potential drugs. The authors of this manuscript were plenary speakers and other participants of the symposium and members of their research teams. The following summary highlights the major points/topics of the meeting.

  8. AUTH Regional Climate Model Contributions to EURO-CORDEX. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragkou, E.; Gkotovou, I.; Kartsios, S.; Pavlidis, V.; Tsigaridis, K.; Trail, M.; Nazarenko, L.; Karacostas, Theodore S.

    2017-01-01

    Regional climate downscaling techniques are being increasingly used to provide higher-resolution climate information than is available directly from contemporary global climate models. The Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) initiative was build to foster communication and knowledge exchange between regional climate modelers. The Department of Meteorology and Climatology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki has been contributing to the CORDEX initiative since 2010, with regional climate model simulations over the European domain (EURO-CORDEX). Results of this work are presented here, including two hindcasts and a historical simulation with the Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF), driven by ERA-interim reanalysis and the NASA Earth System Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2, respectively. Model simulations are evaluated with the EOBS climatology and the model performance is assessed.

  9. Inspection of bonded composites using selectively excited ultrasonic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gordon Gustav

    Improved methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) of multi-layered composites are vital for fundamental research in composites fabrication and performance. Fast, accurate NDT methods can also be used to predict catastrophic in-use failure and to reduce costly rejects during the manufacture of composite parts. Commercial normal incidence inspection techniques have generally yielded reliable detection of large areas of delamination and damage. They fail, however, to detect defects within thin bonded regions, such as disbonds, debonds, kissing bonds, and porosity. We have developed and studied a nondestructive testing technique designed to be sensitive to flaws in the bond area of adhesively bonded anisotropic materials. The technique utilizes specific ultrasonic modes which are selected through a priori modeling of the composite as a single anisotropic elastic layer. The displacement and stress profiles of the modes within the fluid loaded layer are evaluated. A propagating mode that is predicted to be highly sensitive to the bond area is then utilized in the inspection. The inspection is carried out with an apparatus designed and constructed to excite and detect the selected ultrasonic mode. The apparatus uses transducers oriented at the theoretically optimal incident angle to excite the desired mode, using a tone burst between 0.5 and 10.0 MHz. We monitor with a second transducer changes in the amplitude of the leaky component of the mode propagating in the plate. By using this apparatus we have experimentally distinguished changes in the bond areas of adhesively bonded aluminum plates and carbon-epoxy composite plates of unidirectional and quasi-isotropic lay-up, The radiated leaky wave amplitudes from poorly bonded plates were less than 50% of those from corresponding well bonded plates. We observed no significant changes in the amplitudes of normal incidence pulse-echo signals for these specimens. These results demonstrate that selective mode excitation can

  10. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  11. NATO Summit in Wales: From global megatrends to the new Euro-Atlanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Lidija Čehulić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous representatives of theories of international relations, security theories or alliance theories have examined the new role of the North Atlantic Alliance or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO in the post-bipolar world. Parallel with the theoretical examination of goals and tasks, NATO has transformed itself in practice, following the realities of the contemporary global era. In trying to achieve and keep the primacy of the strongest military- political organization, the Alliance has - especially in the Strategic Concept adopted in Lisbon in 2010-set the normative and institutional foundations of its global engagement, fulfilling the military (hard and a wide array of non-military (soft security challenges. This strategy has given rise to "Euro-Atlanticism", as a subsystem of international relations based on strong American-European relations, to fit with the process of regionalization of global politics. However, the 2013-2014 crisis in Ukraine has turned the focus of interest and activities of NATO once again primarily to Europe and it has stressed the importance and necessity of strengthening Euro-Atlantic security and defence ties. The most powerful member of the Alliance, the United States, is again strongly engaged in Europe and Russia, as a kind of successor to the Soviet Union, is once more detected as a major threat to European security. There have been many aspects of theories of international relations that have tried to explain the dynamic of the post-Cold War international community. However, the approach based on neo-realistic assumptions of the role of a security community, collective defence and the use of military force has proved to be dominant. NATO will continue to work on its political dimension as an alliance of the democratic world and the September 2014 Wales Summit will certainly mark the return of NATO to its roots, strengthening its security and military dimensions in the collective defence of Europe

  12. [European Blood Alliance (EBA) and EuroNet TMS: what challenges for the transfusion of tomorrow?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, G; de Wit, J; Rouger, P

    2011-04-01

    The primary mission of the European Blood Alliance (EBA) is to contribute to the safety and efficiency of the supply of blood products, cells and tissues, in developing an active network of blood establishments in Europe (25 countries). Its strategic objectives are to improve performance (through working groups and projects funded by the European Union), to engage in regulatory affairs (particularly at the European Commission level) to promote best practices and to facilitate a network to collect and share knowledge and experiences. The main objective of EuroNet TMS, combining the blood scientific societies from more than 30 countries in Europe, is to update and publish regularly, intended for policymakers, a White Book on the transfusion chain from donor to patient and probable or possible changes in the coming 5 years. Since 2008, EBA and EuroNet TMS actively collaborate on the drafting of the 2nd edition to be published in 2011. The two presidents jointly drafted the final chapter outlining the major issues of transfusion for tomorrow, summarized thereafter. Transfusion will still be useful for a long time and for reasons of safety and ethics the voluntary and unpaid donations, with non-profit blood establishments, will remain, the cornerstone of the supply of blood products. This renders crucial the continuous improvement of donor management and optimal blood use. On the regulatory side, after 5 years of implementation, EU directives must be independently evaluated and the Blood Guide of the Council of Europe should gradually become a regulatory standard. Finally, if a competition should be introduced for the blood products, it should be strictly regulated to prevent any threat to the security of their supply and quality for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomics and blood substitutes for 21st century Europe ("EuroBloodSubstitutes").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    Blood transfusion is a medical intervention practised throughout the world. Blood is a biologically active material that can transmit diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS and, perhaps, vCJD). People are becoming increasingly concerned about blood safety, despite improved screening and processing. Consequently, they are reluctant to donate blood or receive transfusions. Such problems can be solved by the development and incorporation into transfusion practices of so-called "blood substitutes" to replace some blood uses. The EuroBloodSubstitutes Project is funded by the European Union Framework 6 Programme to develop a technological platform for producing novel haem proteins and blood substitute components using micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast) as "cell factories." The Project will focus on bacteria (Escherichia coli), yeast (Pichia pastoris) and, longer-term, filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger), all organisms used to synthesize commercially important products. The multi-centre Consortium consists of the Universities of (1) Nottingham (UK), (2) Essex (UK), (3) Denmark Technical (Denmark), (4) Lund (Sweden), (5) Milan (Italy), (6) Nancy (France), (7) Parma (Italy), (8) Rome "La Sapienza" (Italy), (9) Semmelweis (Hungary), together with (10) Alligator Bioscience, AB (Sweden), (11) LCC Engineering & Trading GmbH (Switzerland), (12) Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (UK), and (13) Sanquin Bloodbank (The Netherlands). The EuroBloodSubstitutes Project will be informed by lay and professional stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, blood donors, patient groups, prescribers and policy makers). Outcomes of the Project are (1) the production of an information pack, decision aids and physician training aids, giving balanced overviews of the benefits and risks of transfusion of blood or potential substitutes, and (2) an interactive web site (http//:www.eurobloodsubstitutes.com) for information dissemination. This will improve knowledge and address misunderstandings about

  14. Travel-related imported infections in Europe, EuroTravNet 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolini, S; Parola, P; Gkrania-Klotsas, E; Caumes, E; Schlagenhauf, P; López-Vélez, R; Burchard, G-D; Santos-O'Connor, F; Weld, L; von Sonnenburg, F; Field, V; de Vries, P; Jensenius, M; Loutan, L; Castelli, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate travel-associated morbidity in European travellers in 2009 in comparison with 2008, with a particular emphasis on emerging infectious diseases with the potential for introduction into Europe. Diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease from ill returning travelers presenting to 12 core EuroTravNet sites from January to December 2009 were analysed. A total of 6392 patients were seen at EuroTravNet core sites in 2009, as compared with 6957 in 2008. As compared with 2008, there was a marked increase in the number of travellers exposed in North America and western Europe. Respiratory illnesses, in particular pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, influenza-like syndromes, and tuberculosis, were also observed more frequently. A significant increase in reported dengue cases in 2009 as compared with 2008 was observed (n = 172, 2.7% vs. n = 131, 1.90%) (p 0.002). The numbers of malaria and chikungunya cases were also increasing, although not significantly. Two deaths were recorded: visceral leishmaniasis and sepsis in a Sudanese migrant, and Acinetobacter sp. pneumonia in a patient who had visited Spain. This is the most comprehensive study of travel-related illness in Europe in 2009 as compared with 2008. A significant increase in travel-related respiratory and vector-borne infections was observed, highlighting the potential risk for introduction of these diseases into Europe, where competent vectors are present. The number of traveller deaths is probably underestimated. The possible role of the travellers in the emergence of infectious diseases of public health concern is highlighted. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonçalves, Luís; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH) is a European COST Action that has been running from 2007 to 2011. COST Actions are funded by the COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) Agency, supported by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7), of the European Union. EURO-TELEPATH's main objectives were evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical professionals in a networked environment. The project was organized in four working groups. orking Group 1 "Business modeling in pathology" has designed main pathology processes - Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy -using Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). orking Group 2 "Informatics standards in pathology" has been dedicated to promoting the development and application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Working Group 3 "Images: Analysis, Processing, Retrieval and Management" worked on the use of virtual or digital slides that are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Working Group 4 "Technology and Automation in Pathology" was focused on studying the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including, e.g., the quality of images obtained by slide scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. Major outcome of this action are the collaboration with international health informatics standardization bodies to foster the development of standards for digital pathology, offering a new approach for workflow analysis, based in business process

  16. First half 2006: sales revenue up by 5.7% to euros 5,036 million; 1. semestre 2006: chiffre d'affaires en hausse de 5,7% a 5,036 million d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The AREVA group reports first half 2006 sales revenue of 5,036 million euros, up from 4,764 million euros for the same period in 2005, representing 5.7% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 5.1%. In the second quarter 2006 the group had revenue of 2,560 million euros, down 0.7% from second quarter 2005 sales (-1.6% like-for-like). Nuclear operations reported first half 2006 revenue of 3,334 million euros, up 1.6% from the first half of 2005 (+1.3% like-for-like), marked by: net growth of 12.9% for the Front End Division, mainly attributable to uranium deliveries and enrichment services; the contribution from reactor projects in Finland (OL3), China (Ling Ao-Phase II) and France (Flamanville 3 EPR), which boosted sales for the Reactors and Services Division by 2.7%, despite the downturn in sales of reactor services; a 14.4% drop in the Back End Division, primarily in the used fuel treatment business. The Transmission and Distribution Division recorded sales revenue of 1,701 million euros, representing strong organic growth of 13.8%, consistent with the increase in orders booked in the second half of 2005. Orders for the first half of 2006 were up by 17.5% like-for-like compared with those of the first half of 2005. The group is targeting a net increase in revenue for 2006, like-for-like.

  17. O euro e o crescimento da economia portuguesa: uma análise contrafactual The euro and the growth of the Portuguese economy: a counter­factual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Aguiar-Confraria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A adesão ao euro representou uma mudança de regime económico. Esta mudança coincidiu com o início de uma década de fraco crescimento económico e divergên­cia em relação à União Europeia. O efeito do novo regime económico no crescimento da econo­mia portuguesa de per si tem permanecido ausente da maioria dos estudos. O objetivo da análise contrafactual desenvolvida neste artigo é quantificar o impacto do euro no crescimento do produto interno bruto português. Os resultados sugerem que o crescimento da economia portuguesa foi adversamente afetado pela adesão de Portugal à União Económica e Mone­tária. No entanto, o euro parece ter funcionado como “porto de abrigo” durante a recessão provocada pela crise financeira internacional.Portugal faced a decade of feeble economic growth after joining the European Economic and Monetary Union. Systematic research of the specific effects of this regime change on growth is still lacking. The ­counterfactual analysis that we undertake in this paper seeks to fill such a gap. Our findings suggest that the adoption of the Euro did have adverse effects on Portuguese economy. To the contrary, in 2009, the Euro seems to have sheltered the ­Portuguese economy from the worse effects of the international financial crisis.

  18. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  19. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) shall be used. (b) In compliance with the perform- ance bond and payment bond requirements of Article 14... November 1950) respectively, shall be used. Such bonds (in the respective penal sums of 50 percent of the... penal sum of 40 percent of such job order contract price) shall guarantee the Contractor's performance...

  1. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds, is ...

  2. Optimization and testing of dried antibody tube: The EuroFlow LST and PIDOT tubes as examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); J. Flores-Montero (Juan); M. Perez-Andres; M. Martin-Ayuso (M.); Crespo, O. (Oliver); Blanco, E. (Elena); T. Kalina (Tomas); J. Philippé (Jan); Bonroy, C. (Carolien); M. de Bie (Maaike); J.G. te Marvelde (Jeroen); C. Teodosio (Cristina); Corral Mateos, A. (Alba); V. Kanderová (V.); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); Van Hoof, D. (Dennis); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWithin EuroFlow, we recently developed screening tubes for hematological malignancies and immune deficiencies. Pipetting of antibodies for such 8-color 12-marker tubes however is time-consuming and prone to operational mistakes. We therefore evaluated dried formats of the lymphocytosis

  3. The intervention process in the European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) trial: a mixed method protocol for evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I.M. van de; Bunn, C.; Gray, C.M.; Hunt, K.; Andersen, E.; Jelsma, J.; Morgan, H.; Pereira, H.; Roberts, G.; Rooksby, J.; Roynesdal, O.; Silva, M.; Sorensen, M.; Treweek, S.; Achterberg, M. van; Ploeg, H. van der; Nassau, F. van; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.; Wyke, S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EuroFIT is a gender-sensitised, health and lifestyle program targeting physical activity, sedentary time and dietary behaviours in men. The delivery of the program in football clubs, led by the clubs' community coaches, is designed to both attract and engage men in lifestyle change

  4. "Battered Hero" or "Innocent Victim"? A Comparative Study of Metaphors for Euro Trading in British and German Financial Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan; Musolff, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    This corpus-based study compares the use of metaphor in the reporting of the Euro in the English and German financial press during a period of turbulent financial trading. While the approach to metaphor is broadly cognitive linguistic, metaphors are identified using two criteria; a broad semantic one that includes cases of reification and…

  5. Predictors of having a resistance test following confirmed virological failure of combination antiretroviral therapy: data from EuroSIDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Zoe V; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    these recommendations. Methods: In EuroSIDA, virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed VL>1,000 copies/ml after =4 months continuous use of any antiretroviral in a =3-drug regimen started during or after 2002. We assessed whether a resistance test was performed around VF (from 4 months before to 1 year after VF...

  6. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  7. Asian and Euro-American Parents' Ethnotheories of Play and Learning: Effects on Preschool Children's Home Routines and School Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parminder; Harkness, Sara; Super, Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    Asian and Euro-American parents of preschool-aged children were interviewed concerning their beliefs about the nature and purpose of play; they also completed two questionnaires and a diary of their children's daily activities. The children's teachers were interviewed and provided information about the behaviour of the children in preschool. The…

  8. Socialization Environments of Chinese and Euro-American Middle-Class Babies: Parenting Behaviors, Verbal Discourses and Ethnotheories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan

    2007-01-01

    Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…

  9. Dietary Habits and Supplement Use in Relation to National Pregnancy Recommendations: Data from the EuroPrevall Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, E. M.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Schoemaker, A. A.; Keil, T.; McBride, D.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Ragnarsdottir, H. S.; Trendelenburg, V.; Emmanouil, E.; Reche, M.; Fiocchi, A.; Fiandor, A.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Wilczynski, J.; Busacca, M.; Sigurdardottir, S. T.; Dubakiene, R.; Rudzeviciene, O.; Vlaxos, G. D.; Beyer, K.; Roberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing maternal dietary habits across Europe during pregnancy in relation to their national pregnancy recommendations. A collaborative, multi-centre, birth cohort study in nine European countries was conducted as part of European Union funded EuroPrevall project. Standardised baseline

  10. Six-day PM10 air quality forecasts for the Netherlahnds with the chemistry transport model Lotos-Euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, M.; Manders-de Groot, A.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the ability of the chemistry transport model Lotos-Euros to forecast, with a range of six days, PM10 concentrations and exceedances thereof. For both rural and non-rural locations in The Netherlands and based on one year of data, model performance does not deteriorate up to a

  11. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  12. Uptake of tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy among HIV-HBV-coinfected patients in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Lars; Mocroft, Amanda; Grint, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: All HBsAg+ patients followed up...

  13. Real world CO2and NOxemissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Rosalind; Stettler, Marc E J; Molden, Nick; Oxley, Tim; ApSimon, Helen M

    2018-04-15

    In this study CO 2 and NO x emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars were compared using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). The models sampled accounted for 56% of all passenger cars sold in Europe in 2016. We found gasoline vehicles had CO 2 emissions 13-66% higher than diesel. During urban driving, the average CO 2 emission factor was 210.5 (sd. 47) gkm -1 for gasoline and 170.2 (sd. 34) gkm -1 for diesel. Half the gasoline vehicles tested were Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Euro 6 GDI engines cars. The average urban NO x emission from Euro 6 diesel vehicles 0.44 (sd. 0.44) gkm -1 was 11 times higher than for gasoline 0.04 (sd. 0.04) gkm -1 . We also analysed two gasoline-electric hybrids which out-performed both gasoline and diesel for NO x and CO 2 . We conclude action is required to mitigate the public health risk created by excessive NO x emissions from modern diesel vehicles. Replacing diesel with gasoline would incur a substantial CO 2 penalty, however greater uptake of hybrid vehicles would likely reduce both CO 2 and NO x emissions. Discrimination of vehicles on the basis of Euro standard is arbitrary and incentives should promote vehicles with the lowest real-world emissions of both NO x and CO 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of gastric acid on euro coins: chemical reaction and radiographic appearance after ingestion by infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, S; Scharitzer, M; Cengiz, K; Jetzinger, E; Rupprecht, L

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated whether coins of the new European currency (euro) corrode when they are exposed to gastric acid, and whether this change can be detected radiographically. The eight different denominations of coins were immersed for seven days in 0.15 N hydrochloride acid (HCl), which corresponds to the level of post-prandial gastric acid. A Swedish crown coin and three different Austrian schilling coins were used as controls. The coins were weighed and radiographed daily to evaluate visible corrosions and HCl was analysed daily for possible dissolved substances. All coins lost weight within 24 hours after exposure to HCl. The 1, 2, and 5 euro cent coins developed changes that were visible on radiographs. The weights of all coins decreased by 0.43% to 11.30% during one week. The dissolved substances measured in the HCl corresponded to the different metals and alloys of the coins, except for copper, which does not dissolve in HCl. The highest absolute weight loss was observed in the Swedish crown coin (0.67 g), and the highest relative weight loss in the 1 Austrian schilling coin (11.30%). The two coins that showed the highest absolute and relative weight losses were the 2 euro (0.54 g or 6.35%) and the 1 euro (0.48 g or 6.39%) coin. A higher rate of toxicity for the new European coins compared with coins of other currencies is not expected, unless a massive coin ingestion occurs.

  15. Establishment and advances in the online Serbian food and recipe data base harmonized with EuroFIR™ standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Takić, Marija; Nikolić, Marina; Ranković, Slavica; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    Within the European Food Information Resource Network of Excellence (EuroFIR NoE; FP6) and EuroFIR Nexus (FP7) project paucity in food composition databases (FCDB) in the Central Eastern Europe/Balkan (CEE/B) region was identified. As a member of EuroFIR NoE, the Centre of Research Excellence in Nutrition and Metabolism, Serbia initiated creation of the 1st online Serbian FCDB employing EuroFIR quality framework and CEN Food Data Standard requirements, supporting capacity development and designing the web-based Food Composition Data Management (FCDM) software for FCDB building. The 1st online version of Serbian FCDB was launched in 2007, and then extended with food composition data from other Balkan countries (Balkan Food Platform-Regional FCDB). All foods are indexed using LanguaL Thesaurus and coded with EFSA FoodEx2 coding system. To date, upgraded Serbian FCDB with 1046 foods and 129 traditional/common Serbian composite dishes is a prerequisite for nutritional research in Serbia, CEE/B region and wider Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  17. Fundamental reactivity of the Metal-Carbon bond in cyclometalated PNC-complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, L.S.

    2016-01-01

    The activation of C-H bonds by transition metals and the reactivity of the corresponding metal-carbon bond are interesting research topics form different point of views. Catalytic C-H bond functionalization has emerged as a highly active research area for the development of green construction of

  18. Analysis of tensile bond strengths using Weibull statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Michael F; Thomas, David; Swain, Mike V; Tyas, Martin J

    2004-09-01

    Tensile strength tests of restorative resins bonded to dentin, and the resultant strengths of interfaces between the two, exhibit wide variability. Many variables can affect test results, including specimen preparation and storage, test rig design and experimental technique. However, the more fundamental source of variability, that associated with the brittle nature of the materials, has received little attention. This paper analyzes results from micro-tensile tests on unfilled resins and adhesive bonds between restorative resin composite and dentin in terms of reliability using the Weibull probability of failure method. Results for the tensile strengths of Scotchbond Multipurpose Adhesive (3M) and Clearfil LB Bond (Kuraray) bonding resins showed Weibull moduli (m) of 6.17 (95% confidence interval, 5.25-7.19) and 5.01 (95% confidence interval, 4.23-5.8). Analysis of results for micro-tensile tests on bond strengths to dentin gave moduli between 1.81 (Clearfil Liner Bond 2V) and 4.99 (Gluma One Bond, Kulzer). Material systems with m in this range do not have a well-defined strength. The Weibull approach also enables the size dependence of the strength to be estimated. An example where the bonding area was changed from 3.1 to 1.1 mm diameter is shown. Weibull analysis provides a method for determining the reliability of strength measurements in the analysis of data from bond strength and tensile tests on dental restorative materials.

  19. Social bonds and rank acquisition in raven nonbreeder aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Anna; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Complex social life has been characterized as cognitively challenging and recently, social relationships such as long-term social bonds and alliances have been identified as key elements for brain evolution. Whereas good evidence is available to support the link between social relations and cognition in mammals, it remains unsatisfying for birds. Here we investigated the role of avian social bonds in a nonbreeder aggregation of ravens, Corvus corax, in the Austrian Alps. We individually marked 138 wild ravens, representing approximately half of a population that uses the area of a local zoo for foraging. For 2 years, we observed the dynamics of group composition and the birds' agonistic and affiliative interactions. We identified two levels of organization: the formation of an unrelated local group and the individuals' engagement in social bonds of different length and reciprocity pattern. Whereas belonging to the local group had no significant effect on conflicts won during foraging, the individual bonding type did. Birds that engaged in affiliative relationships were more successful when competing for food than those without such bonds. Bonded birds did suffer from aggression by other bonded birds and, probably as a consequence, most of the ravens' social relations were not stable over time. These results support the idea that social bonding and selective cooperation and competition are prominent features in nonbreeding ravens. Proximately, bonding may qualify as a social manoeuvre that facilitates access to resources; ultimately it might function to assess the quality of a partner in these long-term monogamous birds. PMID:23264693

  20. POLAND IN AND OUTSIDE THE EURO ZONE – RISKS AND BENEFITS IN THE LIGHT OF NEW POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Dobrowolski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the benefits and risks of Poland adopting the euro in the light of current political and economic conditions. For this purpose, the following research methods were used: literature research, intuitive method and descriptive statistics. Poland has fulfilled the criteria for nominal convergence for two years, apart from participating in the ERM II mechanism, but the political situation in the country precludes the adoption of measures leading to the euro zone. The future shape of this zone is yet unknown, as its closer integration is planned. Theoretical analysis indicates that the process of globalization makes it difficult for medium-sized, open-economy countries to pursue autonomous monetary and exchange rate policy, so the loss of these instruments after the adoption of the euro should not jeopardize long-term economic growth, even in the case of asymmetric shocks. The market mechanisms of restoring the balance and fiscal policy may then be used. The economy will also benefit from the elimination of transaction costs and exchange rate risks in the euro zone. The analysis shows that it is possible to use the opportunity for faster GDP growth associated with the adoption of the common currency if the right economic policy is pursued. Adopting the euro may also incur costs. For banks it can be the loss of foreign exchange earnings and commissions on FX hedge transactions. For the economy it can be the possibility of speculative bubbles, as a result of excessive consumption growth, caused by possibly too low interest rates. Expected benefits should, however, outweigh any losses.

  1. Cirugía cardíaca estratificada por EuroSCORE: Supervivencia a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Borracci

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue explorar la utilidad del EuroSCORE logístico para estratificar las curvas de supervivencia alejada en una muestra de pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca. Se analizaron los resultados a 8 años de 390 pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca entre 2003-2004, de acuerdo al puntaje inicial del EuroSCORE logístico, divididos en tres grupos de riesgo: < 5%, 5-14.9% y ≥15%. La supervivencia por Kaplan-Meier a 8 años de la cirugía coronaria dividida por el EuroSCORE fue 83.5% para un riesgo inicial < 5%, 65.2% para un riesgo inicial entre 5 y 14.9% y 40.0% para un riesgo inicial ≥15% (p = 0.000; mientras que de la cirugía valvular o combinada fue 86.1%, 60.0% y 18.2% respectivamente (p = 0.0000. Para el total de pacientes, el área ROC fue 0.759 (p = 0.000, para un EuroSCORE <5% fue 0.689 (p = 0.002, entre 5 y 14.9% fue 0.544 (p = 0.499 y para ≥15% fue 0.725 (p = 0.067. En conclusión, el EuroSCORE logístico permitió estratificar adecuadamente las curvas de supervivencia alejada en una muestra de pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca, tanto en la cirugía coronaria como en la valvular o combinada. La estratificación de los resultados a largo plazo separados por riesgo constituye una forma razonable de presentar el pronóstico.

  2. Fire emissions in Euro-Mediterranean area: evaluation of the impact on trace gases composition using satellite and surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, P.; Turquety, S.; Stromatas, S.; Menut, L.; Anav, A.; Coheur, P.-F.; R'honi, Y.; Bessagnet, B.; Clerbaux, C.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires are one of the main sources of trace gases and aerosols. However, their impact remains poorly quantified due to large uncertainties especially on the emissions, as well as on the transport processes and chemical evolution of the pollution plumes. In the framework of APIFLAME project a new high resolution fire emission inventory is developed. Simulations performed with the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, are carried out in order to assess the effect of the emissions scenarios on air quality in Europe and Mediterranean basin. For a comprehensive evaluation of the processes involved with fire emissions and a validation of simulations, the modeled species are compared to satellite observations and ground measurements. The latter data have good accuracy with high temporal resolution, but they are collected at specific locations and, in general for our case study, are far away from the location where wildfires occur. On the other hand, the satellite data, due to their high spatial coverage, can be a useful tool for monitoring pollution plumes transport, but their vertical resolution is often limited to a total column amount. In this study, the modeled concentrations are compared to the ground measurements (CO, O3 and NO2 concentrations) that come from AirBase database, and to CO partial columns and CO, NH3 and C2H4 total columns from the IASI instrument, to NO2 and CH2O total columns from GOME2 (both on MetOp-A satellite) and to NO2 total columns from OMI (on Aura). In the presented work we focus on strong biomass burning episodes that occurred in summer 2007. Particular attention is given to the evolution of the plume characteristics. The same fire inventory setup is used for both reanalysis and near-real time analysis. The first evaluation of the air quality forecasting system including fires will be presented.

  3. Some empirical tests on the integration of economic activity between the euro area and the accession countries / Iikka Korhonen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korhonen, Iikka

    2003-01-01

    Uurimusest, mille tulemusena selgus, et esimesena liitumisläbirääkimisi alustanud EL-i kandidaatriigid on enam integreeritud majandustegevusse eurotsoonis ning on lisaks liitumisele EL-iga valmis varem liituma ka Euroopa Rahaliiduga. Tabelid.

  4. Dinamica demografica della Libia e di alcuni paesi dell'area euro-mediterranea e possibili riflessi sulle relazioni internazionali

    OpenAIRE

    Golini, Antonio; Valeria DE ANGELIS; Cristiano MARINI; Paola VITTORI

    2006-01-01

    Population of Libya is expected to complete, in a short time, its first demographic transition from high to low levels of fertility and mortality. This process is favoured by a high level of education, also among women, and high degree of urbanisation. Future behaviours of couples will largely affect its future demographic path. If between 2005 and 2050 the average number of children per woman should pass from the current 3.0 to 2.4, then the Libyan population will increase from 5.8 to 11.1 m...

  5. Tracking the business cycle of the Euro area: A multivariate model-based band-pass filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, J.M.; Koopman, S.J.; Rua, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a multivariate bandpass filter based on the trend plus cycle decomposition model. The underlying multivariate dynamic factor model relies on specific formulations for trend and cycle components and produces smooth business cycle indicators with bandpass filter properties.

  6. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  7. Methods used in dentine bonding tests: an analysis of 102 investigations on bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor; Hussain, Aftab; Nolan, Lawrence; Fleming, Garry J P

    2008-12-01

    Bond strength testing of resin-based materials to dentine may provide evidence as to the potential effectiveness of a dentine-bonding agent in producing adhesion and minimising microleakage. The purpose of this analysis was to analyse the methods used in 102 recently-published investigations on bond strength tests of resin composite to dentine. One hundred and two papers, published during the years 1998 to 2002 on the subject of bond strength measurement of resin composite to dentine were identified from a literature search. These papers were assessed for their inclusion of the following variables: type of test, thermal cycling regime, tooth notation, storage medium, preparation of dentine surface, rate of load application, type of dentine, film thickness, dimensions of surface area contact and time of testing. Shear testing was the most common type of test, used in 46% (n=47) of the papers analysed, human dentine was used in 77% (n=79) of the investigations, and 24 h post-placement was the predominant time of specimen testing (67%, n=68). Surface area of contact, or specimen diameter, was stated in 65% (n=66) of the papers analysed. A number of variables were not stated in a majority of papers. There was little standardization of test methods and a number of potentially significant variables may not be reported or recorded in bond strength determinations which limit the overall standardization between different test centres.

  8. Astrobiology Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars Analogue Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give an update on the astrobiology results from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert. These are relevant to prepare future lunar landers and polar sample return missions, interpret Moon-Mars data (eg SMART1, LRO, Mars Express, MRO, MER, MSL), study habitability and astrobiology in Moon-Mars environments, or to test human-robotic surface EVA or base operations. In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [0, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from re-mote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geo-chemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Results: Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [0-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. We acknowledge team members and supporting institutes: B.H. Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), I. Schlacht (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H

  9. Developing Foreign Bond Markets: The Arirang Bond Experience in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan A. Batten; Peter G. Szilagyi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the development of Korea’s foreign bond (Arirang) market for won-denominated foreign bonds. We provide an institutional perspective and discuss the problems, concerns and key issues related to the development of this market. We find no evidence that Arirang issuance either crowded out local debt or had exchange rate implications. Overall, the Korean experience provides valuable lessons for other emerging nations seeking to build bond markets for local and foreign issue...

  10. Is gait speed improving performance of the EuroSCORE II for prediction of early mortality and major morbidity in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudon, Irma; Noyez, Luc; VAN Swieten, Henry; Scheffer, Gert J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if gait speed can be an incremental predictor for mortality and/or major morbidity in combination with EuroSCORE II. A single center prospective study cohort of 150 patients aged 70 years or older and undergoing cardiac surgery between August 2012 and April 2013. Slow gait speed was defined as a time taken to walk 5 meters of ≥6 second. The logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II were used for risk stratification. The studied group had a mean age of 77.7±5.2 years and mean gait speed was 4.9±1.01 (3.0-8.6) seconds. Slow gait speed was recorded in 21 patients (14%), indicated as frail, the other 129 patients (86%) as active. The logistic EuroSCORE risk (P=0.528), was not significantly different between the two groups. The EuroSCORE II risk, however, was significantly higher (P=0.023) for the frail group. There was no mortality and no statistically significant difference in percentage of major morbidity between the frail (28.6%) versus 17.1% for the active group (P=0.209) and slow gait speed could not be identified as independent predictor. Nevertheless frailty demonstrated an incremental value to improve performance of the logistic EuroSCORE model to predict early mortality and/or major morbidity in this elderly patient population. This was not so for EuroSCORE II. We confirm the incremental value of frailty, evaluated by gait speed, to improve mortality and morbidity prediction of the logistic EuroSCORE model in elderly undergoing cardiac surgery. We could not confirm this for the new EuroSCORE II model.

  11. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  12. PREFACE: Euro-TMCS I: Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, F. M.; Rodríguez-Bolívar, S.; Tomić, S.

    2015-05-01

    The present issue contains a selection of the best contributed works presented at the first Euro-TMCS conference (Theory, Modelling and Computational Methods for Semiconductors, European Session). The conference was held at Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Granada, Spain on 28st-30st January 2015. This conference is the first European edition of the TMCS conference series which started in 2008 at the University of Manchester and has always been held in the United Kingdom. Four previous conferences have been previously carried out (Manchester 2008, York 2010, Leeds 2012 and Salford 2014). Euro-TMCS is run for three days; the first one devoted to giving invited tutorials, aimed particularly at students, on recent development of theoretical methods. On this occasion the session was focused on the presentation of widely-used computational methods for the modelling of physical processes in semiconductor materials. Freely available simulation software (SIESTA, Quantum Espresso and Yambo) as well as commercial software (TiberCad and MedeA) were presented in the conference by members of their development team, offering to the audience an overview of their capabilities for research. The second part of the conference showcased prestigious invited and contributed oral presentations, alongside poster sessions, in which direct discussion with authors was promoted. The scope of this conference embraces modelling, theory and the use of sophisticated computational tools in semiconductor science and technology. Theoretical approaches represented in this meeting included: Density Functional Theory, Semi-empirical Electronic Structure Methods, Multi-scale Approaches, Modelling of PV devices, Electron Transport, and Graphene. Topics included, but were not limited to: Optical Properties of Quantum Nanostructures including Colloids and Nanotubes, Plasmonics, Magnetic Semiconductors, Photonic Structures, and Electronic Devices. The Editors Acknowledgments: We would like to thank all

  13. Environmental Impacts of the Production and Application of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Mireille; Woods, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    One of the potential benefits of biochar is carbon sequestration. To determine the overall net sequestration potential it is important to analyse the full supply chain, assessing both the direct and indirect emissions associated with the production and application of biochar. However, it is essential to also incorporate additional environmental impact categories to ensure the assessment of a more complete environmental impact profile. This paper uses a full life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the results from the EuroChar, 'biochar for carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere', project. This EU Seventh Framework Programme project aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar, and in particular explore possible pathways for its introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe. The LCA methodology, according to the ISO standards, is applied to the project-specific supply chains to analyse the environmental impacts of biochar production and application. Two conversion technologies for the production of biochar are assessed, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), in order to provide conversion efficiencies and emission factors for the biochar production component of the supply chain. The selected feedstocks include those derived from waste residues and dedicated crops. For the end use stage, various forms and methods for biochar application are considered. In addition to the Global Warming Potential category, other environmental impact categories are also included in the analysis. The resulting 'feedstock * conversion technology' matrix provides nine pathways for the production and application of biochar, which are applied as a representative basis for the scenario modelling. These scenarios have been developed in order to assess the feedstock and land availability in Europe for the production and application of biochar and to give an order of

  14. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantón Francisco R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine, since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes. As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5% of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including

  15. Prefabricated veneers - bond strengths and ultramorphological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Jorge; Sezinando, Ana; Muñoz, Miguel A; Luque-Martinez, Issis V; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2014-04-01

    To measure the microshear bond strengths (μSBS) of composite resin to the intaglio surface of prefabricated indirect veneers and analyze the FE-SEM ultramorphology of the pretreated intaglio surfaces as well as the fracture modes. Three veneer systems (veneer and respective luting material) were used in this study: two prefabricated veneer types, Cerinate One-hour (CER, DenMat) and Componeer (CMP, Coltene), and a laboratory- made veneer, IPS e.max Press (IPS, Ivoclar Vivadent) used as the control. For each group, 10 veneers were used. After delimitation of the bonding area with a double-faced adhesive tape, 0.8-mm-diameter cylinders of composite luting material were bonded to the pretreated intaglio surface. After polymerization, the specimens were fractured in shear mode using the wire-loop method in a universal testing machine. The pretreated intaglio surface of two extra veneers and four fractured specimens per group were morphologically characterized using FE-SEM. CER resulted in statistically lower mean μSBS (7.1 ± 1.2 MPa) than the other two veneer systems, CMP (15.2 ± 2.5 MPa) and IPS (14.7 ± 1.7 MPa) at p veneer systems resulted in greater bond strengths than those of the CER veneer system.

  16. Better Bonded Ethernet Load Balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabler, Jason

    2006-09-29

    When a High Performance Storage System's mover shuttles large amounts of data to storage over a single Ethernet device that single channel can rapidly become saturated. Using Linux Ethernet channel bonding to address this and similar situations was not, until now, a viable solution. The various modes in which channel bonding could be configured always offered some benefit but only under strict conditions or at a system resource cost that was greater than the benefit gained by using channel bonding. Newer bonding modes designed by various networking hardware companies, helpful in such networking scenarios, were already present in their own switches. However, Linux-based systems were unable to take advantage of those new modes as they had not yet been implemented in the Linux kernel bonding driver. So, except for basic fault tolerance, Linux channel bonding could not positively combine separate Ethernet devices to provide the necessary bandwidth.

  17. EuroVAST 2010, First International Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology: Held on June 8, 2010 in Bordeaux, France, co-located with the annual EuroVis 2010 Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlhammer, J.; Keim, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    EuroVAST 2010 is the first international symposium on visual analytics science and technology held in Europe. The goal of the symposium is to promote and advance the combination and integration of visualization and analytics methods for the purpose of problem solving in a variety of application domains (engineering, business, public policy, medicine, security, etc). Visual Analytics is the science of analytical reasoning supported by the interactive visual interfaces, which requires interdisc...

  18. Prediction of fracture toughness and durability of adhesively bonded composite joints with undesirable bonding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaramthota, Vishal

    Advanced composite materials have enabled the conventional aircraft structures to reduce weight, improve fuel efficiency and offer superior mechanical properties. In the past, materials such as aluminum, steel or titanium have been used to manufacture aircraft structures for support of heavy loads. Within the last decade or so, demand for advanced composite materials have been emerging that offer significant advantages over the traditional metallic materials. Of particular interest in the recent years, there has been an upsurge in scientific significance in the usage of adhesively bonded composite joints (ABCJ's). ABCJ's negate the introduction of stress risers that are associated with riveting or other classical techniques. In today's aircraft transportation market, there is a push to increase structural efficiency by promoting adhesive bonding to primary joining of aircraft structures. This research is focused on the issues associated with the durability and related failures in bonded composite joints that continue to be a critical hindrance to the universal acceptance of ABCJ's. Of particular interest are the short term strength, contamination and long term durability of ABCJ's. One of the factors that influence bond performance is contamination and in this study the influence of contamination on composite-adhesive bond quality was investigated through the development of a repeatable and scalable surface contamination procedure. Results showed an increase in the contaminant coverage area decreases the overall bond strength significantly. A direct correlation between the contaminant coverage area and the fracture toughness of the bonded joint was established. Another factor that influences bond performance during an aircraft's service life is its long term strength upon exposure to harsh environmental conditions or when subjected to severe mechanical loading. A test procedure was successfully developed in order to evaluate durability of ABCJ's comprising severe

  19. Why Should Governments Issue Bonds?

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, David

    1993-01-01

    This paper has three purposes. First, it shows that several recent arguments that the optimal nominal interest rate on government bonds is zero even when second best considerations are accounted for rest on perfect substitutes assumptions. Second, it characterizes the conditions under which the issue of interest-bearing bonds is desirable once these assumptions are relaxed. And third, it shows that these potential microeconomic benefits of bond issue are closely related to traditional macroec...

  20. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca; Daene Patrícia Tenório Salvador da Costa; Renata Cimões; Lúcia Carneiro de Souza Beatrice; Ana Cláudia da Silva Araújo

    2010-01-01

    The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified ...

  1. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence...

  2. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  3. Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-05-01

    We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.

  4. ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING THE VOLATILITY OF EURO – DOLLAR EXCHANGE RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václava Pánková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on volatility and asymmetry of the exchange rate is applied to the Euro/USD relation. Starting in U.S.A., the financial and economic crisis influenced European Union with a certain delay. On the other hand, this years´ problems in Eurozone are paralleled by rising American economy. That is why we can expect both currencies to develop in different ways. In general, the depreciation deviation of exchange rate can lead to a higher volatility than the appreciation deviation, what implicates asymmetric effects. The uncertainty of exchange rate has a tendency to be inconstant in the time-varying cases, so it has a feature of conditional heteroscedasticity. That is why the models from the ARCH family are employed to study whether the asymmetry is present in the data in question; source: ECB. The Engle – Ng tests for asymmetry in volatility are used to determine whether an asymmetric model is required as adequate. A forecast will be given including an ex post comparison as well as an ex ante prognosis. Financial support from the GA CR project 402/09/0273 and the Research Plan MSM 6138439909 is appreciated.

  5. Network analysis of returns and volume trading in stock markets: The Euro Stoxx case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, Juan Gabriel; Matesanz, David; Seijas, Maria Nela

    2016-02-01

    This study applies network analysis to analyze the structure of the Euro Stoxx market during the long period from 2002 up to 2014. The paper generalizes previous research on stock market networks by including asset returns and volume trading as the main variables to study the financial market. A multidimensional generalization of the minimal spanning tree (MST) concept is introduced, by adding the role of trading volume to the traditional approach which only includes price returns. Additionally, we use symbolization methods to the raw data to study the behavior of the market structure in different, normal and critical, situations. The hierarchical organization of the network is derived, and the MST for different sub-periods of 2002-2014 is created to illustrate how the structure of the market evolves over time. From the structural topologies of these trees, different clusters of companies are identified and analyzed according to their geographical and economic links. Two important results are achieved. Firstly, as other studies have highlighted, at the time of the financial crisis after 2008 the network becomes a more centralized one. Secondly and most important, during our second period of analysis, 2008-2014, we observe that hierarchy becomes more country-specific where different sub-clusters of stocks belonging to France, Germany, Spain or Italy are found apart from their business sector group. This result may suggest that during this period of time financial investors seem to be worried most about country specific economic circumstances.

  6. Modelo competitivo da distância percorrida por futebolistas na Uefa Euro 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Volpi Braz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo centra-se em conhecer o modelo competitivo da distância percorrida por futebolistas na Uefa Euro 2008, mediante as posições de jogo, os tempos e a distância total percorrida durante as partidas. Foram analisadas todas as partidas das 16 seleções, totalizando 31 jogos, dos quais participaram 460 futebolistas. Posteriormente, produziram-se informações descritivas e inferenciais. Os principais resultados apontam que: i futebolistas da elite europeia percorreram 10232 ± 852m; ii meio-campistas (10894 ± 648m percorreram maior distância, seguidos pelos laterais (10274±694m, atacantes (10108 ± 624m, zagueiros (9498 ± 592m e goleiros (4198 ± 610m; iii a distância média percorrida no 1º tempo (4907 ± 201m das partidas foi maior do que a do 2º tempo (4890 ± 238m.

  7. Technological Language as a Common Language for Euro-Mediterranean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Sebastio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social networks provide new forms of public spaces, virtual continents populated by people of different races, languages, and religions that communicate with a single language, in one unique mode and with one unique tool. In the era of extreme social participation, it is impossible not to consider the role of future policies of education. We cannot ignore the basic language in which the Euro-Mediterranean people recognize themselves, allowing them to interact on all sides of the Mediterranean basin. Technology provides a dialogue bridge, as well as mutual recognition and accreditation for the people who share the Mediterranean Sea and the world. The Internet is the true centre of the Union membership and provides a common good, which generates shared recognition and willingness to communicate; furthermore, it results in the renunciation of personal data protection, as well as the management of its powers to private entities. The aim of this paper is to envisage the effects of the electronic society on the Mediterranean Policies.

  8. Estudo comparativo de desempenho: Salário Mínimo Nacional X Dólar e Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Almeida Aguiar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa descrita neste trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desempenho do SM (Salário Mínimo Nacional nos períodos de 1994 a 2014 em comparação  com as moedas norte americana e europeia, o dólar e o euro, respctivamente, pois são moedas de referência mundial. A fundamentação teórica desse estudo foi baseada em pesquisas bibliográficas e artigos.  Este trabalho verificou que a inflação reduziu com a chegada do plano real, pois o país sofria com a hiperinflação. Observou-se que comparado com o dólar e o euro o SM foi valorizado.

  9. Comment lutter contre la fragmentation du système bancaire de la zone euro: Etude spéciale

    OpenAIRE

    Antonin, Céline; Blot, Christophe; Creel, Jérôme; Labondance, Fabien; Touze, Vincent; Hubert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Le système bancaire de la zone euro a été fortement touché par deux crises : celle des subprime puis celle des dettes souveraines. Il s'en est suivi un processus de fragmentation du système bancaire qui s'est traduit par des difficultés de financement pour les banques des pays en crise et par une hétérogénéité des conditions de financement – taux des prêts aux ménages et aux entreprises de la zone euro. Si la BCE est parvenue à éviter une crise systémique majeure, cette situation a perturb...

  10. The impact of cardiac surgery in native valve infective endocarditis: Can euroSCORE guide patient selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bruun, Louise E; Lund, Jens

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decision making regarding surgical intervention in native valve endocarditis (NVE) is often complex and surgery is withheld in a number of patients either because medical treatment is considered the best treatment or because the risk of operation is considered too high. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the outcome of surgical treatment and to validate the ability of euroSCORE to predict operative mortality in NVE patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including 323 consecutive NVE patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on treatment strategy and indication....../contraindication for surgery. The additive and logistic euroSCORE was calculated and the observed and predicted mortality was compared. RESULTS: Cardiac surgery was associated with a good prognosis, in-hospital and after 12months, compared to conservative treatment. After adjustment for confounders surgery was associated...

  11. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  12. Microtensile bond strength to Er:YAG laser pretreated dentin

    OpenAIRE

    da Graça Lopes, Roberta Marques; Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry (LELO) – Department of Restorative Dentistry – School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo (USP) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry (LELO) – Department of Restorative Dentistry – School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo (USP) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Aranha, Ana Cecília Côrrea; Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry (LELO) – Department of Restorative Dentistry – School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo (USP) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Castellan, Carina Strano; Department of Dental Materials – School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo (USP) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry (LELO) – Department of Restorative Dentistry – School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo (USP) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil. Center for Reseacrh and Innovation in Laser – Universidade Nove de Julho – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Dias Vieira Júnior, Nilson; Center of Lasers and Applications – Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos; Special Laboratory of Lasers in Dentistry (LELO) – Department of Restorative Dentistry – School of Dentistry – University of São Paulo (USP) – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although the effects of Er:YAG  (erbium:yttrium aluminium garnet) laser on cavity  preparation as well as on dentin bonding to composite  have been described in the literature, the longevity of  this bond is still unknown. So, this study evaluated the  short-term microtensile bond strength to dentin samples  after different protocols of surface treatment. Materials  and Methods: 60 bovine incisors were cleaned, worn  to expose a dentin area and subdivided into groups  according to ...

  13. Bond Assembly FOD Zones - A Procedure for Assuring Acceptable Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kurt; Wurth, Laura; Mitchell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Rocket motor components are primarily assembled by adhesion. a) For example, the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - part of the Space Shuttle Boosters) system contains 10,000 sq ft of bondline area. b) Rocket motors contain a variety of adhesive/substrate bond systems c) Bond system performance requirements also vary. To assemble reliable components, ATK Space Systems and customers invest substantial resources to the study of bond assembly processes. a) Surface and adhesion science; b) Adhesive chemistry; c) Process parameters; d) Contamination effects.

  14. A PROTOTYPE OF BARENTSNET PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL NETWORK FOR INFORMATION SUPPORT OF DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT FOR BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey V. Masloboev; Remi Strand

    2014-01-01

    A prototype of professional social network BarentsNet has been developed for management activities information support of entities participating in the management process of developing and resource potential settling of the Barents EuroArctic region. BarentsNet system is implemented as a multi-domain web-service and provides formalized ontology-based expert knowledge integration of the Arctic and sub-Arctic territories development features, and professional contacts linking automa...

  15. A not so delicate sound of Europeanness : European fiscal policy events and the euro-dollar risk premium

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrholz, Christian; Schneider, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Although the European Monetary Union (EMU) is mainly an economic institution, its future has always hinged upon political manoeuvres. This article examines whether and to what extent non-scheduled and scheduled political events concerning the fiscal governance framework of the EMU have influenced foreign exchange markets. In particular, we estimate how decisions made by the European Commission, the Economic and Financial Affairs Council and the European Council affected the systematic euro-do...

  16. EFICYENCY OF THE BALL PASSES IN THE FINALE SOCCER MATCH IN THE EUROPENA CHAMPIONSHIP ,,EURO 2008”

    OpenAIRE

    Bylbyl Sokoli; Fatmir Pireva; Shemsedin Vehapi

    2011-01-01

    The modern soccer has a wide variability and complexity of the technical-tactical and motoric elements during the game, which are oriented in increasing the tempo, efficiency, dynamics, attractiveness and success in competition. In this work was analyzed the sample of 27 soccer players from two national teams: the national team of Spain and the national team of Germany, the first and second ranged team in the European championship ,,EURO 2008 “ With the information gathered with the ,,Castrol...

  17. Energy Management Analysis under Different Operating Modes for a Euro-6 Plug-in Hybrid Passenger Car

    OpenAIRE

    CUBITO CLAUDIO; ROLANDO LUCIANO; MILLO FEDERICO; CIUFFO BIAGIO; SERRA SIMONE; TRENTADUE GERMANA; OTURA GARCIA MARCOS; FONTARAS GEORGIOS

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the Energy Management System (EMS) of a Euro 6 C-segment parallel Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) available on the European market, equipped with a Flywheel Alternator Starter (FAS). The car has various selectable operating modes, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV), Blended and Sport, characterized by a different usage of the electric driving with significant effects on the electric range and on CO2 emissions. The different hybrid control strategies were investigated apply...

  18. Push-out bond strengths of two fiber post types bonded with different dentin bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Erdemir, Ugur; Sahinkesen, Gunes; Mumcu, Emre; Yildiz, Esra; Uslan, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional push-out bond strengths for two fiber-reinforced post types using three different dentin bonding agents. Sixty single-rooted extracted human first premolar teeth were sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Following standardized post space preparations, the roots were divided into two fiber-post groups (Glassix and Carbopost), and further divided into three subgroups of 10 specimens each for the bonding systems self-etching dentin bonding agents (Clearfil SE Bond and Optibond all-in-one), and total-etching dentin bonding agent (XP Bond). A dual-cure resin luting cement (Maxcem) was then placed in the post spaces and posts were then seated into the root canals polymerized through the cervical portion. The roots were then cut into 3-mm thick sections. Push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with multivariate ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). The morphology of interface between different dentin bonding agents from the cervical sections were analyzed with SEM. Glass fiber-reinforced posts demonstrated significantly higher push-out bond strengths than carbon fiber-reinforced posts (p dentin adhesive Clearfil SE Bond and total-etching dentin adhesive XP Bond demonstrated similar bond strengths values and this was significantly higher compared with the Optibond all-in-one in cervical root canal region. In conclusion, in all root segments, the glass fiber-reinforced posts provided significantly increased post retention than the carbon fiber-reinforced posts, regardless of the adhesive used. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to acid etched or Nd:Yag lased enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridula Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In vitro evaluation of the shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel which is pretreated using acid etchant or pulsed Nd:YAG. Qualitative morphological changes in enamel surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: 60 extracted human teeth were divided in two groups of 30 each (Groups A and B. In Group A, prepared surface of enamel was etched using 35% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond, 3M. In Group B, enamel was surface treated by a surgical Nd:YAG laser beam (Medilas 4060 Fibertom at 0.8 W, 10 Hz, for 10 s with 80 mJ/pulse power. Bonding agent (single bond dental adhesive, 3M was applied over the test areas on 20 samples of Groups A and B each, and light cured. Composite resin (Z 100, 3M was applied onto the test areas as a 3 mm diameter cylinder, and light cured. The samples were tested for shear bond strength. Remaining 10 samples from each group were observed under SEM for morphological changes. Results: The mean shear bond strength was 20.00 MPa (΁ 1.93 and 13.28 MPa (΁1.97 for Group A and B, respectively. The difference in mean values was statistically significant between Groups A and B (P<0.001. Under SEM, Group A showed typical honeycomb appearance and Group B showed bubble-like cavities. Conclusions: In enamel, acid etch technique showed higher shear bond strength.

  20. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.